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Sample records for 5-grass pollen tablet

  1. Pharmacoeconomics of sublingual immunotherapy with the 5-grass pollen tablets for seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Carlo; Melli, Valerie; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Ridolo, Erminia

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis has a very high burden regarding both direct and indirect costs. This makes essential in the management of AR to reduce the clinical severity of the disease and thus to lessen its costs. This particularly concerns allergen immunotherapy (AIT), that, based on its immunological action on the causes of allergy, extends its benefit also after discontinuation of the treatment. From the pharmacoeconomic point of view, any treatment must be evaluated according to its cost-effectiveness, that is, the ratio between the cost of the intervention and its effect. A favorable cost-benefit ratio for AIT was defined, starting from the first studies in the 1990s on subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in AR patients, that highlighted a clear advantage on costs over the treatment with symptomatic drugs. Such outcome was confirmed also for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), that has also the advantage on SCIT to be free of the cost of the injections. Here we review the available literature on pharmacoeconomic data for SLIT with the 5-grass pollen tablets.

  2. Five-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablet for the treatment of grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: 5 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Didier, Alain; Wahn, Ulrich; Horak, Friedrich; Cox, Linda S

    2014-10-01

    Oralair(®) (OA) (Stallergenes, Antony, France) is a unique pre- and co-seasonal 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablet launched in 2008, and now approved in 31 countries worldwide for the treatment of grass-pollen allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. OA is the first oral treatment with a consistent, well-balanced allergen extract that mimics natural exposure and sensitization. A wealth of data exists from over 5 years of clinical and real-world experience demonstrating the efficacy and safety of OA for grass-pollen-allergy treatment. OA is highly effective from the first pollen season in all patient subgroups, including children and those with comorbid mild asthma, irrespective of sensitization status and symptom severity. OA also has sustained long-term benefits for symptom control and quality of life. This article provides an overview of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacology of OA; its efficacy, safety, tolerability and cost-effectiveness for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis and its role in clinical practice.

  3. Sublingual Immunotherapy with a Five-Grass Pollen Tablet in Adult Patients with Allergic Rhinitis: An Open, Prospective, Noninterventional, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Pfaar, Oliver; Richter, Heinz-Gerd; Klimek, Ludger; Sieber, Jochen; Hadler, Meike; Karagiannis, Efstrathios

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although the safety and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with a five-grass pollen tablet have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs), these outcomes must always be evaluated in real-life medical practice. Methods. In a prospective, open-label, noninterventional, “real-life” study in Germany, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet in adults with grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Results. 808 adults were enrolled between September 2008 and December 2009. 35.3% of the participants experienced at least one adverse drug reaction (ADR), the most common of which were mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. Serious ADRs considered causally related to SLIT treatment occurred in four patients. Overall, the five-grass pollen tablet was considered to have good or very good tolerability by most investigators and patients. Treatment was associated with the relief of nasal, ocular, and bronchial symptoms and decreased symptomatic medication use. However, interpretation of clinical improvements was limited by lower atmospheric grass pollen levels during the study season (relative to the preceding season). Conclusions. In a large population of patients treated in real-life medical practice, SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet was safe and well tolerated. The patient-reported symptom relief suggests that SLIT was associated with clinical benefits. PMID:26351635

  4. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass...×agrotricum, and triticale. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot. (ii) Food.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm...

  5. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass...×agrotricum, and triticale. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot. (ii) Food.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm...

  6. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass...×agrotricum, and triticale. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot. (ii) Food.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm...

  7. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass...×agrotricum, and triticale. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Hypogeal monocot. (ii) Food.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm...

  8. A phytosterol enriched refined extract of Brassica campestris L. pollen significantly improves benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model as compared to the classical TCM pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruwei; Kobayashi, Yuta; Lin, Yu; Rauwald, Hans Wilhelm; Fang, Ling; Qiao, Hongxiang; Kuchta, Kenny

    2015-01-15

    In Qinghai Province, the Brassica campestris L. pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablet (QKPT) is traditionally used for BPH therapy. However, in QKPT the content of supposedly active phytosterols is relatively low at 2.59%, necessitating high doses for successful therapy. Therefore, a phytosterol enriched (4.54%) refined extract of B. campestris pollen (PE) was developed and compared with QKPT in a BPH rat model. Six groups of rats (n=8 each), namely sham-operated distilled water control, castrated distilled water control, castrated QKPT 2.0g/kg, castrated PE 0.1g/kg, castrated PE 0.2g/kg, and castrated PE 0.4g/kg, were intragastrically treated with the respective daily doses. Testosterone propionate (0.3mg/day) was administered to all castrated rats, while the sham-operated group received placebo injections. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and prostates as well as seminal vesicles excised and weighted in order to calculate prostate volume index (PVI) as well as prostate index (PI) and seminal vesicle index (SVI), defined as organ weight in g per 100g body weight. Compared with sham-operated controls, PI (p<0.01), PVI (p<0.01), and SVI (p<0.01) were all significantly increased in all castrated, testosterone treated rats. After treatment with PE at 0.4 and 0.2g/kg or QKPT at 2.0g/kg per day, both indices were significantly reduced (p<0.01) as compared to the castrated distilled water control. For PE at 0.1g/kg per day only PI was significantly reduced (p<0.05). At the highest PE concentration of 0.4g/kg per day both PI and SVI were also significantly reduced when compared to the QKPT group (p<0.05). Both PE and QKPT demonstrated curative effects against BPH in the applied animal model. In its highest dose at 0.4g/kg per day, PE was clearly superior to QKPT.

  9. Bee Pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... performance; and for premature aging, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), hay fever (allergic rhinitis), mouth sores, joint pain (rheumatism), painful ... 2 tablets twice daily. Appetite stimulation. Premature aging. Hay fever. Mouth sores. Joint pain. Painful urination. Prostate conditions. ...

  10. Tablet Weaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, Margo

    1976-01-01

    Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

  11. Pollen tube development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark A; Kost, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tubes grow rapidly in a strictly polarized manner as they transport male reproductive cells through female flower tissues to bring about fertilization. Vegetative pollen tube cells are an excellent model system to investigate processes underlying directional cell expansion. In this chapter, we describe materials and methods required for (1) the identification of novel factors essential for polarized cell growth through the isolation and analysis of Arabidopsis mutants with defects in pollen tube growth and (2) the detailed functional characterization of pollen tube proteins based on transient transformation and microscopic analysis of cultured tobacco pollen tubes.

  12. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    PubMed

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT.

  13. Tablet Use within Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…

  14. [Birch pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Lavaud, F; Fore, M; Fontaine, J-F; Pérotin, J M; de Blay, F

    2014-02-01

    In the North-East of France, birch is the main tree responsible of spring pollen allergy. However, the epidemiology of sensitization to birch pollen remains unclear. Monosensitization to birch pollen seems rare because of the frequency of cross-reactions with other pollens of the same botanical family via the major allergen Bet v 1. Around one third of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis due to birch pollen are also asthmatics and a half suffer from a food allergy, essentially an oral syndrome due to rosaceae fruits eaten raw. The molecular allergens of birch pollen are well-known and have been cloned. They are available for use in in vitro diagnostic tests and also in clinical trials of specific immunotherapy.

  15. Lubrication in tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.

  16. [Regional and extra-local pollen in tundra pollen samples].

    PubMed

    Vasil'chuk, A K

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of pollen spectra formation in the tundra zone of Eurasia were considered. Changes in total pollen concentration were traced in subfossil pollen samples of the tundra zone. The data on subfossil pollen spectra were used to evaluate the proportion between local and regional plus extra-local components of tundra pollen samples as well as the changes in concentration of pollen of Scots and Siberian stone pines as well as of tree and shrub birches. The diameter of dwarf birch pollen was determined in different tundra subzones of Western Siberia. The role of extra-local and regional pollen was considered for all vegetation subzones of tundra.

  17. Dating Fossil Pollen: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1992-01-01

    Describes a hands-on simulation in which students determine the age of "fossil" pollen samples based on the pollen types present when examined microscopically. Provides instructions for the preparation of pollen slides. (MDH)

  18. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some trees Some grasses Weeds Ragweed Watch the Weather and the Season The amount of pollen in the air can affect whether you or your child has hay fever and asthma symptoms. On hot, dry, windy days, more pollen is in the air. ...

  19. Reevaluation of pollen quantitation by an automatic pollen counter.

    PubMed

    Muradil, Mutarifu; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Yonekura, Syuji; Chazono, Hideaki; Hisamitsu, Minako; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Takahashi, Yukie; Yokota, Kunihiko; Okumura, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Accurate and detailed pollen monitoring is useful for selection of medication and for allergen avoidance in patients with allergic rhinitis. Burkard and Durham pollen samplers are commonly used, but are labor and time intensive. In contrast, automatic pollen counters allow simple real-time pollen counting; however, these instruments have difficulty in distinguishing pollen from small nonpollen airborne particles. Misidentification and underestimation rates for an automatic pollen counter were examined to improve the accuracy of the pollen count. The characteristics of the automatic pollen counter were determined in a chamber study with exposure to cedar pollens or soil grains. The cedar pollen counts were monitored in 2006 and 2007, and compared with those from a Durham sampler. The pollen counts from the automatic counter showed a good correlation (r > 0.7) with those from the Durham sampler when pollen dispersal was high, but a poor correlation (r < 0.5) when pollen dispersal was low. The new correction method, which took into account the misidentification and underestimation, improved this correlation to r > 0.7 during the pollen season. The accuracy of automatic pollen counting can be improved using a correction to include rates of underestimation and misidentification in a particular geographical area.

  20. Treatment of respiratory allergy with allergy immunotherapy tablets.

    PubMed

    Bachert, C

    2011-07-01

    Allergy immunotherapy tablets (AIT) have expanded the treatment options for patients suffering from respiratory allergies. Efficacy is established in adults and children for two different commercially available grass AITs. The ALK grass AIT has an efficacy comparable to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), with a proven disease-modifying effect after treatment completion. Safety profiles favour AIT over SCIT. Studies suggest that tablets in all aspects are superior to sublingual drops. AITs for other allergies including house dust mite and birch and ragweed pollen are in development.

  1. Oralair(®): a causal treatment for grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Köberlein, Juliane; Mösges, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is a common disease, comprising more than just the classic symptoms of nasal obstruction, sneezing, rhinorrhea and itchy, watery eyes. Sufferers deal with severe impairments in daily life. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is also considered an important risk factor in the development of asthma. Allergen avoidance, medication for symptomatic treatment and allergen-specific immunotherapy are cornerstones in therapeutic management, but immunotherapy is the only available treatment that is able to affect the natural course of allergy. In recent decades, clinical trials have investigated the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy. To date, efforts have been made to develop more convenient routes of administration. Substantial improvement may be achieved through the application of sublingual tablets. This article discusses the development process of immunotherapy and the clinical background of the Oralair(®) (Stallergènes, Hauts-de-Seine, France) five-grass pollen tablet. Furthermore, it outlines this tablet's efficacy and safety properties.

  2. Pollen Viability and Pollen Tube Attrition in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The content of mature seed in a cranberry fruit increases with stigmatic pollen load. On average, however, only two seeds result for every tetrad of pollen deposited. What then is the fate of the two remaining pollen grains fused in each tetrad? Germination in vitro revealed that most of the grains ...

  3. [Allergenic pollens in Spain].

    PubMed

    Subiza Garrido-Lestache, J

    2004-01-01

    Allergenic pollens that cause rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma are those from trees or plants that pollinate through the air (anemophilic pollination) and not through insects (entomophilic pollination). Although pollen grains would seem to be too large to easily reach the intrapulmonary airways, the relationship between pollen counts and the presence of asthmatic symptoms is only too evident. This is probably because the allergens inducing seasonal asthma are not only found within pollen grains but also outside the grains in particles of less than 10 mm that are freely found in the atmosphere. The most important pollens producing pollinosis in Spain are those from cypress trees from January-March, birch trees in April (macizo galaico), Platanus hispanica (March-April), grasses and olive trees from April-June, Parietaria from April-July and Chenopodium and/or Salsola from July-September. By geographical areas, the main cause of pollinosis are grasses in the center and north of the peninsula, olive trees in the south (Jaén, Sevilla, Granada, Córdoba) and Parietaria in the Mediterranean coast (Barcelona, Murcia, Valencia).

  4. The Trouble with Tablets.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    The biggest recommendation is to get your tablet screen up. This can be done by using a case or a tablet stand. Avoid using the tablet on your lap because posture follows vision. If you must use it on your lap, try placing it on a pillow to raise its height and reduce dangerous neck flexion. Whenever possible, set the tablet on a table rather than holding it with your hands because hands and forearms fatigue quickly. Consider finding an external keyboard that can be separated from the tablet screen. This way, you can set the tablet on a higher surface to elevate the screen and have a lower keyboard to eliminate some of the wrist extension when keying.

  5. Emerging pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte; Batanero, Eva; Palomares, Oscar; Salamanca, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Numerous pollen allergens have been reported over the last few years. Most of them belong to well-known families of proteins but some others constitute the first member of new allergenic families. Some of the factors that can contribute to the detection and identification of new pollen allergens are: a) advances in the technology tools for molecular analysis; and b) the deep knowledge of many allergenic sources. The combination of these factors has provided vast information on the olive pollen allergogram and the identification of minor allergens that become major ones for a significant population. The close taxonomical relationship between olive tree and ash -both Oleaceae- has permitted to identify Fra e 1 (the Ole e 1-like allergen) in ash pollen and to detect the presence of protein homologues of Ole e 3 and Ole e 6. In the other hand, extensive areas of south Europe are suffering an increasing desertification. As a consequence of this, new botanical species are spontaneously growing in these areas or being used in greening ground programs: Chenopodium album and Salsola kali are some examples recently recognized as allergenic woods. The identification of the complete panel of allergens from the hypersensitizing sources might help to develop more accurate diagnosis, and efficient and safer therapy tools for Type-I allergic diseases.

  6. Calcification prevention tablets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  7. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Heat and pH stability studies and experiments with organic solvents show that the A-antigens discussed in the preceding paper (Augustin, 1959c) are much more labile than the I- (`inner ring') antigens. Breakdown products and/or aggregates are produced which no longer precipitate with antisera to the original extracts, but act as inhibitors. Solutions of pollen allergens, on the other hand, are found to withstand even autoclaving for 15 min. at 20 atm. and vigorous boiling over the naked flame of a bunsen burner. None of the carbohydrates tested has a demonstrable effect on skin reactivity which is, however, destroyed by crystalline pepsin, crystalline trypsin, a crystalline mould protease and a tissue protease (a partially purified extract from rabbit spleen). It follows that the bulk of the allergens—if not all—are proteins. The relation of skin reactivity, immuno-electrophoretic patterns, carbohydrate and protein reactions to the selective destruction of the pollen antigens is investigated. Pollen components prove to have a somewhat wider range of electrophoretic mobilities than serum proteins and are probably as complicated a mixture. The most and least highly negatively charged components are without skin reactivity in allergic subjects. The skin reactive allergens appear to have the mobilities of α- and β-globulins. Not all the hay fever subjects react equally to all the components, and Cocksfoot and Timothy activity patterns vary in different subjects. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:13795119

  8. "The value of pre- and co-seasonal sublingual immunotherapy in pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis".

    PubMed

    Demoly, Pascal; Calderon, Moises A; Casale, Thomas B; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Wahn, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a guidelines-approved, disease-modifying treatment option for respiratory allergies, including allergic rhinitis (AR) induced by pollen. The various AIT regimens employed to date in pollen-induced AR can be classified as continuous (i.e. year-round) or discontinuous (i.e. pre-seasonal alone, co-seasonal alone or pre- and co-seasonal). Pre-and co-seasonal regimens are typically used for sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) and have economic and compliance advantages over perennial (year-round) regimens. However, these advantages must not come at the expensive of poor efficacy or safety. The results of recent double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials show that pre- and co-seasonal SLIT is safe and effective in patients with AR induced by grass pollen (treated with a tablet formulation) or by birch pollen (treated with a liquid formulation). Progress in SLIT has been made in defining the optimal dose of major allergen, the administration frequency (daily), the duration of pre-seasonal treatment (four months) and the number of treatment seasons (at least three). Post-marketing, "real-life" trials of pre- and co-seasonal birch or grass pollen SLIT regimens have confirmed the efficacy and safety observed in the clinical trials. In the treatment of pollen-induced AR, pre- and co-seasonal SLIT regimens appear to be at least as effective and safe as perennial SLIT regimens, and are associated with lower costs and good compliance. Good compliance may mean that pre- and co-seasonal SLIT regimens are inherently more effective and safer than perennial SLIT regimens. When considering the pre- and co-seasonal discontinuous regimen in particular, a 300 IR five-grass-pollen formulation is the only SLIT tablet with a clinical development programme having provided evidence of short-term, sustained and post-treatment efficacy.

  9. [Allergy, pollen and the environment].

    PubMed

    Terán, Luis Manuel; Haselbarth-López, Michelle Marie Margarete; Quiroz-García, David Leonor

    2009-01-01

    Allergic respiratory diseases such asthma and allergic rhinitis are a health problem throughout the world. In Mexico City, pollens are an important cause of allergic respiratory disease. Both, the geographic location- and the vegetation surrounding this City favor the distribution of pollens leading to respiratory disease in susceptible patients. Aerobiological studies have shown that during the mild dry winter there is a large amount of pollens in the environment with tree pollens being the most abundant of all. The most frequent tree pollens found in Mexico City include Fraxinus, Cupressaseae, Alnus, Liquidambar, Callistemon, Pinus, and Casuarina. In contrast, grass- and weed pollens predominate during the summer (rainy season) including Compositae, Cheno-Am, Ambrosia and Gramineae. An additional health problem in Mexico City is the air pollution that exerts a direct effect on individuals. This in turn increases pollen allergenicity by disrupting them leading to the release of their particles which then penetrate the human airways causing disease. Thus, the polluted environment along with global warming which is also known to increase pollen quantities by inducing longer pollen seasons may represent a health risk to Mexico City inhabitants.

  10. [Cypress pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P

    2013-12-01

    Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from

  11. A new tablet brittleness index.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-06-01

    Brittleness is one of the important material properties that influences the success or failure of powder compaction. We have discovered that the reciprocal of diametrical elastic strain at fracture is the most suitable tablet brittleness indices (TBIs) for quantifying brittleness of pharmaceutical tablets. The new strain based TBI is supported by both theoretical considerations and a systematic statistical analysis of friability data. It is sufficiently sensitive to changes in both tablet compositions and compaction parameters. For all tested materials, it correctly shows that tablet brittleness increases with increasing tablet porosity for the same powder. In addition, TBI increases with increasing content of a brittle excipient, lactose monohydrate, in the mixtures with a plastic excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A probability map for achieving less than 1% tablet friability at various combinations of tablet tensile strength and TBI was constructed. Data from marketed tablets validate this probability map and a TBI value of 150 is recommended as the upper limit for pharmaceutical tablets. This TBI can be calculated from the data routinely obtained during tablet diametrical breaking test, which is commonly performed for assessing tablet mechanical strength. Therefore, it is ready for adoption for quantifying tablet brittleness to guide tablet formulation development since it does not require additional experimental work.

  12. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are shown to remain associated with protein material and a yellow pigment during paper chromatography and during dialyses and ultrafiltrations of various types. Dialysable* allergens comprise only a fraction of 1 per cent of the total activity and the amount of activity extractable by diethylene glycol (DEG) and similar solvents is of the same order. Besides the allergens, the DEG and aqueous extracts contain large amounts of inositol, glucose and fructose, also some yellow pigments and phosphates. Larger amounts of free and combined amino acids are found in the aqueous than in the DEG extracts, but the reverse is true for sucrose. In addition the DEG extracts contain a yellow glucoside different from the dactylen of the aqueous extracts, a glucosan and an arabinose-galactose-pigment complex, only the latter being associated with any activity. The spontaneous release of the crystalline dactylen from originally clear aqueous pollen extracts is found not to be caused by enzymes. The washed crystals are found to be chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous and devoid of allergenic activity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13640676

  13. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MAIZE POLLEN TRANSCRIPTOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollen is a primary vehicle for transgene flow from engineered plants to their non-transgenic, native or weedy relatives. Hence, gene flow will be affected by pollen fitness (e.g., how well a particular pollen grain can outcompete other pollen present on the stigma and complete ...

  15. City scale pollen concentration variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Michiel; van Vliet, Arnold; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Pollen are emitted in the atmosphere both in the country-side and in cities. Yet the majority of the population is exposed to pollen in cities. Allergic reactions may be induced by short-term exposure to pollen. This raises the question how variable pollen concentration in cities are in temporally and spatially, and how much of the pollen in cities are actually produced in the urban region itself. We built a high resolution (1 × 1 km) pollen dispersion model based on WRF-Chem to study a city's pollen budget and the spatial and temporal variability in concentration. It shows that the concentrations are highly variable, as a result of source distribution, wind direction and boundary layer mixing, as well as the release rate as a function of temperature, turbulence intensity and humidity. Hay Fever Forecasts based on such high resolution emission and physical dispersion modelling surpass traditional hay fever warning methods based on temperature sum methods. The model gives new insights in concentration variability, personal and community level exposure and prevention. The model will be developped into a new forecast tool to serve allergic people to minimize their exposure and reduce nuisance, coast of medication and sick leave. This is an innovative approach in hay fever warning systems.

  16. CES 2011: Tablet Crazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David

    2011-01-01

    Ereaders are so last year. Tablets were the watchword at this year's annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, January 6-9. This year, the show set new records, with some 2700 companies from around the world exhibiting at the multiple exhibition halls and 30,000 attendees gawking at the products. What did they see? There were still some…

  17. [Sanhuang tablets research].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-zhe; Chen, Da-wei

    2007-09-01

    Sanhuang tablets is one of common traditional Chinese patent preparation, it has effects of clear fever, detoxifcation, dispel inflammation, purgation. It was contained in the ministerial standards of Ministry of Health in 1997, and was contained in Chinese pharmacopoeia version 1 of 2000 and 2005. Its improvement of dosage form, preparation technique, quality analysis, pharmacology and clinical usage were reviewed in this paper.

  18. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    to these sequences within the context of the natural allergens. Strong IgE-binding epitopes of Lol p 5 have been identified down to single critical amino acid residues and are shown to occur as linear or continuous domains in the natural conformation of natural Lol p 5 and other group 5 grass pollen allergens. The fact that such an allergenic synthetic epitope has the capacity to strongly inhibit IgE-binding to natural allergens highlight its potential for use as a candidate in future therapeutics to treat pollen-associated allergies.

  19. Pollen Aquaporins: The Solute Factor.

    PubMed

    Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana A; Soto, Gabriela C; Muschietti, Jorge P; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the biophysical properties and presumed physiological role of aquaporins (AQPs) have been expanded to specialized cells where water and solute exchange are crucial traits. Complex but unique processes such as stomatal movement or pollen hydration and germination have been addressed not only by identifying the specific AQP involved but also by studying how these proteins integrate and coordinate cellular activities and functions. In this review, we referred specifically to pollen-specific AQPs and analyzed what has been assumed in terms of transport properties and what has been found in terms of their physiological role. Unlike that in many other cells, the AQP machinery in mature pollen lacks plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, which are extensively studied for their high water capacity exchange. Instead, a variety of TIPs and NIPs are expressed in pollen. These findings have altered the initial understanding of AQPs and water exchange to consider specific and diverse solutes that might be critical to sustaining pollen's success. The spatial and temporal distribution of the pollen AQPs also reflects a regulatory mechanism that allowing a properly adjusting water and solute exchange.

  20. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  1. Pollen Forecast and Dispersion Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Monica; Di Giuseppe, Fabio; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Travaglini, Alessandro; Tocci, Raffaella; Brighetti, M. Antonia; Petitta, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is monitoring, mapping and forecast of pollen distribution for the city of Rome using in-situ measurements of 10 species of common allergenic pollens and measurements of PM10. The production of daily concentration maps, associated to a mobile phone app, are innovative compared to existing dedicated services to people who suffer from respiratory allergies. The dispersal pollen is one of the most well-known causes of allergic disease that is manifested by disorders of the respiratory functions. Allergies are the third leading cause of chronic disease and it is estimated that tens millions of people in Italy suffer from it. Recent works reveal that during the last few years there was a progressive increase of affected subjects, especially in urban areas. This situation may depend: on the ability to transport of pollutants, on the ability to react between pollutants and pollen and from a combination of other irritants, existing in densely populated and polluted urban areas. The methodology used to produce maps is based on in-situ measurements time series relative to 2012, obtained from networks of air quality and pollen stations in the metropolitan area of Rome. The monitoring station aerobiological of University of Rome "Tor Vergata" is located at the Department of Biology. The instrument used to pollen monitoring is a volumetric sampler type Hirst (Hirst 1952), Model 2000 VPPS Lanzoni; the data acquisition is carried out as reported in Standard UNI 11008:2004 - "Qualità dell'aria - Metodo di campionamento e conteggio dei granuli pollinici e delle spore fungine aerodisperse" - the protocol that describes the procedure for measuring of the concentration of pollen grains and fungal spores dispersed into the atmosphere, and reported in the "Manuale di gestione e qualità della R.I.M.A" (Travaglini et. al. 2009). All 10 allergenic pollen are monitored since 1996. At Tor Vergata university is also operating a meteorological station (SP2000, CAE

  2. Practical limitations of tableting indices.

    PubMed

    Kuppuswamy, R; Anderson, S R; Hoag, S W; Augsburger, L L

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize tableting indices to distinguish between materials with varying degrees of compactibility by establishing a quantitative relationship between indices and compactibility. Compactibility in this study is restricted to tablet strength and friability alone. Nine mixtures with varying degrees of compactibility were tableted and the tensile strength and friability of the tablets were determined. The tableting indices of these mixtures were determined using an Instron Universal testing machine. An artificial neural network program was used to establish a quantitative relationship between indices and tablet strength and friability. Six new powders were used to validate the models describing the relationship between indices and tablet strength and friability. These powders were compressed into tablets and their strength and friability were determined. Their indices were also determined. The established models were used to predict tablet strength and friability from index values. The predicted values were compared with the experimentally determined values. There was little correlation between the predicted and experimentally determined values for tablet strength and friability. It was also found that materials or mixtures having almost similar indices had remarkably different compactibilities. It was concluded that models created to predict compactibility using one set of materials may not be able to successfully predict the compactibility of a new material. This calls into question the practicality of indices.

  3. Pollen Aquaporins: The Solute Factor

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana A.; Soto, Gabriela C.; Muschietti, Jorge P.; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the biophysical properties and presumed physiological role of aquaporins (AQPs) have been expanded to specialized cells where water and solute exchange are crucial traits. Complex but unique processes such as stomatal movement or pollen hydration and germination have been addressed not only by identifying the specific AQP involved but also by studying how these proteins integrate and coordinate cellular activities and functions. In this review, we referred specifically to pollen-specific AQPs and analyzed what has been assumed in terms of transport properties and what has been found in terms of their physiological role. Unlike that in many other cells, the AQP machinery in mature pollen lacks plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, which are extensively studied for their high water capacity exchange. Instead, a variety of TIPs and NIPs are expressed in pollen. These findings have altered the initial understanding of AQPs and water exchange to consider specific and diverse solutes that might be critical to sustaining pollen’s success. The spatial and temporal distribution of the pollen AQPs also reflects a regulatory mechanism that allowing a properly adjusting water and solute exchange. PMID:27881985

  4. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. The performance of selected pollen populations can then be used to bioassay ozone in ambient air by introducing the air sample into a growth chamber where ozone-sensitive pollen in growing. Year-round pollen producion can be achieved in the greenhouse. Harvested pollen can be tested, packaged, and transported to user facilities without loss of vigor. Pollen populations are inexpensive to produce, respond reliably, and are simple to use as a bioassay for air quality.

  5. Pollen aquaporins: What are they there for?

    PubMed

    Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana Andrea; Barberini, María Laura; Amodeo, Gabriela; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo

    2016-09-01

    In order to provide more insight into the function of aquaporins during pollination, we characterized NIP4;1 and NIP4;2, 2 pollen-specific aquaporins of Arabidopsis thaliana. NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 displayed high amino acid identity. RT-PCR and GUS promoter analysis showed that they have different expression patterns. NIP4;1 is expressed at low levels in mature pollen, while NIP4;2 is highly expressed only during pollen tube growth. Single T-DNA nip4;1 and nip4;2 mutants and double amiRNA nip4;1 nip4;2 knockdowns showed reduced male fertility due to deficient pollen germination and pollen tube length. Functional assays in oocytes showed that NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 transport water and nonionic solutes. Here, the participation of the different pollen aquaporins in pollen hydration and pollen tube growth is discussed.

  6. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: April 12, 2017 Location: San Antonio ( ... Service can automatically email you daily pollen and mold reports. Click here sign up! Return to Map ...

  7. [The epidemiology of pollen allergy].

    PubMed

    Charpin, D; Caillaud, D

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be established through surveys performed in a sample of the general population. These surveys are based on a questionnaire, which could lead to an overestimate of prevalence rates, and on measurements of specific IgE, which need to be interpreted in the light of the responses to the questionnaire. Such surveys are few in France and need to be updated. Risk factors for seasonal allergic rhinitis are genetic, epigenetic and environmental. Relationships between exposure to pollen and health can be documented through ecological and panel surveys. Panel surveys may give information on threshold levels and dose-response relationships. In addition to pollen exposure, global warming and air pollutants act as cofactors. Monitoring of both pollen exposure and its health effects should be encouraged and strengthened.

  8. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.

  9. BURSTING POLLEN is required to organize the pollen germination plaque and pollen tube tip in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hoedemaekers, Karin; Derksen, Jan; Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Oh, Sung-Aeong; Twell, David; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Pollen germination may occur via the so-called germination pores or directly through the pollen wall at the site of contact with the stigma. In this study, we addressed what processes take place during pollen hydration (i.e. before tube emergence), in a species with extra-poral pollen germination, Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA mutant population was screened by segregation distortion analysis. Histological and electron microscopy techniques were applied to examine the wild-type and mutant phenotypes. Within 1 h of the start of pollen hydration, an intine-like structure consisting of cellulose, callose and at least partly de-esterified pectin was formed at the pollen wall. Subsequently, this 'germination plaque' gradually extended and opened up to provide passage for the cytoplasm into the emerging pollen tube. BURSTING POLLEN (BUP) was identified as a gene essential for the correct organization of this plaque and the tip of the pollen tube. BUP encodes a novel Golgi-located glycosyltransferase related to the glycosyltransferase 4 (GT4) subfamily which is conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Extra-poral pollen germination involves the development of a germination plaque and BUP defines the correct plastic-elastic properties of this plaque and the pollen tube tip by affecting pectin synthesis or delivery.

  10. Assessing Student Writing on Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Orr, Aline; Kong, Xiaojing; Lin, Chow-Hong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing expectation that schools should be able to use tablets for a range of instructional and assessment purposes. This article considers the comparability of student writing on tablets and laptops to ensure that writing assessment is conducted in a way that is fair to all students. Data were collected from a sample of 826 students…

  11. Tablet PCs: The Write Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…

  12. Review of bilayer tablet technology.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Admassu; Akseli, Ilgaz; Sprockel, Omar; Kottala, Niranjan; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2014-01-30

    Therapeutic strategies based on oral delivery of bilayer (and multilayer) tablets are gaining more acceptance among brand and generic products due to a confluence of factors including advanced delivery strategies, patient compliance and combination therapy. Successful manufacturing of these ever more complex systems needs to overcome a series of challenges from formulation design to tablet press monitoring and control. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of bilayer tablet technology, highlighting the main benefits of this type of oral dosage forms while providing a description of current challenges and advances toward improving manufacturing practices and product quality. Several aspects relevant to bilayer tablet manufacturing are addressed including material properties, lubrication, layer ordering, layer thickness, layer weight control, as well as first and final compression forces. A section is also devoted to bilayer tablet characterization that present additional complexities associated with interfaces between layers. The available features of the manufacturing equipment for bilayer tablet production are also described indicating the different strategies for sensing and controls offered by bilayer tablet press manufacturers. Finally, a roadmap for bilayer tablet manufacturing is advanced as a guideline to formulation design and selection of process parameters and equipment.

  13. Proteomics of pollen development and germination.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shaojun; Wang, Tai; Yan, Xiufeng; Chen, Sixue

    2007-12-01

    In higher plants, pollen grains represent the vestiges of a highly reduced male gametophyte generation. After germination, the pollen tube delivers the sperm cells by tip-growing to the embryo sac for fertilization. Besides the intrinsic importance for sexual reproduction, pollen development and germination serve as an attractive system to address important questions related to cell division, cell differentiation, polar growth, cell-cell interaction, and cell fate. Recently, pollen functional specification has been well-studied using multidisciplinary approaches. Here, we review recent advances in proteomics of pollen development and germination.

  14. Bioassaying for ozone with pollen systems.

    PubMed Central

    Feder, W A

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity to ozone of pollen germinating in vitro is closely correlated with ozone sensitivity of the pollen parent. Ozone-sensitive and tolerant pollen populations have been identified in tobacco, petunia, and tomato cultivars. The rate of tube elongation can be reversibly slowed or stopped by exposure to low concentrations of ozone. Tube growth rates in the presence of a range of ozone dosages, of pollen populations exhibiting differing ozone sensitivity can be measured and different growth rates can be correlated with ozone dosages. The performance of selected pollen populations can then be used to bioassay ozone in ambient air by introducing the air sample into a growth chamber where ozone-sensitive pollen in growing. Petunia and tobacco pollen are especially useful because they store well at ordinary freezer temperatures and do not require special preparation prior to storage. Modified Brewbacker's growth medium is suitable for growth of both these pollen types. Four useful cultivars are Bel W-3, ozone-sensitive and Bel B, ozone-tolerant tobacco, and White Bountiful, ozone-sensitive and Blue Lagoon, ozone-tolerant petunia. Observations can be made directly by using a TV scanner, or by time lapse or interval photography. Year-round pollen production can be achieved in the greenhouse. Harvested pollen can be tested, packaged, and transported to user facilities without loss of vigor. Pollen populations are inexpensive to produce, respond reliably, and are simple to use as a bioassay for air quality. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:7460876

  15. Cytochemical localization of some hydrolases in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D

    1982-01-01

    Some hydrolases are localized cytochemically in the pollen and pollen tubes of Amaryllis vittata Ait. The function of different enzymes is discussed in relation to pollen tubes morphogenesis. Activity of most of the enzymes was confined to colpus region, pollen wall and general cytoplasm of pollen and pollen tube. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes like acid monophosphoesterase and lipase and was nil in the exine of both germinated and ungerminated pollen, whereas intense reaction for esterase was observed in exine. Enzyme activity increased after germination which suggest the hydrolysis of stored metabolites and synthesis of proteins and other metabolites for the active growth of pollen tube. Intense reaction for enzymes like alkaline phosphomonoesterase, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase etc. at the tip region of pollen tube suggest their role in physiological processes associated with exchange of materials through intercellular transport during tube wall polysaccharide biogenesis.

  16. Critical appraisal of Timothy grass pollen extract GRAZAX in the management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scaparrotta, Alessandra; Attanasi, Marina; Petrosino, Marianna I; Di Filippo, Paola; Di Pillo, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases of adult and pediatric age, associated with grass pollen (GP) allergy in >50% cases, with a consistent impact on quality of life of affected patients. A grass allergen tablet, containing standardized extract derived from Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen and ~15 μg major allergen P. pratense (rPhl p 5), may be the future of allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) for GP allergy. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the role of Timothy GP extract IT for the management of allergic rhinitis. For this purpose, we have tried to analyze potential mechanisms of action at the basis of Timothy GP extract, we have reviewed efficacy studies to establish potential benefits and clinical response, and we have also evaluated safety and tolerability profiles and patient focus perspective, such as quality of life, satisfaction and acceptability, and compliance to this IT.

  17. Pollen resistance to water in 80 angiosperm species: flower structures protect rain-susceptible pollen.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yun-Yun; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2009-08-01

    Flowers exhibit adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic factors. It remains unclear whether pollen susceptibility to rain damage plays a role in the evolution of floral form. We investigated flower performance in rain and compared pollen longevity in dry conditions, pure water and solutions with different sucrose concentrations in 80 flowering species from 46 families with diverse floral shapes and pollination modes. A pollen viability test showed that pollen longevity in all studied species was greatly reduced by wetting. We found that pollen of species with complete protection by flower structures was susceptible to water damage and a high proportion of resistant pollen occurred in unprotected species. Flowers whose structures expose pollen to rain may also reduce rain damage through temporal patterns of pollen presentation. This prediction was supported by our direct measurement of pollen presentation duration on rainy days. Our observations showed that variation in pollen performance in water was associated with differences in floral forms. Water-resistant pollen and extended pollen presentation duration were favored by selection via rain contact in species in which pollen was not protected from rain. These findings support the functional hypothesis that flower structures protect susceptible pollen from rain, demonstrating that rain acts as a force shaping floral form.

  18. An extract of Timothy-grass pollen used as sublingual immunotherapy for summer hay fever.

    PubMed

    Kay, A B

    2007-12-01

    Grazax is a lyophilisate of an extract of Timothy-grass pollen (Phleum pratense) administered by the sublingual route to induce desensitization (or hyposensitization) to grass pollen in subjects with hay fever. Since allergen avoidance measures are limited in hay fever sufferers, present treatment, at least in the United Kingdom, is almost always by symptomatic medication. The effectiveness of symptomatic treatment in hay fever is variable and depends on patient compliance and the judicious prescribing of antihistamines and anti-inflammatory preparations either alone or in combination. Desensitization (hyposensitization or specific immunotherapy) by subcutaneous injection has been shown to be very efficacious and is used for patients who do not adequately respond to drug treatment. A rare side effect of desensitizing injections is anaphylaxis, and so use is limited to specialized centers. For these reasons there has been considerable interest in specific immunotherapy by the sublingual route. Grazax has recently been approved in the United Kingdom. It is commenced at least four months prior to the expected start of the grass pollen season and in line with injection immunotherapy treatment will be recommended for a period of three years with annual reviews to assess patient outcomes. Grazax grass allergen tablets are well tolerated in patients with grass pollen allergy with most adverse events being mild local reactions. There have been no instances of anaphylaxis. In randomized double-blind placebo controlled trials Grazax reduces symptoms and medication scores in adults with hay fever. The long-term effects of Grazax are currently being investigated.

  19. Pollen selection under acid rain stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate whether acid rain stress induces pollen selection in nature, three different approaches were used, based on the assumption that the response of pollen grains to acid rain is controlled by an acid sensitive gene product. Germination of pollen from homozygous and heterozygous individuals under acid rain stress was examined to detect any differences in rate of germination between populations of homogeneous and heterogeneous pollen grains. In vitro and in vivo bulked segregant analysis using RAPDs was used to search for differences in DNA constitution between the survivors of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed pollen populations in vitro and between the progenies of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed populations during pollination, respectively. No evidence for the pollen selection under acid rain stress was obtained in any of the test systems. Inhibition of protein synthesis using cycloheximide led to significant reduction of tube elongation at 4 hr and had no effect on pollen germination at any time interval tested. Total proteins extracted from control and acid rain stressed pollen grain populations exhibited no differences. The reduction of corn pollen germination in vitro under acid rain stress was mainly due to pollen rupture. The present data indicates the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth under acid rain stress may be a physiological response rather than a genetic response. A simple, nontoxic, and effective method to separate germinated from ungerminated pollen grains has been developed using pollen from corn (Zea mays, L. cv. Pioneer 3747). The separated germinated pollen grains retained viability and continued tube growth when placed in culture medium.

  20. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel. (b... section. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount. 5 pounds (lb) and under, 1/2 tablet (17 mg); 6 to 10 lb, 1 tablet (34 mg); 11 to 15 lb, 1 1/2 tablets (51 mg); 16 to 30 lb, 2 tablets (68 mg); 31 to 45...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel. (b... section. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount. 5 pounds (lb) and under, 1/2 tablet (17 mg); 6 to 10 lb, 1 tablet (34 mg); 11 to 15 lb, 1 1/2 tablets (51 mg); 16 to 30 lb, 2 tablets (68 mg); 31 to 45...

  2. Tree pollen spectra and pollen allergy risk in the Osijek-Baranja County.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Magdalena; Valek, Marina; Šušić, Zdenka; Santo, Vera; Brdarić, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The forests of north-eastern Croatia, as well as various plants and trees in the parks and streets of the Osijek-Baranja County, produce large amounts of pollen during the pollen season, which can cause allergy symptoms in pollen sensitive individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent types of pollen in this area and estimate possible health risks, especially the risk of allergy. In 2009 and 2010, the staff of the Health Ecology Department of the Osijek Public Health Institute monitored tree pollen concentrations in four cities from the Osijek - Baranja County (Osijek, Našice, Đakovo and Beli Manastir) using a Burkard volumetric instrument. The results were affected by weather conditions. Windy and sunny days facilitated the transfer of pollen, whereas during rainy days, the concentration of pollen grains decreased. High pollen concentrations of Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Betulaceae, Salicaceae and Aceraceae could be the cause for symptoms of pollen allergy. In 2009, conifers, birch and poplar pollen were dominant at all monitoring stations with 5000 pollen grains (PG), 3188 PG and 3113 PG respectively. The highest number of pollen grains was recorded at measuring site Osijek. The variations in airborne pollen concentration between pollen seasons were recorded at all monitoring stations. The most obvious variations were recorded at measuring site Osijek. The usual pollination period lasts two to three months, which means that most pollen grains remain present from February to early June. However, the Cupressaceae / Taxaceae pollination periods last the longest and their pollen grains remain present until the end of summer. The risk of allergy was determined at four monitored measuring stations and the obtained data confirmed that the largest number of days with a high health risk was at the Đakovo measuring station for a species of birch. The research information aims to help allergologists and individuals allergic to plant pollen develop

  3. Towards a "crime pollen calendar" - pollen analysis on corpses throughout one year.

    PubMed

    Montali, Elisa; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Trevisan Grandi, Giuliana; Accorsi, Carla Alberta

    2006-11-22

    A palynological study was carried out on 28 corpses brought in one year (June 2003-May 2004) to the morgue of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Parma (Northern Italy). This preliminary research focuses on the date of death, which was known for all corpses examined. Pollen sampling and analyses were made with the first aim of comparing the pollen grains found on corpses with those diffused in the atmosphere in the region in the same season as the known date of death. Eyebrows, hair-line near the forehead, facial skin and nasal cavities were sampled. Most of the corpses had trapped pollen grains, with the exception of two December corpses. All pollen grains were found with cytoplasm and in a good state of preservation. In this way, a series of reference data was collected for the area where the deaths occurred, and we examined whether pollen grains on corpses could be an index of the season of death. To verify this hypothesis, the pollen analyses were compared with data reported in the airborne pollen calendars of Parma and the region around. Pollen calendars record pollen types and their concentrations in the air, month by month. The quantity of pollen recorded on corpses did not prove to be directly related to the quantity of pollen in the air. But qualitatively, many pollen types which are seasonal markers were found on corpses. Main corpse/air discrepancies were also observed due to the great influence that the local environmental conditions of the death scene have in determining the pollen trapped by a corpse. Qualitative plus quantitative pollen data from corpses appeared helpful in indicating the season of death. A preliminary sketch of a "crime pollen calendar" in a synthetic graphic form was made by grouping the corpse pollen records into three main seasons: A, winter/spring; B, spring/summer; C, summer/autumn. Trends match the general seasonal trend of pollen types in the air.

  4. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress.

  5. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress. PMID:26910418

  6. [Identification of cattail pollen (puhuang), pine pollen (songhuafen) and its adulterants by ITS2 sequence].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Xi; Sun, Wei; Ren, Wei-Chao; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Song, Ming; Mu, Ze-Jing; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding method was conducted for the authentication of pollen materials due to difficulty of discriminating pollen materials bearing morphological similarity. In this study, a specific focus was to identify cattail pollen (Puhuang) and pine pollen (Songhuafen) samples from their adulterants which are frequently mixed-together. Regions of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) from 60 samples were sequenced, and new primers for cattail pollen were designed according to the sequence information. The results from the NJ trees showed that the species of pine pollen, Puhuang and their adulterants can be classified as obvious monophyly. Therefore, we propose to adapt DNA barcoding methodology to accurately distinguish cattail pollen, pine pollen and their adulterant materials. It is a great help for drug regulatory agency to supervise the quality of medicinal materials.

  7. Pollen Raman spectra database: application to the identification of airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A; Ribeiro, H; Fernández-González, M; Aira, M J; Abreu, I

    2014-02-01

    Raman microspectroscopy allows a non-destructive identification of airborne particles. However, the identification of particles such as pollen is hindered by the absence of a spectral library. Although reference spectra of pollen have been published before, they have always been limited to a certain number of species. In this work, Raman spectra of 34 pollen types are presented and were used to build a pollen spectra primary library. Afterward, the applicability of this database for detecting and identifying pollen in airborne samples was tested. Airborne pollen samples collected during April, May and August were compared with blank pollen spectra by means of Hit Quality Index. Although a much larger library would be required, our results showed that all first hits correspond to the same blank pollen species of the questioned sample from the air. This possibility is an innovative idea and a promising line of investigation for future RAMAN technology development in the area of aerobiology.

  8. Insulin availability from mucoadhesive tablets.

    PubMed

    Pluta, J; Haznar, D; Suszka-Switek, A; Ryszka, F

    2008-09-01

    The widespread implementation of peptides as drugs encounters numerous obstacles, the main being invasive and inconvenient parenteral administration. Oral transmucosal administration is one of the possible alternatives, valuable for its noninvasiveness and easy accessibility. The aim of our study was to determine the implementation possibilities of mucoadhesive tablets prepared on a methylcellulose and sodium alginate basis with an addition of absorption-modifying hyaluronic acid, as carriers for peptides destined for oral transmucosal administration. Two series of 50 mg tablets containing 5mg of insulin were prepared for the study. The first series contained methylcellulose, hyaluronic acid and mannitol, while the second series' formulation included sodium alginate, hyaluronic acid and mannitol. Carried out study confirmed that insulin administration in the form of mucoadhesive tablets lowers blood glucose levels in rabbits. Better effects were reached in vivo in the case of MC-based tablets, for which stronger and longer glycemia lowering was achieved.

  9. Heterospecific pollen deposition in Delphinium barbeyi: linking stigmatic pollen loads to reproductive output in the field

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Heather M.; Anderson, Lucy M.; Atalla, Laila M.; Delva, André M.; Dobbs, Emily K.; Brosi, Berry J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Most pollinators are generalists and therefore are likely to transfer heterospecific pollen among co-flowering plants. Most work on the impacts of heterospecific pollen deposition on plant fecundity has utilized hand-pollination experiments in greenhouse settings, and we continue to know very little about the reproductive effects of heterospecific pollen in field settings. Methods We explored how patterns of naturally deposited heterospecific pollen relate to the reproductive output of Delphinium barbeyi, a common subalpine perennial herb in the Rocky Mountains (USA). We assessed a wide range of naturally occurring heterospecific pollen proportions and pollen load sizes, and linked stigmatic pollen deposition directly to seed set in individual carpels in the field. Key Results We found that heterospecific pollen deposition in D. barbeyi is common, but typically found at low levels across stigmas collected in our sites. Neither conspecific nor heterospecific pollen deposition was related to carpel abortion. By contrast, we saw a significant positive relationship between conspecific pollen amount and viable seed production, as well as a significant negative interaction between the effects of conspecific pollen and heterospecific pollen amount, whereby the effect of conspecific pollen on viable seed production became weaker with greater heterospecific deposition on stigmas. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a relationship between heterospecific pollen and seed production in a field setting. In addition, it is the first report of an interaction between conspecific and heterospecific pollen quantities on seed production. These findings, taken with the results from other studies, suggest that greenhouse hand-pollination studies and field studies should be more tightly integrated in future work to better understand how heterospecific pollen transfer can be detrimental for plant reproduction. PMID:26658101

  10. A Pollen Primer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several types of pollen cause mild to severe seasonal respiratory allergy, including allergic rhinitis and asthma. But helpful defenses ... Pollen Grass pollens are regional as well as seasonal. Their levels also are ... Bermuda grass Johnson grass Kentucky bluegrass Sweet ...

  11. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Hay fever and pollen counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has ... Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ...

  12. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  13. Seed set, pollen morphology and pollen surface composition response to heat stress in field pea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunfei; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Kumar, Saroj; Davis, Arthur R; Bueckert, Rosalind A

    2015-11-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a major legume crop grown in a semi-arid climate in Western Canada, where heat stress affects pollination, seed set and yield. Seed set and pod growth characteristics, along with in vitro percentage pollen germination, pollen tube growth and pollen surface composition, were measured in two pea cultivars (CDC Golden and CDC Sage) subjected to five maximum temperature regimes ranging from 24 to 36 °C. Heat stress reduced percentage pollen germination, pollen tube length, pod length, seed number per pod, and the seed-ovule ratio. Percentage pollen germination of CDC Sage was greater than CDC Golden at 36 °C. No visible morphological differences in pollen grains or the pollen surface were observed between the heat and control-treated pea. However, pollen wall (intine) thickness increased due to heat stress. Mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) spectra revealed that the chemical composition (lipid, proteins and carbohydrates) of each cultivar's pollen grains responded differently to heat stress. The lipid region of the pollen coat and exine of CDC Sage was more stable compared with CDC Golden at 36 °C. Secondary derivatives of ATR spectra indicated the presence of two lipid types, with different amounts present in pollen grains from each cultivar.

  14. [A monoclonal antibody against ragweed pollen cross-reacting with yellow dock pollen].

    PubMed

    Shen, H D; Chang, L Y; Gong, Y J; Chang, H N; Han, S H

    1985-11-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies with different specificity against the major allergenic components of ragweed pollen, we analyzed their cross-reactivity with two tree pollens, two grass pollens and five other weed pollens which are common in Taiwan by the immunoblot method. It was found that besides reacting with AgE and AgK of the ragweed pollen, the monoclonal antibody 48-5 also reacted with antigens of yellow dock pollen with molecular weights of 40K, 38K, 24K, and 21K. In a preliminary study, sera of two patients containing IgE antibodies to ragweed pollen antigens also reacted to the 40K component of the yellow dock pollen. Furthermore, from the results of allergenic skin testings on 109 patients with bronchial asthma, we found that of 22 patients who had a positive reaction to a crude extract of ragweed pollen, 18(81.8%) also reacted to the crude extract of yellow dock pollen. In conclusion, our results suggest that there exists a common allergenic determinant between pollens of ragweed and yellow dock. It may play an important role in the expression of the sensitivity of patients to these two kinds of pollens.

  15. Some carbohydrates found in pollen and pollen substitutes are toxic to honey bees.

    PubMed

    Barker, R J

    1977-10-01

    Carbohydrates in some pollen substitutes (galactose, lactose, raffinose, stachyose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, and pectin) were toxic to caged adult Apis mellifera L. These toxins can be diluted to safe levels by sucrose. Collected nectar apparently dilutes the toxic sugars in pollen thus permitting assimilation of essential nutrients from pollen.

  16. Cross-reactivity to olive tree pollen and orchard grass pollen in patients with pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, S; Nakada, M; Nishizaki, K; Kawarai, Y; Nishioka, K; Hino, H

    1997-06-01

    We studied 92 patients with allergic rhinitis in Syodoshima, Japan, during the pollen season between April and June to evaluate the cross-reactivity to different antigens, including pollen from the olive tree (Olea europaea) and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata). Olive tree pollen was present in the atmosphere for 23 days, from May 19 to June 12, 1994. Specific IgE antibodies for olive tree pollen antigen were present in 21 (26.9%) of the 78 patients with allergic rhinitis. Nine (24.3%) of the 37 patients with allergic rhinitis exhibited positive skin reactivity to an extract of olive tree pollen. Fifteen (88.2%) of the 17 patients who had IgE reactivity in their sera to olive tree pollen antigen demonstrated allergic reactions to an extract of olive tree pollen. Specific IgE antibodies for orchard grass pollen antigen were present in 43 (48.3%) of the 89 patients with allergic rhinitis and 20 (95.2%) of the 21 patients who had IgE reactivity in their sera to olive tree pollen antigen. The inhibition test using the CAP System revealed that the reactivity of the IgE antibody specific for olive tree pollen antigen was inhibited dose-dependently by an extract of orchard grass pollen. These findings show that there is a reaction in some patients with grass (Gramineae) pollinosis that might be induced by olive tree pollen.

  17. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. PMID:25405230

  18. Personal pollen exposure compared to stationary measurements.

    PubMed

    Riediker, M; Keller, S; Wüthrich, B; Koller, T; Monn, C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine to what extent stationary outdoor pollen measurements are representative for estimating personal exposure to pollen. Ten subjects were studied during a total of 36 days in spring and summer Pollen was sampled using personal SKC total dust samplers and stationary Burkard pollen traps. The personal activity pattern was recorded quarter-hourly as well as the time spent outdoors. As a reference, SKC and Burkard samplers were run stationary and in parallel. Stationary comparison of the samplers showed good correlation (r = 0.981, p <0.001). However, the SKC sampler collected systematically about four times less pollen than the Burkard sampler. Taking into account the systematic difference between the sampling devices, the personal exposure data were about 30% of the stationary pollen concentrations with significant correlation (log-transformed data, r = 0.719, p <0.0001). Considering the average time the subjects spent outdoors (14% of sampling time), the indoor-outdoor ratio for pollen was 0.2. In conclusion, pollen reports are reliable for estimating personal exposure over a limited time period although personal pollen exposure is much lower.

  19. Simultaneous allergy to vine pollen and grape.

    PubMed

    Mur, P; Feo Brito, F; Bartolomé, B; Galindo, P A; Gómez, E; Borja, J; Alonso, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-year-old female student suffering from seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis with sensitization to pollens from vine and also from grass, olive, and Chenopodiaceae plants who had recently developed episodes of itching, maculopapular rash, and facial angioedema after eating grapes. Testing revealed positive reactions to vine pollen and grapes, and specific IgE were found for both allergens. Immunoblotting and inhibition assays revealed cross-reactivity between the allergenic structures of vine pollen and grape fruit and also among botanically unrelated pollens.

  20. A meta-analysis of sublingual allergen immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy in pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The capacity of sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) to provide effective symptom relief in pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis is often questioned, despite evidence of clinical efficacy from meta-analyses and well-powered, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. In the absence of direct, head-to-head, comparative trials of SLIT and symptomatic medication, only indirect comparisons are possible. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of classes of products (second-generation H1-antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids and grass pollen SLIT tablet formulations) and single products (the azelastine-fluticasone combination MP29-02, and the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast) for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis in adults, adolescents and/or children. We searched the literature for large (n >100 in the smallest treatment arm) double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. For each drug or drug class, we performed a meta-analysis of the effect on symptom scores. For each selected trial, we calculated the relative clinical impact (according to a previously published method) on the basis of the reported post-treatment or season-long nasal or total symptom scores: 100 × (scorePlacebo - scoreActive)/scorePlacebo. Results Twenty-eight publications on symptomatic medication trials and ten on SLIT trials met our selection criteria (total number of patients: n = 21,223). The Hedges' g values from the meta-analyses confirmed the presence of a treatment effect for all drug classes. In an indirect comparison, the weighted mean (range) relative clinical impacts were -29.6% (-23% to -37%) for five-grass pollen SLIT tablets, -19.2% (-6% to -29%) for timothy pollen SLIT tablets, -23.5% (-7% to -54%) for nasal corticosteroids, -17.1% (-15% to -20%) for MP29-02, -15.0% (-3% to -26%) for H1-antihistamines and -6.5% (-3% to -10%) for montelukast. Conclusions In an indirect comparison, grass pollen SLIT tablets had

  1. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of "polluen," some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  2. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Sonoran Desert Bee Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bee products have been consumed by mankind since antiquity and their health benefits are becoming more apparent. Bee pollen (pollen collected by honey bees) was collected in the high intensity ultraviolet (UV) Sonoran desert and was analyzed by the anti-2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and...

  4. Endogenous Gibberellins of Pine Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Kamienska, Aniela; Durley, Richard C.; Pharis, Richard P.

    1976-01-01

    Gibberellins A1 and A34 (possibly A2) were found as products of metabolism of 1,2-[3H]GA4 during germination of Pinus attenuata pollen. The conversion from GA4 to GA1 and GA34 occurred as hydroxylations at atoms C-13 and C-2 of the ent-gibberellane skeleton, respectively. Percentage interconversion of the GA4 absorbed was in the range of 0.15 to 0.43% for GA1 and 1.54 to 3.22% for GA34. Identifications were made on a gas-liquid chromatograph with radioactive monitoring by comparison with standards. PMID:16659622

  5. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

  6. Characterization of omega-3 tablets.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Øyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Omega-3 nutraceuticals are extensively used as health supplements worldwide. Various administration forms for delivery of omega-3 are available. However, the niche omega-3 tablets have so far remained unexplored. In this work tablets containing 25-40% (w/w) omega-3 oil as triglycerides or ethyl esters were prepared utilizing a direct compaction grade powder with β-cyclodextrin as encapsulating agent. It was found that powders with up to 35% (w/w) triglyceride oil and 30% (w/w) ethyl ester oil, respectively, can be directly compressed into tablets of excellent quality. Physical properties of omega-3 containing powders and tablets are described. The powder X-ray diffractograms of the powders and crushed tablets show evidence of the formation of new crystalline phases not present in β-cyclodextrin. In addition, (1)H NMR data suggest that the ethyl esters form inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. Compaction of other, commercially available, omega-3 powders was performed as a comparison and deemed unsuccessful.

  7. Pollen tube guidance by attractant molecules: LUREs.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Satohiro; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in flowering plants requires pollen-tube guidance, which is thought to be mediated by chemoattractants derived from target ovules. To date, however, no convincing evidence has been reported of a particular molecule being the true attractant. Emerging data indicate that two synergid cells, which are on either side of the egg cell, emit a diffusible, species-specific signal to attract the pollen tube at the last step of pollen-tube guidance. Recently, it was demonstrated that LUREs (LURE1 and LURE2), cysteine-rich polypeptides secreted from the synergid cell, are the key molecules in pollen-tube guidance. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of pollen-tube guidance, with special focus on gametophytic guidance and the attractants.

  8. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome.

  9. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  10. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, S.; Wex, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Hartmann, S.; Tomsche, L.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Ignatius, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2013-11-01

    Birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleating active biological particles. The ice nucleating activity has previously been tracked down to biological macromolecules that can be easily extracted from the pollen grains in water. In the present study, we investigated the immersion freezing behavior of these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules. Therefore we measured the frozen fractions of particles generated from birch pollen washing water as a function of temperature at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). Two different birch pollen samples were considered, with one originating from Sweden and one from the Czech Republic. For the Czech and Swedish birch pollen samples, freezing was observed to start at -19 and -17 °C, respectively. The fraction of frozen droplets increased for both samples down to -24 °C. Further cooling did not increase the frozen fractions any more. Instead, a plateau formed at frozen fractions below 1. This fact could be used to determine the amount of INA macromolecules in the droplets examined here, which in turn allowed for the determination of nucleation rates for single INA macromolecules. The main differences between the Swedish birch pollen and the Czech birch pollen were obvious in the temperature range between -17 and -24 °C. In this range, a second plateau region could be seen for Swedish birch pollen. As we assume INA macromolecules to be the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that birch pollen is able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to derive parameterizations for the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types, using two different methods: a simple exponential fit and the Soccer ball model. With these parameterization methods we were able to describe the ice nucleation behavior of single INA macromolecules from both the Czech and the Swedish birch pollen.

  11. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

  12. Scaffolding Equals Success in Teaching Tablet PCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Jeremy; Williams, Scott; Browning, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    After many years of using the mouse and keyboard as the primary means of computer input, people are seeing a strong surge into a new generation of input technologies such as tablet PCs. As more professionals adopt tablet PCs for use in the workplace, there is a subsequent increased demand for tablet PC instruction in the classroom. Examples of…

  13. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200 milligrams (mg) marbofloxacin....

  14. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount. 5 pounds (lb) and under, 1/2 tablet (17 mg); 6 to 10... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets....

  16. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... information. (5) Conditions of use—(i) Swine—(a) Amount. 1 tablet (400 milligrams) per gallon of drinking... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... information. (5) Conditions of use—(i) Swine—(a) Amount. 1 tablet (400 milligrams) per gallon of drinking... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moxidectin tablets. 520.1451 Section 520.1451 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30, 68, or 136 micrograms of moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856...

  19. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams (mg) clomipramine hydrochloride. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 milligrams of epsiprantel. (b) Sponsor. See...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...(c) of this chapter for use of 250 milligram tablets; see No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 50 and 250 milligram tablets. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Twenty-five... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount. 5 pounds (lb) and under, 1/2 tablet (17 mg); 6 to 10... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets....

  3. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(c) of this chapter for use of 250 milligram tablets; see No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 50 and 250 milligram tablets. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Twenty-five... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900...

  4. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams (mg) clomipramine hydrochloride. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...(c) of this chapter for use of 250 milligram tablets; see No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 50 and 250 milligram tablets. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Twenty-five... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900...

  6. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 milligrams of epsiprantel. (b) Sponsor. See...

  7. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 milligrams of epsiprantel. (b) Sponsor. See...

  8. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200 milligrams (mg) marbofloxacin....

  10. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams (mg) clomipramine hydrochloride. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200 milligrams (mg) marbofloxacin....

  12. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams (mg) clomipramine hydrochloride. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount. 5 pounds (lb) and under, 1/2 tablet (17 mg); 6 to 10... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets....

  14. Principles of Tablet Computing for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzan, Harry, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…

  15. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  16. Pollen competition between two sympatric Orchis species (Orchidaceae): the overtaking of conspecific of heterospecific pollen as a reproductive barrier.

    PubMed

    Luca, A; Palermo, A M; Bellusci, F; Pellegrino, G

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of hybrid formation in angiosperms depends on how and when heterospecific pollen is transferred to the stigma, and on the success of that heterospecific pollen at fertilising ovules. We applied pollen mixtures to stigmas to determine how pollen interactions affect siring success and the frequency of hybrid formation between two species of Mediterranean deceptive orchid. Plants of Orchis italica and O. anthropophora were pollinated with conspecific and heterospecific pollen (first conspecific pollen then heterospecific pollen and vice versa) and molecular analysis was used to check the paternity of the seeds produced. In this pair of Mediterranean orchids, competition between conspecific and heterospecific pollen functions as a post-pollination pre-zygotic barrier limiting the frequency of the formation of hybrids in nature. Flowers pollinated with heterospecific pollen can remain receptive for the arrival of conspecific pollen for a long time. There is always an advantage of conspecific pollen for fruit formation, whether it comes before or after heterospecific pollen, because it overtakes the heterospecific pollen. The conspecific pollen advantage exhibited in O. italica and O. anthropophora is likely to result from the reduced germination of heterospecific pollen or retarded growth of heterospecific pollen tubes in the stigma and ovary. Overall, the results indicate that our hybrid zone represents a phenomenon of little evolutionary consequence, and the conspecific pollen advantage maintains the genetic integrity of the parental species.

  17. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination.

  18. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    PubMed

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  19. Comparison of Pollen Transfer Dynamics by Multiple Floral Visitors: Experiments with Pollen and Fluorescent Dye

    PubMed Central

    ADLER, LYNN S.; IRWIN, REBECCA E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Most plant species are visited by a diversity of floral visitors. Pollen transfer of the four most common pollinating bee species and one nectar-robbing bee of the distylous plant Gelsemium sempervirens were compared. • Methods Naturally occurring pollen loads carried by the common floral visitor species of G. sempervirens were compared. In addition, dyed pollen donor flowers and sequences of four emasculated recipient flowers in field cages were used to estimate pollen transfer, and the utility of fluorescent dye powder as an analogue for pollen transfer was determined. • Key Results Xylocopa virginica, Osmia lignaria and Habropoda laboriosa carried the most G. sempervirens pollen on their bodies, followed by Bombus bimaculatus and Apis mellifera. However, B. bimaculatus, O. lignaria and H. laboriosa transferred significantly more pollen than A. mellifera. Nectar-robbing X. virginica transferred the least pollen, even when visiting legitimately. Dye particles were strongly correlated with pollen grains on a stigma, and therefore provide a good analogue for pollen in this system. The ratio of pollen : dye across stigmas was not affected by bee species or interactions between bee species and floral morphology. However, dye transfer was more sensitive than pollen transfer to differences in floral morphology. • Conclusions The results from this study add to a growing body of literature highlighting that floral visitors vary in pollination effectiveness, and that visitors carrying the most pollen on their bodies may not always be the most efficient at depositing pollen on stigmas. Understanding the magnitude of variability in pollinator quality is one important factor for predicting how different pollinator taxa may influence the evolution of floral traits. PMID:16299005

  20. Increasing allergy potency of Zinnia pollen grains in polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Majde, Ahmad; Moin, Mostafa; Gholami, Mansour; Ali Shariatzadeh, Mohammad; Nassiri, Hosein

    2004-06-01

    There is much evidence that allergic symptoms represent a major health problem in polluted cities. The aim of this research is to elucidate some microscopic effects of air pollutants on pollen structure, proteins, and allergenicity. A scanning electron microscopy study of pollen grains indicated that in polluted areas, airborne particles accumulate on the surface of pollen grains and change the shape and tectum of pollen. Also, many vesicles are released from polluted pollen grains and the pollen material agglomerates on the surface of pollen grains. SDS-PAGE revealed that different proteins exist in mature and immature pollen grains. There were no significant differences between protein bands of polluted and nonpolluted pollen grains, but in polluted pollen, protein content decreases in response to air pollution, causing the release of pollen proteins. The results indicate that mature pollen have more allergenicity than immature pollen. According to the experiments polluted pollen grains are more effective than nonpolluted pollen grains in inducing allergic symptoms. Air pollutants can cause allergic symptoms, but when associated with allergen pollen grains, their allergenicity power is increased.

  1. Natural Sunflower Pollen as a Drug Delivery Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Potroz, Michael G; Park, Soohyun; Shirahama, Hitomi; Lee, Jae Ho; Seo, Jeongeun; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-02

    In nature, pollen grains play a vital role for encapsulation. Many pollen species exist which are often used as human food supplements. Dynamic image particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed the size, structural uniformity, and macromolecular encapsulation in sunflower pollen, paving the way to explore natural pollen grains for the encapsulation of therapeutic molecules.

  2. Chapter 25: Collecting pollen for genetic resources conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of pollen as a conservation target allows for the preservation of many diverse alleles within a genepool. Although it is possible to generate haploid plants from pollen grains, pollen is more commonly conserved as a gamete for gene conservation. The ease of pollen storage, shipment, and po...

  3. Thunderstorm-asthma and pollen allergy.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; Frenguelli, G

    2007-01-01

    Thunderstorms have been linked to asthma epidemics, especially during the pollen seasons, and there are descriptions of asthma outbreaks associated with thunderstorms, which occurred in several cities, prevalently in Europe (Birmingham and London in the UK and Napoli in Italy) and Australia (Melbourne and Wagga Wagga). Pollen grains can be carried by thunderstorm at ground level, where pollen rupture would be increased with release of allergenic biological aerosols of paucimicronic size, derived from the cytoplasm and which can penetrate deep into lower airways. In other words, there is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen-carrying cytoplasmic starch granules (0.5-2.5 microm) or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients. The thunderstorm-asthma outbreaks are characterized, at the beginning of thunderstorms by a rapid increase of visits for asthma in general practitioner or hospital emergency departments. Subjects without asthma symptoms, but affected by seasonal rhinitis can experience an asthma attack. No unusual levels of air pollution were noted at the time of the epidemics, but there was a strong association with high atmospheric concentrations of pollen grains such as grasses or other allergenic plant species. However, subjects affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season.

  4. A combinatorial morphospace for angiosperm pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The morphology of angiosperm (flowering plant) pollen is extraordinarily diverse. This diversity results from variations in the morphology of discrete anatomical components. These components include the overall shape of a pollen grain, the stratification of the exine, the number and form of any apertures, the type of dispersal unit, and the nature of any surface ornamentation. Different angiosperm pollen morphotypes reflect different combinations of these discrete components. In this talk, I ask the following question: given the anatomical components of angiosperm pollen that are known to exist in the plant kingdom, how many unique biologically plausible combinations of these components are there? I explore this question from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics using an algorithm I have written in the Python programming language. This algorithm (1) calculates the number of combinations of these components; (2) enumerates those combinations; and (3) graphically displays those combinations. The result is a combinatorial morphospace that reflects an underlying notion that the process of morphogenesis in angiosperm pollen can be thought of as an n choose k counting problem. I compare the morphology of extant and fossil angiosperm pollen grains to this morphospace, and suggest that from a combinatorial point of view angiosperm pollen is not as diverse as it could be, which may be a result of developmental constraints.

  5. Pollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... palm maple (red) maple (silver) Phoenix palm poplar willow Some people, though, do show cross-reactivity among ... ash, box elder, cottonwood, maple, palm, poplar or willow trees. Avoid the outdoors between 5:00 a. ...

  6. Classification of pollen species using autofluorescence image analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitsumoto, Kotaro; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Aoyagi, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    A new method to classify pollen species was developed by monitoring autofluorescence images of pollen grains. The pollens of nine species were selected, and their autofluorescence images were captured by a microscope equipped with a digital camera. The pollen size and the ratio of the blue to red pollen autofluorescence spectra (the B/R ratio) were calculated by image processing. The B/R ratios and pollen size varied among the species. Furthermore, the scatter-plot of pollen size versus the B/R ratio showed that pollen could be classified to the species level using both parameters. The pollen size and B/R ratio were confirmed by means of particle flow image analysis and the fluorescence spectra, respectively. These results suggest that a flow system capable of measuring both scattered light and the autofluorescence of particles could classify and count pollen grains in real time.

  7. Fast-disintegrating sublingual epinephrine tablets: effect of tablet dimensions on tablet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem M; Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing dimensions on the hardness (H), disintegration time (DT), and wetting time (WT) of fast-disintegrating epinephrine tablets for sublingual administration as potential first aid treatment for anaphylaxis. Tablet formulations I and II, containing 0% and 10% epinephrine bitartrate, respectively, and weighing 150 mg were prepared by direct compression. Formulations were compressed at a range of forces using an 8/32'' die with concave punches (CP); a 10/32'' and an 11/32'' die with CP and flat punches (FP). Tablet weight variation, content uniformity, thickness, H, DT, and WT were measured. The 8/32'', 10/32'', and 11/32'' dies resulted in tablet thickness of ranges 0.25-0.19'', 0.17-0.1'', and 0.16-0.08'', respectively. The DT and WT using the 8/32'' die weretablets. The 11/32'' and 10/32'' dies resulted in more ideal tablet dimensions for sublingual administration, but H must be maintained<4 kg to ensure rapid DT and WT.

  8. Pollen cultivation and preparation for proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the collected experimental data very much depends on the quality of the biological starting material. Especially the proteome analysis of a highly dynamic system like the germinating and tube-growing pollen grain needs several precautions which allow an accurate and acceptable interpretation of the obtained results. Optimized protocols for pollen collection, storage, and in vitro culture as well as pollen organelle separations are described which help to obtain well-defined and reproducible experimental conditions for the subsequent proteomic analysis.

  9. Pollen wall development in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Stephen; Wortley, Alexandra H; Skvarla, John J; Rowley, John R

    2007-01-01

    The outer pollen wall, or exine, is more structurally complex than any other plant cell wall, comprising several distinct layers, each with its own organizational pattern. Since elucidation of the basic events of pollen wall ontogeny using electron microscopy in the 1970s, knowledge of their developmental genetics has increased enormously. However, self-assembly processes that are not under direct genetic control also play an important role in pollen wall patterning. This review integrates ultrastructural and developmental findings with recent models for self-assembly in an attempt to understand the origins of the morphological complexity and diversity that underpin the science of palynology.

  10. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    PubMed Central

    Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Pawel; Kaźmierczak, Justyna; Olczyk, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process. PMID:25861358

  11. Learning, Tablet, Culture-Coherence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norqvist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents understandings of learning in schools where Internet-enabled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are taken for granted. The context is a full-scale 1:1 tablet project in Danish municipality schools where this study bring forward expressions of learning from one class (12-13 year old children) in order to offer…

  12. Visualization of plastids in pollen grains: involvement of FtsZ1 in pollen plastid division.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lay Yin; Nagata, Noriko; Matsushima, Ryo; Chen, Yuling; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2009-04-01

    Visualizing organelles in living cells is a powerful method to analyze their intrinsic mechanisms. Easy observation of chlorophyll facilitates the study of the underlying mechanisms in chloroplasts, but not in other plastid types. Here, we constructed a transgenic plant enabling visualization of plastids in pollen grains. Combination of a plastid-targeted fluorescent protein with a pollen-specific promoter allowed us to observe the precise number, size and morphology of plastids in pollen grains of the wild type and the ftsZ1 mutant, whose responsible gene plays a central role in chloroplast division. The transgenic material presented in this work is useful for studying the division mechanism of pollen plastids.

  13. A pollen-specific RALF from tomato that regulates pollen tube elongation.

    PubMed

    Covey, Paul A; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C; Parsons, Ronald L; Pearce, Gregory; Lay, Fung T; Anderson, Marilyn A; Ryan, Clarence A; Bedinger, Patricia A

    2010-06-01

    Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are plant peptides that rapidly increase the pH of plant suspension cell culture medium and inhibit root growth. A pollen-specific tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RALF (SlPRALF) has been identified. The SlPRALF gene encodes a preproprotein that appears to be processed and released from the pollen tube as an active peptide. A synthetic SlPRALF peptide based on the putative active peptide did not affect pollen hydration or viability but inhibited the elongation of normal pollen tubes in an in vitro growth system. Inhibitory effects of SlPRALF were detectable at concentrations as low as 10 nm, and complete inhibition was observed at 1 mum peptide. At least 10-fold higher levels of alkSlPRALF, which lacks disulfide bonds, were required to see similar effects. A greater effect of peptide was observed in low-pH-buffered medium. Inhibition of pollen tube elongation was reversible if peptide was removed within 15 min of exposure. Addition of 100 nm SlPRALF to actively growing pollen tubes inhibited further elongation until tubes were 40 to 60 mum in length, after which pollen tubes became resistant to the peptide. The onset of resistance correlated with the timing of the exit of the male germ unit from the pollen grain into the tube. Thus, exogenous SlPRALF acts as a negative regulator of pollen tube elongation within a specific developmental window.

  14. Phosphoproteomics Profiling of Tobacco Mature Pollen and Pollen Activated in vitro *

    PubMed Central

    Fíla, Jan; Radau, Sonja; Matros, Andrea; Hartmann, Anja; Scholz, Uwe; Feciková, Jana; Mock, Hans-Peter; Čapková, Věra; Zahedi, René Peiman; Honys, David

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco mature pollen has extremely desiccated cytoplasm, and is metabolically quiescent. Upon re-hydration it becomes metabolically active and that results in later emergence of rapidly growing pollen tube. These changes in cytoplasm hydration and metabolic activity are accompanied by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we subjected mature pollen, 5-min-activated pollen, and 30-min-activated pollen to TCA/acetone protein extraction, trypsin digestion and phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide. The enriched fraction was subjected to nLC-MS/MS. We identified 471 phosphopeptides that carried 432 phosphorylation sites, position of which was exactly matched by mass spectrometry. These 471 phosphopeptides were assigned to 301 phosphoproteins, because some proteins carried more phosphorylation sites. Of the 13 functional groups, the majority of proteins were put into these categories: transcription, protein synthesis, protein destination and storage, and signal transduction. Many proteins were of unknown function, reflecting the fact that male gametophyte contains many specific proteins that have not been fully functionally annotated. The quantitative data highlighted the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during pollen activation; the identified phosphopeptides were divided into seven groups based on the regulatory trends. The major group comprised mature pollen-specific phosphopeptides that were dephosphorylated during pollen activation. Several phosphopeptides representing the same phosphoprotein had different regulation, which pinpointed the complexity of protein phosphorylation and its clear functional context. Collectively, we showed the first phosphoproteomics data on activated pollen where the position of phosphorylation sites was clearly demonstrated and regulatory kinetics was resolved. PMID:26792808

  15. Phosphoproteomics Profiling of Tobacco Mature Pollen and Pollen Activated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fíla, Jan; Radau, Sonja; Matros, Andrea; Hartmann, Anja; Scholz, Uwe; Feciková, Jana; Mock, Hans-Peter; Čapková, Věra; Zahedi, René Peiman; Honys, David

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco mature pollen has extremely desiccated cytoplasm, and is metabolically quiescent. Upon re-hydration it becomes metabolically active and that results in later emergence of rapidly growing pollen tube. These changes in cytoplasm hydration and metabolic activity are accompanied by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we subjected mature pollen, 5-min-activated pollen, and 30-min-activated pollen to TCA/acetone protein extraction, trypsin digestion and phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide. The enriched fraction was subjected to nLC-MS/MS. We identified 471 phosphopeptides that carried 432 phosphorylation sites, position of which was exactly matched by mass spectrometry. These 471 phosphopeptides were assigned to 301 phosphoproteins, because some proteins carried more phosphorylation sites. Of the 13 functional groups, the majority of proteins were put into these categories: transcription, protein synthesis, protein destination and storage, and signal transduction. Many proteins were of unknown function, reflecting the fact that male gametophyte contains many specific proteins that have not been fully functionally annotated. The quantitative data highlighted the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during pollen activation; the identified phosphopeptides were divided into seven groups based on the regulatory trends. The major group comprised mature pollen-specific phosphopeptides that were dephosphorylated during pollen activation. Several phosphopeptides representing the same phosphoprotein had different regulation, which pinpointed the complexity of protein phosphorylation and its clear functional context. Collectively, we showed the first phosphoproteomics data on activated pollen where the position of phosphorylation sites was clearly demonstrated and regulatory kinetics was resolved.

  16. Fur versus feathers: pollen delivery by bats and hummingbirds and consequences for pollen production.

    PubMed

    Muchhala, Nathan; Thomson, James D

    2010-06-01

    One floral characteristic associated with bat pollination (chiropterophily) is copious pollen production, a pattern we confirmed in a local comparison of hummingbird- and bat-adapted flowers from a cloud forest site in Ecuador. Previous authors have suggested that wasteful pollen transfer by bats accounted for the pattern. Here we propose and test a new hypothesis: bats select for increased pollen production because they can efficiently transfer larger amounts of pollen, which leads to a more linear male fitness gain curve for bat-pollinated plants. Flight cage experiments with artificial flowers and flowers of Aphelandra acanthus provide support for this hypothesis; in both instances, the amount of pollen delivered to stigmas by birds is not related to the amount of pollen removed from anthers on the previous visit, while the same function for bats increases linearly. Thus, increased pollen production will be linearly related to increased male reproductive success for bat flowers, while for bird flowers, increased pollen production leads to rapidly diminishing fitness returns. We speculate that fur takes up and holds more pollen than feathers, which seem to readily shed excess grains. Our gain-curve hypothesis may also explain why evolutionary shifts from bird to bat pollination seem more common than shifts in the opposite direction.

  17. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines. PMID:25237628

  18. Quarternary Pollen Analysis in Secondary School Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, F. M.

    1972-01-01

    Describes techniques for studying historic changes in climate by analysis of pollen preserved in peat bogs. Illustrates the methodology and data analysis techniques by reference to results from English research. (AL)

  19. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

    PubMed

    Müller-Germann, Isabell; Vogel, Bernhard; Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöschl, Ulrich; Després, Viviane R

    2015-01-01

    Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm) and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8) and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS). The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm), the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  20. Juniper Pollen Hotspots in the Southwest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunderson, L. D.; VandeWater, P.; Luvall, J.; Levetin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Juniperus pollen is a major allergen in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. While the bulk of pollen may be released in rural areas, large amounts of pollen can be transported to urban areas. Major juniper species in the region include: Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, J. pinchotii, and J. monosperma. Pollen release is virtually continuous beginning in late September with J. pinchotii and ending in May with J. monosperma. Urban areas in the region were evaluated for the potential of overlapping seasons in order to inform sensitive individuals. Methods: Burkard volumetric pollen traps were established for two consecutive spring seasons at 6 sites in northern New Mexico and 6 sites for two consecutive winter and fall seasons in Texas and Oklahoma Standard methods were used in the preparation and analysis of slides. Results: The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is home to over 6 million people. It is adjacent to populations of J. pinchotii, J. virginiana, and J. ashei. Peak concentration near Dallas for J. ashei in 2011 was 5891 pollen grains/m3 in January 7th. The peak date for J. pinchotii at an upwind sampling location in San Marcos, TX was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was February 20, 2011. Amarillo, TX is adjacent to J. pinchotii, J. ashei, and J. monosperma populations and may be subject to juniper pollen from September through May. Conclusions: Considering the overlapping distributions of juniper trees and the overlapping temporal release of pollen, sensitive patients may benefit from avoiding hotspots.

  1. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Germann, Isabell; Vogel, Bernhard; Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöschl, Ulrich; Després, Viviane R.

    2015-01-01

    Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm) and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8) and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS). The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm), the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future. PMID:26492534

  2. Influence of Pollen Nutrition on Honey Bee Health: Do Pollen Quality and Diversity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Salignon, Marion; Le Conte, Yves; Belzunces, Luc P.; Decourtye, Axel; Kretzschmar, André; Suchail, Séverine; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Alaux, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen) necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens) and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet) on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level), and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification), phenoloxidase (immunity) and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism)). We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context) of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health. PMID:23940803

  3. Plant Sterol Diversity in Pollen from Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Villette, Claire; Berna, Anne; Compagnon, Vincent; Schaller, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    Here we have examined the composition of free sterols and steryl esters of pollen from selected angiosperm species, as a first step towards a comprehensive analysis of sterol biogenesis in the male gametophyte. We detected four major sterol structural groups: cycloartenol derivatives bearing a 9β,19-cyclopropyl group, sterols with a double bond at C-7(8), sterols with a double bond at C-5(6), and stanols. All these groups were unequally distributed among species. However, the distribution of sterols as free sterols or as steryl esters in pollen grains indicated that free sterols were mostly Δ(5)-sterols and that steryl esters were predominantly 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols. In order to link the sterol composition of a pollen grain at anthesis with the requirement for membrane lipid constituents of the pollen tube, we germinated pollen grains from Nicotiana tabacum, a model plant in reproductive biology. In the presence of radiolabelled mevalonic acid and in a time course series of measurements, we showed that cycloeucalenol was identified as the major neosynthesized sterol. Furthermore, the inhibition of cycloeucalenol neosynthesis by squalestatin was in full agreement with a de novo biogenesis and an apparent truncated pathway in the pollen tube.

  4. Pollen as atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Allison L.; Brooks, Sarah D.; Deng, Chunhua; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Pendleton, Michael W.; Bryant, Vaughn

    2015-05-01

    Anemophilous (wind-dispersed) pollen grains are emitted in large quantities by vegetation in the midlatitudes for reproduction. Pollen grains are coarse particles (5-150 µm) that can rupture when wet to form submicron subpollen particles (SPP) that may have a climatic role. Laboratory CCN experiments of six fresh pollen samples show that SPP activate as CCN at a range of sizes, requiring supersaturations from 0.81 (± 0.07)% for 50 nm particles, 0.26 (± 0.03)% for 100 nm particles, and 0.12 (± 0.00)% for 200 nm particles. Compositional analyses indicate that SPP contain carbohydrates and proteins. The SPP contribution to global CCN is uncertain but could be important depending on pollen concentrations outside the surface layer and the number of SPP generated from a single pollen grain. The production of hygroscopic SPP from pollen represents a novel, biologically driven cloud formation pathway that may influence cloud optical properties and lifetimes, thereby influencing climate.

  5. Thunderstorm asthma due to grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C

    1998-08-01

    It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. Moreover, grass pollen is also responsible for triggering allergic asthma, gaining impetus as a result of the 1987/1989 Melbourne and 1994 London thunderstorm-associated asthma epidemics. However, grass pollen is too large to gain access into the lower airways to trigger the asthmatic response and micronic particles <5 micro m are required to trigger the response. We have successfully shown that ryegrass pollen ruptures upon contact with water, releasing about 700 starch granules which not only contain the major allergen Lol p 5, but have been shown to trigger both in vitro and in vivo IgE-mediated responses. Furthermore, starch granules have been isolated from the Melbourne atmosphere with 50-fold increase following rainfall. Free grass pollen allergen molecules have been recently shown to interact with other particles including diesel exhaust carbon particles, providing a further transport mechanism for allergens to gain access into lower airways. In this review, implication and evidence for grass pollen as a trigger of thunderstorm-associated asthma is presented. Such information is critical and mandatory for patient education and training in their allergen avoidance programs. More importantly, patients with serum IgE to group 5 allergens are at high risk of allergic asthma, especially those not protected by medication. Therefore, a system to determine the total atmospheric allergen load and devising of an effective asthma risk forecast is urgently needed and is subject to current investigation.

  6. Gametophytic Pollen Tube Guidance: Attractant Peptides, Gametic Controls, and Receptors.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Pollen tube guidance in flowering plants is a unique and critical process for successful sexual reproduction. The pollen tube that grows from pollen, which is the male gametophyte, precisely navigates to the embryo sac, which is the female gametophyte, within the pistil. Recent advances have clarified the molecular framework of gametophytic pollen tube guidance. Multiple species-specific attractant peptides are secreted from synergid cells, the proper development and function of which are regulated by female gametes. Multiple receptor-like kinases on the pollen tube tip are involved in sensing species-specific attractant peptides. In this Update article, recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of gametophytic pollen tube guidance is reviewed, including attraction by synergid cells, control of pollen tube guidance by female gametes, and directional growth of the pollen tube by directional cue sensing. Future directions in the study of pollen tube guidance also are discussed.

  7. Marking live conifer pollen for long-distance dispersal experiments.

    PubMed

    Williams, Claire G; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) theory requires a method for marking live LDD pollen. Such a method must complement more intensive sampling methods inclusive of molecular cytogenetics, proteomics and genomics. We developed a new method for marking live Pinus taeda pollen using two dyes, rhodamine 123 and aniline blue, dissolved in a sucrose solution. Marked and unmarked pollen were compared with respect to in vitro germination, storage, terminal velocity, and in vivo pollen tube penetration of ovules. We found that: (1) both types of marked pollen retained their capacity for germination, (2) both types of marked pollen had similar aerodynamic properties when compared to unmarked pollen controls, (3) marked pollen retained its germination capacity for 48 h, and (4) of the marked pollen, only the aniline-marked pollen penetrated ovules during pollination. Germination declined rapidly for both types of marked pollen after 48 h and before 37 days at -20°C storage, while unmarked pollen lots retained 93% germination at all stages. This method for marking live P. taeda pollen is feasible for tracing LDD pollen only if released and deposited within 48 h of dye treatment.

  8. Marking live conifer pollen for long-distance dispersal experiments.

    PubMed

    Williams, Claire G; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Study of long-distance dispersal (LDD) theory requires a method for marking live LDD pollen. Such a method must complement the more intensive sampling methods involving molecular cytogenetics, proteomics, and genomics. We have developed a new method for marking live Pinus taeda pollen using two dyes, rhodamine 123 and aniline blue, dissolved in a sucrose solution. Marked and unmarked pollen were compared with respect to in vitro germination, storage, terminal velocity and in vivo pollen-tube penetration of ovules. We found that: (1) both types of marked pollen retained their capacity for germination, (2) both types of marked pollen had similar aerodynamic properties as unmarked pollen controls, (3) marked pollen retained its germination capacity for 48 h, and (4) of the marked pollen, only the aniline-marked pollen penetrated ovules during pollination. Germination declined rapidly for both types of marked pollen after 48 h and before 37 days at -20°C storage, while the unmarked pollen lots retained 93% germination at all stages. Our method for marking live P. taeda pollen is feasible for tracing LDD pollen if released and deposited within 48 h of dye treatment.

  9. Does an 'oversupply' of ovules cause pollen limitation?

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Williams, Neal M

    2016-04-01

    Lifetime seed production can be constrained by shortfalls of pollen receipt ('pollen limitation'). The ovule oversupply hypothesis states that, in response to unpredictable pollen availability, plants evolve to produce more ovules than they expect to be fertilized, and that this results in pollen limitation of seed production. Here, we present a cartoon model and a model of optimal plant reproductive allocations under stochastic pollen receipt to evaluate the hypothesis that an oversupply of ovules leads to increased pollen limitation. We show that an oversupply of ovules has two opposing influences on pollen limitation of whole-plant seed production. First, ovule oversupply increases the likelihood that pollen receipt limits the number of ovules that can be fertilized ('prezygotic pollen limitation'). Second, ovule oversupply increases the proportion of pollen grains received that are used to fertilize ovules ('pollen use efficiency'). As a result of these opposing influences, ovule oversupply has only a modest effect on the degree to which lifetime seed production is constrained by pollen receipt, producing a small decrease in the incidence of pollen limitation. Ovule oversupply is not the cause of the pollen limitation problem, but rather is part of the evolutionary solution to that problem.

  10. The airborne pollen calendar for Lublin, central-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    An aerobiological study was conducted to investigate the quantity and quality of pollen in the atmosphere of Lublin in central-eastern Poland. Pollen monitoring was carried out in the period 2001-2012 using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The atmospheric pollen season in Lublin lasted, on average, from the end of January to the beginning of October. The mean air temperature during the study period was found to be higher by 1.1 °C than the mean temperature in the period 1951-2000. 56 types of pollen of plants belonging to 41 families were identified. 28 types represented woody plants and 28 represented herbaceous plants. The study distinguished 5 plant taxa the pollen of which was present most abundantly in the air of Lublin, which altogether accounted for 73.4%: Betula, Urtica, Pinus, Poaceae, and Alnus. The mean annual pollen index was 68 706; the largest amount of pollen was recorded in April and accounted for 33.3% of the annual pollen index. The pollen calendar included 28 allergenic plant taxa. The pollen of woody plants had the highest percentage in the pollen spectrum, on average 58.4%. The parameters of the pollen calendar for Lublin were compared with the calendar for central-eastern Europe with regard to the start of the pollen season of particular taxa. The pollen calendar for Lublin was demonstrated to show greater similarity to the calendar for Münster (Germany) than to the calendar for Bratislava (Slovakia).

  11. A 12,000-Yr Pollen Record off Cape Hatteras: Pollen Sources and Mechanisms of Pollen Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, F.; Keigwin, L.; Peteet, D.; Costas, S.; Desprat, S.; Oliveira, D.; de Vernal, A.; Voelker, A.; Abrantes, F.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating both marine and terrestrial signals from the same sediment core is one of the primary challenges for understanding the role of ocean-atmosphere coupling throughout past climate changes. It is therefore vital to understand how the pollen signal of a given marine record reflects the vegetation changes of the neighboring continent. The comparison between the pollen record of marine core JPC32 (KNR178JPC32) and available terrestrial pollen sequences from eastern North America over the last 12,170 years indicates that the pollen signature off Cape Hatteras gives an integrated image of the regional vegetation encompassing the Pee Dee river, Chesapeake and Delaware hydrographic basins and is reliable in reconstructing the past climate of the adjacent continent. Extremely high quantities of pollen grains included in the marine sediments off Cape Hatteras were transferred from the continent to the sea, at intervals 10,100-8800 cal yr BP, 8300-7500 cal yr BP, 5800- 4300 cal yr BP and 2100-730 cal yr BP, during storm events favored by episodes of rapid sea-level rise in the eastern coast of US. In contrast, pollen grains export was reduced during 12,170-10,150 cal yr BP and 4200- 2200 cal yr BP, during episodes of intense continental dryness and slow sea level rise episodes or lowstands in the eastern coast of US. The near absence of reworked pollen grains in core JPC32 contrasts with the high quantity of reworked material in nearby but deeper located marine sites, suggesting that the JPC32 recordwas not affected by the DeepWestern Boundary Current (DWBC) since the end of the Younger Dryas and should be considered a key site for studying past climate changes in the western North Atlantic.

  12. Ultraviolet radiation environment of pollen and its effect on pollen germination. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The damage to pollen caused by natural ultraviolet radiation was investigated. Experimental and literature research into the UV radiation environment is reported. Viability and germination of wind and insect pollinated species were determined. Physiological, developmental, and protective factors influencing UV sensitivity of binucleate, advanced binucleate, and trinucleate pollen grains are compared.

  13. Exposure to grass pollen--but not birch pollen--affects lung function in Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Gruzieva, O; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Melén, E; Hallberg, J; Bellander, T; Lõhmus, M

    2015-09-01

    Allergic response to pollen is increasing worldwide, leading to high medical and social costs. However, the effect of pollen exposure on lung function has rarely been investigated. Over 1800 children in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were lung-function- and IgE-tested at the age of 8 and 16 years old. Daily concentrations for 9 pollen types together with measurements for ozone, NO2 , PM10 , PM2.5 were estimated for the index day as well as up to 6 days before the testing. Exposure to grass pollen during the preceding day was associated with a reduced forced expiratory volume in 8-yr-olds; -32.4 ml; 95% CI: -50.6 to -14.2, for an increase in three pollen counts/m³. Associations appeared stronger in children sensitized to pollen allergens. As the grass species flower late in the pollen season, the allergy care routines might be weakened during this period. Therefore, allergy information may need to be updated to increase awareness among grass pollen-sensitized individuals.

  14. The ultraviolet radiation environment of pollen and its effect on pollen germination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The damage to pollen caused by natural ultraviolet radiation was investigated. Experimental and literature research into the UV radiation environment is reported. Viability and germination of wind and insect pollinated species were determined. Physiological, developmental, and protective factors influencing UV sensitivity of binucleate, advanced binucleate, and trinucleate pollen grains are compared.

  15. Optimized method for growing in vitro Arabidopsis thaliana pollen tubes.

    PubMed

    Borassi, Cecilia; Di Giorgio, Juliana Pérez; Scarpin, María R; Muschietti, Jorge; Estevez, José M

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tubes elongate by tip growth toward the ovule to deliver the sperm cells during fertilization. Since pollen tubes from several species can be grown in vitro maintaining their polarity, pollen tube growth is a suitable model system to study cell polarity and tip growth. A. thaliana pollen tubes germinated in vitro for 6 h can reach up to 800 μm. By studying the phenotype of mutants of T-DNA insertion lines, genes involved in pollen tube growth can be identified. Moreover, components involved in the regulation of pollen tube growth such as calcium ions and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be analyzed.

  16. Biosynthesis of anther cuticle and pollen exine in rice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lipidic structures, anther cuticle (outer anther surface) and pollen exine (outer pollen wall), play a key protective role for the male gametophyte and pollen grain development. We recently identified ancient cytochrome P450 family member CYP704B2 in rice and proposed a common fatty acid ω-hydroxylation pathway for synthesizing anther cuticle and pollen exine during plant male reproductive development. Here, we propose developmental model of pollen exine formation and discuss key genes required for pollen exine synthesis in the important crop plant rice. PMID:20930527

  17. Estimates of common ragweed pollen emission and dispersion over Europe using RegCM-pollen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Solmon, F.; Vautard, R.; Hamaoui-Laguel, L.; Torma, Cs. Zs.; Giorgi, F.

    2015-11-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a highly allergenic and invasive plant in Europe. Its pollen can be transported over large distances and has been recognized as a significant cause of hayfever and asthma (D'Amato et al., 2007; Burbach et al., 2009). To simulate production and dispersion of common ragweed pollen, we implement a pollen emission and transport module in the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 using the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5. In the online model environment where climate is integrated with dispersion and vegetation production, pollen emissions are calculated based on the modelling of plant distribution, pollen production, species-specific phenology, flowering probability, and flux response to meteorological conditions. A pollen tracer model is used to describe pollen advective transport, turbulent mixing, dry and wet deposition. The model is then applied and evaluated on a European domain for the period 2000-2010. To reduce the large uncertainties notably due to ragweed density distribution on pollen emission, a calibration based on airborne pollen observations is used. Resulting simulations show that the model captures the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe, and reproduce reasonably both the spatial and temporal patterns of flowering season and associated pollen concentrations measured over Europe. The model can explain 68.6, 39.2, and 34.3 % of the observed variance in starting, central, and ending dates of the pollen season with associated root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 4.7, 3.9, and 7.0 days, respectively. The correlation between simulated and observed daily concentrations time series reaches 0.69. Statistical scores show that the model performs better over the central Europe source region where pollen loads are larger. From these simulations health risks associated common ragweed pollen spread are then evaluated through calculation of exposure time above health

  18. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. The tablets may be crushed and...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. The tablets may be crushed and...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Administered orally to cats and small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. The tablets may be crushed and...

  1. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 milligrams of enalapril maleate....

  2. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 milligrams of enalapril maleate....

  3. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Sponsors. See No. 000859 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30-mg tablet. (c) Special considerations... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531...

  4. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Sponsors. See No. 000859 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30-mg tablet. (c) Special considerations... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531...

  5. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Sponsors. See No. 000859 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30-mg tablet. (c) Special considerations... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531...

  6. Can Tablet Computers Enhance Faculty Teaching?

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Aditee P.; Whicker, Shari A.; Benjamin, Robert W.; Hawley, Jeffrey; McGann, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Learner benefits of tablet computer use have been demonstrated, yet there is little evidence regarding faculty tablet use for teaching. Objective Our study sought to determine if supplying faculty with tablet computers and peer mentoring provided benefits to learners and faculty beyond that of non–tablet-based teaching modalities. Methods We provided faculty with tablet computers and three 2-hour peer-mentoring workshops on tablet-based teaching. Faculty used tablets to teach, in addition to their current, non–tablet-based methods. Presurveys, postsurveys, and monthly faculty surveys assessed feasibility, utilization, and comparisons to current modalities. Learner surveys assessed perceived effectiveness and comparisons to current modalities. All feedback received from open-ended questions was reviewed by the authors and organized into categories. Results Of 15 eligible faculty, 14 participated. Each participant attended at least 2 of the 3 workshops, with 10 to 12 participants at each workshop. All participants found the workshops useful, and reported that the new tablet-based teaching modality added value beyond that of current teaching methods. Respondents developed the following tablet-based outputs: presentations, photo galleries, evaluation tools, and online modules. Of the outputs, 60% were used in the ambulatory clinics, 33% in intensive care unit bedside teaching rounds, and 7% in inpatient medical unit bedside teaching rounds. Learners reported that common benefits of tablet computers were: improved access/convenience (41%), improved interactive learning (38%), and improved bedside teaching and patient care (13%). A common barrier faculty identified was inconsistent wireless access (14%), while no barriers were identified by the majority of learners. Conclusions Providing faculty with tablet computers and having peer-mentoring workshops to discuss their use was feasible and added value. PMID:26221443

  7. Modeling picking on pharmaceutical tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Shrikant

    Tablets are the most popular solid dosage form in the pharmaceutical industry because they are cheap to manufacture, chemically and mechanically stable and easy to transport and fairly easy to control dosage. Pharmaceutical tableting operations have been around for decades however the process is still not well understood. One of the common problems faced during the production of pharmaceutical tablets by powder compaction is sticking of powder to the punch face, This is known as 'sticking'. A more specialized case of sticking is picking when the powder is pulled away form the compact in the vicinity of debossed features. In the pharmaceutical industry, picking is solved by trial and error which is an expensive, labor intensive and time consuming affair. The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and implement a modeling framework for predicting picking in powder compacts. The model was developed in Abaqus a commercially available finite element package. The resulting model was used to investigate the influence of debossed feature geometry viz. the stroke angle and degree of pre-pick, and, influence of lubricant on picking. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. Analysis of Allergenic Pollen by FTIR Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, B; Tafintseva, V; Bağcıoğlu, M; Høegh Berdahl, M; Kohler, A

    2016-01-05

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the identification and characterization of pollen and spores. However, interpretation and multivariate analysis of infrared microscopy spectra of single pollen grains are hampered by Mie-type scattering. In this paper, we introduce a novel sampling setup for infrared microspectroscopy of pollens preventing strong Mie-type scattering. Pollen samples were embedded in a soft paraffin layer between two sheets of polyethylene foils without any further sample pretreatment. Single-grain infrared spectra of 13 different pollen samples, belonging to 11 species, were obtained and analyzed by the new approach and classified by sparse partial least-squares regression (PLSR). For the classification, chemical and physical information were separated by extended multiplicative signal correction and used together to build a classification model. A training set of 260 spectra and an independent test set of 130 spectra were used. Robust sparse classification models allowing the biochemical interpretation of the classification were obtained by the sparse PLSR, because only a subset of variables was retained for the analysis. With accuracy values of 95% and 98%, for the independent test set and full cross-validation respectively, the method is outperforming the previously published studies on development of an automated pollen analysis. Since the method is compatible with standard air-samplers, it can be employed with minimal modification in regular aerobiology studies. When compared with optical microscopy, which is the benchmark method in pollen analysis, the infrared microspectroscopy method offers better taxonomic resolution, as well as faster, more economical, and bias-free measurement.

  9. Accuracy of tablet splitting: Comparison study between hand splitting and tablet cutter

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Walid A.; Alanizi, Abdulaziz S.; Abdelhamid, Magdi M.; Alanizi, Fars K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tablet splitting is often used in pharmacy practice to adjust the administered doses. It is also used as a method of reducing medication costs. Objective To investigate the accuracy of tablet splitting by comparing hand splitting vs. a tablet cutter for a low dose drug tablet. Methods Salbutamol tablets (4 mg) were chosen as low dose tablets. A randomly selected equal number of tablets were split by hand and a tablet cutter, and the remaining tablets were kept whole. Weight variation and drug content were analysed for salbutamol in 0.1 N HCl using a validated spectrophotometric method. The percentages by which each whole tablet’s or half-tablet’s drug content and weight difference from sample mean values were compared with USP specification ranges for drug content. The %RSD was also calculated in order to determine whether the drugs met USP specification for %RSD. The tablets and half tablets were scanned using electron microscopy to show any visual differences arising from splitting. Results 27.5% of samples differed from sample mean values by a percentage that fell outside of USP specification for weight, of which 15% from the tablet cutter and 25% from those split by hand fell outside the specifications. All whole tablets and half tablets met the USP specifications for drug content but the variation of content between the two halves reached 21.3% of total content in case of hand splitting, and 7.13% only for the tablet cutter. The %RSDs for drug content and weight met the USP specification for whole salbutamol tablets and the half tablets which were split by tablet cutter. The halves which were split by hand fell outside the specification for %RSD (drug content = 6.43%, weight = 8.33%). The differences were visually clear in the electron microscope scans. Conclusion Drug content variation in half-tablets appeared to be attributable to weight variation occurring during the splitting process. This could have serious clinical consequences for

  10. Bees associate colour cues with differences in pollen rewards.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Elizabeth; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to the wealth of knowledge concerning sucrose-rewarded learning, the question of whether bees learn when they collect pollen from flowers has been little addressed. The nutritional value of pollen varies considerably between species, and it may be that bees learn the features of flowers that produce pollen best suited to the dietary requirements of their larvae. It is still unknown, however, whether a non-ingestive reward pathway for pollen learning exists, and how foraging bees sense differences between pollen types. Here we adopt a novel experimental approach testing the learning ability of bees with pollen rewards. Bumblebees were reared under controlled laboratory conditions. To establish which pollen rewards are distinguishable, individual bees were given the choice of collecting two types of pollen, diluted to varying degrees with indigestible α-cellulose. Bees preferentially collected a particular pollen type, but this was not always the most concentrated sample. Preferences were influenced by the degree of similarity between samples and also by the period of exposure, with bees more readily collecting samples of lower pollen concentration after five trials. When trained differentially, bees were able to associate an initially less-preferred contextual colour with the more concentrated sample, whilst their pollen preferences did not change. Successful learning of contextual cues seems to maintain pollen foraging preferences over repeated exposures, suggesting that fast learning of floral cues may preclude continuous sampling and evaluation of alternative reward sources, leading to constancy in pollen foraging.

  11. Airborne birch pollen antigens in different particle sizes.

    PubMed

    Rantio-Lehtimäki, A; Viander, M; Koivikko, A

    1994-01-01

    Two particle samplers for ambient air, situated together: a static size-selective bio-aerosol sampler (SSBAS) and a Burkard pollen and spore trap were compared in sampling intact birch pollen grains through one flowering period of Betula (a total of 44 days). The SSBAS trapped pollen grains three times more efficiently than the Burkard trap, but the variations in pollen counts were significantly correlated. In contrast, birch pollen antigenic activity and the pollen count in the Burkard samples were not closely correlated. The antigenic concentration was occasionally high both before and after the pollination period. There was a high birch pollen antigenic activity in particle size classes where intact pollen grains were absent, even on days when the pollen count was very low. Correspondingly, on days with high birch pollen counts in the air, pollen antigenic activity was on several occasions low, indicating that pollen grains were empty of antigenic material. The small particle size classes are especially important to allergic patients because they are able to penetrate immediately into the alveoli and provoke asthmatic reactions. Therefore, aerobiological information systems based on pollen and spore counts should be supplemented with information concerning antigenic activities in the air.

  12. Surface Pollen Distribution from Alpine Vegetation in Eastern Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Kong, Zhaochen; Yang, Zhenjing; Wang, Li; Duan, Xiaohong

    2017-04-03

    We explore the relationship between modern pollen spectra and vegetation patterns in the Eastern Tibet, China in order to provide information on the representation of pollen taxa and improve the general knowledge of vertical pollen transport. Forty-two modern pollen samples collected in surface soil along two altitudinal transects allowed conclusions on vertical pollen dispersal from the alpine region of Dingqing County, Changdu district in Tibet. Discriminant analyses and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of 24 pollen taxa were used to further discuss the difference of modern pollen spectra in these alpine vegetation zones. The surface pollen assemblage is divided into three pollen zones, such as subalpine shrub meadow, montane coniferous forest and shrub steppe with sparse trees. Altitude and precipitation are two primary factors contributing to changes in surface pollen assemblage from alpine vegetation in the eastern Tibet. Large amounts of spruce pollen at higher elevations above the timberline might be introduced from lower elevations by upslope winds. Therefore, the interpretation of spruce pollen in the fossil record must take into account long distance upward wind transport. Moreover, the destruction of coniferous forest in the study area is well illustrated in the modern pollen rain.

  13. Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, G. M.

    The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show

  14. Spatial variability in airborne pollen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Raynor, G S; Ogden, E C; Hayes, J V

    1975-03-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the relationship between airborne pollen concentrations and distance. Simultaneous samples were taken in 171 tests with sets of eight rotoslide samplers spaced from one to 486 M. apart in straight lines. Use of all possible pairs gave 28 separation distances. Tests were conducted over a 2-year period in urban and rural locations distant from major pollen sources during both tree and ragweed pollen seasons. Samples were taken at a height of 1.5 M. during 5-to 20-minute periods. Tests were grouped by pollen type, location, year, and direction of the wind relative to the line. Data were analyzed to evaluate variability without regard to sampler spacing and variability as a function of separation distance. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, ratio of maximum to the mean, and ratio of minimum to the mean were calculated for each test, each group of tests, and all cases. The average coefficient of variation is 0.21, the maximum over the mean, 1.39 and the minimum over the mean, 0.69. No relationship was found with experimental conditions. Samples taken at the minimum separation distance had a mean difference of 18 per cent. Differences between pairs of samples increased with distance in 10 of 13 groups. These results suggest that airborne pollens are not always well mixed in the lower atmosphere and that a sample becomes less representative with increasing distance from the sampling location.

  15. Regulation of Pollen Tube Growth by Transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Giampiero; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. These activities are based on the dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Changes to both actin filaments and microtubules are triggered by specific proteins, resulting in different organization levels suitable for the different functions of the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are enzymes ubiquitous in all plant organs and cell compartments. They catalyze the post-translational conjugation of polyamines to different protein targets, such as the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are suggested to have a general role in the interaction between pollen tubes and the extracellular matrix during fertilization and a specific role during the self-incompatibility response. In such processes, the activity of transglutaminases is enhanced, leading to the formation of cross-linked products (including aggregates of tubulin and actin). Consequently, transglutaminases are suggested to act as regulators of cytoskeleton dynamics. The distribution of transglutaminases in pollen tubes is affected by both membrane dynamics and the cytoskeleton. Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall. PMID:27137368

  16. Effect of water absorption on pollen adhesion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haisheng; Lizarraga, Leonardo; Bottomley, Lawrence A; Carson Meredith, J

    2015-03-15

    Pollens possess a thin liquid coating, pollenkitt, which plays a major role in adhesion by forming capillary menisci at interfaces. Unfortunately, the influence of humidity on pollenkitt properties and capillary adhesion is unknown. Because humidity varies widely in the environment, the answers have important implications for better understanding plant reproduction, allergy and asthma, and pollen as atmospheric condensation nuclei. Here, pollenkitt-mediated adhesion of sunflower pollen to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of humidity. The results quantify for the first time the significant water absorption of pollenkitt and the resulting complex dependence of adhesion on humidity. On hydrophilic Si, adhesion increased with increasing RH for pollens with or without pollenkitt, up to 200nN at 70% RH. In contrast, on hydrophobic PS, adhesion of pollenkitt-free pollen is independent of RH. Surprisingly, when pollenkitt was present adhesion forces on hydrophobic PS first increased with RH up to a maximum value at 35% RH (∼160nN), and then decreased with further increases in RH. Independent measurement of pollenkitt properties is used with models of capillary adhesion to show that humidity-dependent changes in pollenkitt wetting and viscosity are responsible for this complex adhesion behavior.

  17. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  18. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in Zadar County, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Skitarelić, Natasa; Mazzi, Antun; Skitarelić, Neven; Misulić, Josko; Vuletić, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most common respiratory allergens in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in the County of Zadar. The study included 671 patients with pollen allergy; 61 % were male and 39 % female. 53.5 % were children aged from 4 to 14 years and 46.5 % adolescents and adults from 15 to 59 years. We took their case history, clinically examined them, and tested using the skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test. Hypersensitivity to Olea europea pollen was confirmed in 8.8 % patients with pollen allergy. Among them, the most prevalent symptom was rhinitis (58 %). Most hypersensitive patients were urban residents. Only 3 % patients lived on an island. Judging by available data, our findings show the lowest hypersensitivity to olive pollen in the Mediterranean. A comparison with our two earlier studies did not show any fluctuation in this kind of hypersensitivity.

  19. The revised edition of korean calendar for allergenic pollens.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Kang, Im-Joo; Kim, Seong-Won; Park, Kang-Seo; Kook, Myung-Hee; Kim, Bong-Seong; Baek, Hey-Sung; Kim, Joo-Hwa; Kim, Ja-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyu-Rang; Choi, Young-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The old calendar of pollens did not reflect current pollen distribution and concentrations that can be influenced by changes of weather and environment of each region in South Korea. A new pollen calendar of allergenic pollens was made based on the data on pollen concentrations obtained in eight regions nationwide between 1997 and 2009. The distribution of pollen was assessed every day at 8 areas (Seoul, Guri, Busan, Daegu, Jeonju, Kwangju, Kangneung, and Jeju) for 12 years between July 1, 1997 and June 30, 2009. Pollens were collected by using Burkard 7-day sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co Ltd, UK). Pollens which were stained with Calberla's fuchsin staining solution were identified and counted. Pine became the highest pollen in May, and the pollen concentrations of oak and birch also became high. Ragweed appeared in the middle of August and showed the highest pollen concentration in the middles of September. Japanese hop showed a high concentration between the middle of August and the end of September, and mugwort appeared in the middles of August and its concentration increased up until early September. In Kangneung, birch appeared earlier, pine showed a higher pollen concentration than in the other areas. In Daegu, Oriental thuja and alder produced a large concentration of pollens. Pine produced a large concentration of pollens between the middle of April and the end of May. Weeds showed higher concentrations in September and mugwort appeared earlier than ragweed. In Busan the time of flowering is relatively early, and alder and Oriental thuja appeared earliest among all areas. In Kwangju, Oriental thuja and hazelnut appeared in early February. Japanese cedar showed the highest pollen concentration in March in Jeju. In conclusion, update information on pollen calendar in South Korea should be provided for allergic patients through the website to manage and prevent the pollinosis.

  20. Modern pollen deposition in Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beuning, Kristina R.M.; Fransen, Lindsey; Nakityo, Berna; Mecray, Ellen L.; Bucholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.

    2000-01-01

    Palynological analyses of 20 surface sediment samples collected from Long Island Sound show a pollen assemblage dominated by Carya, Betula, Pinus, Quercus, Tsuga, and Ambrosia, as is consistent with the regional vegetation. No trends in relative abundance of these pollen types occur either from west to east or associated with modern riverine inputs throughout the basin. Despite the large-scale, long-term removal of fine-grained sediment from winnowed portions of the eastern Sound, the composition of the pollen and spore component of the sedimentary matrix conforms to a basin-wide homogeneous signal. These results strongly support the use of select regional palynological boundaries as chronostratigraphic tools to provide a framework for interpretation of the late glacial and Holocene history of the Long Island Sound basin sediments.

  1. Pollen Biology of Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp. J. Koenig)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved in vitro pollen germination assay was developed to assess the viability of stored Hedychium pollen. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (10, 15, and 20% w/v) on pollen germination and tube growth was evaluated for H. longicornutum and two commercial Hedychium cultivars, ‘Orange Brush...

  2. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunderson, Landon D.; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  3. Identification of two highly specific pollen promoters using transcriptomic data.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Strale, Daniela; León, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    The mature pollen grain displays a highly specialized function in angiosperms. Accordingly, the male gametophyte development involves many specific biological activities, making it a complex and unique process in plants. In order to accomplish this, during pollen development, a massive transcriptomic remodeling takes place, indicating the switch from a sporophytic to a gametophytic program and involving the expression of many pollen specific genes. Using microarray databases we selected genes showing pollen-specific accumulation of their mRNAs and confirmed this through RT-PCR. We selected five genes (POLLEN SPECIFIC GENE1-5) to investigate the pollen specificity of their expression. Transcriptional fusions between the putative promoters of these genes and the uidA reporter gene in Arabidopsis confirmed the pollen specific expression for at least two of these genes. The expression of the cytotoxin Barnase controlled by these promoters generated pollen specific ablation and male sterility. Through the selection of pollen specific genes from public datasets, we were able to identify promoter regions that confer pollen expression. The use of the cytotoxin Barnase allowed us to demonstrate its expression is exclusively limited to the pollen. These new promoters provide a powerful tool for the expression of genes exclusively in pollen.

  4. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species.

    PubMed

    Bunderson, Landon D; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  5. 7 CFR 201.78 - Pollen control for hybrids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pollen control for hybrids. 201.78 Section 201.78... REGULATIONS Additional Requirements for the Certification of Plant Materials of Certain Crops § 201.78 Pollen... branches, or any combination thereof, shedding pollen. (c) Sorghum. Shedders in the seed parent, at any...

  6. 7 CFR 201.78 - Pollen control for hybrids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pollen control for hybrids. 201.78 Section 201.78... REGULATIONS Additional Requirements for the Certification of Plant Materials of Certain Crops § 201.78 Pollen... branches, or any combination thereof, shedding pollen. (c) Sorghum. Shedders in the seed parent, at any...

  7. 7 CFR 201.78 - Pollen control for hybrids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pollen control for hybrids. 201.78 Section 201.78... REGULATIONS Additional Requirements for the Certification of Plant Materials of Certain Crops § 201.78 Pollen... branches, or any combination thereof, shedding pollen. (c) Sorghum. Shedders in the seed parent, at any...

  8. 7 CFR 201.78 - Pollen control for hybrids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pollen control for hybrids. 201.78 Section 201.78... REGULATIONS Additional Requirements for the Certification of Plant Materials of Certain Crops § 201.78 Pollen... branches, or any combination thereof, shedding pollen. (c) Sorghum. Shedders in the seed parent, at any...

  9. 7 CFR 201.78 - Pollen control for hybrids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pollen control for hybrids. 201.78 Section 201.78... REGULATIONS Additional Requirements for the Certification of Plant Materials of Certain Crops § 201.78 Pollen... branches, or any combination thereof, shedding pollen. (c) Sorghum. Shedders in the seed parent, at any...

  10. Effects of NO2 and Ozone on Pollen Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Ulrike; Ernst, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes the available data of the air pollutants NO2 and ozone on allergenic pollen from different plant species, focusing on potentially allergenic components of the pollen, such as allergen content, protein release, IgE-binding, or protein modification. Various in vivo and in vitro studies on allergenic pollen are shown and discussed. PMID:26870080

  11. Aerodynamics of saccate pollen and its implications for wind pollination.

    PubMed

    Schwendemann, Andrew B; Wang, George; Mertz, Meredith L; McWilliams, Ryan T; Thatcher, Scott L; Osborn, Jeffrey M

    2007-08-01

    Pollen grains of many wind-pollinated plants contain 1-3 air-filled bladders, or sacci. Sacci are thought to help orient the pollen grain in the pollination droplet. Sacci also increase surface area of the pollen grain, yet add minimal mass, thereby increasing dispersal distance; however, this aerodynamic hypothesis has not been tested in a published study. Using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, mathematical modeling, and the saccate pollen of three extant conifers with structurally different pollen grains (Pinus, Falcatifolium, Dacrydium), we developed a computational model to investigate pollen flight. The model calculates terminal settling velocity based on structural characters of the pollen grain, including lengths, widths, and depths of the main body and sacci; angle of saccus rotation; and thicknesses of the saccus wall, endoreticulations, intine, and exine. The settling speeds predicted by the model were empirically validated by stroboscopic photography. This study is the first to quantitatively demonstrate the adaptive significance of sacci for the aerodynamics of wind pollination. Modeling pollen both with and without sacci indicated that sacci can reduce pollen settling speeds, thereby increasing dispersal distance, with the exception of pollen grains having robust endoreticulations and those with thick saccus walls. Furthermore, because the mathematical model is based on structural characters and error propagation methods show that the model yields valid results when sample sizes are small, the flight dynamics of fossil pollen can be investigated. Several fossils were studied, including bisaccate (Pinus, Pteruchus, Caytonanthus), monosaccate (Gothania), and nonsaccate (Monoletes) pollen types.

  12. Glutathione synthesis is essential for pollen germination in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The antioxidant glutathione fulfills many important roles during plant development, growth and defense in the sporophyte, however the role of this important molecule in the gametophyte generation is largely unclear. Bioinformatic data indicate that critical control enzymes are negligibly transcribed in pollen and sperm cells. Therefore, we decided to investigate the role of glutathione synthesis for pollen germination in vitro in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 and in the glutathione deficient mutant pad2-1 and link it with glutathione status on the subcellular level. Results The depletion of glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, reduced pollen germination rates to 2-5% compared to 71% germination in wildtype controls. The application of reduced glutathione (GSH), together with BSO, restored pollen germination and glutathione contents to control values, demonstrating that inhibition of glutathione synthesis is responsible for the decrease of pollen germination in vitro. The addition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to media containing BSO restored pollen germination to control values, which demonstrated that glutathione depletion in pollen grains triggered disturbances in auxin metabolism which led to inhibition of pollen germination. Conclusions This study demonstrates that glutathione synthesis is essential for pollen germination in vitro and that glutathione depletion and auxin metabolism are linked in pollen germination and early elongation of the pollen tube, as IAA addition rescues glutathione deficient pollen. PMID:21439079

  13. Diversity and conservation in maize pollen: Phenotypes and transcripts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addition to its crucial role in seed production, pollen serves as a vector for gene flow between plant populations. Recently, pollen was identified as a mechanism for introduction of transgenes into non-transgenic populations. To investigate the genetic basis for pollen fitn...

  14. Pollen Germination--A Challenging and Educational Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, H. L. H.; Chan, G. Y. S.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes the recent research on pollen germination and introduces some basic studies on pollen tube growth that can be conducted in a secondary school laboratory. Discusses the use of a light microscope and refrigerator to study pollen. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... period. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) Growing chickens—(a.... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... period. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) Growing chickens—(a.... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  17. Tablet PCs: A Physical Educator's New Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Computers in education have come a long way from the abacus of 5,000 years ago to the desktop and laptop computers of today. Computers have transformed the educational environment, and with each new iteration of smaller and more powerful machines come additional advantages for teaching practices. The Tablet PC is one. Tablet PCs are fully…

  18. Enhancing Student Performance Using Tablet Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Amelito G.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet PCs have the potential to change the dynamics of classroom interaction through wireless communication coupled with pen-based computing technology that is suited for analyzing and solving engineering problems. This study focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive…

  19. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  1. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. It is used as an aid in the removal of tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis and... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets....

  2. 21 CFR 520.2330 - Sulfisoxazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer one tablet... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfisoxazole tablets. 520.2330 Section 520.2330... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2330 Sulfisoxazole...

  3. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. It is used as an aid in the removal of tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets....

  4. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2330 - Sulfisoxazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer one tablet... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfisoxazole tablets. 520.2330 Section 520.2330... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2330 Sulfisoxazole...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2330 - Sulfisoxazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer one tablet... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfisoxazole tablets. 520.2330 Section 520.2330... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2330 Sulfisoxazole...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  8. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. It is used as an aid in the removal of tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis and... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets....

  9. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2330 - Sulfisoxazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer one tablet... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfisoxazole tablets. 520.2330 Section 520.2330... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2330 Sulfisoxazole...

  11. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. It is used as an aid in the removal of tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis and... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets....

  12. Transforming the Classroom With Tablet Technology.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Lana; Miles, Elizabeth

    Identifying the most effective models for integrating new technology into the classroom and understanding its effects on educational outcomes are essential for nurse educators. This article describes an educational intervention with tablet technology (iPads) using an innovative case-based learning model in a nursing program. Students reported positive learning outcomes when using the tablet technology for learning course content.

  13. How Tablets Are Utilized in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditzler, Christine; Hong, Eunsook; Strudler, Neal

    2016-01-01

    New technologies are a large part of the educational landscape in the 21st century. Emergent technologies are implemented in the classroom at an exponential rate. The newest technology to be added to the daily classroom is the tablet computer. Understanding students' and teachers' perceptions about the role of tablet computers is important as this…

  14. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  15. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  16. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  17. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  18. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets....

  19. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets....

  20. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets....

  1. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets....

  2. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnidazole tablets. 520.312 Section 520.312 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.312 Carnidazole tablets....

  3. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cefpodoxime tablets. 520.370 Section 520.370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets....

  4. Putting Tablet PCs to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirian, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Like many educators, the author and her colleagues (five faculty members and two IT techs) in the department of Media Communications and Technology at East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania were interested to find out the status of tablet PCs in education. Microsoft listed 10 manufacturers of tablet PCs following two forms: the slate and the…

  5. Pollen rain and subfossil pollen spectra of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Eastern Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolunchukova, M.; Savelieva, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Palynological analysis is commonly used for the vegetation and climatic reconstructions. It is known that there are many factors influenced on pollen spectra formation and it is necessary to study in detail the modern spectra from the investigated area which form interpretation base of fossil samples. In July 2010, during the expedition to the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Western Tuva, the Altai Mountains) the collections of modern surface samples from diverse plant communities were made to depict the present-day pollen rain. For this purpose a longitudinal profile at the altitudes of 2300-3100 m was laid. The detailed geobotanical descriptions on each sampling site were made. Soil samples were taken from 1.5 cm depth and catching of pollen rain was carrying out on glass plates in an area of 108 cm2. A total of 9 samples were treated for pollen analysis, pollen residues mounted in glycerin were analyzed under the microscope. The interpretation of the pollen and spores was performed using pollen atlases and pollen diagrams were made. All samples are distorted by strange pollen of arboreal. The Pinus pollen content varies between 20% and 80%. Single grains of Piceae, Alnus, Alnuster are found. Some non-arboreal pollen like Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae is presented in all spectra, their abundance varies between 1-20 %. Although this species grow within researching area, they are found not in all described vegetative associations. Connection between projective cover of local species and strange pollen's participation in spectra formation is found: low projective cover causes less pollen production and amount of strange pollen (generally arboreal) increases. Domination of some local species is not reflected by their pollen assemblages. For example abundance of Larix pollen (the main arboreal species within researching area) reaches only 2%, and grains of Dryas are not found at all. It can be explained by bad safety and volatility of their grains. So even single

  6. Hive-stored pollen of honey bees: many lines of evidence are consistent with pollen preservation, not nutrient conversion

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kirk E; Carroll, Mark J; Sheehan, Tim; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee hives are filled with stored pollen, honey, plant resins and wax, all antimicrobial to differing degrees. Stored pollen is the nutritionally rich currency used for colony growth and consists of 40–50% simple sugars. Many studies speculate that prior to consumption by bees, stored pollen undergoes long-term nutrient conversion, becoming more nutritious ‘bee bread’ as microbes predigest the pollen. We quantified both structural and functional aspects associated with this hypothesis using behavioural assays, bacterial plate counts, microscopy and 454 amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both newly collected and hive-stored pollen. We found that bees preferentially consume fresh pollen stored for <3 days. Newly collected pollen contained few bacteria, values which decreased significantly as pollen were stored >96 h. The estimated microbe to pollen grain surface area ratio was 1:1 000 000 indicating a negligible effect of microbial metabolism on hive-stored pollen. Consistent with these findings, hive-stored pollen grains did not appear compromised according to microscopy. Based on year round 454 amplicon sequencing, bacterial communities of newly collected and hive-stored pollen did not differ, indicating the lack of an emergent microbial community co-evolved to digest stored pollen. In accord with previous culturing and 16S cloning, acid resistant and osmotolerant bacteria like Lactobacillus kunkeei were found in greatest abundance in stored pollen, consistent with the harsh character of this microenvironment. We conclude that stored pollen is not evolved for microbially mediated nutrient conversion, but is a preservative environment due primarily to added honey, nectar, bee secretions and properties of pollen itself. PMID:25319366

  7. Pollen Lipidomics: Lipid Profiling Exposes a Notable Diversity in 22 Allergenic Pollen and Potential Biomarkers of the Allergic Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Lui, Jan Hsi; Palnivelu, Ravishankar; Naclerio, Robert M.; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. Conclusions/Significance Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Pollen

  8. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  9. Smartphones and tablets: Reshaping radiation oncologists’ lives

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Iturriaga, Alfonso; Bilbao, Pedro; Casquero, Francisco; Cacicedo, Jon; Crook, Juanita

    2012-01-01

    Background Smartphones and tablets are new handheld devices always connected to an information source and capable of providing instant updates, they allow doctors to access the most updated information and provide decision support at the point of care. Aim The practice of radiation oncology has always been a discipline that relies on advanced technology. Smartphones provide substantial processing power, incorporating innovative user interfaces and applications. Materials and methods The most popular smartphone and tablet app stores were searched for “radiation oncology” and “oncology” related apps. A web search was also performed searching for smartphones, tablets, oncology, radiology and radiation oncology. Results Smartphones and tablets allow rapid access to information in the form of podcasts, apps, protocols, reference texts, recent research and more. Conclusion With the rapidly changing advances in radiation oncology, the trend toward accessing resources via smartphones and tablets will only increase, future will show if this technology will improve clinical care. PMID:24669308

  10. Pollen season and climate: is the timing of birch pollen release in the UK approaching its limit?

    PubMed

    Newnham, R M; Sparks, T H; Skjøth, C A; Head, K; Adams-Groom, B; Smith, M

    2013-05-01

    In light of heightened interest in the response of pollen phenology to temperature, we investigated recent changes to the onset of Betula (birch) pollen seasons in central and southern England, including a test of predicted advancement of the Betula pollen season for London. We calculated onset of birch pollen seasons using daily airborne pollen data obtained at London, Plymouth and Worcester, determined trends in the start of the pollen season and compared timing of the birch pollen season with observed temperature patterns for the period 1995-2010. We found no overall change in the onset of birch pollen in the study period although there was evidence that the response to temperature was nonlinear and that a lower asymptotic start of the pollen season may exist. The start of the birch pollen season was strongly correlated with March mean temperature. These results reinforce previous findings showing that the timing of the birch pollen season in the UK is particularly sensitive to spring temperatures. The climate relationship shown here persists over both longer decadal-scale trends and shorter, seasonal trends as well as during periods of 'sign-switching' when cooler spring temperatures result in later start dates. These attributes, combined with the wide geographical coverage of airborne pollen monitoring sites, some with records extending back several decades, provide a powerful tool for the detection of climate change impacts, although local site factors and the requirement for winter chilling may be confounding factors.

  11. Climate warming and the decline of Taxus airborne pollen in urban pollen rain (Emilia Romagna, northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Mercuri, A M; Torri, P; Casini, E; Olmi, L

    2013-01-01

    Woody plant performance in a changing global environment has always been at the centre of palaeoenvironmental and long-term climate reconstructions carried out by means of pollen analysis. In Mediterranean regions, Taxus constitutes the highest percentage in past pollen diagrams from cold or cool periods, and therefore it is generally considered a good index to infer climate features from past records. However, a comparison of these inferences with the true current trends in pollen production has not been attemped until now. This study reports the decline of airborne pollen of Taxus observed in Emilia Romagna, a region of northern Italy, during the period 1990-2007. Phenological observations on four male specimens and microscopic examination of fresh pollen were made in order to check Taxus flowering time and pollen morphology. Airborne pollen was monitored through continuous sampling with a Hirst volumetric sampler. In the 18-year long period of investigation, Taxus pollen production has decreased, while total woody pollen abundance in air has increased. The trend of the Taxus pollen season shows a delay at the beginning, a shortening of the pollen period, and an advance of the end of the pollen season. This was interpreted as a response to climate warming. In particular, Taxus follows the behaviour of winter-flowering plants, and therefore earlier pollination is favoured at low autumn temperatures, while late pollination occurs more often, most likely after warm autumn temperatures.

  12. Phase transformation in thiamine hydrochloride tablets: Influence on tablet microstructure, physical properties, and performance.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Paroma; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Govindarajan, Ramprakash

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this article was to monitor phase transformation in thiamine hydrochloride, from a nonstoichiometric hydrate (NSH) to a hemihydrate (HH), in stored tablets, prepared both by direct compression and wet granulation, and to relate the storage-induced phase transformation with changes in tablet microstructure, physical properties, and performance. Raman spectroscopy revealed complete NSH → HH transformation in tablets, within 30 h of storage at 40°C/75% relative humidity. When the tablets were prepared by wet granulation of NSH alone, there was a marked increase in both tablet volume and hardness on storage. However, when microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was included in granulation, the resulting stored tablets also exhibited a pronounced increase in disintegration time. In contrast, tablets prepared by dry processing via compression of a NSH-MCC physical mixture did not exhibit any changes in properties, despite the in situ solid form conversion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed growth of needle-like HH crystals in all stored tablets and mercury porosimetry revealed considerable changes in the pore size distribution during storage. Longer storage led to crystal growth (Ostwald ripening), causing further gradual but less dramatic changes in properties. The phase transformation and the complex interparticulate associations in the tablet influenced the changes in tablet microstructure, compact physical properties, and product behavior.

  13. Xylan--a possible filler and disintegrant for tablets.

    PubMed

    Juslin, M; Paronen, P

    1984-04-01

    Xylan, a novel possible adjuvant for tablets was tested and compared with modified starch, Sta-Rx 1500, for weight variation, strength and disintegration of tablets. There was no remarkable difference in weight variation between the tablets of the corresponding compositions. The tablets containing xylan were stronger and disintegrated more rapidly than those containing modified starch.

  14. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lb: use the appropriate combination of tablets. (2) Indications for use. Prevents canine heartworm... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1)...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) as in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (2) Nos. 051311 and 059130 for use of tablets... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lb: use the appropriate combination of tablets. (2) Indications for use. Prevents canine heartworm... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1)...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lb: use the appropriate combination of tablets. (2) Indications for use. Prevents canine heartworm... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1)...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) as in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (2) Nos. 051311 and 059130 for use of tablets... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272...

  1. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats for reducing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section... Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet...

  2. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats for reducing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section... Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) as in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (2) Nos. 051311 and 059130 for use of tablets... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide 6... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains...

  5. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats for reducing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section... Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... paragraph (a)(2) as in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (2) Nos. 051311 and 059130 for use of tablets... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section... tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or 272...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Administer tablets to provide 6... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains...

  8. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is used in dogs and cats for reducing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section... Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg), or...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or...

  11. Pollen tetrads in the detection of environmental mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Although pollen is a very sensitive indicator of environmental mutagenesis, it is also sensitive to nonmutagenic environmental stress. By analyzing pollen tetrads, rather than individual pollen grains, it is possible to distinguish between mutagenic and nonmutagenic influences. Another advantage of using pollen tetrads in mutagenicity studies is that it is possible to discriminate between pre- and post-pachytene mutations. This eliminates the mutant sector problem of a single mutational event giving rise to a large number of mutant cells. Methods of analyzing pollen tetrads are described.

  12. [Allergic disease--pollen allergy and climate change].

    PubMed

    Sommer, Janne; Plaschke, Peter; Poulsen, Lars K

    2009-10-26

    Pollen allergy currently affects a fifth of the population. A warmer climate will lead to a longer pollen season and more days with high pollen counts. In addition, a warmer climate increases the risk of proliferation of new plants with well-known allergenic pollens like ragweed, plane tree and wall pellitory, which have not previously caused allergy in Denmark. The consequences will be more people with hay fever and pollen asthma, longer allergy seasons and an increase in the severity of symptoms, disease-related costs and demands on health care for diagnosis and treatment of more complex allergies.

  13. Extensive Pollen Flow but Few Pollen Donors and High Reproductive Variance in an Extremely Fragmented Landscape

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Aparicio, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Analysing pollen movement is a key to understanding the reproductive system of plant species and how it is influenced by the spatial distribution of potential mating partners in fragmented populations. Here we infer parameters related to levels of pollen movement and diversity of the effective pollen cloud for the wind-pollinated shrub Pistacia lentiscus across a highly disturbed landscape using microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis and the indirect KinDist and Mixed Effect Mating models were used to assess mating patterns, the pollen dispersal kernel, the effective number of males (Nep) and their relative individual fertility, as well as the existence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in adult plants. All methods showed extensive pollen movement, with high rates of pollen flow from outside the study site (up to 73–93%), fat-tailed dispersal kernels and large average pollination distances (δ = 229–412 m). However, they also agreed in detecting very few pollen donors (Nep = 4.3–10.2) and a large variance in their reproductive success: 70% of males did not sire any offspring among the studied female plants and 5.5% of males were responsible for 50% of pollinations. Although we did not find reduced levels of genetic diversity, the adult population showed high levels of biparental inbreeding (14%) and strong spatial genetic structure (Sp = 0.012), probably due to restricted seed dispersal and scarce safe sites for recruitment. Overall, limited seed dispersal and the scarcity of successful pollen donors can be contributing to generate local pedigrees and to increase inbreeding, the prelude of genetic impoverishment. PMID:23152842

  14. Temporal variability in airborne pollen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Raynor, G S; Hayes, J V; Ogden, E C

    1976-06-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the relationship between concentrations of airborne pollens and sampling time, using sequential rotoslide samplers at urban and rural locations. Short-period data showed an increase in variability with time between samples. Two-hour data showed a stronger trend for the first 12 hours but better agreement as the time between samples approached one day.

  15. The Beauty and Biology of Pollen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay-Poole, Scott T.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes: basic features of pollen grains (shapes, apertures, layering of wall, exine sculpturing); strategies for pollination (anemophily--wind transported, zoophily--animal transported); and the structures specialized for each process. Gives instructions for using scanning electron microscope photographs and for collecting, identifying, and…

  16. Pollen analyses of tarnished plant bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild host plants play an important role for tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris, especially when cultivated crops are not flowering. Knowledge of native habitats is important for managing this insect pest. Although pollen has been used to characterize dispersal and food sources of many inse...

  17. Towards a street-level pollen concentration and exposure forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Michiel; Krol, Maarten; van Vliet, Arnold; Heuvelink, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pollen are an increasing source of nuisance for people in industrialised countries and are associated with significant cost of medication and sick leave. Citizen pollen warnings are often based on emission mapping based on local temperature sum approaches or on long-range atmospheric model approaches. In practise, locally observed pollen may originate from both local sources (plants in streets and gardens) and from long-range transport. We argue that making this distinction is relevant because the diurnal and spatial variation in pollen concentrations is much larger for pollen from local sources than for pollen from long-range transport due to boundary layer processes. This may have an important impact on exposure of citizens to pollen and on mitigation strategies. However, little is known about the partitioning of pollen into local and long-range origin categories. Our objective is to study how the concentrations of pollen from different sources vary temporally and spatially, and how the source region influences exposure and mitigation strategies. We built a Hay Fever Forecast system (HFF) based on WRF-chem, Allergieradar.nl, and geo-statistical downscaling techniques. HFF distinguishes between local (individual trees) and regional sources (based on tree distribution maps). We show first results on how the diurnal variation of pollen concentrations depends on source proximity. Ultimately, we will compare the model with local pollen counts, patient nuisance scores and medicine use.

  18. Allergenic pollen in the atmosphere of Kayseri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ince, Ali; Kart, Levent; Demir, Ramazan; Ozyurt, M Sabri

    2004-01-01

    Airborne pollen are important allergens that cause sensitization in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Our aim was to detect the pollen in the atmosphere of Kayseri, to present a pollen calendar, and to detect the allergenic level of these pollen by performing skin tests on patients. Atmospheric pollen were collected by Durham gravimetric samplers in Kayseri between March and November in the years 1996 and 1997. In our study, we observed pollen belonging to 43 different taxa. The total number of pollen per cm2 was found to be 1,330.8 in 1996 and 1,182.5 in 1997. Most of the pollen were from the taxa Pinus, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae, Populus and Quercus in decreasing order. In the skin tests, pollen of the taxa Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were found to give the most frequent allergic reactions. It was concluded that preparing an airborne pollen calendar could be useful for medical practice. Nevertheless the skin test data did not really correlate with the aerobiologic data, as skin test reactivity is related to the allergenicity of the pollen and not just to ambient exposure.

  19. Considerations About Pollen Used for the Production of Allergen Extracts.

    PubMed

    Codina, Rosa; Crenshaw, Rodger C; Lockey, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a biological product obtained to manufacture tree, weed, and grass allergen extracts, used to diagnose and treat allergies. Genetic and environmental factors affect the composition of pollen, e.g., the plant varieties from which pollen are obtained, weather, and levels of air pollution during plant growth. Therefore, appropriate guidelines and training of personnel to perform the activities associated with pollen are essential to produce appropriate allergen extracts. Various regulatory institutions, which vary in different countries, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, control how such products should be produced. For example, the FDA regulates the manufacturing of pollen extracts but not the quality of the pollen used to prepare them, relying on each manufacturer to set its own standards to do so. To the contrary, European regulatory agencies, including the European Medicines Agency, control both the quality of the pollen and the manufacturing process to produce pollen extracts. Regulatory agencies, allergen manufacturers, scientific institutions, and pollen collection entities should collaborate to develop and implement guidelines appropriate for worldwide use for both the collection and processing of pollen raw materials. This article provides an overview of the subject of pollen for use in allergen extracts.

  20. Impedance Flow Cytometry: A Novel Technique in Pollen Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lambalk, Joep; Ottiger, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has developed into a common method for cellular characterisation in microbiology and medicine during the last decade. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of IFC in plant cell analysis with the focus on pollen. Method Developing and mature pollen grains were analysed during their passage through a microfluidic chip to which radio frequencies of 0.5 to 12 MHz were applied. The acquired data provided information about the developmental stage, viability, and germination capacity. The biological relevance of the acquired IFC data was confirmed by classical staining methods, inactivation controls, as well as pollen germination assays. Results Different stages of developing pollen, dead, viable and germinating pollen populations could be detected and quantified by IFC. Pollen viability analysis by classical FDA staining showed a high correlation with IFC data. In parallel, pollen with active germination potential could be discriminated from the dead and the viable but non-germinating population. Conclusion The presented data demonstrate that IFC is an efficient, label-free, reliable and non-destructive technique to analyse pollen quality in a species-independent manner. PMID:27832091

  1. Pollen processing behavior of Heliconius butterflies: a derived grooming behavior.

    PubMed

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles.

  2. Pollen viability and transgene expression following storage in honey.

    PubMed

    Eady, C; Twell, D; Lindsey, K

    1995-07-01

    Transgenic plants of tobacco and Arabidopsis that produce genetically marked pollen, expressing the reporter gene uidA (gusA), were generated to determine whether pollen proteins can be expressed and stable in honey, a potential route by which foreign proteins might enter the wider environment. Hydrated tobacco pollen was found to lose viability rapidly in honey, while pollen in the natural dehydrated form remained viable for at least several days and in some cases several weeks, as determined by FDA staining activity and germinability. Dehydrated pollen was found to be capable of transient foreign gene expression, following microprojectile bombardment, after incubation in honey for at least 120 h. PCR amplification of transgene sequences in pollen of transgenic plants revealed that pollen DNA can remain relatively intact after 7 weeks in honey. GUS enzyme activity analysis and SDS-PAGE of pollen proteins revealed that foreign and native pollen proteins are stable in pollen incubated in honey for at least 6 weeks. We conclude that pollen may represent an ecologically important vector for transgenic protein products.

  3. Proteomic analyses of apoplastic proteins from germinating Arabidopsis thaliana pollen.

    PubMed

    Ge, Weina; Song, Yun; Zhang, Cuijun; Zhang, Yafang; Burlingame, Alma L; Guo, Yi

    2011-12-01

    Pollen grains play important roles in the reproductive processes of flowering plants. The roles of apoplastic proteins in pollen germination and in pollen tube growth are comparatively less well understood. To investigate the functions of apoplastic proteins in pollen germination, the global apoplastic proteins of mature and germinated Arabidopsis thaliana pollen grains were prepared for differential analyses by using 2-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) saturation labeling techniques. One hundred and three proteins differentially expressed (p value≤0.01) in pollen germinated for 6h compared with un-germination mature pollen, and 98 spots, which represented 71 proteins, were identified by LC-MS/MS. By bioinformatics analysis, 50 proteins were identified as secreted proteins. These proteins were mainly involved in cell wall modification and remodeling, protein metabolism and signal transduction. Three of the differentially expressed proteins were randomly selected to determine their subcellular localizations by transiently expressing YFP fusion proteins. The results of subcellular localization were identical with the bioinformatics prediction. Based on these data, we proposed a model for apoplastic proteins functioning in pollen germination and pollen tube growth. These results will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of pollen germination and pollen tube growth.

  4. Mismatch in aeroallergens and airborne grass pollen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Galán, C.

    2016-11-01

    An accurate estimation of the allergen concentration in the atmosphere is essential for allergy sufferers. The major cause of pollinosis all over Europe is due to grass pollen and Phl p 5 has the highest rates of sensitization (>50%) in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy. However, recent research has shown that airborne pollen does not always offer a clear indicator of exposure to aeroallergens. This study aims to evaluate relations between airborne grass pollen and Phl p 5 concentrations in Córdoba (southern Spain) and to study how meteorological parameters influence these atmospheric records. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Hirst-type volumetric spore trap was used for pollen collection, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA). Aeroallergen sampling was performed using a low-volume cyclone sampler, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Besides, the influence of main meteorological factors on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was surveyed. A significant correlation was observed between grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations during the pollen season, but with some sporadic discrepancy episodes. The cumulative annual Pollen Index also varied considerably. A significant correlation has been obtained between airborne pollen and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation, during the three studied years. However, there is no clear relationship between allergens and weather variables. Our findings suggest that the correlation between grass pollen and aeroallergen Phl p 5 concentrations varies from year-to-year probably related to a complex interplay of meteorological variables.

  5. Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

    2012-06-01

    The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions.

  6. Specific immunotherapy for common grass pollen allergies: pertinence of a five grass pollen vaccine.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Hrabina, Maud; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Jaeger, Siegfried; Frati, Franco; Bordas, Véronique; Peltre, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Patients throughout Europe are concomitantly exposed to multiple pollens from distinct Pooideae species. Given the overlap in pollination calendars and similar grain morphology, it is not possible to identify which grass species are present in the environment from pollen counts. Furthermore, neither serum IgE reactivity nor skin prick testing allow the identification of which grass species are involved in patient sensitisation. Due to their high level of amino acid sequence homology (e.g., >90% for group 1, 55-80% for group 5), significant cross-immunogenicity is observed between allergens from Pooideae pollens. Nevertheless, pollen allergens also contain species-specific T or B cell epitopes, and substantial quantitative differences exist in allergen (e.g., groups 1 and 5) composition between pollens from distinct grass species. In this context, a mixture of pollens from common and well-characterised Pooideae such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis is suitable for immunotherapy purposes because (1) it has been validated, both in terms of safety and efficacy, by established clinical practice; (2) it reflects natural exposure and sensitisation conditions; (3) it ensures a consistent and well-balanced composition of critical allergens, thus extending the repertoire of T and B cell epitopes present in the vaccine.

  7. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development.

    PubMed

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A J; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Houbein, Rudolf; Mariani, Celestina; Ulvskov, Peter; Jorgensen, Bodil; Schols, Henk A; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2014-05-01

    Pectin is a complex polysaccharide and an integral part of the primary plant cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to cell wall mechanical strength and cell adhesion. To understand the structure-function relationships of pectin in the cell wall, a set of transgenic potato lines with altered pectin composition was analysed. The expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in pectin acetylation, degradation of the rhamnogalacturonan backbone and type and length of neutral side chains, arabinan and galactan in particular, has been altered. Upon crossing of different transgenic lines, some transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different developmental stages were microscopically examined to study the phenotype in more detail. Scanning electron microscopy of flowers showed collapsed pollen grains in mature anthers and in earlier stages cytoplasmic protrusions at the site of the of kin pore, eventually leading to bursting of the pollen grain and leaking of the cytoplasm. This phenomenon is only observed after the microspores are released and the tapetum starts to degenerate. Timing of the phenotype indicates a role for pectic arabinan side chains during remodelling of the cell wall when the pollen grain is maturing and dehydrating.

  8. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  9. Molecular Ice Nucleation Activity of Birch Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Bichler, Magdalena; Häusler, Thomas; Weiss, Victor U.; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation plays a major part in ecosystem and climate. Due to the triggering of ice cloud formation it influences the radiation balance of the earth, but also on the ground it can be found to be important in many processes of nature. So far the process of heterogeneous ice nucleation is not fully understood and many questions remain to be answered. Biological ice nucleation is hereby from great interest, because it shows the highest freezing temperatures. Several bacteria and fungi act as ice nuclei. A famous example is Pseudomonas syringae, a bacterium in commercial use (Snomax®), which increases the freezing from homogeneous freezing temperatures of approx. -40° C (for small volumes as in cloud droplets) to temperatures up to -2° C. In 2001 it was found that birch pollen can trigger ice nucleation (Diehl et al. 2001; Diehl et al. 2002). For a long time it was believed that this is due to macroscopic features of the pollen surface. Recent findings of Bernhard Pummer (2012) show a different picture. The ice nuclei are not attached on the pollen surface directly, but on surface material which can be easily washed off. This shows that not only the surface morphology, but also specific molecules or molecular structures are responsible for the ice nucleation activity of birch pollen. With various analytic methods we work on elucidating the structure of these molecules as well as the mechanism with which they trigger ice nucleation. To solve this we use various instrumental analytic techniques like Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and Gas-phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis (GEMMA). Also standard techniques like various chromatographic separation techniques and solvent extraction are in use. We state here that this feature might be due to the aggregation of small molecules, with agglomerates showing a specific surface structure. Our results

  10. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ∼0.3 THz to ∼10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  11. Variations and trends of Fagaceae pollen in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Arca, Bachisio; Vargiu, Arnoldo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze variations in the start and the end dates of pollen season, date of maximum concentration peak, pollen season duration, pollen concentration value and Seasonal Pollen Index of airborne Fagaceae pollen series recorded in Sassari, Northern Italy, and to evaluate their relation to meteorological data. Daily pollen concentration data were measured from 1986 to 2008 in a urban area of northern Sardinia (Italy) using a Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap. The date of the peak occurrence was defined as the day when the cumulated daily pollen values reached the 50 % of the total annual pollen concentration. Meteorological data were recorded during the same period by an automatic weather station. Cumulative Degree days were calculated, for each year, from different starting dates using the daily averaging method. The correlation between meteorological variables and the different characteristics of pollen seasons was analyzed using Spearman's correlation tests. In the city of Sassari the Fagaceae airborne pollen content was mainly due to Quercus. The main pollen season took place from April to June. The longest pollen season appeared in the year 2002. The cumulative counts varied over the years, with a mean value of 5,336 pollen grains, a lowest total of 550 in 1986 and a highest total of 8,678 in 2001. Daily pollen concentrations presented positive correlation with temperature, and negative with relative humidity (p<0,0001) and with rainfall. In addition, Cumulative Degree days were significantly correlated with the dates of maximum concentration peak (p<0,0001).

  12. Drought, pollen and nectar availability, and pollination success.

    PubMed

    Waser, Nickolas M; Price, Mary V

    2016-06-01

    Pollination success of animal-pollinated flowers depends on rate of pollinator visits and on pollen deposition per visit, both of which should vary with the pollen and nectar "neighborhoods" of a plant, i.e., with pollen and nectar availability in nearby plants. One determinant of these neighborhoods is per-flower production of pollen and nectar, which is likely to respond to environmental influences. In this study, we explored environmental effects on pollen and nectar production and on pollination success in order to follow up a surprising result from a previous study: flowers of Ipomopsis aggregata received less pollen in years of high visitation by their hummingbird pollinators. A new analysis of the earlier data indicated that high bird visitation corresponded to drought years. We hypothesized that drought might contribute to the enigmatic prior result if it decreases both nectar and pollen production: in dry years, low nectar availability could cause hummingbirds to visit flowers at a higher rate, and low pollen availability could cause them to deposit less pollen per visit. A greenhouse experiment demonstrated that drought does reduce both pollen and nectar production by I. aggregata flowers. This result was corroborated across 6 yr of variable precipitation and soil moisture in four unmanipulated field populations. In addition, experimental removal of pollen from flowers reduced the pollen received by nearby flowers. We conclude that there is much to learn about how abiotic and biotic environmental drivers jointly affect pollen and nectar production and availability, and how this contributes to pollen and nectar neighborhoods and thus influences pollination success.

  13. Pollination of Picea orientalis (Pinaceae): saccus morphology governs pollen.

    PubMed

    Runions, C J; Rensing, K H; Takaso, T; Owens, J N

    1999-02-01

    Sacci of conifer pollen do not function primarily to increase the efficiency of wind pollination as is widely thought. Rather, they are bladders and cause pollen to float upwards in a liquid drop into the ovules. This observation is seemingly unsupported in the case of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis (L.) Link), which has saccate pollen. Ovulate cones are pendant at the time of pollination, which requires that pollen sink into the ovules. Pollen of oriental spruce floats at first but within 1-2 min sinks into the ovule. As sinking does not occur in saccate pollen of other Pinaceae, a variety of techniques was used to determine anatomical differences leading to this uncharacteristic tendency. Light, scanning electron, and confocal microscopy of the pollen surface yielded no significant appearing difference between pollen of oriental spruce and white spruce. However, transmission electron microscopy of freeze-fixed/freeze-substituted hydrated pollen revealed that the ektexine of oriental spruce pollen sacci is porous compared to that of white spruce. Confocal microscopy allowed examination of pollen hydration dynamics. Water enters pollen at the distal pole between sacci, and resulting rapid expansion of the tube cell forces air out of the saccate space. White spruce pollen remains buoyant because of enclosed air pockets in the saccus ektexine. Evolutionary change in pollen wall anatomy with resultant loss of saccus function is correlated with a change in ovulate strobilus orientation at pollination in oriental spruce. A suite of characters interact in the conifer pollination mechanism, and concerted change in these characters may lead to speciation.

  14. Comparison of the halving of tablets prepared with eccentric and rotary tablet presses.

    PubMed

    Sovány, T; Kása, P; Pintye-Hódi, K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the densification of powder mixtures on eccentric and rotary tablet presses and to establish relationships with the halving properties of the resulting scored tablets. This is an important problem because the recent guidelines of EU require verification of the equal masses of tablet halves. The models of Walker, Heckel, and Kawakita were used to describe the powder densification on the two machines. The calculated parameters revealed that the shorter compression cycle of rotary machines results in poorer densification and lower tablet hardness at a given compression force. This is manifested in poorer halving properties, which are influenced mainly by the hardness. Better densification improves the halving even at lower tablet hardness. This demonstrates that these parameters can be good predictors of tablet halving properties.

  15. Assessment of pollen reward and pollen availability in Solanum stramoniifolium and Solanum paniculatum for buzz-pollinating carpenter bees.

    PubMed

    Burkart, A; Schlindwein, C; Lunau, K

    2014-03-01

    The two widespread tropical Solanum species S. paniculatum and S. stramoniifolium are highly dependent on the visits of large bees that pollinate the flowers while buzzing them. Both Solanum species do not offer nectar reward; the rewarding of bees is thus solely dependent on the availability of pollen. Flower visitors are unable to visually assess the amount of pollen, because the pollen is hidden in poricidal anthers. In this study we ask whether and how the amount of pollen determines the attractiveness of flowers for bees. The number of pollen grains in anthers of S. stramoniifolium was seven times higher than in S. paniculatum. By contrast, the handling time per five flowers for carpenter bees visiting S. paniculatum was 3.5 times shorter than of those visiting S. stramoniifolium. As a result foraging carpenter bees collected a similar number of pollen grains per unit time on flowers of both species. Experimental manipulation of pollen availability by gluing the anther pores showed that the carpenter bees were unable to detect the availability of pollen by means of chemical cues before landing and without buzzing. Our study shows that the efficiency of pollen collecting on S. paniculatum is based on large inflorescences with short between-flower search times and short handling time of individual flowers, whereas that of S. stramoniifolium relies on a large amount of pollen per flower. Interestingly, large carpenter bees are able to adjust their foraging behaviour to drastically different strategies of pollen reward in otherwise very similar plant species.

  16. Development of personal pollen information—the next generation of pollen information and a step forward for hay fever sufferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmenta, Maximilian; Bastl, Katharina; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Pollen allergies affect a large part of the European population and are considered likely to increase. User feedback indicates that there are difficulties in providing proper information and valid forecasts using traditional methods of aerobiology due to a variety of factors. Allergen content, pollen loads, and pollen allergy symptoms vary per region and year. The first steps in challenging such issues have already been undertaken. A personalized pollen-related symptom forecast is thought to be a possible answer. However, attempts made thus far have not led to an improvement in daily forecasting procedures. This study describes a model that was launched in 2013 in Austria to provide the first available personal pollen information. This system includes innovative forecast models using bi-hourly pollen data, traditional pollen forecasts based on historical data, meteorological data, and recent symptom data from the patient's hayfever diary. Furthermore, it calculates the personal symptom load in real time, in particular, the entries of the previous 5 days, to classify users. The personal pollen information was made available in Austria on the Austrian pollen information website and via a mobile pollen application, described herein for the first time. It is supposed that the inclusion of personal symptoms will lead to major improvements in pollen information concerning hay fever sufferers.

  17. Development of personal pollen information-the next generation of pollen information and a step forward for hay fever sufferers.

    PubMed

    Kmenta, Maximilian; Bastl, Katharina; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Pollen allergies affect a large part of the European population and are considered likely to increase. User feedback indicates that there are difficulties in providing proper information and valid forecasts using traditional methods of aerobiology due to a variety of factors. Allergen content, pollen loads, and pollen allergy symptoms vary per region and year. The first steps in challenging such issues have already been undertaken. A personalized pollen-related symptom forecast is thought to be a possible answer. However, attempts made thus far have not led to an improvement in daily forecasting procedures. This study describes a model that was launched in 2013 in Austria to provide the first available personal pollen information. This system includes innovative forecast models using bi-hourly pollen data, traditional pollen forecasts based on historical data, meteorological data, and recent symptom data from the patient's hayfever diary. Furthermore, it calculates the personal symptom load in real time, in particular, the entries of the previous 5 days, to classify users. The personal pollen information was made available in Austria on the Austrian pollen information website and via a mobile pollen application, described herein for the first time. It is supposed that the inclusion of personal symptoms will lead to major improvements in pollen information concerning hay fever sufferers.

  18. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  19. Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in Pollen-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis and Pollen Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis. PMID:25647395

  20. Damage-tolerance strategies for nacre tablets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Xinqiao; Li, Qiyang; Wang, Rizhi; Wang, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-01

    Nacre, a natural armor, exhibits prominent penetration resistance against predatory attacks. Unraveling its hierarchical toughening mechanisms and damage-tolerance design strategies may provide significant inspiration for the pursuit of high-performance artificial armors. In this work, relationships between the structure and mechanical performance of nacre were investigated. The results show that other than their brick-and-mortar structure, individual nacre tablets significantly contribute to the damage localization of nacre. Affected by intracrystalline organics, the tablets exhibit a unique fracture behavior. The synergistic action of the nanoscale deformation mechanisms increases the energy dissipation efficiency of the tablets and contributes to the preservation of the structural and functional integrity of the shell.

  1. In vitro Arabidopsis pollen germination and characterization of the inward potassium currents in Arabidopsis pollen grain protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Fan, L M; Wang, Y F; Wang, H; Wu, W H

    2001-08-01

    The focus of this study is to investigate the regulatory role of K(+) influx in Arabidopsis pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Using agar-containing media, in vitro methods for Arabidopsis pollen germination have been successfully established for the first time. The pollen germination percentage was nearly 75% and the average pollen tube length reached 135 microm after a 6 h incubation. A decrease in external K(+) concentration from 1 mM to 35 microM resulted in 30% inhibition of pollen germination and 40% inhibition of pollen tube growth. An increase in external K(+) concentration from 1 mM to 30 mM stimulated pollen tube growth but inhibited pollen germination. To study how K(+) influx is associated with pollen germination and tube growth, regulation of the inward K(+) channels in the pollen plasma membrane was investigated by conducting patch-clamp whole-cell recording with pollen protoplasts. K(+) currents were first identified in Arabidopsis pollen protoplasts. The inward K(+) currents were insensitive to changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) but were inhibited by a high concentration of external Ca(2+). A decrease of external Ca(2+) concentration from 10 mM (control) to 1 mM had no significant effect on the inward K(+) currents, while an increase of external Ca(2+) concentration from 10 mM to 50 mM inhibited the inward K(+) currents by 46%. Changes in external pH significantly affected the magnitude, conductance, voltage-independent maximal conductance, and activation kinetics of the inward K(+) currents. The physiological importance of potassium influx mediated by the inward K(+)-channels during Arabidopsis pollen germination and tube growth is discussed.

  2. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  3. [Allergic responses to date palm and pecan pollen in Israel].

    PubMed

    Waisel, Y; Keynan, N; Gil, T; Tayar, D; Bezerano, A; Goldberg, A; Geller-Bernstein, C; Dolev, Z; Tamir, R; Levy, I

    1994-03-15

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees are commonly planted in Israel for fruit, for shade, or as ornamental plants. Pollen grains of both species are allergenic; however, the extent of exposure to such pollen and the incidence of allergic response have not been studied here. We therefore investigated skin-test responses to pollen extracts of 12 varieties of palm and 9 of pecan in 705 allergic patients living in 3 cities and 19 rural settlements. Sensitivity to the pollen extracts of both species was much higher among residents of rural than of urban communities. Moreover, there was a definite relationship between the abundance of these trees in a region and the incidence of skin responders to their pollen. Sensitivity was frequent in settlements rich in these 2 species, such as those with nearby commercial date or pecan plantations. In general, sensitivity to date pollen extracts was lower than to pecan. However, differences in skin responses to pollen extracts of various clones were substantiated. Air sampling revealed that pollen pollution decreased considerably with distance from the trees. At approximately 100 m from a source concentrations of airborne pollen were low. Since planting of male palm and pecan trees in population centers would increase pollen pollution, it should be avoided.

  4. The Quaternary fossil-pollen record and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, E.C. . Research and Collections Center)

    1993-03-01

    Fossil pollen provide one of the most valuable records of vegetation and climate change during the recent geological past. Advantages of the fossil-pollen record are that deposits containing fossil pollen are widespread, especially in areas having natural lakes, that fossil pollen occurs in continuous stratigraphic sequences spanning millennia, and that fossil pollen occurs in quantitative assemblages permitting a multivariate approach for reconstructing past vegetation and climates. Because of stratigraphic continuity, fossil pollen records climate cycles on a wide range of scales, from annual to the 100 ka Milankovitch cycles. Receiving particular emphasis recently are decadal to century scale changes, possible from the sediments of varved lakes, and late Pleistocene events on a 5--10 ka scale possibly correlating with the Heinrich events in the North Atlantic marine record or the Dansgaard-Oeschger events in the Greenland ice-core record. Researchers have long reconstructed vegetation and climate by qualitative interpretation of the fossil-pollen record. Recently quantitative interpretation has developed with the aid of large fossil-pollen databases and sophisticated numerical models. In addition, fossil pollen are important climate proxy data for validating General Circulation Models, which are used for predicting the possible magnitude future climate change. Fossil-pollen data also contribute to an understanding of ecological issues associated with global climate change, including questions of how and how rapidly ecosystems might respond to abrupt climate change.

  5. Role of Lipid Metabolism in Plant Pollen Exine Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Xijia

    2016-01-01

    Pollen plays important roles in the life cycle of angiosperms plants. It acts as not only a biological protector of male sperms but also a communicator between the male and the female reproductive organs, facilitating pollination and fertilization. Pollen is produced within the anther, and covered by the specialized outer envelope, pollen wall. Although the morphology of pollen varies among different plant species, the pollen wall is mainly comprised of three layers: the pollen coat, the outer exine layer, and the inner intine layer. Except the intine layer, the other two layers are basically of lipidic nature. Particularly, the outer pollen wall layer, the exine, is a highly resistant biopolymer of phenylpropanoid and lipidic monomers covalently coupled by ether and ester linkages. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying pollen coat formation and exine patterning remain largely elusive. Herein, we summarize the current genetic, phenotypic and biochemical studies regarding to the pollen exine development and underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms mainly obtained from monocot rice (Oryza sativa) and dicot Arabidopsis thaliana, aiming to extend our understandings of plant male reproductive biology. Genes, enzymes/proteins and regulatory factors that appear to play conserved and diversified roles in lipid biosynthesis, transportation and modification during pollen exine formation, were highlighted.

  6. Anther evolution: pollen presentation strategies when pollinators differ.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Maria Clara; Wilson, Paul; Keller, Sarah J; Wolfe, Andrea D; Thomson, James D

    2006-02-01

    Male-male competition in plants is thought to exert selection on flower morphology and on the temporal presentation of pollen. Theory suggests that a plant's pollen dosing strategy should evolve to match the abundance and pollen transfer efficiency of its pollinators. Simultaneous pollen presentation should be favored when pollinators are infrequent or efficient at delivering the pollen they remove, whereas gradual dosing should optimize delivery by frequent and wasteful pollinators. Among Penstemon and Keckiella species, anthers vary in ways that affect pollen release, and the morphology of dried anthers reliably indicates how they dispense pollen. In these genera, hummingbird pollination has evolved repeatedly from hymenopteran pollination. Pollen production does not change with evolutionary shifts between pollinators. We show that after we control for phylogeny, hymenopteran-adapted species present their pollen more gradually than hummingbird-adapted relatives. In a species pair that seemed to defy the pattern, the rhythm of anther maturation produced an equivalent dosing effect. These results accord with previous findings that hummingbirds can be more efficient than bees at delivering pollen.

  7. Consumptive emasculation: the ecological and evolutionary consequences of pollen theft.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-05-01

    Many of the diverse animals that consume floral rewards act as efficient pollinators; however, others 'steal' rewards without 'paying' for them by pollinating. In contrast to the extensive studies of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of nectar theft, pollen theft and its implications remain largely neglected, even though it affects plant reproduction more directly. Here we review existing studies of pollen theft and find that: (1) most pollen thieves pollinate other plant species, suggesting that theft generally arises from a mismatch between the flower and thief that precludes pollen deposition, (2) bees are the most commonly documented pollen thieves, and (3) the floral traits that typically facilitate pollen theft involve either spatial or temporal separation of sex function within flowers (herkogamy and dichogamy, respectively). Given that herkogamy and dichogamy occur commonly and that bees are globally the most important floral visitors, pollen theft is likely a greatly under-appreciated component of floral ecology and influence on floral evolution. We identify the mechanisms by which pollen theft can affect plant fitness, and review the evidence for theft-induced ecological effects, including pollen limitation. We then explore the consequences of pollen theft for the evolution of floral traits and sexual systems, and conclude by identifying key directions for future research.

  8. Ultrastructure and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen.

    PubMed

    Abreu, I; Costa, I; Oliveira, M; Cunha, M; de Castro, R

    2006-08-01

    The cultivar Loureiro of Vitis vinifera is one of the most economically important, recommended in almost the totality of the Região Demarcada dos Vinhos Verdes. In vineyards, the grape productivity of this cultivar is normal while in others it is extremely low. The aim of this work was to study the morphology and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen with high and low productivity. The pollen grain was examined under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Typically V. vinifera pollen present three furrows but in the cultivar Loureiro we found tricolporated and acolporated (without furrows or pores) pollen grains. Both pollen types present generative and vegetative cells with the usual aspect and a dense cytoplasm rich in organelles. In the acolporated pollen a continuous exine layer and an irregular intine layer were observed. Differences were found in the starch accumulation, since only in tricolporated pollen abundant plastids filled with numerous starch granules were observed. To determine the causes of the low productivity of this cultivar we tested pollen viability by the fluorochromatic reaction and pollen germinability by in vitro assays. We observed that the acolporated pollen grain is viable, but no germination was recorded.

  9. Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Sheng Ng, Chris Fook; Konishi, Shoko; Koyanagi, Ai; Watanabe, Chiho

    2017-05-01

    Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to <100 grains per cm(2) was associated with an approximately 50% increase in the odds for suicide (e.g. 30 to <50 grains per cm(2): odds ratio 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.076-2.303, p=0.020). The estimates remained fairly stable after adjusting for air pollutants and after varying the cut-points that defined the pollen levels. Our results indicate that pollen is associated with female suicide mortality in Tokyo.

  10. Cell-specific analysis of the tomato pollen proteome from pollen mother cell to mature pollen provides evidence for developmental priming.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Palak; Ischebeck, Till; Egelhofer, Volker; Lichtscheidl, Irene; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-11-01

    Tomato is a globally important crop grown and consumed worldwide. Its reproductive activity is highly sensitive to environmental fluctuations, for instance temperature and drought. Here, pollen development is one of the most decisive processes. The present study aims for the identification of cell-specific proteins during pollen developmental stages of tomato. We have setup a protocol for stage-specific pollen isolation including microsporocytes (pollen mother cells), tetrads, microspores, polarized microspores, and mature pollen. Proteins were extracted using phenol and prefractionated using SDS-PAGE followed by protein digestion, peptide extraction, and desalting. Identification and quantification of proteins were performed using nanoHPLC coupled to LTQ-Orbitrap-MS. In total, 1821 proteins were identified. Most of these proteins were classified based on their homology and designated functions of orthologs. Cluster and principal components analysis revealed stage-specific proteins and demonstrated that pollen development of tomato is a highly controlled sequential process at the proteome level. Intermediate stages such as tetrad and polarized microspore are clearly distinguished by different functionality compared to other stages. From the predicted functions, energy-related proteins are increased during the later stages of development, which indicates that pollen germination depends upon presynthesized proteins in mature pollen. In contrast, heat stress-related proteins are highly abundant in very early developmental stages, suggesting a dominant role in stress protection. Taken together, the data provide a first cell-specific protein reference set for tomato pollen development from pollen mother cells to the mature pollen and give evidence for developmentally controlled processes that might help to prepare the cells for specific developmental programs and environmental stresses.

  11. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max) pollen

    PubMed Central

    Haerizadeh, Farzad; Wong, Chui E; Bhalla, Prem L; Gresshoff, Peter M; Singh, Mohan B

    2009-01-01

    Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip® to perform transcriptional profiling on mature bi-cellular soybean pollen. Results Compared to the sporophyte transcriptome, the soybean pollen transcriptome revealed a restricted and unique repertoire of genes, with a significantly greater proportion of specifically expressed genes than is found in the sporophyte tissue. Comparative analysis shows that, among the 37,500 soybean transcripts addressed in this study, 10,299 transcripts (27.46%) are expressed in pollen. Of the pollen-expressed sequences, about 9,489 (92.13%) are also expressed in sporophytic tissues, and 810 (7.87%) are selectively expressed in pollen. Overall, the soybean pollen transcriptome shows an enrichment of transcription factors (mostly zinc finger family proteins), signal recognition receptors, transporters, heat shock-related proteins and members of the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. Conclusion This is the first report of a soybean pollen transcriptional profile. These data extend our current knowledge regarding regulatory pathways that govern the gene regulation and development of pollen. A comparison between transcription factors up-regulated in soybean and those in Arabidopsis revealed some divergence in the numbers and kinds of regulatory proteins expressed in both species. PMID:19265555

  12. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 is involved in Arabidopsis pollen grain germination.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Christelle; Bouton, Sophie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Fabrice, Tohnyui Ndinyanka; Mareck, Alain; Guénin, Stéphanie; Fournet, Françoise; Ringli, Christoph; Pelloux, Jérôme; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    Germination of pollen grains is a crucial step in plant reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the role of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 (PME48), an enzyme implicated in the remodeling of pectins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen. A combination of functional genomics, gene expression, in vivo and in vitro pollen germination, immunolabeling, and biochemical analyses was used on wild-type and Atpme48 mutant plants. We showed that AtPME48 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is the second most expressed PME in dry and imbibed pollen grains. Pollen grains from homozygous mutant lines displayed a significant delay in imbibition and germination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, numerous pollen grains showed two tips emerging instead of one in the wild type. Immunolabeling and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the degree of methylesterification of the homogalacturonan was higher in pme48-/- pollen grains. In contrast, the PME activity was lower in pme48-/-, partly due to a reduction of PME48 activity revealed by zymogram. Interestingly, the wild-type phenotype was restored in pme48-/- with the optimum germination medium supplemented with 2.5 mm calcium chloride, suggesting that in the wild-type pollen, the weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan is a source of Ca(2+) necessary for pollen germination. Although pollen-specific PMEs are traditionally associated with pollen tube elongation, this study provides strong evidence that PME48 impacts the mechanical properties of the intine wall during maturation of the pollen grain, which, in turn, influences pollen grain germination.

  13. Smartphones, Tablets and Weight Gain in Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day on smartphones, tablets, computers and video games, the researchers discovered. By comparison, only 8 percent ... Huntington, N.Y. "If kids are playing video games on the computer while they're eating, they ...

  14. Investigating atmospheric transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region with DEHM-Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.

    2009-04-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens. The threshold value for clinical symptoms for ragweed pollen grains for the majority of sensitised patients is below 20 grains/m3. Ambrosia pollen appears to induce asthma about twice as often as other pollen. Each ragweed plant produces millions of pollen grains that are small (18-22 μm) and suitable for long-range transport when conditions are favourable. In this study we use DEHM-Pollen to investigate if the Pannonian Plain could be the source area for observed episodes of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans. A possible Ambrosia pollen inventory for various regions in the Pannonian Plain was constructed using detailed land cover data from Serbia, Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic in combination with measurements of the annual load of Ambrosia pollen in the source areas. A simple unified pollen release model (SUPREME) was calibrated against daily measurements from Novi Sad in Serbia and implemented in DEHM-Pollen with the Ambrosia pollen inventory. Model simulations was then performed with DEHM-Pollen for the months August and September 2007 and compared with measurements from stations outside the Pannonian Plain. The simulations several times indicate regional scale transport from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region including the 26th - 27th of August and the 1st and 2nd September. During these episode air masses passed over parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Southern Serbia, Albania and Macedonia. The verifying measurements at Skopje (Macedonia) show episodes of elevated Ambrosia pollen concentration the 26th -27th of August and for the 1st and 2nd of September. The model experiments with DEHM-Pollen strongly indicate that the Pannonian Plain alone can be a source to significant Ambrosia pollen concentrations in the Balkans. The methods and the model results look promising with respect to future numerical forecasting of Ambrosia

  15. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets.

    PubMed

    Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Al-Tabakha, Moawia M M; Eissa, Nermin A M; Javadi, Jeevani

    2016-10-11

    Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril(®) tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight) than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves). The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  16. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Fahelelbom, Khairi M. S.; Al-Tabakha, Moawia M. M.; Eissa, Nermin A. M.; Javadi, Jeevani

    2016-01-01

    Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight) than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves). The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used. PMID:27727195

  17. Honey loading for pollen collection: regulation of crop content in honeybee pollen foragers on leaving hive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harano, Ken-ichi; Mitsuhata-Asai, Akiko; Sasaki, Masami

    2014-07-01

    Before foraging honeybees leave the hive, each bee loads its crop with some amount of honey "fuel" depending on the distance to the food source and foraging experience. For pollen collection, there is evidence that foragers carry additional honey as "glue" to build pollen loads. This study examines whether pollen foragers of the European honeybee Apis mellifera regulate the size of the crop load according to food-source distances upon leaving the hive and how foraging experience affects load regulation. The crop contents of bees foraging on crape myrtle Lagerstroemia indica, which has no nectary, were larger than those foraging on nectar from other sources, confirming a previous finding that pollen foragers carry glue in addition to fuel honey from the hive. Crop contents of both waggle dancers and dance followers showed a significant positive correlation with waggle-run durations. These results suggest that bees carry a distance-dependent amount of fuel honey in addition to a fixed amount of glue honey. Crop contents on leaving the hive were statistically larger in dancers than followers. Based on these results, we suggest that pollen foragers use information obtained through foraging experience to adjust crop contents on leaving the hive.

  18. Honey loading for pollen collection: regulation of crop content in honeybee pollen foragers on leaving hive.

    PubMed

    Harano, Ken-ichi; Mitsuhata-Asai, Akiko; Sasaki, Masami

    2014-07-01

    Before foraging honeybees leave the hive, each bee loads its crop with some amount of honey "fuel" depending on the distance to the food source and foraging experience. For pollen collection, there is evidence that foragers carry additional honey as "glue" to build pollen loads. This study examines whether pollen foragers of the European honeybee Apis mellifera regulate the size of the crop load according to food-source distances upon leaving the hive and how foraging experience affects load regulation. The crop contents of bees foraging on crape myrtle Lagerstroemia indica, which has no nectary, were larger than those foraging on nectar from other sources, confirming a previous finding that pollen foragers carry glue in addition to fuel honey from the hive. Crop contents of both waggle dancers and dance followers showed a significant positive correlation with waggle-run durations. These results suggest that bees carry a distance-dependent amount of fuel honey in addition to a fixed amount of glue honey. Crop contents on leaving the hive were statistically larger in dancers than followers. Based on these results, we suggest that pollen foragers use information obtained through foraging experience to adjust crop contents on leaving the hive.

  19. [Overview of regulatory aspects guiding tablet scoring].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Maíra Teles; Sá-Barreto, Lívia Cristina Lira; Silva, Dayde Lane Mendonça; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio Sergio Soares

    2016-06-01

    Tablet scoring is a controversial but common practice used to adjust doses, facilitate drug intake, or lower the cost of drug treatment, especially in children and the elderly. The risks of tablet scoring are mainly related to inaccuracies in the resulting dose and stability problems. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of worldwide guidelines regarding tablet scoring. We found that regulatory health agencies in Mercosur countries as well as other South American countries do not have published standards addressing tablet splitting. Among the surveyed health agencies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States is the only one to present standards, ranging from splitting instructions to regulation of the manufacturing process. The concept of functional scoring implemented by the FDA has introduced some level of guarantee as to the ability of tablets to be split. In conclusion, technical and scientific bases are still insufficient to guide health rules on this subject, making the decision on scoring, in certain situations, random and highly risky to public health. The need for more detailed regulation is vital to ensure the safety of tablet medications.

  20. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  1. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light.

  2. The spectrum of olive pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R; Villalba, M; Monsalve, R I; Batanero, E

    2001-07-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Among the high number of protein allergens detected in this pollen, 8 - Ole e 1 to Ole e 8 - have been isolated and characterized. Ole e 1 is the most frequent sensitizing agent, affecting more than 70% of the patients suffering of olive pollinosis, although others, such as Ole e 4 and Ole e 7, have also been shown to be major allergens. In this context, the prevalence of many olive pollen allergens seems to be dependent on the geographical area where the sensitized patients live. Some of the olive allergens have been revealed as members of known protein families: profilin (Ole e 2), Ca(2+)-binding proteins (Ole e 3 and Ole e 8), superoxide dismutase (Ole e 5) and lipid transfer protein (Ole e 7). No biological function has been demonstrated for Ole e 1, whereas Ole e 4 and Ole e 6 are new proteins without homology to known sequences from databases. cDNAs encoding for Ole e 1, Ole e 3 and Ole e 8 have been overproduced in heterologous systems. The recombinant products were correctly folded and exhibited the functional activities of the natural allergens. In addition to the Oleaceae family, other species, such as Gramineae or Betulaceae, contain pollen allergens structurally or immunologically related to those of the olive tree. This fact allows to detect and evaluate antigenic cross-reactivities involving olive allergens. The aim of this research is the development of new diagnostic tools for olive pollinosis and new approaches to improve the classical immunotherapy.

  3. Pantoporate pollen in the Asteraceae (Vernonieae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Skvarla, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pantoporate pollen, which occurs sporadically in the Monocots and Dicots, has now been found in Asteraceae in two apparently related genera of the tribe Vernonieae, Polydora Fenzl and Oocephala H.Rob. Disposition of pores in Polydora seems more asymmetric than in Oocephala. Based on the known relationships within the Vernonieae, some conjectures are made regarding development of the pantoporate condition in the group. PMID:25009434

  4. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Bilecik, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun

    2009-04-01

    In this study, pollen grains in the atmosphere of Bilecik were studied for a continuous period of 2 years (2005 and 2006) by using Durham sampler. During this period, pollen grains belonging to 46 taxa were recorded, 26 of which belonged to arboreal plants and 20 to non-arboreal. Of total 14,269 pollen grains determined in Bilecik atmosphere, 6,675 were recorded in 2005 and 7,594 were in 2006. From these, 75.74% were arboreal, 21.80% were non-arboreal and 2.47% unidentifiable. Pinus sp., Poaceae, Cupressaceae, Platanus sp., Quercus sp., Salix sp., Ailanthus sp., Fagus sp., Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae were the main pollen producers in the atmosphere of Bilecik, respectively. Pollen concentrations reached their highest levels in May. Atmospheric pollen concentrations in February, March, September, October and November were less than those in other months.

  5. Cell-Cell Interactions during pollen tube guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Daphne Preuss

    2009-03-31

    The long-term goal of this research is to identify the signaling molecules that mediate plant cell-cell interactions during pollination. The immediate goals of this project are to perform genetic and molecular analysis of pollen tube guidance. Specifically, we proposed to: 1. Characterize the pistil components that direct pollen tube navigation using the Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro pollen tube guidance system 2. Identify pistil signals that direct pollen tube guidance by a) using microarrays to profile gene expression in developing pistils, and b) employing proteomics and metabolomics to isolate pollen tube guidance signals. 3. Explore the genetic basis of natural variation in guidance signals, comparing the in vitro interactions between pollen and pistils from A. thaliana and its close relatives.

  6. Pollen DNA barcoding: current applications and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Bell, Karen L; de Vere, Natasha; Keller, Alexander; Richardson, Rodney T; Gous, Annemarie; Burgess, Kevin S; Brosi, Berry J

    2016-09-01

    Identification of the species origin of pollen has many applications, including assessment of plant-pollinator networks, reconstruction of ancient plant communities, product authentication, allergen monitoring, and forensics. Such applications, however, have previously been limited by microscopy-based identification of pollen, which is slow, has low taxonomic resolution, and has few expert practitioners. One alternative is pollen DNA barcoding, which could overcome these issues. Recent studies demonstrate that both chloroplast and nuclear barcoding markers can be amplified from pollen. These recent validations of pollen metabarcoding indicate that now is the time for researchers in various fields to consider applying these methods to their research programs. In this paper, we review the nascent field of pollen DNA barcoding and discuss potential new applications of this technology, highlighting existing limitations and future research developments that will improve its utility in a wide range of applications.

  7. Influence of pollen level on hospitalizations for asthma.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Barcala, F J; Aboal-Viñas, J; Aira, M J; Regueira-Méndez, C; Valdes-Cuadrado, L; Carreira, J; Garcia-Sanz, M T; Takkouche, B

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pollen level on asthma hospitalizations is still under debate. The aim of this study was to analyze hospital admissions due to asthma and its relation with environmental pollen and meteorological factors. During 13 years, we included every patient admitted with asthma as primary or secondary diagnosis. For this purpose, we used a case-crossover analysis to compare pollen concentrations at the time of admission with values of the same variables 2 to 6 days before admission. We included 6,687 hospital admissions. High maximum temperature and low humidity were associated with lower risk of asthma admissions. High mean pollen levels exerted a moderate effect and high maximum pollen levels led to a dramatic increase of hospital admissions due to asthma, especially among females. In conclusion, environmental pollen level increases the risk of asthma hospital admissions.

  8. Citrus Allergy from Pollen to Clinical Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Del Duca, Stefano; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Pula, Chiara; Lodolini, Magda; Scamardella, Fortuna; Pession, Andrea; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39%) to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica), confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 α and β) in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade. PMID:23308273

  9. Pollensomes as Natural Vehicles for Pollen Allergens.

    PubMed

    Prado, Noela; De Linares, Concepción; Sanz, María L; Gamboa, Pedro; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Olive (Olea europaea) pollen constitutes one of the most important allergen sources in the Mediterranean countries and some areas of the United States, South Africa, and Australia. Recently, we provided evidence that olive pollen releases nanovesicles of respirable size, named generically pollensomes, during in vitro germination. Olive pollensomes contain allergens, such as Ole e 1, Ole e 11, and Ole e 12, suggesting a possible role in allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of pollensomes to the allergic reaction. We show that pollensomes exhibit allergenic activity in terms of patients' IgE-binding capacity, human basophil activation, and positive skin reaction in sensitized patients. Furthermore, allergen-containing pollensomes have been isolated from three clinically relevant nonphylogenetically related species: birch (Betula verrucosa), pine (Pinus sylvestris), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Most interesting, pollensomes were isolated from aerobiological samples collected with an eight-stage cascade impactor collector, indicating that pollensomes secretion is a naturally occurring phenomenon. Our findings indicate that pollensomes may represent widespread vehicles for pollen allergens, with potential implications in the allergic reaction.

  10. Christmas tree allergy: mould and pollen studies.

    PubMed

    Wyse, D M; Malloch, D

    1970-12-05

    A history of respiratory or other allergic symptoms during the Christmas season is occasionally obtained from allergic patients and can be related to exposure to conifers at home or in school. Incidence and mechanism of production of these symptoms were studied. Of 1657 allergic patients, respiratory and skin allergies to conifers occurred in 7%. This seasonal syndrome includes sneezing, wheezing and transitory skin rashes. The majority of patients develop their disease within 24 hours, but 15% experience symptoms after several days' delay. Mould and pollen studies were carried out in 10 test sites before, during and after tree placement in the home. Scrapings from pine and spruce bark yielded large numbers of Penicillium, Epicoccum and Alternaria, but these failed to become airborne. No significant alteration was discovered in the airborne fungi in houses when trees were present. Pollen studies showed release into air of weed, grass and tree pollens while Christmas trees were in the house. Oleoresins of the tree balsam are thought to be the most likely cause of the symptoms designated as Christmas tree allergy.

  11. Impact and correlation of environmental conditions on pollen counts in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m(3) were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m(3)) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m(3)), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m(3)) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m(3)). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m(3) and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city.

  12. Influence of tablet splitting on content uniformity of lisinopril/hydrochlorthiazide tablets.

    PubMed

    Vranić, Edina; Uzunović, Alija

    2007-11-01

    Dose-related adverse effects of medications are a major problem in modern medical practice. The "correct" dose, based on drug company guidelines in package inserts, may not be correct for many patients. Tablet splitting or dividing has been an accepted practice for many years as a means of obtaining the prescribed dose of medication. As model tablets for this investigation, two batches of lisinopril- hydrochlorothiazide scored tablets labeled to contain 20/12.5 mg were used. The aim of this study was to establish possible influence of tablet splitting on content uniformity of lisinopril/hydrochlorthiazide tablets. Determination of the content uniformity of lisinopril and hydrochlorthiazide in our batches, was carried out by HPLC method. The results of content uniformity studies for halves of tablets containing combination of lisinopril-hydrochlorthiazide (supposed to contain 50% of stated 20/12.5 mg in the whole tablet) were: 49.60 +/-3.29% and 49.29+/-0.60 % (lisinopril); 50.33+/-3.50% and 50.69+/-1.95% (hydrochlorthiazide) for batch I and II, respectively. We can conclude that the results obtained in this study support an option of tablet splitting, which is very important for obtaining the required dosage when a dosage form of the required strength is unavailable, and for better individualization of the therapy.

  13. Tablet splitting: Product quality assessment of metoprolol succinate extended release tablets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zidan, Ahmed; Tawakkul, Mobin; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor

    2010-11-30

    Metoprolol succinate extended release tablets comprise a multiple unit system containing metoprolol succinate in a multitude of controlled release pellets. Each pellet acts as a separate drug delivery unit and is designed to deliver metoprolol continuously over the dosage interval. Despite the flexibility that controlled release pellets may offer, segregation is one of the challenges that commonly occur during tableting for such drug delivery system. Since all commercial metoprolol succinate extended release tablets are scored, they are deemed suitable for splitting. The present study was aimed at utilizing an innovative technology to determine the dose uniformity for split tablets. Four marketed drug products consisting of innovator and generics were evaluated for effect of splitting on weight, assay and content uniformity. Novel analytical tool such as near infrared (NIR) chemical imaging was used to visualize the distribution of metoprolol succinate and functional excipients on the surfaces of the marketed tablets. The non-homogeneous distribution of directly compressed metoprolol succinate beads on the surface of the tablets as well as the split intersection explained the large variation in the split tablets' weight and content uniformity results. The obtained results indicated the usefulness of NIR chemical imaging to determine the need for content uniformity studies for certain split tablets.

  14. Dynamics of sulfate and nitrate dry deposition associated with pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, E.K.

    1988-01-01

    A field study of pollen dispersion and deposition from a remote forested area in Northern Wisconsin has been undertaken. Although the experiments constitute a case study in Wisconsin, the experimental site was chosen, which represents much of the Eastern US and Europe where acid rain is considered an important environmental problem. Measurements of dry deposition of pollen were made during the pollination season (May and June, 1987). Deposited particles were weighted to determine mass fluxes, then washed and subjected to ion chromatographic analysis for sulfate and nitrate. Ambient concentration of pollen were measured by a coarse particle sampler (Noll Inertial Rotary Impact) during the same time period. The chemical analysis of pollen species collected around the sampling site as well as commercially available pollen demonstrated that sulfate and nitrate were present on all pollen samples. Many trace metals such as Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ca, and Si and organic acids were quantified. It was hypothesized that pollen accumulate extraneous amounts of non-essential, as well as essential elements from the soil supplying nutrient. Therefore, pollen can be used as a fingerprint for the availability and the level of contamination of a particular element in the forest soil environment. A model developed for measurement of coarse particle dry deposition was utilized to measure the pollen dry deposition velocity. It was shown that depositional velocity of pollen exceeds the settling velocity by a factor of 3 to 4, and both V{sub d} and fluxes of pollen grains increase with wind speed. Finally, the role of pollen dispersion and deposition has been discussed and emphasized for modeling of lake acidification in forested region.

  15. Palynological mapping of vertical microseepage over Dragoon and Pollen fields

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, P.K.H.

    1986-05-01

    Fossil pollen was recovered from multiple shallow boreholes in Colorado's D-J basin. Detailed light transmissibility of a particular pollen species was obtained, and the data were contoured. Extensions to Dragoon and Byers fields were mapped, and new fields Pollen and Quill were mapped and predicted. The patented technique recognizes mineral oxidation surrounding reduced or reduction-maintained areas of microseepage above reservoirs that are present at a depth of 7500 ft.

  16. The Pollen Receptor Kinase LePRK2 Mediates Growth-Promoting Signals and Positively Regulates Pollen Germination and Tube Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In flowering plants, the process of pollen germination and tube growth is required for successful fertilization. A pollen receptor kinase from tomato, LePRK2, has been implicated in signaling during pollen germination and tube growth as well as in mediating pollen (tube)-pistil communication. Here w...

  17. A DNA Barcoding Approach to Characterize Pollen Collected by Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands. PMID:25296114

  18. A DNA barcoding approach to characterize pollen collected by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Andrea; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands.

  19. Foldable structures and the natural design of pollen grains.

    PubMed

    Katifori, Eleni; Alben, Silas; Cerda, Enrique; Nelson, David R; Dumais, Jacques

    2010-04-27

    Upon release from the anther, pollen grains of angiosperm flowers are exposed to a dry environment and dehydrate. To survive this process, pollen grains possess a variety of physiological and structural adaptations. Perhaps the most striking of these adaptations is the ability of the pollen wall to fold onto itself to prevent further desiccation. Roger P. Wodehouse coined the term harmomegathy for this folding process in recognition of the critical role it plays in the survival of the pollen grain. There is still, however, no quantitative theory that explains how the structure of the pollen wall contributes to harmomegathy. Here we demonstrate that simple geometrical and mechanical principles explain how wall structure guides pollen grains toward distinct folding pathways. We found that the presence of axially elongated apertures of high compliance is critical for achieving a predictable and reversible folding pattern. Moreover, the intricate sculpturing of the wall assists pollen closure by preventing mirror buckling of the surface. These results constitute quantitative structure-function relationships for pollen harmomegathy and provide a framework to elucidate the functional significance of the very diverse pollen morphologies observed in angiosperms.

  20. Levels and determinants of tree pollen in New York City.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Kate R; Kinney, Patrick L; Robinson, Guy S; Sheehan, Daniel; Kheirbek, Iyad; Matte, Thomas D; Lovasi, Gina S

    2016-12-21

    Exposure to allergenic tree pollen is a risk factor for multiple allergic disease outcomes. Little is known about how tree pollen levels vary within cities and whether such variation affects the development or exacerbation of allergic disease. Accordingly, we collected integrated pollen samples at uniform height at 45 sites across New York City during the 2013 pollen season. We used these monitoring results in combination with adjacent land use data to develop a land use regression model for tree pollen. We evaluated four types of land use variables for inclusion in the model: tree canopy, distributed building height (a measure of building volume density), elevation, and distance to water. When included alone in the model, percent tree canopy cover within a 0.5 km radial buffer explained 39% of the variance in tree pollen (1.9% increase in tree pollen per one-percentage point increase in tree canopy cover, P<0.0001). The inclusion of additional variables did not improve model fit. We conclude that intra-urban variation in tree canopy is an important driver of tree pollen exposure. Land use regression models can be used to incorporate spatial variation in tree pollen exposure in studies of allergic disease outcomes.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 21 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.72.

  1. Pollen Tube Growth and Self-Compatibility in Almond

    PubMed Central

    Socias i Company, Rafel; Kodad, Ossama; Fernández i Martí, Àngel; Alonso, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Although pollen tube growth has been an important criterion for self-compatibility evaluation in almond, there is not a clear-cut separation between positive and negative growth of pollen tubes in the different genotypes. The examination of pollen tube growth after selfing almond seedlings has allowed establishing different levels of compatibility, but not a clear-cut separation between self-compatible (SC) and self-incompatible (SI) genotypes, related to the presence of pseudo-self-compatibility in almond. Consequently, a relationship between pollen tube growth and self-compatibility in almond may be established for evaluating the seedlings in breeding programs. PMID:27137365

  2. Stable isotope analyses of palaeo-pollen records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, D.; Loader, N.

    2002-12-01

    Pollen stratigraphy is one of the most widely used tools for studying climate and vegetation dynamics over global and multi-millennial scales. Since the isotopic compositions of photosynthates that are used to form the pollen structure reflect environmental conditions during the time of pollen formation, the stable carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ18O and δ{}D) of the pollen grains may reflect this environmental information. Although there are many preliminary tests and methodological problems to overcome before we can fully utilise palaeo-pollen records, it is the general goal of our research to use pollen isotope records together with conventional palynological analyses to provide additional, independent spatial and temporal palaeo-environmental information and to provide new data on terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, including the timing of environmental changes, phase relationships of vegetation responses and regional and temporal variations in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O and δ{}D. These isotopic records will facilitate in the modelling of palaeo-environments. By separating and analysing different pollen species, including C3 and C4, we also aim to assess species-specific climatic responses. We present results describing some recent investigations concerning the nature of the isotopic signal contained within pollen, the methodological developments we have made to measure the pollen isotopic composition and the future challenges that must be overcome before this potentially powerful quantitative terrestrial palaeo-archive can be fully and correctly utilised.

  3. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species. PMID:27302853

  4. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  5. Can we improve pollen season definitions by using the symptom load index in addition to pollen counts?

    PubMed

    Bastl, Katharina; Kmenta, Maximilian; Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Berger, Uwe; Jäger, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    Airborne pollen measurements are the foundation of aerobiological research and provide essential raw data for various disciplines. Pollen itself should be considered a relevant factor in air quality. Symptom data shed light on the relationship of pollen allergy and pollination. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial variation of local, regional and national symptom datasets. Ten pollen season definitions are used to calculate the symptom load index for the birch and grass pollen seasons (2013-2014) in Austria. (1) Local, (2) regional and (3) national symptom datasets are used to examine spatial variations and a consistent pattern was found. In conclusion, national datasets are suitable for first insights where no sufficient local or regional dataset is available and season definitions based on percentages provide a practical solution, as they can be applied in regions with different pollen loads and produce more constant results.

  6. Forecasting model of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels using spatiotemporal correlation properties of pollen count.

    PubMed

    Nowosad, Jakub; Stach, Alfred; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Puc, Małgorzata; Grewling, Łukasz; Pędziszewska, Anna; Uruska, Agnieszka; Myszkowska, Dorota; Chłopek, Kazimiera; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara

    The aim of the study was to create and evaluate models for predicting high levels of daily pollen concentration of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula using a spatiotemporal correlation of pollen count. For each taxon, a high pollen count level was established according to the first allergy symptoms during exposure. The dataset was divided into a training set and a test set, using a stratified random split. For each taxon and city, the model was built using a random forest method. Corylus models performed poorly. However, the study revealed the possibility of predicting with substantial accuracy the occurrence of days with high pollen concentrations of Alnus and Betula using past pollen count data from monitoring sites. These results can be used for building (1) simpler models, which require data only from aerobiological monitoring sites, and (2) combined meteorological and aerobiological models for predicting high levels of pollen concentration.

  7. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    PubMed

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101 > DCP/Avicel PH101 > Starch > DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input.

  8. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  9. Olive (Olea europea) and privet (Ligustrum vulgare) pollen allergens. Identification and cross-reactivity with grass pollen proteins.

    PubMed

    Baldo, B A; Panzani, R C; Bass, D; Zerboni, R

    1992-10-01

    Protein blotting studies showed that three olive pollen components with mol. wts approximately 18-19, 20 and 40 kD can be considered to be major allergens. For privet pollen, the highest recognition frequencies were for allergens of mol. wts approximately 20, approximately 19, approximately 40 and approximately 70 kD. When results with the 62 subjects examined were separated into groups corresponding to their geographical locations, viz. Italy, France and Australia, subjects sensitized to olive, but not other pollens (some Italian subjects), were found to show higher frequencies of recognition of major olive allergens than subjects sensitized to olive pollen via cross-reacting allergens from unrelated pollen sources (the Australian and French subjects). Blotting, adsorption and elution and inhibition studies clearly demonstrated allergenic cross-reactivity (that is, antigenic cross-reactivity detected by IgE antibodies) between olive, privet, ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and couch grass (Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon) pollen components. As with our previous findings with birch pollen, we conclude that the presence of pollen-reactive IgE antibodies may not necessarily be a true reflection of the sensitizing pollen species.

  10. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  11. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  12. Spectroscopic insight for tablet compression.

    PubMed

    Lakio, S; Ylinärä, H; Antikainen, O; Räikkönen, H; Yliruusi, J

    2015-02-01

    Tablet compression process has been studied over the years from various perspectives. However what exactly happens to material during compression is still unknown. In this study a novel compression die which enables real-time spectroscopic measurements during the compression of material is represented. Both near infrared and Raman spectroscope probes can be attached to the die. In this study the usage of the die is demonstrated by using Raman spectroscopy. Eicosane, d-glucose anhydrate, α-lactose monohydrate and xylitol were used in the study because their compression behavior and bonding properties during compression were assumed to be different. The intensity of the Raman signal changed during compression with all of the materials. However, the intensity changes were different within the materials. The biggest differences were within the xylitol spectra. It was noticed that some peaks disappeared with higher compression pressures indicating that the pressure affected variously on different bonds in xylitol structure. These reversible changes were supposed to relate the changes in conformation and crystal structure. As a conclusion, the die was found to be a significant addition for studying compression process in real-time. It can help to reveal Process induced transformations (PITs) occurring during powder compaction.

  13. Graphics Tablets: How to Draw on a New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Margie; Mason, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Describes the graphics tablet, a microcomputer peripheral device used to develop graphics, together with its uses and specific classroom applications. Six currently available graphics tablets are discussed, and ten points to consider before purchasing one are provided. (MBR)

  14. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law...

  18. Studies of genetic transformation of higher plants using irradiated pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Chyi, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pandey has reported extensively on an unusual genetic phenomenon he called egg transformation. When compatible pollen was treated wth genetically lethal dosage of ..gamma..-radiation (100,000 rad), and used as mentor pollen to overcome selfincompatibility of several Nicotiana species, some genetic characters were found to be transferred from the radiation killed pollen to nonhybrid progeny. Observed transformants were fertile, cytogenetically normal, and had maternal phenotypes except for those specific traits transferred from the donors. Heavily irradiated pollen was believed to discharge its radiation-fragmented DNA (chromatin) into the embryo sac and bring about the transformation of the egg. The frequency of gene transfer was reported to be over 50%, and happened for all three characters Pandey studied - self incompatible specificities, flower color, and pollen color. Plant species studied were tomato, pea, apple, rapeseed, and Nicotiana species, including various stocks from Dr. Pandey. Treatments included pollinations with soley irradiated donor pollen, with a mixture of irradiated donor and normal self pollen, with a mixture of normal donor and self pollen, and double pollinations with irradiated donor pollen and normal self pollen, using different time intervals to separate the two pollinations. A total of 6210 pollinations were made, and 17,522 seedlings representing 87,750 potential transformational events were screened. In no case was an unambiguous transformant recovered. This research was unable to confirm or expand upon the findings of Dr. Pandey, or elucidate the mechanisms underlying such phenomena. Alternative explanations for Pandey's data were postulated. This approach to gene transfer by using irradiated pollen appears to be of little practical use to plant breeders.

  19. Spatial and temporal modeling of daily pollen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellavalle, Curt T.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessments of pollen counts are valuable to allergy sufferers, the medical industry, and health researchers; however, monitoring stations do not exist in most areas. In addition, the degree of spatial reliability provided by the limited number of monitoring stations is poorly understood. We developed and compared spatial models to estimate pollen concentrations in locations without monitoring stations. Daily Acer, Quercus, and overall tree, grass, and weed pollen counts, in grains/m3, were obtained from 14 aeroallergen monitoring stations located in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic region of the United States from 2003 to 2006. Pollen counts were spatially interpolated using ordinary kriging. Mixed effects and generalized estimating equations incorporating daily and seasonal weather characteristics, pollen season characteristics and land-cover information were also developed to estimate daily pollen concentrations. We then compared observed values from a monitoring station to model estimates for that location. Observed counts and kriging estimates for tree pollen differed ( p = 0.04), but not when peak periods were removed ( p = 0.29). No differences between observed and kriging estimates of Acer ( p = 0.46), Quercus ( p = 0.24), grass ( p = 0.31) or weed pollen ( p = 0.29) were found. Estimates from longitudinal models also demonstrated good agreement with observed counts, except for the extremes of pollen distributions. Our results demonstrate that spatial interpolation techniques as well as regression methods incorporating both weather and land-cover characteristics can provide reliable estimates of daily pollen concentrations in areas where monitors do not exist for all but periods of extremely high pollen.

  20. Novel approach of aceclofenac fast dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Dave, Vivek; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil; Vishwakarma, Pushpendra; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a hastily growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Aceclofenac, an NSAID, has been recommended orally for the treatment of bone and connective tissue disorder and thus the formulation of the same resulted in development of several FDT technologies. The present aim is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action: analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action. Besides, the conventional tablets also show poor patient compliance an attempt had been made to formulate for FDT of aceclofenac by using various super disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crosspovidone (polyplasdone XL) and PEG 6000 followed by novel technique. The tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies and drug content studies. It was concluded that the batch which was prepared by using combination of crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrant shows excellent disintegration time, enhance dissolution rate, taste masking and hence lead to improve efficacy and bioavailability of drug.

  1. [Modern polymers in matrix tablets technology].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Łukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Matrix tablets are the most popular method of oral drug administration, and polymeric materials have been used broadly in matrix formulations to modify and modulate drug release rate. The main goal of the system is to extend drug release profiles to maintain a constant in vivo plasma drug concentration and a consistent pharmacological effect. Polymeric matrix tablets offer a great potential as oral controlled drug delivery systems. Cellulose derivatives, like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) are often used as matrix formers. However, also other types of polymers can be used for this purpose including: Kollidon SR, acrylic acid polymers such as Eudragits and Carbopols. Nevertheless, polymers of natural origin like: carragens, chitosan and alginates widely used in the food and cosmetics industry are now coming to the fore of pharmaceutical research and are used in matrix tablets technology. Modern polymers allow to obtain matrix tablets by 3D printing, which enables to develop new formulation types. In this paper, the polymers used in matrix tablets technology and examples of their applications were described.

  2. Molecular dynamic simulations of ocular tablet dissolution.

    PubMed

    Ru, Qian; Fadda, Hala M; Li, Chung; Paul, Daniel; Khaw, Peng T; Brocchini, Steve; Zloh, Mire

    2013-11-25

    Small tablets for implantation into the subconjunctival space in the eye are being developed to inhibit scarring after glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS). There is a need to evaluate drug dissolution at the molecular level to determine how the chemical structure of the active may correlate with dissolution in the nonsink conditions of the conjunctival space. We conducted molecular dynamics simulations to study the dissolution process of tablets derived from two drugs that can inhibit fibrosis after GFS, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and the matrix metalloprotease inhibitor (MMPi), ilomastat. The dissolution was simulated in the presence of simple point charge (SPC) water molecules, and the liquid turnover of the aqueous humor in the subconjunctival space was simulated by removal of the dissolved drug molecules at regular intervals and replacement by new water molecules. At the end of the simulation, the total molecular solvent accessible surface area of 5-FU tablets increased by 60 times more than that of ilomastat as a result of tablet swelling and release of molecules into solution. The tablet dissolution pattern shown in our molecular dynamic simulations tends to correlate with experimental release profiles. This work indicates that a series of molecular dynamic simulations can be used to predict the influence of the molecular properties of a drug on its dissolution profile and could be useful during preformulation where sufficient amounts of the drug are not always available to perform dissolution studies.

  3. Evaluation of the tablets' surface flow velocities in pan coaters.

    PubMed

    Dreu, Rok; Toschkoff, Gregor; Funke, Adrian; Altmeyer, Andreas; Knop, Klaus; Khinast, Johannes; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The tablet pan coating process involves various types of transverse tablet bed motions, ranging from rolling to cascading. To preserve satisfactory results in terms of coating quality after scale-up, understanding the dynamics of pan coating process should be achieved. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology of estimating translational surface velocities of the tablets in a pan coater and to assess their dependence on the drum's filling degree, the pan speed, the presence of baffles and the selected tablet properties in a dry bed system and during coating while varying the drum's filling degree and the pan speed. Experiments were conducted on the laboratory scale and on the pilot scale in side-vented pan coaters. Surface movement of biconvex two-layer tablets was assessed before, during and after the process of active coating. In order to determine the tablets' surface flow velocities, a high-speed video of the tablet surface flow was recorded via a borescope inserted into the coating drum and analysed via a cross-correlation algorithm. The obtained tablet velocity data were arranged in a linear fashion as a function of the coating drum's radius and frequency. Velocity data obtained during coating were close to those of dry tablets after coating. The filling degree had little influence on the tablet velocity profile in a coating drum with baffles but clearly affected it in a coating drum without baffles. In most but not all cases, tablets with a lower static angle of repose had tablet velocity profiles with lower slopes than tablets with higher inter-tablet friction. This particular tablet velocity response can be explained by case specific values of tablet bed's dynamic angle of repose.

  4. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 000859 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (4) (5) No. 000143 for use of 1-g tablets in horses. (6) No. 058829 for use...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (4) No. 055246 for use of 100-mg tablets in dogs. (5) No. 000143 for use of...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-mg or 1-g tablets, or 2- or 4-g boluses, in dogs and horses. (2) Nos. 000010 and 059130 for use of 100- or 200-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (3) Nos. 000856 and 061623 for use of 100-mg or 1-g tablets in dogs and horses. (4) (5) No. 000143 for use of 1-g tablets in horses. (6) No. 058829 for use...

  7. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yaning; Ling, Yu; Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components.

  8. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components. PMID:26710276

  9. Fast-disintegrating sublingual tablets: effect of epinephrine load on tablet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem M; Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2006-04-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing epinephrine load on the characteristics of fast-disintegrating sublingual tablets for the potential emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. Four tablet formulations, A, B, C, and D, containing 0%, 6%, 12%, and 24% of epinephrine bitartrate, respectively, and microcrystalline cellulose:low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (9:1), were prepared by direct compression, at a range of compression forces. Tablet weight variation, content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, wetting time, and friability were measured for each formulation at each compression force. All 4 tablet formulations at each compression force were within the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) limits for weight variation and content uniformity. A linear increase in compression force resulted in an exponential increase in hardness for all formulations, a linear increase in disintegration and wetting times of A, and an exponential increase in disintegration and wetting times of B, C, and D. At a mean +/- SD hardness of > or = 2.3 +/- 0.2 kg, all tablet formulations passed the USP friability test. At a mean +/- SD hardness of < or = 3.1 +/- 0.2 kg, all tablet formulations resulted in disintegration and wetting times of <10 seconds and <30 seconds, respectively. Tablets with drug loads from 0% to 24% epinephrine can be formulated with hardness, disintegration times, and wetting times suitable for sublingual administration.

  10. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of canine... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single dose. Dogs weighing 5 to 10 pounds are administered one-half tablet twice during a single day....

  11. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of canine... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single dose. Dogs weighing 5 to 10 pounds are administered one-half tablet twice during a single day....

  12. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  13. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section 520.1696d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section 520.1696d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  16. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  17. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520... tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of butorphanol...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section... hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 2, 5, 10, 15, or 30 milligrams of... use—Dogs—(1) Dosage. 1 milligram per kilogram (0.45 milligram per pound) of body weight....

  20. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 2 milligrams of stanozolol. (b) Sponsor. No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) Used as an anabolic steroid... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stanozolol chewable tablets. 520.2150b Section...

  1. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520... tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of butorphanol...

  2. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520... tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of butorphanol...

  3. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  4. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520... tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of butorphanol...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Related tolerances. See § 556.350 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use. It is used for swine as follows... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520....1242e Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of canine... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thenium closylate tablets. 520.2362 Section 520... tablets. (a) Chemical name....

  8. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section... hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 2, 5, 10, 15, or 30 milligrams of... use—Dogs—(1) Dosage. 1 milligram per kilogram (0.45 milligram per pound) of body weight....

  9. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section... hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 2, 5, 10, 15, or 30 milligrams of... use—Dogs—(1) Dosage. 1 milligram per kilogram (0.45 milligram per pound) of body weight....

  10. 21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate equivalent to...

  11. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section... Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin carbamate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in...

  12. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  13. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2280 - Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets... Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 250 milligrams of... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections...

  17. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2280 - Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets... Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 250 milligrams of... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2158b - Dihydrostreptomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. 520.2158b Section 520... Dihydrostreptomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 37.5 milligrams dihydrostreptomycin (as the... this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and 556.200 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section... Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin carbamate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Related tolerances. See § 556.350 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use. It is used for swine as follows... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520....1242e Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of canine... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thenium closylate tablets. 520.2362 Section 520... tablets. (a) Chemical name....

  3. 21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate equivalent to...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2280 - Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets... Sulfamethizole and methenamine mandelate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 250 milligrams of... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections...

  5. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863... Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50.... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is administered orally to dogs as a tranquilizer.1 1 These...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of canine... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thenium closylate tablets. 520.2362 Section 520... tablets. (a) Chemical name....

  7. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  8. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  9. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610... Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5 milligrams of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20 milligrams of trimethoprim and...

  17. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate as...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  19. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  20. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  1. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  2. Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids.

    PubMed

    He, J H; Shahid, M Q; Li, Y J; Guo, H B; Cheng, X A; Liu, X D; Lu, Y G

    2011-08-01

    The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F(1) pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F(1) sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F(1) pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids.

  3. Concentrations of airborne pollen grains in Sivrihisar (Eskisehir), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu

    2008-03-01

    Pollen grains in the atmosphere of Sivrihisar were studied for a continuous period of 2 years (1 January 2005-31 December 2006) using a Durham sampler. During this period, pollen grains belonging to 41 taxa were recorded, 24 of which belonged to arboreal plants and 17 to non-arboreal. From these, 23,219 were identified in 2005 and 34,154 in 2006. Of the total pollen grains, 90.46% were arboreal, 9.43% non-arboreal, and 0.1% unidentifiable. The majority of the investigated allergic pollen grains were from Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Fraxinus spp., Cedrus spp., Artemisia spp., Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Populus spp., Quercus spp., Urticaceae and Asteraceae, respectively. Pollen concentrations reached their highest levels in May. This information was then established into a calendar form according to the pollens determined in 2005-2006, in terms of annual, monthly and weekly numbers of taxa fall per cm2. A comparison between the results and the meteorological factors revealed a close relationship between pollen concentrations in the air and meteorological conditions. An increase in pollination was also linked to increasing temperatures and the wind. It was therefore concluded that high temperatures and relative humidity were also effective in increasing the number of pollens in the air.

  4. Pollen loads and specificity of native pollinators of lowbush blueberry.

    PubMed

    Moisan-Deserres, J; Girard, M; Chagnon, M; Fournier, V

    2014-06-01

    The reproduction of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is closely tied to insect pollination, owing to self-incompatibility. Many species are known to have greater pollination efficiency than the introduced Apis mellifera L., commonly used for commercial purposes. In this study, we measured the pollen loads of several antophilous insect species, mostly Apoidea and Syrphidae, present in four lowbush blueberry fields in Lac-St-Jean, Québec. To measure pollen loads and species specificity toward V. angustifolium, we net-collected 627 specimens of pollinators, retrieved their pollen loads, identified pollen taxa, and counted pollen grains. We found that the sizes of pollen loads were highly variable among species, ranging from a few hundred to more than 118,000 pollen grains per individual. Bombus and Andrena species in particular carried large amounts of Vaccinium pollen and thus may have greater pollination efficiency. Also, two species (Andrena bradleyi Viereck and Andrena carolina Viereck) showed nearly monolectic behavior toward lowbush blueberry. Finally, we identified alternative forage plants visited by native pollinators, notably species of Acer, Rubus, Ilex mucronata, Ledum groenlandicum, and Taraxacum. Protecting these flowering plants should be part of management practices to maintain healthy pollinator communities in a lowbush blueberry agroecosystem.

  5. A Method of Recording and Predicting the Pollen Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, M.

    1985-01-01

    A hair dryer, plastic funnel, and microscope slide can be used for predicting pollen counts on a day-to-day basis. Materials, methods for assembly, collection technique, meteorological influences, and daily patterns are discussed. Data collected using the apparatus suggest that airborne grass products other than pollen also affect hay fever…

  6. Hydrogen ions associated with the dry deposition of pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.; Khalili, E.K. )

    1988-01-01

    The data provided in this paper demonstrates that pollen can generate significant amounts of hydrogen ions when added to water and that the deposition of tree pollen in forested areas represents a significant hydrogen ion source. Measurements of dry deposition of pollen were made during the months of May and June, 1987 in Northern Wisconsin, using a smooth surrogate surface. Rain samples were also collected. Deposited particles were weighed to determine mass fluxes, then washed and ion chromatographed for SO {sub 4} = and NO {sub 3} {minus} analysis. Species of pollen collected from different types of trees during the sampling period were analyzed for SO{sub 4} = NO {sub 3} and other trace constituents. The micrograms of hydrogen ions (protons) generated per gram for different types of pollen added to water, were measured. From 56 to 566 gm were generated per gram or pollen added. The amount generated varied with pollen type. Based on this information, the equivalent protons from the dry deposition of pollen were calculated and compared with the wet deposition proton data. The sulfate, nitrate, and protons associated with dry deposition were of a magnitude comparable with wet deposition.

  7. Reconstructing Earth's Past Climates: The Hidden Secrets of Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Adrienne; Warny, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    "Palynology" is the study of fossil pollen and spores, and these tiny grains can provide fundamental information about past climates on Earth. Among their many unique and useful properties, pollen and spores are composed of some of the most chemically resistant organic compounds found in nature. They are also produced in vast quantities…

  8. Airborne pollen in European and Asian parts of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Celenk, Sevcan; Bicakci, Adem; Tamay, Zeynep; Guler, Nermin; Altunoglu, M Kemal; Canitez, Yakup; Malyer, Hulusi; Sapan, Nihat; Ones, Ulker

    2010-05-01

    Pollen concentrations in the atmosphere of Istanbul, a city located between two continents, has been monitored for 1 year as part of a larger research program. The sampling sites were located in two different continents: the Asian part (AS) and the European part (EP). The sampling was performed in AS and EP of the city by using Hirst type volumetric method, and pollen grains of 58 and 62 taxa were identified in the two parts, respectively. The pollen spectrum reflected the floristic diversity of the region. The main pollen producers at the sites were characterized by some allergenic pollen and were identified as Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Urticaceae, Pistacia sp., Quercus sp., Platanus sp., Fraxinus sp., and Xanthium sp. These pollen types contributed to the total pollen sum with a percentage of more than 80% at both monitoring sites. The highest amount of pollen grains was recorded in April. The greatest number of species was recorded in May, when 42 types (AS) and 44 types (EP) were present.

  9. Airborne pollen grains in Bursa, Turkey, 1999-2000,.

    PubMed

    Bicakci, Adem; Tatlidil, Sevcan; Sapan, Nihat; Malyer, Hulusi; Canitez, Yakup

    2003-01-01

    In this study, pollen grains were sampled by using a Lanzoni trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000) in atmosphere of Bursa in 1999 and 2000. During two years. a total of 13,991 pollen grains/m3 which belonged to 59 taxa and unidentified pollen grains were recorded. A total of 7.768 pollen grains were identified in 1999 and a total of 6.223 in 2000. From these taxa, 36 belong to arboreal and 23 taxa to non-arboreal plants. Total pollen grains consist of 78.61% arboreal. 20.37% non-arboreal plants and 1.03% unidentified pollen grains. In the region investigated, Pinus sp., Olea sp., Platanus sp., Gramineae, Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Quercus sp., Acer sp.. Morus sp. Xanthium sp., Castanea sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Corvlus sp., Artemisia sp., Urtica sp.and Fraxinus sp. were responsible for the greatest amounts of pollen. During the study period the pollen concentration reached its highest level in April.

  10. Sporophytic control of pollen tube growth and guidance in maize

    PubMed Central

    Lausser, Andreas; Kliwer, Irina; Srilunchang, Kanok-orn; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tube germination, growth, and guidance (progamic phase) culminating in sperm discharge is a multi-stage process including complex interactions between the male gametophyte as well as sporophytic tissues and the female gametophyte (embryo sac), respectively. Inter- and intra-specific crossing barriers in maize and Tripsacum have been studied and a precise description of progamic pollen tube development in maize is reported here. It was found that pollen germination and initial tube growth are rather unspecific, but an early, first crossing barrier was detected before arrival at the transmitting tract. Pollination of maize silks with Tripsacum pollen and incompatible pollination of Ga1s/Ga1s-maize silks with ga1-maize pollen revealed another two incompatibility barriers, namely transmitting tract mistargeting and insufficient growth support. Attraction and growth support by the transmitting tract seem to play key roles for progamic pollen tube growth. After leaving transmitting tracts, pollen tubes have to navigate across the ovule in the ovular cavity. Pollination of an embryo sac-less maize RNAi-line allowed the role of the female gametophyte for pollen tube guidance to be determined in maize. It was found that female gametophyte controlled guidance is restricted to a small region around the micropyle, approximately 50–100 μm in diameter. This area is comparable to the area of influence of previously described ZmEA1-based short-range female gametophyte signalling. In conclusion, the progamic phase is almost completely under sporophytic control in maize. PMID:19926683

  11. A Novel Method to Investigate the Pollen Diets of Hoverflies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Yvonne; Edmunds, Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    A novel method to investigate the pollen diets of hoverflies is described. The method dispenses with the need for dissection skills or the use of hazardous chemicals thus making it particularly useful for school, college or undergraduate projects and for amateurs. It utilises the properties of the indigestible pollen coat, or exine, which enables…

  12. Ultrastructural Study of Some Pollen Grains of Prairie Flowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Frank

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the electron microscope, and in particular the scanning electron microscope, in studying the surface topography, sectional substructures, and patterns of development of pollen grains. The production, dispersal methods, and structure of pollen grains are described and illustrated with numerous electron micrographs. (JR)

  13. Variation in pollen competitive ability in diverse maize lines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although pollen occupies a small fraction of the angiosperm life cycle, it is of interest for both basic and applied scientific reasons. Seed production depends on a functional male gametophyte achieving fertilization following pollination. Pollen also serves as a vector for ge...

  14. Longevity of crapemyrtle pollen stored at different temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperatures for storage of crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia app.) pollen over time were studied using clones of two interspecific hybrids (L. 'Cheyenne' and L. 'Wichita') and five species (L. indica 'Catawba', L. subcostata (NA 40181), L. limii, L. speciosa, and L. fauriei 'Kiowa'). Pollen samples were s...

  15. Regulation of pollen tube polarity: Feedback loops rule

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Targeted delivery of immotile sperm through growing pollen tubes is a crucial step in achieving sexual reproduction in angiosperms. Unlike diffuse-growing cells, the growth of a pollen tube is restricted to the very apical region where targeted exocytosis and regulated endocytosis occur. The plant-s...

  16. Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis- purified proteins and pollen.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, R L; Siegfried, B D; Sears, M K; Stanley-Horn, D E; Daniels, M J; Mattila, H R; Spencer, T; Bidne, K G; Lewis, L C

    2001-10-09

    Laboratory tests were conducted to establish the relative toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and pollen from Bt corn to monarch larvae. Toxins tested included Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry9C, and Cry1F. Three methods were used: (i) purified toxins incorporated into artificial diet, (ii) pollen collected from Bt corn hybrids applied directly to milkweed leaf discs, and (iii) Bt pollen contaminated with corn tassel material applied directly to milkweed leaf discs. Bioassays of purified Bt toxins indicate that Cry9C and Cry1F proteins are relatively nontoxic to monarch first instars, whereas first instars are sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins. Older instars were 12 to 23 times less susceptible to Cry1Ab toxin compared with first instars. Pollen bioassays suggest that pollen contaminants, an artifact of pollen processing, can dramatically influence larval survival and weight gains and produce spurious results. The only transgenic corn pollen that consistently affected monarch larvae was from Cry1Ab event 176 hybrids, currently <2% corn planted and for which re-registration has not been applied. Results from the other types of Bt corn suggest that pollen from the Cry1Ab (events Bt11 and Mon810) and Cry1F, and experimental Cry9C hybrids, will have no acute effects on monarch butterfly larvae in field settings.

  17. Limnic sediments and the taphonomy of Lateglacial pollen assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, Winifred; Tutin, T. G.

    Pollen taphonomy, defined by R.G. West in 1973 as "the processes which govern the production of fossil (pollen) assemblages from living vegetation", introduces an additional variable into the pollen/vegetation relationship. Changes in taphonomic factors, of the kind to be expected within cold-stage Quaternary environments, may influence the composition of pollen assemblages, producing variations between them in space and time which are not directly related to variation in vegetation. Comparisons between sites — 35 Lateglacial (Late Devensian) lake sediment profiles within a 40 × 40 km region of high relief — are used to identify situations where anomalies in pollen values can be attributed to taphonomic factors. Processes involved include: redeposition of older pollen from soils (recycling) during episodes of increased instability of the land surface; spatial differentiation in deposition of sediment and pollen within the larger lakes, associated with a within-lake water circulation very different from today's; selective recruitment of pollen taxa by glacial meltwater; a) of Salix by outlet streams from small glaciers associated with favourable habitats for willows, and b) of Pinus from grains trapped by extensive mountain snowfields and larger glaciers.

  18. Pollen tube germination in maize does not require transcriptomic changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    One objective for our group is to better understand the molecular and genetic basis of pollen and pollen tube function, given its critical role in seed production and its importance as a means of gene flow between plant populations. We compared gene expression levels in seedlings...

  19. Pollen Season Trends (1973-2013) in Stockholm Area, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Tomas; Ekebom, Agneta; Alm Kübler, Kerstin; Östensson, Pia; Bellander, Tom

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the phenological and quantitative changes in the pollen seasons between 1973 and 2013 in the Stockholm region of Sweden were studied for nine types of pollen (hazel, alder, elm, birch, oak, grass, mugwort, willow and pine). Linear regression models were used to estimate the long term trends in duration, start- and end-dates, peak-values and the yearly accumulated pollen sums of the pollen seasons. The pollen seasons of several arboreal plant species (e.g. birch, oak and pine) were found to start significantly earlier today compared to 41 years earlier, and have an earlier peak-date, while the season of other species seemed largely unaffected. However, the long term trends in the end-dates of pollen seasons differed between arboreal and herbaceous species. For herbaceous species (grass and mugwort), a significant change towards later end-dates was observed and the duration of season was found to have increased. A significant trend towards an earlier end-date was found in the majority of the arboreal plant species (i.e. elm, oak, pine and birch), but the length of the season seemed unaffected. A trend towards an increase in yearly concentrations of pollen was observed for several species; however the reasons for this phenomenon cannot be explained unambiguously by the present study design. The trend of increasing yearly mean air temperatures in the Stockholm area may be the reason to changed phenological patterns of pollen seasons. PMID:27898718

  20. Allergenic airborne pollen and spores in Anchorage, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1985-05-01

    Major aeroallergens in Anchorage are birch, alder, poplar, spruce, grass pollen, Cladosporium, and unspecified fungus spores. Lesser pollens are sorrel, willow, pine, juniper, sedge, lamb's-quarters, wormwood, plantain, and others. The aero-flora is discussed in terms of the frequency of allergenically significant events and within-season and year-to-year dynamics.

  1. Pollen Concentration in the Atmosphere of Abha City, Saudi Arabia and its Relationship with Meteorological Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwadie, Hussein M.

    A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Abha city, Saudi Arabia with the relation to meteorological parameters is presented. Investigations were undertaken from January to December 2006 using a Burkard 7 day volumetric spore trap. A total of 6,492 pollen grains m-3 belonging to 50 pollen taxa was detected. Poaceae represented 55.1% of total pollen, Leguminosae (11.7%), Compositae (6.1%), Solanaceae (4.6%) and Cupressaceae (4.2%). Pollen grains were found throughout the year. July represented the highest peak of pollen number and also the highest pollen taxa. The monthly variation of pollen taxa and their relationship to meteorological parameters were investigated. It was found that the pollen concentration is positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall, relative humidity and wind velocity. May-September represented the months of highest pollen number (95% of total pollen).

  2. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives.

  3. Botany: a record-breaking pollen catapult.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Joan; Whitaker, Dwight; Klionsky, Sarah; Laskowski, Marta J

    2005-05-12

    The release of stored elastic energy often drives rapid movements in animal systems, and plant components employing this mechanism should be able to move with similar speed. Here we describe how the flower stamens of the bunchberry dogwood (Cornus canadensis) rely on this principle to catapult pollen into the air as the flower opens explosively. Our high-speed video observations show that the flower opens in less than 0.5 ms--to our knowledge, the fastest movement so far recorded in a plant.

  4. Reactions of singlet oxygen with pine pollen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, B.; Laseter, J. L.; Griffin, G. W.; Politzer, I. R.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine whether viable atmospheric particles such as plant pollens and fungal spores containing unsaturated lipids can interact with singlet oxygen to give oxygenated products that are potentially toxic. The results obtained confirm that surface and near surface components of common viable particulate matter in the atmosphere may be subject to rapid oxidation by singlet oxygen, leading to products which are probably allylic hydroperoxides. In connection with increasing atmospheric pollution, it is important to note that materials toxic to mammalian lung tissue may be oxidatively produced on the surfaces of viable particulate matter.

  5. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  6. Pollen flow of wheat under natural conditions in the Huanghuai River Wheat Region, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Wu, Cheng-Lai; Gao, Qing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic pollen spread is the main pathway of transgenic plant gene flow. The maximum distance of pollen dispersal (horizontal), the spatial dynamics of pollen movement (vertical), and the patterns of pollen dispersal are important considerations in biosafety assessments of genetically modified crops. To evaluate wheat (Triticum aestivum) pollen dispersal, we measured the pollen suspension velocity and analyzed pollen dispersal patterns under natural conditions in the Huanghuai River wheat-growing region in 2009. The pollen suspension velocity was 0.3-0.4 m/s. The highest pollen densities were detected in the north, northwest, and south of the pollen source. Pollen was dispersed over distances greater than 245 m in the northwest and northeast directions. At the pollen source center, pollen density decreased with increasing vertical height. In the north of the pollen source, the pollen density from 65 m to 225 m showed a wave-mode decrease with increasing height. The horizontal transport of pollen over longer distances fitted polynomial equations. In the north, the pollen density was highest at 45 m from the pollen source, and decreased with increasing distance. In the northwest, the pollen density showed a double-peak trend. In the northeast, pollen density was highest from 45 m to 125 m from the source. Wind speeds greater than the pollen suspension velocity and the duration of continuous gusts were the main factors affecting pollen dispersal. This information will be useful for determining the spatial isolation distances for hybrid seed production and for the commercial production of transgenic wheat.

  7. Electronic acquisition of OSCE performance using tablets.

    PubMed

    Hochlehnert, Achim; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Möltner, Andreas; Tımbıl, Sevgi; Brass, Konstantin; Jünger, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund: OSCE-Prüfungen sind oft mit einem erheblichen Material- und Organisationsaufwand verbunden, da die Leistungserfassung üblicherweise auf Papier durchgeführt wird. Eine elektronisch unterstützte Durchführung stellt hierzu eine Alternative dar, mit der der Verbrauch materieller Ressourcen reduziert werden kann. Insbesondere erscheint hier der Einsatz von Tablets sinnvoll, da diese zudem leicht zu transportieren sind und damit flexibel eingesetzt werden können. Zielsetzung: Die Nutzerakzeptanz der Verwendung von Tablets bei OSCE-Prüfungen wurde bislang allerdings nur wenig untersucht. Ziel dieser Studie war daher eine Evaluation Tablet-basierter OSCE-Prüfungen aus Sicht der Benutzer (Prüfer) und der geprüften Studierenden.Methodik: Bei zwei OSCE-Prüfungen des Faches Innere Medizin der Universität Heidelberg wurde die Nutzerakzeptanz einer Tablet-basierten Durchführung (Zufriedenheit mit der Funktionalität) und die subjektive Anstrengung aus Sicht der Prüfer untersucht. Hierzu wurden standardisierte Fragebögen und halbstandardisierte Interviews eingesetzt (Vollerfassung aller teilnehmenden Prüfer). Zudem wurde bei einer der Prüfungen die subjektive Bewertung dieser Prüfungsvariante an einer Stichprobe teilnehmender Studierender mittels halbstandardisierter Interviews erhoben.Ergebnisse: Die Prüfer waren mit der Tablet-Prüfungsvariante insgesamt sehr zufrieden. Die subjektive Anstrengung der Bedienung der Tablets wurde im Mittel als „kaum anstrengend“ empfunden. In den Interviews wurden insbesondere die einfache Handhabung und die geringe Fehleranfälligkeit von den Prüfern als Vorteile dieser Prüfungsvariante genannt. In der Befragung der geprüften Studierenden zeigte sich ebenfalls eine Akzeptanz der Tablet-Prüfungsvariante. Diskussion: Insgesamt hat sich gezeigt, dass der Einsatz von Tablets in OSCE-Prüfungen sowohl von Prüfern als auch Studierenden gut angenommen wird. Es wird erwartet, dass diese Prüfungsvariante auch

  8. Miconazole mucoadhesive tablet for oropharyngeal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lalla, Rajesh V; Bensadoun, René-Jean

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a commonly encountered problem in daily clinical practice. Topical therapies for oropharyngeal candidiasis are considered preferable to systemic therapies in most patient populations. However, traditional topical therapies have limitations including short contact time with the oral mucosa and the need for multiple doses each day. Miconazole mucoadhesive tablet has recently been approved in Europe (Loramyc®) and the USA (Oravig™) for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis. This tablet adheres to the oral mucosa and provides sustained local release of miconazole over a period of several hours with just one daily application. This article reviews the pharmacology, safety and efficacy of this novel agent. PMID:21171872

  9. An operational phenological model for numerical pollen prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheifinger, Helfried

    2010-05-01

    The general prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis is estimated to be about 15% in Europe, and still increasing. Pre-emptive measures require both the reliable assessment of production and release of various pollen species and the forecasting of their atmospheric dispersion. For this purpose numerical pollen prediction schemes are being developed by a number of European weather services in order to supplement and improve the qualitative pollen prediction systems by state of the art instruments. Pollen emission is spatially and temporally highly variable throughout the vegetation period and not directly observed, which precludes a straightforward application of dispersion models to simulate pollen transport. Even the beginning and end of flowering, which indicates the time period of potential pollen emission, is not (yet) available in real time. One way to create a proxy for the beginning, the course and the end of the pollen emission is its simulation as function of real time temperature observations. In this work the European phenological data set of the COST725 initiative forms the basis of modelling the beginning of flowering of 15 species, some of which emit allergic pollen. In order to keep the problem as simple as possible for the sake of spatial interpolation, a 3 parameter temperature sum model was implemented in a real time operational procedure, which calculates the spatial distribution of the entry dates for the current day and 24, 48 and 72 hours in advance. As stand alone phenological model and combined with back trajectories it is thought to support the qualitative pollen prediction scheme at the Austrian national weather service. Apart from that it is planned to incorporate it in a numerical pollen dispersion model. More details, open questions and first results of the operation phenological model will be discussed and presented.

  10. Airborne castanea pollen forecasting model for ecological and allergological implementation.

    PubMed

    Astray, G; Fernández-González, M; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; López, D; Mejuto, J C

    2016-04-01

    Castanea sativa Miller belongs to the natural vegetation of many European deciduous forests prompting impacts in the forestry, ecology, allergological and chestnut food industry fields. The study of the Castanea flowering represents an important tool for evaluating the ecological conservation of North-Western Spain woodland and the possible changes in the chestnut distribution due to recent climatic change. The Castanea pollen production and dispersal capacity may cause hypersensitivity reactions in the sensitive human population due to the relationship between patients with chestnut pollen allergy and a potential cross reactivity risk with other pollens or plant foods. In addition to Castanea pollen's importance as a pollinosis agent, its study is also essential in North-Western Spain due to the economic impact of the industry around the chestnut tree cultivation and its beekeeping interest. The aim of this research is to develop an Artificial Neural Networks for predict the Castanea pollen concentration in the atmosphere of the North-West Spain area by means a 20years data set. It was detected an increasing trend of the total annual Castanea pollen concentrations in the atmosphere during the study period. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) implemented in this study show a great ability to predict Castanea pollen concentration one, two and three days ahead. The model to predict the Castanea pollen concentration one day ahead shows a high linear correlation coefficient of 0.784 (individual ANN) and 0.738 (multiple ANN). The results obtained improved those obtained by the classical methodology used to predict the airborne pollen concentrations such as time series analysis or other models based on the correlation of pollen levels with meteorological variables.

  11. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  12. Adverse Events During Immunotherapy Against Grass Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis - Differences Between Subcutaneous and Sublingual Treatment.

    PubMed

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) triggered by grass pollen is a common disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatment consists of symptom-alleviating drugs, such as topical corticosteroids or antihistamines. Another option is potentially curative immunotherapy, currently available as sublingual and subcutaneous treatment. We investigated the potential differences in the prevalence and severity of adverse events related to subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) against grass pollen-induced AR. A thorough literature search was performed with PubMed and EMBASE. The findings were compared with the available summaries of product characteristics (SPC) and with commercial pharmacology databases (Micromedex). The majority of available safety data originate from registered products of standardized allergens. A surprisingly large percentage of drugs, especially those used in the United States, have no systematically collected safety data. No sufficiently powered randomized trials comparing sublingual and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) were available, but general safety assessments indicate that sublingual tablet treatment is safer than subcutaneous treatment. Not all commonly used immunotherapy drugs are officially registered, and not all have systematically collected safety data. This is especially true for older drugs used in the United States. In contrast, newer drugs that have undergone extensive clinical testing have better documentation, but unified collection of safety data is still lacking. Considering the evidence available, most drugs elicit similar side effects from the same organ systems, and symptoms from the sublingual drug classes are probably less severe. However, a head-to-head comparison of safety and efficacy is lacking.

  13. Effect of smoke derivatives on in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube elongation of species from different plant families.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Papenfus, H B; Kulkarni, M G; Pošta, M; Van Staden, J

    2015-07-01

    Plant-derived smoke stimulates seed germination in numerous plant species. Smoke also has a positive stimulatory effect on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. The range of plant families affected my smoke still needs to be established since the initial study was restricted to only three species from the Amaryllidaceae. The effects of smoke-water (SW) and the smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB) on pollen growth characteristics were evaluated in seven different plant families. Smoke-water (1:1000 and 1:2000 v:v) combined with either Brewbaker and Kwack's (BWK) medium or sucrose and boric acid (SB) medium significantly improved pollen germination and pollen tube growth in Aloe maculata All., Kniphofia uvaria Oken, Lachenalia aloides (L.f.) Engl. var. aloides and Tulbaghia simmleri P. Beauv. Karrikinolide (10(-6) and 10(-7) m) treatment significantly improved pollen tube growth in A. maculata, K. uvaria, L. aloides and Nematanthus crassifolius (Schott) Wiehle compared to the controls. BWK or SB medium containing TMB (10(-3) m) produced significantly longer pollen tubes in A. maculata, K. uvaria and N. crassifolius. These results indicate that plant-derived smoke and the smoke-isolated compounds may stimulate pollen growth in a wide range of plant species.

  14. Hive-stored pollen of honey bees: many lines of evidence are consistent with pollen preservation, not nutrient conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The honey bee colony is a complex homeostatic unit, filled with nutritionally rich resources and a broad spectrum of microbial microenvironments. The hive contains tree resins, wax, honey and pollen, all substances known to sterilize or inhibit microbes. Stored pollen provides the bulk of proteins, ...

  15. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    PubMed Central

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  16. Overexpression of the tomato pollen receptor kinase LePRK1 rewires pollen tube growth to a blebbling mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tubular growth of a pollen tube cell is crucial for the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. LePRK1 is a pollen-specific and plasma membrane–localized receptor-like kinase from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). LePRK1 interacts with another receptor, LePRK2, and with KINASE PARTNER PROTEIN (KPP...

  17. Floral adaptation and diversification under pollen limitation

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Lawrence D.; Aizen, Marcelo A.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen limitation (PL) of seed production creates unique conditions for reproductive adaptation by angiosperms, in part because, unlike under ovule or resource limitation, floral interactions with pollen vectors can contribute to variation in female success. Although the ecological and conservation consequences of PL have received considerable attention in recent times, its evolutionary implications are poorly appreciated. To identify general influences of PL on reproductive adaptation compared with those under other seed-production limits and their implications for evolution in altered environments, we derive a model that incorporates pollination and post-pollination aspects of PL. Because PL always favours increased ovule fertilization, even when population dynamics are not seed limited, it should pervasively influence selection on reproductive traits. Significantly, under PL the intensity of inbreeding does not determine whether outcrossing or autonomous selfing can evolve, although it can affect which response is most likely. Because the causes of PL are multifaceted in both natural and anthropogenically altered environments, the possible outcrossing solutions are diverse and context dependent, which may contribute to the extensive variety of angiosperm reproductive characteristics. Finally, the increased adaptive options available under PL may be responsible for positive global associations between it and angiosperm diversity. PMID:20047878

  18. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm3. Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal. PMID:26568697

  19. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    PubMed

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal.

  20. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen.

  1. Variation in Pollen-Donor Composition among Pollinators in an Entomophilous Tree Species, Castanea crenata, Revealed by Single-Pollen Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yoichi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Seiwa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background In plants, reproductive success is largely determined by the composition of pollen (i.e., self-pollen and outcross-pollen from near and distant pollen-donors) transported as a result of pollinator foraging behavior (e.g., pollen carryover). However, little evidence is available on how and to what extent the pollen carryover affects the pollen-donor composition and on which insect taxa are effective outcross-pollen transporters under field conditions. In this study, we explored roles of foraging behavior of insect pollinators on pollen-donor composition and subsequent reproductive success in a woody plant. Methods We performed paternity analyses based on microsatellite genotyping of individual pollen grains found on diurnal pollinators (i.e., bumblebee, small bee, fly, small beetle, and honeybee) visiting Castanea crenata trees. Results The outcross-pollen rate was highest in bumblebees (66%), followed by small bees (35%), flies (31%), and small beetles (18%). The effective number of pollen donors, representing pollen carryover, was greater in bumblebees (9.71) than in flies (3.40), small bees (3.32), and small beetles (3.06). The high percentages of pollen from outside the plot on bumblebees (65.4%) and flies (71.2%) compared to small bees (35.3%) and small beetles (13.5%) demonstrated their longer pollen dispersal distances. Conclusions All of the diurnal insects carried outcross-pollen grains for long distances via pollen carryover. This fact suggests that a wide range of insect taxa are potential outcross-pollen transporters for the self-incompatible C. crenata. PMID:25793619

  2. [Fast-disintegration oral tablets having sustained release property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Ohkuma, Hideki; Wang, Hua; Natsume, Hideshi; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Morimoto, Yasunori

    2002-11-01

    Fast-disintegrating (FD) tablets containing nicorandil-loaded dry emulsions were prepared and their controlled-release properties were examined and compared with the plain FD tablets (FD tablets without dry emulsions) and commercial tablets. The dry emulsions were prepared with myristyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol and their property was modified by mixing the ratio of the two alcohols. Disintegration time of the prepared FD tablets was sufficiently fast (i.e., 12 to 23 s). In vitro release of nicorandil from the FD tablets containing the dry emulsions was sustained over 6 h, while that from plain FD and commercial tablets was complete within 5 min. In vivo absorption of nicorandil from the tablets was evaluated by oral administration in beagle dogs. FD tablets containing dry emulsions showed a similar AUC, lower Cmax, and delayed Tmax compared to the plain FD and commercial tablets. These results suggest that the dry emulsion-loaded FD tablets can be utilized to improve the sustained-release property of active drugs.

  3. Optimization of Fast Dissolving Etoricoxib Tablets Prepared by Sublimation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Patel, D. M.; Patel, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 2 formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining fast dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. A surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablets for percentage drug dissolved in 30 min (Q30) and dissolution efficiency after 30 min (DE30). From the results, it was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved etoricoxib dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent. PMID:20390084

  4. Fluorescent dye particles as pollen analogues for measuring pollen dispersal in an insect-pollinated forest herb.

    PubMed

    Van Rossum, Fabienne; Stiers, Iris; Van Geert, Anja; Triest, Ludwig; Hardy, Olivier J

    2011-03-01

    In flowering plants, pollen dispersal is often the major contributing component to gene flow, hence a key parameter in conservation genetics and population biology. A cost-effective method to assess pollen dispersal consists of monitoring the dispersal of fluorescent dyes used as pollen analogues. However, few comparisons between dye dispersal and realized pollen dispersal have been performed to validate the method. We investigated pollen dispersal in two small populations of the insect-pollinated herb Primula elatior from urban forest fragments using direct (paternity analyses based on microsatellite DNA markers) and indirect (fluorescent dyes) methods. We compared these methods using two approaches, testing for the difference between the distance distributions of observed dispersal events and estimating parameters of a dispersal model, and related these results to dye dispersal patterns in three large populations. Dye and realized (based on paternity inference) pollen dispersal showed exponential decay distributions, with 74.2-94.8% of the depositions occurring at <50 m and a few longer distance dispersal events (up to 151 m). No significant difference in curve shape was found between dye and realized pollen dispersal distributions. The best-fitting parameters characterizing the dye dispersal model were consistent with those obtained for realized pollen dispersal. Hence, the fluorescent dye method may be considered as reliable to infer realized pollen dispersal for forest herbs such as P. elatior. However, our simulations reveal that large sample sizes are needed to detect moderate differences between dye and realized pollen dispersal patterns because the estimation of dispersal parameters suffers low precision.

  5. Using Raman spectroscopy in tablet moisture surface analysis: tablet surface markers.

    PubMed

    Atef, Eman; Chauhan, Harsh; Ceresia, Michelle; Pidgeon, Charles

    2010-12-01

    A method was developed to monitor the hydration of a tablet surface using chemical functional groups able to bind atmospheric water through H-bonding. In this study, generic oral dissolving loratadine tablets were used. These tablets have relatively high mannitol and lactose concentrations. Both mannitol and lactose have C-OH alcohol functional groups, several of which are potentially available for H-bonding with atmospheric water. The Raman intensity of the alcohol functional groups decreases upon hydration. This observation can be used to indirectly monitor water adsorbed to tablet surfaces at the alcohol sites. The hydration assay is based on the change in the Raman peak intensity of the alcohol C-OH stretching at 875.5 cm(-1). Consequently the decrease in the Raman intensity of this vibration can be used to monitor water adsorption. The Raman measurement of tablet surface water was compared to the direct moisture measurement method using a microbalance. The Raman spectroscopy is used to monitor the water that is specifically bound to the C-OH alcohol functional groups available for hydration. The microbalance was used to monitor the tablets' weight change during water adsorption and desorption. The distribution of the ratio of the Raman intensity of C-OH peak at 875.5 cm(-1) divided by the intensity of loratadine's C-Cl peak at 712.6 cm(-1) was experimentally determined to be a Gaussian distribution with a mean of 3.22+/-0.277. Raman analysis indicates that there is both tightly and loosely bound water at the tablet surface. This can be a useful technique with regard to inspecting and controlling the tablet drying process.

  6. Objective color classification of ecstasy tablets by hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Gerda; Lopatka, Martin; Aalders, Maurice

    2013-07-01

    The general procedure followed in the examination of ecstasy tablets for profiling purposes includes a color description, which depends highly on the observers' perception. This study aims to provide objective quantitative color information using visible hyperspectral imaging. Both self-manufactured and illicit tablets, created with different amounts of known colorants were analyzed. We derived reflectance spectra from hyperspectral images of these tablets, and successfully determined the most likely colorant used in the production of all self-manufactured tablets and four of five illicit tablets studied. Upon classification, the concentration of the colorant was estimated using a photon propagation model and a single reference measurement of a tablet of known concentration. The estimated concentrations showed a high correlation with the actual values (R(2) = 0.9374). The achieved color information, combined with other physical and chemical characteristics, can provide a powerful tool for the comparison of tablet seizures, which may reveal their origin.

  7. Detection of pollen grains in multifocal optical microscopy images of air samples.

    PubMed

    Landsmeer, Sander H; Hendriks, Emile A; de Weger, Letty A; Reiber, Johan H C; Stoel, Berend C

    2009-06-01

    Pollen is a major cause of allergy and monitoring pollen in the air is relevant for diagnostic purposes, development of pollen forecasts, and for biomedical and biological researches. Since counting airborne pollen is a time-consuming task and requires specialized personnel, an automated pollen counting system is desirable. In this article, we present a method for detecting pollen in multifocal optical microscopy images of air samples collected by a Burkard pollen sampler, as a first step in an automated pollen counting procedure. Both color and shape information was used to discriminate pollen grains from other airborne material in the images, such as fungal spores and dirt. A training set of 44 images from successive focal planes (stacks) was used to train the system in recognizing pollen color and for optimization. The performance of the system has been evaluated using a separate set of 17 image stacks containing 65 pollen grains, of which 86% was detected. The obtained precision of 61% can still be increased in the next step of classifying the different pollen in such a counting system. These results show that the detection of pollen is feasible in images from a pollen sampler collecting ambient air. This first step in automated pollen detection may form a reliable basis for an automated pollen counting system.

  8. Behavior of storage lipids during development and germination of olive ( Olea europaea L.) pollen.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, M I; M'rani-Alaoui, M; Fernández, M C

    2003-06-01

    The presence of abundant oil bodies in the mature olive pollen grain has led us to focus on the behavior of these lipid bodies during pollen development and in vitro pollen germination. The appearance, increase, and accumulation of lipid bodies have been determined by following the sequential development of the pollen grain. Semithin slices of anthers and pollen grains were stained with Sudan Black B in order to identify neutral lipids. Ultrastructural studies were also carried out. Our results show a notable increase in lipid bodies between the young-pollen-grain stage and the mature-pollen-grain stage. Substantial polarization of lipid bodies was observed after 1 or 2 h of pollen incubation in germination medium. During pollen tube growth, the lipid bodies are located near the germinative aperture after 3 h of incubation, as well as inside the pollen tube, thus suggesting that the lipid bodies move from the pollen grain to the pollen tube. After 7 h of germination the presence of lipid bodies inside the pollen tube is no longer substantial. Our results support the idea that lipid bodies are involved in pollen germination, stigma penetration, and pollen tube growth. These results are discussed in connection with their implications for the pollen germination process.

  9. Characterization of the maize pollen transcriptome: Validation of microarray results using quantitative real-time PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollen is the primary means of gene flow between plants and plant populations and plays a critical role in seed production. Pollen fitness can be defined as the ability of a particular pollen grain to outcompete other pollen present on the stigma and complete fertilization, thus ...

  10. Pollen viability and storage temperature for Southern highbush and Rabbiteye blueberry breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen viability, as measured by tetrad germination, has been reported, but these studies focused on freshly collected pollen and did not address viability of pollen stored at different temperatures over time. Moreover, genetic differences in pollen viability have been reported in blueberry genotype...

  11. Entombed pollen: A new condition in honey bee colonies associated with increased risk of colony mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we describe a new phenomenon, entombed pollen, which is highly associated with increased colony mortality. Entombed pollen appears as sunken, wax-covered cells amidst “normal”, uncapped cells of stored pollen, and the pollen contained within these cells is brick red in color. There appears to b...

  12. Dissolution of tablet-in-tablet formulations studied with ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wray, Patrick S; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2013-03-12

    This work uses ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to study the dissolution of delayed release and pH resistant compressed coating pharmaceutical tablets. Tablets with an inner core and outer shell were constructed using a custom designed compaction cell. The core of the delayed release tablets consisted of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and caffeine. The shell consisted of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and glucose. The core of the pH resistant formulations was an ibuprofen and PEG melt and the shell was constructed from HPMC and a basic buffer. UV/vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the lag-time of drug release and visible optical video imaging was used as a complementary imaging technique with a larger field of view. Two delayed release mechanisms were established. For tablets with soluble shell sections, lag-time was dependent upon rapid shell dissolution. For tablets with less soluble shells, the lag-time was controlled by the rate of dissolution medium ingress through the shell and the subsequent expansion of the wet HPMC core. The pH resistant formulations prevented crystallization of the ibuprofen in the core during dissolution despite an acidic dissolution medium. FTIR imaging produced important information about the physical and chemical processes occurring at the interface between tablet sections during dissolution.

  13. GRAPHIC INPUT TABLETS FOR PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOOKER, C.A., JR.; AND OTHERS

    TO FACILITATE STUDENT-COMPUTER COMMUNICATION IN PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A MODIFICATION OF THE RAND TABLET, WHICH CONVERTS POSITION INFORMATION INTO ELECTRICAL SIGNALS, IS PROPOSED. MANUFACTURE OF THE DEVICE WOULD BE MORE ECONOMICAL, AND THE ELECTRONICS PACKAGE, REDESIGNED WITH INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, WOULD BE SMALLER AND MORE FLEXIBLE. MODIFICATION OF…

  14. You May Now Open Your Test Tablets...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Tony Alpert, chief operating officer for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC), ponders whether to allow tablet computers--and particularly iPads--to be used for summative testing online. As Alpert points out, not only would student cheating compromise the validity of the individual student's test event, "worse yet, it could expose…

  15. Modeling of an Active Tablet Coating Process.

    PubMed

    Toschkoff, Gregor; Just, Sarah; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-12-01

    Tablet coating is a common unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry, during which a coating layer is applied to tablet cores. The coating uniformity of tablets in a batch is especially critical for active coating, that is, coating that contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In recent years, discrete element method (DEM) simulations became increasingly common for investigating tablet coating. In this work, DEM was applied to model an active coating process as closely as possible, using measured model parameters and non-spherical particles. We studied how operational conditions (rotation speed, fill level, number of nozzles, and spray rate) influence the coating uniformity. To this end, simulation runs were planned and interpreted according to a statistical design of (simulation) experiments. Our general goal was to achieve a deeper understanding of the process in terms of residence times and dimensionless scaling laws. With that regard, the results were interpreted in light of analytical models. The results were presented at various detail levels, ranging from an overview of all variations to in-depth considerations. It was determined that the biggest uniformity improvement in a realistic setting was achieved by increasing the number of spray nozzles, followed by increasing the rotation speed and decreasing the fill level.

  16. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  17. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching... tablets as in § 520.1510(d)(2) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching... tablets as in § 520.1510(d)(2) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching... tablets as in § 520.1510(d)(2) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching... tablets as in § 520.1510(d)(2) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs...

  1. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... mild, moderate, and severe (modified New York Heart Association Class II, III, IV) heart failure...

  2. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... mild, moderate, and severe (modified New York Heart Association Class II, III, IV) heart failure...

  3. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a... of feline cestodes D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis. (3) Limitations. For oral use only as a...

  4. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not use in greyhounds or in animals that are pregnant, sick, under... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a... pregnant cats has not been established. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  6. How to Transform Teaching with Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daccord, Tom; Reich, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Without a change in our technology integration strategies, there's no reason to expect that a new device will magically create new teaching practices. In some iPad classrooms, students are engaged in truly innovative work. On the whole, however, tablets are most often used to reproduce existing practices. To make the most of their investment in…

  7. 21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a... of feline cestodes D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis. (3) Limitations. For oral use only as a...

  8. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) (b...) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not use in greyhounds or in animals that are pregnant, sick,...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1616 - Orbifloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1616 Orbifloxacin tablets. (a... kilogram body weight once daily. (2) Indications for use. For management of diseases associated...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a... Dirofilaria immitis and the subsequent development of canine heartworm disease. (3) Limitations. Use...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a... Dirofilaria immitis and the subsequent development of canine heartworm disease. (3) Limitations. Use...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1616 - Orbifloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1616 Orbifloxacin tablets. (a... kilogram body weight once daily. (2) Indications for use. For management of diseases associated...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1616 - Orbifloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1616 Orbifloxacin tablets. (a... kilogram body weight once daily. (2) Indications for use. For management of diseases associated...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a... Dirofilaria immitis and the subsequent development of canine heartworm disease. (3) Limitations. Use...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a... Dirofilaria immitis and the subsequent development of canine heartworm disease. (3) Limitations. Use...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1616 - Orbifloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1616 Orbifloxacin tablets. (a... kilogram body weight once daily. (2) Indications for use. For management of diseases associated...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a... convulsions, viral encephalitis, distemper, and hardpad disease that occurs as a clinically...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron...

  19. Touch Tablet Surprises: A Preschool Teacher's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifflet, Rena; Toledo, Cheri; Mattoon, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    A year and a half ago, Rena, Cheri, and Cassandra were introduced to each other by a colleague because they shared an interest in exploring the impact newer technologies have on learning in early childhood classrooms. They meet regularly to share ideas and information on how to incorporate tablets using best practices. Cassandra's preschool…

  20. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200 milligrams (mg) marbofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000069 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 1.25 mg per pound (/lb) of body weight once daily, but may be increased to 2.5 mg/lb of body weight once daily....

  1. 21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200 milligrams (mg) marbofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000069 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 1.25 mg per pound (/lb) of body weight once daily, but may be increased to 2.5 mg/lb of body weight once daily....

  2. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a

  3. [Formation of reactive oxygen species during pollen grain germination].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, A V; Matveeva, N P; Polesskaia, O G; Ermakov, I P

    2009-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species in pollen at the early germination stage, which precedes the formation of the pollen tube, was studied. During this period, pollen grain is being hydrated, abruptly increasing its volume, and it passes from the resting state to active metabolism. Fluorescent methods have made it possible to reveal reactive oxygen species in the cytoplasm and inner layer of the pollen wall, intine. The cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species were mostly found in mitochondria, while extracellular ones were localized in aperture zones of intine, as well as in the solution surrounding pollen grains in vitro. The content of extracellular reactive oxygen species decreased after superoxide dismutase (100 units per ml) and diphenylene iodonium (100 microM), which indicates NADPH oxidase as one of possible producent of them. In conditions of suppression of extracellular reactive oxygen species production (100 microM diphenilene iodonium) or their promoted removal (after addition of 10 to 100 microM ascorbic acid), the number of germinating pollen grains increased. This effect disappeared after further increase in the concentration of the listed reagents. The result is evidence of the significance of processes of generation/removal of extracellular reactive oxygen species for pollen germination.

  4. Tree pollen allergens-an update from a molecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Asam, C; Hofer, H; Wolf, M; Aglas, L; Wallner, M

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that pollen allergies affect approximately 40% of allergic individuals. In general, tree pollen allergies are mainly elicited by allergenic trees belonging to the orders Fagales, Lamiales, Proteales, and Pinales. Over 25 years ago, the gene encoding the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was the first such gene to be cloned and its product characterized. Since that time, 53 tree pollen allergens have been identified and acknowledged by the WHO/IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee. Molecule-based profiling of allergic sensitization has helped to elucidate the immunological connections of allergen cross-reactivity, whereas advances in biochemistry have revealed structural and functional aspects of allergenic proteins. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge of the molecular aspects of tree pollen allergens. We analyze the geographic distribution of allergenic trees, discuss factors pivotal for allergic sensitization, and describe the role of tree pollen panallergens. Novel allergenic tree species as well as tree pollen allergens are continually being identified, making research in this field highly competitive and instrumental for clinical applications.

  5. Phytic Acid Metabolism in Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Pollen 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jih-Jing; Dickinson, David B.; Ho, Tuan-Hua David

    1987-01-01

    The accumulation of phytic acid during development of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) pollen and its degradation during germination have been studied. A substantial amount of phytic acid accumulates in lily pollen by 5 days before anthesis, and little change occurs during subsequent maturation. Mature lily pollen contains 7 to 8 micrograms phytic acid per milligram pollen. Considerable degradation of phytic acid occurs by 15 minutes of incubation in glucose culture medium, and very little is left by 3 hours. No partially phosphorylated myo-inositol accumulates during germination. The breakdown of phytic acid proceeds at a constant rate during this time period. The rate is calculated to be 0.037 microgram phytic acid/milligram pollen/minute. Two phytases are detected in germinated lily pollen extract using high performance liquid chromatography with an anion exchange column (diethylaminoethyl-5PW). The results suggest that one of the phytases is already present in mature ungerminated lily pollen and the other one is newly synthesized during germination from a long-lived, pre-existing mRNA. PMID:16665258

  6. Automated pollen identification using microscopic imaging and texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Marcos, J Víctor; Nava, Rodrigo; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Redondo, Rafael; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Óscar; González-Porto, Amelia; Pardo, Cristina; Chung, François; Rodríguez, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Pollen identification is required in different scenarios such as prevention of allergic reactions, climate analysis or apiculture. However, it is a time-consuming task since experts are required to recognize each pollen grain through the microscope. In this study, we performed an exhaustive assessment on the utility of texture analysis for automated characterisation of pollen samples. A database composed of 1800 brightfield microscopy images of pollen grains from 15 different taxa was used for this purpose. A pattern recognition-based methodology was adopted to perform pollen classification. Four different methods were evaluated for texture feature extraction from the pollen image: Haralick's gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), log-Gabor filters (LGF), local binary patterns (LBP) and discrete Tchebichef moments (DTM). Fisher's discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbour were subsequently applied to perform dimensionality reduction and multivariate classification, respectively. Our results reveal that LGF and DTM, which are based on the spectral properties of the image, outperformed GLCM and LBP in the proposed classification problem. Furthermore, we found that the combination of all the texture features resulted in the highest performance, yielding an accuracy of 95%. Therefore, thorough texture characterisation could be considered in further implementations of automatic pollen recognition systems based on image processing techniques.

  7. Pollen tube growth and guidance: roles of small, secreted proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Keun; Lord, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollination is a crucial step in angiosperm (flowering plant) reproduction. Highly orchestrated pollen–pistil interactions and signalling events enable plant species to avoid inbreeding and outcrossing as a species-specific barrier. In compatible pollination, pollen tubes carrying two sperm cells grow through the pistil transmitting tract and are precisely guided to the ovules, discharging the sperm cells to the embryo sac for fertilization. Scope In Lilium longiflorum pollination, growing pollen tubes utilize two critical mechanisms, adhesion and chemotropism, for directional growth to the ovules. Among several molecular factors discovered in the past decade, two small, secreted cysteine-rich proteins have been shown to play major roles in pollen tube adhesion and reorientation bioassays: stigma/style cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA, approx. 9·3 kDa) and chemocyanin (approx. 9·8 kDa). SCA, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) secreted from the stylar transmitting tract epidermis, functions in lily pollen tube tip growth as well as in forming the adhesive pectin matrix at the growing pollen tube wall back from the tip. Lily chemocyanin is a plantacyanin family member and acts as a directional cue for reorienting pollen tubes. Recent consecutive studies revealed that Arabidopsis thaliana homologues for SCA and chemocyanin play pivotal roles in tip polarity and directionality of pollen tube growth, respectively. This review outlines the biological roles of various secreted proteins in angiosperm pollination, focusing on plant LTPs and chemocyanin. PMID:21307038

  8. Precipitation signal in pollen rain from tropical forests, South India.

    PubMed

    Barboni, D; Bonnefille, R

    2001-04-01

    We have analyzed the pollen content of 51 surface soil samples collected in tropical evergreen and deciduous forests from the Western Ghats of South India sampled along a west to east gradient of decreasing rainfall (between 11 degrees 30-13 degrees 20'N and 75 degrees 30-76 degrees 30'E). Values of mean annual precipitation (Pann, mm/yr) have been calculated at each of the 51 sampling sites from a great number of meteorological stations in South India, using a method of data interpolation based on artificial neural network. Interpolated values at the pollen sites of Pann range from 1200 to 5555mm/yr, while mean temperature of the coldest month (MTCO) remains >15 degrees C and humidity factor (AET/PET, the actual evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration ratio) remains also included between 65 and 72%.Results are presented in the form of percentage pollen diagrams where samples are arranged according to increasing values of annual precipitation. They indicate that the climatic signal of rainfall is clearly evidenced by distinct pollen associations. Numerical analyses show that annual precipitation is an important parameter explaining the modern distribution of pollen taxa in this region. Pollen taxa markers of high rainfall (Pann >2500mm/yr) are Mallotus type, Elaeocarpus, Syzygium type, Olea dioica, Gnetum ula, and Hopea type, associated with Ixora type and Caryota. Pollen taxa markers of low rainfall (Pann <2500mm/yr) are Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Maytenus type, Lagerstroemia and Grewia. The proportions of evergreen taxa and of arboreal taxa vary according to rainfall values. Indeed, when rainfall is <2500mm/yr, percentage of arboreal pollen (AP) is <50% and proportion of evergreen taxa is <20%. When rainfall exceeds 2500mm/yr, AP values average 70%, and proportion of evergreen taxa increases from 60 to 90%. Moreover, a good correlation between precipitation and proportion of evergreen taxa (0.85) presumes that precipitation can be estimated from

  9. Patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation in flowers of the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Arceo-Gómez, G; Alonso, C; Abdala-Roberts, L; Parra-Tabla, V

    2016-07-01

    Pollen deposition and pollen tube formation are key components of angiosperm reproduction but intraspecific variation in these has rarely been quantified. Documenting and partitioning (populations, plants and flowers) natural variation in these two aspects of plant reproduction can help uncover spatial mosaics of reproductive success and underlying causes. In this study, we assess variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation for the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae throughout its distribution range in Mexico, and determine how this variation is structured among populations, plants and flowers. We also infer the relative importance of pollen quantity and quality in determining pollination success in this species. While we found no evidence suggesting that pollen receipt limits C. souzae reproduction across 19 populations, we did find extensive variation in pollen load size and pollen tube number per flower. Total variation in pollen receipt and pollen tube number was mostly explained by intra-individual and among-population variance. Furthermore, pollen load size had a stronger effect on the number of pollen tubes at the base of the style than pollen germination rate, suggesting that pollen quantity may be more important than quality for pollen tube success in C. souzae. Our results suggest that both small within-plant flower differences and broad-scale differences in community attributes can play an important role in determining pollination success. We emphasise the need to evaluate patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation as a first step in understanding the causes of variation in pollination success over broad spatial scales.

  10. A novel approach of preventing Japanese cedar pollen dispersal that is the cause of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) using pollen-specific fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Yuuri; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ichihara, Yu; Masuya, Hayato; Takahata, Yoshihiro; Suda, Tomohisa; Yada, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Shigehiro; Kubono, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, Japanese cedar pollen dispersal is one of the major causes of pollinosis. Sydowia japonica is an ascomycetous fungus that grows exclusively on the male strobili of Japanese cedar, suggesting a possible mechanism for controlling pollen dispersal. To evaluate this possibility, eleven isolates of S. japonica were collected from around Japan and used as an inoculum to male strobili of Japanese cedar. The treatment demonstrated that the fungus infected only the pollen and prevented pollen dispersal. The fungus did not cause any additional symptoms to other parts of Japanese cedar, such as needles, stems, and buds. All S. japonica isolates collected around Japan could serve to control pollen dispersal. Periodic observation of the fungal pathogenesis with stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope showed that hyphal fragments and conidia of S. japonica germinated on the surface of male strobili, and the germ tube entered pollen sacs through opening microsporophylls. Within the pollen sacs, the hyphae penetrated pollen gradually, such that all pollen was infected by the fungus by approximately one month before the pollen dispersal season. The infected pollen was destroyed due to the fungal infection and was never released. Our data suggests a novel approach of preventing pollen dispersal using pollen-specific fungal infection.

  11. Pollen genetic markers for detection of mutagens in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nilan, R.A.; Rosichan, J.L.; Arenaz, P.; Hodgdon, A.L.; Kleinhofs, A.

    1981-01-01

    To utilize pollen for in situ monitoring of the genetic hazards of environmental pollutants, the range of genetic traits in pollen must be identified and analyzed. These include ornamentation, shape and form, male sterility viability, intraspecific incompatibility, proteins, and starch deposition. Several proteins that meet the necessary criteria for mutagen detection systems are discussed. At Washington State Univ., a waxy pollen system is being developed in barley for in situ mutagen monitoring. Studies are being conducted to develop data concerning the nature of the mutations induced by various environmental mutagens.

  12. Sensitivity to olea Europaea pollen in different populations in Israel.

    PubMed

    Geller-Bernstein, C; Zaharan, Y; Waisel, Y

    1994-11-01

    Sensitivity to olive pollen was studied (by skin tests) in different Israeli populations suffering from respiratory allergies. The results were compared with aerobiological data, in order to correlate amount of exposure to prevalence of sensitization. It was found that in the Jewish population, sensitivity to olive pollen developed in direct proportion with the number of olive trees in the settlement: 66% where trees density is high, 29% where it is low. In the Arab population however, possibly genetically determined, the sensitization to olive pollen was low (only 14%) even though the density of trees is high.

  13. Midwayan (Paleocene) pollen correlations in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1991-01-01

    The Midwayan Stage of the eastern United States is divided into three new pollen zones, the Pseudoplicapollis serana, Tricolpites asper and Caryapollenites prodromus interval zones. Pollen data support the presence of an unconformity between the Rhems and Williamsburg Formations of South Carolina. The base of the Aquia Formation of Virginia and Maryland is slightly younger than the top of the Naheola Formation of Alabama. The Midwayan-Sabinian stage boundary is probably of late NP5 age and is probably only slightly younger than the important range base of Carya<29??m pollen. -from Author

  14. Safety evaluation of standardized allergen extract of Japanese cedar pollen for sublingual immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mitobe, Yuko; Yokomoto, Yasuki; Ohashi-Doi, Katsuyo

    2015-04-01

    Japanese cedar (JC) pollinosis is caused by Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) and most common seasonal allergic disease in Japan. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with allergen extract of JCP (JCP-allergen extract) is well established for JC pollinosis treatment with improvement of symptoms. However, major drawbacks for SCIT are repeated painful injections, frequent hospital visits and anaphylactic risk. Currently, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has received much attention as an advanced alternative application with lower incidence of systemic reactions because the liquid or tablet form of allergen is placed under the tongue. The aim of this study was safety evaluation of standardized JCP-allergen extract currently developed for SLIT in JC pollinosis. JCP-allergen extract showed no potential genotoxicity. No systemic effects were observed in rats administered JCP-allergen extract orally for 26 weeks followed by 4-week recovery period. Mild local reactions such as hyperplasia and increased globule leukocytes resulting from vehicle (glycerin)-induced irritation were observed in stomach. No-observed-adverse-effect level was greater than 10,000 JAU/kg/day for systemic toxicity, equivalent to 300-fold the human dose. No local irritation was found in rabbits oral mucosae by 7-day sublingual administration. These results demonstrate the safe profile of standardized JCP-allergen extract, suggesting it is suitable for SLIT in JC pollinosis.

  15. Fullerene fine particles adhere to pollen grains and affect their autofluorescence and germination.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Hideki; Ugwu, Charles U

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion of commercially produced fullerene fine particles to Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Camellia japonica pollen grains was investigated. The autofluorescence of pollen grains was affected by the adhesion of fullerene fine particles to the pollen grains. The degree of adhesion of fullerene fine particles to the pollen grains varied depending on the type of fullerene. Furthermore, germination of Camellia japonica pollen grains was inhibited by the adhesion of fullerene fine particles.

  16. Viability and seasonal distribution patterns of Scots pine pollen in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, P.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.

    1995-01-01

    Germination ability and airborne counts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pollen were studied during the spring of 1993 at Turku in southern Finland (60 degrees 32' N, 22 degrees 28' E) and at Utsjoki in northern Finland (69 degrees 45' N, 27 degrees 01' E). Pollen waas trapped from the beginning of May to the end of June in a high-volume air sampler. Germination tests were performed to determine the in vitro pollen viability of the trapped pollen. Airborne pine pollen counts were obtained from a continuously operating Burkard trap located near each high-volume sampler. When male flowering began, phenological observations were carried out on pollen grains collected in rotored samplers located in pine and spruce stands and open fields near Turku and Utsjoki. In southern Finland, the peak period of pine pollen production was short, lasting for only 3 days, but it accounted for about 80% of the total germinating pine pollen yield for the year. The peak count was on May 20, with over 2000 germinating pollen grains per cubic meter of air. Pollen germination rates of up to 70% were obtained during the week preceding the local pollen peak, and rates reached almost 90% on the peak day. Pollen viability remained at 45 to 65% for 1 week after the peak. There was no significant difference between the pollen counts for day and night, indicating that during the main pollen season, the pollen source was close to Turku. Before the local pollen peak, the counts of living pine pollen were low, indicating that pine pollen transported over long distances was of little ecological importance in 1993 in the Turku area. In northern Finland, the first pollen grains were caught on July 4, and the peak day was July 13. However, no viable pollen was observed during this period, indicating that there was little gene drift from southern to northern Finland in 1993.

  17. Proteomics identification of differentially expressed proteins associated with pollen germination and tube growth reveals characteristics of germinated Oryza sativa pollen.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shaojun; Chen, Taotao; Chong, Kang; Xue, Yongbiao; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Tai

    2007-02-01

    Mature pollen from most plant species is metabolically quiescent; however, after pollination, it germinates quickly and gives rise to a pollen tube to transport sperms into the embryo sac. Because methods for collecting a large amount of in vitro germinated pollen grains for transcriptomics and proteomics studies from model plants of Arabidopsis and rice are not available, molecular information about the germination developmental process is lacking. Here we describe a method for obtaining a large quantity of in vitro germinating rice pollen for proteomics study. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of approximately 2300 protein spots revealed 186 that were differentially expressed in mature and germinated pollen. Most showed a changed level of expression, and only 66 appeared to be specific to developmental stages. Furthermore 160 differentially expressed protein spots were identified on mass spectrometry to match 120 diverse protein species. These proteins involve different cellular and metabolic processes with obvious functional skew toward wall metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, cytoskeleton dynamics, and carbohydrate/energy metabolism. Wall metabolism-related proteins are prominently featured in the differentially expressed proteins and the pollen proteome as compared with rice sporophytic proteomes. Our study also revealed multiple isoforms and differential expression patterns between isoforms of a protein. These results provide novel insights into pollen function specialization.

  18. Elevation of Pollen Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number by WHIRLY2: Altered Respiration and Pollen Tube Growth in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qiang; Guo, Liang; Shen, Zhao-Rui; Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the copy number of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be much lower than the number of mitochondria. The biological significance and regulatory mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, using the pollen vegetative cell, we examined the role of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mtDNA-binding protein WHIRLY2 (AtWHY2). AtWHY2 decreases during pollen development, in parallel with the rapid degradation of mtDNA; to examine the importance of this decrease, we used the pollen vegetative cell-specific promoter Lat52 to express AtWHY2. The transgenic plants (LWHY2) had very high mtDNA levels in pollen, more than 10 times more than in the wild type (ecotype Columbia-0). LWHY2 plants were fertile, morphologically normal, and set seeds; however, reciprocal crosses with heterozygous plants showed reduced transmission of LWHY2-1 through the male and slower growth of LWHY2-1 pollen tubes. We found that LWHY2-1 pollen had significantly more reactive oxygen species and less ATP compared with the wild type, indicating an effect on mitochondrial respiration. These findings reveal that AtWHY2 affects mtDNA copy number in pollen and suggest that low mtDNA copy numbers might be the normal means by which plant cells maintain mitochondrial genetic information. PMID:26195569

  19. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples.

  20. Intersection of two signalling pathways: extracellular nucleotides regulate pollen germination and pollen tube growth via nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Reichler, Stuart A; Torres, Jonathan; Rivera, Amy L; Cintolesi, Viviana A; Clark, Greg; Roux, Stanley J

    2009-01-01

    Plant and animal cells release or secrete ATP by various mechanisms, and this activity allows extracellular ATP to serve as a signalling molecule. Recent reports suggest that extracellular ATP induces plant responses ranging from increased cytosolic calcium to changes in auxin transport, xenobiotic resistance, pollen germination, and growth. Although calcium has been identified as a secondary messenger for the extracellular ATP signal, other parts of this signal transduction chain remain unknown. Increasing the extracellular concentration of ATPgammaS, a poorly-hydrolysable ATP analogue, inhibited both pollen germination and pollen tube elongation, while the addition of AMPS had no effect. Because pollen tube elongation is also sensitive to nitric oxide, this raised the possibility that a connection exists between the two pathways. Four approaches were used to test whether the germination and growth effects of extracellular ATPgammaS were transduced via nitric oxide. The results showed that increases in extracellular ATPgammaS induced increases in cellular nitric oxide, chemical agonists of the nitric oxide signalling pathway lowered the threshold of extracellular ATPgammaS that inhibits pollen germination, an antagonist of guanylate cyclase, which can inhibit some nitric oxide signalling pathways, blocked the ATPgammaS-induced inhibition of both pollen germination and pollen tube elongation, and the effects of applied ATPgammaS were blocked in nia1nia2 mutants, which have diminished NO production. The concurrence of these four data sets support the conclusion that the suppression of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation by extracellular nucleotides is mediated in part via the nitric oxide signalling pathway.