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Sample records for 5-ht transporter sert

  1. Cerebral metabolic responses to 5-HT2A/C receptor activation in mice with genetically modified serotonin transporter (SERT) expression.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Neil; Ferrington, Linda; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Kelly, Paul A T

    2011-01-01

    Variation in the human serotonin transporter gene (hSERT; 5-HTT) resulting in a life-long alteration in SERT function influences anxiety and the risk of developing affective disorders. The mechanisms underlying the influence of the hSERT gene on these phenotypes remain unclear but may involve altered 5-HT receptor function. Here we characterise the cerebral metabolic response to 5-HT(2A/C) receptor activation in two transgenic mouse models of altered SERT function, SERT knock-out (SERT KO) and hSERT over-expressing (hSERT OE) mice, to test the hypothesis that genetically mediated variability in SERT expression alters 5-HT(2A/C) function. We found that a constitutive increase in SERT expression (hSERT OE) enhanced, whereas a constitutive decrease in SERT expression (SERT KO) attenuated, 5-HT(2A/C) function. Therefore, altered 5-HT(2A/C) receptor functioning in response to hSERT gene variation may contribute to its influence on affective phenotypes.

  2. Benzothiazoles as probes for the 5HT1A receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT): a search for new dual-acting agents as potential antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue Y; Etukala, Jagan R; Eyunni, Suresh V K; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2012-07-01

    The synthesis and evaluation of several benzothiazole-based compounds are described in an attempt to identify novel dual-acting 5HT(1A) receptor and SERT inhibitors as new antidepressants. Binding affinities at the 5HT(1A) receptor and the serotonin transporter do not appear to be congruent and other areas of the binding sites would need to be explored in order to improve binding simultaneously at both sites. Compounds 20 and 23 show moderate binding affinity at the 5HT(1A) receptor and the SERT site and thus, have the potential to be further explored as dual-acting agents. In addition, compound 20 binds with low affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT), the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and 5HT(2C) receptor, which are desirable properties as selectivity for SERT (and not DAT or NET) is associated with an absence of cardiovascular side effects.

  3. Cardiovascular afferents cause the release of 5-HT in the nucleus tractus solitarii; this release is regulated by the low- (PMAT) not the high-affinity transporter (SERT)

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Patrick S; Millar, Julian; Ramage, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Key points The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) integrates visceral afferent information essential for cardiovascular haemostasis. Using fast-cyclic voltammetry in anaesthetized rats, 5-HT (serotonin) release was detected in NTS in response to activation of these afferents. Removal of 5-HT from the extracellular space is usually regulated by the low-capacity, high-affinity 5-HT transporter (5-HTT/SERT). The present data demonstrate that 5-HT removal in the NTS is regulated by the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT), a high-capacity, low-affinity transporter. The present data also demonstrate that the 5-HT released by afferent activation comes from at least two different sources. It is suggested that one of these sources is the afferents themselves. These results demonstrate a physiological role for the low-affinity uptake transporter in the regulation of 5-HT concentration in NTS. Abstract The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) integrates inputs from cardiovascular afferents and thus is crucial for cardiovascular homeostasis. These afferents primarily release glutamate, although 5-HT has also been shown to play a role in their actions. Using fast-cyclic voltammetry, an increase in 5-HT concentrations (range 12–50 nm) could be detected in the NTS in anaesthetized rats in response to electrical stimulation of the vagus and activation of cardiopulmonary, chemo- and baroreceptor reflexes. This 5-HT signal was not potentiated by the serotonin transporter (SERT) or the noradrenaline transporter (NET) inhibitors citalopram and desipramine (1 mg kg−1). However, decynium-22 (600 μg kg−1), an organic cation 3 transporter (OCT3)/plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) inhibitor, increased the 5-HT signal by 111 ± 21% from 29 ± 10 nm. The effectiveness of these inhibitors was tested against the removal time of 5-HT and noradrenaline applied by microinjection to the NTS. Citalopram and decynium-22 attenuated the removal of 5-HT but not

  4. Methylene blue inhibits function of the 5-HT transporter

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Murat; Isaev, Dmytro; Lorke, Dietrich E; Hasan, Muhammed; Petroianu, Georg; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Methylene blue (MB) is commonly employed as a treatment for methaemoglobinaemia, malaria and vasoplegic shock. An increasing number of studies indicate that MB can cause 5-HT toxicity when administered with a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor. MB is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidases, but other targets that may contribute to MB toxicity have not been identified. Given the role of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) in the regulation of extracellular 5-HT concentrations, the present study aimed to characterize the effect of MB on SERT. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Live cell imaging, in conjunction with the fluorescent SERT substrate 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP+), [3H]5-HT uptake and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were employed to examine the effects of MB on SERT function. KEY RESULTS In EM4 cells expressing GFP-tagged human SERT (hSERT), MB concentration-dependently inhibited ASP+ accumulation (IC50: 1.4 ± 0.3 µM). A similar effect was observed in N2A cells. Uptake of [3H]5-HT was decreased by MB pretreatment. Furthermore, patch-clamp studies in hSERT expressing cells indicated that MB significantly inhibited 5-HT-evoked ion currents. Pretreatment with 8-Br-cGMP did not alter the inhibitory effect of MB on hSERT activity, and intracellular Ca2+ levels remained unchanged during MB application. Further experiments revealed that ASP+ binding to cell surface hSERT was reduced after MB treatment. In whole-cell radioligand experiments, exposure to MB (10 µM; 10 min) did not alter surface binding of the SERT ligand [125I]RTI-55. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS MB modulated SERT function and suggested that SERT may be an additional target upon which MB acts to produce 5-HT toxicity. PMID:21542830

  5. Voltage-dependent transient currents of human and rat 5-HT transporters (SERT) are blocked by HEPES and ion channel ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Farley, Robert A; Lester, Henry A

    2002-02-27

    The hyperpolarization-activated transient current of mammalian 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters (SERT) expressed in Xenopus oocytes was studied. Human (h) and rat (r) SERT transient currents are blocked by HEPES with changes in the waveform kinetics, and the blockade of hSERT has use-dependent properties. HEPES also changes the time course of the prepriming step, especially for hSERT. Transient currents at hSERT and rSERT are also blocked by spermine and spermidine in the mM range, and by fluoxetine, cocaine, QX-314, and QX-222 in the microM range. These pharmacological and kinetic properties of transient current blockade emphasize the similarities between the transient current and phenomena at ion channels.

  6. 5-HT1B autoreceptor regulation of serotonin transporter activity in synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Catherine E.; McDevitt, Ross A.; Liu, Yusha; Furay, Amy R.; Neumaier, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin-1B (5-HT1B) autoreceptors are located in serotonin (5-HT) terminals along with serotonin transporters (SERT), and play a critical role in autoregulation of serotonergic neurotransmission, and are implicated in disorders of serotonergic function, particularly emotional regulation. SERT modulates serotonergic neurotransmission by high-affinity reuptake of 5-HT. Alterations in SERT activity are associated with increased risk for depression and anxiety. Several neurotransmitter receptors are known to regulate SERT Km and Vmax, and previous work suggests that 5-HT1B autoreceptors may regulate 5-HT reuptake, in addition to modulating 5-HT release and synthesis. We used rotating disk electrode voltammetry to investigate 5-HT1B autoreceptor regulation of SERT-mediated 5-HT uptake into synaptosomes. The selective 5-HT1B antagonist SB224289 decreased SERT activity in synaptosomes prepared from wild-type but not 5-HT1B knockout mice, whereas SERT uptake was enhanced after pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT1B agonist CP94253. Furthermore, SERT activity varies as a function of 5-HT1B receptor expression—specifically, genetic deletion of 5-HT1B decreased SERT function, while viral-mediated overexpression of 5-HT1B autoreceptors in rat raphe neurons increased SERT activity in rat hippocampal synaptosomes. Considered collectively, these results provide evidence that 5-HT1B autoreceptors regulate SERT activity. Since SERT clearance rate varies as a function of 5-HT1B autoreceptor expression levels and is modulated by both activation and inhibition of 5-HT1B autoreceptors, this dynamic interaction may be an important mechanism of serotonin autoregulation with therapeutic implications. PMID:22961814

  7. Effects of MDMA and related analogs on plasma 5-HT: relevance to 5-HT transporters in blood and brain.

    PubMed

    Yubero-Lahoz, Samanta; Ayestas, Mario A; Blough, Bruce E; Partilla, John S; Rothman, Richard B; de la Torre, Rafael; Baumann, Michael H

    2012-01-15

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an illicit drug that evokes transporter-mediated release of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. 5-HT transporter (SERT) proteins are also expressed in non-neural tissues (e.g., blood), and evidence suggests that MDMA targets platelet SERT to increase plasma 5-HT. Here we tested two hypotheses related to the effects of MDMA on circulating 5-HT. First, to determine if MDMA metabolites might contribute to actions of the drug in vivo, we used in vitro microdialysis in rat blood specimens to examine the effects of MDMA and its metabolites on plasma 5-HT. Second, to determine whether effects of MDMA on plasma 5-HT might be used as an index of central SERT activity, we carried out in vivo microdialysis in blood and brain after intravenous MDMA administration. The in vitro results show that test drugs evoke dose-related increases in plasma 5-HT ranging from two- to sevenfold above baseline, with MDMA and its metabolite, (±)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), producing the largest effects. The ability of MDMA and related analogs to elevate plasma 5-HT is correlated with their potency as SERT substrates in rat brain synaptosomes. The in vivo results reveal that MDMA causes concurrent increases in extracellular 5-HT in blood and brain, but there are substantial individual differences in responsiveness to the drug. Collectively, our findings indicate that MDMA and its metabolites increase plasma 5-HT by a SERT-dependent mechanism, and suggest the possibility that measures of evoked 5-HT release in blood may reflect central SERT activity.

  8. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT by serotonin reuptake transporter function in 5-HT-absorbing neurons underscores adaptation behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Gholamali; Xie, Yusu; Kullyev, Andrey; Liang, Bin; Sze, Ji Ying

    2011-06-15

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]-absorbing neurons use serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) to uptake 5-HT from extracellular space but do not synthesize it. While 5-HT-absorbing neurons have been identified in diverse organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans, their function has not been elucidated. Here, we show that SERT in 5-HT-absorbing neurons controls behavioral response to food deprivation in C. elegans. The AIM and RIH interneurons uptake 5-HT released from chemosensory neurons and secretory neurons. Genetic analyses suggest that 5-HT secreted by both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles diffuse readily to the extrasynaptic space adjacent to the AIM and RIH neurons. Loss of mod-5/SERT function blocks the 5-HT absorption. mod-5/SERT mutants have been shown to exhibit exaggerated locomotor response to food deprivation. We found that transgenic expression of MOD-5/SERT in the 5-HT-absorbing neurons fully corrected the exaggerated behavior. Experiments of cell-specific inhibition of synaptic transmission suggest that the synaptic release of 5-HT from the 5-HT-absorbing neurons is not required for this behavioral modulation. Our data point to the role of 5-HT-absorbing neurons as temporal-spatial regulators of extrasynaptic 5-HT. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT levels by 5-HT-absorbing neurons may represent a fundamental mechanism of 5-HT homeostasis, integrating the activity of 5-HT-producing neurons with distant targets in the neural circuits, and could be relevant to some actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in humans.

  9. Synthesis and Docking of Novel 3-Indolylpropyl Derivatives as New Polypharmacological Agents Displaying Affinity for 5-HT1A R/SERT.

    PubMed

    Pessoa-Mahana, Hernán; Silva-Matus, Paul; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Chung, Hery; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Quiroz, Gabriel; Möller-Acuña, Patricia; Zapata-Torres, Gerald; Saitz-Barría, Claudio; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel 3-indolylpropyl derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for their binding affinities at the serotonin-1A receptor subtype (5-HT1A R) and the 5-HT transporter (SERT). Compounds 11b and 14b exhibited the highest affinities at the 5-HT1A R (Ki  = 43 and 56 nM), whereas compounds 11c and 14a were the most potent analogs at the SERT (Ki  = 34 and 17 nM). On the other hand, compounds 14b and 11d showed potent activity at both targets, displaying a profile that makes them promising leads for the search for novel potent ligands with a dual mechanism of action. Molecular docking studies in all the compounds unveiled relevant drug-target interactions, which allowed rationalizing the observed affinities.

  10. A quantitative model of amphetamine action on the 5-HT transporter

    PubMed Central

    Sandtner, Walter; Schmid, Diethart; Schicker, Klaus; Gerstbrein, Klaus; Koenig, Xaver; Mayer, Felix P; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Sitte, Harald H

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Amphetamines bind to the plasmalemmal transporters for the monoamines dopamine (DAT), noradrenaline (NET) and 5-HT (SERT); influx of amphetamine leads to efflux of substrates. Various models have been proposed to account for this amphetamine-induced reverse transport in mechanistic terms. A most notable example is the molecular stent hypothesis, which posits a special amphetamine-induced conformation that is not likely in alternative access models of transport. The current study was designed to evaluate the explanatory power of these models and the molecular stent hypothesis. Experimental Approach Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells expressing human (h) SERT were voltage-clamped and exposed to 5-HT, p-chloroamphetamine (pCA) or methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA). Key Results In contrast to the currents induced by 5-HT, pCA-triggered currents through SERT decayed slowly in Xenopus laevis oocytes once the agonist was removed (consistent with the molecular stent hypothesis). However, when SERT was expressed in HEK293 cells, currents induced by 3 or 100 μM pCA decayed 10 or 100 times faster, respectively, after pCA removal. Conclusions and Implications This discrepancy in decay rates is inconsistent with the molecular stent hypothesis. In contrast, a multistate version of the alternative access model accounts for all the observations and reproduces the kinetic parameters extracted from the electrophysiological recordings. A crucial feature that explains the action of amphetamines is their lipophilic nature, which allows for rapid diffusion through the membrane. PMID:24251585

  11. Caulis Sinomenii extracts activate DA/NE transporter and inhibit 5HT transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Bi, Cheng; Qin, Guo-Wei; Guo, Li-He

    2009-08-01

    Caulis Sinomenii (QFT) has analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic-like actions, and is proven effective for improving drug dependence that is known to be associated with abnormal monoaminergic transmission. We assessed whether QFT would be biologically active in functionally regulating monoamine transporters using CHO cells expressing dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), or serotonin transporter (SERT) (i.e. D8, N1, or S6 cells, respectively). Here, we showed that its primary extracts, such as QA, QC, QE, QD, and QB (QFT ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alkaloid-free chloroform, and alkaloid-containing chloroform extract, respectively), and secondary extracts, such as QE-2, - 3, - 5, - 7, QD-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 5, and QB-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 5 (fractioned from QE, QD, and QB, respectively), in differing degrees, either increased DA/ NE uptake by corresponding D8/N1 cells or decreased 5HT uptake by S6 cells; wherein, QE-2, QD-3, and QE-7 were potent DA/NE uptake activators while both QE-7 and QB-5 were potent 5HT uptake inhibitors. Furthermore, the enhancement of DA/NE uptake was dependent of DAT/NET activity, and the inhibition of 5HT uptake was typical of competition. Thus, QFT extracts, especially QE-2 and QE-7 (both with stronger potencies), are novel monoamine transporter modulators functioning as DAT/ NET activators and/or SERT inhibitors, and would likely improve neuropsychological disorders through regulating monoamine transporters.

  12. PET imaging of the serotonin transporter and 5HT1A receptor in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Gil, Roberto; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Huang, Yiyun; Perez, Audrey; Frankle, W. Gordon; Laruelle, Marc; Krystal, John; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2009-01-01

    Background Rodent models as well as studies in humans have suggested alterations in serotonin (5HT) innervation and transmission in early onset genetically determined or type II alcoholism. This study examines two indices of serotonergic transmission, 5HT transporter levels and 5-HT1A availability, in vivo, in type II alcoholism. This is the first report of combined tracers for pre and post-synaptic serotonergic transmission in the same alcoholic subjects and the first study of 5HT1A receptors in alcoholism. Method Fourteen alcohol dependent subjects were scanned (11 with both tracers, 1 with [11C]DASB only and two with [11C]WAY100635 only). Twelve healthy controls (HC) subjects were scanned with [11C]DASB and another 13 were scanned with [11C]WAY100635. Binding Potential (BPp, mL/cm3) and the specific to nonspecific partition coefficient (BPND, unitless) were derived for both tracers using 2 tissue compartment model and compared to HC across different brain regions. Relationships to severity of alcoholism were assessed. Results No significant differences were observed in regional BPp or BPND between patients and controls in any of the regions examined. No significant relationships were observed between regional 5HT transporter availability, 5-HT1A availability, and disease severity with the exception of a significant negative correlation between SERT and years of dependence in amygdala and insula. Conclusion This study did not find alterations in measures of 5-HT1A or 5HT transporter levels in patients with type II alcoholism. PMID:18962444

  13. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modelling of fluvoxamine 5-HT transporter occupancy in rat frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Geldof, M; Freijer, J I; van Beijsterveldt, L; Langlois, X; Danhof, M

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) correlation of fluvoxamine 5-HT transporter (SERT) occupancy was determined in rat frontal cortex ex vivo. Experimental approach: Rats (n=47) with permanent arterial and venous cannulas received a 30 min intravenous infusion of fluvoxamine (1 or 7.3 mg kg−1). At various time points after dosing, brains were collected for determination of fluvoxamine concentration and SERT occupancy. In addition, the time course of fluvoxamine concentration in plasma was determined up to the time of brain collection. In a separate study (n=26), the time course of fluvoxamine concentration in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and plasma was determined. The results of the investigations were interpreted by nonlinear mixed effects modeling Key results: Highest SERT occupancy was reached at the first time point (10 or 15 min) and maintained for 1.5 and 7 h after 1 and 7.3 mg kg−1, respectively. Thereafter, SERT occupancy decreased linearly at a rate of 8% h−1. SERT occupancy could be directly related to plasma, brain ECF and brain tissue concentrations by a hyperbolic function (Bmax model). Maximal SERT occupancy (Bmax) was 95%. Estimated concentrations at half-maximal SERT occupancy (EC50) in plasma, ECF and brain tissue were 0.48, 0.22 and 14.8 ng mL−1 respectively. The minimum value of the objective function decreased 12 points for ECF and brain tissue concentrations relative to plasma (P<0.01), presumably as a result of nonlinear brain distribution. Conclusions and implications: The proposed PK–PD model constitutes a useful basis for prediction of the time course of ex vivo SERT occupancy in behavioural studies with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:18493251

  14. Computational approaches for the study of serotonin and its membrane transporter SERT: implications for drug design in neurological sciences.

    PubMed

    Pratuangdejkul, J; Schneider, B; Launay, J-M; Kellermann, O; Manivet, P

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a monoamine neurotransmitter of the central nervous and peripheral systems (CNS), plays a critical role in a wide variety of physiological and behavioral processes. In the serotonergic system, deregulation of the tightly controlled extracellular concentration of 5-HT appears to be at the origin of a host of metabolic and psychiatric disorders. A key step that regulates 5-HT external level is the re-uptake of 5-HT into cells by the 5-HT transporter (SERT), which is besides the target of numerous drugs interacting with the serotonergic system. Therapeutic strategies have mainly focused on the development of compounds that block the activity of SERT, for instance reuptake inhibitors (e.g. tricyclics, "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and in the past, specific substrate-type releasers (e.g. amphetamine and cocaine derivatives). Today, generation of new drugs targetting SERT with enhanced selectivity and reduced toxicity is one of the most challenging tasks in drug design. In this context, studies aiming at characterizing the physicochemical properties of 5-HT as well as the biological active conformation of SERT are a prerequisite to the design of new leads. However, the absence of a high-resolution 3D-structure for SERT has hampered the design of new transporter inhibitors. Using computational approaches, numerous efforts were made to shed light on the structure of 5-HT and its transporter. In this review, we compared several in silico methods dedicated to the modeling of 5-HT and SERT with an emphasis on i) quantum chemistry for study of 5-HT conformation and ii) ligand-based (QSAR and pharmacophore models) and transporter-based (homology models) approaches for studying SERT molecule. In addition, we discuss some methodological aspects of the computational work in connection with the construction of putative but reliable 3D structural models of SERT that may help to predict the mechanisms of neurotransmitter transport.

  15. Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter and 5-HT2A receptor binding after chronic hypercorticosteronemia, (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane administration or neurotoxin-induced depletion of central nervous system 5-HT in the rat.

    PubMed

    Owens, M J; Ballenger, C A; Knight, D L; Nemeroff, C B

    1996-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that the number of platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter binding sites, as measured by [3H]imipramine binding, are significantly decreased, and platelet 5-HT2 receptor density is increased, in drug-free patients with major depression. To investigate whether these changes in the platelet 5-HT transporter or 5-HT2 receptor sites resulted from known or hypothesized biochemical changes observed in major depression, we examined, in the rat, whether a chronic hyperglucocorticoid state, or decreases or increases in central nervous system 5-HT neurotransmission, altered binding of the selective ligands [3H]citalopram and [125I] (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane to platelet and brain 5-HT transporters and 5-HT2 receptors, respectively. Chronic (6 weeks) hypercorticosteronemia did not alter either brain or platelet 5-HT transporter or 5-HT2A receptor binding. Similarly, 8-week administration of the 5-HT2A/5-HT2C agonist (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, at a dose which down-regulates brain 5-HT2A/2C receptors, did not alter brain or platelet 5-HT transporters or platelet 5-HT2A receptors. Additionally, para-chloroamphetamine-(11 weeks) or fenfluramine-induced chronic (1.5-10 weeks) depletion of central nervous system 5-HT did not alter platelet 5-HT transporter or 5-HT2A receptor binding. Finally, there was no correlation between the number of 5-HT transporters in brain and platelets in any of the control or treatment groups. These findings suggest that the observed changes in platelet 5-HT transporter and 5-HT2A receptor binding in depressed patients are more apt to be of genetic origin (i.e., trait-dependent) rather than an epiphenomenon of hypercortisolemia or altered central nervous system 5-HT status.

  16. Discovery of SMP-304, a novel benzylpiperidine derivative with serotonin transporter inhibitory activity and 5-HT1A weak partial agonistic activity showing the antidepressant-like effect.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Hidefumi; Masumoto, Shuji; Koyama, Koji; Kinomura, Naoya; Matsumoto, Yuji; Kato, Taro; Baba, Satoko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Horisawa, Tomoko; Oki, Hitomi; Yabuuchi, Kazuki; Kodo, Toru

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of a novel benzylpiperidine derivative with serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitory activity and 5-HT1A receptor weak partial agonistic activity showing the antidepressant-like effect. The 3-methoxyphenyl group and the phenethyl group of compound 1, which has weak SERT binding activity, but potent 5-HT1A binding activity, were optimized, leading to compound 35 with potent and balanced dual SERT and 5-HT1A binding activity, but also potent CYP2D6 inhibitory activity. Replacement of the methoxy group in the left part of compound 35 with a larger alkoxy group, such as ethoxy, isopropoxy or methoxy-ethoxy group ameliorated CYP2D6 inhibition, giving SMP-304 as a candidate. SMP-304 with serotonin uptake inhibitory activity and 5-HT1A weak partial agonistic activity, which could work as a 5-HT1A antagonist, displayed faster onset of antidepressant-like effect than a representative SSRI paroxetine in an animal model.

  17. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of phenoxyphenyl-methanamine compounds with 5HT2A, SERT, and hERG activities.

    PubMed

    Mente, Scot; Gallaschun, Randall; Schmidt, Anne; Lebel, Lorrie; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Fliri, Anton

    2008-12-01

    QSAR models have been used to evaluate activities for compounds in the phenoxyphenyl-methanamine (PPMA) class of compounds. These models utilize Hammett-type donating-withdrawing substituent values as well as simple parameters to describe substituent size and elucidate the SAR of the 'A' and 'B' rings. Using this methodology, intuitive QSAR relationships were found for the three biological activities with R(2) values of 0.73, 0.45, and 0.58 for 5HT(2A), SerT, and hERG activities.

  18. Quantitation of 5HT3 receptors in forebrain of serotonin transporter deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Mössner, R; Schmitt, A; Hennig, T; Benninghoff, J; Gerlach, M; Riederer, P; Deckert, J; Lesch, K P

    2004-01-01

    Mice deficient in the serotonin transporter (5HTT) display highly elevated extracellular 5HT levels. 5HT exerts ist effects via at least fourteen different cloned 5HT receptors located pre- and postsynaptically. In contrast to the other 5HT receptors, the 5HT3 receptor is a ionotropic receptor with ligand-gated cation channel function. Since G-protein-coupled 5HT receptors show extensive adaptive changes in 5HTT-deficient mice, we investigated whether 5HT3 receptors are also altered in these mice. Using quantitative autoradiography, we found that 5HT3 receptors are upregulated in frontal cortex (+46%), parietal cortex (+42%), and in stratum oriens of the CA3 region of the hippocampus (+18%) of 5HTT knockout mice. Changes in 5HT3 receptor mRNA expression, as determined by quantitative in situ hybridisation, were less pronounced. The adaptive changes of 5HT3 receptor expression constitute a part of the complex regulatory pattern of 5HT receptors in 5HTT knockout mice.

  19. Conservation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated autoinhibition of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in mice with altered 5-HT homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Araragi, Naozumi; Mlinar, Boris; Baccini, Gilda; Gutknecht, Lise; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Corradetti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Firing activity of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is controlled by inhibitory somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. This autoinhibitory mechanism is implicated in the etiology of disorders of emotion regulation, such as anxiety disorders and depression, as well as in the mechanism of antidepressant action. Here, we investigated how persistent alterations in brain 5-HT availability affect autoinhibition in two genetically modified mouse models lacking critical mediators of serotonergic transmission: 5-HT transporter knockout (Sert-/-) and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 knockout (Tph2-/-) mice. The degree of autoinhibition was assessed by loose-seal cell-attached recording in DRN slices. First, application of the 5-HT1A-selective agonist R(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin showed mild sensitization and marked desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors in Tph2-/- mice and Sert-/- mice, respectively. While 5-HT neurons from Tph2-/- mice did not display autoinhibition in response to L-tryptophan, autoinhibition of these neurons was unaltered in Sert-/- mice despite marked desensitization of their 5-HT1A autoreceptors. When the Tph2-dependent 5-HT synthesis step was bypassed by application of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP), neurons from both Tph2-/- and Sert-/- mice decreased their firing rates at significantly lower concentrations of 5-HTP compared to wildtype controls. Our findings demonstrate that, as opposed to the prevalent view, sensitivity of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors does not predict the magnitude of 5-HT neuron autoinhibition. Changes in 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity may rather be seen as an adaptive mechanism to keep autoinhibition functioning in response to extremely altered levels of extracellular 5-HT resulting from targeted inactivation of mediators of serotonergic signaling.

  20. The rapid recovery of 5-HT cell firing induced by the antidepressant vortioxetine involves 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Bétry, Cécile; Pehrson, Alan L; Etiévant, Adeline; Ebert, Bjarke; Sánchez, Connie; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2013-06-01

    The therapeutic effect of current antidepressant drugs appears after several weeks of treatment and a significant number of patients do not respond to treatment. Here, we report the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), a 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist, 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor, on rat 5-HT neurotransmission. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the dorsal raphe nucleus of anaesthetized rats, we assessed the acute and subchronic effects of vortioxetine and/or the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR57227 or the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist flesinoxan, on 5-HT neuronal firing activity. Using ex-vivo autoradiography, we correlated SERT occupancy and presumed 5-HT firing activity. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, was used as comparator. Importantly, the recovery of 5-HT neuronal firing was achieved after 1 d with vortioxetine and 14 d with fluoxetine. SR57227 delayed this recovery. In contrast, vortioxetine failed to alter the reducing action of 3 d treatment of flesinoxan. Acute dosing of vortioxetine inhibited neuronal firing activity more potently than fluoxetine. SR57227 prevented the suppressant effect of vortioxetine, but not of fluoxetine. In contrast, flesinoxan failed to modify the suppressant effect of vortioxetine acutely administered. Differently to fluoxetine, vortioxetine suppressed neuronal firing without saturating occupancy at the SERT. Vortioxetine produced a markedly faster recovery of 5-HT neuronal firing than fluoxetine. This is at least partly due to 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism of vortioxetine in association with its reduced SERT occupancy.

  1. Amelioration of hypoxia-induced striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor, 5-HT transporter and HIF1 alterations by glucose, oxygen and epinephrine in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Anju, T R; Paulose, C S

    2011-09-20

    Alterations in neurotransmitters and its receptors expression induce brain injury during neonatal hypoxic insult. Molecular processes regulating the serotonergic receptors play an important role in the control of respiration under hypoxic insult. The present study focused on the serotonergic regulation of neonatal hypoxia and its resuscitation methods. Receptor binding assays and gene expression studies were done to evaluate the changes in 5HT(2A) receptors and its transporter in the corpus striatum of hypoxic neonatal rats and hypoxic rats resuscitated with glucose, oxygen and epinephrine. Total 5HT and 5HT(2A) receptor number was increased in hypoxic neonates along with an up regulation of 5HT(2A) receptor and 5HT transporter gene. The enhanced striatal 5HT(2A) receptors modulate the ventilatory response to hypoxia. Immediate glucose resuscitation was found to ameliorate the receptor and transporter alterations. Hypoxia induced ATP depletion mediated reduction in blood glucose levels can be encountered by glucose administration and oxygenation helps in overcoming the anaerobic condition. The adverse effect of immediate oxygenation and epinephrine supplementation was also reported. This has immense clinical significance in establishing a proper resuscitation for the management of neonatal hypoxia.

  2. Vortioxetine, but not escitalopram or duloxetine, reverses memory impairment induced by central 5-HT depletion in rats: evidence for direct 5-HT receptor modulation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper Bornø; du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Song, Dekun; Budac, David; Smagin, Gennady; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan Lars

    2014-01-01

    Depressed patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction, including memory deficits. Acute serotonin (5-HT) depletion impairs memory and mood in vulnerable patients. The investigational multimodal acting antidepressant vortioxetine is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor that enhances memory in normal rats in novel object recognition (NOR) and conditioned fear (Mørk et al., 2013). We hypothesized that vortioxetine's 5-HT receptor mechanisms are involved in its memory effects, and therefore investigated these effects in 5-HT depleted rats. Four injections of the irreversible tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor 4-chloro-dl-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA, 86mg/kg, s.c.) induced 5-HT depletion, as measured in hippocampal homogenate and microdialysate. The effects of acute challenge with vortioxetine or the 5-HT releaser fenfluramine on extracellular 5-HT were measured in PCPA-treated and control rats. PCPA's effects on NOR and spontaneous alternation (SA) performance were assessed along with the effects of acute treatment with 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), vortioxetine, the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram, or the 5-HT norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine. SERT occupancies were estimated by ex vivo autoradiography. PCPA depleted central 5-HT by >90% in tissue and microdialysate, and impaired NOR and SA performance. Restoring central 5-HT with 5-HTP reversed these deficits. At similar SERT occupancies (>90%) vortioxetine, but not escitalopram or duloxetine, restored memory performance. Acute fenfluramine significantly increased extracellular 5-HT in control and PCPA-treated rats, while vortioxetine did so only in control rats. Thus, vortioxetine restores 5-HT depletion impaired memory performance in rats through one or more of its receptor activities.

  3. 5-HT system and cognition.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    1999-12-01

    The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7). Growing evidence suggests that 5-HT is important in learning and memory and all its receptors might be implicated in this. Actually, 5-HT pathways, 5-HT reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors show regional distribution in brain areas implicated in learning and memory. Likewise, the stimulation or blockade of presynaptic 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT(2A/2C) and 5-HT3 receptors, postsynaptic 5-HT(2B/2C) and 5-HT4 receptors and 5-HT uptake/transporter sites modulate these processes. Available evidence strongly suggests that the 5-HT system may be important in normal function, the treatment and/or pathogenesis of cognitive disorders. Further investigation will help to specify the 5-HT system nature involvement in cognitive processes, pharmacotherapies, their mechanisms and action sites and to determine under which conditions they could operate. In this regard, it is probable that selective drugs with agonists, neutral antagonist, agonists or inverse agonist properties for 5-HT1A, 5-HT(1B/1D), 5-HT(2A/2B/2C), 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors could constitute a new therapeutic opportunity for learning and memory alterations.

  4. Antidepressant activity: contribution of brain microdialysis in knock-out mice to the understanding of BDNF/5-HT transporter/5-HT autoreceptor interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gardier, Alain M.

    2013-01-01

    Why antidepressants vary in terms of efficacy is currently unclear. Despite the leadership of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of depression, the precise neurobiological mechanisms involved in their therapeutic action are poorly understood. A better knowledge of molecular interactions between monoaminergic system, pre- and post-synaptic partners, brain neuronal circuits and regions involved may help to overcome limitations of current treatments and identify new therapeutic targets. Intracerebral in vivo microdialysis (ICM) already provided important information about the brain mechanism of action of antidepressants first in anesthetized rats in the early 1990s, and since then in conscious wild-type or knock-out mice. The principle of ICM is based on the balance between release of neurotransmitters (e.g., monoamines) and reuptake by selective transporters [e.g., serotonin transporter for serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]. Complementary to electrophysiology, this technique reflects pre-synaptic monoamines release and intrasynaptic events corresponding to ≈80% of whole brain tissue content. The inhibitory role of serotonergic autoreceptors infers that they limit somatodendritic and nerve terminal 5-HT release. It has been proposed that activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor sub-types limits the antidepressant-like activity of SSRIs. This hypothesis is based partially on results obtained in ICM experiments performed in naïve, non-stressed rodents. The present review will first remind the principle and methodology of ICM performed in mice. The crucial need of developing animal models that display anxiety and depression-like behaviors, neurochemical and brain morphological phenotypes reminiscent of these mood disorders in humans, will be underlined. Recently developed genetic mouse models have been generated to independently manipulate 5-HT1A auto and heteroreceptors and ICM helped to clarify the role of the pre-synaptic component

  5. Electroacupuncture Restores 5-HT System Deficit in Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depressed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Ya; Yang, Xiuyan; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The current study is designed to investigate the antidepressant efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment by evaluating its effect on the synthesis, metabolism, reuptake, and receptors of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), so as to clarify the molecular mechanisms of EA for antidepression. Materials and Methods. Solitary combined with the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was used to establish the rat model with depression. The depressed rats were supplied with EA treatment for 4 weeks, and the behavior change and the following indices including 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), 5-HT transporter (SERT), 5-HT1A, and 5-HT2A in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were examined. Results. EA treatment significantly improved the behavior of rats and increased 5-HT level in hippocampus of depressed rats. Similarly, EA treatment could significantly increase protein and mRNA expression of TPH and 5-HT1A during 5-HT synthesis process in hippocampus of depressed rats. However, EA treatment had no effect on the activity of MAO-A and the expression of SERT protein and mRNA. Conclusion. Antidepressant efficacy of EA treatment can be accomplished through enhancing 5-HT synthesis, upregulating 5-HT1A level, and improving 5-HT content in brain and synaptic gaps. PMID:27994633

  6. Inactivation of 5HT transport in mice: modeling altered 5HT homeostasis implicated in emotional dysfunction, affective disorders, and somatic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lesch, K P; Mössner, R

    2006-01-01

    Animal models have not only become an essential tool for investigating the neurobiological function of genes that are involved in the etiopathogenesis of human behavioral and psychiatric disorders but are also fundamental in the development novel therapeutic strategies. As an example, inactivation of the serotonin (5HT) transporter (5Htt, Slc6a4) gene in mice expanded our view of adaptive 5HT uptake regulation and maintenance of 5HT homeostasis in the developing human brain and molecular processes underlying anxiety-related traits, as well as affective spectrum disorders including depression. 5Htt-deficient mice have been employed as a model complementary to direct studies of genetically complex traits and disorders, with important findings in biochemical, morphological, behavioral, and pharmacological areas. Based on growing evidence for a critical role of the 5HTT in the integration of synaptic connections in the rodent, nonhuman primate, and human brain during critical periods of development and adult life, more in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms implicated in these fine-tuning processes is currently evolving. Moreover, demonstration of a joint influence of the 5HTT variation and environmental sources during early brain development advanced our understanding of the mechanism of genexgene and genexenvironment interactions in the developmental neurobiology of anxiety and depression. Lastly, imaging techniques, which become increasingly elaborate in displaying the genomic influence on brain system activation in response to environmental cues, have provided the means to bridge the gap between small effects of 5HTT variation and complex behavior, as well as psychopathological dimensions. The combination of elaborate genetic, epigenetic, imaging, and behavioral analyses will continue to generate new insight into 5HTT's role as a master control gene of emotion regulation.

  7. Medial hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors regulate neuroendocrine responses to stress and exploratory locomotor activity: application of recombinant adenovirus containing 5-HT1A sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Holmes, Andrew; Ma, Li; Van de Kar, Louis D; Garcia, Francisca; Murphy, Dennis L

    2004-12-01

    Our previous studies found that serotonin transporter (SERT) knock-out mice showed increased sensitivity to minor stress and increased anxiety-like behavior but reduced locomotor activity. These mice also showed decreased density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A) receptors in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and dorsal raphe. To evaluate the contribution of hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors to these phenotypes of SERT knock-out mice, two studies were conducted. Recombinant adenoviruses containing 5-HT1A sense and antisense sequences (Ad-1AP-sense and Ad-1AP-antisense) were used to manipulate 5-HT1A receptors in the hypothalamus. The expression of the 5-HT1A genes is controlled by the 5-HT1A promoter, so that they are only expressed in 5-HT1A receptor-containing cells. (1) Injection of Ad-1AP-sense into the hypothalamus of SERT knock-out mice restored 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus; this effect was accompanied by elimination of the exaggerated adrenocorticotropin responses to a saline injection (minor stress) and reduced locomotor activity but not by a change in increased exploratory anxiety-like behavior. (2) To further confirm the observation in SERT-/- mice, Ad-1AP-antisense was injected into the hypothalamus of normal mice. The density and the function of 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus were significantly reduced in Ad-1AP-antisense-treated mice. Compared with the control group (injected with Ad-track), Ad-1A-antisense-treated mice showed a significant reduction in locomotor activity, but again no changes in exploratory anxiety-like behaviors, tested by elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. Thus, the present results demonstrate that medial hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors regulate stress responses and locomotor activity but may not regulate exploratory anxiety-like behaviors.

  8. Involvement of 5-HT3 receptors in the action of vortioxetine in rat brain: Focus on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maurizio S; Sánchez, Connie; Celada, Pau; Artigas, Francesc

    2016-09-01

    The antidepressant vortioxetine is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibitor. Vortioxetine occupies all targets at high therapeutic doses and only SERT and 5-HT3-R at low doses. Vortioxetine increases extracellular monoamine concentrations in rat forebrain more than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and shows pro-cognitive activity in preclinical models. Given its high affinity for 5-HT3-R (Ki = 3.7 nM), selectively expressed in GABA interneurons, we hypothesized that vortioxetine may disinhibit glutamatergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission following 5-HT3-R blockade. Here we assessed vortioxetine effect on pyramidal neuron activity and extracellular 5-HT concentration using in vivo extracellular recordings of rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons and microdialysis in mPFC and ventral hippocampus (vHPC). Vortioxetine, but not escitalopram, increased pyramidal neuron discharge in mPFC. This effect was prevented by SR57227A (5-HT3-R agonist) and was mimicked by ondansetron (5-HT3-R antagonist) and by escitalopram/ondansetron combinations. In microdialysis experiments, ondansetron augmented the 5-HT-enhancing effect of escitalopram in mPFC and vHPC. Local ondansetron in vHPC augmented escitalopram effect, indicating the participation of intrinsic mechanisms. Since 5-HT neurons express GABAB receptors, we examined their putative involvement in controlling 5-HT release after 5-HT3-R blockade. Co-perfusion of baclofen (but not muscimol) reversed the increased 5-HT levels produced by vortioxetine and escitalopram/ondansetron combinations in vHPC. The present results suggest that vortioxetine increases glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in rat forebrain by blocking 5-HT3 receptors in GABA interneurons.

  9. Deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT Neurons Results in Rapid Degeneration of the 5-HT System and Early Postnatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Dudok, Jacobus J.; Groffen, Alexander J. A.; Toonen, Ruud F. T.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) system densely innervates many brain areas and is important for proper brain development. To specifically ablate the 5-HT system we generated mutant mice carrying a floxed Munc18-1 gene and Cre recombinase driven by the 5-HT-specific serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) promoter. The majority of mutant mice died within a few days after birth. Immunohistochemical analysis of brains of these mice showed that initially 5-HT neurons are formed and the cortex is innervated with 5-HT projections. From embryonic day 16 onwards, however, 5-HT neurons started to degenerate and at postnatal day 2 hardly any 5-HT projections were present in the cortex. The 5-HT system of mice heterozygous for the floxed Munc18-1 allele was indistinguishable from control mice. These data show that deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT neurons results in rapid degeneration of the 5-HT system and suggests that the 5-HT system is important for postnatal survival. PMID:22140524

  10. 5-HT Radioligands for Human Brain Imaging With PET and SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Louise M.; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Nutt, David J.; Pike, Victor W.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

  11. Platelet 5-HT(1A) receptor correlates with major depressive disorder in drug-free patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Wang, Di; Man, Sui Cheung; Ng, Roger; McAlonan, Grainne M; Wong, Hei Kiu; Wong, Wendy; Lee, Jade; Tan, Qing-Rong

    2014-08-04

    The platelet serotonergic system has potential biomarker utility for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, platelet expression of 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin transporter (SERT) proteins, and serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were quantified in 53 patients with MDD and 22 unaffected controls. All were drug-free, non-smokers and had no other psychiatric and cardiovascular comorbidity. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Patients with MDD had significantly higher expression of platelet 5-HT1A receptors but significantly lower contents of platelet 5-HT, platelet-poor plasma (PPP) 5-HT and PPP 5-HIAA compared to healthy controls, and this was correlated with the severity of depression. SERT expression did not differ between the two groups. Correlation analysis confirmed a strong, inverse relationship between the 5-HT1A receptor expression and the 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels. Thus overexpression of platelet 5-HT1A receptors and reduced 5-HT tone may function as a peripheral marker of depression.

  12. Tramadol and another atypical opioid meperidine have exaggerated serotonin syndrome behavioural effects, but decreased analgesic effects, in genetically deficient serotonin transporter (SERT) mice.

    PubMed

    Fox, Meredith A; Jensen, Catherine L; Murphy, Dennis L

    2009-09-01

    The serotonin syndrome is a potential side-effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). We recently reported a genetic mouse model for the serotonin syndrome, as serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient mice have exaggerated serotonin syndrome behavioural responses to the MAOI tranylcypromine and the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP). As numerous case reports implicate the atypical opioids tramadol and meperidine in the development of the human serotonin syndrome, we examined tramadol and meperidine as possible causative drugs in the rodent model of the serotonin syndrome in SERT wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout (-/-) mice. Comparisons were made with SERT mice treated with either vehicle or morphine, an opioid not implicated in the serotonin syndrome in humans. Here we show that tramadol and meperidine, but not morphine, induce serotonin syndrome-like behaviours in mice, and we show that this response is exaggerated in mice lacking one or two copies of SERT. The exaggerated response to tramadol in SERT-/- mice was blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635. Further, we show that morphine-, meperidine- and tramadol-induced analgesia is markedly decreased in SERT-/- mice. These studies suggest that caution seems warranted in prescribing or not warning patients receiving SSRIs or MAOIs that dangerous side-effects may occur during concurrent use of tramadol and similar agents. These findings suggest that it is conceivable that there might be increased vulnerability in individuals with SERT polymorphisms that may reduce SERT by more than 50%, the level in SERT+/- mice.

  13. Correlated gene expression encoding serotonin (5-HT) receptor 4 and 5-HT transporter in proximal colonic segments of mice across different colonization states and sexes.

    PubMed

    Reigstad, C S; Linden, D R; Szurszewski, J H; Sonnenburg, J L; Farrugia, G; Kashyap, P C

    2016-09-01

    The production and handling of serotonin (5-HT) is an important determinant of colonic motility and has been reported to be altered in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent studies suggest that the intestinal microbiota and sex of the host can influence expression of genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis and signaling. While expression of genes in serotonergic pathways has been shown to be variable, it remains unclear whether genes within this pathway are coregulated. As a first step in that direction, we investigated potential correlations in relative mRNA expression of serotonergic genes, in the proximal colon isolated from male and female mice in different states of microbial association: germ-free (GF), humanized (ex-germ-free colonized with human gut microbiota, HM), and conventionally raised (CR) mice. Among the 10 pairwise comparisons conducted between five serotonergic transcripts, Tph1, Chga, Maoa, Slc6a4, and Htr4, we found a strong, positive correlation between colonic expression of Slc6a4 and Htr4 across different colonization states and sexes. We also identified a positive correlation between the expression of Tph1 and Chga; however, there were no correlations observed between any other tested pair of 5-HT-related transcripts. These data suggest that correlated expression of Slc6a4 and Htr4 likely involves coregulation of genes located on different chromosomes which modulate serotonergic activity in the gut. Further work will need to be done to understand the pathways and cell types responsible for this correlated expression, given the important role of 5-HT in gastrointestinal physiology.

  14. Exploration of insights, opportunities and caveats provided by the X-ray structures of hSERT.

    PubMed

    Topiol, Sid; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Sanchez, Connie; Bøgesø, Klaus P

    2016-10-15

    The recently reported X-ray structures of the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter SERT with bound inhibitors open new opportunities for drug discovery at SERT, selectivity design with respect to other neurotransmitter sodium transporters, and enhanced understanding of the molecular events involved in SERT action. Through computational and structural analyses, we explore the binding and migration of 5-HT at SERT. Consistent with earlier studies of leucine migration at the bacterial homolog of SERT, LeuT, we find multiple potential 'stopover' sites for 5-HT binding at SERT including the two (transmembrane S1 and extracellular vestibule S2) seen in the binding of the SSRI (S)-citalopram (S-Cit) to SERT, as well as other sites. Docking studies reveal the possibility of both hetero- (S-Cit+5-HT) and homo-dimeric (5-HT+5-HT) co-binding at both these sites which may explain earlier published allosteric activity observations and provide novel design strategies. Comparisons with substrate bound X-ray structures of the dopamine transporter reveal a number of potential sources of selectivity, some of which may be 'artificial' including target based, species related, experimental design related, and ligand dependent examples including substrate versus inhibitor related features.

  15. Reduced serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) function causes insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of food intake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoning; Margolis, Kara J; Gershon, Michael D; Schwartz, Gary J; Sze, Ji Y

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of serotonin neurotransmission and a major target of antidepressants. Antidepressants, such as selectively serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), that block SERT function are known to affect food intake and body weight. Here, we provide genetic evidence that food intake and metabolism are regulated by separable mechanisms of SERT function. SERT-deficient mice ate less during both normal diet and high fat diet feeding. The reduced food intake was accompanied with markedly elevated plasma leptin levels. Despite reduced food intake, SERT-deficient mice exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and progressively developed obesity and hepatic steatosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic deficits of SERT-deficient mice are attributable to reduced insulin-sensitivity in peripheral tissues. First, SERT-deficient mice exhibited beta-cell hyperplasia and islet-mass expansion. Second, biochemical analyses revealed constitutively elevated JNK activity and diminished insulin-induced AKT activation in the liver of SERT-deficient mice. SERT-deficient mice exhibited hyper-JNK activity and hyperinsulinemia prior to the development of obesity. Third, enhancing AKT signaling by PTEN deficiency corrected glucose tolerance in SERT-deficient mice. These findings have potential implications for designing selective SERT drugs for weight control and the treatment of metabolic syndromes.

  16. Blockade of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET) by the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram: an in vivo microdialysis study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hai T; Guiard, Bruno P; Bacq, Alexandre; David, Denis J; David, Indira; Quesseveur, Gaël; Gautron, Sophie; Sanchez, Connie; Gardier, Alain M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Escitalopram, the S(+)-enantiomer of citalopram is the most selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor approved. Although all 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext). some also enhance, to a lesser extent, extracellular levels of noradrenaline ([NA]ext). However, the mechanisms by which SSRIs activate noradrenergic transmission in the brain remain to be determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH This study examined the effects of escitalopram, on both [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext in the frontal cortex (FCx) of freely moving wild-type (WT) and mutant mice lacking the 5-HT transporter (SERT−/−) by using intracerebral microdialysis. We explored the possibilities that escitalopram enhances [NA]ext, either by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the low- or high-affinity noradrenaline transporters, or by an indirect mechanism promoted by [5-HT]ext elevation. The forced swim test (FST) was used to investigate whether enhancing cortical [5-HT]ext and/or [NA]ext affected the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram. KEY RESULTS In WT mice, a single systemic administration of escitalopram produced a significant increase in cortical [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext. As expected, escitalopram failed to increase cortical [5-HT]ext in SERT−/− mice, whereas its neurochemical effects on [NA]ext persisted in these mutants. In WT mice subjected to the FST, escitalopram increased swimming parameters without affecting climbing behaviour. Finally, escitalopram, at relevant concentrations, failed to inhibit cortical noradrenaline and 5-HT uptake mediated by low-affinity monoamine transporters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These experiments suggest that escitalopram enhances, although moderately, cortical [NA]extin vivo by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET). PMID:22233336

  17. Altered response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in mice heterozygous for the serotonin transporter: an electrophysiological and neurochemical study.

    PubMed

    Guiard, Bruno P; Mansari, Mostafa El; Murphy, Dennis L; Blier, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    A serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT; SERT) polymorphism has been associated with depressive states and poor responses to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Given the similar attenuation of SERT activity in SERT+/- mice and in humans with short allele(s) of SERT in its promoter region, it is conceivable that SERT+/- mice offer an adequate model to mimic the human subpopulation with respect to their altered response to SSRIs. This study investigated the effects of the most selective SSRI escitalopram, in heterozygous SERT+/- mice using a combined electrophysiological and neurochemical approach. Results indicated that administration of escitalopram for 2 d resulted in a 72% and 63% decrease in dorsal raphe 5-HT neuronal firing rate in SERT+/+ and SERT+/- mice, respectively. In contrast, administration of escitalopram for 21 d produced a gradual recovery of 5-HT neuronal firing rate to basal level in SERT+/+, but not in SERT+/- mice. In the hippocampus, microdialysis revealed that sustained administration of escitalopram produced a greater increase in extracellular 5-HT ([5-HT]ext) outflow in SERT+/- than in the wild-types with or without a washout of the SSRI. Nevertheless, the ability of microiontophoretically applied 5-HT to inhibit the firing rate of CA3 pyramidal neurons was not different between SERT+/+ and SERT+/- mice given escitalopram for 21 d. The data indicate that the poor response to SSRIs of depressive patients with short allele(s) of SERT is not attributable to a lesser increase in 5-HT transmission in the hippocampus.

  18. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors as targets for agents to treat psychiatric disorders: rationale and current status of research.

    PubMed

    Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2013-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders represent a large economic burden in modern societies. However, pharmacological treatments are still far from optimal. Drugs used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (selective serotonin [5-HT] reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) are pharmacological refinements of first-generation tricyclic drugs, discovered by serendipity, and show low efficacy and slowness of onset. Moreover, antipsychotic drugs are partly effective in positive symptoms of schizophrenia, yet they poorly treat negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The present article reviews the neurobiological basis of 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) function and the role of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in the treatment of MDD, anxiety and psychotic disorders. The activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in corticolimbic areas appears beneficial for the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. However, presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs play a detrimental role in MDD, since individuals with high density or function of presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs are more susceptible to mood disorders and suicide, and respond poorly to antidepressant drugs. Moreover, the indirect activation of presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs by SSRIs/SNRIs reduces 5-HT neuron activity and terminal 5-HT release, thus opposing the elevation of extracellular 5-HT produced by blockade of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the forebrain. Chronic antidepressant treatment desensitizes presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs, thus reducing the effectiveness of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback. The prevention of this process by the non-selective partial agonist pindolol accelerates clinical antidepressant effects. Two new antidepressant drugs, vilazodone (marketed in the USA) and vortioxetine (in development) incorporate partial 5-HT1A-R agonist properties with SERT blockade. Several studies with transgenic mice have also established the respective role of pre- and

  19. Heart valve cardiomyocytes of mouse embryos express the serotonin transporter SERT

    SciTech Connect

    Pavone, Luigi Michele Spina, Anna; Lo Muto, Roberta; Santoro, Dionea; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Avallone, Luigi

    2008-12-12

    Multiple evidence demonstrate a role for serotonin and its transporter SERT in heart valve development and disease. By utilizing a Cre/loxP system driven by SERT gene expression, we recently demonstrated a regionally restricted distribution of SERT-expressing cells in developing mouse heart. In order to characterize the cell types exhibiting SERT expression within the mouse heart valves at early developmental stages, in this study we performed immunohistochemistry for Islet1 (Isl1) and connexin-43 (Cx-43) on heart sections from SERT{sup Cre/+};ROSA26R embryos previously stained with X-gal. We observed the co-localization of LacZ staining with Isl1 labelling in the outflow tract, the right ventricle and the conal region of E11.5 mouse heart. Cx-43 labelled cells co-localized with LacZ stained cells in the forming atrioventricular valves. These results demonstrate the cardiomyocyte phenotype of SERT-expressing cells in heart valves of the developing mouse heart, thus suggesting an active role of SERT in early heart valve development.

  20. Regional distribution of 5-HT transporters in the brain of wild type and 'Purkinje cell degeneration' mutant mice: a quantitative autoradiographic study with [3H]citalopram.

    PubMed

    Le Marec, N; Hébert, C; Amdiss, F; Botez, M I; Reader, T A

    1998-09-01

    The neurological mutant 'Purkinje cell degeneration' (pcd) is characterized by a primary degeneration of Purkinje cells, as well as by retrograde and secondary partial degeneration of cerebellar granule cells and inferior olivary neurons, and can be considered as an animal model of human degenerative ataxias. The serotonin (5-HT) innervation was examined in wild type and pcd mice, by quantifying 5-HT uptake sites, or transporters, using [3H]citalopram binding autoradiography. In both wild type and pcd mutants, the highest densities of 5-HT transporters were in mesencephalic and rostral pontine regions, in limbic structures, in hypothalamus and in discrete thalamic divisions, while the lowest labelling was found in cerebellum and brainstem reticular formation. In pcd mice, although [3H]citalopram labelling was higher in cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei, when binding densities were corrected for surface area, the up-regulation of 5-HT transporters was present only in deep cerebellar nuclei. Also, higher labelling was found in nuclei raphe dorsalis and medialis, in ventral divisions of rostral neostriatum, caudal neostriatum, rostral globus pallidus, posteromedial amygdaloid nucleus, septum, olfactory tubercles, vertical limb of Broca's diagonal band, periventricular, latero-ventral and medio-ventral thalamic nuclei, medial geniculate nucleus, anterior hypothalamus and entorhinal cortex. The results indicate a relative integrity of the 5-HT innervation, but with a reorganization of serotoninergic terminals in the cerebellum, in particular in the deep cerebellar nuclei. This suggests that in progressive cerebellar degeneration, as found in the pcd mutant, the modified 5-HT system may still participate in motor functions by exerting an overall modulation of excitatory amino acid neurotransmission, but the availability of 5-HT may be altered in defined brain targets, as is the case for other spontaneous cerebellar mutants, in particular for the 'Lurcher

  1. Reappraisal of spontaneous stereotypy in the deer mouse as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): response to escitalopram treatment and basal serotonin transporter (SERT) density.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Brand, Linda; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2013-11-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent thoughts and repetitive motor actions. Hyposerotonergic signalling in the cortico-striatal circuitry is believed to be central to the pathology of OCD, while many patients only respond to chronic treatment with high dose selective serotonin (5HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Confined deer mice spontaneously develop two forms of stereotypy, namely vertical jumping and pattern running. The purpose of this investigation was to reappraise these behaviours and strengthen the validity of deer mouse stereotypy as an animal model of OCD within a framework of three study questions: (1) can the time spent executing stereotypical behaviours be employed as a measure of extent of stereotypy, (2) does deer mouse stereotypy only respond to chronic, but not sub-chronic treatment with a high-dose SSRI, and (3) is deer mouse stereotypy associated with altered cortico-striatal 5HT transporter (SERT) binding? The current study demonstrates that treatment naïve high stereotypical (HS) deer mice spend significantly more time executing stereotypical behaviours while significantly less time is spent indulging in stereotypy following chronic, but not sub-chronic, treatment with escitalopram. Furthermore, HS deer mice present with a significant decrease in striatal SERT density compared to non-stereotypical (NS) controls. Building on previous validation studies, we conclude that deer mouse stereotypy is a valid naturalistic animal model of OCD with robust face, construct and predictive validity.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) stimulates the active transport of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Bosin, T.R.

    1986-03-01

    Platelets function in a variety of physiological and pathological processes which may be altered by oxidant injury. One such process is the active transport 5-HT, which is an important mechanism in the control of circulating 5-HT levels. Exposure of mouse platelets (10/sup 8//ml) to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ caused a time-dependent and dose-dependent increase in 5-HT (10/sup -7/M) uptake. The uptake 4 and 10 min following H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (50 ..mu..M) was 228% and 145% of control values, respectively. Fluoxetine (10/sup -6/M) blocked all 5-HT uptake and catalase (1500 U/ml) blocked the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-stimulated uptake. Enzymatically produced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (glucose/glucose oxidase) and xanthine (X)/xanthine oxidase (XO) generated oxygen radicals produced quantitatively and qualitatively similar results. The stimulatory response of platelets to X/XO generated oxidants was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (250 U/ml) but, was inhibited using heat-denatured XO, allopurinol (0.5 mM) and catalase; fluoxetine inhibited all 5-HT uptake. Platelets exposed to X/XO in the presence of chelated (EDTA, 100 ..mu..M) or unchelated FeSO/sub 4/, FeNH/sub 4/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ or CuCl (50 ..mu..M) did not have altered 5-HT uptake. These data indicate that brief exposure of platelets to physiological levels of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ results in marked, reversible stimulation of active 5-HT uptake which may represent a homeostatic defense mechanism when H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is elevated in the platelet microenvironment.

  3. Serotonin transporter, 5-HT1A receptor, and behavior in DBA/2J mice in comparison with four inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Tibeikina, Marina A; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2009-12-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI), the reduction in acoustic startle produced when it is preceded by a weak prepulse stimulus, is impaired in schizophrenic patients. The DBA/2J mouse strain displayed deficient PPI and is therefore suggested as an experimental animal model for the loss of sensorimotor gating in schizophrenia. Brain serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. In the present study, behavior, 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) mRNA level, 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA level, and 5-HT(1A) receptor density in the brain regions were studied in DBA/2J mice in comparison with four inbred mouse strains (CBA/Lac, C57BL/6, BALB/c, and ICR). A decrease in 5-HTT mRNA level in the midbrain and a reduced density of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the frontal cortex without significant changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA level in DBA/2J mice were found. It was shown that, along with decreased PPI, DBA/2J mice demonstrated considerably reduced immobility in the tail suspension test and in the forced swim test. No significant interstrain differences in intermale aggression, or in light-dark box and elevated plus-maze tests, were found. The results suggested the involvement of decreased 5-HTT gene expression and 5-HT(1A) receptor density in genetically defined PPI deficiency and showed a lack of any association between PPI deficiency and predisposition to aggressive, anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors.

  4. Interaction between serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphisms influences personality trait of persistence in Austrian Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Schosser, Alexandra; Fuchs, Karoline; Scharl, Theresa; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Kindler, Jochen; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Kaufmann, Rainer M; Leisch, Friedrich; Kasper, Siegfried; Sieghart, Werner; Aschauer, Harald N

    2010-03-01

    We examined 89 normal volunteers using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Genotyping the 102T/C polymorphism of the serotonin 5HT2A receptor gene and the ser9gly polymorphism in exon 1 of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene was performed using PCR-RFLP, whereas the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism was investigated using PCR amplification followed by electrophoresis in an 8% acrylamide gel with a set of size markers. We found a nominally significant association between gender and harm avoidance (P=0.017; women showing higher scores). There was no association of either DAT1, DRD3 or 5HT2A alleles or genotypes with any dimension of the TCI applying Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum tests. Comparing homozygote and heterozygote DAT1 genotypes, we found higher novelty seeking scores in homozygotes (P=0.054). We further found a nominally significant interaction between DAT1 and 5HT2A homo-/heterozygous gene variants (P=0.0071; DAT1 and 5HT2A genotypes P value of 0.05), performing multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Examining the temperamental TCI subscales, this interaction was associated with persistence (genotypes: P=0.004; homo-/heterozygous gene variants: P=0.0004). We conclude that an interaction between DAT1 and 5HT2A genes might influence the temperamental personality trait persistence.

  5. Effects of olanzapine and betahistine co-treatment on serotonin transporter, 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptor binding density.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2013-12-02

    Olanzapine is widely used in treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms but induces serious metabolic side-effects. Recent evidence has showed that co-treatment of betahistine (a histaminergic H1 receptor agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) is effective for preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain/obesity, however it is not clear whether this co-treatment affects on the primary therapeutic receptor binding sites of olanzapine such as serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) and dopaminergic D2 receptors (D2R). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of this co-treatment on 5-HT2AR, 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and D2R bindings in various brain regions involved in antipsychotic efficacy. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered orally (t.i.d.) with either olanzapine (1mg/kg), betahistine (2.7 mg/kg), olanzapine plus betahistine (O+B), or vehicle (control) for 2 weeks. Quantitative autoradiography was used to detect the density of [(3)H]ketanserin, [(3)H]paroxetine and [(3)H]raclopride binding site to 5-HT2AR, 5-HTT and D2R. Compared to the controls, olanzapine significantly decreased [(3)H]ketanserin bindings to 5-HT2AR in the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Similar changes in 5-HT2AR bindings in these nuclei were also observed in the O+B co-treatment group. Olanzapine also significantly decreased [(3)H]paroxetine binding to 5-HTT in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, however, both olanzapine only and O+B co-treatment did not affect [(3)H]raclopride binding to D2R. The results confirmed the important role of 5-HT2AR in the efficacy of olanzapine, which is not influenced by the O+B co-treatment. Therefore, betahistine co-treatment would be an effective combination therapy to reduce olanzapine-induced weight gain side-effects without affecting olanzapine's actions on 5-HT2AR transmissions.

  6. Development of 5-HT transporter density and long-term effects of methylphenidate in an animal model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Roessner, Veit; Manzke, Till; Becker, Andreas; Rothenberger, Aribert; Bock, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Although stimulants as the treatment of choice are widely prescribed in ADHD, little is known about their long-term neurobiological effects. Hence, for the first time the present study examined the long-term effects of chronic methylphenidate (MPH) administration on striatal 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) densities in an animal model of ADHD. First, it compared the normal development of striatal 5-HTT densities of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as an animal model of ADHD and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats as controls; binding of the highly selective ligand of 5-HTT [(3)H]paroxetine was determined on membrane preparations of the striatum of SHR and WKY rats on postnatal days 25, 50, and 90, i.e. from the time of weaning until adulthood. Second, the long-term effect of chronic administration of 2 mg/kg per day MPH at two different developmental stages (days 25-39 or 50-64) on the striatal 5-HTT density was examined in both rat strains at day 90. Long-term effects of MPH treatment on striatal 5-HTT density in adulthood could be ruled out in both healthy (WKY) and "ADHD" rats (SHR). But a higher striatal 5-HTT density in older SHR versus WKY rats might indicate ADHD specific changes in the 5-HT system that needs further investigation not only in animals.

  7. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. V. Demonstration of two binding sites for the cocaine analog [125I]RTI-55 associated with the 5-HT transporter in rat brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, M L; Dersch, C M; Baumann, M H; Cadet, J L; Partilla, J S; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Becketts, K M; Brockington, A; Rothman, R B

    1995-04-01

    Earlier work characterized the binding of the high-affinity cocaine analog 3 beta-(4-125iodophenyl)-tropane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([125I]RTI-55) to membranes prepared from rat caudate. That investigation demonstrated that [125I]RTI-55-labeled serotonin (5-HT) transporters in addition to dopamine (DA) transporters and resolved [125I]RTI-55 binding to 5-HT transporters into two distinct components. In the present study, we characterized [125I]RTI-55 binding to membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus caudate. The first series of experiments established that [125I]RTI-55 labels both DA and 5-HT transporters and that 50 nM paroxetine and either 1000 nM 1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)homopiperazine (LR1111) or 500 nM (RTI-120) could be used to block [125I]RTI-55 binding to the 5-HT and DA transporters, thereby generating selective assay conditions for the DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively. Selective lesioning of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons with intracerebroventricular 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine selectively decreased [125I]RTI-55 binding to DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively, thereby confirming the selectivity of the assay conditions. The ligand-selectivity pattern of the whole brain minus caudate 5-HT transporter correlated significantly with that of the caudate 5-HT transporter, although there were some striking differences for selected test agents. Additional experiments resolved [125I]RTI-55 binding to the 5-HT transporter into two components. A ligand-selectivity analysis of the two components failed to identify a highly selective test agent. In summary, the major findings of the present study are that [125I]RTI-55 labels both DA and 5-HT transporters in membranes prepared from whole brain minus caudate, that 50 nM paroxetine and either 1000 nM LR1111 or 500 nM RTI-120 can be used as a blocking agent to generate selective assay conditions for the DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively, and that [125

  8. 5-HT(1A) receptors and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT(1)-5-HT(7)). Increasing evidence suggests that 5-HT pathways, reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors represent a strategic distribution for learning and memory. A key question still remaining is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) are directly or indirectly contributing to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis or, rather, if they represent protective or adaptable mechanisms (at least in initial stages). In the current paper, the major aim is to revise recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT(1A) receptors in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in memory. An attempt is made to identify and discuss sources of discrepancies by employing an analytic approach to examine the nature and degree of difficulty of behavioral tasks used, as well as implicating other factors (for example, brain areas, training time or duration, and drug administration) which might offer new insights into the understanding and interpretation of these data. In this context, 8-OH-DPAT deserves special attention since for many years it has been the more selective 5-HT drug and, hence, more frequently used. As 5-HT(1A) receptors are key components of serotonergic signaling, investigation of their memory mechanisms and action sites and the conditions under which they might operate, could yield valuable insights. Moreover, selective drugs with agonists, neutral antagonists or inverse agonist properties for 5-HT(1A) (and 5-HT(7)) receptors may constitute a new therapeutic opportunity for learning and memory disorders.

  9. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 enhances antidepressant-like behavioral effects of the SSRI fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Marek, Gerard J; Martin-Ruiz, Raul; Abo, Allyson; Artigas, Francesc

    2005-12-01

    The addition of low doses of atypical antipsychotic drugs, which saturate 5-HT(2A) receptors, enhances the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with major depression as well as treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. The purpose of the present studies was to test the effects of combined treatment with a low dose of a highly selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (M100907; formerly MDL 100,907) and low doses of a SSRI using a behavioral screen in rodents (the differential-reinforcement-of low rate 72-s schedule of reinforcement; DRL 72-s) which previously has been shown to be sensitive both to 5-HT(2) antagonists and SSRIs. M100907 has a approximately 100-fold or greater selectivity at 5-HT(2A) receptors vs other 5-HT receptor subtypes, and would not be expected to appreciably occupy non-5-HT(2A) receptors at doses below 100 microg/kg. M100907 increased the reinforcement rate, decreased the response rate, and shifted the inter-response time distributions to the right in a pattern characteristic of antidepressant drugs. In addition, a positive synergistic interaction occurred when testing low doses of the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (6.25-12.5 microg/kg) with clinically relevant doses of the SSRI fluoxetine (2.5-5 mg/kg), which both exerted minimal antidepressant-like effects by themselves. In vivo microdialysis study revealed that a low dose of M100907 (12.5 microg/kg) did not elevate extracellular 5-HT levels in the prefrontal cortex over those observed with fluoxetine alone (5 mg/kg). These results will be discussed in the context that the combined blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters (SERT) may result in greater efficacy in treating neuropsychiatric syndromes than blocking either site alone.

  10. Cloning, expression, and localization of a chloride-facilitated, cocaine-sensitive serotonin transporter from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Demchyshyn, L L; Pristupa, Z B; Sugamori, K S; Barker, E L; Blakely, R D; Wolfgang, W J; Forte, M A; Niznik, H B

    1994-05-24

    We report here on the isolation and characterization of a serotonin (5HT) transporter from Drosophila melanogaster. A 3.1-kb complementary DNA clone (dSERT) was found to encode a protein of 622 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 69 kDa and a putative transmembrane topology characteristic of cloned members of the mammalian Na+/Cl- neurotransmitter cotransporter gene family. dSERT displays highest overall amino acid sequence identity with the mammalian 5HT (51%), norepinephrine (47%), and dopamine (47%) transporters and shares with all transporters 104 absolutely conserved amino acid residues. Upon transient expression in HeLa cells, dSERT exhibited saturable, high-affinity, and sodium-dependent [3H]5HT uptake with estimated Km and Vmax values of approximately 500 nM and 5.2 x 10(-18) mol per cell per min, respectively. In marked contrast to the human SERT (hSERT), 5HT-mediated transport by dSERT was not absolutely dependent on extracellular Cl-, while the sodium-dependent uptake of 5HT was facilitated by increased extracellular Cl- concentrations. dSERT displays a pharmacological profile and rank order of potency consistent with, but not identical to, mammalian 5HT transporters. Comparison of the affinities of various compounds for the inhibition of 5HT transport by both dSERT and hSERT revealed that antidepressants were 3- to 300-fold less potent on dSERT than on hSERT, while mazindol displayed approximately 30-fold greater potency for dSERT. Both cocaine and RTI-55 inhibited 5HT uptake by dSERT with estimated inhibition constants of approximately 500 nM, while high concentrations (> 10 microM) of dopamine, norepinephrine, octopamine, tyramine, and histamine failed to inhibit transport. In situ hybridization reveals the selective expression of dSERT mRNA to specific cell bodies in the ventral ganglion of the embryonic and larval Drosophila nervous system with a distribution pattern virtually identical to that of 5HT

  11. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Benefits and Risks of EMD386088—A 5-HT6 Receptor Partial Agonist and Dopamine Transporter Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kotańska, Magdalena; Śniecikowska, Joanna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Pytka, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Since 5-HT6 receptors play role in controlling feeding and satiety and dopamine is essential for normal feeding behavior, we evaluated the ability of EMD 386088—5-HT6 receptor partial agonist and dopamine transporter inhibitor—to reduce body weight in obese rats, as well as its anorectic properties (calorie intake reduction) in rat model of excessive eating and the influence on metabolism (plasma glucose and glycerol levels). We also determined the effect of the studied compound on pica behavior in rats and its influence on blood pressure after single administration. EMD 386088 reduced body weight in obese rats fed high-fat diet and decreased calorie intake in both models applied (rat model of obesity and of excessive eating). In both models EMD 386088 regulated plasma glucose and increased plasma glycerol levels. The latter proves that the compound reduced body fat. We think that it might have increased lipolysis, but this requires further studies. The reduction in glucose levels is the first symptom of metabolic disorders compensation. EMD 386088 did not cause pica behavior in rats but increased blood pressure after single administration. We think that partial 5-HT6 agonists might have potential in the treatment of obesity. Thus, EMD 386088 requires extended studies. PMID:28228713

  12. Evidence for a role of transporter-mediated currents in the depletion of brain serotonin induced by serotonin transporter substrates.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael H; Bulling, Simon; Benaderet, Tova S; Saha, Kusumika; Ayestas, Mario A; Partilla, John S; Ali, Syed F; Stockner, Thomas; Rothman, Richard B; Sandtner, Walter; Sitte, Harald H

    2014-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) substrates like fenfluramine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine cause long-term depletion of brain 5-HT, while certain other substrates do not. The 5-HT deficits produced by SERT substrates are dependent upon transporter proteins, but the exact mechanisms responsible are unclear. Here, we compared the pharmacology of several SERT substrates: fenfluramine, d-fenfluramine, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperainze (TFMPP), to establish relationships between acute drug mechanisms and the propensity for long-term 5-HT depletions. In vivo microdialysis was carried out in rat nucleus accumbens to examine acute 5-HT release and long-term depletion in the same subjects. In vitro assays were performed to measure efflux of [(3)H]5-HT in rat brain synaptosomes and transporter-mediated ionic currents in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes. When administered repeatedly to rats (6 mg/kg, i.p., four doses), all drugs produce large sustained elevations in extracellular 5-HT (>5-fold) with minimal effects on dopamine. Importantly, 2 weeks after dosing, only rats exposed to fenfluramine and d-fenfluramine display depletion of brain 5-HT. All test drugs evoke fluoxetine-sensitive efflux of [(3)H]5-HT from synaptosomes, but d-fenfluramine and its bioactive metabolite d-norfenfluramine induce significantly greater SERT-mediated currents than phenylpiperazines. Our data confirm that drug-induced 5-HT release probably does not mediate 5-HT depletion. However, the magnitude of transporter-mediated inward current may be a critical factor in the cascade of events leading to 5-HT deficits. This hypothesis warrants further study, especially given the growing popularity of designer drugs that target SERT.

  13. Evidence for a Role of Transporter-Mediated Currents in the Depletion of Brain Serotonin Induced by Serotonin Transporter Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Michael H; Bulling, Simon; Benaderet, Tova S; Saha, Kusumika; Ayestas, Mario A; Partilla, John S; Ali, Syed F; Stockner, Thomas; Rothman, Richard B; Sandtner, Walter; Sitte, Harald H

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) substrates like fenfluramine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine cause long-term depletion of brain 5-HT, while certain other substrates do not. The 5-HT deficits produced by SERT substrates are dependent upon transporter proteins, but the exact mechanisms responsible are unclear. Here, we compared the pharmacology of several SERT substrates: fenfluramine, d-fenfluramine, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperainze (TFMPP), to establish relationships between acute drug mechanisms and the propensity for long-term 5-HT depletions. In vivo microdialysis was carried out in rat nucleus accumbens to examine acute 5-HT release and long-term depletion in the same subjects. In vitro assays were performed to measure efflux of [3H]5-HT in rat brain synaptosomes and transporter-mediated ionic currents in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes. When administered repeatedly to rats (6 mg/kg, i.p., four doses), all drugs produce large sustained elevations in extracellular 5-HT (>5-fold) with minimal effects on dopamine. Importantly, 2 weeks after dosing, only rats exposed to fenfluramine and d-fenfluramine display depletion of brain 5-HT. All test drugs evoke fluoxetine-sensitive efflux of [3H]5-HT from synaptosomes, but d-fenfluramine and its bioactive metabolite d-norfenfluramine induce significantly greater SERT-mediated currents than phenylpiperazines. Our data confirm that drug-induced 5-HT release probably does not mediate 5-HT depletion. However, the magnitude of transporter-mediated inward current may be a critical factor in the cascade of events leading to 5-HT deficits. This hypothesis warrants further study, especially given the growing popularity of designer drugs that target SERT. PMID:24287719

  14. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Cellular Sequestration during Chronic Exposure Delays 5-HT3 Receptor Resensitization due to Its Subsequent Release*

    PubMed Central

    Hothersall, J. Daniel; Alexander, Amy; Samson, Andrew J.; Moffat, Christopher; Bollan, Karen A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic synapse is dynamically regulated by serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) with elevated levels leading to the down-regulation of the serotonin transporter and a variety of 5-HT receptors, including the 5-HT type-3 (5-HT3) receptors. We report that recombinantly expressed 5-HT3 receptor binding sites are reduced by chronic exposure to 5-HT (IC50 of 154.0 ± 45.7 μm, t½ = 28.6 min). This is confirmed for 5-HT3 receptor-induced contractions in the guinea pig ileum, which are down-regulated after chronic, but not acute, exposure to 5-HT. The loss of receptor function does not involve endocytosis, and surface receptor levels are unaltered. The rate and extent of down-regulation is potentiated by serotonin transporter function (IC50 of 2.3 ± 1.0 μm, t½ = 3.4 min). Interestingly, the level of 5-HT uptake correlates with the extent of down-regulation. Using TX-114 extraction, we find that accumulated 5-HT remains soluble and not membrane-bound. This cytoplasmically sequestered 5-HT is readily releasable from both COS-7 cells and the guinea pig ileum. Moreover, the 5-HT level released is sufficient to prevent recovery from receptor desensitization in the guinea pig ileum. Together, these findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of down-regulation where the chronic release of sequestered 5-HT prolongs receptor desensitization. PMID:25281748

  15. The 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's disorder: A PET study with [¹¹C]MDL 100907 and [¹¹C]DASB.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Ragy R; Slifstein, Mark; Xu, Xiaoyan; Frankle, W Gordon; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Wasserman, Stacey; Pepa, Lauren; Kolevzon, Alexander; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Laruelle, Marc; Hollander, Eric

    2011-12-30

    Evidence from biochemical, imaging, and treatment studies suggest abnormalities of the serotonin system in autism spectrum disorders, in particular in frontolimbic areas of the brain. We used the radiotracers [(11)C]MDL 100907 and [(11)C]DASB to characterize the 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's Disorder. Seventeen individuals with Asperger's Disorder (age=34.3 ± 11.1 years) and 17 healthy controls (age=33.0 ± 9.6 years) were scanned with [(11)C]MDL 100907. Of the 17 patients, eight (age=29.7 ± 7.0 years) were also scanned with [¹¹C]DASB, as were eight healthy controls (age=28.7 ± 7.0 years). Patients with Asperger's Disorder and healthy control subjects were matched for age, gender, and ethnicity, and all had normal intelligence. Metabolite-corrected arterial plasma inputs were collected and data analyzed by two-tissue compartment modeling. The primary outcome measure was regional binding potential BP(ND). Neither regional [¹¹C]MDL 100907 BP(ND) nor [¹¹C]DASB BP(ND) was statistically different between the Asperger's and healthy subjects. This study failed to find significant alterations in binding parameters of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters in adult subjects with Asperger's disorder.

  16. Serotonin transporter variant drives preventable gastrointestinal abnormalities in development and function

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Li, Zhishan; Stevanovic, Korey; Saurman, Virginia; Anderson, George M.; Snyder, Isaac; Blakely, Randy D.; Gershon, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by SLC6A4) have been identified in ASD. Expression of the most common SERT variant (Ala56) in mice increases 5-HT clearance and causes ASD-like behaviors. Here, we demonstrated that Ala56-expressing mice display GI defects that resemble those seen in mice lacking neuronal 5-HT. These defects included enteric nervous system hypoplasia, slow GI transit, diminished peristaltic reflex activity, and proliferation of crypt epithelial cells. An opposite phenotype was seen in SERT-deficient mice and in progeny of WT dams given the SERT antagonist fluoxetine. The reciprocal phenotypes that resulted from increased or decreased SERT activity support the idea that 5-HT signaling regulates enteric neuronal development and can, when disturbed, cause long-lasting abnormalities of GI function. Administration of a 5-HT4 agonist to Ala56 mice during development prevented Ala56-associated GI perturbations, suggesting that excessive SERT activity leads to inadequate 5-HT4–mediated neurogenesis. We propose that deficient 5-HT signaling during development may contribute to GI and behavioral features of ASD. The consequences of therapies targeting SERT during pregnancy warrant further evaluation. PMID:27111230

  17. Synthesis and molecular modeling of new 1-aryl-3-[4-arylpiperazin-1-yl]-1-propane derivatives with high affinity at the serotonin transporter and at 5-HT(1A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Orús, Lara; Pérez-Silanes, Silvia; Oficialdegui, Ana-M; Martínez-Esparza, Javier; Del Castillo, Juan-C; Mourelle, Marisa; Langer, Thierry; Guccione, Salvatore; Donzella, Giuseppina; Krovat, Eva M; Poptodorov, Konstantin; Lasheras, Berta; Ballaz, Santiago; Hervías, Isabel; Tordera, Rosa; Del Río, Joaquín; Monge, Antonio

    2002-09-12

    It has been proposed that 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists augment the antidepressant efficacy of selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors. In a search toward new and efficient antidepressants, 1-(aryl)-3-[4-arylpiperazin-1-yl]-1-propane molecular hybrids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for 5-HT reuptake inhibition and 5-HT(1A) receptor affinity. The design was based in coupling structural moieties related to inhibition of serotonin reuptake, such as benzo[b]thiophene derivatives to arylpiperazines, typical 5-HT(1A) receptor ligands. In binding studies, several compounds showed affinity at the 5-HT transporter and at 5-HT(1A) receptors. Molecular modeling studies predicted the pharmacophore elements required for high affinity binding and the features that enable to discriminate between agonist, partial agonist, or antagonist action at 5-HT(1A) receptors and 5-HT transporter inhibition. Solvent interactions in desolvation prior to the binding step along with enthalpy and enthropy compensations might be responsible to explain agonist, partial agonist, and antagonist character. Hydrogen-bonding capability seems to be important to break hydrogen interhelical hydrogen bonds or alternatively to form other bonds upon ligand binding. Partial agonists and antagonists are unable to do this as the full agonist, which interacts closely by long-range forces or directly. The compounds showing the higher affinity at both the 5-HT transporter (K(i) < 50 nM) and the 5-HT(1A) receptors (K(i) < 20 nM) were further explored for their ability to stimulate [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding or to antagonize 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT)-stimulated [(35)]GTPgammaS binding to rat hippocampal membranes, an index of agonist/antagonist action at 5-HT(1A) receptors, respectively. Compound 8g exhibited agonist activity (EC(50) = 30 nM) in this assay, whereas compounds 7g and 8h,i behaved as weak partial agonists and 7h-j and 8j,l antagonized the R(+)-8-OH

  18. Modulation of serotonin transporter function by kappa-opioid receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Sundaramurthy, Santhanalakshmi; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Samuvel, Devadoss J; Shippenberg, Toni S; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda

    2017-02-01

    Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists produce dysphoria and psychotomimesis. While KOR agonists produce pro-depressant-like effects, KOR antagonists produce anti-depressant-like effects in rodent models. The cellular mechanisms and downstream effector(s) by which KOR ligands produce these effects are not clear. KOR agonists modulate serotonin (5-HT) transmission in the brain regions implicated in mood and motivation regulation. Presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) activity is critical in the modulation of synaptic 5-HT and, subsequently, in mood disorders. Detailing the molecular events of KOR-linked SERT regulation is important for examining the postulated role of this protein in mood disorders. In this study, we used heterologous expression systems and native tissue preparations to determine the cellular signaling cascades linked to KOR-mediated SERT regulation. KOR agonists U69,593 and U50,488 produced a time and concentration dependent KOR antagonist-reversible decrease in SERT function. KOR-mediated functional down-regulation of SERT is sensitive to CaMKII and Akt inhibition. The U69,593-evoked decrease in SERT activity is associated with a decreased transport Vmax, reduced SERT cell surface expression, and increased SERT phosphorylation. Furthermore, KOR activation enhanced SERT internalization and decreased SERT delivery to the membrane. These data demonstrate that KOR activation decreases 5-HT uptake by altering SERT trafficking mechanisms and phosphorylation status to reduce the functional availability of surface SERT.

  19. One-step preparation of [(18)F]FPBM for PET imaging of serotonin transporter (SERT) in the brain.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hongwen; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Zehui; Zhu, Lin; Choi, Seok Rye; Ploessl, Karl; Kung, Hank F

    2016-08-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERT) in the brain play an important role in normal brain function. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, escitalopram, etc., specifically target SERT binding in the brain. Development of SERT imaging agents may be useful for studying the function of SERT by in vivo imaging. A one-step preparation of [(18)F]FPBM, 2-(2'-(dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-(3-([(18)F]fluoropropoxy)phenylthio)benzenamine, for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of SERT binding in the brain was achieved. An active OTs intermediate, 9, was reacted with [(18)F]F(-)/K222 to produce [(18)F]FPBM in one step and in high radiochemical yield. This labeling reaction was evaluated and optimized under different temperatures, bases, solvents, and varying amounts of precursor 9. The radiolabeling reaction led to the desired [(18)F]FPBM in one step and the crude product was purified by HPLC purification to give no-carrier-added [(18)F]FPBM (radiochemical yield, 24-33%, decay corrected; radiochemical purity >99%). PET imaging studies in normal monkeys (n=4) showed fast, pronounced uptakes in the midbrain and thalamus, regions known to be rich in SERT binding sites. A displacement experiment with escitalopram (5mg/kg iv injection at 30min after [(18)F]FPBM injection) showed a rapid and complete reversal of SERT binding, suggesting that binding by [(18)F]FPBM was highly specific and reversible. A one-step radiolabeling method coupled with HPLC purification for preparation of [(18)F]FPBM was developed. Imaging studies suggest that it is feasible to use this method to prepare [(18)F]FPBM for in vivo PET imaging of SERT binding in the brain.

  20. Regulation of the serotonin transporter in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Duo-Chen; Cao, Hai-Long; Xu, Meng-Que; Wang, Si-Nan; Wang, Yu-Ming; Yan, Fang; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin transporter (SERT) have earned a tremendous amount of attention regarding the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Considering that enteric 5-HT is responsible for the secretion, motility and perception of the bowel, the involvement of altered enteric 5-HT metabolism in the pathogenesis of IBS has been elucidated. Higher 5-HT availability is commonly associated with depressed SERT mRNA in patients with IBS compared with healthy controls. The expression difference of SERT between IBS patients and healthy controls might suggest that SERT plays an essential role in IBS pathogenesis, and SERT was expected to be a novel therapeutic target for IBS. Progress in this area has begun to illuminate the complex regulatory mechanisms of SERT in the etiology of IBS. In this article, current insights regarding the regulation of SERT in IBS are provided, including aspects of SERT gene polymorphisms, microRNAs, immunity and inflammation, gut microbiota, growth factors, among others. Potential SERT-directed therapies for IBS are also described. The potential regulators of SERT are of clinical importance and are important for better understanding IBS pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27688655

  1. Selective siRNA-mediated suppression of 5-HT1A autoreceptors evokes strong anti-depressant-like effects.

    PubMed

    Bortolozzi, A; Castañé, A; Semakova, J; Santana, N; Alvarado, G; Cortés, R; Ferrés-Coy, A; Fernández, G; Carmona, M C; Toth, M; Perales, J C; Montefeltro, A; Artigas, F

    2012-06-01

    Depression is a major health problem worldwide. Most prescribed anti-depressants, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) show limited efficacy and delayed onset of action, partly due to the activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptors by the excess extracellular serotonin (5-HT) produced by SSRI in the raphe nuclei. Likewise, 5-HT(1A) receptor (5-HT(1A)R) gene polymorphisms leading to high 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptor expression increase depression susceptibility and decrease treatment response. In this study, we report on a new treatment strategy based on the administration of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) to acutely suppress 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback mechanisms. We developed a conjugated siRNA (C-1A-siRNA) by covalently binding siRNA targeting 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA with the SSRI sertraline in order to concentrate it in serotonin axons, rich in serotonin transporter (SERT) sites. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of C-1A-siRNA to mice resulted in its selective accumulation in serotonin neurons. This evoked marked anti-depressant-like effects in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, but did not affect anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze. In parallel, C-1A-siRNA administration markedly decreased 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptor expression and suppressed 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia (a pre-synaptic 5-HT(1A)R effect in mice) without affecting post-synaptic 5-HT(1A)R expression in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Moreover, i.c.v. C-1A-siRNA infusion augmented the increase in extracellular serotonin evoked by fluoxetine in prefrontal cortex to the level seen in 5-HT(1A)R knockout mice. Interestingly, intranasal C-1A-siRNA administration produced the same effects, thus opening the way to the therapeutic use of C-1A-siRNA. Hence, C-1A-siRNA represents a new approach to treat mood disorders as monotherapy or in combination with SSRI.

  2. QGP-1 cells release 5-HT via TRPA1 activation; a model of human enterochromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Doihara, Hitoshi; Nozawa, Katsura; Kojima, Ryosuke; Kawabata-Shoda, Eri; Yokoyama, Toshihide; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2009-11-01

    Recently, we discovered that transient receptor potential ankyrin1 channel (TRPA1) is highly expressed in human and rat enterochromaffin (EC) cells, and those TRPA1 agonists such as allyl isothiocyanates (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde (CA) enhance the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) from EC cells in vitro. In this study, QGP-1 cells, a human pancreatic endocrine cell line, were found to highly express TRPA1 and EC cell marker genes, such as tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin, ATP-dependent vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1), metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4), beta1-adrenergic receptor (ADB1), muscarinic 4 acetylcholine receptor (ACM4), substance P, serotonin transporter (SERT), and guanylin. Furthermore, the TRPA1 agonists AITC, CA, and acrolein concentration dependently evoked an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) influx and the release of 5-HT in QGP-1 cells. The effects of these TRPA1 agonists were inhibited by ruthenium red, a TRPA1 antagonist, and TRPA1-specific siRNA. These results indicate that the Ca(2+) influx increase and 5-HT release induced by AITC, CA and acrolein in QGP-1 cells were mediated by TRPA1, and that the QGP-1 cell line could be a new model for the investigation of TRPA1 function in the human EC cell.

  3. Effect of mouse chromosome 13 terminal fragment on liability to catalepsy and expression of tryptophane hydroxylase-2, serotonin transporter, and 5-HT1A receptor genes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Kulikov, A V; Naumenko, V S; Bazovkina, D V; Dee, V Yu; Osipova, D V; Popova, N K

    2009-05-01

    Congenic mice obtained by genome fragments transfer from one strain to another are a potent tool for studies of the molecular mechanisms of behavioral mutations. The 59-70 cM fragment of chromosome 13 containing the locus determining predisposition to freezing reaction (catalepsy) and the gene encoding 5-HT(1A) receptor were transferred from cataleptic CBA/Lac mice into the genome of catalepsy-resistant AKR/J mice. The impact of this fragment for the severity of catalepsy and expression of genes encoding tryptophane hydroxylase-2, serotonin transporter, and 5-HT(1A) receptor was studied. Half of mice of the resultant congenic AKR.CBA-D13Mit76 strain exhibited pronounced catalepsy, similarly to donor CBA animals. The expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor gene in the midbrain of AKR animals was significantly higher than in CBA. The level of 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA in AKR.CBA-D13Mit76 animals was significantly higher than in the donor strain. Mice of parental AKR and CBA strains did not differ from each other and from AKR.CBA-D13Mit76 animals by the levels of tryptophane hydroxylase-2 and serotonin transporter genes mRNA. These data prove the location of catalepsy regulating gene in the distal fragment of chromosome 13. The recipient strain genome enhanced the expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor gene in the brain without modulating the expression of catalepsy gene.

  4. Cocaine Modulates Mammalian Circadian Clock Timing by Decreasing Serotonin Transport in the SCN

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Rebecca A.; Stowie, Adam; Amicarelli, Mario; Nackenoff, Alex G.; Blakely, Randy D.; Glass, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine abuse disrupts reward and homeostatic processes through diverse processes, including those involved in circadian clock regulation. Recently we showed that cocaine administration to mice disrupts nocturnal photic phase resetting of the suprachiasmatic (SCN) circadian clock, whereas administration during the day induces non-photic phase shifts. Importantly, the same effects are seen when cocaine is applied to the SCN in vitro, where it blocks photic-like (glutamate-induced) phase shifts at night and induces phase advances during the day. Furthermore, our previous data suggest that cocaine acts in the SCN by enhancing serotonin (5-HT) signaling. For example, the in vitro actions of cocaine mimic those of 5-HT and are blocked by the 5-HT antagonist, metergoline, but not the dopamine receptor antagonist, fluphenazine. Although our data are consistent with cocaine acting through enhance 5-HT signaling, the nonselective actions of cocaine as an antagonist of monoamine transporters raises the question of whether inhibition of the 5-HT transporter (SERT) is key to its circadian effects. Here we investigate this issue using transgenic mice expressing a SERT that exhibits normal 5-HT recognition and transport but significantly reduced cocaine potency (SERT Met172). Circadian patterns of SCN behavioral and neuronal activity did not differ between WT and SERT Met172 mice, nor did they differ in the ability of the 5-HT1A,2,7 receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT to reset SCN clock phase, consistent with the normal SERT expression and activity in the transgenic mice. However, 1) cocaine administration does not induce phase advances when administered in vivo or in vitro in SERT Met172 mice; 2) cocaine does not block photic or glutamate-induced (phase shifts in SERT Met172 mice; and 3) cocaine does not induce long-term changes in free-running period in SERT Met172 mice. We conclude that SERT antagonism is required for the phase shifting of the SCN circadian clock induced by cocaine

  5. Physical Interactions and Functional Relationships of Neuroligin 2 and Midbrain Serotonin Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ran; Quinlan, Meagan A.; Iwamoto, Hideki; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Green, Noah H.; Jetter, Christopher S.; McMahon, Douglas G.; Veestra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Levitt, Pat; Blakely, Randy D.

    2016-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] modulates many key brain functions including those subserving sensation, emotion, reward, and cognition. Efficient clearance of 5-HT after release is achieved by the antidepressant-sensitive 5-HT transporter (SERT, SLC6A4). To identify novel SERT regulators, we pursued a proteomic analysis of mouse midbrain SERT complexes, evaluating findings in the context of prior studies that established a SERT-linked transcriptome. Remarkably, both efforts converged on a relationship of SERT with the synaptic adhesion protein neuroligin 2 (NLGN2), a post-synaptic partner for presynaptic neurexins, and a protein well-known to organize inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Western blots of midbrain reciprocal immunoprecipitations confirmed SERT/NLGN2 associations, and also extended to other NLGN2 associated proteins [e.g., α-neurexin (NRXN), gephyrin]. Midbrain SERT/NLGN2 interactions were found to be Ca2+-independent, supporting cis vs. trans-synaptic interactions, and were absent in hippocampal preparations, consistent with interactions arising in somatodendritic compartments. Dual color in situ hybridization confirmed co-expression of Tph2 and Nlgn2 mRNA in the dorsal raphe, with immunocytochemical studies confirming SERT:NLGN2 co-localization in raphe cell bodies but not axons. Consistent with correlative mRNA expression studies, loss of NLGN2 expression in Nlgn2 null mice produced significant reductions in midbrain and hippocampal SERT expression and function. Additionally, dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons from Nlgn2 null mice exhibit reduced excitability, a loss of GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs, and increased 5-HT1A autoreceptor sensitivity. Finally, Nlgn2 null mice display significant changes in behaviors known to be responsive to SERT and/or 5-HT receptor manipulations. We discuss our findings in relation to the possible coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic regulation afforded by somatodendritic SERT:NLGN2 complexes. PMID

  6. Olanzapine May Inhibit Colonic Motility Associated with the 5-HT Receptor and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiarui; Qiao, Ying; Le, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether the effects of olanzapine on gastrointestinal motility is related to the serotonin antagonism and myosin light chain kinase. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Olanzapine gavage was performed for each treatment group during the course of 30 continuous days, while the same volume of saline was given to the rats in the control group. Defecation of the rats was observed on days 7 and 30 after olanzapine gavage. The effects of olanzapine on contraction of colonic smooth muscles were observed in ex vivo experiments. A Western blot was used to evaluate expression levels of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and MLCK in colon segments of the rats. Results ResultsaaCompared to the control group, 5-160 µ M of olanzapine could inhibit dose-dependently the contraction of colonic smooth muscle ex vivo experiments. The maximum smooth muscle contraction effects of 5-HT and acetylcholine significantly decreased after treatment with 40-160 µ M of olanzapine. Constipation was found in the olanzapine-treated rats on day 7 and have sustained day 30 after gavage. Expression of MLCK in olanzapine-treated rats was significantly decreased, whereas the expression of SERT significantly increased on the day 7, then significantly decreased on the day 30 after olanzapine gavage. Conclusion SERT and MLCK may involve in the inhibition of colonic contraction induced by olanzapine. PMID:27081386

  7. Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A Receptor (5-HT2AR):5-HT2CR Imbalance in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Associates with Motor Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Anastasio, Noelle C; Stutz, Sonja J; Fink, Latham H L; Swinford-Jackson, Sarah E; Sears, Robert M; DiLeone, Ralph J; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-07-15

    A feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders is motor impulsivity. Recent studies have implicated serotonin (5-HT) systems in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating individual differences in motor impulsivity, notably the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2CR. We investigated the hypothesis that differences in the ratio of 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein expression in mPFC would predict the individual level of motor impulsivity and that the engineered loss of the 5-HT2CR would result in high motor impulsivity concomitant with elevated 5-HT2AR expression and pharmacological sensitivity to the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907. High and low impulsive rats were identified in a 1-choice serial reaction time task. Native protein levels of the 5-HT2AR and the 5-HT2CR predicted the intensity of motor impulsivity and the 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR ratio in mPFC positively correlated with levels of premature responses in individual outbred rats. The possibility that the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR act in concert to control motor impulsivity is supported by the observation that high phenotypic motor impulsivity associated with a diminished mPFC synaptosomal 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein:protein interaction. Knockdown of mPFC 5-HT2CR resulted in increased motor impulsivity and triggered a functional disruption of the local 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR balance as evidenced by a compensatory upregulation of 5-HT2AR protein expression and a leftward shift in the potency of M100907 to suppress impulsive behavior. We infer that there is an interactive relationship between the mPFC 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR, and that a 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR imbalance may be a functionally relevant mechanism underlying motor impulsivity.

  8. Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A Receptor (5-HT2AR):5-HT2CR Imbalance in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Associates with Motor Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Noelle C.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Fink, Latham H. L.; Swinford-Jackson, Sarah E.; Sears, Robert M; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    A feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders is motor impulsivity. Recent studies have implicated serotonin (5-HT) systems in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating individual differences in motor impulsivity, notably the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2CR. We investigated the hypothesis that differences in the ratio of 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein expression in mPFC would predict the individual level of motor impulsivity and that the engineered loss of the 5-HT2CR would result in high motor impulsivity concomitant with elevated 5-HT2AR expression and pharmacological sensitivity to the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907. High and low impulsive rats were identified in a 1-choice serial reaction time task. Native protein levels of the 5-HT2AR and the 5-HT2CR predicted the intensity of motor impulsivity and the 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR ratio in mPFC positively correlated with levels of premature responses in individual outbred rats. The possibility that the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR act in concert to control motor impulsivity is supported by the observation that high phenotypic motor impulsivity associated with a diminished mPFC synaptosomal 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein:protein interaction. Knockdown of mPFC 5-HT2CR resulted in increased motor impulsivity and triggered a functional disruption of the local 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR balance as evidenced by a compensatory upregulation of 5-HT2AR protein expression and a leftward shift in the potency of M100907 to suppress impulsive behavior. We infer that there is an interactive relationship between the mPFC 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR, and that a 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR imbalance may be a functionally-relevant mechanism underlying motor impulsivity. PMID:26120876

  9. Ontogeny and Regulation of the Serotonin Transporter: Providing Insights into Human Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Daws, Lynette C.; Gould, Georgianna G.

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) was one of the first neurotransmitters for which a role in development was identified. Pharmacological and gene knockout studies have revealed a critical role for 5-HT in numerous processes, including cell division, neuronal migration, differentiation and synaptogenesis. An excess in brain 5-HT appears to be mechanistically linked to abnormal brain development, which in turn is associated with neurological disorders. Ambient levels of 5-HT are controlled by a vast orchestra of proteins, including a multiplicity of pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, heteroreceptors, enzymes and transporters. The 5-HT transporter (SERT, 5-HTT) is arguably the most powerful regulator of ambient extracellular 5-HT. SERT is the high-affinity uptake mechanism for 5-HT and exerts tight control over the strength and duration of serotonergic neurotransmission. Perturbation of its expression level or function has been implicated in many diseases, prominent among them are psychiatric disorders. This review synthesizes existing information on the ontogeny of SERT during embryonic and early postnatal development though adolescence, along with factors that influence its expression and function during these critical developmental windows. We integrate this knowledge to emphasize how inappropriate SERT expression or its dysregulation may be linked to the pathophysiology of psychiatric, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:21447358

  10. Attenuated methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization in serotonin transporter knockout mice is restored by serotonin 1B receptor antagonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Igari, Moe; Shen, Hao-Wei; Hagino, Yoko; Fukushima, Setsu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Murphy, Dennis L; Hall, Frank Scott; Uhl, George R; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Sora, Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) enhances acute locomotor responses to METH administered in the same context, a phenomenon termed as 'locomotor sensitization'. Although many of the acute effects of METH are mediated by its influences on the compartmentalization of dopamine, serotonin systems have also been suggested to influence the behavioral effects of METH in ways that are not fully understood. The present experiments examined serotonergic roles in METH-induced locomotor sensitization by assessing: (a) the effect of serotonin transporter (SERT; Slc6A4) knockout (KO) on METH-induced locomotor sensitization; (b) extracellular monoamine levels in METH-treated animals as determined by in-vivo microdialysis; and (c) effects of serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonists on METH-induced behavioral sensitization, with focus on effects of the 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB 216641 and a comparison with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin. Repeated METH administration failed to induce behavioral sensitization in homozygous SERT KO (SERT-/-) mice under conditions that produced substantial sensitization in wild-type or heterozygous SERT KO (SERT+/-) mice. The selective 5-HT1B antagonist receptor SB 216641 restored METH-induced locomotor sensitization in SERT-/- mice, whereas ketanserin was ineffective. METH-induced increases in extracellular 5-HT (5-HTex) levels were substantially reduced in SERT-/- mice, although SERT genotype had no effect on METH-induced increases in extracellular dopamine. These experiments demonstrate that 5-HT actions, including those at 5-HT1B receptors, contribute to METH-induced locomotor sensitization. Modulation of 5-HT1B receptors might aid therapeutic approaches to the sequelae of chronic METH use.

  11. Unifying concept of serotonin transporter-associated currents.

    PubMed

    Schicker, Klaus; Uzelac, Zeljko; Gesmonde, Joan; Bulling, Simon; Stockner, Thomas; Freissmuth, Michael; Boehm, Stefan; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-01-02

    Serotonin (5-HT) uptake by the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is driven by ion gradients. The stoichiometry of transported 5-HT and ions is predicted to result in electroneutral charge movement. However, hSERT mediates a current when challenged with 5-HT. This discrepancy can be accounted for by an uncoupled ion flux. Here, we investigated the mechanistic basis of the uncoupled currents and its relation to the conformational cycle of hSERT. Our observations support the conclusion that the conducting state underlying the uncoupled ion flux is in equilibrium with an inward facing state of the transporter with K+ bound. We identified conditions associated with accumulation of the transporter in inward facing conformations. Manipulations that increased the abundance of inward facing states resulted in enhanced steady-state currents. We present a comprehensive kinetic model of the transport cycle, which recapitulates salient features of the recorded currents. This study provides a framework for exploring transporter-associated currents.

  12. Serotonin (5-HT) regulates neurite outgrowth through 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Paulina S; Neira, David; Muñoz, Mauricio; Lavandero, Sergio; Fiedler, Jenny L

    2014-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) production and expression of 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) occur early during prenatal development. Recent evidence suggests that, in addition to its classical role as a neurotransmitter, 5-HT regulates neuronal connectivity during mammalian development by modulating cell migration and neuronal cytoarchitecture. Given the variety of 5-HTRs, researchers have had difficulty clarifying the specific role of each receptor subtype in brain development. Signalling mediated by the G-protein-coupled 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R, however, has been associated with neuronal plasticity. Thus, we hypothesized that 5-HT promotes neurite outgrowth through 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R. The involvement of 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R in the morphology of rat hippocampal neurons was evaluated by treating primary cultures at 2 days in vitro with 5-HT and specific antagonists for 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R (WAY-100635 and SB269970, respectively). The stimulation of hippocampal neurons with 100 nM 5-HT for 24 hr produced no effect on either the number or the length of primary neurites. Nonetheless, after 5HT7 R was blocked, the addition of 5-HT increased the number of primary neurites, suggesting that 5HT7 R could inhibit neuritogenesis. In contrast, 5-HT induced secondary neurite outgrowth, an effect inhibited by 1 μM WAY-100635 or SB269970. These results suggest that both serotonergic receptors participate in secondary neurite outgrowth. We conclude that 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R regulate neuronal morphology in primary hippocampal cultures by promoting secondary neurite outgrowth.

  13. Chronic SSRI stimulation of astrocytic 5-HT2B receptors change multiple gene expressions/editings and metabolism of glutamate, glucose and glycogen: a potential paradigm shift

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Leif; Rothman, Douglas L.; Li, Baoman; Peng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    It is firmly believed that the mechanism of action of SSRIs in major depression is to inhibit the serotonin transporter, SERT, and increase extracellular concentration of serotonin. However, this undisputed observation does not prove that SERT inhibition is the mechanism, let alone the only mechanism, by which SSRI’s exert their therapeutic effects. It has recently been demonstrated that 5-HT2B receptor stimulation is needed for the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine in vivo. The ability of all five currently used SSRIs to stimulate the 5-HT2B receptor equipotentially in cultured astrocytes has been known for several years, and increasing evidence has shown the importance of astrocytes and astrocyte-neuronal interactions for neuroplasticity and complex brain activity. This paper reviews acute and chronic effects of 5-HT2B receptor stimulation in cultured astrocytes and in astrocytes freshly isolated from brains of mice treated with fluoxetine for 14 days together with effects of anti-depressant therapy on turnover of glutamate and GABA and metabolism of glucose and glycogen. It is suggested that these events are causally related to the mechanism of action of SSRIs and of interest for development of newer antidepressant drugs. PMID:25750618

  14. Structural determinants of species-selective substrate recognition in human and Drosophila serotonin transporters revealed through computational docking studies.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Kristian W; Dawson, Eric S; Henry, L Keith; Field, Julie R; Blakely, Randy D; Meiler, Jens

    2009-02-15

    To identify potential determinants of substrate selectivity in serotonin (5-HT) transporters (SERT), models of human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT, dSERT) were built based on the leucine transporter (LeuT(Aa)) structure reported by Yamashita et al. (Nature 2005;437:215-223), PBDID 2A65. Although the overall amino acid identity between SERTs and the LeuT(Aa) is only 17%, it increases to above 50% in the first shell of the putative 5-HT binding site, allowing de novo computational docking of tryptamine derivatives in atomic detail. Comparison of hSERT and dSERT complexed with substrates pinpoints likely structural determinants for substrate binding. Forgoing the use of experimental transport and binding data of tryptamine derivatives for construction of these models enables us to critically assess and validate their predictive power: A single 5-HT binding mode was identified that retains the amine placement observed in the LeuT(Aa) structure, matches site-directed mutagenesis and substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) data, complies with support vector machine derived relations activity relations, and predicts computational binding energies for 5-HT analogs with a significant correlation coefficient (R = 0.72). This binding mode places 5-HT deep in the binding pocket of the SERT with the 5-position near residue hSERT A169/dSERT D164 in transmembrane helix 3, the indole nitrogen next to residue Y176/Y171, and the ethylamine tail under residues F335/F327 and S336/S328 within 4 A of residue D98. Our studies identify a number of potential contacts whose contribution to substrate binding and transport was previously unsuspected.

  15. Down-regulation of the rat serotonin transporter upon exposure to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Horschitz, S; Hummerich, R; Schloss, P

    2001-07-20

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic neurotransmission by rapid reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into the nerve terminal or axonal varicosities. SERT represents the target of various antidepressants which inhibit 5-HT transport and are widely used for the pharmacotherapy of depression. Here, we have analyzed the function of SERT stably expressed in HEK 293 cells upon exposure to citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), with respect to 5-HT transport activity and protein expression as estimated by ligand binding experiments. Our results show that long-term exposure to an SSRI causes a down-regulation of transport activity as revealed by a reduction of the maximal transport rate, without affecting substrate affinity, accompanied by a decrease in ligand binding sites.

  16. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. VII. Characterization of a novel cocaine binding site identified with [125I]RTI-55 in membranes prepared from human, monkey and guinea pig caudate.

    PubMed

    Rothman, R B; Silverthorn, M L; Glowa, J R; Matecka, D; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Partilla, J S; Uhl, G R; Vandenbergh, D J; Dersch, C M

    1998-04-01

    [125I]RTI-55 is a cocaine analog with high affinity for dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) transporters. Quantitative ligand binding studies revealed a novel high affinity [125I]RTI-55 binding site assayed under 5-HT transporter (SERT) conditions which has low affinity for almost all classic biogenic amine transporter ligands, including high affinity 5-HT transporter inhibitors such as paroxetine, but which retains high affinity for cocaine analogs. This site, termed SERT(site2) for its detection under 5-HT transporter conditions (not for an association with the SERT) occurs in monkey caudate, human caudate, and guinea pig caudate membranes, but not in rat caudate membranes. SERT(site2) is distinguished from the DA transporter (DAT) and SERT by several criteria, including a distinct ligand-selectivity profile, the inability to detect SERT(site2) in cells stably expressing the cloned human DAT, and insensitivity to irreversible ligands which inhibit [125I]RTI-55 binding to the DAT and SERT. Perhaps the most striking finding about SERT(site2) is that a wide range of representative antidepressant agents have very low affinity for SERT(site2). The affinity of cocaine for this site is not very different from the concentration cocaine achieves in the brain at pharmacological doses. Viewed collectively with the observation that ligands with high affinity for SERT(site2) are mostly cocaine analogs, these data lead us to speculate that actions of cocaine which differ from those of classic biogenic amine uptake inhibitors may be mediated in part via SERT(site2).

  17. Axonal Segregation and Role of the Vesicular Glutamate Transporter VGLUT3 in Serotonin Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Aurore N.; Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Giguère, Nicolas; Fortin, Guillaume M.; Vigneault, Erika; El Mestikawy, Salah; Descarries, Laurent; Trudeau, Louis-Éric

    2016-01-01

    A subset of monoamine neurons releases glutamate as a cotransmitter due to presence of the vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT2 or VGLUT3. In addition to mediating vesicular loading of glutamate, it has been proposed that VGLUT3 enhances serotonin (5-HT) vesicular loading by the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) in 5-HT neurons. In dopamine (DA) neurons, glutamate appears to be released from specialized subsets of terminals and it may play a developmental role, promoting neuronal growth and survival. The hypothesis of a similar developmental role and axonal localization of glutamate co-release in 5-HT neurons has not been directly examined. Using postnatal mouse raphe neurons in culture, we first observed that in contrast to 5-HT itself, other phenotypic markers of 5-HT axon terminals such as the 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT) show a more restricted localization in the axonal arborization. Interestingly, only a subset of SERT- and 5-HT-positive axonal varicosities expressed VGLUT3, with SERT and VGLUT3 being mostly segregated. Using VGLUT3 knockout mice, we found that deletion of this transporter leads to reduced survival of 5-HT neurons in vitro and also decreased the density of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in terminals in the dorsal striatum and dorsal part of the hippocampus in the intact brain. Our results demonstrate that raphe 5-HT neurons express SERT and VGLUT3 mainly in segregated axon terminals and that VGLUT3 regulates the vulnerability of these neurons and the neurochemical identity of their axonal domain, offering new perspectives on the functional connectivity of a cell population involved in anxiety disorders and depression. PMID:27147980

  18. Serotonin and psychostimulant addiction: focus on 5-HT1A-receptors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian P; Carey, Robert J; Huston, Joseph P; De Souza Silva, Maria A

    2007-02-01

    Serotonin(1A)-receptors (5-HT(1A)-Rs) are important components of the 5-HT system in the brain. As somatodendritic autoreceptors they control the activity of 5-HT neurons, and, as postsynaptic receptors, the activity in terminal areas. Cocaine (COC), amphetamine (AMPH), methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy", MDMA) are psychostimulant drugs that can lead to addiction-related behavior in humans and in animals. At the neurochemical level, these psychostimulant drugs interact with monoamine transporters and increase extracellular 5-HT, dopamine and noradrenalin activity in the brain. The increase in 5-HT, which, in addition to dopamine, is a core mechanism of action for drug addiction, hyperactivates 5-HT(1A)-Rs. Here, we first review the role of the various 5-HT(1A)-R populations in spontaneous behavior to provide a background to elucidate the contribution of the 5-HT(1A)-Rs to the organization of psychostimulant-induced addiction behavior. The progress achieved in this field shows the fundamental contribution of brain 5-HT(1A)-Rs to virtually all behaviors associated with psychostimulant addiction. Importantly, the contribution of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT(1A)-Rs can be dissociated and frequently act in opposite directions. We conclude that 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptors mainly facilitate psychostimulant addiction-related behaviors by a limitation of the 5-HT response in terminal areas. Postsynaptic 5-HT(1A)-Rs, in contrast, predominantly inhibit the expression of various addiction-related behaviors directly. In addition, they may also influence the local 5-HT response by feedback mechanisms. The reviewed findings do not only show a crucial role of 5-HT(1A)-Rs in the control of brain 5-HT activity and spontaneous behavior, but also their complex role in the regulation of the psychostimulant-induced 5-HT response and subsequent addiction-related behaviors.

  19. Interaction of psychoactive tryptamines with biogenic amine transporters and serotonin receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Blough, Bruce E.; Landavazo, Antonio; Decker, Ann M.; Partilla, John S.; Baumann, Michael H.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Synthetic hallucinogenic tryptamines, especially those originally described by Alexander Shulgin, continue to be abused in the United States. The range of subjective experiences produced by different tryptamines suggests that multiple neurochemical mechanisms are involved in their actions, in addition to the established role of agonist activity at serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptors. Objectives This study evaluated the interaction of a series of synthetic tryptamines with biogenic amine neurotransmitter transporters and with serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes implicated in psychedelic effects. Methods Neurotransmitter transporter activity was determined in rat brain synaptosomes. Receptor activity was determined using calcium mobilization and DiscoveRx PathHunter® assays in HEK293, Gα16-CHO, and CHOk1 cells transfected with human receptors. Results Twenty-one tryptamines were analyzed in transporter uptake and release assays, and 5-HT2A, serotonin 1A (5-HT1A), and 5-HT2A β-arrestin functional assays. Eight of the compounds were found to have 5-HT-releasing activity. Thirteen compounds were found to be 5-HT uptake inhibitors or were inactive. All tryptamines were 5-HT2A agonists with a range of potencies and efficacies, but only a few compounds were 5-HT1A agonists. Most tryptamines recruited β-arrestin through 5-HT2A activation. Conclusions All psychoactive tryptamines are 5-HT2A agonists, but 5-HT transporter (SERT) activity may contribute significantly to the pharmacology of certain compounds. The in vitro transporter data confirm structure-activity trends for releasers and uptake inhibitors whereby releasers tend to be structurally smaller compounds. Interestingly, two tertiary amines were found to be selective substrates at SERT, which dispels the notion that 5-HT-releasing activity is limited only to primary or secondary amines. PMID:24800892

  20. Similar anxiolytic effects of agonists targeting serotonin 5-HT1A or cannabinoid CB receptors on zebrafish behavior in novel environments

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Kristin A.; Valenti, Theodore W.; Lawless, Kelly; Sackerman, James; Onaivi, Emmanuel S.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Gould, Georgianna G.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are present and bioaccumulate in aquatic ecosystems have spurred studies of fish serotonin transporters (SERTs) and changes in SSRI-sensitive behaviors as adverse outcomes relevant for risk assessment. Many SSRIs also act at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Since capitolizing on this action may improve treatments of clinical depression and other psychiatric disorders, novel multimodal drugs that agonize 5-HT1A and block SERT were introduced. In mammals both 5-HT1A and CB agonists, such as buspirone and WIN55,212-2, reduce anxious behaviors. Immunological and behavioral evidence suggests that 5-HT1A-like receptors may function similarly in zebrafish (Danio rerio), yet their pharmacological properties are not well characterized. Herein we compared the density of [3H] 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) binding to 5-HT1A-like sites in the zebrafish brain, to that of simalarly Gαi/o-coupled cannabinoid receptors. [3H] 8-OH-DPAT specific binding was 176 ± 8, 275 ± 32, and 230 ± 36 fmol/mg protein in the hypothalamus, optic tectum, and telencephalon. [3H] WIN55,212-2 binding density was higher in those same brain regions at 6 ± 0.3, 5.5 ± 0.4 and 7.3 ± 0.3 pm/mg protein. The aquatic light-dark plus maze was used to examine behavioral effects of 5-HT1A and CB receptor agonists on zebrafish novelty-based anxiety. With acute exposure to the 5-HT1A partial-agonist buspirone (50 mg/L), or dietary exposure to WIN55,212-2 (7 μg/week) zebrafish spent more time in and/or entered white arms more often than controls (p < 0.05). Acute exposure to WIN55,212-2 at 0.5-50 mg/L, reduced mobility. These behavioral findings suggest that azipirones, like cannabinoid agonists, have anxiolytic and/or sedative properties on fish in novel environments. These observations highlight the need to consider potential ecological risks of azapirones and multimodal antidepressants in the future. PMID

  1. Control of serotonin transporter phosphorylation by conformational state

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Turk, Benjamin E.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for reuptake and recycling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) after its exocytotic release during neurotransmission. Mutations in human SERT are associated with psychiatric disorders and autism. Some of these mutations affect the regulation of SERT activity by cGMP-dependent phosphorylation. Here we provide direct evidence that this phosphorylation occurs at Thr276, predicted to lie near the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane helix 5 (TM5). Using membranes from HeLa cells expressing SERT and intact rat basophilic leukemia cells, we show that agents such as Na+ and cocaine that stabilize outward-open conformations of SERT decreased phosphorylation and agents that stabilize inward-open conformations (e.g., 5-HT, ibogaine) increased phosphorylation. The opposing effects of the inhibitors cocaine and ibogaine were each reversed by an excess of the other inhibitor. Inhibition of phosphorylation by Na+ and stimulation by ibogaine occurred at concentrations that induced outward opening and inward opening, respectively, as measured by the accessibility of cysteine residues in the extracellular and cytoplasmic permeation pathways, respectively. The results are consistent with a mechanism of SERT regulation that is activated by the transport of 5-HT, which increases the level of inward-open SERT and may lead to unwinding of the TM5 helix to allow phosphorylation. PMID:27140629

  2. Gender differences in brain serotonin transporter availability in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Maron, Eduard; Tõru, Innar; Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Lumme, Ville; Vasar, Veiko; Shlik, Jakov; Nutt, David J; Helin, Semi; Någren, Kjell; Tiihonen, Jari; Hietala, Jarmo

    2011-07-01

    The role of the serotonin (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of panic disorder (PD) remains unproven. Previously we detected lower brain 5-HT transporter (SERT) availability in PD, but the findings were preliminary and mainly limited to female patients. The aim of this study was to assess non-displaceable brain SERT binding potential (BP (ND)) in male and female patients with PD. The SERT BP (ND) was measured in groups of patients with PD (five males and six females) and matched healthy control subjects (12 males and 12 females) using positron emission tomography (PET) and [¹¹C]MADAM tracer. SERT BP (ND) were significantly higher in 13 of 20 studied brain regions, including several cortical and raphe areas, but lower in the hippocampus in males with PD as compared with healthy males. No significant differences in SERT BP (ND) were observed between female patients and controls. The results suggest gender-dependent regional differences in brain SERT availability and converge with previous PET findings of reduced 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in similar brain areas in PD. Distinctive functioning of the 5-HT system in males and females may underlie certain gender-dependent differences in expressions of PD.

  3. 5-HT systems: emergent targets for memory formation and memory alterations.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Drugs acting through 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin or 5-HT) systems modulate memory and its alterations, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. 5-HT drugs may present promnesic and/or antiamnesic (or even being amnesic) effects. Key questions regarding 5-HT markers include whether receptors directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis; hence, the major aim of this article was to examine recent advances in emergent targets of the 5-HT systems for memory formation and memory alterations. Recent reviews and findings are summarized, mainly in the context of the growing notion of memory deficits in brain disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, mild cognitive impairment, consumption of drugs, poststroke cognitive dysfunctions, schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, and infection-induced memory impairments). Mainly, mammalian and (some) human data were the focus. At least agonists and antagonists for 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as serotonin uptake inhibitors seem to have a promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in different conditions and 5-HT markers seem to be associated to neural changes. Available evidence offers clues about the possibilities, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, 5-HT transporter expression seems to be a reliable neural marker related to memory mechanisms and its alterations.

  4. Serotonin transporter (SERT) brain density and neurobiological Cloninger subtypes model: a lesson by human autoradiography studies.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Cloninger proposed a neurochemical model of alcoholism suggesting that type 2 alcoholics have serotonergic deficits with intact dopaminergic system, whereas the type 1 alcoholics have defected dopaminergic system. The work by Storvik and colleagues recently published on Alcohol and Alcoholism shows some interesting differences on the SERT brain density between the type I and type II alcoholic subtypes. Critically, these findings on different serotonergic role in subtypes of alcohol-dependence revive the concept that alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous disorder associated with varying neurochemical abnormalities. Studies testing serotonergic medications in alcohol-dependent patients classified according to subtypes have shown interesting findings. Accordingly, the identification and standardization of alcoholic subtypes could be useful in guiding research on treatment. New developments in the neurobiological understanding of subtypes of alcoholic patients, could led to get the basis for a more personalized pharmacological therapy.

  5. 5-HT 1A/1B receptor-mediated effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, on sleep: studies in 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 1B knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Monaca, Christelle; Boutrel, Benjamin; Hen, René; Hamon, Michel; Adrien, Joëlle

    2003-05-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are extensively used for the treatment of depression. Aside from their antidepressant properties, they provoke a deficit in paradoxical sleep (PS) that is most probably mediated by the transporter blockade-induced increase in serotonin concentration in the extracellular space. Such an effect can be accounted for by the action of serotonin at various types of serotonergic receptors involved in PS regulation, among which the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) types are the best candidates. According to this hypothesis, we examined the effects of citalopram, the most selective SSRI available to date, on sleep in the mouse after inactivation of 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1B) receptors, either by homologous recombination of their encoding genes, or pharmacological blockade with selective antagonists. For this purpose, sleep parameters of knockout mice that do not express these receptors and their wild-type counterparts were monitored during 8 h after injection of citalopram alone or in association with 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonists. Citalopram induced mainly a dose-dependent inhibition of PS during 2-6 h after injection, which was observed in wild-type and 5-HT(1B)-/- mice, but not in 5-HT(1A)-/- mutants. This PS inhibition was fully antagonized by pretreatment with the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY 100635, but only partially with the 5-HT(1B) antagonist GR 127935. These data indicate that the action of the SSRI citalopram on sleep in the mouse is essentially mediated by 5-HT(1A) receptors. Such a mechanism of action provides further support to the clinical strategy of antidepressant augmentation by 5-HT(1A) antagonists, because the latter would also counteract the direct sleep-inhibitory side-effects of SSRIs.

  6. Control of Amygdala Circuits by 5-HT Neurons via 5-HT and Glutamate Cotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, David M.

    2017-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Therefore, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at low frequencies (≤1 Hz) evoked a short-latency excitation of BA interneurons (INs) that was depressed at higher frequencies. Pharmacological analysis revealed that this effect was mediated by glutamate and not 5-HT because it was abolished by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at higher frequencies (10–20 Hz) evoked both slow excitation and slow inhibition of INs. These effects were mediated by 5-HT because they were blocked by antagonists of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. These fast glutamate- and slow 5-HT-mediated responses often coexisted in the same neuron. Interestingly, fast-spiking and non-fast-spiking INs displayed differential modulation by glutamate and 5-HT. Furthermore, optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals did not evoke glutamate release onto BA principal neurons, but inhibited these cells directly via activation of 5-HT1A receptors and indirectly via enhanced GABA release. Collectively, these findings suggest that 5-HT neurons exert a frequency-dependent, cell-type-specific control over BA circuitry via 5-HT and glutamate co-release to inhibit the BA output. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The modulation of the amygdala by serotonin (5-HT) is important for emotional regulation and is implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders

  7. Effects of LSD on grooming behavior in serotonin transporter heterozygous (Sert⁺/⁻) mice.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD. Genetic ablation of mouse Sert causes various behavioral deficits, including increased anxiety and grooming behavior. The hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic agonist known to modulate human and animal behavior. Here, we examined heterozygous Sert(+/-) mouse behavior following acute administration of LSD (0.32 mg/kg). Overall, Sert(+/-) mice displayed a longer duration of self-grooming behavior regardless of LSD treatment. In contrast, LSD increased serotonin-sensitive behaviors, such as head twitching, tremors and backwards gait behaviors in both Sert(+/+) and Sert(+/-) mice. There were no significant interactions between LSD treatment and Sert gene dosage in any of the behavioral domains measured. These results suggest that Sert(+/-) mice may respond to the behavioral effects of LSD in a similar manner to wild-type mice.

  8. Influence of sodium substitutes on 5-HT-mediated effects at mouse 5-HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Barann, M; Schmidt, K; Göthert, M; Urban, B W; Bönisch, H

    2004-01-01

    The influence of sodium ion substitutes on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced flux of the organic cation [14C]guanidinium through the ion channel of the mouse 5-HT3 receptor and on the competition of 5-HT with the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist [3H]GR 65630 was studied, unless stated otherwise, in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. Under physiological conditions (135 mM sodium), 5-HT induced a concentration-dependent [14C]guanidinium influx with an EC50 (1.3 μM) similar to that in electrophysiological studies. The stepwise replacement of sodium by increasing concentrations of the organic cation hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium (choline) concentration dependently caused both a rightward shift of the 5-HT concentration–response curve and an increase in the maximum effect of 5-HT. Complete replacement of sodium resulted in a 34-fold lower potency of 5-HT and an almost two times higher maximal response. A low potency of 5-HT in choline buffer was also observed in other 5-HT3 receptor-expressing rodent cell lines (NG 108-15 or NCB 20). Replacement of Na+ by Li+ left the potency and maximal effects of 5-HT almost unchanged. Replacement by tris (hydroxymethyl) methylamine (Tris), tetramethylammonium (TMA) or N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) caused an increase in maximal response to 5-HT similar to that caused by choline. The potency of 5-HT was only slightly reduced by Tris, to a high degree decreased by TMA (comparable to the decrease by choline), but not influenced by NMDG. The potency of 5-HT in inhibiting [3H]GR65630 binding to intact cells was 35-fold lower when sodium was completely replaced by choline, but remained unchanged after replacement by NMDG. The results are compatible with the suggestion that choline competes with 5-HT for the 5-HT3 receptor; the increase in maximal response may be partly due to a choline-mediated delay of the 5-HT-induced desensitization. For studies of 5-HT-evoked [14C]guanidinium flux through 5-HT3 receptor channels, NMDG appears

  9. 5-HT6 receptors and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, the 5-HT6 receptor has received increasing attention and become a promising target for improving cognition. Several studies with structurally different compounds have shown that not only antagonists but also 5-HT6 receptor agonists improve learning and memory in animal models. A large number of publications describing the development of ligands for this receptor have come to light, and it is now quite evident that 5-HT6 receptors have great pharmaceutical potential in terms of related patents. However, 5-HT6 receptor functionality is much more complex than initially defined. According to the existing data, different cellular pathways may be activated, depending on the drug being used. This article reviews preclinical and clinical evidence of the effects that 5-HT6 receptor compounds have on cognition. In addition, the biochemical and neurochemical mechanisms of action through which 5-HT6 receptor compounds can influence cognition will be described. Overall, several 5-HT6-targeted compounds can reasonably be regarded as powerful drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23607787

  10. Stimulation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors or 5-HT uptake inhibition: short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2007-11-22

    In order to determine whether short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) function in serial or parallel manner, serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) receptor agonists were tested in autoshaping task. Results show that control-vehicle animals were modestly but significantly mastering the autoshaping task as illustrated by memory scores between STM and LTM. Thus, post-training administration of 8-OHDPAT (agonist for 5-HT(1A/7) receptors) only at 0.250 and 0.500 mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. CGS12066 (agonist for 5-HT(1B)) produced biphasic affects, at 5.0 mg/kg impaired STM but at 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, respectively, improved or impaired LTM. DOI (agonist for 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors) dose-dependently impaired STM and, at 10.0 mg/kg only impaired LTM. Both, STM and LTM were impaired by either mCPP (mainly agonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) or mesulergine (mainly antagonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) lower dose. The 5-HT(3) agonist mCPBG at 1.0 impaired STM and its higher dose impaired both STM and LTM. RS67333 (partial agonist for 5-HT(4) receptors), at 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg facilitated both STM and LTM. The higher dose of fluoxetine (a 5-HT uptake inhibitor) improved both STM and LTM. Using as head-pokes during CS as an indirect measure of food-intake showed that of 30 memory changes, 21 of these were unrelated to the former. While some STM or LTM impairments can be attributed to decrements in food-intake, but not memory changes (either increase or decreases) produced by 8-OHDPAT, CGS12066, RS67333 or fluoxetine. Except for animals treated with DOI, mCPBG or fluoxetine, other groups treated with 5-HT agonists 6 h following autoshaping training showed similar LTM and unmodified CS-head-pokes scores.

  11. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN 5-HT AND SMALL GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Charles P.; Ziu, Endrit; Kilic, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    Advances over the past decade have improved our understanding of the serotonin (5-HT) biology outside the central nervous system specifically the molecular mechanisms of serotonergic signaling in association with small GTPases. It is now recognized that the communication between 5-HT and GTPases plays important roles in peripheral tissues, vascular cells and are involved in coagulation, hypertension, inflammation, healing and protection. Furthermore, 5-HT receptors as heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors act as effector protein on the small GTPases. Therefore, the antagonists or agonists of the effector proteins of small GTPases could be useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of several diseases and disorders. PMID:21320798

  12. Vortioxetine restores reversal learning impaired by 5-HT depletion or chronic intermittent cold stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ashley; Pehrson, Alan L; Sánchez, Connie; Morilak, David A

    2014-10-01

    Current treatments for depression, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are only partially effective, with a high incidence of residual symptoms, relapse, and treatment resistance. Loss of cognitive flexibility, a component of depression, is associated with dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex. Reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility, is impaired by chronic stress, a risk factor for depression, and the stress-induced impairment in reversal learning is sensitive to chronic SSRI treatment, and is mimicked by serotonin (5-HT) depletion. Vortioxetine, a novel, multimodal-acting antidepressant, is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and inhibits the 5-HT transporter. Using adult male rats, we first investigated the direct effects of vortioxetine, acting at post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, on reversal learning that was compromised by 5-HT depletion using 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), effectively eliminating any contribution of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PCPA induced a reversal learning impairment that was alleviated by acute or sub-chronic vortioxetine administration, suggesting that post-synaptic 5-HT receptor activation contributes to the effects of vortioxetine. We then investigated the effects of chronic dietary administration of vortioxetine on reversal learning that had been compromised in intact animals exposed to chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, to assess vortioxetine's total pharmacological effect. CIC stress impaired reversal learning, and chronic vortioxetine administration prevented the reversal-learning deficit. Together, these results suggest that the direct effect of vortioxetine at 5-HT receptors may contribute to positive effects on cognitive flexibility deficits, and may enhance the effect of 5-HT reuptake blockade.

  13. 5-HT2A receptors are involved in cognitive but not antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Castañé, Anna; Kargieman, Lucila; Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2015-08-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in cognitive and affective functions. It contains a rich serotonergic (serotonin, 5-HT) innervation and a high density of 5-HT receptors. Endogenous 5-HT exerts robust actions on the activity of pyramidal neurons in medial PFC (mPFC) via excitatory 5-HT2A and inhibitory 5-HT1A receptors, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT neurotransmission in cortical functions. However, the underlying mechanisms must be elucidated. Here we examine the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the processing of emotional and cognitive signals evoked by increasing the 5-HT tone after acute blockade of the 5-HT transporter. Fluoxetine (5-20mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the immobility time in the tail-suspension test in wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2Aknockout (KO2A) mice, with non-significant differences between genotypes. Fluoxetine (10mg/kg i.p.) significantly impaired mice performance in the novel object recognition test 24h post-administration in WT, but not in KO2A mice. The comparable effect of fluoxetine on extracellular 5-HT in the mPFC of both genotypes suggests that presynaptic differences are not accountable. In contrast, single unit recordings of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons showed that fluoxetine (1.8-7.2mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased neuronal discharge in KO2A but not in WT mice. This effect is possibly mediated by an altered excitatory/inhibitory balance in the PFC in KO2A mice. Overall, the present results suggest that 5-HT2A receptors play a detrimental role in long-term memory deficits mediated by an excess 5-HT in PFC.

  14. Activation of 5-HT and NR2B contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Xian; Chen, Yu; Fu, Rui; Liu, Sai-Yue; Yang, Qin-Qin; Shen, Tang-Biao

    2016-01-01

    The roles of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and spinal N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) in visceral hypersensitivity were investigated. A rat model with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was established by intracolonic injections of acetic acid onpost-natal days 8-21. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal intact (control) group, IBS model group, Ro25-6981-treated IBS rats (Ro25-6981, a NR2B antagonist) group, amitriptyline-treated IBS rats (amitriptyline, a 5-HT antagonist) and Ro25-6981 plus amitriptyline-treated IBS rats (Ro25-6981+amitriptyline) group. The expressions of 5-HT, NR2B, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT7R, SERT, TNF-α and IL-1β in colon, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hypothalamus, respectively, were measured by Immunohistochemical staining, Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed increased DRG and hypothalamus expression of 5-HT, NR2B, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT7R in IBS model group and decreased expression of those in Ro25-6981 and amitriptyline alone or both treatment groups. Moreover, SERT expression was decreased in colorectal, DRG and hypothalamus of ISB model rats, but increased by Ro25-6981 and amitriptyline alone or both treatments. Ro25-6981 and amitriptyline treatment also decreased colorectal expression of TNF-α and IL-1β induced by IBS model. In conclusion, activation of 5-HT and NR2B may play a crucial role in visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome in rats. PMID:28078028

  15. Activation of 5-HT and NR2B contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Xian; Chen, Yu; Fu, Rui; Liu, Sai-Yue; Yang, Qin-Qin; Shen, Tang-Biao

    2016-01-01

    The roles of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and spinal N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) in visceral hypersensitivity were investigated. A rat model with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was established by intracolonic injections of acetic acid onpost-natal days 8-21. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal intact (control) group, IBS model group, Ro25-6981-treated IBS rats (Ro25-6981, a NR2B antagonist) group, amitriptyline-treated IBS rats (amitriptyline, a 5-HT antagonist) and Ro25-6981 plus amitriptyline-treated IBS rats (Ro25-6981+amitriptyline) group. The expressions of 5-HT, NR2B, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT7R, SERT, TNF-α and IL-1β in colon, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hypothalamus, respectively, were measured by Immunohistochemical staining, Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed increased DRG and hypothalamus expression of 5-HT, NR2B, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT7R in IBS model group and decreased expression of those in Ro25-6981 and amitriptyline alone or both treatment groups. Moreover, SERT expression was decreased in colorectal, DRG and hypothalamus of ISB model rats, but increased by Ro25-6981 and amitriptyline alone or both treatments. Ro25-6981 and amitriptyline treatment also decreased colorectal expression of TNF-α and IL-1β induced by IBS model. In conclusion, activation of 5-HT and NR2B may play a crucial role in visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome in rats.

  16. Robust presynaptic serotonin 5-HT1B receptor inhibition of the striatonigral output and its sensitization by chronic fluoxetine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shengyuan; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    The striatonigral projection is a striatal output pathway critical to motor control, cognition, and emotion regulation. Its axon terminals in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) express a high level of serotonin (5-HT) type 1B receptors (5-HT1BRs), whereas the SNr also receives an intense 5-HT innervation that expresses 5-HT transporters, providing an anatomic substrate for 5-HT and selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-based antidepressant treatment to regulate the striatonigral output. In this article we show that 5-HT, by activating presynaptic 5-HT1BRs on the striatonigral axon terminals, potently inhibited the striatonigral GABA output, as reflected in the reduction of the striatonigral inhibitory postsynaptic currents in SNr GABA neurons. Functionally, 5-HT1BR agonism reduced the striatonigral GABA output-induced pause of the spontaneous high-frequency firing in SNr GABA neurons. Equally important, chronic SSRI treatment with fluoxetine enhanced this presynaptic 5-HT1BR-mediated pause reduction in SNr GABA neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that activation of the 5-HT1BRs on the striatonigral axon terminals can limit the motor-promoting GABA output. Furthermore, in contrast to the desensitization of 5-HT1 autoreceptors, chronic SSRI-based antidepressant treatment sensitizes this presynaptic 5-HT1BR-mediated effect in the SNr, a novel cellular mechanism that alters the striatonigral information transfer, potentially contributing to the behavioral effects of chronic SSRI treatment. PMID:25787955

  17. 5-HT induces cAMP production in crypt colonocytes at a 5-HT4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F C; Smith, E H; Kellum, J M

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that both 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) induce chloride efflux from crypt colonocytes in the rat distal colon; antagonist studies suggest that the 5-HT response is mediated primarily by the 5-HT4 receptor. Since this receptor is known to be positively coupled to adenylate cyclase, we postulated that 5-HT should induce generation of cAMP, which should be inhibited by 5-HT4 antagonists. Method. Mucosal cells from rat distal colon were taken by a sequential calcium chelation technique for enrichment of crypt cells. Cytokeratin stains demonstrated that >99% of cells were colonocytes. [3H]Thymidine uptake studies demonstrate a fivefold increased incorporation in this cell preparation compared to earlier fractions. 3-Isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX, 100 microM) was added to all cell suspensions in order to prevent cAMP metabolism. Cell suspensions were incubated for 2 min at 37 degreesC with different concentrations of 5-HT (n = 7). cAMP was measured by enzyme immunoassay. In another series of experiments, 5-HT (0.3 microM) stimulation of cAMP was similarly measured in the presence and absence of 5-HT receptor antagonists: 10 microM 5-HTP-DP (5-HT1P; n = 4), 0.1 microM ketanserin (5-HT2A; n = 4), 0.3 microM ondansetron (5-HT3; n = 4), 3 microM tropisetron (5-HT3 and 5-HT4; n = 4), and 10 nM GR-113808 (5-HT4; n = 5). Results. 5-HT produced a dose-dependent increase in cAMP. The increase was significant at concentrations >/=0.3 microM when compared to cells incubated with IBMX alone. In the second series of experiment, 5-HT-induced generation of cAMP at a dose of 0.3 microM was significantly inhibited in the presence of GR-113808 and tropisetron. Conclusion. 5-HT acts at a 5-HT4 receptor to induce production of cAMP in rat distal crypt colonocytes.

  18. Serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors and cognition.

    PubMed

    Gasbarri, Antonella; Pompili, Assunta

    2014-01-01

    The abundant distribution of serotonin (5-HT) in different areas of the central nervous system can explain the involvement of this neurotransmitter in the regulation of several functions, such as sleep, pain, feeding, and sexual and emotional behaviors. Moreover, the serotonergic system is also involved in other more complex roles, such as cognition, including learning and memory processes. Recent studies led to the discovery of various types and subtypes of receptors differentially associated to cognitive mechanisms. 5-HT7 is the most recently discovered receptor for 5-HT; therefore, it is also one of the least well characterized. Studies exist hypothesizing the role of 5-HT7 on the modulation of learning and memory processes and other cognitive functions. Moreover, much attention has been devoted to the possible role of 5-HT7 receptors in psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the aim of this review is to clarify the behavioral role of the recently discovered 5-HT7 type receptor and highlight its involvement in the cognitive functions, with particular attention to the modulation of learning and memory processes, thus providing a basis to obtain new therapeutic agents and strategies for the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  19. [5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor interplay: Chronic activation of 5-HT7 receptors decreases the functional activity of 5-HT1A receptor and its сontent in the mouse brain].

    PubMed

    Kondaurova, E M; Bazovkina, D V; Naumenko, V S

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 are involved in the development of various psychopathologies. Some data indicate that there is an interplay between 5-HT1A 5-HT7 receptors that could be implicated in the regulation of their function. This work analyzed the effects of chronic 5-HT7 activation on the functional activity of 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors, on the corresponding protein levels, and on the expression of genes encoding 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors in the mouse brain. Chronic administration of the 5-HT7 selective agonist LP44 (20.5 nmol, i.c.v., 14 days) produced considerable desensitization of both 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. In LP44-treated mice, the hypothermic responses mediated by both 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors were attenuated. Moreover, the levels of 5-HT1A receptor protein in the midbrain and the frontal cortex of LP44-treated mice were significantly decreased. However, the brain levels of 5-HT7 receptor protein did not differ between LP44-treated and control mice. Chronic LP44 treatment did not alter the expression of the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptor genes in all investigated brain structure. These data suggest that 5-HT7 receptors participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A receptors functioning.

  20. Role of serotonin transporter function in rat orbitofrontal cortex in impulsive choice.

    PubMed

    Darna, Mahesh; Chow, Jonathan J; Yates, Justin R; Charnigo, Richard J; Beckmann, Joshua S; Bardo, Michael T; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2015-10-15

    Impulsivity is a multi-faceted personality construct that plays a prominent role in drug abuse vulnerability. Dysregulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) systems in subregions of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular 5-HT concentrations are regulated by 5-HT transporters (SERTs), indicating that these transporters may be important molecular targets underlying individual differences in impulsivity and drug abuse vulnerability. The present study evaluated the role of SERT in mediating individual differences in impulsivity. Rats were tested for both impulsive action using the cued go/no-go task and for impulsive choice using a delay discounting task in a counterbalanced design. Following behavioral evaluation, Km and Vmax were obtained from kinetic analysis of [(3)H]5-HT uptake by SERT using synaptosomes prepared from both orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) obtained from each individual rat. Vmax for SERT in OFC, but not mPFC, was negatively correlated with mean adjusted delay scores in the delay discounting task. In contrast, Vmax for SERT in OFC and mPFC was not correlated with performance in the cued go/no-go task. To further evaluate the relationship between SERT function and impulsive choice, a selective SERT inhibitor, fluoxetine (0, 15, 50 and 150pmol/side) was microinjected bilaterally into OFC and effects on the delay discounting task determined. Following stabilization of behavior, fluoxetine increased mean adjusted delay scores (decreased impulsivity) in high impulsive rats compared to saline microinjection, but had no effect in low impulsive rats. These ex vivo and in vivo results suggest that enhanced SERT function in OFC underlies high impulsive choice behavior.

  1. SERT C project study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The SERT C (Space Electric Rocket Test - C) project study defines a spacecraft mission that would demonstrate the technology readiness of ion thruster systems for primary propulsion and station keeping applications. As a low cost precursor, SERT C develops the components and systems required for subsequent Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) applications. The SERT C mission requirements and preliminary spacecraft and subsystem design are described.

  2. SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER AND INTEGRIN BETA 3 GENES INTERACT TO MODULATE SEROTONIN UPTAKE IN MOUSE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Alonzo; Jessen, Tammy; Varney, Seth; Carneiro, Ana MD

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctions in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have been associated with several psychiatric illnesses, including anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Convergent evidence from genetic analyses of human subjects has implicated the integrin β3 subunit gene (ITGB3) as a modulator of serotonergic systems via genetic interactions with the 5-HT transporter gene (SLC6A4, SERT). While genetic interactions may result from contributions of each gene at several levels, we hypothesize that ITGB3 modulates the 5-HT system at the level of the synapse, through the actions of integrin αvβ3. Here we utilized a genetic approach in mouse models to examine Itgb3 contributions to SERT function both in the context of normal and reduced SERT expression. As integrin αvβ3 is expressed in postsynaptic membranes, we isolated synaptoneurosomes, which maintain intact pre- and post-synaptic associations. Citalopram binding revealed significant Slc6a4-driven reductions in SERT expression in midbrain synapses, whereas no significant changes were observed in hippocampal or cortical projections. Expecting corresponding changes to SERT function, we also measured 5-HT uptake activity in synaptoneurosomal preparations. Itgb3 single heterozygous mice displayed significant reductions in 5-HT Vmax, with no chages in Km, in midbrain preparations. However, in the presence of both Itgb3 and Slc6a4 heterozygozity, 5-HT uptake was similar to wild-type levels, revealing a significant Slc6a4 by Itgb3 genetic interaction in the midbrain. Similar findings were observed in cortical preparations, whereas in the hippocampus, most Vmax changes were driven solely by Slc6a4. Our findings provide evidence that integrin αvβ3 is involved in the regulation of serotonergic systems in some, but not all 5-HT synapses, revealing novel contributions to synaptic specificity within the central nervous system. PMID:24083985

  3. Serotonin transporter and integrin beta 3 genes interact to modulate serotonin uptake in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Alonzo; Jessen, Tammy; Varney, Seth; Carneiro, Ana M D

    2014-07-01

    Dysfunctions in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have been associated with several psychiatric illnesses, including anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Convergent evidence from genetic analyses of human subjects has implicated the integrin β3 subunit gene (ITGB3) as a modulator of serotonergic systems via genetic interactions with the 5-HT transporter gene (SLC6A4, SERT). While genetic interactions may result from contributions of each gene at several levels, we hypothesize that ITGB3 modulates the 5-HT system at the level of the synapse, through the actions of integrin αvβ3. Here we utilized a genetic approach in mouse models to examine Itgb3 contributions to SERT function both in the context of normal and reduced SERT expression. As integrin αvβ3 is expressed in postsynaptic membranes, we isolated synaptoneurosomes, which maintain intact pre- and post-synaptic associations. Citalopram binding revealed significant Slc6a4-driven reductions in SERT expression in midbrain synapses, whereas no significant changes were observed in hippocampal or cortical projections. Expecting corresponding changes to SERT function, we also measured 5-HT uptake activity in synaptoneurosomal preparations. Itgb3 single heterozygous mice displayed significant reductions in 5-HT Vmax, with no changes in Km, in midbrain preparations. However, in the presence of both Itgb3 and Slc6a4 heterozygozity, 5-HT uptake was similar to wild-type levels, revealing a significant Slc6a4 by Itgb3 genetic interaction in the midbrain. Similar findings were observed in cortical preparations, whereas in the hippocampus, most Vmax changes were driven solely by Slc6a4. Our findings provide evidence that integrin αvβ3 is involved in the regulation of serotonergic systems in some, but not all 5-HT synapses, revealing novel contributions to synaptic specificity within the central nervous system.

  4. 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors contribute to lurasidone-induced dopamine efflux.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Felix, Anna R; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2012-05-09

    Lurasidone is a novel, atypical antipsychotic drug with serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]2A, 5-HT7, dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist properties. The ability of lurasidone to reverse the effects of subchronic administration phencyclidine, to impair novel object recognition in rats, an animal model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, is dependent, in part, on its 5-HT1A agonist and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist properties. We tested whether 5-HT1A partial agonism or 5-HT7 antagonism, or both, contributed to the ability of lurasidone to enhance cortical and hippocampal DA efflux, which may be related to its ability to improve cognition. Here, we report that lurasidone, 0.25 and 0.5, but not 0.1 mg/kg, subcutaneously, significantly increased DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner. Lurasidone, 0.5 mg/kg, also produced a smaller increase in DA efflux in the nucleus accumbens. Pretreatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously), partially blocked the lurasidone-induced cortical and hippocampal DA efflux. Further, subeffective doses of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, tandospirone (0.2 mg/kg), or the 5-HT7 antagonist, SB269970 (0.3 mg/kg), potentiated the ability of a subeffective dose of lurasidone (0.1 mg/kg) to increase DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the effects of lurasidone on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, DA efflux are dependent, at least partially, on its 5-HT1A agonist and 5-HT7 antagonist properties and may contribute to its efficacy to reverse the effects of subchronic phencyclidine treatment and improve schizophrenia.

  5. Memory formation and memory alterations: 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors, novel alternative.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Agonists and antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor6 (5-HT6) or receptor7 (5-HT7) might improve memory and/or reverse amnesia, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, the current work summarizes recent reviews and findings involving these receptors. Evidence indicates that diverse 5-HT6 receptor antagonists produce promnesic and/or antiamnesic effect in conditions, such as memory formation, age-related cognitive impairments and memory deficit in preclinical studies, as well as in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory, aging, and AD modify 5-HT6 receptors and signaling cascades; likewise, the modulation of 5-HT6 drugs on memory seems to be accompanied with neural changes. Moreover, 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain areas mediating memory, including the cortex, hippocampus (e.g., Zola-Morgan and Squire, 1993) and raphe nuclei; however, the role of these receptors on memory has yet to be fully explored. Hence, findings and reviews are summarized in this work. Evidence suggests that both 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists might have promnesic and anti-amnesic effects. These effects seem to be dependent on the basal level of performance, i.e., normal or impaired. Available evidence suggests that a potential utility of 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptor in mild-to-moderate AD patients and other memory dysfunctions as therapeutic targets.

  6. Interplay between serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Popova, Nina K; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Ponimaskin, Evgeni G

    2014-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. Besides the important role of 5-HT receptors in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and in their clinical medications, underlying mechanisms are far from being completely understood. This review focuses on possible cross talk between two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1A and the 5-HT7 . Although these receptors are highly co-expressed in brain regions implicated in depression, and most agonists developed for the 5-HT1A or 5-HT7 receptors have cross-reactivity, their functional interaction has not been yet established. It has been recently shown that 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors form homo- and heterodimers both in vitro and in vivo. From the functional point of view, heterodimerization has been shown to play an important role in regulation of receptor-mediated signaling and internalization, suggesting the implication of heterodimerization in the development and maintenance of depression. Interaction between these receptors is also of clinical interest, because both receptors represent an important pharmacological target for the treatment of depression and anxiety.

  7. 5-HT(2A) and mGlu2 receptor binding levels are related to differences in impulsive behavior in the Roman Low- (RLA) and High- (RHA) avoidance rat strains.

    PubMed

    Klein, A B; Ultved, L; Adamsen, D; Santini, M A; Tobeña, A; Fernandez-Teruel, A; Flores, P; Moreno, M; Cardona, D; Knudsen, G M; Aznar, S; Mikkelsen, J D

    2014-03-28

    The Roman Low- and High-Avoidance rat strains (RLA-I vs RHA-I) have been bidirectionally selected and bred according to their performance in the two-way active avoidance response in the shuttle-box test. Numerous studies have reported a pronounced divergence in emotionality between the two rat strains including differences in novelty seeking, anxiety, stress coping, and susceptibility to addictive substances. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these divergent phenotypes are not known. Here, we determined impulsivity using the 5-choice serial reaction time task and levels of serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding using highly specific radioligands ((3)H-escitalopram, (3)H-MDL100907 and (3)H-WAY100635) and mGlu2/3 receptor binding ((3)H-LY341495) using receptor autoradiography in fronto-cortical sections from RLA-I (n=8) and RHA-I (n=8) male rats. In the more impulsive RHA-I rats, 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(1A) and SERT binding in the frontal cortex was significantly higher compared to RLA-I rats. In contrast, mGlu2/3 receptor binding was decreased by 40% in RHA-I rats compared to RLA-I rats. To differentiate between mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor protein levels, these were further studied using western blotting, which showed non-detectable levels of mGlu2 receptor protein in RHA rats, while no differences were observed for mGlu3 receptor protein levels. Collectively, these data show general congenital differences in the serotonergic system and a pronounced difference in mGlu2 receptor protein levels. We suggest that the differences in the serotonergic system may mediate some of the phenotypic characteristics in this strain such as hyper-impulsivity and susceptibility to drug addiction.

  8. Memory time-course: mRNA 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Meneses, Alfredo

    2009-08-24

    In an attempt to clarify conflicting results about serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in memory formation, their mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR in key brain areas for explicit and implicit memory. The time-course (0-120 h) of autoshaped responses was progressive and mRNA 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(7) receptors expression monotonically augmented or declined in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and raphe nuclei, respectively. At 24-48 h acutely 8-OH-DPAT (0.062 mg/kg) administration enhanced memory and attenuated mRNA 5-HT(1A)<5-HT(7) receptors expression respect to saline group. WAY100635 (0.3 mg/kg) or SB-269970 (10.0 mg/kg) did not affect the former, partially blocked or reversed the latter, respectively. Furthermore, lower WAY100635 (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) or SB-269970 (1.0-5.0 mg/kg) doses plus 8-OHDPAT not affected memory; however both combinations suppressed or up-regulated mRNA expression 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(7) receptors. In contrast, AS19 (5.0 mg/kg) facilitated memory consolidation, decreased or increased hippocampal 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1A) receptors expression. Together these data revealed that, when both 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors were stimulated by 8-OHDPAT under memory consolidation, subtle changes emerged, not evident at behavioral level though detectable at genes expression. Notably, high levels of efficient memory were maintained even when serotonergic tone, via either 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(7) receptor, was down- or up-regulated. Nevertheless, WAY100635 plus SB-269970 impaired memory consolidation and suppressed their expression. Considering that serotonergic changes are prominent in AD patients with an earlier onset of disease the present approach might be useful in the identification of functional changes associated to memory formation, memory deficits and reversing or even preventing these deficits.

  9. Design and synthesis of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Edward; Zhu, Xue Y; Etukala, Jagan R; Peprah, Kwakye; Jordan, Kamanski R; Adkins, Adia A; Bricker, Barbara A; Kang, Hye J; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2016-08-15

    5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors have been at the center of discussions recently due in part to their major role in the etiology of major central nervous system diseases such as depression, sleep disorders, and schizophrenia. As part of our search to identify dual targeting ligands for these receptors, we have carried out a systematic modification of a selective 5HT7 receptor ligand culminating in the identification of several dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands. Compound 16, a butyrophenone derivative of tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ), was identified as the most potent agent with low nanomolar binding affinities to both receptors. Interestingly, compound 16 also displayed moderate affinity to other clinically relevant dopamine receptors. Thus, it is anticipated that compound 16 may serve as a lead for further exploitation in our quest to identify new ligands with the potential to treat diseases of CNS origin.

  10. The relation of developmental changes in brain serotonin transporter (5HTT) and 5HT1A receptor binding to emotional behavior in female rhesus monkeys: effects of social status and 5HTT genotype.

    PubMed

    Embree, M; Michopoulos, V; Votaw, J R; Voll, R J; Mun, J; Stehouwer, J S; Goodman, M M; Wilson, M E; Sánchez, M M

    2013-01-03

    The goal of the present study was to examine how social subordination stress and 5HTT polymorphisms affect the development of brain serotonin (5HT) systems during the pubertal transition in female rhesus monkeys. We also examined associations with developmental changes in emotional reactivity in response to a standardized behavioral test, the Human Intruder (HI). Our findings provide the first longitudinal evidence of developmental increases in 5HT1A receptor and 5HTT binding in the brain of female primates from pre- to peripuberty. The increase in 5HT1A BP(ND) in these socially housed female rhesus monkeys is a robust finding, occurring across all groups, regardless of social status or 5HTT genotype, and occurring in the left and right hemispheres of all prefrontal regions studied, as well as the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and raphe nuclei. 5HTT BP(ND) also showed an increase with age in raphe, anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These changes in brain 5HT systems take place as females establish more adult-like patterns of social behavior, as well as during the HI paradigm. Indeed, the main developmental changes in behavior during the HI (increase in freezing and decrease in submission/appeasement) were related to neurodevelopmental increases in 5HT1A receptors and 5HTT, because the associations between these behaviors and 5HT endpoints emerge at peripuberty. We detected an effect of social status on 5HT1A BP(ND) in the hypothalamus and on 5HTT BP(ND) in the orbitofrontal cortex, with subordinates showing higher BP(ND) than dominants in both cases during the pubertal transition. No main effects of 5HTT genotype were observed for 5HT1A or 5HTT BP(ND). Our findings indicate that adolescence in female rhesus monkeys is a period of central 5HT reorganization, partly influenced by exposure to the social stress of subordination, that likely functions to integrate adrenal and gonadal systems and shape the behavioral response to

  11. Measuring endogenous 5-HT release by emission tomography: promises and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Louise M; Tyacke, Robin J; Nutt, David J; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-01-01

    Molecular in vivo neuroimaging techniques can be used to measure regional changes in endogenous neurotransmitters, evoked by challenges that alter synaptic neurotransmitter concentration. This technique has most successfully been applied to the study of endogenous dopamine release using positron emission tomography, but has not yet been adequately extended to other neurotransmitter systems. This review focuses on how the technique has been applied to the study of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system. The principles behind visualising fluctuations in neurotransmitters are introduced, with reference to the dopaminergic system. Studies that aim to image acute, endogenous 5-HT release or depletion at 5-HT receptor targets are summarised, with particular attention to studies in humans. Radiotracers targeting the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors and the serotonin reuptake transporter have been explored for their sensitivity to 5-HT fluctuations, but with mixed outcomes; tracers for these targets cannot reliably image endogenous 5-HT in humans. Shortcomings in our basic knowledge of the mechanisms underlying changes in binding potential are addressed, and suggestions are made as to how the selection of targets, radiotracers, challenge paradigms, and experimental design might be optimised to improve our chances of successfully imaging endogenous neurotransmitters in the future. PMID:20664611

  12. Effects of 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists on gastrointestinal motor activity in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Hiroki; Mochiki, Erito; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Sutou, Toshinaga; Ogawa, Atsushi; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Ogata, Kyoichi; Fujii, Takaaki; Ohno, Tetsuro; Tsutsumi, Souichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonists on normal colonic motor activity in conscious dogs. METHODS: Colonic motor activity was recorded using a strain gauge force transducer in 5 dogs before and after 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonist administration. The force transducers were implanted on the serosal surfaces of the gastric antrum, terminal ileum, ileocecal sphincter and colon. Test materials or vehicle alone was administered as an intravenous bolus injection during a quiescent period of the whole colon in the interdigestive state. The effects of these receptor antagonists on normal gastrointestinal motor activity were analyzed. RESULTS: 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists had no contractile effect on the fasting canine terminal ileum. The 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists inhibited phase III of the interdigestive motor complex of the antrum and significantly inhibited colonic motor activity. In the proximal colon, the inhibitory effect was dose dependent. Dose dependency, however, was not observed in the distal colon. The 5-HT2B receptor antagonist had no contractile effect on normal colonic motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists inhibited normal colonic motor activity. The 5-HT2B receptor antagonist had no contractile effect on normal colonic motor activity. PMID:24151388

  13. Repeated swim impairs serotonin clearance via a corticosterone-sensitive mechanism: organic cation transporter 3, the smoking gun.

    PubMed

    Baganz, Nicole; Horton, Rebecca; Martin, Kathryn; Holmes, Andrew; Daws, Lynette C

    2010-11-10

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is associated with increased extracellular serotonin (5-HT) in limbic brain regions. The mechanism through which this occurs remains unclear. One way could be via HPA axis-dependent impairment of serotonin transporter (SERT) function, the high-affinity uptake mechanism for 5-HT. Consistent with this idea, we found that 5-HT clearance rate in hippocampus was dramatically reduced in mice exposed to repeated swim, a stimulus known to activate the HPA axis. However, this phenomenon also occurred in mice lacking SERT, ruling out SERT as a mechanism. The organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) is emerging as an important regulator of brain 5-HT. Moreover, corticosterone, which is released upon HPA axis activation, blocks 5-HT uptake by OCT3. Repeated swim produced a persistent elevation in plasma corticosterone, and, consistent with prolonged blockade by corticosterone, we found that OCT3 expression and function were reduced in these mice. Importantly, this effect of repeated swim to reduce 5-HT clearance rate was corticosterone dependent, as evidenced by its absence in adrenalectomized mice, in which plasma corticosterone levels were essentially undetectable. Behaviorally, mice subjected to repeated swim spent less time immobile in the tail suspension test than control mice, but responded similarly to SERT- and norepinephrine transporter-selective antidepressants. Together, these results show that reduced 5-HT clearance following HPA axis activation is likely mediated, at least in part, by the corticosterone-sensitive OCT3, and that drugs developed to selectively target OCT3 (unlike corticosterone) may be candidates for the development of novel antidepressant medications.

  14. Comparative receptor mapping of serotoninergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 binding sites*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, María L.; Morcillo, María José; Benhamú, Bellinda; Rosado, María Luisa

    1997-11-01

    The clinical use of currently available drugs acting at the5-HT4 receptor has been hampered by their lack of selectivityover 5-HT3 binding sites. For this reason, there is considerableinterest in the medicinal chemistry of these serotonin receptor subtypes, andsignificant effort has been made towards the discovery of potent and selectiveligands. Computer-aided conformational analysis was used to characterizeserotoninergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptorrecognition. On the basis of the generally accepted model of the5-HT3 antagonist pharmacophore, we have performed a receptormapping of this receptor binding site, following the active analog approach(AAA) defined by Marshall. The receptor excluded volume was calculated as theunion of the van der Waals density maps of nine active ligands(pKi ≥ 8.9), superimposed in pharmacophoric conformations.Six inactive analogs (pKi < 7.0) were subsequently used todefine the essential volume, which in its turn can be used to define theregions of steric intolerance of the 5-HT3 receptor. Five activeligands (pKi ≥ 9.3) at 5-HT4 receptors wereused to construct an antagonist pharmacophore for this receptor, and todetermine its excluded volume by superimposition of pharmacophoricconformations. The volume defined by the superimposition of five inactive5-HT4 receptor analogs that possess the pharmacophoric elements(pKi ≤ 6.6) did not exceed the excluded volume calculated forthis receptor. In this case, the inactivity may be due to the lack of positiveinteraction of the amino moiety with a hypothetical hydrophobic pocket, whichwould interact with the voluminous substituents of the basic nitrogen ofactive ligands. The difference between the excluded volumes of both receptorshas confirmed that the main difference is indeed in the basic moiety. Thus,the 5-HT3 receptor can only accommodate small substituents inthe position of the nitrogen atom, whereas the 5-HT4 receptorrequires more voluminous groups. Also, the basic nitrogen is located at ca

  15. Role of 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-08-01

    The effects of post-training (i.p.) injection of TFMPP, mCPP, DOI or 1-NP in the autoshaping learning task was explored. Furthermore, the post-training effects of these agonists after treatment with the antagonists (+/-)-pindolol, (+/-)-propranolol, NAN-190, ketanserin, ritanserin, mesulergine, MDL-72222 or p-chloroamphetamine (5-HT depleter) were studied. Rats were individually trained with a lever-press response (conditioned response; CR) on the autoshaping task and tested 24 h later. The results showed that the injection of TFMPP (1-10 mg/kg), mCPP (1-10 mg/kg), 1-NP (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) or mesulergine (0.4 mg/kg) decreased the rate of CR, while DOI (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and ritanserin (0.5 mg/kg) and ketanserin (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) increased it. However, the effect induced by TFMPP was reversed by (+/-)-pindolol, ketanserin, ritanserin and PCA; the mCPP-induced effect was antagonized by (+/-)-propranolol, ketanserin, ritanserin and MDL-72222; and the effect produced by 1-NP was reversed by ketanserin, ritanserin and PCA. In addition, the increment in CR provoked by DOI was enhanced by ketanserin, and reversed by ritanserin, mesulergine and PCA. These findings suggest that TFMPP, 1-NP and DOI exerted their effects via stimulation of presynaptic 5-HT receptors. The effects of mCPP most probably reflect activation of postsynaptic receptors. The present data suggest that both 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A-2C receptors play a significant role in the consolidation of learning.

  16. Predictive In Silico Studies of Human 5-hydroxytryptamine Receptor Subtype 2B (5-HT2B) and Valvular Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Terry-Elinor; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are neuromodulator neurotransmitter receptors which when activated generate a signal transduction pathway within cells resulting in cell-cell communication. 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2B (5-HT2B) is a subtype of the seven members of 5-hydroxytrytamine (5-HT) family of receptors which is the largest member of the super family of 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Not only do 5-HT receptors play physiological roles in the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal and endocrine function and the central nervous, but they also play a role in behavioral functions. In particular 5-HT2B receptor is wide spread with regards to its distribution throughout bodily tissues and is expressed at high levels in the lungs, peripheral tissues, liver, kidney and prostate just to name a few. Hence 5-HT2B participates in multiple biological functions including CNS regulation, regulation of gastrointestinal motality, cardiovascular regulation and 5-HT transport system regulation. While 5-HT2B is a viable drug target and has therapeutic indications for treating obesity, psychotherapy, Parkinson’s disease etc. there is a growing concern regarding adverse drug reactions, specifically valvulopathy associated with 5-HT2B agonists. Due to the sequence homology experienced by 5-HT2 subtypes there is also a concern regarding the off target effects of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C agonists. The concept of subtype selectivity is of paramount importance and can be tackled with the aid of in silico studies, specifically cheminformatics, to develop models to predict valvulopathy associated toxicity of drug candidates prior to clinical trials. This review has highlighted three in silico approaches thus far that have been successful in either predicting 5-HT2B toxicity of molecules or identifying important interactions between 5-HT2B and drug molecules that bring about valvulopathy related toxicities. PMID:23675941

  17. Listeria monocytogenes Inhibits Serotonin Transporter in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Latorre, E; Pradilla, A; Chueca, B; Pagán, R; Layunta, E; Alcalde, A I; Mesonero, J E

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause a serious infection. Intestinal microorganisms have been demonstrated to contribute to intestinal physiology not only through immunological responses but also by modulating the intestinal serotonergic system. Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator that is synthesized in the intestinal epithelium and regulates the whole intestinal physiology. The serotonin transporter (SERT), located in enterocytes, controls intestinal 5-HT availability and therefore serotonin's effects. Infections caused by L. monocytogenes are well described as being due to the invasion of intestinal epithelial cells; however, the effect of L. monocytogenes on the intestinal epithelium remains unknown. The main aim of this work, therefore, was to study the effect of L. monocytogenes on SERT. Caco2/TC7 cell line was used as an enterocyte-like in vitro model, and SERT functional and molecular expression assays were performed. Our results demonstrate that living L. monocytogenes inhibits serotonin uptake by reducing SERT expression at the brush border membrane. However, neither inactivated L. monocytogenes nor soluble metabolites were able to affect SERT. The results also demonstrate that L. monocytogenes yields TLR2 and TLR10 transcriptional changes in intestinal epithelial cells and suggest that TLR10 is potentially involved in the inhibitory effect observed on SERT. Therefore, L. monocytogenes, through TLR10-mediated SERT inhibition, may induce increased intestinal serotonin availability and potentially contributing to intestinal physiological changes and the initiation of the inflammatory response.

  18. Constitutively Active 5-HT Receptors: An Explanation of How 5-HT Antagonists Inhibit Gut Motility in Species Where 5-HT is Not an Enteric Neurotransmitter?

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nick J.

    2015-01-01

    Antagonists of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are well known to inhibit gastrointestinal (GI)-motility and transit in a variety of mammals, including humans. Originally, these observations had been interpreted by many investigators (including us) as evidence that endogenous 5-HT plays a major role in GI motility. This seemed a logical assumption. However, the story changed dramatically after recent studies revealed that 5-HT antagonists still blocked major GI motility patterns (peristalsis and colonic migrating motor complexes) in segments of intestine depleted of all 5-HT. Then, these results were further supported by Dr. Gershons' laboratory, which showed that genetic deletion of all genes that synthesizes 5-HT had minor, or no inhibitory effects on GI transit in vivo. If 5-HT was essential for GI motility patterns and transit, then one would expect major disruptions in motility and transit when 5-HT synthesis was genetically ablated. This does not occur. The inhibitory effects of 5-HT antagonists on GI motility clearly occur independently of any 5-HT in the gut. Evidence now suggests that 5-HT antagonists act on 5-HT receptors in the gut which are constitutively active, and don't require 5-HT for their activation. This would explain a long-standing mystery of how 5-HT antagonists inhibit gut motility in species like mice, rats, and humans where 5-HT is not an enteric neurotransmitter. Studies are now increasingly demonstrating that the presence of a neurochemical in enteric neurons does not mean they function as neurotransmitters. Caution should be exercised when interpreting any inhibitory effects of 5-HT antagonists on GI motility. PMID:26732863

  19. Expression of serotonin, chromogranin-A, serotonin receptor-2B, tryptophan hydroxylase-1, and serotonin reuptake transporter in the intestine of dogs with chronic enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Candice; Ruaux, Craig; Stang, Bernadette V; Valentine, Beth A

    2016-05-01

    Serotonin regulates many intestinal motor and sensory functions. Altered serotonergic metabolism has been described in human gastrointestinal diseases. The objective of our study was to compare expression of several components of the serotonergic system [serotonin (5-HT), serotonin reuptake transporter protein (SERT), tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1), 5-HT receptor2B (5-HT2B)] and the enterochromaffin cell marker chromogranin-A (CgA) in the intestinal mucosa between dogs with chronic enteropathy and healthy controls. Serotonin and CgA expression were determined by immunohistochemistry using banked and prospectively obtained, paraffin-embedded canine gastrointestinal biopsies (n = 11), and compared to a control group of canine small intestinal sections (n = 10). Expression of SERT, TPH-1, and 5-HT2B were determined via real-time reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR using prospectively collected endoscopic duodenal biopsies (n = 10) and compared to an additional control group of control duodenal biopsies (n = 8, control group 2) showing no evidence of intestinal inflammation. Dogs with chronic enteropathies showed strong staining for both 5-HT and CgA. Mean positive cells per high power field (HPF) were significantly increased for both compounds in dogs with chronic enteropathies (p < 0.001 for 5-HT; p < 0.05 for CgA). The number of 5-HT-positive and CgA-positive cells/HPF showed significant correlation in the entire group of dogs, including both diseased and healthy individuals (Pearson r(2) = 0.2433, p = 0.016). No significant differences were observed for SERT, TPH-1, or 5-HT2B expression; however, dogs with chronic enteropathy showed greater variability in expression of TPH-1 and 5-HT2B We conclude that components of the neuroendocrine system show altered expression in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathy. These changes may contribute to nociception and clinical signs in these patients.

  20. The 5-HT1-like receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in the pithed rat: operational correlation with the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, Carlos M; Centurión, David; Rabelo, Gonzalo; de Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Sánchez-López, Araceli

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that the inhibition of sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses produced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in pithed rats is mediated by 5-HT1-like receptors. The present study has re-analysed this suggestion with regard to the classification schemes recently proposed by the NC-IUPHAR subcommittee on 5-HT receptors.Intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of 5-HT and the 5-HT1 receptor agonists, 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A), indorenate (5-HT1A), CP 93,129 (5-HT1B) and sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D), resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses.The sympatho-inhibitory responses induced by 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT, indorenate, CP 93,129 or sumatriptan were analysed before and after i.v. treatment with blocking doses of the putative 5-HT receptor antagonists, WAY 100635 (5-HT1A), cyanopindolol (5-HT1A/1B) or GR 127935 (5-HT1B/1D). Thus, after WAY 100635, the responses to 5-HT and indorenate, but not to 8-OH-DPAT, CP 93,129 and sumatriptan, were blocked. After cyanopindolol, the responses to 5-HT, indorenate and CP 93,129 were abolished, whilst those to 8-OH-DPAT and sumatriptan (except at the lowest frequency of stimulation) remained unaltered. In contrast, after GR 127935, the responses to 5-HT, CP 93,129 and sumatriptan, but not to 8-OH-DPAT and indorenate, were abolished.In additional experiments, the inhibition induced by 5-HT was not modified after 5-HT7 receptor blocking doses of mesulergine.The above results suggest that the 5-HT1-like receptors, which inhibit the sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, display the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D, but not that of 5-HT7, receptors. PMID:9692787

  1. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 Receptor Antagonists Promote Sleep in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morairty, Stephen R.; Hedley, Linda; Flores, Judith; Martin, Renee; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Serotonin (5-HT) has long been implicated in the control of sleep and wakefulness. This study evaluated the hypnotic efficacy of the 5-HT6 antagonist RO4368554 (RO) and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 (MDL) relative to zolpidem. Design: A randomized, repeated-measures design was utilized in which Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of RO (1.0, 3.0, and 10 mg/kg), MDL (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), zolpidem (10 mg/kg), or vehicle in the middle of the dark (active) period. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity were analyzed for 6 hours after injection. Measurements and Results: RO, MDL, and zolpidem all produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking, compared with vehicle control. All 3 doses of MDL produced more consolidated sleep, increased non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) sleep, and increased electroencephalographic delta power during NREM sleep. The highest dose of RO (10.0 mg/kg) produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking during hour 2 following dosing. These increases in sleep duration were associated with greater delta power during NREM sleep. ZO Zolpidem induced sleep with the shortest latency and significantly increased NREM sleep and delta power but also suppressed rapid eye movement sleep sleep; in contrast, neither RO nor MDL affected rapid eye movement sleep. Whereas RO did not affect Tb, both zolpidem and MDL reduced Tb relative to vehicle-injected controls. Conclusions: These results support a role for 5-HT2A receptor modulation in NREM sleep and suggest a previously unrecognized role for 5-HT6 receptors in sleep-wake regulation. Citation: Morairty SR; Hedley L; Flores J; Martin R; Kilduff TS. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 receptor antagonists promote sleep in rats. SLEEP 2008;31(1):34-44. PMID:18220076

  2. 5-HT(2B) receptors are required for serotonin-selective antidepressant actions.

    PubMed

    Diaz, S L; Doly, S; Narboux-Nême, N; Fernández, S; Mazot, P; Banas, S M; Boutourlinsky, K; Moutkine, I; Belmer, A; Roumier, A; Maroteaux, L

    2012-02-01

    The therapeutic effects induced by serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are initially triggered by blocking the serotonin transporter and rely on long-term adaptations of pre- and post-synaptic receptors. We show here that long-term behavioral and neurogenic SSRI effects are abolished after either genetic or pharmacological inactivation of 5-HT(2B) receptors. Conversely, direct agonist stimulation of 5-HT(2B) receptors induces an SSRI-like response in behavioral and neurogenic assays. Moreover, the observation that (i) this receptor is expressed by raphe serotonergic neurons, (ii) the SSRI-induced increase in hippocampal extracellular serotonin concentration is strongly reduced in the absence of functional 5-HT(2B) receptors and (iii) a selective 5-HT(2B) agonist mimics SSRI responses, supports a positive regulation of serotonergic neurons by 5-HT(2B) receptors. The 5-HT(2B) receptor appears, therefore, to positively modulate serotonergic activity and to be required for the therapeutic actions of SSRIs. Consequently, the 5-HT(2B) receptor should be considered as a new tractable target in the combat against depression.

  3. Contractile 5-HT1 receptors in human isolated pial arterioles: correlation with 5-HT1D binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, E.; Bouchard, D.

    1991-01-01

    1. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor responsible for inducing vasoconstriction in human isolated pial arterioles has been pharmacologically characterized. 2. Of several 5-HT agonists tested, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) was the most potent and the rank order of agonist potency can be summarized as: 5-CT greater than 5-HT greater than RU 24969 = alpha-methyl-5-HT = methysergide much greater than MDL 72832 = 2-methyl-5-HT much greater than 2-dipropylamino-8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalene (8-OH-DPAT). With few exceptions, the maximal contractile responses of these agonists were comparable to that induced by 5-HT. 3. A correlation analysis performed between the agonists vascular potency (pD2 values) and their affinities (pKD values) published at various subtypes of 5-HT binding sites showed a positive significant correlation with rat cortical 5-HT1B (r = 0.86; P less than 0.01) and human caudate 5-HT1D (r = 0.98; P less than 0.005) subtypes. 4. Selective antagonists at 5-HT2 (ketanserin, mianserin, MDL 11939) and 5-HT3 (MDL 72222) sites were totally devoid of inhibitory activity on the 5-HT-induced contraction, an observation which agreed with the agonist data and further excluded activation of these receptors. In contrast, the 5-HT1-like/5-HT2 antagonist methiothepin and the non-selective 5-HT1D compound metergoline inhibited with high affinity the contraction induced by 5-HT with respective pA2 values of 8.55 +/- 0.16 and 6.88 +/- 0.05. This contractile response was, however, insensitive to 5-HT1B (propranolol) and 5-HT1C (mesulergine, mianserin) antagonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043924

  4. Side effect profile of 5-HT treatments for Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lindenbach, D; Palumbo, N; Ostock, C Y; Vilceus, N; Conti, M M; Bishop, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with L-DOPA eventually causes abnormal involuntary movements known as dyskinesias in most patients. Dyskinesia can be reduced using compounds that act as direct or indirect agonists of the 5-HT1A receptor, but these drugs have been reported to worsen PD features and are known to produce ‘5-HT syndrome’, symptoms of which include tremor, myoclonus, rigidity and hyper-reflexia. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Sprague-Dawley rats were given unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine lesions with 6-hydroxydopamine. Each of the following three purportedly anti-dyskinetic 5-HT compounds were administered 15 min before L-DOPA: the full 5-HT1A agonist ±-8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin (±8-OH-DPAT), the partial 5-HT1A agonist buspirone or the 5-HT transporter inhibitor citalopram. After these injections, animals were monitored for dyskinesia, 5-HT syndrome, motor activity and PD akinesia. KEY RESULTS Each 5-HT drug dose-dependently reduced dyskinesia by relatively equal amounts (±8-OH-DPAT ≥ citalopram ≥ buspirone), but 5-HT syndrome was higher with ±8-OH-DPAT, lower with buspirone and not present with citalopram. Importantly, with or without L-DOPA, all three compounds provided an additional improvement of PD akinesia. All drugs tempered the locomotor response to L-DOPA suggesting dyskinesia reduction, but vertical rearing was reduced with 5-HT drugs, potentially reflecting features of 5-HT syndrome. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The results suggest that compounds that indirectly facilitate 5-HT1A receptor activation, such as citalopram, may be more effective therapeutics than direct 5-HT1A receptor agonists because they exhibit similar anti-dyskinesia efficacy, while possessing a reduced side effect profile. PMID:25175895

  5. Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Inhibition by Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation. A Feedback Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Layunta, Elena; Grasa, Laura; Castro, Marta; Pardo, Julián; Gomollón, Fernando; Mesonero, José E.

    2016-01-01

    TLR2 is a microbiota recognition receptor that has been described to contribute to intestinal homeostasis and to ameliorate inflammatory intestinal injury. In this context, serotonin (5-HT) has shown to be an essential intestinal physiological neuromodulator that is also involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases. Since the interaction between TLR2 activation and the intestinal serotoninergic system remains non-investigated, our main aim was to analyze the effect of TLR2 on intestinal serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and expression and the intracellular pathways involved. Caco-2/TC7 cells were used to analyze SERT and TLR2 molecular expression and SERT activity by measuring 5-HT uptake. The results showed that apical TLR2 activation inhibits SERT activity in Caco-2/TC7 cells mainly by reducing SERT protein level either in the plasma membrane, after short-term TLR2 activation or in both the plasma membrane and cell lysate, after long-term activation. cAMP/PKA pathway appears to mediate short-term inhibitory effect of TLR2 on SERT; however, p38 MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both short- and long-term TLR2 effect. Reciprocally, 5-HT long-term treatment yielded TLR2 down regulation in Caco-2/TC7 cells. Finally, results from in vivo showed an augmented intestinal SERT expression in mice Tlr2-/-, thus confirming our inhibitory effect of TLR2 on intestinal SERT in vitro. The present work infers that TLR2 may act in intestinal pathophysiology, not only by its inherent innate immune role, but also by regulating the intestinal serotoninergic system. PMID:28033388

  6. Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Inhibition by Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation. A Feedback Modulation.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Eva; Layunta, Elena; Grasa, Laura; Castro, Marta; Pardo, Julián; Gomollón, Fernando; Alcalde, Ana I; Mesonero, José E

    2016-01-01

    TLR2 is a microbiota recognition receptor that has been described to contribute to intestinal homeostasis and to ameliorate inflammatory intestinal injury. In this context, serotonin (5-HT) has shown to be an essential intestinal physiological neuromodulator that is also involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases. Since the interaction between TLR2 activation and the intestinal serotoninergic system remains non-investigated, our main aim was to analyze the effect of TLR2 on intestinal serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and expression and the intracellular pathways involved. Caco-2/TC7 cells were used to analyze SERT and TLR2 molecular expression and SERT activity by measuring 5-HT uptake. The results showed that apical TLR2 activation inhibits SERT activity in Caco-2/TC7 cells mainly by reducing SERT protein level either in the plasma membrane, after short-term TLR2 activation or in both the plasma membrane and cell lysate, after long-term activation. cAMP/PKA pathway appears to mediate short-term inhibitory effect of TLR2 on SERT; however, p38 MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both short- and long-term TLR2 effect. Reciprocally, 5-HT long-term treatment yielded TLR2 down regulation in Caco-2/TC7 cells. Finally, results from in vivo showed an augmented intestinal SERT expression in mice Tlr2-/-, thus confirming our inhibitory effect of TLR2 on intestinal SERT in vitro. The present work infers that TLR2 may act in intestinal pathophysiology, not only by its inherent innate immune role, but also by regulating the intestinal serotoninergic system.

  7. ‘Second-Generation' Mephedrone Analogs, 4-MEC and 4-MePPP, Differentially Affect Monoamine Transporter Function

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kusumika; Partilla, John S; Lehner, Kurt R; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Sandtner, Walter; Ecker, Gerhard F; Sitte, Harald H; Baumann, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The nonmedical use of synthetic cathinones is increasing on a global scale. 4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular synthetic cathinone that is now illegal in the United States and other countries. Since the legislative ban on mephedrone, a number of ‘second-generation' analogs have appeared in the street drug marketplace, including 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC) and 4′-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP). Here we characterized the interactions of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP with transporters for 5-HT (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) using molecular, cellular, and whole-animal methods. In vitro transporter assays revealed that 4-MEC displays unusual ‘hybrid' activity as a SERT substrate (ie, 5-HT releaser) and DAT blocker, whereas 4-MePPP is a blocker at both transporters but more potent at DAT. In vivo microdialysis experiments in rat brain demonstrated that 4-MEC (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced large increases in extracellular 5-HT, small increases in dopamine, and minimal motor stimulation. In contrast, 4-MePPP (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced selective increases in dopamine and robust motor stimulation. Consistent with its activity as a SERT substrate, 4-MEC evoked inward current in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes, whereas 4-MePPP was inactive in this regard. To examine drug–transporter interactions at the molecular level, we modeled the fit of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP into the binding pockets for DAT and SERT. Subtle distinctions in ligand–transporter binding were found that account for the differential effects of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP at SERT. Collectively, our results provide key information about the pharmacology of newly emerging mephedrone analogs, and give clues to structural requirements that govern drug selectivity at DAT vs SERT. PMID:25502630

  8. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding.

    PubMed

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Jensen, Peter Steen; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2016-04-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well as BPAQ physical aggression (P = 0.025). No main effect of global 5-HT4R on trait aggression or impulsivity was found in the mixed gender sample, but there was evidence for sex interaction effects in the relationship between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ physical aggression. In conclusion we found that low cerebral 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4R binding were associated with high trait aggression in males, but not in females.

  9. Monoamine transporter and receptor interaction profiles of novel psychoactive substances: para-halogenated amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones.

    PubMed

    Rickli, Anna; Hoener, Marius C; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacology of novel psychoactive substances is mostly unknown. We evaluated the transporter and receptor interaction profiles of a series of para-(4)-substituted amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones. We tested the potency of these compounds to inhibit the norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) transporters (NET, DAT, and SERT, respectively) using human embryonic kidney 293 cells that express the respective human transporters. We also tested the substance-induced efflux of NE, DA, and 5-HT from monoamine-loaded cells, binding affinities to monoamine receptors, and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Para-(4)-substituted amphetamines, including 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 4-ethylmethcathinone, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 4-fluoromethamphetamine, 4-fluoromethcatinone (flephedrone), and 4-bromomethcathinone, were relatively more serotonergic (lower DAT:SERT ratio) compared with their analogs amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methcathinone. The 4-methyl, 4-ethyl, and 4-bromo groups resulted in enhanced serotonergic properties compared with the 4-fluoro group. The para-substituted amphetamines released NE and DA. 4-Fluoramphetamine, 4-flouromethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone, and 4-ethylmethcathinone also released 5-HT similarly to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The pyrovalerone cathinones 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, pyrovalerone, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone potently inhibited the NET and DAT but not the SERT. Naphyrone was the only pyrovalerone that also inhibited the SERT. The pyrovalerone cathinones did not release monoamines. Most of the para-substituted amphetamines exhibited affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor but no relevant activation of the 5-HT2B receptor. All the cathinones exhibited reduced trace amine-associated receptor 1 binding compared with the non-β-keto-amphetamines. In conclusion, para-substituted amphetamines exhibited

  10. Aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines as 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Kim, Youngjae; Tae, Jinsung; Yeom, Miyoung; Moon, Bongjin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Lee, Kangho; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Il Han; Chong, Youhoon; Keum, Gyochang; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choo, Hyunah

    2013-11-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression and neuropathic pain. The 5-HT7 R antagonist SB-269970 exhibited antidepressant-like activity, whereas systemic administration of the 5-HT7 R agonist AS-19 significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. In our efforts to discover selective 5-HT7 R antagonists or agonists, aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated against the 5-HT7 R. Among the synthesized compounds, 1-([2'-methoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl]methyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (28) was the best binder to the 5-HT7 R (pKi =7.83), and its antagonistic property was confirmed by functional assays. The selectivity profile of compound 28 was also recorded for the 5-HT7 R over other serotonin receptor subtypes, such as 5-HT1 R, 5-HT2 R, 5-HT3 R, and 5-HT6 R. In a molecular modeling study, the 2-methoxyphenyl moiety attached to the piperazine ring of compound 28 was proposed to be essential for the antagonistic function.

  11. Amphetamine Action at the Cocaine- and Antidepressant-Sensitive Serotonin Transporter Is Modulated by αCaMKII

    PubMed Central

    Steinkellner, Thomas; Montgomery, Therese R.; Hofmaier, Tina; Kudlacek, Oliver; Yang, Jae-Won; Rickhag, Mattias; Jung, Gangsoo; Lubec, Gert; Gether, Ulrik; Freissmuth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is terminated by reuptake of extracellular serotonin (5-HT) by the high-affinity serotonin transporter (SERT). Selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine or escitalopram inhibit SERT and are currently the principal treatment for depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, SERT is a major molecular target for psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines. Amphetamine-induced transport reversal at the closely related dopamine transporter (DAT) has been shown previously to be contingent upon modulation by calmodulin kinase IIα (αCaMKII). Here, we show that not only DAT, but also SERT, is regulated by αCaMKII. Inhibition of αCaMKII activity markedly decreased amphetamine-triggered SERT-mediated substrate efflux in both cells coexpressing SERT and αCaMKII and brain tissue preparations. The interaction between SERT and αCaMKII was verified using biochemical assays and FRET analysis and colocalization of the two molecules was confirmed in primary serotonergic neurons in culture. Moreover, we found that genetic deletion of αCaMKII impaired the locomotor response of mice to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (also known as “ecstasy”) and blunted d-fenfluramine-induced prolactin release, substantiating the importance of αCaMKII modulation for amphetamine action at SERT in vivo as well. SERT-mediated substrate uptake was neither affected by inhibition of nor genetic deficiency in αCaMKII. This finding supports the concept that uptake and efflux at monoamine transporters are asymmetric processes that can be targeted separately. Ultimately, this may provide a molecular mechanism for putative drug developments to treat amphetamine addiction. PMID:26019340

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of Na+/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters in a membrane-aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anne Marie; Tagmose, Lena; Jørgensen, Anne Marie M; Bøgesø, Klaus P; Peters, Günther H

    2007-06-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of a homology model of the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) in a membrane environment and in complex with either the natural substrate 5-HT or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We have also included a transporter homologue, the Aquifex aeolicus leucine transporter (LeuT), in our study to evaluate the applicability of a simple and computationally attractive membrane system. Fluctuations in LeuT extracted from simulations are in good agreement with crystallographic B factors. Furthermore, key interactions identified in the X-ray structure of LeuT are maintained throughout the simulations indicating that our simple membrane system is suitable for studying the transmembrane protein hSERT in complex with 5-HT or escitalopram. For these transporter complexes, only relatively small fluctuations are observed in the ligand-binding cleft. Specific interactions responsible for ligand recognition, are identified in the hSERT-5HT and hSERT-escitalopram complexes. Our findings are in good agreement with predictions from mutagenesis studies.

  13. On the role of brain 5-HT7 receptor in the mechanism of hypothermia: comparison with hypothermia mediated via 5-HT1A and 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Kondaurova, Elena M; Popova, Nina K

    2011-12-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of selective agonist of serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor LP44 (4-[2-(methylthio)phenyl]-N-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl)-1-pyperasinehexanamide hydrochloride; 10.3, 20.5 or 41.0 nmol) produced considerable hypothermic response in CBA/Lac mice. LP44-induced (20.5 nmol) hypothermia was significantly attenuated by the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970 (16.1 fmol, i.c.v.) pretreatment. At the same time, intraperitoneal administration of LP44 in a wide range of doses 1.0, 2.0 or 10.0 mg/kg (2.0, 4.0, 20.0 μmol/kg) did not cause considerable hypothermic response. These findings indicate the implication of central, rather than peripheral 5-HT(7) receptors in the regulation of hypothermia. The comparison of LP44-induced (20.5 nmol) hypothermic reaction in eight inbred mouse strains (DBA/2J, CBA/Lac, C57BL/6, BALB/c, ICR, AKR/J, C3H and Asn) was performed and a significant effect of genotype was found. In the same eight mouse strains, functional activity of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptors was studied. The comparison of hypothermic responses produced by 5-HT(7) receptor agonist LP44 (20.5 nmol, i.c.v.) and 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. (3.0 μmol/kg), 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-CPBG (40.0 nmol, i.c.v.) did not reveal considerable interstrain correlations between 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(3) receptor-induced hypothermia. The selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970 (16.1 fmol, i.c.v.) failed to attenuate the hypothermic effect of 8-OH-DPAT 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. (3.0 μmol/kg) and m-CPBG (40.0 nmol, i.c.v.) indicating that the brain 5-HT(7) receptor is not involved in the hypothermic effects of 8-OH-DPAT or m-CPBG. The obtained results suggest that the central 5-HT(7) receptor plays an essential role in the mediation of thermoregulation independent of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptors.

  14. Role of 5-HT6 receptors in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2001-09-01

    Mice lacking the 5-HT(6) receptor presented neither gross anatomical or behavioral abnormalities nor obvious changes in microscopic brain morphology, and their performance in rotarod, open field and novel object testing paradigms revealed no differences compared with wild-type animals. Nevertheless, an association between the 5-HT(6) receptor polymorphism C267T and Alzheimer's disease has been reported. Interestingly, the 5-HT(6) antisense oligonucleotide decreased 5-HT(6) gene expression and enhanced spatial learning acquisition in the water maze. Similarly, injection of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro-04-6790 improved learning consolidation in an autoshaping task, while mCPP, scopolamine and dizocilpine decreased performance. The effect induced by scopolamine or dizocilpine, but not that induced by mCPP, was completely or partially reversed by Ro-04-6790. Ro-04-6790 did not modify the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effects on learning consolidation. Since Ro-04-6790 facilitatory effect was unaffected by 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A/2B/2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4) or 5-HT(7) receptor blockade, the facilitatory effect induced by Ro-04-6790 involved specifically 5-HT6 receptors. Similarly, the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-271046 improved retention in the water maze and produced a significant performance improvement in aged rats in an operant-delayed alternation task. A series of Ro-04-6790 analogues that penetrate the brain and specifically bind to 5-HT(6) receptors reversed scopolamine-induced retention deficit in a passive avoidance learning test. Collectively, these data provide further support to the notion that 5-HT systems, via 5-HT(6) receptors, also play a significant role in memory formation under normal and dysfunctional memory conditions.

  15. Mice with compromised 5-HTT function lack phosphotyrosine-mediated inhibitory control over prefrontal 5-HT responses.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Nathalie M; Sargin, Derya; Ansorge, Mark S; Gingrich, Jay A; Lambe, Evelyn K

    2014-04-23

    The activity of the prefrontal cortex is essential for normal emotional processing and is strongly modulated by serotonin (5-HT). Yet, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that control the activity of the prefrontal 5-HT receptors. Here, we found and characterized a deregulation of prefrontal 5-HT receptor electrophysiological signaling in mouse models of disrupted serotonin transporter (5-HTT) function, a risk factor for emotional and cognitive disturbances. We identified a novel tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism that regulates 5-HT-mediated inhibition of prefrontal pyramidal neurons. We report that mice with compromised 5-HTT, resulting from either genetic deletion or brief treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during development, have amplified 5-HT1A receptor-mediated currents in adulthood. These greater inhibitory effects of 5-HT are accompanied by enhanced downstream coupling to Kir3 channels. Notably, in normal wild-type mice, we found that these larger 5-HT1A responses can be mimicked through inhibition of Src family tyrosine kinases. By comparison, in our 5-HTT mouse models, the larger 5-HT1A responses were rapidly reduced through inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases. Our findings implicate tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating the electrophysiological effects of prefrontal 5-HT1A receptors with implications for neuropsychiatric diseases associated with emotional dysfunction, such as anxiety and depressive disorders.

  16. Behavioural evidence for a functional interaction between central 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Backus, L. I.; Sharp, T.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    1. The possibility of 5-HT2 receptor modulation of central 5-HT1A receptor function has been examined using the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) behavioural syndrome induced by 5-HT1A receptor active drugs in rats. 2. The 5-HT2/5-HTIC antagonist ritanserin (0.1-2 mg kg-1) increased the 5-HT behavioural syndrome induced by submaximally effective doses of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) and gepirone. 3. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2/5-HT1C antagonist ICI 170,809 (0.25-5 mg kg-1) also enhanced the behavioural syndrome induced by 8-OH-DPAT or 5-MeODMT. 4. The 5-HT2/alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist ketanserin in a low dose (0.25 mg kg-1) significantly increased the 5-HT behavioural syndrome induced by 8-OH-DPAT or 5-MeODMT, while in a higher dose (2.5 mg kg-1) this drug decreased the response. Experiments with prazosin indicate that the higher dose of ketanserin might reduce the 5-HT behavioural syndrome through blockade of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. 5. Ritanserin and ICI 170,809 had no effect on apomorphine-induced stereotypy or hyperactivity, indicating that these drugs do not produce non-specific behavioural activation. 6. Ritanserin and ICI 170,809 inhibited quipazine-induced wet dog shakes at doses similar to those enhancing the 5-HT behavioural syndrome. 7. We suggest that ritanserin, ICI 170,809 and ketanserin enhance 5-HT1A agonist-induced behaviour through blockade of an inhibitory 5-HT2 receptor regulating or coupled to 5-HT1A receptor-mediated function. PMID:2145051

  17. Unifying Concept of Serotonin Transporter-associated Currents*

    PubMed Central

    Schicker, Klaus; Uzelac, Zeljko; Gesmonde, Joan; Bulling, Simon; Stockner, Thomas; Freissmuth, Michael; Boehm, Stefan; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H.; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) uptake by the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is driven by ion gradients. The stoichiometry of transported 5-HT and ions is predicted to result in electroneutral charge movement. However, hSERT mediates a current when challenged with 5-HT. This discrepancy can be accounted for by an uncoupled ion flux. Here, we investigated the mechanistic basis of the uncoupled currents and its relation to the conformational cycle of hSERT. Our observations support the conclusion that the conducting state underlying the uncoupled ion flux is in equilibrium with an inward facing state of the transporter with K+ bound. We identified conditions associated with accumulation of the transporter in inward facing conformations. Manipulations that increased the abundance of inward facing states resulted in enhanced steady-state currents. We present a comprehensive kinetic model of the transport cycle, which recapitulates salient features of the recorded currents. This study provides a framework for exploring transporter-associated currents. PMID:22072712

  18. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  19. 5-HT3 receptors as important mediators of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. The first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been very effective in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis in the first 24 h postchemotherapy (acute emesis), but have not been as effective against delayed emesis (24-120 h postchemotherapy). Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a FDA approved antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters: dopamine at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonin at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for chemotherapy-induced emesis and nausea, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  20. 5-HT spatial distribution imaging with multiphoton excitation of 5-HT correlative visible fluorescence in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Zeng, Shaoqun; Liu, Yafeng; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Tongsheng; Luo, Qingming

    2002-04-01

    The autofluorescence of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) loaded rat mucosal mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells) is imaged with multiphoton excitation laser scanning microscope (MPELSM). 5-HT correlative visible fluorescence (Fco-vis) excited with 740-nm multiphoton excitation is observed in live cells for the first time, and the generating mechanism of 5-HT Fco-vis is studied. The spatial distribution of 5-HT in live cells is imaged at high spatial resolution in our experiment, which provides a new way to study the correlation between 5-HT spatial distribution and content, and the cellular functional state in live tissue or cells.

  1. The GR127935-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors mediating canine internal carotid vasoconstriction: resemblance to the 5-HT1B, but not to the 5-HT1D or 5-ht1F, receptor subtype

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Sánchez-López, Araceli; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2001-01-01

    This study has further investigated the pharmacological profile of the GR127935-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors mediating vasoconstriction in the internal carotid bed of anaesthetized vagosympathectomized dogs. One-minute intracarotid infusions of the agonists 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 0.1–10 μg min−1; endogenous ligand) and sumatriptan (0.3–10 μg min−1; 5-HT1B/1D), but not PNU-142633 (1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT1D) or LY344864 (1–1000 μg min−1; 5-ht1F), produced dose-dependent decreases in internal carotid blood flow without changing blood pressure or heart rate. The responses to 5-HT were apparently resistant to blockade by i.v. administration of the antagonists SB224289 (300 μg kg−1; 5-HT1B), BRL15572 (300 μg kg−1; 5-HT1D) or ritanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2). In contrast, the responses to sumatriptan were antagonized by SB224289, but not by BRL15572. In the animals receiving SB224289, but not those receiving BRL15572, the subsequent administration of ritanserin abolished the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction and unmasked a vasodilator component. Similarly, in ritanserin-treated animals, the subsequent administration of SB224289, but not BRL15572, completely blocked the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction, revealing vasodilatation. In animals receiving initially BRL15572, the subsequent administration of SB224289 did not affect (except at 10 μg min−1) the vasoconstrictor responses to 5-HT. Notably, in animals pretreated with 1000 μg kg−1 of mesulergine, a 5-HT2/7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT produced a dose-dependent vasoconstriction, which was practically abolished by SB224289. After BRL15572, no further blockade was produced and the subsequent administration of ritanserin was similarly inactive. These results suggest that the GR127935-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors mediating canine internal carotid vasoconstriction resemble the 5-HT1B but not the 5-HT1D or 5-ht1F, receptor subtype. PMID:11226129

  2. Effect of Selective 5-HT6R Agonist on Expression of 5-HT Receptor and Neurotransmitter in Vascular Dementia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haining; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Li; Tang, Jiyou

    2017-01-01

    Background 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) has pluripotent roles regulating secretion of neurotransmitters. However, whether 5-HT6R is involved in the development of vascular dementia (VD) remains unclear. To evaluate the role and mechanism of 5-HT6R in VD, this study established a rat VD model to evaluate the effect of selective 5-HT6R agonist on the expression of 5-HT6R mRNA and neurotransmitter. Material/Methods Eighty healthy male SD rats (7 weeks old) were randomly assigned to sham, model, 5-HT6R agonist, and placebo groups (N=20 each). A rat VD model was generated by permeant bilateral ligation of the common carotid artery. 5-HT6R agonist, placebo, or saline were given intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. The Morris water maze was utilized to test learning and memory function. Brains were extracted to separate the cortex and hippocampal tissues, in which glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were analyzed. mRNA and protein levels of 5-HT6R were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. Results Model rats had longer escape latency and fewer crossing platform times. Contents of DA, Glu, GABA, and Ach were lowered in cortical and hippocampal tissues, and 5-HT6R expression was suppressed (p<0.05). The application of 5-HT6R agonist shortened escape latency and increased the number of passing through the platform. It also improved hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage and elevated DA, Glu, GABA, and Ach contents and expression of 5-HT6R. Expression of 5-HT6R was not different from the placebo group. Conclusions Selective 5-HT6R agonist can alleviate learning deficit of VD rats, possibly via improving neurotransmitter levels in brain regions. PMID:28196966

  3. Effects of the 5-HT receptor antagonists GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D) and MDL100907 (5-HT2A) in the consolidation of learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Terrón, J A; Hong, E

    1997-12-01

    We have previously reported that 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors play a role in learning and memory. The present investigation was devoted to analyze further in the autoshaping learning task: (1) the effects of the 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptor agonist, GR46611, the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935, and the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL100907. Consistent with a role of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in learning, the post-training injection of GR46611 (1-10 mg/kg) decreased the consolidation of learning whereas GR127935 (10 mg/kg) increased it; the effects of both drugs were reversed by PCA pretreatment. GR127935 abolished the decrease induced by GR46611, TFMPP and mCPP, whereas MDL100907 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) had no effect by itself but abolished the effects of DOI, ketanserin and TFMPP and moderately inhibited the effects elicited by mCPP, 1-NP and mesulergine. Neither did GR127935 nor MDL100907 significantly modify the increase in the consolidation of learning induced by 8-OH-DPAT. Thus, the present findings suggest that stimulation of presynaptic 5-HT1B/1D receptors impairs the consolidation of learning whilst stimulation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors enhances it; the blockade of 5-HT2A receptors has no effects. In addition, 5-HT2 receptors seem to modulate this cognitive stage.

  4. New insight into the therapeutic role of 5-HT1A receptors in central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    The serotonergic system plays a crucial role in regulating psychoemotional, cognitive and motor functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Among 5-HT receptor subtypes, 5-HT(1A) receptors have long been implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders. 5-HT(1A) receptors function as both presynaptic (autoreceptor) and postsynaptic receptors in specific brain regions such as the limbic areas, septum and raphe nuclei. 5-HT(1A) receptors negatively regulate cAMP-dependent signal transduction and inhibit neuronal activity by opening G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. The therapeutic action of 5-HT(1A) agonists and their mechanism in alleviating anxiety and depressive disorders have been well documented. In addition, recent studies have revealed new insights into the therapeutic role of 5-HT(1A) receptors in treating various CNS disorders, including not only depressive disorders (e.g., delayed onset of action and refractory symptoms), but also schizophrenia (e.g., cognitive impairment and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects) and Parkinson's disease (e.g., extrapyramidal motor symptoms and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia). These lines of evidences encourage us to design new generation 5-HT(1A) ligands such as 5-HT(1A) agonists with greater potency, higher selectivity and improved pharmacokinetic properties, and 5-HT(1A) ligands which combine multiple pharmacological actions (e.g., inhibition of serotonin transporter, dopamine D(2) receptors and other 5-HT receptor subtypes). Such new 5-HT(1A) ligands may overcome clinical efficacy limitations and/or improve adverse reactions in current CNS therapies.

  5. Peripheral 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Beatriz; Martín, María Luisa; San Román, Luis; Morán, Asunción

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels. PMID:21403818

  6. Possible roles of 5-HT in vein graft failure due to intimal hyperplasia 5-HT, nitric oxide and vein graft.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Akio; Itoh, Takeo; Komori, Kimihiro

    2014-02-01

    For vascular occlusive disease, an autologous vein graft is the most suitable conduit for arterial reconstruction. Intimal hyperplasia, resulting from the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, is a major obstacle to patency after vein grafting. The degree to which the function of nitric oxide (NO) in the vein graft is preserved has been reported to be associated with the magnitude of intimal hyperplasia. Serotonin (5-HT) is released from platelets in the vascular system and plays physiological roles in controlling the vascular tone. The subtype receptors contributing to the 5-HT-induced mechanical responses vary by vessel type (artery and vein) and among species (dogs, rabbits, rats, and so on). Recent studies have demonstrated that 5-HT induces vasoconstriction through the activation of 5-HT2A receptors in smooth muscle cells or vasodilatation through the activation of endothelial 5-HT1B receptors in arteries from various animals. However, the effects of 5-HT have not been clarified in grafted veins. We herein demonstrate the responses to 5-HT in un-operated veins and then autogenous vein grafts. Next, we describe the effects of chronic in vivo administration of Rho-kinase inhibitors and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, both of which reduce the 5-HT-induced contraction and intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts. Further studies targeting 5-HT are required to evaluate its possible benefits for autologous vein grafts with respect to vasospasm, function, and patency.

  7. Convergence of melatonin and serotonin (5-HT) signaling at MT2/5-HT2C receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Maud; Gbahou, Florence; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Daulat, Avais M; Benleulmi-Chaachoua, Abla; Luka, Marine; Chen, Patty; Kalbasi Anaraki, Dina; Baroncini, Marc; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J; Prevot, Vincent; Delagrange, Philippe; Jockers, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Inasmuch as the neurohormone melatonin is synthetically derived from serotonin (5-HT), a close interrelationship between both has long been suspected. The present study reveals a hitherto unrecognized cross-talk mediated via physical association of melatonin MT2 and 5-HT2C receptors into functional heteromers. This is of particular interest in light of the "synergistic" melatonin agonist/5-HT2C antagonist profile of the novel antidepressant agomelatine. A suite of co-immunoprecipitation, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, and pharmacological techniques was exploited to demonstrate formation of functional MT2 and 5-HT2C receptor heteromers both in transfected cells and in human cortex and hippocampus. MT2/5-HT2C heteromers amplified the 5-HT-mediated Gq/phospholipase C response and triggered melatonin-induced unidirectional transactivation of the 5-HT2C protomer of MT2/5-HT2C heteromers. Pharmacological studies revealed distinct functional properties for agomelatine, which shows "biased signaling." These observations demonstrate the existence of functionally unique MT2/5-HT2C heteromers and suggest that the antidepressant agomelatine has a distinctive profile at these sites potentially involved in its therapeutic effects on major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Finally, MT2/5-HT2C heteromers provide a new strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  8. RU 24969-induced emesis in the cat - 5-HT1 sites other than 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C implicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.

    1990-01-01

    RU 24969 was administered s.c. to cats and found to elicit emesis with a maximally effective dose of 1.0 mg/kg 5-Methoxytryptamine was found to have lower efficacy and to produce a higher incidence of nonspecific effects while trifluoromethylphenylpiperizine (TFMPP) was devoid of emetic effects. The emesis elicited by 1.0 mg/kg of RU 24969 was not altered by pretreatment with phentolamine, haloperidol, yohimbine or (-)-propranolol, indicating that catecholamines played no role in this response. The emesis was prevented by metergoline and methysergide but not by ketanserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, ICS 205 930, methiothepin, trimethobenzamide or BMY 7378. An indirect argument is presented that implicates a role for 5-HT1D sites. This conclusion must remain tentative until drugs selective for this site are synthesized and tested. The emesis was also prevented by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), confirming that this drug has a general antiemetic effect in cats.

  9. Incubation of cocaine cue reactivity associates with neuroadaptations in the cortical serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) system.

    PubMed

    Swinford-Jackson, S E; Anastasio, N C; Fox, R G; Stutz, S J; Cunningham, K A

    2016-06-02

    Intensification of craving elicited by drug-associated cues during abstinence occurs over time in human cocaine users while elevation of cue reactivity ("incubation") is observed in rats exposed to extended forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation in rodents has been linked to time-dependent neuronal plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We tested the hypothesis that incubation of cue reactivity during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is accompanied by lower potency and/or efficacy of the selective serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C​ receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity and a shift in the subcellular localization profile of the mPFC 5-HT2CR protein. We observed incubation of cue reactivity (measured as lever presses reinforced by the discrete cue complex) between Day 1 and Day 30 of forced abstinence from cocaine relative to sucrose self-administration. Pharmacological and biochemical analyses revealed that the potency of the selective 5-HT2CR agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity, the expression of synaptosomal 5-HT2CR protein in the mPFC, and the membrane to cytoplasmic expression of the 5-HT2CR in mPFC were lower on Day 30 vs. Day 1 of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation of cue reactivity assessed during forced abstinence from sucrose self-administration did not associate with 5-HT2CR protein expression in the mPFC. Collectively, these outcomes are the first indication that neuroadaptations in the 5-HT2CR system may contribute to incubation of cocaine cue reactivity.

  10. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor: a novel neurodevelopmental target.

    PubMed

    Engel, Mareen; Smidt, Marten P; van Hooft, Johannes A

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), next to being an important neurotransmitter, recently gained attention as a key-regulator of pre- and postnatal development in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Several receptors for 5-HT are expressed in the developing brain including a ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor. Over the past years, evidence has been accumulating that 5-HT3 receptors are involved in the regulation of neurodevelopment by serotonin. Here, we review the spatial and temporal expression patterns of 5-HT3 receptors in the pre- and early postnatal rodent brain and its functional implications. First, 5-HT3 receptors are expressed on GABAergic interneurons in neocortex and limbic structures derived from the caudal ganglionic eminence. Mature inhibitory GABAergic interneurons fine-tune neuronal excitability and thus are crucial for the physiological function of the brain. Second, 5-HT3 receptors are expressed on specific glutamatergic neurons, Cajal-Retzius cells in the cortex and granule cells in the cerebellum, where they regulate morphology, positioning, and connectivity of the local microcircuitry. Taken together, the 5-HT3 receptor emerges as a potential key-regulator of network formation and function in the CNS, which could have a major impact on our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in which 5-HT plays a role.

  11. 5-HT7 receptors as modulators of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and plasticity: physiological role and possible implications in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ciranna, Lucia; Catania, Maria Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin type 7 receptors (5-HT7) are expressed in several brain areas, regulate brain development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and therefore are involved in various brain functions such as learning and memory. A number of studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptors could be potential pharmacotherapeutic target for cognitive disorders. Several abnormalities of serotonergic system have been described in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including abnormal activity of 5-HT transporter, altered blood and brain 5-HT levels, reduced 5-HT synthesis and altered expression of 5-HT receptors in the brain. A specific role for 5-HT7 receptors in ASD has not yet been demonstrated but some evidence implicates their possible involvement. We have recently shown that 5-HT7 receptor activation rescues hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome, a monogenic cause of autism. Several other studies have shown that 5-HT7 receptors modulate behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior, mood disorders and epilepsy, which include core and co-morbid symptoms of ASD. These findings further suggest an involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in ASD. Here, we review the physiological roles of 5-HT7 receptors and their implications in Fragile X Syndrome and other ASD. PMID:25221471

  12. 5-HT7 receptors as modulators of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and plasticity: physiological role and possible implications in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ciranna, Lucia; Catania, Maria Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin type 7 receptors (5-HT7) are expressed in several brain areas, regulate brain development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and therefore are involved in various brain functions such as learning and memory. A number of studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptors could be potential pharmacotherapeutic target for cognitive disorders. Several abnormalities of serotonergic system have been described in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including abnormal activity of 5-HT transporter, altered blood and brain 5-HT levels, reduced 5-HT synthesis and altered expression of 5-HT receptors in the brain. A specific role for 5-HT7 receptors in ASD has not yet been demonstrated but some evidence implicates their possible involvement. We have recently shown that 5-HT7 receptor activation rescues hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome, a monogenic cause of autism. Several other studies have shown that 5-HT7 receptors modulate behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior, mood disorders and epilepsy, which include core and co-morbid symptoms of ASD. These findings further suggest an involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in ASD. Here, we review the physiological roles of 5-HT7 receptors and their implications in Fragile X Syndrome and other ASD.

  13. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  14. Inflammation and peripheral 5-HT7 receptors: the role of 5-HT7 receptors in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Halici, Zekai; Cadirci, Elif; Polat, Beyzagul; Karakus, Emre; Bayir, Yasin; Unal, Deniz; Atasoy, Mustafa; Dogrul, Ahmet

    2013-09-05

    The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate possible role for 5-HT7 receptors in carrageenan induced inflammatory paw oedema in rats; (2) to determine the presence of 5-HT7 receptors in rat paw tissue; (3) to observe the effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonist and antagonist administration on inflammation; and (4) to determine a unique mechanism for inflammatory processes via 5-HT7 receptors. Effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonist, antagonist and indomethacin were investigated in carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. Blood and tissue samples were collected and evaluated biochemically for serum cytokine levels, tissue oxidant-antioxidant balance and histopathologically for inflammatory cell accumulation. We performed Real Time PCR analyses for tissue 5-HT7 receptor and COX mRNA expressions. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS-19 exerted significant anti-inflammatory effect both alone and in combination with indomethacin. Antagonist, SB269970, did not affect inflammation alone but decreased the effects of agonist when co-administered. 5-HT7 mRNA levels were higher in the carrageenan group than healthy control. Carrageenan+indometacin group decreased the mRNA expression of 5-HT7 when compared to carrageenan group. While agonist administration decreased 5-HT7 mRNA expression when compared to carrageenan group. Agonist decreased paw COX expression. Agonist also decreased serum cytokine levels and tissue oxidative stress. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in rat paw tissue and that this expression responds to inflammatory stimuli. The 5-HT7 receptor may be a promising new therapeutic target for prevention of inflammation and inflammatory disorders and may also provide a new glimpse into inflammation pathophysiology.

  15. Recent developments in the design of anti-depressive therapies: targeting the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Butler, S G; Meegan, M J

    2008-01-01

    The serotonin transporter protein (SERT) has been the target for the development of several modern antidepressants with an objective of achieving selectivity over other monoamine transporters, thereby minimising side effects observed in the older generation of tricyclic antidepressants. The clinical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to be among the most effective therapies in the treatment of depression. However they have clinical disadvantages over other classes of antidepressant drugs such as slow onset of action nausea and sleep disruption. The negative feedback loop attributed to the presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors has been implicated in the "time lag" observed in many patients between the administration of the SSRI and its observed therapeutic action. In recent years the focus has been on developing compounds with dual affinity for serotonergic auto-receptors along with an inhibitory activity at SERT. These structurally diverse products promise to be the next generation of anti-depressant medicines. This review presents an analysis of the recently reported structural classes with SSRI activity and rationalises the unique relationship between their molecular properties and biological activities. Specific emphasis is placed on the development of molecular structures with dual serotonergic activity. Recent advances in the design and synthesis of single molecular entities possessing 5-HT reuptake inhibition together with 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(2A), DAT, NET, alpha (2)-adrenoceptor and acetylcholinesterase antagonism are reviewed. The structural studies to identify proposed SERT binding sites together with the role of structure and ligand based design in the development of more effective SSRIs are summarised.

  16. Pharmacological profile of the 5-HT-induced inhibition of cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats: correlation with 5-HT1 and putative 5-ht5A/5B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-López, Araceli; Centurión, David; Vázquez, Erika; Arulmani, Udayasankar; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2003-01-01

    Continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) inhibit the tachycardiac responses to preganglionic (C7-T1) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine. The present study identified the pharmacological profile of this inhibitory action of 5-HT. The inhibition induced by intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of 5-HT (5.6 μg kg−1 min−1) on sympathetically induced tachycardiac responses remained unaltered after i.v. treatment with saline or the antagonists GR 127935 (5-HT1B/1D), the combination of WAY 100635 (5-HT1A) plus GR 127935, ritanserin (5-HT2), tropisetron (5-HT3/4), LY215840 (5-HT7) or a cocktail of antagonists/inhibitors consisting of yohimbine (α2), prazosin (α1), ritanserin, GR 127935, WAY 100635 and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase), but was abolished by methiothepin (5-HT1/2/6/7 and recombinant 5-ht5A/5B). These drugs, used in doses high enough to block their respective receptors/mechanisms, did not modify the sympathetically induced tachycardiac responses per se. I.v. continuous infusions of the agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 5-HT1/7 and recombinant 5-ht5A/5B), CP 93,129 (r5-HT1B), sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D), PNU-142633 (5-HT1D) and ergotamine (5-HT1B/1D and recombinant 5-ht5A/5B) mimicked the above sympatho-inhibition to 5-HT. In contrast, the agonists indorenate (5-HT1A) and LY344864 (5-ht1F) were inactive. Interestingly, 5-CT-induced cardiac sympatho-inhibition was abolished by methiothepin, the cocktail of antagonists/inhibitors, GR 127935 or the combination of SB224289 (5-HT1B) plus BRL15572 (5-HT1D), but remained unchanged when SB224289 or BRL15572 were given separately. Therefore, 5-HT-induced cardiac sympatho-inhibition, being unrelated to 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-ht6, 5-HT7 receptors, α1/2-adrenoceptor or prostaglandin synthesis, seems to be primarily mediated by (i) 5-HT1 (probably 5-HT1B/1D) receptors and (ii) a novel mechanism antagonized by methiothepin that, most likely, involves putative 5-ht5A/5B

  17. 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors differently modulate AMPA receptor-mediated hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Costa, L; Trovato, C; Musumeci, S A; Catania, M V; Ciranna, L

    2012-04-01

    We have studied the effects of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) serotonin receptor activation in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission using patch clamp on mouse brain slices. Application of either 5-HT or 8-OH DPAT, a mixed 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(7) receptor agonist, inhibited AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory post synaptic currents (EPSCs); this effect was mimicked by the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH PIPAT and blocked by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist NAN-190. 8-OH DPAT increased paired-pulse facilitation and reduced the frequency of mEPSCs, indicating a presynaptic reduction of glutamate release probability. In another group of neurons, 8-OH DPAT enhanced EPSC amplitude but did not alter paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting a postsynaptic action; this effect persisted in the presence of NAN-190 and was blocked by the 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970. To confirm that EPSC enhancement was mediated by 5-HT(7) receptors, we used the compound LP-44, which is considered a selective 5-HT(7) agonist. However, LP-44 reduced EPSC amplitude in most cells and instead increased EPSC amplitude in a subset of neurons, similarly to 8-OH DPAT. These effects were respectively antagonized by NAN-190 and by SB-269970, indicating that under our experimental condition LP-44 behaved as a mixed agonist. 8-OH DPAT also modulated the current evoked by exogenously applied AMPA, inducing either a reduction or an increase of amplitude in distinct neurons; these effects were respectively blocked by 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, indicating that both receptors exert a postsynaptic action. Our results show that 5-HT(1A) receptors inhibit CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission acting both pre- and postsynaptically, whereas 5-HT(7) receptors enhance CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission acting exclusively at a postsynaptic site. We suggest that a selective pharmacological targeting of either subtype may be envisaged in pathological loss of hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. In this respect, we underline the

  18. Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Canton, H; Barrett, R J; Sanders-Bush, E

    1998-11-01

    Extensive behavioral and biochemical evidence suggests an agonist role at the 5-HT2A receptor, and perhaps the 5-HT2C receptor, in the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. However the published in vitro pharmacological properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an hallucinogenic tryptamine analog, are not consistent with this hypothesis. We, therefore, undertook an extensive investigation into the properties of DMT at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. In fibroblasts transfected with the 5-HT2A receptor or the 5-HT2C receptor, DMT activated the major intracellular signaling pathway (phosphoinositide hydrolysis) to an extent comparable to that produced by serotonin. Because drug efficacy changes with receptor density and cellular microenvironment, we also examined the properties of DMT in native preparations using a behavioral and biochemical approach. Rats were trained to discriminate an antagonist ketanserin from an agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) in a two-lever choice paradigm. Pharmacological studies showed that responding on the DOI and ketanserin lever reflected agonist and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors, and hence, was a suitable model for evaluating the in vivo functional properties of DMT. Like other 5-HT2A receptor agonists, DMT substituted fully for DOI. Intact choroid plexus was used to evaluate the agonist properties at endogenous 5-HT2C receptors; DMT was a partial agonist at 5-HT2C receptors in this native preparation. Thus, we conclude that DMT behaves as an agonist at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2A receptors. One difference was evident in that the 5-HT2C, but not the 5-HT2A, receptor showed a profound desensitization to DMT over time. This difference is interesting in light of the recent report that the hallucinogenic activity of DMT does not tolerate in humans and suggests the 5-HT2C receptor plays a less prominent role in the action of DMT.

  19. Bivalent Ligands for the Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which by virtue of its pentameric architecture, can be considered to be an intriguing example of intrinsically multivalent biological receptors. This paper describes a general design approach to the study of multivalency in this multimeric ion channel. Bivalent ligands for 5-HT3 receptor have been designed by linking an arylpiperazine moiety to probes showing different functional features. Both homobivalent and heterobivalent ligands have shown 5-HT3 receptor affinity in the nanomolar range, providing evidence for the viability of our design approach. Moreover, the high affinity shown by homobivalent ligands suggests that bivalency is a promising approach in 5-HT3 receptor modulation and provides the rational basis for applying the concepts of multivalency to the study of 5-HT3 receptor function. PMID:24900351

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure and dynamics of 5-HT3 serotonin receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, M. Yu.; Popinako, A. V.; Prokopiev, G. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we investigated structure, dynamics and ion transportation in transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 serotonin receptor. High-resolution (0.35 nm) structure of the 5-HT3 receptor in complex with stabilizing nanobodies was determined by protein crystallography in 2014 (Protein data bank (PDB) code 4PIR). Transmembrane domain of the structure was prepared in complex with explicit membrane environment (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)) and solvent (TIP3P water model). Molecular dynamics protocols for simulation and stabilization of the transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 receptor model were developed and 60 ns simulation of the structure was conducted in order to explore structural parameters of the system. We estimated the mean force profile for Na+ ions using umbrella sampling method.

  1. Differential expression of 5-HT-related genes in symptomatic pulmonary embolism patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yun; Wang, Lemin; Duan, Qianglin; Gong, Zhu; Yang, Fan; Song, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Whole human genome oligo microarrays were employed to systematically investigate the mRNA expression profile of 5-HT synthetase, transporter, receptor, and factors in 5-HT signaling pathway in peripheral blood karyocytes from pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. Methods: A total of 20 PE patients and 20 healthy subjects matched in gender and age were recruited. The human genome microarrays were performed to detect the mRNA expression profile of 5-HT synthetase, transporter, receptor, and factors in 5-HT signal pathway of two groups. The random variance model corrected t-test was used for analysis. Results: Our results showed (1) tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1)-related gene expression was markedly down-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.01); (2) monoamine oxidases (MAO)-related gene (MAOB) expression was significantly up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.01); (3) the expression of 17 genes of 7 5-HT receptors showed a down-regulated tendency in PE patients, and significant difference was observed in the expression of HTR1E, HTR3B, HTR4 and HTR5A between them (P < 0.05); (4) the expression of DalDAG-GEF I, Tubby, PKA and EPAC in 5-HT signal pathways was dramatically up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05); the expression of SPA1, RIAM, RAPL, Talin, PKC, PLC and Pyk2 was remarkably up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05); (5) the expression of integrin genes ITGA2B, ITGB1 and ITGB3 was significantly up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In PE patients, the expression of TPH1 and HTR4 was down-regulated as a negative feedback; the MAOB expression was up-regulated. Consistent with the expression of 5-HTR1E and 5-HTR4 and the abnormally activated Tubby, the expression of integrins in platelets was activated. PMID:25785024

  2. Electrical coupling between the human serotonin transporter and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed

    Ruchala, Iwona; Cabra, Vanessa; Solis, Ernesto; Glennon, Richard A; De Felice, Louis J; Eltit, Jose M

    2014-07-01

    Monoamine transporters have been implicated in dopamine or serotonin release in response to abused drugs such as methamphetamine or ecstasy (MDMA). In addition, monoamine transporters show substrate-induced inward currents that may modulate excitability and Ca(2+) mobilization, which could also contribute to neurotransmitter release. How monoamine transporters modulate Ca(2+) permeability is currently unknown. We investigate the functional interaction between the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaV). We introduce an excitable expression system consisting of cultured muscle cells genetically engineered to express hSERT. Both 5HT and S(+)MDMA depolarize these cells and activate the excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanism. However, hSERT substrates fail to activate EC-coupling in CaV1.1-null muscle cells, thus implicating Ca(2+) channels. CaV1.3 and CaV2.2 channels are natively expressed in neurons. When these channels are co-expressed with hSERT in HEK293T cells, only cells expressing the lower-threshold L-type CaV1.3 channel show Ca(2+) transients evoked by 5HT or S(+)MDMA. In addition, the electrical coupling between hSERT and CaV1.3 takes place at physiological 5HT concentrations. The electrical coupling between monoamine neurotransmitter transporters and Ca(2+) channels such as CaV1.3 is a novel mechanism by which endogenous substrates (neurotransmitters) or exogenous substrates (like ecstasy) could modulate Ca(2+)-driven signals in excitable cells.

  3. Role of Serotonin via 5-HT2B Receptors in the Reinforcing Effects of MDMA in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Doly, Stéphane; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Callebert, Jacques; Bruneau, Alexandra; Banas, Sophie Marie; Belmer, Arnauld; Boutourlinsky, Katia; Hervé, Denis; Launay, Jean-Marie; Maroteaux, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) reverses dopamine and serotonin transporters to produce efflux of dopamine and serotonin, respectively, in regions of the brain that have been implicated in reward. However, the role of serotonin/dopamine interactions in the behavioral effects of MDMA remains unclear. We previously showed that MDMA-induced locomotion, serotonin and dopamine release are 5-HT2B receptor-dependent. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of serotonin and 5-HT2B receptors to the reinforcing properties of MDMA. We show here that 5-HT2B−/− mice do not exhibit behavioral sensitization or conditioned place preference following MDMA (10 mg/kg) injections. In addition, MDMA-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference after extinction and locomotor sensitization development are each abolished by a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist (RS127445) in wild type mice. Accordingly, MDMA-induced dopamine D1 receptor-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase in nucleus accumbens is abolished in mice lacking functional 5-HT2B receptors. Nevertheless, high doses (30 mg/kg) of MDMA induce dopamine-dependent but serotonin and 5-HT2B receptor-independent behavioral effects. These results underpin the importance of 5-HT2B receptors in the reinforcing properties of MDMA and illustrate the importance of dose-dependent effects of MDMA on serotonin/dopamine interactions. PMID:19956756

  4. Shuyu Capsules Relieve Premenstrual Syndrome Depression by Reducing 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR Expression in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Feng, Jizhen; Gao, Dongmei; Wang, Jieqiong; Song, Chunhong; Wei, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the Shuyu capsule on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression in a rat model of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) depression and on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and hippocampal neuron 5-HT3 channel current were investigated, to elucidate its mechanism of action against PMS depression. PMS depression model rats were divided into depression and Shuyu- and fluoxetine-treated groups, which were compared to control rats for frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and behavior. The depressed model rats displayed symptoms of depression, which were reduced in treated and normal control rats. Frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR levels were significantly higher in the model versus the control group and were significantly lower in the Shuyu group. As compared to control rats, the 5-HT3R channel current in the model group was significantly higher; the 5-HT3R channel current in hippocampal neurons treated with serum from Shuyu group rats was significantly lower than that in those treated with model group serum. Thus, PMS depression may be related to 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and increased 5-HT3 channel current. Shuyu capsules rectified abnormal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and 5-HT3 channel current changes in a rat model; this finding may provide insight into treating PMS depression. PMID:27725889

  5. Effect of long-term fluoxetine treatment on the human serotonin transporter in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Iceta, Ruth; Mesonero, José E; Alcalde, Ana I

    2007-03-27

    Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) broadly used in the treatment of human mood disorders and gastrointestinal diseases involving the serotoninergic system. The effectiveness of this therapy depends on repeated long-term treatment. Most of the long-term studies in vivo of SSRI effects on serotoninergic activity have focused on their effects on autoreceptors or postsynaptic receptors. The chronic effect of SSRIs on the activity of the serotonin transporter (SERT) has been less studied and the results have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the specific effect of long-term fluoxetine treatment on human serotonin transporter (hSERT) in vitro, by using the human enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2. Results show that fluoxetine diminished the 5-HT uptake in a concentration-dependent way and that this effect was reversible. Fluoxetine affected mainly the hSERT transport rate by reducing the availability of the transporter in the membrane with no significant alteration of either the total hSERT protein content or the hSERT mRNA level. These results suggest that the effect of fluoxetine on the expression of hSERT is post-translational and has shown itself to be independent of PKC and PKA activity. This study may be useful to clarify the effect of the long-term fluoxetine therapy in both gastrointestinal and central nervous system disorders.

  6. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    PubMed

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, José M; Cortés, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions.

  7. Molecular dynamics of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors with methylated buspirone analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronowska, Agnieszka; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Leś, Andrzej; Edvardsen, Øyvind; Østensen, Roy; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2001-11-01

    In the present study experimentally determined ligand selectivity of three methylated buspirone analogues (denoted as MM2, MM5 and P55) towards 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors was theoretically investigated on a molecular level. The relationships between the ligand structure and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor affinities were studied and the results were found to be in agreement with the available site-directed mutagenesis and binding affinity data. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ligand-receptor complexes were performed for each investigated analogue, docked twice into the central cavity of 5-HT1A/5-HT2A, each time in a different orientation. Present results were compared with our previous theoretical results, obtained for buspirone and its non-methylated analogues. It was found that due to the presence of the methyl group in the piperazine ring the ligand position alters and the structure of the ligand-receptor complex is modified. Further, the positions of derivatives with pyrimidinyl aromatic moiety and quinolinyl moiety are significantly different at the 5-HT2A receptor. Thus, methylation of such derivatives alters the 3D structures of ligand-receptor complexes in different ways. The ligand-induced changes of the receptor structures were also analysed. The obtained results suggest, that helical domains of both receptors have different dynamical behaviour. Moreover, both location and topography of putative binding sites for buspirone analogues are different at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

  8. Spinal 5-HT1A, not the 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors, mediates descending serotonergic inhibition for late-phase mechanical allodynia of carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung Min; Jeong, Seong Wook; Yang, Jihoon; Lee, Seong Heon; Kim, Woon Mo; Jeong, Seongtae; Bae, Hong Beom; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-07-23

    Previous electrophysiological studies demonstrated a limited role of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3R), but facilitatory role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT1BR in spinal nociceptive processing of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. The release of spinal 5-HT was shown to peak in early-phase and return to baseline in late-phase of carrageenan inflammation. We examined the role of the descending serotonergic projections involving 5-HT1AR, 5-HT1BR, and 5-HT3R in mechanical allodynia of early- (first 4h) and late-phase (24h after) carrageenan-induced inflammation. Intrathecal administration of 5-HT produced a significant anti-allodynic effect in late-phase, but not in early-phase. Similarly, intrathecal 5-HT1AR agonist (8-OH-DPAT) attenuated the intensity of late-phase allodynia in a dose dependent fashion which was antagonized by 5-HT1AR antagonist (WAY-100635), but produced no effect on the early-phase allodynia. However, other agonists or antagonists of 5-HT1BR (CP-93129, SB-224289) and 5-HT3R (m-CPBG, ondansetron) did not produce any anti- or pro-allodynic effect in both early- and late- phase allodynia. These results suggest that spinal 5-HT1A, but not 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors mediate descending serotonergic inhibition on nociceptive processing of late-phase mechanical allodynia in carrageenan-induced inflammation.

  9. Menthol inhibits 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents.

    PubMed

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Shuba, Yaroslav; Al Kury, Lina; Sadek, Bassem; Howarth, Frank C; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-11-01

    The effects of alcohol monoterpene menthol, a major active ingredient of the peppermint plant, were tested on the function of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. 5-HT (1 μM)-evoked currents recorded by two-electrode voltage-clamp technique were reversibly inhibited by menthol in a concentration-dependent (IC50 = 163 μM) manner. The effects of menthol developed gradually, reaching a steady-state level within 10-15 minutes and did not involve G-proteins, since GTPγS activity remained unaltered and the effect of menthol was not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment. The actions of menthol were not stereoselective as (-), (+), and racemic menthol inhibited 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents to the same extent. Menthol inhibition was not altered by intracellular 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid injections and transmembrane potential changes. The maximum inhibition observed for menthol was not reversed by increasing concentrations of 5-HT. Furthermore, specific binding of the 5-HT3 antagonist [(3)H]GR65630 was not altered in the presence of menthol (up to 1 mM), indicating that menthol acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of the 5-HT3 receptor. Finally, 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents in acutely dissociated nodose ganglion neurons were also inhibited by menthol (100 μM). These data demonstrate that menthol, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, is an allosteric inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors.

  10. Tianeptine: 5-HT uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors modulate memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental task.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies using invertebrate and mammal species have revealed that, endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) modulates cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory, though, at present, it is unclear the manner, where, and how long 5-HT systems are involved. Hence in this work, an attempt was made to study the effects of 5-HT endogenous on memory formation, using a 5-HT uptake facilitator (tianeptine) and, selective 5-HT(1-7) receptor antagonists to determine whether 5-HT uptake sites and which 5-HT receptors are involved, respectively. Results showed that post-training tianeptine injection enhanced memory consolidation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task, which has been useful to detect changes on memory formation elicited by drugs or aging. On interaction experiments, ketanserin (5-HT(1D/2A/2C) antagonist) slightly enhanced tianeptine effects, while WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist), SB-224289 (5-HT(1B) inverse agonist), SB-200646 (5-HT(2B/2C) antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist), GR 127487 (5-HT(4) antagonist), Ro 04-6790 (5-HT(6) antagonist), DR 4004 (5-HT(7) antagonist), or fluoxetine (an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake) blocked the facilitatory tianeptine effect. Notably, together tianeptine and Ro 04-6790 impaired learning consolidation. Moreover, 5-HT depletion completely reversed the tianeptine effect. Tianeptine also normalized an impaired memory elicited by scopolamine (an antimuscarinic) or dizocilpine (non-competitive glutamatergic antagonist), while partially reversed that induced by TFMPP (5-HT(1B/1D/2A-2C/7) agonist/antagonist). Finally, tianeptine-fluoxetine coadministration had no effect on learning consolidation; nevertheless, administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, phenserine, potentiated subeffective tianeptine or fluoxetine doses. Collectively, these data confirmed that endogenously 5-HT modulates, via uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors, memory consolidation, and are consistent with the

  11. Substituted methcathinones differ in transporter and receptor interactions

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, Amy J; Wolfrum, Katherine M; Hatfield, Meagan G; Johnson, Robert A; Murphy, Kevin V; Janowsky, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The use of synthetic methcathinones, components of “bath salts,” is a world-wide health concern. These compounds, structurally similar to methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cause tachycardia, hallucinations and psychosis. We hypothesized that these potentially neurotoxic and abused compounds display differences in their transporter and receptor interactions as compared to amphetamine counterparts. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone and naphyrone had high affinity for radioligand binding sites on recombinant human dopamine (hDAT), serotonin (hSERT) and norepinephrine (hNET) transporters, potently inhibited [3H]neurotransmitter uptake, and, like cocaine, did not induce transporter-mediated release. Butylone was a lower affinity uptake inhibitor. In contrast, 4-fluoromethcathinone, mephedrone and methylone had higher inhibitory potency at uptake compared to binding and generally induced release of preloaded [3H]neurotransmitter from hDAT, hSERT and hNET (highest potency at hNET), and thus are transporter substrates, similar to METH and MDMA. At hNET, 4-fluoromethcathinone was a more efficacious releaser than METH. These substituted methcathinones had low uptake inhibitory potency and low efficacy at inducing release via human vesicular monoamine transporters (hVMAT2). These compounds were low potency 1) h5-HT1A receptor partial agonists, 2) h5-HT2A receptor antagonists, 3) weak h5-HT2C receptor antagonists. This is the first report on aspects of substituted methcathinone efficacies at serotonin (5-HT) receptors and in superfusion release assays. Additionally, the drugs had no affinity for dopamine receptors, and high- mid-micromolar affinity for hSigma1 receptors. Thus, direct interactions with hVMAT2 and serotonin, dopamine, and hSigma1 receptors may not explain psychoactive effects. The primary mechanisms of action may be as inhibitors or substrates of DAT, SERT and NET. PMID:23583454

  12. The TNF-α antagonist etanercept reverses age-related decreases in colonic SERT expression and faecal output in mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavik Anil; Fidalgo, Sara; Wang, Chunfang; Parmar, Leena; Mandona, Kasonde; Panossian, Annabelle; Flint, Melanie S; Ranson, Richard N; Saffrey, M Jill; Yeoman, Mark S

    2017-02-15

    Treatment for chronic constipation in older people is challenging and the condition has a major impact on quality of life. A lack of understanding about the causes of this condition has hampered the development of effective treatments. 5-HT is an important pro-kinetic agent in the colon. We examined whether alterations in colonic 5-HT signalling underlie age-related changes in faecal output in mice and whether these changes were due to an increase in TNF-α. Components of the 5-HT signalling system (5-HT, 5-HIAA, SERT) and TNF-α expression were examined in the distal colon of 3, 12, 18 and 24-month old mice and faecal output and water content monitored under control conditions and following the administration of etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor; 1 mg Kg(-1)). Faecal output and water content were reduced in aged animals. Age increased mucosal 5-HT availability and TNF-α expression and decreased mucosal SERT expression and 5-HIAA. Etanercept treatment of old mice reversed these changes, suggesting that age-related changes in TNFα expression are an important regulator of mucosal 5-HT signalling and pellet output and water content in old mice. These data point to "anti-TNFα" drugs as potential treatments for age-related chronic constipation.

  13. The TNF-α antagonist etanercept reverses age-related decreases in colonic SERT expression and faecal output in mice

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhavik Anil; Fidalgo, Sara; Wang, Chunfang; Parmar, Leena; Mandona, Kasonde; Panossian, Annabelle; Flint, Melanie S.; Ranson, Richard N.; Saffrey, M. Jill; Yeoman, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment for chronic constipation in older people is challenging and the condition has a major impact on quality of life. A lack of understanding about the causes of this condition has hampered the development of effective treatments. 5-HT is an important pro-kinetic agent in the colon. We examined whether alterations in colonic 5-HT signalling underlie age–related changes in faecal output in mice and whether these changes were due to an increase in TNF-α. Components of the 5-HT signalling system (5-HT, 5-HIAA, SERT) and TNF-α expression were examined in the distal colon of 3, 12, 18 and 24-month old mice and faecal output and water content monitored under control conditions and following the administration of etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor; 1 mg Kg−1). Faecal output and water content were reduced in aged animals. Age increased mucosal 5-HT availability and TNF-α expression and decreased mucosal SERT expression and 5-HIAA. Etanercept treatment of old mice reversed these changes, suggesting that age-related changes in TNFα expression are an important regulator of mucosal 5-HT signalling and pellet output and water content in old mice. These data point to “anti-TNFα” drugs as potential treatments for age-related chronic constipation. PMID:28198447

  14. 5-HT1B receptor-mediated contractions in human temporal artery: evidence from selective antagonists and 5-HT receptor mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Verheggen, R; Hundeshagen, A G; Brown, A M; Schindler, M; Kaumann, A J

    1998-01-01

    In the human temporal artery both 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2A receptors mediate the contractile effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and we have suggested that the 5-HT1-like receptors resemble more closely recombinant 5-HT1B than 5-HT1D receptors. To investigate further which subtype is involved, we investigated the blockade of 5-HT-induced contractions by the 5-HT1B-selective antagonist SB-224289 (2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1′-methyl-5-{2-methyl-4′[(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl) biphenyl-4-yl] carbonyl} furo[2,3-f]indole-3-spiro-4′-piperidine oxalate) and the 5-HT1D-selective antagonist BRL-15572 (1-phenyl-3[4-3-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] phenylpropan-2-ol). We also used RT-PCR to search for the mRNA of 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and other 5-HT receptors.The contractile effects of 5-HT in temporal artery rings were partially antagonized by SB-224289 (20, 200 nM) (apparent KB=1 nM) and ketanserin (1 μM) but not by BRL-15572 (500 nM).Sumatriptan evoked contractions (EC50, 170 nM) that were resistant to blockade by BRL-15572 (500 nM) but antagonized by SB-224289 (20, 200 nM).The potency of 5-HT (EC50) was estimated to be 94 nM for the ketanserin-sensitive receptor and 34 nM for the SB-224289-sensitive receptor. The fraction of maximal 5-HT response mediated through SB-224289-sensitive receptors was 0.20–0.67, the remainder being mediated through ketanserin-sensitive receptors.We detected arterial receptor mRNA for the following receptors (incidence): 5-HT1B (8/8), 5-HT1D (2/8), 5-HT1F (0/4), 5-HT2A (0/8), 5-HT2B (0/8), 5-HT2C (0/8), 5-HT4 (4/8) and 5-HT7 (4/8).We conclude that the ketanserin-resistant fraction of the 5-HT effects and the effects of sumatriptan are mediated by 5-HT1B receptors. The lack of antagonism by BRL-15572 rules out 5-HT1D receptors as mediators of the contractile effects of 5-HT and sumatriptan. PMID:9723944

  15. 5-HT2 receptor blockade exhibits 5-HT vasodilator effects via nitric oxide, prostacyclin and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat renal vasculature.

    PubMed

    García-Pedraza, J A; García, M; Martín, M L; Rodríguez-Barbero, A; Morán, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether orally sarpogrelate (selective 5-HT2 antagonist) treatment (30 mg/kg/day; 14 days) could modify 5-HT renal vasoconstrictor responses, characterizing 5-HT receptors and mediator mechanisms involved in serotonergic responses in the in situ autoperfused rat kidney. Intra-arterial (i.a.) injections of 5-HT (0.00000125 to 0.1 μg/kg) decreased renal perfusion pressure (RPP) but did not affect the mean blood pressure (MBP). i.a. agonists 5-CT (5-HT1/7), CGS-12066B (5-HT1B), L-694,247 (5-HT1D) or AS-19 (5-HT7) mimicked renal 5-HT vasodilator effect. However, neither 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A) nor 1-phenylbiguanide (5-HT3) modified RPP. Moreover: (i) GR-55562 (5-HT1B antagonist) and L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase [NOS] inhibitor) blocked CGS-12066B-induced vasodilator response, (ii) LY310762 (5-HT1D antagonist) and indomethacin (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor) blocked L-694,247-induced vasodilator response; (iii) SB-258719 (5-HT7 antagonist) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker) blocked AS-19-induced vasodilator response; and (iv) 5-HT- or 5-CT-elicited renal vasodilation was significantly blocked by the mixture of GR-55562 + LY310762 + SB-258719. Furthermore, eNOS and iNOS proteins and prostacyclin levels are overexpressed in sarpogrelate-treated rats. Our data suggest that 5-HT exerts renal vasodilator effect in the in situ autoperfused sarpogrelate-treated rat kidney, mediated by 5-HT1D, 5-HT1B and 5-HT7 receptors, involving cyclooxygenase-derived prostacyclin, nitric oxide synthesis/release and ATP-sensitive K+ channels, respectively.

  16. Effects of Constant Flickering Light on Refractive Status, 5-HT and 5-HT2A Receptor in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zheng, Changyue; Ji, Shunmei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of constant flickering light on refractive development, the role of serotonin (i.e.5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)and 5-HT2A receptor in myopia induced by flickering light in guinea pigs. Methods Forty-five guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: control, form deprivation myopia (FDM) and flickering light induced myopia (FLM) groups(n = 15 for each group). The right eyes of the FDM group were covered with semitransparent hemispherical plastic shells serving as eye diffusers. Guinea pigs in FLM group were raised with illumination of a duty cycle of 50% at a flash frequency of 0.5Hz. The refractive status, axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature(CRC) were measured by streak retinoscope, A-scan ultrasonography and keratometer, respectively. Ultramicroscopy images were taken by electron microscopy. The concentrations of 5-HTin the retina, vitreous body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography, the retinal 5-HT2A receptor expression was evaluated by immunohistofluorescence and western blot. Results The refraction of FDM and FLM eyes became myopic from some time point (the 4th week and the 6th week, respectively) in the course of the experiment, which was indicated by significantly decreased refraction and longer AL when compared with the controls (p<0.05). The concentrations of 5-HT in the retina, vitreous body and RPE of FDM and FLM eyes were significantly increased in comparison with those of control eyes (both p<0.05). Similar to FDM eyes, the expression of retinal 5-HT2A receptor in FLM eyes was significantly up-regulated compared to that of control eyes (both p<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that retinal 5-HT2A receptor level elevated less in the FLM eyes than that in the FDM eyes. Moreover, the levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine in FDM and FLM groups generally decreased when compared with control groups (all p<0.05). Conclusions Constant flickering

  17. N-desalkylquetiapine, a potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and partial 5-HT1A agonist, as a putative mediator of quetiapine's antidepressant activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Niels H; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Caron, Marc G; Wetsel, William C; Rothman, Richard B; Roth, Bryan L

    2008-09-01

    Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is also US FDA approved for treating bipolar depression, albeit by an unknown mechanism. To discover the potential mechanism for this apparently unique action, we screened quetiapine, its metabolite N-Desalkylquetiapine, and dibenzo[b,f][1,4]thiazepine-11(10-H)-one (DBTO) against a large panel of G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitter transporters. DBTO was inactive at all tested molecular targets. N-Desalkylquetiapine had a high affinity (3.4 nM) for the histamine H(1) receptor and moderate affinities (10-100 nM) for the norepinephrine reuptake transporter (NET), the serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1E), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(7) receptors, the alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor, and the M(1), M(3), and M(5) muscarinic receptors. The compound had low affinities (100-1000 nM) for the 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(5), 5-HT(6), alpha(1A), alpha(2A), alpha(2B), alpha(2C), H(2), M(2), M(4), and dopamine D(1), D(2), D(3), and D(4) receptors. N-Desalkylquetiapine potently inhibited human NE transporter with a K(i) of 12 nM, about 100-fold more potent than quetiapine itself. N-Desalkylquetiapine was also 10-fold more potent and more efficacious than quetiapine at the 5-HT(1A) receptor. N-Desalkylquetiapine was an antagonist at 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(2C), alpha(1A), alpha(1D), alpha(2A), alpha(2C), H(1), M(1), M(3), and M(5) receptors. In the mouse tail suspension test, N-Desalkylquetiapine displayed potent antidepressant-like activity in VMAT2 heterozygous mice at doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg. These data strongly suggest that the antidepressant activity of quetiapine is mediated, at least in part, by its metabolite N-Desalkylquetiapine through NET inhibition and partial 5-HT(1A) agonism. Possible contributions of this metabolite to the side effects of quetiapine are discussed.

  18. 5-HT receptors and reward-related behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Dave J; Greenshaw, Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    The brain's serotonin (5-HT) system is key in the regulation of reward-related behaviours, from eating and drinking to sexual activity. The complexity of studying this system is due, in part, to the fact that 5-HT acts at many receptor subtypes throughout the brain. The recent development of drugs with greater selectivity for individual receptor subtypes has allowed for rapid advancements in our understanding of this system. Use of these drugs in combination with animal models entailing selective reward measures (i.e. intracranial self-stimulation, drug self-administration, conditioned place preference) have resulted in a greater understanding of the pharmacology of reward-related processing and behaviour (particularly regarding drugs of abuse). The putative roles of each 5-HT receptor subtype in the pharmacology of reward are outlined and discussed here. It is concluded that the actions of 5-HT in reward are receptor subtype-dependent (and thus should not be generalized) and that all studied subtypes appear to have a unique profile which is determined by content (e.g. receptor function, localization - both throughout the brain and within the synapse) and context (e.g. type of behavioural paradigm, type of drug). Given evidence of altered reward-related processing and serotonergic function in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, and addiction, a clearer understanding of the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in this context may lead to improved drug development and therapeutic approaches.

  19. Therapeutic antidepressant potential of a conjugated siRNA silencing the serotonin transporter after intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Ferrés-Coy, A; Galofré, M; Pilar-Cuéllar, F; Vidal, R; Paz, V; Ruiz-Bronchal, E; Campa, L; Pazos, Á; Caso, J R; Leza, J C; Alvarado, G; Montefeltro, A; Valdizán, E M; Artigas, F; Bortolozzi, A

    2016-03-01

    Major depression brings about a heavy socio-economic burden worldwide due to its high prevalence and the low efficacy of antidepressant drugs, mostly inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT). As a result, ~80% of patients show recurrent or chronic depression, resulting in a poor quality of life and increased suicide risk. RNA interference (RNAi) strategies have been preliminarily used to evoke antidepressant-like responses in experimental animals. However, the main limitation for the medical use of RNAi is the extreme difficulty to deliver oligonucleotides to selected neurons/systems in the mammalian brain. Here we show that the intranasal administration of a sertraline-conjugated small interfering RNA (C-SERT-siRNA) silenced SERT expression/function and evoked fast antidepressant-like responses in mice. After crossing the permeable olfactory epithelium, the sertraline-conjugated-siRNA was internalized and transported to serotonin cell bodies by deep Rab-7-associated endomembrane vesicles. Seven-day C-SERT-siRNA evoked similar or more marked responses than 28-day fluoxetine treatment. Hence, C-SERT-siRNA (i) downregulated 5-HT1A-autoreceptors and facilitated forebrain serotonin neurotransmission, (ii) accelerated the proliferation of neuronal precursors and (iii) increased hippocampal complexity and plasticity. Further, short-term C-SERT-siRNA reversed depressive-like behaviors in corticosterone-treated mice. The present results show the feasibility of evoking antidepressant-like responses by selectively targeting neuronal populations with appropriate siRNA strategies, opening a way for further translational studies.

  20. New 1-arylindoles based serotonin 5-HT7 antagonists. Synthesis and binding evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Sagnes, Charlène; Fournet, Guy; Satala, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Joseph, Benoît

    2014-03-21

    Based on 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 ligand MR25003 scaffold, a new series of 1-aryl indole analogues were prepared and evaluated against 5-HT7 receptors. Modulations of aryl moieties provided a large number of new indolic derivatives. Most of compounds tested have displayed 5-HT7 affinity in the nanomolar range. Among them, 1-(naphthyl)indole derivative 3p (Ki (5-HT7) = 4.5 nM) showed also a good selectivity over 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT6 receptors. This compound was pharmacology characterized as an antagonist.

  1. Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.

    2000-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation

  2. 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor crosstalk in the regulation of emotional memory: implications for effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Therese M; Holst, Sarah; Stan, Tiberiu L; Hager, Torben; Sjögren, Benita; Ogren, Sven Öve; Svenningsson, Per; Stiedl, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    This study utilized pharmacological manipulations to analyze the role of direct and indirect activation of 5-HT(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) in passive avoidance learning by assessing emotional memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Additionally, 5-HT(7)R binding affinity and 5-HT(7)R-mediated protein phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets were determined. Elevation of 5-HT by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine had no effect by itself, but facilitated emotional memory performance when combined with the 5-HT(1A)R antagonist NAD-299. This facilitation was blocked by the selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist SB269970, revealing excitatory effects of the SSRI via 5-HT(7)Rs. The enhanced memory retention by NAD-299 was blocked by SB269970, indicating that reduced activation of 5-HT(1A)Rs results in enhanced 5-HT stimulation of 5-HT(7)Rs. The putative 5-HT(7)R agonists LP-44 when administered systemically and AS19 when administered both systemically and into the dorsal hippocampus failed to facilitate memory. This finding is consistent with the low efficacy of LP-44 and AS19 to stimulate protein phosphorylation of 5-HT(7)R-activated signaling cascades. In contrast, increasing doses of the dual 5-HT(1A)R/5-HT(7)R agonist 8-OH-DPAT impaired memory, while co-administration with NAD-299 facilitated of emotional memory in a dose-dependent manner. This facilitation was blocked by SB269970 indicating 5-HT(7)R activation by 8-OH-DPAT. Dorsohippocampal infusion of 8-OH-DPAT impaired passive avoidance retention through hippocampal 5-HT(1A)R activation, while 5-HT(7)Rs appear to facilitate memory processes in a broader cortico-limbic network and not the hippocampus alone.

  3. Role of spinal 5-HT5A, and 5-HT1A/1B/1D, receptors in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Avila-Rojas, Sabino Hazael; Velázquez-Lagunas, Isabel; Salinas-Abarca, Ana Belen; Barragán-Iglesias, Paulino; Pineda-Farias, Jorge Baruch; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2015-10-05

    Serotonin (5-HT) participates in pain modulation by interacting with different 5-HT receptors. The role of 5-HT5A receptor in neuropathic pain has not previously studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate: A) the role of 5-HT5A receptors in rats subjected to spinal nerve injury; B) the expression of 5-HT5A receptors in dorsal spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Neuropathic pain was induced by L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation. Tactile allodynia in neuropathic rats was assessed with von Frey filaments. Western blot methodology was used to determine 5-HT5A receptor protein expression. Intrathecal administration (on day 14th) of 5-HT (10-100 nmol) or 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 0.03-0.3 nmol) reversed nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia. Intrathecal non-selective (methiothepin, 0.1-0.8 nmol) and selective (SB-699551, 1-10 nmol) 5-HT5A receptor antagonists reduced, by ~60% and ~25%, respectively, the antiallodynic effect of 5-HT (100 nmol) or 5-CT (0.3 nmol). Moreover, both selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonists, WAY-100635 (0.3-1 nmol) and GR-127935 (0.3-1 nmol), respectively, partially diminished the antiallodynic effect of 5-HT or 5-CT by about 30%. Injection of antagonists, by themselves, did not affect allodynia. 5-HT5A receptors were expressed in the ipsilateral dorsal lumbar spinal cord and DRG and L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation did not modify 5-HT5A receptor protein expression in those sites. Results suggest that 5-HT5A receptors reduce pain processing in the spinal cord and that 5-HT and 5-CT reduce neuropathic pain through activation of 5-HT5A and 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptors. These receptors could be an important part of the descending pain inhibitory system.

  4. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Stiedl, Oliver; Pappa, Elpiniki; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Ögren, Sven Ove

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with the development of anxiety, depression and cognitive function linked to mechanisms of emotional learning and memory. In rodents fear conditioning and passive avoidance (PA) are associative learning paradigms to study emotional memory. This review assesses the role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R as well as their interplay at the molecular, neurochemical and behavioral level. Activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs impairs emotional memory through attenuation of neuronal activity, whereas presynaptic 5-HT1AR activation reduces 5-HT release and exerts pro-cognitive effects on PA retention. Antagonism of the 5-HT1AR facilitates memory retention possibly via 5-HT7R activation and evidence is provided that 5HT7R can facilitate emotional memory upon reduced 5-HT1AR transmission. These findings highlight the differential role of these 5-HTRs in cognitive/emotional domains of behavior. Moreover, the results indicate that tonic and phasic 5-HT release can exert different and potentially opposing effects on emotional memory, depending on the states of 5-HT1ARs and 5-HT7Rs and their interaction. Consequently, individual differences due to genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role for the responsiveness to drug treatment, e.g., by SSRIs which increase intrasynaptic 5-HT levels thereby activating multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTR subtypes. PMID:26300776

  5. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Stiedl, Oliver; Pappa, Elpiniki; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Ögren, Sven Ove

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with the development of anxiety, depression and cognitive function linked to mechanisms of emotional learning and memory. In rodents fear conditioning and passive avoidance (PA) are associative learning paradigms to study emotional memory. This review assesses the role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R as well as their interplay at the molecular, neurochemical and behavioral level. Activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs impairs emotional memory through attenuation of neuronal activity, whereas presynaptic 5-HT1AR activation reduces 5-HT release and exerts pro-cognitive effects on PA retention. Antagonism of the 5-HT1AR facilitates memory retention possibly via 5-HT7R activation and evidence is provided that 5HT7R can facilitate emotional memory upon reduced 5-HT1AR transmission. These findings highlight the differential role of these 5-HTRs in cognitive/emotional domains of behavior. Moreover, the results indicate that tonic and phasic 5-HT release can exert different and potentially opposing effects on emotional memory, depending on the states of 5-HT1ARs and 5-HT7Rs and their interaction. Consequently, individual differences due to genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role for the responsiveness to drug treatment, e.g., by SSRIs which increase intrasynaptic 5-HT levels thereby activating multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTR subtypes.

  6. Physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic roles of 5-HT systems in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    1998-01-01

    Multiple 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors have been identified (5-HT1A/1B/1D/1E/1F, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3A/3B, 5-HT4A/4B, 5-HT5A/5B, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7A/7B/7C/7D) and extensive evidence suggests that 5-HT receptors have a role in learning and memory. Indeed, available evidence strongly supports physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic roles of 5-HT systems in cognitive processes, although the evidence seems incomplete. Indeed, there has been a clear tendency to use pre-learning administration most frequently, whereas post-learning and pre-retention administration protocols have been utilized in only a few studies, and probably this trend has led to missed relevant information. For instance, when pre- vs post-training administration of 5-HT1A agonist, 5-HT2 antagonists and 5-HT4 agonists have been compared contrasting findings were reported in aversive and appetitive learning tasks. Emerging evidence also indicates that 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor agonists, as well as, 5-HT1A antagonists, 5-HT2 antagonists, 5-HT3 antagonists and 5-HT uptake inhibitors may have therapeutic utility in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and amnesia. Inasmuch as the activation or blockade of diverse 5-HT receptors is able to modulate cognitive processes, and 5-HT uptake inhibition could have therapeutic applications in the treatment of cognitive disorders, it seems evident that the role of 5-HT in learning and memory is more complex than a simple imbalance. Consequently, the notion that activation of the 5-HT systems impairs performance, whereas reduced serotonergic function may facilitate learning, must be reconsidered.

  7. Vortioxetine dose-dependently reverses 5-HT depletion-induced deficits in spatial working and object recognition memory: a potential role for 5-HT1A receptor agonism and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Jensen, Jesper Bornø; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that the investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, reversed 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits while escitalopram and duloxetine did not. The present report studied the effects of vortioxetine and the potential impact of its 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist properties on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits. Recognition and spatial working memory were assessed in the object recognition (OR) and Y-maze spontaneous alternation (SA) tests, respectively. 5-HT depletion was induced in female Long-Evans rats using 4-cholro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl (PCPA) and receptor occupancies were determined by ex vivo autoradiography. Rats were acutely dosed with vortioxetine, ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or flesinoxan (5-HT1A receptor agonist). The effects of chronic vortioxetine administration on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits were also assessed. 5-HT depletion reliably impaired memory performance in both the tests. Vortioxetine reversed PCPA-induced memory deficits dose-dependently with a minimal effective dose (MED) ≤0.1mg/kg (∼80% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR) and ≤3.0mg/kg (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 receptor occupancy: ∼15%, 60%, 95%) in SA. Ondansetron exhibited a MED ≤3.0μg/kg (∼25% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR), but was inactive in the SA test. Flesinoxan had a MED ≤1.0mg/kg (∼25% 5-HT1A receptor occupancy; SA); only 1.0mg/kg ameliorated deficits in the NOR. Chronic p.o. vortioxetine administration significantly improved memory performance in OR and occupied 95%, 66%, and 9.5% of 5-HT3, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. Vortioxetine's effects on SA performance may involve 5-HT1A receptor agonism, but not 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, whereas the effects on OR performance may involve 5-HT3 receptor antagonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism.

  8. 5-HT2 receptors facilitate JC polyomavirus entry.

    PubMed

    Assetta, Benedetta; Maginnis, Melissa S; Gracia Ahufinger, Irene; Haley, Sheila A; Gee, Gretchen V; Nelson, Christian D S; O'Hara, Bethany A; Allen Ramdial, Stacy-ann A; Atwood, Walter J

    2013-12-01

    The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) causes the rapidly progressing demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The disease occurs most often in individuals with AIDS but also occurs in individuals receiving immunomodulatory therapies for immune-related diseases such as multiple sclerosis. JCPyV infection of host cells requires the pentasaccharide lactoseries tetrasaccharide c (LSTc) and the serotonin receptor 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor 5-HT2AR. While LSTc is involved in the initial attachment of virus to cells via interactions with VP1, the mechanism by which 5-HT2AR contributes to infection is not clear. To further define the roles of serotonin receptors in infection, HEK293A cells, which are poorly permissive to JCPyV, were transfected with 14 different isoforms of serotonin receptor. Only 5-HT2 receptors were found to support infection by JCPyV. None of the other 11 isoforms of serotonin receptor supported JCPyV infection. Expression of 5-HT2 receptors did not increase binding of JCPyV to cells, but this was not unexpected, given that the cells uniformly expressed the major attachment receptor, LSTc. Infection of these cells remained sensitive to inhibition with soluble LSTc, confirming that LSTc recognition is required for JCPyV infection. Virus internalization into HEK293A cells was significantly and specifically enhanced when 5HT2 receptors were expressed. Taken together, these data confirm that the carbohydrate LSTc is the attachment receptor for JCPyV and that the type 2 serotonin receptors contribute to JCPyV infection by facilitating entry.

  9. Important messages in the 'post': recent discoveries in 5-HT neurone feedback control.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Trevor; Boothman, Laura; Raley, Josie; Quérée, Philip

    2007-12-01

    The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) mediates important brain functions and contributes to the pathophysiology and successful drug treatment of many common psychiatric disorders, especially depression. It is established that a key mechanism involved in the control of 5-HT neurones is feedback inhibition by presynaptic 5-HT autoreceptors, which are located on 5-HT cell bodies and nerve terminals. However, recent experiments have discovered an unexpected complexity of 5-HT neurone control, specifically in the form of postsynaptic 5-HT feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms have the physiological effects of 5-HT autoreceptors but use additional 5-HT receptor subtypes and operate through neural inputs to 5-HT neurones. A postsynaptic feedback system that excites 5-HT neurones has also been reported. This article discusses current knowledge of the pharmacology and physiology of these new found 5-HT feedback mechanisms and considers their possible contribution to depression pathophysiology and utility as a resource of novel antidepressant drug strategies.

  10. The Two Na+ Sites in the Human Serotonin Transporter Play Distinct Roles in the Ion Coupling and Electrogenicity of Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H.; Henry, L. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na+, Cl−, and K+ gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na+-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca2+ (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na+ for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca2+ and Na+ illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca2+ promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na+-binding sites. PMID:24293367

  11. The two Na+ sites in the human serotonin transporter play distinct roles in the ion coupling and electrogenicity of transport.

    PubMed

    Felts, Bruce; Pramod, Akula Bala; Sandtner, Walter; Burbach, Nathan; Bulling, Simon; Sitte, Harald H; Henry, L Keith

    2014-01-17

    Neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6 family of proteins, including the human serotonin transporter (hSERT), utilize Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) gradients to induce conformational changes necessary for substrate translocation. Dysregulation of ion movement through monoamine transporters has been shown to impact neuronal firing potentials and could play a role in pathophysiologies, such as depression and anxiety. Despite multiple crystal structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic SLC transporters indicating the location of both (or one) conserved Na(+)-binding sites (termed Na1 and Na2), much remains uncertain in regard to the movements and contributions of these cation-binding sites in the transport process. In this study, we utilize the unique properties of a mutation of hSERT at a single, highly conserved asparagine on TM1 (Asn-101) to provide several lines of evidence demonstrating mechanistically distinct roles for Na1 and Na2. Mutations at Asn-101 alter the cation dependence of the transporter, allowing Ca(2+) (but not other cations) to functionally replace Na(+) for driving transport and promoting 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-dependent conformational changes. Furthermore, in two-electrode voltage clamp studies in Xenopus oocytes, both Ca(2+) and Na(+) illicit 5-HT-induced currents in the Asn-101 mutants and reveal that, although Ca(2+) promotes substrate-induced current, it does not appear to be the charge carrier during 5-HT transport. These findings, in addition to functional evaluation of Na1 and Na2 site mutants, reveal separate roles for Na1 and Na2 and provide insight into initiation of the translocation process as well as a mechanism whereby the reported SERT stoichiometry can be obtained despite the presence of two putative Na(+)-binding sites.

  12. Selectivity of (3)H-MADAM binding to 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters in vitro and in vivo in mice; correlation with behavioural effects.

    PubMed

    Larsen, A K; Brennum, L T; Egebjerg, J; Sánchez, C; Halldin, C; Andersen, P H

    2004-03-01

    1. Binding of the novel radioligand (3)H-2-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulphanyl)-5-methyl-phenylamine ((3)H-MADAM) to the serotonin transporter (SERT) was used to characterise a range of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in vitro and in vivo. 2. (3)H-MADAM bound with high affinity in a saturable manner to both human SERT expressed in CHO cells (K(d)=0.20 nm (pK(d)=9.74+/-0.12), B(max)=35+/-4 fmol mg(-1) protein) and mouse cerebral cortex membranes (K(d)=0.21 nm (pK(d)=9.66+/-0.10), B(max)=50+/-24 fmol mg(-1) protein). 3. Binding of (3)H-MADAM was highly selective for SERT in vitro as demonstrated by the in vitro profile of MADAM tested at 75 different receptors, ion channels and transporters. This was further substantiated by the pharmacological profile of the binding. Hence, the binding of (3)H-MADAM was potently inhibited by SSRIs but not by selective inhibitors of noradrenaline transport and dopamine transport. Likewise, a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist did not inhibit (3)H-MADAM binding. 4. (3)H-MADAM binding in vivo was inhibited only by compounds which also inhibited the binding of (3)H-MADAM in vitro (the SSRIs, mixed SERT/noradrenaline transport inhibitors and clomipramine), confirming the selectivity of (3)H-MADAM for SERT also in vivo. Moreover, compounds effective in inhibiting (3)H-MADAM binding were the only ones found to be active in the mouse 5-HTP potentiation test confirming the model as a behavioural correlate to in vivo 5-HT uptake. 5. Finally, it was found that a SERT occupancy of 85-95% was necessary to produce 50% of the maximum behavioural response (ED(50)).

  13. [Medical economics evaluation of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist drugs].

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Junpei; Hirano, Shigeki; Fukui, Aiko; Funabashi, Kazuaki; Deguchi, Yuko; Yamada, Susumu; Naito, Kazuyuki

    2010-10-01

    At Komaki City Hospital, the drug cost in connection with cancer chemotherapy was re-examined as part of improved management along with the introduction of DPC in July 2008. With due attention to the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, both the change from injections to oral drugs and the change from brand-name drugs to generic drugs were tried between July 2008 and June 2009. After that, in order to examine the economic impact of these changes, we investigated and analyzed the number of medications, the cost of medicine purchased, and the average drug cost per medication of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists between April 2008 and September 2009. As a result, the cost of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists purchased decreased greatly, and the impact of the improvement was mainly due to the change to oral drugs, and partially to the change to generic drugs. Therefore, from the viewpoint of hospital economic improvement in DPC, it was thought that the change to oral drugs(5-HT3 receptor antagonists)is given top priority.

  14. Uptake of taurine, GABA, 5-HT, and dopamine by blood platelets in progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, E M

    1979-10-01

    The uptakes of four neurotransmitters (taurine, GABA, 5-HT, and dopamine) by blood platelets from patients with degenerative-type progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) and from controls were studied using different incubation times and different concentrations. Only the uptakes of taurine differed significantly between patients and controls: patients' uptakes were 70% to 80% of control values at 10, 30, 60, and 120 min of incubation time. Km values were approximately the same, but Vmax values in PME patients were lower, showing quantitative but not qualitative differences in taurine uptake by platelets in PME. These results suggest that a defect or an inhibitory mechanism of some factor needed in the transport or binding of taurine (but not of GABA, 5-HT, and dopamine) is present in PME.

  15. Evidence for 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors mediating constriction of the canine internal carotid circulation

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Ortiz, Mario I; Sánchez-López, Araceli; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2001-01-01

    The present study has investigated the preliminary pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating vasoconstriction to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the internal carotid bed of vagosympathectomised dogs. One minute intracarotid infusions of the agonists 5-HT (0.1–10 μg min−1), sumatriptan (0.3–10 μg min−1; 5-HT1B/1D), 5-methoxytryptamine (1–100 μg min−1; 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-ht6 and 5-HT7) or DOI (0.31–10 μg min−1; 5-HT2), but not 5-carboxamidotryptamine (0.01–0.3 μg min−1; 5-HT1, 5-ht5A and 5-HT7), 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (mCPBG; 1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT3) or cisapride (1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT4), resulted in dose-dependent decreases in internal carotid blood flow, without changing blood pressure or heart rate. The vasoconstrictor responses to 5-HT, which remained unaffected after saline, were resistant to blockade by i.v. administration of the antagonists ritanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2A/2B/2C) in combination with tropisetron (3000 μg kg−1; 5-HT3/4) or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (5000 μg kg−1), but were abolished by the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (30 μg kg−1). Interestingly, after administration of GR127935, the subsequent administration of ritanserin unmasked a dose-dependent vasodilator component. GR127935 or saline did not practically modify the vasoconstrictor effects of 5-MeO-T. In animals receiving GR127935, the subsequent administration of ritanserin abolished the vasoconstrictor responses to 5-MeO-T unmasking a dose-dependent vasodilator component. The vasoconstriction induced by sumatriptan was antagonized by GR127935, but not by ritanserin. Furthermore, ritanserin (100 μg kg−1) or ketanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2A), but not GR127935, abolished DOI-induced vasoconstrictor responses. The above results suggest that 5-HT-induced internal carotid vasoconstriction is predominantly mediated by 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors

  16. The 5-HT[subscript 3A] Receptor Is Essential for Fear Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Makoto; Nakamura, Yukiko; Ishida, Yusuke; Yamada, Takahiro; Shimada, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT [subscript 3] receptor, the only ionotropic 5-HT receptor, is expressed in limbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. However, it is not known whether it has a role in fear memory processes. Analysis of 5-HT [subscript 3A] receptor knockout mice in fear conditioning paradigms revealed that the 5-HT [subscript 3A]…

  17. 5-HT2CRs expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate insulin sensitivity in liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mice lacking 5-HT 2C receptors displayed hepatic insulin resistance, a phenotype normalized by re-expression of 5-HT2CRs only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. 5-HT2CR deficiency also abolished the anti-diabetic effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (a 5-HT2CR agonist); these effects were re...

  18. Serotonin modifies the spontaneous spiking activity of gracile nucleus neurons in rats: role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Grasso, C; Li Volsi, G; Barresi, M

    2016-06-01

    We tested the effects of microiontophoretic application of serotonin (5-HT) on the firing rate of neurons located in the gracile nucleus (GN) of rats. Application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 agonists and antagonists respectively mimicked/ modulated and blocked the effects produced by the amine, respectively. Among the tested neurons, 88.2% modified their background firing activity in the presence of 5-HT. Responsive neurons decreased their mean firing activity (MFA) in 56.7% of cases and increased it in the remaining 43.3%. To ascertain the specificity of the effects induced by 5-HT, we utilized 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (α-MET-5-HT), agonists for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors, respectively. The microiontophoresis of 8-OH-DPAT modified the background firing rate of all GN neurons (100% of tested neurons) mimicking the decrease of MFA evoked by 5-HT. The application of a-MET-5-HT modified the MFA in 76.9% of tested neurons, decreasing it in 61.5% of cases and increasing in the remaining 23.1%. The decrease of MFA induced by 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-[2-[-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide maleate salt (WAY100635), while application of 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserine tartrate (KET) antagonized only the increase of MFA induced by a-MET-5-HT. These results indicate that 5-HT is able to modulate the background firing activity of GN neurons by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.

  19. Multiple 5-HT receptors in the guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, C. J.; Newberry, N. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have studied the pharmacology of the depolarization by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) of the guinea-pig isolated superior cervical ganglion (SCG) using the grease-gap technique. We studied the effects of selective and non-selective antagonists on the responses to 5-HT and other 5-HT receptor agonists. 2. We have extended the pharmacology of the 5-HT3 receptor in this preparation by studying the effects of granisetron, BRL 46470 and mianserin on the concentration-response curve (CRC) to 2-methyl-5-HT. As with other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, these compounds exhibited a lower affinity for guinea-pig 5-HT3 receptors than for rat 5-HT3 receptors. 3. We have confirmed that low concentrations of 5-HT (< or = 1 microM) mediate ketanserin-sensitive responses and higher concentrations of 5-HT also recruit 5-HT3 receptors. The responses to low concentrations of 5-HT were antagonized by low concentrations of ketanserin, spiperone, mianserin, DOI and LSD indicating probably mediation by 5-HT2A receptors. At high concentrations, the hallucinogen, DOI, but not LSD, evoked a ketanserin-sensitive depolarization. 4. Although mianserin could bind to the 5-HT2A receptors in this preparation, we could not demonstrate a down-regulation of depolarizations evoked by these receptors after a 10 day oral treatment with mianserin (10 mg kg-1, daily). 5. 5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) evoked a prolonged depolarization. Although high concentrations of 5-CT (> or = microM) appeared to activate 5-HT2A receptors, lower concentrations of 5-CT evoked a response with a distinct pharmacology. After studying the action of 20 selective and non-selective 5-HT receptor ligands we believe that this response may be mediated by a novel receptor; but its pharmacology is closest to that of receptors in the 5-HT2 receptor family. Like 5-CT, 5-HT (3-300 microM) could evoke an LSD-sensitive response in the presence of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron

  20. The Pharmacology of TD-8954, a Potent and Selective 5-HT4 Receptor Agonist with Gastrointestinal Prokinetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, David T.; Armstrong, Scott R.; Vickery, Ross G.; Tsuruda, Pamela R.; Campbell, Christina B.; Richardson, Carrie; McCullough, Julia L.; Daniels, Oranee; Kersey, Kathryn; Li, Yu-Ping; Kim, Karl H. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of TD-8954, a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist. TD-8954 had high affinity (pKi = 9.4) for human recombinant 5-HT4(c) (h5-HT4(c)) receptors, and selectivity (>2,000-fold) over all other 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors and non-5-HT receptors, ion channels, enzymes and transporters tested (n = 78). TD-8954 produced an elevation of cAMP in HEK-293 cells expressing the h5-HT4(c) receptor (pEC50 = 9.3), and contracted the guinea pig colonic longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparation (pEC50 = 8.6). TD-8954 had moderate intrinsic activity in the in vitro assays. In conscious guinea pigs, subcutaneous administration of TD-8954 (0.03–3 mg/kg) increased the colonic transit of carmine red dye, reducing the time taken for its excretion. Following intraduodenal dosing to anesthetized rats, TD-8954 (0.03–10 mg/kg) evoked a dose-dependent relaxation of the esophagus. Following oral administration to conscious dogs, TD-8954 (10 and 30 μg/kg) produced an increase in contractility of the antrum, duodenum, and jejunum. In a single ascending oral dose study in healthy human subjects, TD-8954 (0.1–20 mg) increased bowel movement frequency and reduced the time to first stool. It is concluded that TD-8954 is a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist in vitro, with robust in vivo stimulatory activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of guinea pigs, rats, dogs, and humans. TD-8954 may have clinical utility in patients with disorders of reduced GI motility. PMID:21687517

  1. Long-term Stress with Hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced Hepatic Steatosis with VLDL Overproduction Is Dependent on both 5-HT2 Receptor and 5-HT Synthesis in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jihua; Ma, Shaoxin; Li, Xin; An, Shanshan; Li, Tao; Guo, Keke; Lin, Min; Qu, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Dong, Xinyue; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Huang, Xinping; Wang, Tianying; He, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic triglycerides production and adipose lipolysis are pivotal for long-term stress (LTS) or hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced insulin resistance. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been demonstrated to induce hepatic lipid metabolic abnormality by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In present study, we explored whether 5-HT is involved in LTS effects in liver using restraint stress-exposed rats and cultured primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. LTS with hyperglucocorticoidemia induced hepatic 5-HT synthetic increase with tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) up-regulation, and 5-HT2 receptor (5-HT2R, including 5-HT2A, 2B receptor) up-regulation in liver and visceral adipose, as well as hepatic mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction with steatosis, and visceral adipose lipolytic increase with high blood free fatty acids (FFAs) level. 5-HT exposure exhibited LTS-like effects in both tissues, and both LTS and 5-HT effects could be abolished significantly by blocking 5-HT2R. In HepG2 cells dexamethasone or palmitate-induced mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction were accompanied by up-regulations of 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R, which were significantly abolished by gene silencing Tph1 or 5-HT2R and were almost fully abolished by co-silencing of both, especially on VLDL overproduction. Chemical inhibition of Tph1 or/and 5-HT2R in both hepatocytes exhibited similar abolishment with genetic inhibition on dexamethason-induced effects. 5-HT-stimulated effects in both hepatocytes were fully abolished by blocking 5-HT2R, while 5-HT itself also up-regulated 5-HT2R. In conclusion, up-regulated hepatic 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R induced by both glucocorticoid and FFAs are crucial for LTS-induced hepatic steatosis with VLDL overproduction, while 5-HT by acting on 5-HT2R mediates mTOR activation in liver. PMID:26884719

  2. Long-term Stress with Hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced Hepatic Steatosis with VLDL Overproduction Is Dependent on both 5-HT2 Receptor and 5-HT Synthesis in Liver.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jihua; Ma, Shaoxin; Li, Xin; An, Shanshan; Li, Tao; Guo, Keke; Lin, Min; Qu, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Dong, Xinyue; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Huang, Xinping; Wang, Tianying; He, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic triglycerides production and adipose lipolysis are pivotal for long-term stress (LTS) or hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced insulin resistance. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been demonstrated to induce hepatic lipid metabolic abnormality by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In present study, we explored whether 5-HT is involved in LTS effects in liver using restraint stress-exposed rats and cultured primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. LTS with hyperglucocorticoidemia induced hepatic 5-HT synthetic increase with tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) up-regulation, and 5-HT2 receptor (5-HT2R, including 5-HT2A, 2B receptor) up-regulation in liver and visceral adipose, as well as hepatic mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction with steatosis, and visceral adipose lipolytic increase with high blood free fatty acids (FFAs) level. 5-HT exposure exhibited LTS-like effects in both tissues, and both LTS and 5-HT effects could be abolished significantly by blocking 5-HT2R. In HepG2 cells dexamethasone or palmitate-induced mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction were accompanied by up-regulations of 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R, which were significantly abolished by gene silencing Tph1 or 5-HT2R and were almost fully abolished by co-silencing of both, especially on VLDL overproduction. Chemical inhibition of Tph1 or/and 5-HT2R in both hepatocytes exhibited similar abolishment with genetic inhibition on dexamethason-induced effects. 5-HT-stimulated effects in both hepatocytes were fully abolished by blocking 5-HT2R, while 5-HT itself also up-regulated 5-HT2R. In conclusion, up-regulated hepatic 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R induced by both glucocorticoid and FFAs are crucial for LTS-induced hepatic steatosis with VLDL overproduction, while 5-HT by acting on 5-HT2R mediates mTOR activation in liver.

  3. Interaction of Pyridostigmine with the 5-HT(3) Receptor Antagonist Ondansetron in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    5 - HT3 RECEPTOR - ANTAGONIST .ONDANSETRON IN GUINEA PIGS BR. Capacio, CE. Byers...apart. REFERENCES 1. Fozard JR. 5 -HT; The Enigma Variations. =JE, 8, 501-506 (December 1987). 2. Watling KJ. 5 - HT3 Receptor Agonists and Antagonists . In... 5 -HT receptor subtype three antagonists (5HT 3 ) such as the compound ondansetron (OND) have been identified as useful in the treatment of

  4. Characterization of 5-HT receptors mediating constriction of porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses; involvement of 5-HT1B/1D and novel receptors

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, Peter; Villalón, Carlos M; Heiligers, Jan P C; Saxena, Pramod R

    1998-01-01

    It was previously shown that porcine cranial arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) constrict to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, as well as sumatriptan and that sumatriptan acts exclusively via 5-HT1B/1D receptors. The present study was devoted to establish the contribution of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the constriction of AVAs elicited by 5-HT (in presence of 0.5 mg kg−1 ketanserin), ergotamine and dihydroergotamine in anaesthetized pigs.Intracarotid infusion of 5-HT (2 μg kg−1 min−1) and intravenous doses of ergotamine (2.5–20 μg kg−1) and dihydroergotamine (3–100 μg kg−1) reduced AVA and increased nutrient blood flows and vascular conductances. The vasodilator response to 5-HT, observed mainly in the skin and ear, was much more prominent than that of the ergot alkaloids.Treatment with the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist GR127935 (0.5 mg kg−1, i.v.) significantly attenuated both ergot-induced AVA constriction and arteriolar dilatation, whereas GR127935 only slightly affected the carotid vascular effects of 5-HT.The results suggest that 5-HT constricts carotid AVAs primarily via receptors, which seem to differ from those (5-HT1B/1D) stimulated by sumatriptan. The ergot alkaloids produce AVA constriction for a substantial part via 5-HT1B/1D receptors, but also stimulate unidentified receptors. Both these non-5-HT1B/1D receptors may be targets for the development of novel antimigraine drugs.The moderate vasodilator response to the ergot derivatives seems to be mediated, at least in part, by 5-HT1B/1D receptors, whereas the arteriolar dilatation caused by 5-HT may be mediated by other, possibly 5-HT7 receptors. PMID:9605562

  5. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors differentially modulate rate and timing of auditory responses in the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Lissandra Castellan Baldan; Sinha, Shiva R.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin is a physiological signal that translates both internal and external information about behavioral context into changes in sensory processing through a diverse array of receptors. The details of this process, particularly how receptors interact to shape sensory encoding, are poorly understood. In the inferior colliculus, a midbrain auditory nucleus, serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors have suppressive and 5-HT1B receptors have facilitatory effects on evoked responses of neurons. We explored how these two receptor classes interact by testing three hypotheses: that they 1) affect separate neuron populations, 2) affect different response properties, or 3) have different endogenous patterns of activation. The first two hypotheses were tested by iontophoretic application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists individually and together to neurons in vivo. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonists affected overlapping populations of neurons. During co-application, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonists influenced spike rate and frequency bandwidth additively, with each moderating the effect of the other. In contrast, although both agonists individually influenced latencies and interspike intervals, the 5-HT1A agonist dominated these measurements during co-application. The third hypothesis was tested by applying antagonists of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors. Blocking 5-HT1B receptors was complementary to activation of the receptor, but blocking 5-HT1A receptors was not, suggesting the endogenous activation of additional receptor types. These results suggest that cooperative interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors shape auditory encoding in the IC, and that the effects of neuromodulators within sensory systems may depend nonlinearly on the specific profile of receptors that are activated. PMID:20646059

  6. Serotonin (5-HT) inhibits Factor XIII-A-mediated plasma fibronectin matrix assembly and crosslinking in osteoblast cultures via direct competition with transamidation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Cui; Kaartinen, Mari T

    2015-03-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)--a monoamine with a variety of physiological functions--has recently emerged as a major regulator of bone mass. 5-HT is synthesized in the brain and the gut, and gut-derived 5-HT contributes to circulating 5-HT levels and is a negative modulator of bone mass and quality. 5-HT's negative effects on the skeleton are considered to be mediated via its receptors and transporter in osteoblasts and osteoclasts; however, 5-HT can also incorporate covalently into proteins via a transglutaminase-mediated serotonylation reaction, which in turn can alter protein function. Plasma fibronectin (pFN)--a major component of the bone extracellular matrix that regulates bone matrix quality in vivo--is a major transglutaminase substrate in bone and in osteoblast cultures. We have recently demonstrated that pFN assembly into osteoblast culture matrix requires a Factor XIII-A (FXIII-A) transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking step that regulates both quantity and quality of type I collagen matrix in vitro. In this study, we show that 5-HT interferes with pFN assembly into the extracellular matrix in osteoblast cultures, which in turn has major consequences on matrix assembly and mineralization. 5-HT treatment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures dramatically decreased both pFN fibrillogenesis as analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy and pFN levels in DOC-soluble and DOC-insoluble matrix fractions. This was accompanied by an increase in pFN levels in the culture media. Analysis of the media showed covalent incorporation of 5-HT into pFN. Minor co-localization of pFN with 5-HT was also seen in extracellular fibrils. 5-HT also showed co-localization with FXIII-A on the cell surface and inhibited its transamidation activity directly. 5-HT treatment of osteoblast cultures resulted in a discontinuous pFN matrix and impaired type I collagen deposition, decreased alkaline phosphatase and lysyl oxidase activity, and delayed mineralization of the cultures. Addition of excess

  7. Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 and the Acute and Long-Term Response to 3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Lucina E.; Cholanians, Aram B.; Phan, Andy V.; Herndon, Joseph M.; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2015-01-01

    3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative with potent psychostimulant properties. The neuropharmacological effects of MDMA are biphasic in nature, initially causing synaptic monoamine release, primarily of serotonin (5-HT). Conversely, the long-term effects of MDMA manifest as prolonged depletions in 5-HT, and reductions in 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT), indicative of serotonergic neurotoxicity. MDMA-induced 5-HT efflux relies upon disruption of vesicular monoamine storage, which increases cytosolic 5-HT concentrations available for release via a carrier-mediated mechanism. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is responsible for packaging monoamine neurotransmitters into cytosolic vesicles. Thus, VMAT2 is a molecular target for a number of psychostimulant drugs, including methamphetamine and MDMA. We investigated the effects of depressed VMAT2 activity on the adverse responses to MDMA, via reversible inhibition of the VMAT2 protein with Ro4-1284. A single dose of MDMA (20 mg/kg, subcutaneous) induced significant hyperthermia in rats. Ro4-1284 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) pretreatment prevented the thermogenic effects of MDMA, instead causing a transient decrease in body temperature. MDMA-treated rats exhibited marked increases in horizontal velocity and rearing behavior. In the presence of Ro4-1284, MDMA-mediated horizontal hyperlocomotion was delayed and attenuated, whereas rearing activity was abolished. Finally, Ro4-1284 prevented deficits in 5-HT content in rat cortex and striatum, and reduced depletions in striatal SERT staining, 7 days after MDMA administration. In summary, acute inhibition of VMAT2 by Ro4-1284 protected against MDMA-mediated hyperthermia, hyperactivity, and serotonergic neurotoxicity. The data suggest the involvement of VMAT2 in the thermoregulatory, behavioral, and neurotoxic effects of MDMA. PMID:25370842

  8. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and the acute and long-term response to 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Lucina E; Cholanians, Aram B; Phan, Andy V; Herndon, Joseph M; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J

    2015-01-01

    3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative with potent psychostimulant properties. The neuropharmacological effects of MDMA are biphasic in nature, initially causing synaptic monoamine release, primarily of serotonin (5-HT). Conversely, the long-term effects of MDMA manifest as prolonged depletions in 5-HT, and reductions in 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT), indicative of serotonergic neurotoxicity. MDMA-induced 5-HT efflux relies upon disruption of vesicular monoamine storage, which increases cytosolic 5-HT concentrations available for release via a carrier-mediated mechanism. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is responsible for packaging monoamine neurotransmitters into cytosolic vesicles. Thus, VMAT2 is a molecular target for a number of psychostimulant drugs, including methamphetamine and MDMA. We investigated the effects of depressed VMAT2 activity on the adverse responses to MDMA, via reversible inhibition of the VMAT2 protein with Ro4-1284. A single dose of MDMA (20 mg/kg, subcutaneous) induced significant hyperthermia in rats. Ro4-1284 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) pretreatment prevented the thermogenic effects of MDMA, instead causing a transient decrease in body temperature. MDMA-treated rats exhibited marked increases in horizontal velocity and rearing behavior. In the presence of Ro4-1284, MDMA-mediated horizontal hyperlocomotion was delayed and attenuated, whereas rearing activity was abolished. Finally, Ro4-1284 prevented deficits in 5-HT content in rat cortex and striatum, and reduced depletions in striatal SERT staining, 7 days after MDMA administration. In summary, acute inhibition of VMAT2 by Ro4-1284 protected against MDMA-mediated hyperthermia, hyperactivity, and serotonergic neurotoxicity. The data suggest the involvement of VMAT2 in the thermoregulatory, behavioral, and neurotoxic effects of MDMA.

  9. Allosteric modulation of the effects of the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on the rat hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; El Mansari, Mostafa; Espana, Agnès; Sànchez, Connie; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2006-02-27

    The present in vivo electrophysiological studies in anesthetized rat were undertaken to assess the effects of the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram alone or in combination with the R-citalopram (the S- and R-enantiomers of citalopram), on both long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA(1) region of dorsal hippocampus and spontaneous firing activity of dorsal raphe (DR) 5-HT neurons. At the postsynaptic level, neither escitalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.) nor R-citalopram (20 mg/kg, i.p.) modified basal synaptic transmission but only escitalopram impaired LTP expression. Importantly, R-citalopram counteracted significantly the escitalopram-induced decrease of LTP. At the pre-synaptic level, escitalopram (25-75 microg/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently suppressed the spontaneous firing activity of DR 5-HT neurons and this suppressant effect was significantly prevented by a prior injection of R-citalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.). These results support a role of allosteric binding sites of 5-HT transporter in the regulation of long-lasting CA(1) synaptic plasticity and DR 5-HT neuronal firing activity.

  10. Dissociable roles of dopamine and serotonin transporter function in a rat model of negative urgency.

    PubMed

    Yates, Justin R; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-09-15

    Negative urgency is a facet of impulsivity that reflects mood-based rash action and is associated with various maladaptive behaviors in humans. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of negative urgency are not fully understood. Several brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), have been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular DA and 5-HT concentrations are regulated by DA transporters (DAT) and 5-HT transporters (SERT); thus, these transporters may be important molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in negative urgency. The current study employed a reward omission task to model negative urgency in rats. During reward trials, a cue light signaled the non-contingent delivery of one sucrose pellet; immediately following the non-contingent reward, rats responded on a lever to earn sucrose pellets (operant phase). Omission trials were similar to reward trials, except that non-contingent sucrose was omitted following the cue light prior to the operant phase. As expected, contingent responding was higher following omission of expected reward than following delivery of expected reward, thus reflecting negative urgency. Upon completion of behavioral training, Vmax and Km were obtained from kinetic analysis of [(3)H]DA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake using synaptosomes prepared from nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (Str), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) isolated from individual rats. Vmax for DAT in NAc and for SERT in OFC were positively correlated with negative urgency scores. The current findings suggest that mood-based impulsivity (negative urgency) is associated with enhanced DAT function in NAc and SERT function in OFC.

  11. Dissociable Roles of Dopamine and Serotonin Transporter Function in a Rat Model of Negative Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Justin R.; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Negative urgency is a facet of impulsivity that reflects mood-based rash action and is associated with various maladaptive behaviors in humans. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of negative urgency are not fully understood. Several brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), have been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular DA and 5-HT concentrations are regulated by DA transporters (DAT) and 5-HT transporters (SERT); thus, these transporters may be important molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in negative urgency. The current study employed a reward omission task to model negative urgency in rats. During reward trials, a cue light signaled the non-contingent delivery of one sucrose pellet; immediately following the non-contingent reward, rats responded on a lever to earn sucrose pellets (operant phase). Omission trials were similar to reward trials, except that non-contingent sucrose was omitted following the cue light prior to the operant phase. As expected, contingent responding was higher following omission of expected reward than following delivery of expected reward, thus reflecting negative urgency. Upon completion of behavioral training, Vmax and Km were obtained from kinetic analysis of [3H]DA and [3H]5-HT uptake using synaptosomes prepared from nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (Str), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) isolated from individual rats. Vmax for DAT in NAc and for SERT in OFC were positively correlated with negative urgency scores. The current findings suggest that mood-based impulsivity (negative urgency) is associated with enhanced DAT function in NAc and SERT function in OFC. PMID:26005123

  12. Cerebral 5-HT release correlates with [(11)C]Cimbi36 PET measures of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy in the pig brain.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Louise M; Weikop, Pia; Villadsen, Jonas; Visnapuu, Tanel; Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Hanne D; Baandrup, Anders O; Andersen, Flemming L; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Thomsen, Carsten; Jespersen, Bo; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can, when used with appropriate radioligands, non-invasively generate temporal and spatial information about acute changes in brain neurotransmitter systems. We for the first time evaluate the novel 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET radioligand, [(11)C]Cimbi-36, for its sensitivity to detect changes in endogenous cerebral 5-HT levels, as induced by different pharmacological challenges. To enable a direct translation of PET imaging data to changes in brain 5-HT levels, we calibrated the [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET signal in the pig brain by simultaneous measurements of extracellular 5-HT levels with microdialysis and [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET after various acute interventions (saline, citalopram, citalopram + pindolol, fenfluramine). In a subset of pigs, para-chlorophenylalanine pretreatment was given to deplete cerebral 5-HT. The interventions increased the cerebral extracellular 5-HT levels to 2-11 times baseline, with fenfluramine being the most potent pharmacological enhancer of 5-HT release, and induced a varying degree of decline in [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding in the brain, consistent with the occupancy competition model. The observed correlation between changes in the extracellular 5-HT level in the pig brain and the 5-HT2A receptor occupancy indicates that [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding is sensitive to changes in endogenous 5-HT levels, although only detectable with PET when the 5-HT release is sufficiently high.

  13. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2016-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies. PMID:26851834

  14. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V

    2016-03-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies.

  15. Role of 5-HT2 receptors in diabetes: Swertiamarin seco-iridoid glycoside might be a possible 5-HT2 receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Rakesh Deelip; Deore, Vijaykumar B; Patil, Savita D; Patil, Chandragouda R; Surana, Sanjay J; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2015-05-15

    In the present review, we are focusing on modulators of 5-HT2 receptors, swertiamarin and their role in diabetes. These drugs possess both central and peripheral actions in various animal models of depression, diabetes and obesity. Swertiamarin and 5-HT2 antagonist are reported antidepressant, hypolipidemic and beneficial in peripheral vasculopathy. In contrast to this, 5-HT2C selective agonist decreases hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and insulin secretogogue by action. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known antidepressant having weight gain as an adverse effect. Swertiamarin has similar pharmacological actions as 5-HT2 antagonist and 5-HT2C selective agonist. This warrants that swertiamarin might modulate 5-HT2 receptors rather than affecting the uptake of serotonin. In the light of present investigation, the mechanism of these drugs can correlate the role of central and peripheral 5-HT2 receptors in diabetes.

  16. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of new carbonyl guanidine derivatives as novel dual 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Moritomo, Ayako; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Itahana, Hirotsune; Akuzawa, Shinobu; Okada, Minoru; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2013-12-15

    To identify potent dual 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists, we synthesized a series of novel carbonyl guanidine derivatives and examined their structure-activity relationships. Among these compounds, N-(9-hydroxy-9H-fluorene-2-carbonyl)guanidine (10) had a good in vitro profile, that is, potent affinity for human 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor subtypes (Ki=1.8 nM and Ki=17.6 nM, respectively) and high selectivity over 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, α1, D2 and M1 receptors. Compound 10 also showed a suppressing effect on 5-HT-induced dural protein extravasation in guinea pigs when orally administered.

  17. Peripheral and spinal 5-HT receptors participate in cholestatic itch and antinociception induced by bile duct ligation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Wang, Xue-Long; Huang, Ya; Chen, Li-Hua; Cheng, Ruo-Xiao; Zhou, Feng-Ming; Guo, Ran; Li, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Although 5-HT has been implicated in cholestatic itch and antinociception, two common phenomena in patients with cholestatic disease, the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes are unclear. Herein, we investigated the roles of 5-HT receptors in itch and antinociception associated with cholestasis, which was induced by common bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. 5-HT-induced enhanced scratching and antinociception to mechanical and heat stimuli were demonstrated in BDL rats. 5-HT level in the skin and spinal cord was significantly increased in BDL rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3A, 5-HT5B, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 were up-regulated in peripheral nervous system and 5-HT1A, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT3A were down-regulated in the spinal cord of BDL rats. Intradermal 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor agonists induced scratching in BDL rats, whereas 5-HT3 agonist did not induce scratching in sham rats. 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 agonists or antagonists suppressed itch in BDL rats. 5-HT1A agonist attenuated, but 5-HT1A antagonist enhanced antinociception in BDL rats. 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 agonists or antagonists attenuated antinociception in BDL rats. Our data suggested peripheral and central 5-HT system dynamically participated in itch and antinociception under cholestasis condition and targeting 5-HT receptors may be an effective treatment for cholestatic itch. PMID:27824106

  18. [5-HT3 receptor antagonist als analgetics in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Fiebich, B L; Stratz, T

    2006-10-01

    Various rheumatic diseases like fibromyalgia, systemic inflammatory rheumatic disorders and localized diseases, such as arthritides and activated arthroses, tendinopathies and periarthropathies, as well as trigger points can be improved considerably by treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron. Particularly in the latter group of diseases, local injections have done surprisingly rapid analgesic action. This effect matches that of local anesthetics, but lasts considerably longer and is comparable to local injections of local anesthetics combined with corticosteroids. The action of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists can be attributed to an antinociceptive effect that occurs at the same time as an antiphlogistic and probably also an immunosuppressive effect. Whereas an inhibited release of substance P from the nociceptors, and possibly some other neurokins as well, seems to be the most likely explanation for the antinociceptive action, the antiphlogistic effect is primarily due to an inhibited formation of various different phlogistic substances; in some conditions, like systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, for example, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may exert an immunosuppressive effect in addition to this.

  19. The serotonin 5-HT7 receptors: two decades of research.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Evelien; Heyninck, Karen; Andressen, Kjetil W; Haegeman, Guy; Levy, Finn Olav; Vanhoenacker, Peter; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Like most neurotransmitters, serotonin possesses a simple structure. However, the pharmacological consequences are more complex and diverse. Serotonin is involved in numerous functions in the human body including the control of appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature regulation, mood, behavior, cardiovascular function, muscle contraction, endocrine regulation, and depression. Low levels of serotonin may be associated with several disorders, namely increase in aggressive and angry behaviors, clinical depression, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, tinnitus, and bipolar disease. These effects are mediated via different serotonin (5-HT) receptors. In this review, we will focus on the last discovered member of this serotonin receptor family, the 5-HT7 receptor. This receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and was cloned two decades ago. Later, different splice variants were described but no major functional differences have been described so far. All 5-HT7 receptor variants are coupled to Gαs proteins and stimulate cAMP formation. Recently, several interacting proteins have been reported, which can influence receptor signaling and trafficking.

  20. The effects of the 5-HT(6) receptor agonist EMD and the 5-HT(7) receptor agonist AS19 on memory formation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Perez-Garcia, G; Liy-Salmeron, G; Flores-Galvez, D; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2008-12-16

    Growing evidence indicates that 5-hydrohytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediate learning and memory. Particularly interesting are 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors, which are localized in brain areas involved in memory formation. Interestingly, recently selective 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists and antagonists have become available. Previous evidence indicates that 5-HT(6) or 5-HT(7) receptors antagonists had no effects, improved memory formation and/or reversed amnesia. Herein, the effects of EMD (a 5-HT(6) receptor agonist) and AS19 (a 5-HT(7) receptor agonist) in the associative learning task of autoshaping were studied. Post-training systemic administration of EMD (1-10 mg/kg) or AS19 (1-10 mg/kg) were tested in short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). Results showed that only EMD 5.0mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. AS19 at 1-10 mg/kg significantly impaired STM but not LTM. In those groups used to test only LTM, EMD impaired it; while AS19 improved LTM. Moreover, in the interaction experiments, the STM EMD-impairment effect was partially reversed by the selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 (10 mg/kg). The STM AS19-impairment effect (5.0 mg/kg) was not altered by the selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY 100635 (0.3 mg/kg) but reversed by the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970 (10.0 mg/kg). The AS19-SB-269970 combination impaired LTM. Taken together these data suggest that the stimulation of 5-HT(6) impaired both STM and LTM. 5-HT(7) receptors stimulation impaired STM but improved LTM. And these results are discussed in the context of their possible neural bases.

  1. The 5-HT1-like receptor mediating the increase in canine external carotid blood flow: close resemblance to the 5-HT1D subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, C M; Terrón, J A

    1994-01-01

    1. It has recently been shown that the increase in external carotid blood flow induced by 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) in the anaesthetized dog, being mimicked by 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), inhibited by methiothepin, vagosympathectomy and sympatho-inhibitory drugs, and resistant to blockade by ritanserin and MDL 72222, is mediated by stimulation of prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors leading to an inhibitory action on carotid sympathetic nerves; these 5-HT1-like receptors are unrelated to either the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C (now 5-HT2C) receptor subtypes. Inasmuch as 5-CT, 5-methoxytryptamine, sumatriptan and metergoline display high affinity, amongst other 5-HT binding sites, for the 5-HT1D subtype, in the present study we have used these drugs in an attempt to determine whether the above inhibitory prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors correlate with the 5-HT1D subtype. 2. One-minute intracarotid (i.c.) infusions of 5-HT (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 micrograms), 5-CT (0.01, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 micrograms), 5-methoxytryptamine (1, 3, 10 and 30 micrograms) and sumatriptan (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms) resulted in dose-dependent increases in external carotid blood flow (without changes in mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate) with the following rank order of agonist potency: 5-CT >> 5-HT > 5-methoxytryptamine > or = sumatriptan. Interestingly, sumatriptan-induced vasodilatation was followed by a more pronounced vasoconstriction. 3. The external carotid vasodilator effects of 5-HT, 5-CT, 5-methoxytryptamine and sumatriptan were dose-dependently and specifically antagonized by metergoline (10, 30 and/or 100 micrograms kg-1, i.v.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7812603

  2. The atypical 5-HT2 receptor mediating tachycardia in pithed rats: pharmacological correlation with the 5-HT2A receptor subtype

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Ortiz, Mario I; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2002-01-01

    In pithed rats, 5-HT mediates tachycardia both directly (by 5-HT2 receptors) and indirectly (by a tyramine-like effect). The receptor mediating tachycardia directly has been classified as an ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptor since it was ‘weakly' blocked by ketanserin. Moreover, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT2 agonist, failed to mimic 5-HT-induced tachycardia. Since 5-HT2 receptors consist of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C subtypes, this study investigated if these subtypes mediate the above response. In pithed rats, intraperitoneally (i.p.) pre-treated with reserpine (5 mg kg−1), intravenous (i.v.) administration of 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-T), 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (10, 30, 100 and 300 μg kg−1 each), produced dose-dependent tachycardic responses. Interestingly, DOI (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.) induced only slight, dose-unrelated, tachycardic responses, whilst the 5-HT2C agonist, Ro 60-0175 (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.), produced a slight tachycardia only at 300 and 1000 μg kg−1. In contrast, sumatriptan and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)- piperazine (TFMPP) were inactive. The rank order of potency was: 5-HT⩾5-MeO-T> mCPP⩾5-CT⩾DOI>Ro 60-0175. The tachycardic responses to 5-HT, which remained unaffected after i.v. saline (0.3 and 1 ml kg−1) or propranolol (3 mg kg−1), were selectively blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonists ketanserin (30 and 100 μg kg−1) or spiperone (10 and 30 μg kg−1) as well as by the non-selective 5-HT2 antagonists, ritanserin (10 and 30 μg kg−1) or mesulergine (100 μg kg−1). Remarkably, these responses were unaffected by the antagonists rauwolscine (5-HT2B), SB204741 (5-HT2B/2C) or Ro 04-6790 (5-ht6) (300 and 1000 μg kg−1 each). These results suggest that the ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptors mediating tachycardia in reserpinized pithed rats are pharmacologically similar to the 5-HT2A

  3. Bi-directional modulation of BNST neurons by 5-HT: Molecular expression and functional properties of excitatory 5-HT receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ji-Dong; Hammack, Sayamwong E.; Hazra, Rimi; Levita, Liat; Rainnie, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of neurons in the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG) plays an important role in mediating the behavioral response to stressful and anxiogenic stimuli. Application of 5-HT elicits complex postsynaptic responses in BNSTALG neurons, which includes 1) membrane hyperpolarization (5-HTHyp), 2) hyperpolarization followed by depolarization (5-HTHyp-Dep), 3) depolarization (5-HTDep) or 4) no response (5-HTNR). We have shown that the inhibitory response is mediated by activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. Here, we used a combination of in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recording and single cell reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the pharmacological properties and molecular profile of 5-HT receptor subtypes mediating the excitatory response to 5-HT in BNSTALG neurons. We show that the depolarizing component of both the 5-HTHyp/Dep and the 5-HTDep response was mediated by activation of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and/or 5-HT7 receptors. Single cell RT-PCR data revealed that 5-HT7 receptors (46%) and 5-HT1A receptors (41%) are the most prevalent receptor subtypes expressed in BNSTALG neurons. Moreover, 5-HT receptor subtypes are differentially expressed in Type I – III BNSTALG neurons. Hence, 5-HT2C receptors are almost exclusively expressed by Type III neurons, whereas 5-HT7 receptors are expressed by Type I and II neurons, but not Type III neurons. Conversely, 5-HT2A receptors are found predominantly in Type II neurons. Finally, bi-directional modulation of individual neurons occurs only in Type I and II neurons. Significantly the distribution of 5-HT receptor subtypes in BNSTALG neurons predicted the observed expression pattern of 5-HT responses determined pharmacologically. Together, these results suggest that 5-HT can differentially modulate the excitability of Type I – III neurons, and further suggest that bi-directional modulation of BNSTALG neurons occurs primarily through an interplay between 5-HT1A and

  4. 5-HT manipulation and dietary choice: variable carbohydrate (Polycose) suppression demonstrated only under specific experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Lawton, C L; Blundell, J E

    1993-01-01

    The effects of six 5-HT anorectic agents, d-fenfluramine (5-HT releaser and reuptake inhibitor), fluoxetine (5-HT reuptake inhibitor), mCPP (5-HT1B/5-HT1C receptor agonist), RU24969 (5-HT1A/5-HT1B receptor agonist), MK212 (5-HT1C receptor agonist) and DOI (5-HT2/5-HT1C receptor agonist), and two non-5-HT anorectic agents, salbutamol (beta 2-adrenergic agonist) and d-amphetamine (catecholaminergic agonist), were examined in an experimental procedure designed to disclose selective effects on carbohydrate consumption. In this procedure, a revised version of what we have termed "The Classic Sclafani Paradigm", animals are presented with powdered Polycose as an optional carbohydrate supplement to hydrated chow (nutritionally complete diet). All drugs produced significant reductions in total (hydrated chow plus powdered Polycose) intake. However, only the 5-HT drugs DOI and fluoxetine exerted significantly stronger anorectic effects on intake of powdered Polycose than on intake of hydrated chow. d-Fenfluramine also showed a tendency to selectively suppress Polycose intake but this effect marginally failed to reach significance. These results suggest that when experimental conditions are favourable, what appears to be selective carbohydrate (Polycose) suppression can be demonstrated with certain 5-HT drugs. They also suggest that a selective effect on carbohydrate intake is not the most prominent feeding response to 5-HT drugs.

  5. Anxiolytic-like effects observed in rats exposed to the elevated zero-maze following treatment with 5-HT2/5-HT3/5-HT4 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Rob; Duke, Aaron A.; Gilmore, Paula E.; Page, Deaglan; Bègue, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of administering selective 5-HT antagonists and agonists to rats tested in the elevated zero-maze (EZM) model of anxiety. The EZM paradigm has advantages over the elevated plus-maze (EPM) paradigm with respect to measuring anxiety, yet has been utilized less frequently. Three experiments were conducted each with a diazepam control (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg). In the first experiment, we administered the 5-HT2C antagonist RS 102221 (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg) and 5-HT2C agonist MK-212 (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg); in the second experiment, we administered the 5-HT3 antagonist Y-25130 (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) and 5-HT3 agonist SR 57227A (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), and in the third experiment, we administered the 5-HT4 antagonist RS 39604 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg/kg) and 5-HT4 agonist RS 67333 (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg). The administration of 5-HT2/3/4 subtype antagonists all generated behavioral profiles indicative of anxiolytic-like effects in the EZM, which was apparent from examination of both traditional and ethological measures. While little effect was observed from 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 agonists, the 5-HT4 agonist RS 67333 was found to produce a paradoxical anxiolytic-like effect similar to that produced by the 5-HT4 antagonist RS 39604. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings. PMID:24457553

  6. Differences in agonist dissociation constant estimates for 5-HT at 5-HT2-receptors: a problem of acute desensitization?

    PubMed Central

    Leff, P.; Martin, G. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. The agonist dissociation constant for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was estimated in the guinea-pig isolated trachea by the method of receptor inactivation. The value obtained (pKA = 6.45) was significantly lower than estimates previously obtained in the rabbit aorta and rat jugular vein, although all three tissues are supposed to contain the same 5-HT2 class of receptor. 2. The antagonist dissociation constant for alpha,alpha-dimethyltryptamine was also estimated in the guinea-pig trachea. The pKB value (5.43) was not significantly different from previous estimates in the rabbit aorta and rat jugular vein, consistent with receptor homogeneity between the three tissues. 3. The effect-time profiles corresponding to individual 5-HT applications were more transient in the guinea-pig trachea than in the rabbit aorta. This difference could be accounted for using a simple model of acute receptor desensitization (Leff, 1986), assuming that the conversion of active agonist-receptor complexes into inactive ones was faster in the guinea-pig trachea than in the rabbit aorta. 4. Computer simulation of the desensitization model showed that the discrepancy of pKA estimates for 5-HT between the rabbit aorta and guinea-pig trachea could also be explained using the same rate constant difference that accounted for the difference in effect-time profiles. This analysis indicated that the estimate made in the trachea was erroneously low, whereas that made in the aorta was concluded to be correct. 5. The apparent association between transience of response and pKA estimates is discussed with particular attention to the reliability of agonist affinity estimates in receptor classification. PMID:3228675

  7. Discovering the mechanisms underlying serotonin (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C receptor regulation following nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Magdalena; Alenina, Natalia; Wydra, Karolina; Fröhler, Sebastian; Kuśmider, Maciej; McCreary, Andrew C; Chen, Wei; Bader, Michael; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that nicotine withdrawal produces depression-like behavior and that serotonin (5-HT)2A/2C receptor ligands modulate that mood-like state. In the present study we aimed to identify the mechanisms (changes in radioligand binding, transcription or RNA-editing) related to such a behavioral outcome. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) for 5 days in home cages. Brain 5-HT2A/2C receptors were analyzed on day 3 of nicotine withdrawal. Nicotine withdrawal increased [(3)H]ketanserin binding to 5-HT2A receptors in the ventral tegmental area and ventral dentate gyrus, yet decreased binding in the nucleus accumbens shell. Reduction in [(3)H]mesulergine binding to 5-HT2C receptors was seen in the ventral dentate gyrus. Profound decrease in the 5-HT2A receptor transcript level was noted in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area. Out of five 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing sites, deep sequencing data showed a reduction in editing at the E site and a trend toward reduction at the C site in the hippocampus. In the ventral tegmental area, a reduction for the frequency of CD 5-HT2C receptor transcript was seen. These results show that the reduction in the 5-HT2A receptor transcript level may be an auto-regulatory response to the increased receptor density in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area during nicotine withdrawal, while decreased 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing may explain the reduction in receptor labeling in the hippocampus. Serotonin (5-HT)2A/2C receptor ligands alleviate depression-like state in nicotine-withdrawn rats. Here, we show that the reduction in 5-HT2A receptor transcript level may be an auto-regulatory response to the increased receptor number in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area during nicotine withdrawal, while attenuated 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing in the hippocampus might explain reduced inverse agonist binding to 5-HT2C receptor and suggest a shift toward a population of more active receptors. 5

  8. Signalling pathways activated by 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptors in native smooth muscle and primary cultures of rabbit renal artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J M; Hill, P; Jeremy, J; Garland, C

    2000-01-01

    The potential of primary cultures of rabbit renal artery vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was assessed as a means to investigate the signalling pathways linked to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptors in native arteries. In renal artery segments denuded of endothelium, incubated with ketanserin and prazosin (each 1 microM), and prestimulated with 20 mM K(+) Krebs buffer, 5-HT and CP 93,129, a 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, evoked concentration-dependent contractions. GR 127935, a 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist, significantly antagonised 5-HT-evoked contractions at nanomolar concentrations. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mRNA from smooth muscle cells from the isolated renal artery and from primary cultures of VSMCs from the same artery expressed mRNA transcripts for the 5-HT(1B) receptor and the 5-HT(1D) receptor in both preparations. The sequence of the PCR fragments corresponded to the known sequence for these receptors. Application of 5-HT evoked a concentration-dependent, pertussis toxin (PTx)-sensitive reduction in cyclic AMP in both cultured cells and intact artery (cyclic AMP concentration reduced by 65.53 +/- 3.33 and 52.65 +/- 5.34% from basal with 10 microM 5-HT, respectively). The effect of 10 microM 5-HT on cAMP was increased in the presence of 20 mM K(+) (reduced by 82.50 +/- 2.50 and 87.54 +/- 3.97%, respectively). In intact arteries, contraction through 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptors was significantly attenuated by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (wortmannin) and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MEK (U0126). In the cultured VSMCs, activated MAPK was identified by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting after stimulation with 5-HT, but only if 20 mM K(+) was present at the onset of stimulation. These data provide the first direct evidence that 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1B) receptors are linked to the activation of MAPK and indicate that primary cultures of renal VSMCs could provide a

  9. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins.

    PubMed

    Watts, Stephanie W; Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget M; Thompson, Janice M

    2015-02-01

    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1 week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western analyses supported the predominant expression of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor in the SMV. The SMV was mounted in tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction. 5-HT caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-contracted vein. The threshold of 5-HT-induced venous relaxation was significantly lower than for 5-HT-induced venous contraction (∼2 vs. 700 nmol/L, respectively). A series of serotonergic agonists established in their use of receptor characterization was tested, and the following rank order of potency found for agonist-induced relaxation (receptor selectivity): 5-CT (5-HT1/5-HT7)>5-HT = LP-44 (5-HT7)>PNU109291 (5-HT1D) = BW723C86 (5-HT2B). 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A/7), CP93129 (5-HT1B), mCPBG (5-HT3/4), AS19 (5-HT7) and TCB-2 (5-HT2A) did not relax the isolated vein. Consistent with these findings, two different 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB 269970 and LY215840 but not the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist LY272015 nor the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor LNNA abolished 5-CT-induced relaxation of the isolated SMV. 5-CT (1 μg kg(-1) min(-1), sc) also reduced blood pressure over 7 days. These findings suggest that 5-HT directly relaxes the SMV primarily through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor.

  10. GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in anesthetized rats: are 5-HT5B receptors involved?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Maldonado, Carolina; López-Sánchez, Pedro; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Terrón, José A

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR-127935, inhibits hypotensive responses produced by the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT7 receptor agonist, and 5-HT5A/5B receptor ligand, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), in rats. This work further characterized the above mechanism using more selective 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor antagonists. Also, expression of 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in blood vessels was searched by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Decreases in diastolic blood pressure induced by 5-CT (0.001-10 μg/kg, intravenously) were analyzed in anesthetized rats that had received intravenous vehicle (1 mL/kg), SB-224289 (5-HT1B antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), BRL15572 (5-HT1D antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each), or SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each) + GR-127935 (1 mg/kg). Because only the latter treatment inhibited 5-CT-induced hypotension, suggestive of a mechanism unrelated to 5-HT1B/1D receptors, the effects of antagonists/ligands at 5-HT5A (SB-699551, 1 mg/kg), 5-HT6 (SB-399885, 1 mg/kg), and 5-HT1B/1D/5A/5B/7 receptors (ergotamine, 0.1 mg/kg) on 5-CT-induced hypotension were tested. Interestingly, only ergotamine blocked 5-CT-induced responses; this effect closely paralleled that of SB-224289 + BRL-15572 + GR-127935. Neither did ergotamine nor GR-127935 inhibit hypotensive responses induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-44. Faint but clear bands corresponding to 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in aorta and mesenteric arteries were detected. Results suggest that the GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in rats is unrelated to 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. This mechanism, however, resembles putative 5-HT5B receptors.

  11. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Stephanie W; Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget M; Thompson, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1 week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western analyses supported the predominant expression of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor in the SMV. The SMV was mounted in tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction. 5-HT caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-contracted vein. The threshold of 5-HT-induced venous relaxation was significantly lower than for 5-HT-induced venous contraction (∼2 vs. 700 nmol/L, respectively). A series of serotonergic agonists established in their use of receptor characterization was tested, and the following rank order of potency found for agonist-induced relaxation (receptor selectivity): 5-CT (5-HT1/5-HT7)>5-HT = LP-44 (5-HT7)>PNU109291 (5-HT1D) = BW723C86 (5-HT2B). 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A/7), CP93129 (5-HT1B), mCPBG (5-HT3/4), AS19 (5-HT7) and TCB-2 (5-HT2A) did not relax the isolated vein. Consistent with these findings, two different 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB 269970 and LY215840 but not the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist LY272015 nor the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor LNNA abolished 5-CT-induced relaxation of the isolated SMV. 5-CT (1 μg kg−1 min−1, sc) also reduced blood pressure over 7 days. These findings suggest that 5-HT directly relaxes the SMV primarily through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. PMID:25692021

  12. Evidence for the existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes in the midbrain raphe 5-HT system.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Narvaez, Manuel; Pérez-Alea, Mileidys; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Jiménez-Beristain, Antonio; Mudó, Giuseppa; Agnati, Luigi F; Ciruela, Francisco; Belluardo, Natale; Fuxe, Kjell

    2015-01-02

    The ascending midbrain 5-HT neurons known to contain 5-HT1A autoreceptors may be dysregulated in depression due to a reduced trophic support. With in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) and supported by co-location of the FGFR1 and 5-HT1A immunoreactivities in midbrain raphe 5-HT cells, evidence for the existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes were obtained in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the Sprague-Dawley rat. Their existence in the rat medullary raphe RN33B cell cultures was also established. After combined FGF-2 and 8-OH-DPAT treatment, a marked and significant increase in PLA positive clusters was found in the RN33B cells. Similar results were reached upon coactivation by agonists in HEK293T cells using the Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) technique resulting in increased FRETmax and reduced FRET50 values. The heteroreceptor complex formation was dependent on TMV of the 5-HT1A receptor since it was blocked by incubation with TMV but not with TMII. Taken together, the 5-HT1A autoreceptors by being recruited into a FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complex in the midbrain raphe 5-HT nerve cells may develop a novel function, namely a trophic role in many midbrain 5-HT neuron systems originating from the dorsal and medianus raphe nuclei.

  13. Mapping the connectivity of serotonin transporter immunoreactive axons to excitatory and inhibitory neurochemical synapses in the mouse limbic brain.

    PubMed

    Belmer, Arnauld; Klenowski, Paul M; Patkar, Omkar L; Bartlett, Selena E

    2017-04-01

    Serotonin neurons arise from the brainstem raphe nuclei and send their projections throughout the brain to release 5-HT which acts as a modulator of several neuronal populations. Previous electron microscopy studies in rats have morphologically determined the distribution of 5-HT release sites (boutons) in certain brain regions and have shown that 5-HT containing boutons form synaptic contacts that are either symmetric or asymmetric. In addition, 5-HT boutons can form synaptic triads with the pre- and postsynaptic specializations of either symmetrical or asymmetrical synapses. However, due to the labor intensive processing of serial sections required by electron microscopy, little is known about the neurochemical properties or the quantitative distribution of 5-HT triads within whole brain or discrete subregions. Therefore, we used a semi-automated approach that combines immunohistochemistry and high-resolution confocal microscopy to label serotonin transporter (SERT) immunoreactive axons and reconstruct in 3D their distribution within limbic brain regions. We also used antibodies against key pre- (synaptophysin) and postsynaptic components of excitatory (PSD95) or inhibitory (gephyrin) synapses to (1) identify putative 5-HTergic boutons within SERT immunoreactive axons and, (2) quantify their close apposition to neurochemical excitatory or inhibitory synapses. We provide a 5-HTergic axon density map and have determined the ratio of synaptic triads consisting of a 5-HT bouton in close proximity to either neurochemical excitatory or inhibitory synapses within different limbic brain areas. The ability to model and map changes in 5-HTergic axonal density and the formation of triadic connectivity within whole brain regions using this rapid and quantitative approach offers new possibilities for studying neuroplastic changes in the 5-HTergic pathway.

  14. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  15. 5-HT7 receptor activation inhibits mechanical hypersensitivity secondary to capsaicin sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Brenchat, Alex; Romero, Luz; García, Mónica; Pujol, Marta; Burgueño, Javier; Torrens, Antoni; Hamon, Michel; Baeyens, José Manuel; Buschmann, Helmut; Zamanillo, Daniel; Vela, José Miguel

    2009-02-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the potential role of the 5-HT(7) receptor in nociception secondary to a sensitizing stimulus in mice. For this purpose, the effects of relevant ligands (5-HT(7) receptor agonists: AS-19, MSD-5a, E-55888; 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists: SB-258719, SB-269970; 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist: F-13640; 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist: WAY-100635) were assessed on capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, a pain behavior involving hypersensitivity of dorsal horn neurons (central sensitization). For the 5-HT(7) receptor agonists used, binding profile and intrinsic efficacy to stimulate cAMP formation in HEK-293F cells expressing the human 5-HT(7) receptor were also evaluated. AS-19 and E-55888 were selective for 5-HT(7) receptors. E-55888 was a full agonist whereas AS-19 and MSD-5a behaved as partial agonists, with maximal effects corresponding to 77% and 61%, respectively, of the cAMP response evoked by the full agonist 5-HT. Our in vivo results revealed that systemic administration of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists exerted a clear-cut dose-dependent antinociceptive effect that was prevented by 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, but not by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist. The order of efficacy (E-55888>AS-19>MSD-5a) matched their in vitro efficacy as 5-HT(7) receptor agonists. Contrary to agonists, a dose-dependent promotion of mechanical hypersensitivity was observed after administration of 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, substantiating the involvement of the 5-HT(7) receptor in the control of capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These findings suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory role in the control of nociception through activation of 5-HT(7) receptors, and point to a new potential therapeutic use of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists in the field of analgesia.

  16. Hippocampal 5-HT1A Receptor and Spatial Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.; Stout, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition is fundamental for survival in the topographically complex environments inhabited by humans and other animals. The hippocampus, which has a central role in spatial cognition, is characterized by high concentration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor binding sites, particularly of the 1A receptor (5-HT1A) subtype. This review highlights converging evidence for the role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in spatial learning and memory. We consider studies showing that activation or blockade of the 5-HT1A receptors using agonists or antagonists, respectively, lead to changes in spatial learning and memory. For example, pharmacological manipulation to induce 5-HT release, or to block 5-HT uptake, have indicated that increased extracellular 5-HT concentrations maintain or improve memory performance. In contrast, reduced levels of 5-HT have been shown to impair spatial memory. Furthermore, the lack of 5-HT1A receptor subtype in single gene knockout mice is specifically associated with spatial memory impairments. These findings, along with evidence from recent cognitive imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and studies of individual genetic variance in 5-HT1A receptor availability, strongly suggests that 5-HT, mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, plays a key role in spatial learning and memory. PMID:26696889

  17. Dimethyltryptamine and other hallucinogenic tryptamines exhibit substrate behavior at the serotonin uptake transporter and the vesicle monoamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gopalakrishnan, Anupama; Anderson, Lyndsey L; Feih, Joel T; Shulgin, Alexander T; Daley, Paul F; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2009-12-01

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a potent plant hallucinogen that has also been found in human tissues. When ingested, DMT and related N,N-dialkyltryptamines produce an intense hallucinogenic state. Behavioral effects are mediated through various neurochemical mechanisms including activity at sigma-1 and serotonin receptors, modification of monoamine uptake and release, and competition for metabolic enzymes. To further clarify the pharmacology of hallucinogenic tryptamines, we synthesized DMT, N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine (MIPT), N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), and N,N-diisopropyltryptamine. We then tested the abilities of these N,N-dialkyltryptamines to inhibit [(3)H]5-HT uptake via the plasma membrane serotonin transporter (SERT) in human platelets and via the vesicle monoamine transporter (VMAT2) in Sf9 cells expressing the rat VMAT2. The tryptamines were also tested as inhibitors of [(3)H]paroxetine binding to the SERT and [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding to VMAT2. Our results show that DMT, MIPT, DPT, and DIPT inhibit [(3)H]5-HT transport at the SERT with K ( I ) values of 4.00 +/- 0.70, 8.88 +/- 4.7, 0.594 +/- 0.12, and 2.32 +/- 0.46 microM, respectively. At VMAT2, the tryptamines inhibited [(3)H]5-HT transport with K ( I ) values of 93 +/- 6.8, 20 +/- 4.3, 19 +/- 2.3, and 19 +/- 3.1 muM, respectively. On the other hand, the tryptamines were very poor inhibitors of [(3)H]paroxetine binding to SERT and of [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding to VMAT2, resulting in high binding-to-uptake ratios. High binding-to-uptake ratios support the hypothesis that the tryptamines are transporter substrates, not uptake blockers, at both SERT and VMAT2, and also indicate that there are separate substrate and inhibitor binding sites within these transporters. The transporters may allow the accumulation of tryptamines within neurons to reach relatively high levels for sigma-1 receptor activation and to function as releasable transmitters.

  18. Impaired effect of activation of rat hippocampal 5-HT7 receptors, induced by treatment with the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB 269970.

    PubMed

    Kusek, M; Sowa, J; Tokarski, K; Hess, G

    2015-04-01

    Effects of the 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970, administered for 14 days (1.25 mg/kg), were studied in ex vivo slices of rat hippocampus. To activate the 5-HT(7) receptor, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 200 nM) was applied in the presence of WAY 100635 (2 μM), a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist. In contrast to control preparations, no 5-HT(7) receptor-mediated increase in excitability nor depolarization and an increase in the input resistance of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons were present in slices prepared from rats treated with SB 269970. The treatment also abolished the stimulatory effect of 5-HT(7) receptor activation on spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded from CA1 stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare interneurons. These data demonstrate that repeated administration of SB 269970 impairs the reactivity of the CA1 hippocampal neuronal network to 5-HT(7) receptor activation.

  19. Rational Drug Design Leading to the Identification of a Potent 5-HT(2C) Agonist Lacking 5-HT(2B) Activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Cho, Sung Jin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Jensen, Niels H; Svennebring, Andreas; Sassano, Maria F; Roth, Bryan L; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2011-12-08

    The 5-HT(2C) receptor is an attractive drug target in the quest for new therapeutics to treat a variety of human disorders. We have previously undertaken a structural optimization campaign that has led to some potent and moderately selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists. After expanding our structure-function library, we were able to combine our datasets so as to allow the design of compounds of improved selectivity and potency. We disclose herein the structural optimization of our previously reported 5-HT(2B)/5-HT(2C) agonists, which has led to the identification of a highly selective 5-HT(2C) agonist, (+)-trans-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenyl)cyclopropyl]methylamine hydrochloride, with an EC(50) of 55 nM and no detectable agonism at the 5-HT(2B) receptor.

  20. A Pharmacological Analysis of an Associative Learning Task: 5-HT1 to 5-HT7 Receptor Subtypes Function on a Pavlovian/Instrumental Autoshaped Memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies using both invertebrates and mammals have revealed that endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) modulates plasticity processes, including learning and memory. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms, loci, or time window of the actions of 5-HT. The aim of this review is to discuss some recent results on the effects of systemic administration of selective agonists and antagonists of 5-HT on associative learning in a Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P/I-A) task in rats. The results indicate that pharmacological manipulation of 5-HT1-7 receptors or 5-HT reuptake sites might modulate memory consolidation, which is consistent with the emerging notion that 5-HT plays a key role in memory formation. PMID:14557609

  1. A pharmacological analysis of an associative learning task: 5-HT(1) to 5-HT(7) receptor subtypes function on a pavlovian/instrumental autoshaped memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies using both invertebrates and mammals have revealed that endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) modulates plasticity processes, including learning and memory. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms, loci, or time window of the actions of 5-HT. The aim of this review is to discuss some recent results on the effects of systemic administration of selective agonists and antagonists of 5-HT on associative learning in a Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P/I-A) task in rats. The results indicate that pharmacological manipulation of 5-HT1-7 receptors or 5-HT reuptake sites might modulate memory consolidation, which is consistent with the emerging notion that 5-HT plays a key role in memory formation.

  2. Chloride Requirement for Monoamine Transporters

    PubMed Central

    De Felice, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the Cl− requirement for dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine (DA, 5-HT, and NE) transport and induced current via the transporters for these transmitters, DAT, SERT, and NET. Indirect evidence exists for the passage of Cl− ions through monoamine transporters; however, direct evidence is sparse. An unanswered question is why in some preparations, notably native neurons, it appears that Cl− ions carry the current through DAT, whereas in heterologous expression systems Na+ ions carry the current often referred to as the uncoupled current. It is suggested that different functional states in monoamine transporters represent conformational states that carry dominantly Cl− or Na+. Structures of monoamine transporters contribute enormously to structure-function relationships; however, thus far no structural features support the functionally relevant ionic currents that are known to exist in monoamine transporters. PMID:26794730

  3. 5-HT6 receptor agonism facilitates emotional learning

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcela; Martynhak, Bruno J.; Andreatini, Roberto; Svenningsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and its receptors play crucial roles in various aspects of mood and cognitive functions. However, the role of specific 5-HT receptors in these processes remains to be better understood. Here, we examined the effects of the selective and potent 5-HT6 agonist (WAY208466) on mood, anxiety and emotional learning in mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice were therefore tested in the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPM), and passive avoidance tests (PA), respectively. In a dose-response experiment, mice were treated intraperitoneally with WAY208466 at 3, 9, or 27 mg/kg and examined in an open field arena open field test (OFT) followed by the FST. 9 mg/kg of WAY208466 reduced immobility in the FST, without impairing the locomotion. Thus, the dose of 9 mg/kg was subsequently used for tests of anxiety and emotional learning. There was no significant effect of WAY208466 in the EPM. In the PA, mice were trained 30 min before the treatment with saline or WAY208466. Two separate sets of animals were used for short term memory (tested 1 h post-training) or long term memory (tested 24 h post-training). WAY208466 improved both short and long term memories, evaluated by the latency to enter the dark compartment, in the PA. The WAY208466-treated animals also showed more grooming and rearing in the light compartment. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and brain regions involved in the facilitation of emotional learning by WAY208466, we studied its effects on signal transduction and immediate early gene expression. WAY208466 increased the levels of phospho-Ser845-GluA1 and phospho-Ser217/221-MEK in the caudate-putamen. Levels of phospho-Thr202/204-Erk1/2 and the ratio mature BDNF/proBDNF were increased in the hippocampus. Moreover, WAY208466 increased c-fos in the hippocampus and Arc expression in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The results indicate antidepressant efficacy and facilitation of emotional learning by 5-HT6 receptor agonism via

  4. 5-HT7 receptor signaling: improved therapeutic strategy in gut disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Janice J; Khan, Waliul I

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is most commonly known for its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the majority of the body's 5-HT is produced in the gut by enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Alterations in 5-HT signaling have been associated with various gut disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and enteric infections. Recently, our studies have identified a key role for 5-HT in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in the gut and very recently, we have shown evidence of 5-HT7 receptor expression on intestinal immune cells and demonstrated a key role for 5-HT7 receptors in generation of experimental colitis. This review summarizes the key findings of these studies and provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of the 5-HT7 receptor in terms of its pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic potential in intestinal inflammatory conditions, such as IBD.

  5. Adult AMPA GLUA1 receptor subunit loss in 5-HT neurons results in a specific anxiety-phenotype with evidence for dysregulation of 5-HT neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tillmann; Vogt, Miriam A; Gartside, Sarah E; Berger, Stefan M; Lujan, Rafael; Lau, Thorsten; Herrmann, Elke; Sprengel, Rolf; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Both the glutamatergic and serotonergic (5-HT) systems are implicated in the modulation of mood and anxiety. Descending cortical glutamatergic neurons regulate 5-HT neuronal activity in the midbrain raphe nuclei through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To analyze the functional role of GLUA1-containing AMPA receptors in serotonergic neurons, we used the Cre-ERT2/loxP-system for the conditional inactivation of the GLUA1-encoding Gria1 gene selectively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. These Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice exhibited a distinct anxiety phenotype but showed no alterations in locomotion, depression-like behavior, or learning and memory. Increased anxiety-related behavior was associated with significant decreases in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) expression and activity, and subsequent reductions in tissue levels of 5-HT, its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine in the raphe nuclei. However, TPH2 expression and activity as well as monoamine levels were unchanged in the projection areas of 5-HT neurons. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings of 5-HT neurons revealed that, while α1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation was unchanged, excitatory responses to AMPA were enhanced and the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory response to 5-HT was attenuated in Gria1(5-HT-/-) mice. Our data show that a loss of GLUA1 protein in 5-HT neurons enhances AMPA receptor function and leads to multiple local molecular and neurochemical changes in the raphe nuclei that dysregulate 5-HT neuronal activity and induce anxiety-like behavior.

  6. Characterization of the 5-HT receptor subtypes involved in the motor behaviours produced by intrathecal administration of 5-HT agonists in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Fone, K. C.; Robinson, A. J.; Marsden, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    1. The motor behavioural effects of intrathecal injections of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and a variety of 5-HT receptor agonists were examined in adult Wistar rats to establish; (a) which 5-HT receptor subtype/s elicit each behaviour and (b) whether these receptors are located within the spinal cord. 2. Intrathecal injection of 5-methoxy-N,N'-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT), (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) or 2,5-dimethoxy-alpha,4-dimethylbenzene ethamine hydrochloride (DOM) produced dose-related back muscle contractions (BMC) and wet dog shakes (WDS) which were both markedly attenuated by intraperitoneal pretreatment with either ritanserin (1 mg kg-1), ketanserin (0.16 mg kg-1) or mianserin (0.6 mg kg-1) indicating the involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in both these motor behaviours. Both fluoxetine (1-20 mg kg-1, i.p.) and high doses of 5-HT (50 micrograms) following fluoxetine (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) also elicited BMC, further confirming the involvement of 5-HT in this behaviour. 3. Intrathecal 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) evoked a marked wet-dog shake response without producing any BMC. Intrathecal pretreatment with 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetraline (8-OH-DPAT) enhanced, while in contrast 2-methyl-5-HT pretreatment attenuated, 5-HT agonist-induced BMC without affecting WDS. These data suggest that the spinal 5-HT2 receptors mediating BMC are positively modulated by 5-HT1A but negatively influenced by 5-HT3 receptor activation and may be of a different subtype to the supra-spinal 5-HT2 receptors which elicit WDS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:1832068

  7. Identification of Novel Serotonin Transporter Compounds by Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) plays an essential role in the termination of serotonergic neurotransmission by removing 5-HT from the synaptic cleft into the presynaptic neuron. It is also of pharmacological importance being targeted by antidepressants and psychostimulant drugs. Here, five commercial databases containing approximately 3.24 million drug-like compounds have been screened using a combination of two-dimensional (2D) fingerprint-based and three-dimensional (3D) pharmacophore-based screening and flexible docking into multiple conformations of the binding pocket detected in an outward-open SERT homology model. Following virtual screening (VS), selected compounds were evaluated using in vitro screening and full binding assays and an in silico hit-to-lead (H2L) screening was performed to obtain analogues of the identified compounds. Using this multistep VS/H2L approach, 74 active compounds, 46 of which had Ki values of ≤1000 nM, belonging to 16 structural classes, have been identified, and multiple compounds share no structural resemblance with known SERT binders. PMID:24521202

  8. Ethanol and Mesolimbic Serotonin/Dopamine Interactions Via 5-HT1B Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    5 - HT3 receptor antagonist antagonized systemic ethanol- induced increases of DA release in the VTA [10] or the NACC [9]. Moreover, the...experiments with a selective 5 -HT1B receptor antagonist such as SB 216641 are required to strengthen this conclusion. The future experiments will be... receptor antagonist ), but not BRL 15572 (a 5 -HT1D/1A receptor antagonist ) or WAY 100635 (a 5 -HT1A receptor antagonist ). Administration

  9. Polysynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials that trigger spasms after spinal cord injury in rats are inhibited by 5-HT1B and 5-HT1F receptors.

    PubMed

    Murray, Katherine C; Stephens, Marilee J; Rank, Michelle; D'Amico, Jessica; Gorassini, Monica A; Bennett, David J

    2011-08-01

    Sensory afferent transmission and associated spinal reflexes are normally inhibited by serotonin (5-HT) derived from the brain stem. Spinal cord injury (SCI) that eliminates this 5-HT innervation leads to a disinhibition of sensory transmission and a consequent emergence of unusually long polysynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons. These EPSPs play a critical role in triggering long polysynaptic reflexes (LPRs) that initiate muscles spasms. In the present study we examined which 5-HT receptors modulate the EPSPs and whether these receptors adapt to a loss of 5-HT after chronic spinal transection in rats. The EPSPs and associated LPRs recorded in vitro in spinal cords from chronic spinal rats were consistently inhibited by 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(1F) receptor agonists, including zolmitriptan (5-HT(1B/1D/1F)) and LY344864 (5-HT(1F)), with a sigmoidal dose-response relation, from which we computed the 50% inhibition (EC(50)) and potency (-log EC(50)). The potencies of 5-HT receptor agonists were highly correlated with their binding affinity to 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1F) receptors, and not to other 5-HT receptors. Zolmitriptan also inhibited the LPRs and general muscle spasms recorded in vivo in the awake chronic spinal rat. The 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonists SB216641 and GR127935 and the inverse agonist SB224289 reduced the inhibition of LPRs by 5-HT(1B) agonists (zolmitriptan). However, when applied alone, SB224289, SB216641, and GR127935 had no effect on the LPRs, indicating that 5-HT(1B) receptors do not adapt to chronic injury, remaining silent, without constitutive activity. The reduction in EPSPs with zolmitriptan unmasked a large glycine-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) after SCI. This IPSC and associated chloride current reversed at -73 mV, slightly below the resting membrane potential. Zolmitriptan did not change motoneuron properties. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT(1B/1F) agonists, such as zolmitriptan, can restore inhibition

  10. Role of dorsal raphe nucleus 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors in tonic immobility modulation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mateus Dalbem; Menescal-de-Oliveira, Leda

    2009-08-18

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate defensive behavior characterized by a state of physical inactivity and diminished responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Behavioral adaptations to changes in the external and internal milieu involve complex neuronal network activity and a large number of chemical neurotransmitters. The TI response is thought to be influenced by serotonin (5-HT) activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates, but the neuronal groups involved in the mechanisms underlying this behavior are poorly understood. Owing to its extensive afferents and efferents, the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) has been implicated in a great variety of physiological and behavioral functions. In the current study, we investigated the influence of serotonergic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptor activity within the DRN on the modulation of TI behavior in the guinea pig. Microinjection of a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT, 0.01 and 0.1 microg) decreased TI behavior, an effect blocked by pretreatment with WAY-100635 (0.033 microg), a 5-HT(1A) antagonist. In contrast, activation of 5-HT(2) receptors within the DRN (alpha-methyl-5-HT, 0.5 microg) increased the TI duration, and this effect could be reversed by pretreatment with an ineffective dose (0.01 microg) of ketanserine. Since the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) agonists decreased and increased, respectively, the duration of TI, different serotonin receptor subtypes may play distinct roles in the modulation of TI in the guinea pig.

  11. Structure-activity relationships of quinoxaline-based 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptor-selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew J; Verheij, Mark H P; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline E; Lummis, Sarah C R; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, discriminating between homomeric 5-HT3A and heteromeric 5-HT3AB receptors was only possible with ligands that bind in the receptor pore. This study describes the first series of ligands that can discriminate between these receptor types at the level of the orthosteric binding site. During a recent fragment screen, 2-chloro-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinoxaline (VUF10166) was identified as a ligand that displays an 83-fold difference in [(3)H]granisetron binding affinity between 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors. Fragment hit exploration, initiated from VUF10166 and 3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinoxalin-2-ol, resulted in a series of compounds with higher affinity at either 5-HT3A or 5-HT3AB receptors. These ligands reveal that a single atom is sufficient to change the selectivity profile of a compound. At the extremes of the new compounds were 2-amino-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinoxaline, which showed 11-fold selectivity for the 5-HT3A receptor, and 2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinoxaline, which showed an 8.3-fold selectivity for the 5-HT3AB receptor. These compounds represent novel molecular tools for studying 5-HT3 receptor subtypes and could help elucidate their physiological roles.

  12. Neuronal localization of the 5-HT2 receptor family in the amygdaloid complex.

    PubMed

    Bombardi, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    The amygdaloid complex (or amygdala), a heterogeneous structure located in the medial portion of the temporal lobe, is composed of deep, superficial, and "remaining" nuclei. This structure is involved in the generation of emotional behavior, in the formation of emotional memories and in the modulation of the consolidation of explicit memories for emotionally arousing events. The serotoninergic fibers originating in the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei are critically involved in amygdalar functions. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) regulates amygdalar activity through the activation of the 5-HT2 receptor family, which includes three receptor subtypes: 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C. The distribution and the functional activity of the 5-HT2 receptor family has been studied more extensively than that of the 5-HT2A receptor subtypes, especially in the deep nuclei. In these nuclei, the 5-HT2A receptor is expressed on both pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons, and could play a critical role in the formation of emotional memories. However, the exact role of the 5-HT2A receptor subtypes, as well as that of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptor subtypes, in the modulation of the amygdalar microcircuits requires additional study. The present review reports data concerning the distribution and the functional roles of the 5-HT2 receptor family in the amygdala.

  13. Evidence that the anorexia induced by lipopolysaccharide is mediated by the 5-HT2C receptor.

    PubMed

    von Meyenburg, Claudia; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hrupka, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    Rats consistently reduce their food intake following injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Because inhibition of serotonergic (5-HT) activity by 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT(1A) activation) attenuates LPS-induced anorexia, we conducted a series of studies to examine whether other 5-HT-receptors are involved in the mediation of peripheral LPS-induced anorexia. In all experiments, rats were injected with LPS (100 microg/kg body weight [BW] ip) at lights out (hour 0). Antagonists were administered peripherally at hour 4, shortly after the onset of anorexia, which presumably follows the enhanced cytokine production after LPS. Food intake was then recorded during the subsequent 2 h or longer. 5-HT receptor antagonists cyanopindolol and SB 224289 (5-HT(1B)), ketanserin (5-HT(2A)), RS-102221 (5-HT(2C)), and metoclopramide (5-HT(3)) failed to attenuate LPS-induced anorexia. In contrast, both ritanserin (5-HT(2A/C)-receptor antagonist) (0.5 mg/kg BW) and SB 242084 (5-HT(2C)) (0.3 mg/kg BW) attenuated LPS-induced anorexia at doses that did not alter food intake in non-LPS-treated rats (all P<.01). Our results suggest that at least part of the anorexia following peripheral LPS administration is mediated through an enhanced 5-HT-ergic activity and the 5-HT(2C) receptor.

  14. The role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in memory and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Stackman, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) are widely distributed in the central nervous system, especially in brain region essential for learning and cognition. In addition to endogenous 5-HT, several hallucinogens, antipsychotics, and antidepressants function by targeting 5-HT2ARs. Preclinical studies show that 5-HT2AR antagonists have antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, whereas agonist ligands possess cognition-enhancing and hallucinogenic properties. Abnormal 5-HT2AR activity is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders and conditions, including depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In addition to its traditional activity as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), recent studies have defined novel operations of 5-HT2ARs. Here we review progress in the (1) receptor anatomy and biology: distribution, signaling, polymerization and allosteric modulation; and (2) receptor functions: learning and memory, hallucination and spatial cognition, and mental disorders. Based on the recent progress in basic research on the 5-HT2AR, it appears that post-training 5-HT2AR activation enhances non-spatial memory consolidation, while pre-training 5-HT2AR activation facilitates fear extinction. Further, the potential influence that 5-HT2AR-elicited visual hallucinations may have on visual cue (i.e., landmark) guided spatial cognition is discussed. We conclude that the development of selective 5-HT2AR modulators to target distinct signaling pathways and neural circuits represents a new possibility for treating emotional, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26500553

  15. Transcriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A receptor: implications for mental illness.

    PubMed

    Albert, Paul R

    2012-09-05

    The serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor is an abundant post-synaptic 5-HT receptor (heteroreceptor) implicated in regulation of mood, emotion and stress responses and is the major somatodendritic autoreceptor that negatively regulates 5-HT neuronal activity. Based on animal models, an integrated model for opposing roles of pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in anxiety and depression phenotypes and response to antidepressants is proposed. Understanding differential transcriptional regulation of pre- versus post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors could provide better tools for their selective regulation. This review examines the transcription factors that regulate brain region-specific basal and stress-induced expression of the 5-HT(1A) receptor gene (Htr1a). A functional polymorphism, rs6295 in the Htr1a promoter region, blocks the function of specific repressors Hes1, Hes5 and Deaf1, resulting in increased 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor expression in animal models and humans. Its association with altered 5-HT(1A) expression, depression, anxiety and antidepressant response are related to genotype frequency in different populations, sample homogeneity, disease outcome measures and severity. Preliminary evidence from gene × environment studies suggests the potential for synergistic interaction of stress-mediated repression of 5-HT(1A) heteroreceptors, and rs6295-induced upregulation of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. Targeted therapeutics to inhibit 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor expression and induce 5-HT(1A) heteroreceptor expression may ameliorate treatment of anxiety and major depression.

  16. Immunohistological localization of 5-HT in the CNS and feeding system of the Stable Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    5-HT immunoreactive neurons were detected in the CNS of the stable fly. The finding of strong innervations of the cibarial pump muscles and the foregut by 5-HT IR neurons in the feeding-related systems suggests that 5-HT may play a crucial role in the control of the feeding behavior in both the larv...

  17. The interaction of escitalopram and R-citalopram at the human serotonin transporter investigated in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Jacob P.R.; Plenge, Per; Sachs, Benjamin D.; Pehrson, Alan L.; Cajina, Manuel; Du, Yunzhi; Roberts, Wendy; Rudder, Meghan L.; Dalvi, Prachiti; Robinson, Taylor J.; O’Neill, Sharon P.; Khoo, King S.; Morillo, Connie Sanchez; Zhang, Xiaodong; Caron, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Escitalopram is a superior antidepressant to racemic citalopram. It has been hypothesized that binding of R-citalopram to the serotonin transporter (SERT) antagonizes escitalopram binding to and inhibition of the SERT, curtailing the elevation of extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HTExt), and antidepressant efficacy. Further, it has been suggested that a putative allosteric binding site is important for binding of escitalopram to the primary, orthosteric, site, and for R-citalopram’s inhibition hereof. Objectives Primary: Investigate at the human (h)SERT, at clinical relevant doses, whether R-citalopram antagonizes escitalopram-induced 5-HTExt elevation. Secondary: Investigate whether abolishing the putative allosteric site affects escitalopram-induced 5-HTExt elevation and/or modulates the effect of R-citalopram. Methods Recombinant technology; in vivo microdialysis; receptor binding; pharmacokinetics; 5-HT sensitive behaviors (tail suspension, marble burying). Results We generated mice expressing either the wild-type human SERT (hSERTWT) or hSERT carrying amino acid substitutions (A505V, L506F, I507L, S574T and I575T) collectively abolishing the putative allosteric site (hSERTALI/VFL+SI/TT). One mg/kg escitalopram yielded clinical relevant plasma levels and brain levels consistent with therapeutic SERT occupancy. Importantly, escitalopram-induced 5-HTExt elevation was not decreased by R-citalopram co-treatment. Further, escitalopram-induced 5-HTExt elevation was not affected by loss of the allosteric site. The behavioral effects of the clinically relevant escitalopram dose were small, tending to be enhanced by R-citalopram co-administration. Conclusions We find no evidence that R-citalopram directly antagonizes escitalopram or that the putative allosteric site is important for hSERT inhibition by escitalopram. Our findings points to mechanisms for R-citalopram antagonism of escitalopram’s antidepressant action other than direct antagonistic

  18. Antidepressant-Like Activity of YL-0919: A Novel Combined Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor and 5-HT1A Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-ming; Xue, Rui; Xu, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Zhi-kun; Wang, Xian-wang; Zhang, You-zhi; Yang, Ri-fang; Li, Yun-feng

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that drugs combining activities of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor agonist may form a novel strategy for higher therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant. The present study aimed to examine the pharmacology of YL-0919, a novel synthetic compound with combined high affinity and selectivity for serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptors. We performed in vitro binding and function assays and in vivo behavioral tests to assess the pharmacological properties and antidepressant-like efficacy of YL-0919. YL-0919 displayed high affinity in vitro to both 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT transporter prepared from rat cortical tissue. It exerted an inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation and potently inhibited 5-HT uptake in both rat cortical synaptosomes and recombinant cells. After acute p.o. administration, very low doses of YL-0919 reduced the immobility time in tail suspension test and forced swimming test in mice and rats, with no significant effect on locomotor activity in open field test. Furthermore, WAY-100635 (a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg) significantly blocked the effect of YL-0919 in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. In addition, chronic YL-0919 treatment significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors in chronically stressed rats. These findings suggest that YL-0919, a novel structure compound, exerts dual effect on the serotonergic system, as both 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT uptake blocker, showing remarkable antidepressant effects in animal models. Therefore, YL-0919 may be used as a new option for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:24367588

  19. Antidepressant-like activity of YL-0919: a novel combined selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-xia; Jin, Zeng-liang; Zhang, Li-ming; Xue, Rui; Xu, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Zhi-kun; Wang, Xian-wang; Zhang, You-zhi; Yang, Ri-fang; Li, Yun-feng

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that drugs combining activities of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor agonist may form a novel strategy for higher therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant. The present study aimed to examine the pharmacology of YL-0919, a novel synthetic compound with combined high affinity and selectivity for serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptors. We performed in vitro binding and function assays and in vivo behavioral tests to assess the pharmacological properties and antidepressant-like efficacy of YL-0919. YL-0919 displayed high affinity in vitro to both 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT transporter prepared from rat cortical tissue. It exerted an inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation and potently inhibited 5-HT uptake in both rat cortical synaptosomes and recombinant cells. After acute p.o. administration, very low doses of YL-0919 reduced the immobility time in tail suspension test and forced swimming test in mice and rats, with no significant effect on locomotor activity in open field test. Furthermore, WAY-100635 (a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg) significantly blocked the effect of YL-0919 in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. In addition, chronic YL-0919 treatment significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors in chronically stressed rats. These findings suggest that YL-0919, a novel structure compound, exerts dual effect on the serotonergic system, as both 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT uptake blocker, showing remarkable antidepressant effects in animal models. Therefore, YL-0919 may be used as a new option for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  20. Brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity is potentiated by activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A/5-HT7 receptors in the rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Madden, C. J.; Morrison, S. F.

    2008-01-01

    In urethane-chloralose anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, ventilated rats, microinjection of NMDA (12 pmol) into the right fourth thoracic segment (T4) spinal intermediolateral nucleus (IML) immediately increased ipsilateral brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathetic nerve activity (SNA; peak +492% of control), expired CO2 (+0.1%) heart rate (+48 beats min−1) and arterial pressure (+8 mmHg). The increase in BAT SNA evoked by T4 IML microinjection of NMDA was potentiated when it was administered immediately following a T4 IML microinjection of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 100 pmol) or the 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (600 pmol), (area under the curve: 184%, and 259% of the NMDA-only response, respectively). In contrast, T4 IML microinjection of the 5-HT2 receptor agonist, DOI (28 pmol) did not potentiate the NMDA-evoked increase in BAT SNA (101% of NMDA-only response). Microinjection into the T4 IML of the selective 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY-100635 (500 pmol), plus the 5-HT7 antagonist, SB-269970 (500 pmol), prevented the 5-HT-induced potentiation of the NMDA-evoked increase in BAT SNA. When administered separately, WAY-100635 (800 pmol) and SB-269970 (800 pmol) attenuated the 8-OH-DPAT-induced potentiation of the NMDA-evoked increase in BAT SNA through effects on the amplitude and duration of the response, respectively. The selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin (100 pmol), did not attenuate the potentiations of the NMDA-evoked increase in BAT SNA induced by either 5-HT or 8-OH-DPAT. These results demonstrate that activation of 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptors can act synergistically with NMDA receptor activation within the IML to markedly increase BAT SNA. PMID:18082230

  1. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists.

  2. Role of 5-HT5A and 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the antinociception produced by ergotamine and valerenic acid in the rat formalin test.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Cantú, Guadalupe C; Jiménez-Hernández, Mildred; Rocha-González, Héctor I; Villalón, Carlos M; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta

    2016-06-15

    Sumatriptan, dihydroergotamine and methysergide inhibit 1% formalin-induced nociception by activation of peripheral 5-HT1B/1D receptors. This study set out to investigate the pharmacological profile of the antinociception produced by intrathecal and intraplantar administration of ergotamine (a 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT5A/5B receptor agonist) and valerenic acid (a partial agonist at 5-HT5A receptors). Intraplantar injection of 1% formalin in the right hind paw resulted in spontaneous flinching behavior of the injected hindpaw of female Wistar rats. Intrathecal ergotamine (15nmol) or valerenic acid (1 nmol) blocked in a dose dependent manner formalin-induced nociception. The antinociception by intrathecal ergotamine (15nmol) or valerenic acid (1nmol) was partly or completely blocked by intrathecal administration of the antagonists: (i) methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT5A/5B; 0.01-0.1nmol); (ii) SB-699551 (selective 5-HT5A; up to 10nmol); (iii) anti-5-HT5A antibody; (iv) SB-224289 (selective 5-HT1B; 0.1-1nmol); or (v) BRL-15572 (selective 5-HT1D; 0.1-1nmol). Likewise, antinociception by intraplantar ergotamine (15nmol) and valerenic acid (10nmol) was: (i) partially blocked by methiothepin (1nmol), SB-699551 (10nmol) or SB-224289 (1nmol); and (ii) abolished by BRL-15572 (1nmol). The above doses of antagonists (which did not affect per se the formalin-induced nociception) were high enough to completely block their respective receptors. Our results suggest that ergotamine and valerenic acid produce antinociception via 5-HT5A and 5-HT1B/1D receptors located at both spinal and peripheral sites. This provides new evidence for understanding the modulation of nociceptive pathways in inflammatory pain.

  3. Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug, inhibits 5-HT3 receptor currents in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Jung; Jeun, Seung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug widely used to treat epileptic seizures. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in combination with a fast drug application approach, we investigated the effects of lamotrigine on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3 receptors in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Co-application of lamotrigine (1~300 µM) resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in peak amplitude of currents induced by 3 µM of 5-HT for an IC50 value of 28.2±3.6 µM with a Hill coefficient of 1.2±0.1. These peak amplitude decreases were accompanied by the rise slope reduction. In addition, 5-HT3-mediated currents evoked by 1 mM dopamine, a partial 5-HT3 receptor agonist, were inhibited by lamotrigine co-application. The EC50 of 5-HT for 5-HT3 receptor currents were shifted to the right by co-application of lamotrigine without a significant change of maximal effect. Currents activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application in the presence of 1 min pretreatment of lamotrigine were similar to those activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application alone. Moreover, subsequent application of lamotrigine in the presence of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole, known to attenuate 5-HT3 receptor desensitization, inhibited 5-HT3 receptor currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The deactivation of 5-HT3 receptor was delayed by washing with an external solution containing lamotrigine. Lamotrigine accelerated the desensitization process of 5-HT3 receptors. There was no voltage-dependency in the inhibitory effects of lamotrigine on the 5-HT3 receptor currents. These results indicate that lamotrigine inhibits 5-HT3-activated currents in a competitive manner by binding to the open state of the channels and blocking channel activation or accelerating receptor desensitization. PMID:28280410

  4. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-02

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response.

  5. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine induces spontaneous tail-flicks in the rat via 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Millan, M J; Colpaert, F C

    1991-02-07

    In rats lightly restrained in horizontal cylinders, (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) dose dependently (0.16-10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited spontaneous tail-flicks; that is, tail-flicks in the absence of extraneous stimulation. In contrast, amphetamine over a similar dose-range was inactive. Selective inhibitors of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake and carrier-mediated 5-HT release, paroxetine and citalopram, did not induce spontaneous tail-flicks themselves and blocked those induced by MDMA. In distinction, maprotiline and bupropion, selective inhibitors of noradrenaline and dopamine uptake, respectively, failed to modify the action of MDMA. Spontaneous tail-flicks elicited by MDMA were unaffected by the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ICS 205,930 and GR 38032F. They were attenuated by the mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methiotepin, the mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT1B receptor antagonist, (-)-alprenolol and the mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, spiperone, but not by the selective 5-HT1C/5-HT2 receptor antagonists, ritanserin, ICI 169,369 and ketanserin. The novel 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, BMY 7378 and NAN-190, each abolished MDMA-evoked spontaneous tail-flicks. Selective D1, D2, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2 antagonists had little influence upon induction of spontaneous tail-flicks by MDMA. These data indicate that MDMA evokes spontaneous tail-flicks in the rat via a release of 5-HT which acts at 5-HT1A receptors. Thus, 5-HT1A receptors appear to be involved in the acute functional actions of MDMA.

  6. Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug, inhibits 5-HT3 receptor currents in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Jung; Jeun, Seung Hyun; Sung, Ki-Wug

    2017-03-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug widely used to treat epileptic seizures. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in combination with a fast drug application approach, we investigated the effects of lamotrigine on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3 receptors in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Co-application of lamotrigine (1~300 µM) resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in peak amplitude of currents induced by 3 µM of 5-HT for an IC50 value of 28.2±3.6 µM with a Hill coefficient of 1.2±0.1. These peak amplitude decreases were accompanied by the rise slope reduction. In addition, 5-HT3-mediated currents evoked by 1 mM dopamine, a partial 5-HT3 receptor agonist, were inhibited by lamotrigine co-application. The EC50 of 5-HT for 5-HT3 receptor currents were shifted to the right by co-application of lamotrigine without a significant change of maximal effect. Currents activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application in the presence of 1 min pretreatment of lamotrigine were similar to those activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application alone. Moreover, subsequent application of lamotrigine in the presence of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole, known to attenuate 5-HT3 receptor desensitization, inhibited 5-HT3 receptor currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The deactivation of 5-HT3 receptor was delayed by washing with an external solution containing lamotrigine. Lamotrigine accelerated the desensitization process of 5-HT3 receptors. There was no voltage-dependency in the inhibitory effects of lamotrigine on the 5-HT3 receptor currents. These results indicate that lamotrigine inhibits 5-HT3-activated currents in a competitive manner by binding to the open state of the channels and blocking channel activation or accelerating receptor desensitization.

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of proteins interacting with the C-terminal domains of 5-HT2 receptors: emergence of 5-HT2 "receptosomes".

    PubMed

    Gavarini, Sophie; Bécamel, Carine; Chanrion, Benjamin; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe

    2004-06-01

    Many cellular functions are carried out by multiprotein complexes. The last five years of research have revealed that many G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) functions that are not mediated by G proteins involve protein networks, which interact with their intracellular domains. This review focuses on one family of GPCRs activated by serotonin, the 5-HT(2) receptor family, which comprises three closely related subtypes, the 5-HT(2A), the 5-HT(2B) and the 5-HT(2c) receptors. These receptors still raise particular interest, because a large number of psychoactive drugs including hallucinogens, anti-psychotics, anxiolytics and anti-depressants, mediate their action, at least in part, through activation of 5-HT(2) receptors. Recent studies based on two-hybrid screens, proteomic, biochemical and cell biology approaches, have shown that the C-terminal domains of 5-HT(2) receptors interact with intracellular proteins. To date, the protein network associated with the C-terminus of the 5-HT(2C) receptor has been the most extensively characterized, using a proteomic approach combining affinity chromatography, mass spectrometry and immunoblotting. It includes scaffolding proteins containing one or several PDZ domains, signalling proteins and proteins of the cytoskeleton. Data indicating that the protein complexes interacting with 5-HT(2) receptor C-termini tightly control receptor trafficking and receptor-mediated signalling will also be reviewed.

  8. Fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and 5-HT2C receptor inactivation induce appetite-suppressing effects in mice via 5-HT1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Nozue, Kana; Takahashi, Yukiko; Yamashita, Nobuyuki; Hiraoka, Shuichi; Kumano, Hiroaki; Kuboki, Tomifusa; Oka, Yohsitomo

    2007-10-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2C receptors and the downstream melanocortin pathway are suggested to mediate the appetite-suppressing effects of 5-HT drugs such as m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and fenfluramine. Here, we report that fluvoxamine (3-30 mg/kg), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), in the presence of SB 242084 (1-2 mg/kg), a selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, exerts appetite-suppressing effects while fluvoxamine or SB 242084 alone has no effect. The appetite-suppressing effects were attenuated in the presence of SB 224289 (5 mg/kg), a selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist. Moreover, CP 94253 (5-10 mg/kg), a selective 5-HT1B receptor agonist, exerted appetite-suppressing effects and significantly increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression and decreased hypothalamic orexin gene expression. These results suggest that fluvoxamine and inactivation of 5-HT2C receptors exert feeding suppression through activation of 5-HT1B receptors, and that 5-HT1B receptors up-regulate hypothalamic POMC and CART gene expression and down-regulate hypothalamic orexin gene expression in mice.

  9. Downregulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor expression and enhanced 5-HT3 receptor antagonist-mediated improvement in fatigue-like behaviour in cholestatic rats.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H; Wang, H; le, T; Ho, W; Sharkey, K A; Swain, M G

    2008-03-01

    The serotonin neurotransmitter system, including the 5-HT(3) receptor, has been implicated in the genesis of fatigue in patients with liver disease. Therefore, we examined the possible role of 5-HT(3) receptors in cholestasis-associated fatigue. Rats were either bile duct resected (BDR) or sham resected and studied 10 days postsurgery. A significant decrease in hypothalamic 5-HT(3) receptor expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in BDR vs sham rats, coupled with increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover identified by an elevated 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) to 5-HT ratio in BDR vs sham rats. To examine fatigue-like behaviour, an activity meter was used. BDR rats exhibited significantly lower locomotor activity than did sham animals. Subcutaneous injection of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist tropisetron (0.1 mg kg(-1)) resulted in significantly increased locomotor activity in BDR rats compared to the activity in saline-treated controls, but was without effect in sham rats. However, a 10-fold higher dose of tropisetron significantly increased locomotor activity in both BDR and sham rats compared to saline-injected controls. These findings indicate that cholestasis in the rat is associated with increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover, decreased hypothalamic 5-HT(3) receptor expression, and enhanced sensitivity to locomotor activation induced by 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism, thereby implicating the 5-HT(3) receptor system in cholestasis associated fatigue.

  10. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori . E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.

  11. The 5-HT deficiency theory of depression: perspectives from a naturalistic 5-HT deficiency model, the tryptophan hydroxylase 2Arg439His knockin mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Jacob P. R.; Medvedev, Ivan O.; Caron, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    A decreased level of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been theorized to be a core pathogenic factor in depression for half a century. The theory arose from clinical observations that drugs enhancing extracellular levels of 5-HT (5-HTExt) have antidepressant effects in many patients. However, whether such drugs indeed correct a primary deficit remains unresolved. Still, a number of anomalies in putative biomarkers of central 5-HT function have been repeatedly reported in depression patients over the past 40 years, collectively indicating that 5-HT deficiency could be present in depression, particularly in severely ill and/or suicidal patients. This body of literature on putative 5-HT biomarker anomalies and depression has recently been corroborated by data demonstrating that such anomalies indeed occur consequent to severely reduced 5-HTExt levels in a mouse model of naturalistic 5-HT deficiency, the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 His439 knockin (Tph2KI) mouse. In this review, we will critically assess the evidence for 5-HT deficiency in depression and the possible role of polymorphisms in the Tph2 gene as a causal factor in 5-HT deficiency, the latter investigated from a clinical as well as preclinical angle. PMID:22826344

  12. Do imipramine and dihydroergosine possess two components - one stimulating 5-HT sub 1 and the other inhibiting 5-HT sub 2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pericic, D.; Mueck-Seler, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms by which imipramine and dihydroergosine stimulate the 5-HT syndrome in rats and inhibit the head-twitch response in rats and mice were studied. Imipramine- and dihydroergosine-included stimulation of the 5-HT syndrome was inhibited stereoselectively by propranolol, a high affinity ligand for 5-HT{sub 1} receptor sites, but not by ritanserin, a specific 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist. (-) -Propranolol potentiated the inhibitory effect of imipramine, but not of dihydroergosine on the head-twitch response, while ritanserin was without effect. As expected, 8-OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist, stimulated, and 5-HT{sub 1B} agonists CGS 12066B and 1-(trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP) failed to stimulate the 5-HT syndrome induced in rats by pargyline and 5-HTP administration. A higher dose of ritanserin inhibited the syndrome. While 8-OH-DPAT alone produced all behavioral components of the 5-HT syndrome, dihydroergosine or imipramine alone even at very high doses never produced tremor or a more intensive forepaw padding as seen when these drugs were given in combination with pargyline and 5-HTP. A single administration of (-)-propranolol also inhibited the head-twitch response. This effect lasted in mice longer that after ritanserin administration. In in vitro experiments dihydroergosine expressed approximately twenty-fold higher affinity for {sup 3}H-ketanserin binding sites than imipramine.

  13. [CROSS-TALK BETWEEN 5-HT1A AND 5-HT7 RECEPTORS: ROLE IN THE AUTOREGULATION OF THE BRAIN SEROTONIN SYSTEM AND IN MECHANISM OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS ACTION].

    PubMed

    Popova, N K; Ponimaskin, E G; Naumenko, V S

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies considerably extended our knowledge of the mechanisms and physiological role of the interaction between different receptors in the brain. Current review summarizes data on the formation of receptor complexes and the role of such complexes in the autoregulation of the brain serotonin system, behavioral abnormalities and mechanism of antidepressants action. Particular attention is paid to 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor heterodimers. The results described in the present review indicate that: i) dimerization and formation of mobile receptor complexes is a common feature for the members of G-protein coupled receptor superfamily; ii) 5-HT7 receptor appears to be a modulator for 5-HT1A receptor - the key autoregulator of the brain serotonin system; iii) 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor complexes formation is one of the mechanisms for inactivation and desensitization of the 5-HTIA receptors in the brain; iv) differences in the 5-HT7 receptor and 5-HTIA/5-HT7 heterodimers density define different sensitivity of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTlA receptors to chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  14. In Vivo Effect of a 5-HT7 Receptor Agonist on 5-HT Neurons and GABA Interneurons in the Dorsal Raphe Nuclei of Sham and PD Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Jie; Guo, Yufang; Wang, Xiang; Huo, Jian; Wei, Ping; Cao, Jian

    2017-03-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) neurotransmission is severely affected by the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report the effects of the systemic administration of the 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS-19. In sham rats, the mean response of the 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to systemic AS-19 was excitatory and the mean response of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons was inhibitory. In Parkinson disease (PD) rats, the same dose did not affect the 5-HT neurons and only high doses (640 μg/kg intravenous) were able to the increase GABA interneuron activity. These results indicate that DRN 5-HT neurons and GABA interneurons are regulated by the activation of 5-HT7 receptors and that the degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway leads to decreased responses of these neurons to AS-19, which in turn suggests that the 5-HT7 receptors on 5-HT neurons and GABA interneurons in PD rats are dysfunctional and downregulated.

  15. What Do We Really Know About 5-HT1A Receptor Signaling in Neuronal Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Paulina S.; Fiedler, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of 5-HT receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR), specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons. The 5-HT1AR differs from other 5-HT receptors because it is coupled to different pathways, depending on the targeted cell. The signaling pathway associated with this receptor is determined by Gα isoforms and some cascades involve βγ signaling. The activity of 5-HT1AR usually promotes a reduction in neuronal excitability and firing, provokes a variation in cAMP and Ca2+, levels which may be linked to specific types of behavior and cognition. Furthermore, evidence indicates that 5-HT1AR induces neuritogesis and synapse formation, probably by modulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton through MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways. Advances in understanding the actions of 5-HT1AR and its association with different signaling pathways in the central nervous system will reveal their pivotal role in health and disease. PMID:27932955

  16. Building a 5-HT3A Receptor Expression Map in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Yoshihisa; Kondo, Makoto; Shimada, Shoichi

    2017-01-01

    Of the many serotonin receptors, the type 3 receptors (5-HT3R) are the only ionotropic ones, playing a key role in fast synaptic transmission and cognitive and emotional brain function through controlled neuronal excitation. To better understand the various functions of 5-HT3Rs, it is very important to know their expression pattern in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, many distributional studies have shown localized 5-HT3R expression in the brain and spinal cord. However, an accurate pattern of 5-HT3R expression in the CNS remains to be elucidated. To investigate the distribution of 5-HT3R in the mouse brain in detail, we performed immunofluorescent staining using 5-HT3AR-GFP transgenic mice. We found strong 5-HT3AR expression in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala; and partial expression in the pons, medulla, and spinal cord. Meanwhile, the thalamus, hypothalamus, and midbrain exhibited a few 5-HT3AR-expressing cells, and no expression was detected in the cerebellum. Further, double-immunostaining using neural markers confirmed that 5-HT3AR is expressed in GABAergic interneurons containing somatostatin or calretinin. In the present study, we built a 5-HT3AR expression map in the mouse brain. Our findings make significant contributions in elucidating the novel functions of 5-HT3R in the CNS. PMID:28276429

  17. Cellular mechanisms of the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guseva, Daria; Wirth, Alexander; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the most recently described members of the 5-HT receptor family. Functionally, 5-HT7 receptor is associated with a number of physiological and pathological responses, including serotonin-induced phase shifting of the circadian rhythm, control of memory as well as locomotor and exploratory activity. A large body of evidence indicates involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor in anxiety and depression, and recent studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptor can be highly relevant for the treatment of major depressive disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to the stimulatory Gs-protein, and receptor stimulation results in activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) leading to a rise of cAMP concentration. In addition, this receptor is coupled to the G12-protein to activate small GTPases of the Rho family. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms responsible for the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling. We provide detailed overview of signaling cascades controlled and regulated by the 5-HT7 receptor and discuss the functional impact of 5-HT7 receptor for the regulation of different cellular and subcellular processes. PMID:25324743

  18. Cellular mechanisms of the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Guseva, Daria; Wirth, Alexander; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the most recently described members of the 5-HT receptor family. Functionally, 5-HT7 receptor is associated with a number of physiological and pathological responses, including serotonin-induced phase shifting of the circadian rhythm, control of memory as well as locomotor and exploratory activity. A large body of evidence indicates involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor in anxiety and depression, and recent studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptor can be highly relevant for the treatment of major depressive disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to the stimulatory Gs-protein, and receptor stimulation results in activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) leading to a rise of cAMP concentration. In addition, this receptor is coupled to the G12-protein to activate small GTPases of the Rho family. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms responsible for the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling. We provide detailed overview of signaling cascades controlled and regulated by the 5-HT7 receptor and discuss the functional impact of 5-HT7 receptor for the regulation of different cellular and subcellular processes.

  19. Identification and expression analyses of a novel serotonin receptor gene, 5-HT2β, in the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Aonuma, H

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) modulates various aspects of behaviors such as aggressive behavior and circadian behavior in the cricket. In our previous report, in order to elucidate the molecular basis of the cricket 5-HT system, we identified three genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis, as well as four 5-HT receptor genes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2α, and 5-HT7) expressed in the brain of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer [7]. In the present study, we identified Gryllus 5-HT2β gene, an additional 5-HT receptor gene expressed in the cricket brain, and examined its tissue-specific distribution and embryonic stage-dependent expression. Gryllus 5-HT2β gene was ubiquitously expressed in the all examined adult tissues, and was expressed during early embryonic development, as well as during later stages. This study suggests functional differences between two 5-HT2 receptors in the cricket.

  20. Functions of 5-HT2A receptor and its antagonists in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Takafumi; Rashid, Mamunur; Abul Muntasir, Habib; Komiyama, Tadazumi

    2004-10-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have conventionally been divided into seven subfamilies, most of which have several subtypes. Among them, 5-HT(2A) receptor is associated with the contraction of vascular smooth muscle, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation and coronary artery spasms. Accordingly, selective 5-HT(2A) antagonists may have potential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist, has been introduced clinically as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic diseases associated with thrombosis. Molecular modeling studies also suggest that sarpogrelate is a 5-HT(2A) selective antagonist and is likely to have pharmacological effects beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review describes the above findings as well as the signaling linkages of the 5-HT(2A) receptors and the mode of agonist binding to 5-HT(2A) receptor using data derived from molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis.

  1. Cloning, expression and pharmacology of a truncated splice variant of the human 5-HT7 receptor (h5-HT7(b))

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, J R; Kosaka, A; To, Z P; Chang, D J; Eglen, R M

    1997-01-01

    The rat 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptor displays two splice variations, a long form, and a truncated splice isoform, arising from the introduction of a stop codon near the carboxy-terminus. The human 5-HT7 receptor gene contains at least two introns and encodes a 445 amino acid 5-HT receptor. A truncated splice variation in the human 5-HT7 receptor was isolated from a human placental cDNA library. In accordance with current NC-IUPHAR nomenclature guidelines, it is suggested that this receptor be denoted as the h5-HT7(b) receptor and the long form of the receptor as h5-HT7(a). The h5-HT7(b) receptor was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and ligand affinities were determined by displacement of [3H]-5-carboxyamidotryptamine (5-CT; Kd=0.28±0.06 nM, Bmax=7.3±1.7 pmol mg−1 protein). The rank order of affinities (pKi) for a series of ligands was: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 9.65)>5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 9.41)>methiothepin (8.87)>mesulergine (7.87)>8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 6.85)>ketanserin (6.44). The h5-HT7(b) receptor coupled positively to adenylyl cyclase in HEK 293 cells. This response was elicited by a number of agonists with the following order of potency (pEC50): 5-CT (8.7±0.11)>5-MeOT (5-methoxytryptamine; 8.1±0.20)>5-HT (7.5±0.13)>tryptamine (5.6±0.36)>8-OH-DPAT (5.3±0.28)>5-methoxytryptamine (5.0±0.06). This rank order was comparable to that observed in the radioligand binding studies. In a similar fashion to that described for the 5-HT7(a) receptor, PCR studies suggested that the 5-HT7(b) receptor mRNA is found in great abundance throughout the brain, in the small intestine and aorta. It is concluded that the h5-HT7 receptor, like the rat receptor, exists as splice variants exhibiting similar pharmacology, signal transduction and distribution. It is thus likely that there exists a complex physiological role for alternate splicing products of the 5-HT7 receptor gene. PMID:9298538

  2. 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 serotonergic receptors recruitment in tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception: role of dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Ferreira, Célio Marcos dos Reis; Urbina, Maria Angélica Castiblanco; Mariño, Andrés Uribe; Carvalho, Andressa Daiane; Butera, Giuseppe; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacological studies have been focused on the involvement of different neural pathways in the organization of antinociception that follows tonic-clonic seizures, including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-, norepinephrine-, acetylcholine- and endogenous opioid peptide-mediated mechanisms, giving rise to more in-depth comprehension of this interesting post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. The present work investigated the involvement of 5-HT(1A/1B), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7) serotonergic receptors through peripheral pretreatment with methiothepin at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg in the organization of the post-ictal antinociception elicited by pharmacologically (with pentylenetetrazole at 64 mg/kg)-induced tonic-clonic seizures. Methiothepin at 1.0 mg/kg blocked the post-ictal antinociception recorded after the end of seizures, whereas doses of 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg potentiated the post-ictal antinociception. The nociceptive thresholds were kept higher than those of the control group. However, when the same 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors antagonist was microinjected (at 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 microg/0.2 microL) in the dorsal raphe nucleus, a mesencephalic structure rich in serotonergic neurons and 5-HT receptors, the post-ictal hypo-analgesia was consistently antagonized. The present findings suggest a dual effect of methiothepin, characterized by a disinhibitory effect on the post-ictal antinociception when peripherally administered (possibly due to an antagonism of pre-synaptic 5-HT(1A) serotonergic autoreceptors in the pain endogenous inhibitory system) and an inhibitory effect (possibly due to a DRN post-synaptic 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7) serotonergic receptors blockade) when centrally administered. The present data also suggest that serotonin-mediated mechanisms of the dorsal raphe nucleus exert a key-role in the modulation of the post-ictal antinociception.

  3. Dual role of serotonin in the acquisition and extinction of reward-driven learning: involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Hocht, Christian; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano; Rapanelli, Maximiliano

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been proposed as a possible encoder of reward. Nevertheless, the role of this neurotransmitter in reward-based tasks is not well understood. Given that the major serotonergic circuit in the rat brain comprises the dorsal raphe nuclei and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and because the latter structure is involved in the control of complex behaviors and expresses 1A (5-HT1A), 2A (5-HT2A), and 3 (5-HT3) receptors, the aim was to study the role of 5-HT and of these receptors in the acquisition and extinction of a reward-dependent operant conditioning task. Long Evans rats were trained in an operant conditioning task while receiving fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg), tianeptine (serotonin reuptake enhancer, 10mg/kg), buspirone (5-HT1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg), risperidone (5-HT2A antagonist, 1mg/kg), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 2mg/kg) or vehicle. Then, animals that acquired the operant conditioning without any treatment were trained to extinct the task in the presence of the pharmacological agents. Fluoxetine impaired acquisition but improved extinction. Tianeptine administration induced the opposite effects. Buspirone induced a mild deficit in acquisition and had no effects during the extinction phase. Risperidone administration resulted in learning deficits during the acquisition phase, although it promoted improved extinction. Ondansetron treatment showed a deleterious effect in the acquisition phase and an overall improvement in the extinction phase. These data showed a differential role of 5-HT in the acquisition and extinction of an operant conditioning task, suggesting that it may have a dual function in reward encoding.

  4. Nicotine alters limbic function in adolescent rat by a 5-HT1A receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dao, Jasmin M; McQuown, Susan C; Loughlin, Sandra E; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that adolescent smoking is associated with health risk behaviors, including high-risk sexual activity and illicit drug use. Using rat as an animal model, we evaluated the behavioral and biochemical effects of a 4-day, low-dose nicotine pretreatment (60 μg/kg; intravenous) during adolescence and adulthood. Nicotine pretreatment significantly increased initial acquisition of cocaine self-administration, quinpirole-induced locomotor activity, and penile erection in adolescent rats, aged postnatal day (P)32. These effects were long lasting, remaining evident 10 days after the last nicotine treatment, and were observed when nicotine pretreatment was administered during early adolescence (P28-31), but not late adolescence (P38-41) or adulthood (P86-89). Neurochemical analyses of c-fos mRNA expression, and of monoamine transmitter and transporter levels, showed that forebrain limbic systems are continuing to develop during early adolescence, and that this maturation is critically altered by brief nicotine exposure. Nicotine selectively increased c-fos mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and basolateral amygdala in adolescent, but not adult animals, and altered serotonin markers in these regions as well as the prefrontal cortex. Nicotine enhancement of cocaine self-administration and quinpirole-induced locomotor activity was blocked by co-administration of WAY 100 635 (N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl] ethyl}-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide), a selective serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor antagonist. Early adolescent pretreatment with the mixed autoreceptor/heteroceptor 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, but not the autoreceptor-selective agonist, S-15535, also enhanced quinpirole-induced locomotor activation. Nicotine enhancement of quinpirole-induced penile erection was not blocked by WAY 100 635 nor mimicked by 8-OH-DPAT. These findings indicate that early adolescent nicotine exposure uniquely alters limbic

  5. Effect of the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor antagonist MM-77 on stressed mice treated with 5-HT1A receptor agents.

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Briones-Aranda; Ofir, Picazo

    2005-01-31

    The pharmacological effect of the 5-HT1A receptor ligands, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), indorenate, and buspirone, alone or in combination with the antagonist MM-77, was studied in mice subjected to forced swimming. It was confirmed that this stressful factor produces an anxiolytic-like effect, which is reversed by the mentioned 5-HT1A receptor agonists. Only the 8-OH-DPAT-induced decrease of such an effect could be blocked by the postsynaptic antagonist of the 5-HT1A receptor 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[(4-succinimido)butyl]-piperazine (MM-77). Stressing by forced swimming seems to induce plastic changes in 5-HT1A receptors, which in turn modify the behavioural actions of 5-HT1A receptor agents.

  6. Brain and platelet serotonin transporter in humans-correlation between [123I]-ADAM SPECT and serotonergic measurements in platelets.

    PubMed

    Uebelhack, Ralf; Franke, Leonora; Herold, Nathalie; Plotkin, Michael; Amthauer, Holger; Felix, Roland

    2006-10-09

    Blood platelets are thought to be a useful peripheral model for investigating the central serotoninergic mechanisms associated with the serotonin transporter (SERT). On the other hand, an in vivo investigation of SERT in the human brain has been made possible by the development of several promising SPECT radioligands, such as [123I]-ADAM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation between the SERT measurements in the brain and those in platelets. Forty-four subjects (14 healthy subjects and 30 patients with the diagnosis of major depression or schizoaffective disorder) were examined. The [123I]-ADAM binding was assessed 4h after injection using MR-guided regions of interest (ROIs) in the midbrain and cerebellum. In a parallel investigation, serotonin (5HT) concentration and kinetic characteristics of 5HT uptake activity (Vmax and Km) were determined in platelet-rich plasma. Overall, there was no significant correlation between the V(max) of 5HT uptake in platelets and the specific to nonspecific partition coefficient of [123I]-ADAM (V''3) in the midbrain. However, low but significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found for V(max) and normalised activities measured in the midbrain (r=0.310, p=0.043). The correlation was stronger and significant in females (n=20, r=0.629, p=0.003) but low and non-significant in the 24 males (r=0.104). Although confirmation is necessary, it seems that the relationship between different indices of [123I]-ADAM binding in the brain and 5HT uptake characteristics in platelets is complex, nonuniform, and possibly gender-specific.

  7. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (Ki = 24–227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [3H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested against Ser438Thr hSERT, all three PALs showed dramatic rightward shifts in inhibitory potency, with Ki values ranging from 3.8 to 9.9 μM, consistent with the role of Ser438 as a key residue for high-affinity binding of many SSRIs, including (S)-citalopram. Photoactivation studies demonstrated irreversible adduction to hSERT by all ligands, but the reduced (S)-citalopram inhibition of labeling by [125I]15 compared to that by [125I]22 and [125I]26 suggests differences in binding mode(s). These radioligands will be useful for characterizing the drug–protein binding interactions for (S)-citalopram at hSERT. PMID:26153715

  8. Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Lapinsky, David J; Perley, Danielle; Felts, Bruce; Tomlinson, Michael J; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Henry, L Keith; Lever, John R; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-07-23

    Three photoaffinity ligands (PALs) for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) were synthesized based on the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (S)-citalopram (1). The classic 4-azido-3-iodo-phenyl group was appended to either the C-1 or C-5 position of the parent molecule, with variable-length linkers, to generate ligands 15, 22, and 26. These ligands retained high to moderate affinity binding (K(i) = 24-227 nM) for hSERT, as assessed by [(3)H]5-HT transport inhibition. When tested against Ser438Thr hSERT, all three PALs showed dramatic rightward shifts in inhibitory potency, with Ki values ranging from 3.8 to 9.9 μM, consistent with the role of Ser438 as a key residue for high-affinity binding of many SSRIs, including (S)-citalopram. Photoactivation studies demonstrated irreversible adduction to hSERT by all ligands, but the reduced (S)-citalopram inhibition of labeling by [(125)I]15 compared to that by [(125)I]22 and [(125)I]26 suggests differences in binding mode(s). These radioligands will be useful for characterizing the drug-protein binding interactions for (S)-citalopram at hSERT.

  9. 5-HT1D receptor inhibits renal sympathetic neurotransmission by nitric oxide pathway in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    García-Pedraza, José-Ángel; García, Mónica; Martín, María-Luisa; Morán, Asunción

    2015-09-01

    Although serotonin has been shown to inhibit peripheral sympathetic outflow, serotonin regulation on renal sympathetic outflow has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated which 5-HT receptor subtypes are involved. Wistar rats were anesthetized (sodium pentobarbital; 60mg/kg, i.p.), and prepared for in situ autoperfused rat kidney, which allows continuous measurement of systemic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and renal perfusion pressure (PP). Electrical stimulation of renal sympathetic nerves resulted in frequency-dependent increases in PP (18.3±1.0, 43.7±2.7 and 66.7±4.0 for 2, 4 and 6Hz, respectively), without altering SBP or HR. 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-HT1/7 agonist) (0.00000125-0.1μg/kg each) or l-694,247 (5-HT1D agonist; 0.0125μg/kg) i.a. bolus inhibited vasopressor responses by renal nerve electrical stimulation, unlike i.a. bolus of agonists α-methyl-5-HT (5-HT2), 1-PBG (5-HT3), cisapride (5-HT4), AS-19 (5-HT7), CGS-12066B (5-HT1B) or 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A) (0.0125μg/kg each). The effect of l-694,247 did not affect the exogenous norepinephrine-induced vasoconstrictions, whereas was abolished by antagonist LY310762 (5-HT1D; 1mg/kg) or l-NAME (nitric oxide; 10mg/kg), but not by indomethacin (COX1/2; 2mg/kg) or glibenclamide (ATP-dependent K(+) channel; 20mg/kg). These results suggest that 5-HT mechanism-induced inhibition of rat vasopressor renal sympathetic outflow is mainly mediated by prejunctional 5-HT1D receptors via nitric oxide release.

  10. Evidence for excitatory 5-HT2-receptors on rat brainstem neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Davie, M.; Wilkinson, L. S.; Roberts, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    1. The technique of microiontophoresis was used to investigate the identity of the receptor mediating the excitatory effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) upon neurones in the midline of the medullary brainstem of the rat in vivo. 2. The 5-HT1-like receptor agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) failed to excite the majority of neurones excited by 5-HT. The mobilities of 5-CT and 8-OH-DPAT when tested in vitro were found not to differ significantly from that of 5-HT, suggesting that the lack of effect of these agonists was not due to a lower rate of release from the microelectrodes. 3. The excitatory responses to 5-HT were attenuated by the 5-HT 2-receptor antagonists ketanserin and methysergide when applied microiontophoretically or administered intravenously (0.3 and 1 mg kg-1 respectively). Excitatory responses to glutamate and noradrenaline were not reduced. 4. The 5-HT3-receptor antagonist MDL 72222 failed to attenuate selectively the excitatory response to 5-HT when applied either by microiontophoresis or administered intravenously (1 mg kg-1). 5. Microiontophoretic application of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin did not attenuate excitatory responses to either 5-HT or noradrenaline. Intravenously administered prazosin (0.8 mg kg-1) also failed to attenuate excitatory responses to 5-HT, but did block excitatory responses to noradrenaline. 6. These results suggest that 5-HT2-receptors, but not 5-HT1-like receptors, 5-HT3-receptors or alpha 1-adrenoceptors, are involved in the excitatory response of midline medullary neurones to 5-HT. PMID:3395786

  11. Development of the 5-HT2CR-Tango System Combined with an EGFP Reporter Gene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Aoki, Miku; Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-02-01

    The serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor implicated in emotion, feeding, reward, and cognition. 5-HT2CRs are pharmacological targets for mental disorders and metabolic and reward system abnormalities, as alterations in 5-HT2CR expression, RNA editing, and SNPs are involved in these disturbances. To date, 5-HT2CR activity has mainly been measured by quantifying inositol phosphate production and intracellular Ca(2+) release, but these assays are not suitable for in vivo analysis. Here, we developed a 5-HT2CR-Tango assay system, a novel analysis tool of 5-HT2CR activity based on the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-arrestin interaction. With desensitization of activated 5-HT2CR by arrestin, this system converts the 5-HT2CR-arrestin interaction into EGFP reporter gene signal via the LexA transcriptional activation system. For validation of our system, we measured activity of two 5-HT2CR RNA-editing isoforms (INI and VGV) in HEK293 cells transfected with EGFP reporter gene. The INI isoform displayed both higher basal- and 5-HT-stimulated activities than the VGV isoform. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 5-HT2CR antagonist SB242084 was also detected by 5-HT2CR-Tango system. This novel tool is useful for in vitro high-throughput targeted 5-HT2CR drug screening and can be applied to future in vivo brain function studies associated with 5-HT2CRs in transgenic animal models.

  12. Identification and functional characterisation of 5-HT4 receptor in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianming; Yang, Zhen; Zhou, Naiming; Sun, Lina; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that controls a variety of sensory and motor functions through 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs). The 5-HT4R subfamily is linked to Gs proteins, which activate adenylyl cyclases (ACs), and is involved in many responses in peripheral organs. In this study, the 5-HT4R from Apostichopus japonicus (Aj5-HT4R) was identified and characterised. The cloned full-length Aj5-HT4R cDNA is 1,544 bp long and contains an open reading frame 1,011 bp in length encoding 336 amino acid proteins. Bioinformatics analysis of the Aj5-HT4R protein indicated this receptor was a member of class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Further experiments using Aj5-HT4R-transfected HEK293 cells demonstrated that treatment with 5-HT triggered a significant increase in intracellular cAMP level in a dose-dependent manner and induced a rapid internalisation of Aj5-HT4R fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (Aj5-HT4R-EGFP) from the cell surface into the cytoplasm. In addition, the transcriptional profiles of Aj5-HT4R in aestivating A. japonicas and phosphofructokinase (AjPFK) in 5-HT administrated A. japonicus have been analysed by real-time PCR assays. Results have led to a basic understanding of Aj5-HT4R in A. japonicus, and provide a foundation for further exploration of the cell signaling and regulatory functions of this receptor. PMID:28059140

  13. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT3A promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT3A mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μm 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μm ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μm m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Historically, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been described as a candidate neurotransmitter in the gustatory system and recent studies show that type III taste receptor cells release 5-HT in response to various taste stimuli. In the present study, we demonstrate that a subset of gustatory sensory neurons express functional

  14. Prelimbic cortex 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors are involved in the hypophagic effects caused by fluoxetine in fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Stanquini, Laura A; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Joca, Sâmia R L; Scopinho, América A

    2015-09-01

    The regulation of food intake involves a complex interplay between the central nervous system and the activity of organs involved in energy homeostasis. Besides the hypothalamus, recognized as the center of this regulation, other structures are involved, especially limbic regions such as the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC). Monoamines, such as serotonin (5-HT), play an important role in appetite regulation. However, the effect in the vMPFC of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, on food intake has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to study the effects on food intake of fed and fasted rats evoked by fluoxetine injection into the prelimbic cortex (PL), a sub-region of the vMPFC, or given systemically, and which 5-HT receptors in the PL are involved in fluoxetine responses. Fluoxetine was injected into the PL or given systemically in male Wistar rats. Independent groups of rats were pretreated with intra-PL antagonists of 5-HT receptors: 5-HT1A (WAY100635), 5-HT2C (SB242084) or 5-HT1B (SB216641). Fluoxetine (0.1; 1; 3; 10nmol/200nL) injected into the PL induced a dose-dependent hypophagic effect in fasted rats. This effect was reversed by prior local treatment with WAY100635 (1; 10nmol) or SB242084 (1; 10nmol), but not with SB216641 (0.2; 2.5; 10nmol). Systemic fluoxetine induced a hypophagic effect, which was blocked by intra-PL 5-HT2C antagonist (10nmol) administration. Our findings suggest that PL 5-HT neurotransmission modulates the central control of food intake and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors in the PL could be potential targets for the action of fluoxetine.

  15. Serotonergic activation of 5HT1A and 5HT2 receptors modulates sexually dimorphic communication signals in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Smith, G Troy; Combs, Nicole

    2008-06-01

    Serotonin modulates agonistic and reproductive behavior across vertebrate species. 5HT(1A) and 5HT(1B) receptors mediate many serotonergic effects on social behavior, but other receptors, including 5HT(2) receptors, may also contribute. We investigated serotonergic regulation of electrocommunication signals in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. During social interactions, these fish modulate their electric organ discharges (EODs) to produce signals known as chirps. Males chirp more than females and produce two chirp types. Males produce high-frequency chirps as courtship signals; whereas both sexes produce low-frequency chirps during same-sex interactions. Serotonergic innervation of the prepacemaker nucleus, which controls chirping, is more robust in females than males. Serotonin inhibits chirping and may contribute to sexual dimorphism and individual variation in chirping. We elicited chirps with EOD playbacks and pharmacologically manipulated serotonin receptors to determine which receptors regulated chirping. We also asked whether serotonin receptor activation generally modulated chirping or more specifically targeted particular chirp types. Agonists and antagonists of 5HT(1B/1D) receptors (CP-94253 and GR-125743) did not affect chirping. The 5HT(1A) receptor agonist 8OH-DPAT specifically increased production of high-frequency chirps. The 5HT(2) receptor agonist DOI decreased chirping. Receptor antagonists (WAY-100635 and MDL-11939) opposed the effects of their corresponding agonists. These results suggest that serotonergic inhibition of chirping may be mediated by 5HT(2) receptors, but that serotonergic activation of 5HT(1A) receptors specifically increases the production of high-frequency chirps. The enhancement of chirping by 5HT(1A) receptors may result from interactions with cortisol and/or arginine vasotocin, which similarly enhance chirping and are influenced by 5HT(1A) activity in other systems.

  16. The role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Górska, A M; Gołembiowska, K

    2015-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") popular as a designer drug is often used with caffeine to gain a stronger stimulant effect. MDMA induces 5-HT and DA release by interaction with monoamine transporters. Co-administration of caffeine and MDMA may aggravate MDMA-induced toxic effects on DA and 5-HT terminals. In the present study, we determined whether caffeine influences DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. We also tried to find out if adenosine A1 and A2A receptors play a role in the effect of caffeine by investigating the effect of the selective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists, DPCPX and KW 6002 on DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. Mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg) and MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination. DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum was measured using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine exacerbated the effect of MDMA on DA and 5-HT release. DPCPX or KW 6002 co-administered with MDMA had similar influence as caffeine, but KW 6002 was more potent than caffeine or DPCPX. To exclude the contribution of MAO inhibition by caffeine in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced increase in DA and 5-HT, we also tested the effect of the nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943A lacking properties of MAO activity modification. Our findings indicate that adenosine A1 and A2A receptor blockade may account for the caffeine-induced exacerbation of the MDMA effect on DA and 5-HT release and may aggravate MDMA toxicity.

  17. Disruption of 5-HT1A function in adolescence but not early adulthood leads to sustained increases of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, A L; Meng, Q; Richardson-Jones, J; Dranovsky, A; Leonardo, E D

    2016-05-03

    Current evidence suggests that anxiety disorders have developmental origins. Early insults to the circuits that sub-serve emotional regulation are thought to cause disease later in life. Evidence from studies in mice demonstrate that the serotonergic system in general, and serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptors in particular, are critical during the early postnatal period for the normal development of circuits that subserve anxious behavior. However, little is known about the role of serotonin signaling through 5-HT1A receptors between the emergence of normal anxiety behavior after weaning, and the mature adult phenotype. Here, we use both transgenic and pharmacological approaches in male mice, to identify a sensitive period for 5-HT1A function in the stabilization of circuits mediating anxious behavior during adolescence. Using a transgenic approach we show that suppression of 5-HT1A receptor expression beginning in early adolescence results in an anxiety-like phenotype in the open field test. We further demonstrate that treatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100,635 between postnatal day (P)35 and P50, but not at later timepoints, results in altered anxiety in ethologically based conflict tests like the open field test and elevated plus maze. This change in anxiety behavior occurs without impacting behavior in the more depression-related sucrose preference test or forced swim test. The treatment with WAY 100,635 does not affect adult 5-HT1A expression levels, but leads to increased expression of the serotonin transporter in the raphe, along with enhanced serotonin levels in both the prefrontal cortex and raphe that correlate with the behavioral changes observed in adult mice. This work demonstrates that signaling through 5-HT1A receptors during adolescence (a time when pathological anxiety emerges), but not early adulthood, is critical in regulating anxiety setpoints. These data suggest the possibility that brief interventions in the serotonergic system during

  18. Analysis of the agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M. I.; Harper, D.; Smith, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) was characterized in the rabbit isolated aorta preparation. 2. Fenoldopam was an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor with lower affinity and efficacy than the naturally occurring agonist 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Fenoldopam had an affinity (pKA) of 5.84 +/- 0.04 and efficacy (tau) of 0.57 +/- 0.04, whereas 5-HT had a pKA of 6.65 +/- 0.12 and tau of 2.66 +/- 0.41. 3. The constrictor effects of fenoldopam and 5-HT were competitively antagonized by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin, with pKB values of 8.81 +/- 0.11 and 8.83 +/- 0.10 respectively. 4. Prior incubation with fenoldopam produced a concentration-related rightward shift of a subsequent 5-HT concentration-response curve. This inhibition was specific for 5-HT since constrictor responses to angiotensin II were unaffected. 5. This study indicates that the D1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam, acts as an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor, but with an affinity and efficacy less than that of the naturally occurring agonist, 5-HT. PMID:1361397

  19. Characterization of 5-HT1D receptor binding sites in post-mortem human brain cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Martial, J; de Montigny, C; Cecyre, D; Quirion, R

    1991-01-01

    The present study provides further evidence for the presence of serotonin1D (5-HT1D) receptors in post-mortem human brain. Receptor binding parameters in temporal cortex homogenates were assessed using [3H]5-HT in the presence of 100 nM 8-OH-DPAT, 1 microM propranolol and 1 microM mesulergine to prevent labelling of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1C sites, respectively. Under these conditions, [3H]5-HT apparently bound to a class of high affinity (Kd = 5.0 +/- 1.0 nM) low capacity (Bmax = 96 +/- 23 fmol/mg protein) sites. In competition experiments, 5-HT and 5-carboxyamidotryptamine (5-CT), as well as ergotamine, lysergic acid, sumatriptan and RU-24969 exhibited high affinity for these sites. This pharmacological profile is concordant with the ligand selectivity pattern reported for 5-HT1D receptors in other species and thus provides further evidence for its existence in human temporal cortex. In addition, the competition profile of some ligands, particularly of unlabelled 5-HT, 5-CT and ergotamine, revealed the existence of a lower affinity binding site. The latter suggests receptor heterogeneity or the presence of a lower affinity state of 5-HT1D receptors. PMID:1911737

  20. Effects of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 on learning consolidation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2001-01-08

    The 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro-04-6790 or 8-OH-DPAT injection improved learning consolidation on an autoshaping task, while mCPP, scopolamine and dizocilpine decreased the performance. The effect induced by scopolamine, but not that induced by mCPP, was reversed completely by Ro-04-6790, while dizocilpine effect was antagonized partially. Nevertheless, ritanserin or WAY 100635, but not Ro 04-6790, antagonized the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effects on learning consolidation. As WAY 100635 did not modify the Ro 04-6790 facilitatory effect, hence 5-HT(1A), and/or 5-HT(7), but not 5-HT(6), receptors might mediate the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effect on learning consolidation. Since, the Ro 04-6790 facilitatory effect was unaffected by 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A)/(2B)/(2C), 5-HT(3) or 5-HT(4) receptor blockade, thereby, the facilitatory effect induced by Ro 04-6790 involved specifically 5-HT(6) receptors. Indeed, the present data provide further support to the notion that, 5-HT(6) receptors play a significant part in the learning consolidation under normal and dysfunctional memory conditions.

  1. The 5-HT7 receptor is involved in allocentric spatial memory information processing.

    PubMed

    Sarkisyan, Gor; Hedlund, Peter B

    2009-08-24

    The hippocampus has been implicated in aspects of spatial memory. Its ability to generate new neurons has been suggested to play a role in memory formation. Hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission has also been proposed as a contributor to memory processing. Studies have shown that the 5-HT(7) receptor is present in the hippocampus in relatively high abundance. Thus the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of the 5-HT(7) receptor in spatial memory using 5-HT(7) receptor-deficient mice (5-HT(7)(-/-)). A hippocampus-associated spatial memory deficit in 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice was demonstrated using a novel location/novel object test. A similar reduction in novel location exploration was observed in C57BL/6J mice treated with the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970. These findings prompted an extended analysis using the Barnes maze demonstrating that 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice were less efficient in accommodating to changes in spatial arrangement than 5-HT(7)(+/+) mice. 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice had specific impairments in memory compilation required for resolving spatial tasks, which resulted in impaired allocentric spatial memory whereas egocentric spatial memory remained intact after the mice were forced to switch back from striatum-dependent egocentric to hippocampus-dependent allocentric memory. To further investigate the physiological bases underlining these behaviors we compared hippocampal neurogenesis in 5-HT(7)(+/+) and 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice employing BrdU immunohistochemistry. The rate of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus was identical in the two genotypes. From the current data we conclude that the 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice performed by remembering a simple sequence of actions that resulted in successfully locating a hidden target in a static environment.

  2. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT7 receptors reduces nerve injury-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Brenchat, Alex; Nadal, Xavier; Romero, Luz; Ovalle, Sergio; Muro, Asunción; Sánchez-Arroyos, Ricard; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Pujol, Marta; Montero, Ana; Codony, Xavier; Burgueño, Javier; Zamanillo, Daniel; Hamon, Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Vela, José Miguel

    2010-06-01

    The involvement of the 5-HT(7) receptor in nociception and pain, particularly chronic pain (i.e., neuropathic pain), has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we examined whether the 5-HT(7) receptor participates in some modulatory control of nerve injury-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal (heat) hyperalgesia in mice. Activation of 5-HT(7) receptors by systemic administration of the selective 5-HT(7) receptor agonist AS-19 (1 and 10mg/kg) exerted a clear-cut reduction of mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities that were reversed by co-administering the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-258719. Interestingly, blocking of 5-HT(7) receptors with SB-258719 (2.5 and 10mg/kg) enhanced mechanical (but not thermal) hypersensitivity in nerve-injured mice and induced mechanical hypersensitivity in sham-operated mice. Effectiveness of the treatment with a 5-HT(7) receptor agonist was maintained after repeated systemic administration: no tolerance to the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects was developed following treatment with the selective 5-HT(7) receptor agonist E-57431 (10mg/kg) twice daily for 11 days. The 5-HT(7) receptor co-localized with GABAergic cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, suggesting that the activation of spinal inhibitory GABAergic interneurons could contribute to the analgesic effects of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists. In addition, a significant increase of 5-HT(7) receptors was found by immunohistochemistry in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of the spinal cord after nerve injury, suggesting a "pain"-triggered regulation of receptor expression. These results support the idea that the 5-HT(7) receptor subtype is involved in the control of pain and point to a new potential use of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  3. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Camilleri, M; Chang, L; Chey, W D; Galligan, J J; Lacy, B E; Müller-Lissner, S; Quigley, E M M; Schuurkes, J; Maeyer, J H; Stanghellini, V

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The nonselective 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cisapride and tegaserod have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Aim To perform a systematic review of the safety profile, particularly cardiovascular, of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders, and a nonsystematic summary of their pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Methods Articles reporting data on cisapride, clebopride, prucalopride, mosapride, renzapride, tegaserod, TD-5108 (velusetrag) and ATI-7505 (naronapride) were identified through a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Toxfile. Abstracts from UEGW 2006–2008 and DDW 2008–2010 were searched for these drug names, and pharmaceutical companies approached to provide unpublished data. Results Retrieved articles on pharmacokinetics, human pharmacodynamics and clinical data with these 5-HT4 agonists, are reviewed and summarised nonsystematically. Articles relating to cardiac safety and tolerability of these agents, including any relevant case reports, are reported systematically. Two nonselective 5-HT4 agonists had reports of cardiovascular AEs: cisapride (QT prolongation) and tegaserod (ischaemia). Interactions with, respectively, the hERG cardiac potassium channel and 5-HT1 receptor subtypes have been suggested to account for these effects. No cardiovascular safety concerns were reported for the newer, selective 5-HT4 agonists prucalopride, velusetrag, naronapride, or for nonselective 5-HT4 agonists with no hERG or 5-HT1 affinity (renzapride, clebopride, mosapride). Conclusions 5-HT4 agonists for GI disorders differ in chemical structure and selectivity for 5-HT4 receptors. Selectivity for 5-HT4 over non-5-HT4 receptors may influence the agent's safety and overall risk–benefit profile. Based on available evidence, highly selective 5-HT4 agonists may offer improved safety to treat patients with impaired GI motility. PMID:22356640

  4. Guinea pig hippocampal 5-HT(1E) receptors: a tool for selective drug development.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael T; Teitler, Milt

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] 1E receptor, originally discovered in human brain tissue, is not expressed in rat or mouse brain. Thus, there have been few reports on 5-HT(1E) receptor drug development. However, expression of 5-HT(1E) receptor mRNA has been shown in guinea pig brain. To establish this species as an animal model for 5-HT(1E) drug development, we identified brain regions that exhibit 5-carboxyamidotryptamine, ritanserin, and LY344864 - insensitive [(3)H]5-HT binding (characteristic of the 5-HT(1E) receptor). In hippocampal homogenates, where 5-HT(1E) receptor density was sufficiently high for radioligand binding analysis, 100 nM 5-carboxyamidotryptamine, 30 nM ritanserin, and 100 nM LY344864 were used to mask [(3)H]5-HT binding at non-5-HT(1E) receptors. The K(d) of [(3)H]5-HT was 5.7 +/- 0.7 nM and is indistinguishable from the cloned receptor K(d) of 6.5 +/- 0.6 nM. The affinities of 16 drugs for the cloned and hippocampal-expressed guinea pig 5-HT(1E) receptors are essentially identical (R(2) = 0.97). These findings indicate that using these conditions autoradiographical distribution and signal transduction studies of the 5-HT(1E) receptor in guinea pig brain are feasible. Using the guinea pig as an animal model should provide important insights into possible functions of this receptor and the therapeutic potential of selective human 5-HT(1E) drugs.

  5. The 5-HT1-like receptor mediating the increase in canine external carotid blood flow: close resemblance to the 5-HT1D subtype.

    PubMed

    Villalón, C M; Terrón, J A

    1994-09-01

    1. It has recently been shown that the increase in external carotid blood flow induced by 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) in the anaesthetized dog, being mimicked by 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), inhibited by methiothepin, vagosympathectomy and sympatho-inhibitory drugs, and resistant to blockade by ritanserin and MDL 72222, is mediated by stimulation of prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors leading to an inhibitory action on carotid sympathetic nerves; these 5-HT1-like receptors are unrelated to either the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C (now 5-HT2C) receptor subtypes. Inasmuch as 5-CT, 5-methoxytryptamine, sumatriptan and metergoline display high affinity, amongst other 5-HT binding sites, for the 5-HT1D subtype, in the present study we have used these drugs in an attempt to determine whether the above inhibitory prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors correlate with the 5-HT1D subtype. 2. One-minute intracarotid (i.c.) infusions of 5-HT (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 micrograms), 5-CT (0.01, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 micrograms), 5-methoxytryptamine (1, 3, 10 and 30 micrograms) and sumatriptan (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms) resulted in dose-dependent increases in external carotid blood flow (without changes in mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate) with the following rank order of agonist potency: 5-CT > 5-HT > 5-methoxytryptamine > or = sumatriptan. Interestingly, sumatriptan-induced vasodilatation was followed by a more pronounced vasoconstriction. 3. The external carotid vasodilator effects of 5-HT, 5-CT, 5-methoxytryptamine and sumatriptan were dose-dependently and specifically antagonized by metergoline (10, 30 and/or 100 micrograms kg-1, i.v.). In addition, 5-methoxytryptamine- and sumatriptan-induced vasodilator effects were, respectively, markedly inhibited or abolished after vagosympathectomy, as previously shown for 5-CT and 5-HT.4. Sumatriptan showed tachyphylaxis in its vasodilator component and antagonized 5-HT-induced external carotid vasodilatation in a specific manner

  6. Intrathecal nefopam-induced antinociception through activation of descending serotonergic projections involving spinal 5-HT7 but not 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Gon; Kim, Woong Mo; Kim, Joung Min; Bae, Hong-Beom; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-02-05

    We examined the involvement of spinal 5-HT(5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor 3(5-HT3R) and 7(5-HT7R) as well as the overall role of descending serotonergic projections in the analgesic effects of intrathecal(i.t.) nefopam for two rat models of formalin and paw incision test. I.t. nefopam produced an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner in both tests. Lesioning the spinal serotonergic projections using i.t. 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine(5,7-DHT) did not influence the intensity of allodynia in the paw incision test, but i.t. 5,7-DHT abolished the effect of nefopam. In the formain test, i.t. 5,7-DHT alone significantly diminished the flinches, but the effect of nefopam was not affected by i.t. 5,7-DHT. Antagonism study showed that i.t. 5-HT7R antagonist, SB269970 significantly blocked the antinociceptive effect of nefopam in both tests, but i.t. 5-HT3R antagonist, ondansetron has no influence on the effect of nefopam. The present study demonstrates that descending spinal serotonergic projections play a vital role in antinociceptive effect of i.t. nefopam in the paw incision test, but indeterminate in the formalin test. In both tests, the antinociceptive effect of i.t. nefopam involves the spinal 5-HT7R, but not 5-HT3R.

  7. Chronic imipramine enhances 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors-mediated inhibition of panic-like behavior in the rat dorsal periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Cláudia A; Cabral, Alfredo H C L; Almeida, Leandro P; Magierek, Valeska; Ramos, Patrício L; Zanoveli, Janaína M; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Zangrossi, Hélio; Nogueira, Regina L

    2002-07-01

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) has been used to induce panic-like behavior in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic imipramine treatment on the sensitivity of different 5-HT receptor subtypes in inhibiting aversion induced by electrical stimulation of this brain area. For that, the effects of intra-DPAG administration of the endogenous agonist 5-HT (20 nmol), the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (8 nmol) and the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist DOI (16 nmol) were measured in female Wistar rats given either chronic injection of imipramine (15 mg/kg, 3 weeks, ip) or saline. The results showed that the three receptor agonists raised the threshold of aversive electrical stimulation in both groups of animals, but this antiaversive effect was significantly higher in rats treated with imipramine. Treatment with imipramine did not change the basal threshold of aversive electrical stimulation measured before intra-DPAG injection of the 5-HT agonists. The results suggest that sensitization of both 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors within the DPAG may be involved in the beneficial effect of imipramine in panic disorder (PD).

  8. The interaction of trichloroethanol with murine recombinant 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, D L; Hope, A G; Belelli, D; Lambert, J J; Peters, J A; Bentley, K R; Steward, L J; Chen, C Y; Barnes, N M

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of ethanol, chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol upon the 5-HT3 receptor have been investigated by use of electrophysiological techniques applied to recombinant 5-HT3 receptor subunits (5-HT3R-A or 5-HT3R-As) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Additionally, the influence of trichloroethanol upon the specific binding of [3H]-granisetron to membrane preparations of HEK 293 cells stably transfected with the murine 5-HT3R-As subunit and 5-HT3 receptors endogenous to NG 108-15 cell membranes was assessed. 2. Ethanol (30-300 mM), chloral hydrate (1-30 mM) and trichloroethanol (0.3-10 mM), produced a reversible, concentration-dependent, enhancement of 5-HT-mediated currents recorded from oocytes expressing either the 5-HT3R-A, or the 5-HT3R-As subunit. 3. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a parallel leftward shift of the 5-HT concentration-response curve, reducing the EC50 for 5-HT from 1 +/- 0.04 microM (n = 4) to 0.5 +/- 0.01 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A. A similar shift, from 2.1 +/- 0.05 microM (n = 11) to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microM (n = 4), was observed in oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-As subunit. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) had little or no effect upon the maximum current produced by 5-HT for either recombinant receptor. 4. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) similarly reduced the EC50 for 2-methyl-5-HT from 13 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) to 4.6 +/- 0.2 microM (n = 4) and from 15 +/- 2 microM (n = 4) to 5 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. Additionally, trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a clear enhancement of the maximal current to 2-methyl-5-HT (expressed as a percentage of the maximal current to 5-HT) from 63 +/- 0.7% (n = 4) to 101 +/- 1.6% (n = 4) and from 9 +/- 0.2% (n = 4) to 74 +/- 2% (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. 5. Trichloroethanol (2.5 mM) had no effect upon the Kd, or Bmax, of specific [3H]-granisetron binding to membrane homogenates of NG

  9. The binding characteristics and orientation of a novel radioligand with distinct properties at 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Andrew J.; Verheij, Mark H.P.; Verbeek, Joost; Windhorst, Albert D.; de Esch, Iwan J.P.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2014-01-01

    VUF10166 (2-chloro-3-(4-methyl piperazin-1-yl)quinoxaline) is a ligand that binds with high affinity to 5-HT3 receptors. Here we synthesise [3H]VUF10166 and characterise its binding properties at 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors. At 5-HT3A receptors [3H]VUF10166 displayed saturable binding with a Kd of 0.18 nM. Kinetic measurements gave monophasic association (6.25 × 107 M−1 min−1) and dissociation (0.01 min−1) rates that yielded a similar Kd value (0.16 nM). At 5-HT3AB receptors two association (6.15 × 10−7, 7.23 M−1 min−1) and dissociation (0.024, 0.162 min−1) rates were seen, yielding Kd values (0.38 nM and 22 nM) that were consistent with values obtained in saturation (Kd = 0.74 nM) and competition (Ki = 37 nM) binding experiments respectively. At both receptor types, specific binding was inhibited by classical 5-HT3 receptor-selective orthosteric ligands (5-HT, allosetron, d-tubocurarine, granisetron, mCPBG, MDL72222, quipazine), but not by non-competitive antagonists (bilobalide, ginkgolide B, picrotoxin) or competitive ligands of other Cys-loop receptors (ACh, bicuculline, glycine, gabazine). To explore VUF10166 ligand–receptor interactions we used in silico modelling and docking, and tested the predictions using site directed mutagenesis. The data suggest that VUF10166 adopts a similar orientation to 5-HT3 receptor agonists bound in AChBP (varenicline) and 5HTBP (5-HT) crystal structures. PMID:25174552

  10. Role of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in the facilitatory response induced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Terrón, J A

    2001-06-01

    The present study further explored the mechanisms involved in the facilitatory effect induced by (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on learning consolidation. For this purpose, we analyzed in parallel the effects of LY215840 and ritanserin, two 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists with high affinity for the 5-HT(7) receptor, and WAY100635, a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on the facilitatory effect induced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation. We also determined whether LY215840 and/or ritanserin could be beneficial in restoring a deficient learning condition. Using the model of autoshaping task, post-training injection of LY215840 or WAY100635 had no effect on learning consolidation. However, both drugs abolished the enhancing effect of 8-OH-DPAT, with LY215840 being slightly more effective than WAY100635 in this respect. Ritanserin produced an increase in performance by itself and also abolished the effect of 8-OH-DPAT. Remarkably, selective blockade of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors with MDL100907 and SB200646, respectively, failed to alter the 8-OH-DPAT effect. LY215840 and ritanserin, at the doses that inhibited the 8-OH-DPAT-induced response, reversed the learning deficits induced by scopolamine and dizocilpine. The present results suggest that the enhancing effect produced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation involves activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors and an additional mechanism, probably related to the 5-HT(7) receptor. Blockade of 5-HT(2) receptors, and perhaps of 5-HT(7) receptors as well, may provide some benefit in reversing learning deficits associated with decreased cholinergic and/or glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  11. Role of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of piperine in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Ip, Siu-Po; Xian, Yan-Fang; Che, Chun-Tao

    2011-10-24

    Our previous studies have showed that treating mice with piperine significantly decreased the immobility time of the animals in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, which was related to up-regulation of serotonin (5-HT) level in the brain. The purpose of this study is to explore the contribution of 5-HT receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of piperine. The results showed that pre-treating mice with methiothepin (a non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, 0.1mg/kg, intraperitoneally), 4-(2'-methoxy-phenyl)-1-[2'-(n-2″-pyridinyl)-p-iodobenzamino-]ethyl-piperazine (a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, 1mg/kg, subcutaneously) or 1-(2-(1-pyrrolyl)-phenoxy)-3-isopropylamino-2-propanol (a 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist, 2.5mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was found to abolish the anti-immobility effect of piperine (10mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in the forced swim test. On the other hand, a sub-effective dose of piperine (1mg/kg, intraperitoneally) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect with (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 1mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or anpirtoline (a 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, 0.25mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Taken together, these results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of piperine in the mouse forced swim test may be mediated, at least in part, by the activation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors.

  12. Characterization of prejunctional 5-HT receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor responses in the pithed rat.

    PubMed

    Villalón, C M; Contreras, J; Ramírez-San Juan, E; Castillo, C; Perusquía, M; Terrón, J A

    1995-12-01

    1. It has recently been shown that continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are able to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the pressor responses induced by preganglionic (T7-T9) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.). This inhibitory effect, besides being significantly more pronounced at lower frequencies of stimulation (0.03-I Hz) and devoid of tachyphylaxis, is reversible after interrupting the infusions of 5-HT (up to 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1). In the present study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating the above inhibitory effect of 5-HT. 2. The inhibition induced by 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 of 5-HT on sympathetically-induced pressor responses was not blocked after i.v. treatment with physiological saline (1 ml kg-1), ritanserin (0.1 mg kg-1), MDL 72222 (0.15 mg kg-1) or tropisetron (3 mg kg-1), which did not modify the sympathetically-induced pressor responses per se, but was significantly antagonized by the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methysergide (0.3 mg kg-1), which also produced a slight attenuation of the pressor responses to 0.03 and 0.1 Hz per se. 3. Unexpectedly and contrasting with methysergide, the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, methiothepin (0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mg kg-1) and metergoline (1 and 3 mg kg-1), apparently failed to block the above 5-HT-induced inhibition. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that these antagonists also blocked the electrically-induced pressor responses per se, presumably by blockade of vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptors and, indeed, this property might have masked their potential antagonism at the inhibitory 5-HT1-like receptors. 4. Consistent with the above findings, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, a potent 5-HT1-like receptor agonist), metergoline and methysergide mimicked the inhibitory action of 5-HT with the following rank order of agonist potency: 5CT > > 5-HT > metergoline > or = methysergide. 5

  13. Characterization of prejunctional 5-HT receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor responses in the pithed rat.

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, C. M.; Contreras, J.; Ramírez-San Juan, E.; Castillo, C.; Perusquía, M.; Terrón, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. It has recently been shown that continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are able to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the pressor responses induced by preganglionic (T7-T9) sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.). This inhibitory effect, besides being significantly more pronounced at lower frequencies of stimulation (0.03-I Hz) and devoid of tachyphylaxis, is reversible after interrupting the infusions of 5-HT (up to 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1). In the present study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating the above inhibitory effect of 5-HT. 2. The inhibition induced by 5.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 of 5-HT on sympathetically-induced pressor responses was not blocked after i.v. treatment with physiological saline (1 ml kg-1), ritanserin (0.1 mg kg-1), MDL 72222 (0.15 mg kg-1) or tropisetron (3 mg kg-1), which did not modify the sympathetically-induced pressor responses per se, but was significantly antagonized by the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methysergide (0.3 mg kg-1), which also produced a slight attenuation of the pressor responses to 0.03 and 0.1 Hz per se. 3. Unexpectedly and contrasting with methysergide, the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, methiothepin (0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mg kg-1) and metergoline (1 and 3 mg kg-1), apparently failed to block the above 5-HT-induced inhibition. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that these antagonists also blocked the electrically-induced pressor responses per se, presumably by blockade of vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptors and, indeed, this property might have masked their potential antagonism at the inhibitory 5-HT1-like receptors. 4. Consistent with the above findings, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, a potent 5-HT1-like receptor agonist), metergoline and methysergide mimicked the inhibitory action of 5-HT with the following rank order of agonist potency: 5CT > > 5-HT > metergoline > or = methysergide. 5

  14. Phosphotidylinositol turnover in vascular, uterine, fundal, and tracheal smooth muscle: effect of serotonin (5HT)

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.L.; Wittenauer, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    In brain, platelets, and aorta, 5HT has been reported to increase phosphotidylinositol turnover, an effect linked to 5HT/sub 2/ receptors. The authors examined the effect of 5HT on /sup 3/H-inositol-1-phosphate (/sup 3/H-I-P) in tissues possessing 5HT/sub 2/ receptors that mediate contraction to 5HT (rat jugular vein, aorta, uterus and guinea pig trachea) and in a tissue in which contraction to 5HT is not mediated by 5HT/sub 2/ receptors (rat stomach fundus). Tissues were incubated (37/sup 0/C, 95% O/sub 2/, 5% CO/sub 2/) with /sup 3/H-inositol (90 min), washed, LiCl/sub 2/ (10 mM) and 5HT added for 90 min, extracted, and /sup 3/H-I-P eluted from a Dowex-1 column. Basal /sup 3/H-I-P was 10-fold higher in the uterus than in the other tissues. 5HT (10/sup -6/-10/sup -4/M) increased /sup 3/H-I-P in the jugular vein, aorta, and uterus but not in the trachea or fundus. Maximum increase was greatest in the jugular vein (8-fold) with an ED/sub 50/ of 0.4 ..mu..M 5HT. The selective 5HT/sub 2/ receptor blocker, LY53857 (10/sup -8/M) antagonized the increase in /sup 3/H-I-P by 5HT in the jugular vein, aorta and uterus. Pargyline (10/sup -5/M) added to the trachea and fundus did not unmask an effect of 5HT (10/sup -4/M). These data suggest that (1) the jugular vein produced the most sensitive response to 5HT-induced increases in /sup 3/H-I-P, (2) increases in /sup 3/H-I-P by 5HT in smooth muscle may be linked to 5HT/sub 2/ receptors and (3) activation of 5HT/sub 2/ receptors as occurred in the trachea will not always increase /sup 3/H-I-P.

  15. Radioligand binding evidence implicates the brain 5-HT2 receptor as a site of action for LSD and phenylisopropylamine hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    Titeler, M; Lyon, R A; Glennon, R A

    1988-01-01

    Alterations in brain serotonergic function have been implicated in the mechanism of action of LSD, mescaline, and other similarly acting hallucinogenic drugs of abuse such as STP (2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine; DOM). In order to test the hypothesis that the mechanism of action of LSD and phenylisopropylamine hallucinogens is through stimulation of a specific brain serotonin receptor sub-type, the affinities of these compounds for radiolabelled 5-HT2, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1C receptors have been determined using recently developed in vitro radioligand binding methodologies. The 5-HT2 receptor was labelled with the agonist/hallucinogen radioligand 3H-DOB (4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine). The 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1C receptors were labelled with 3H-OH-DPAT, 3H-5-HT, and 3H-mesulergine, respectively. In general, the phenylisopropylamines displayed 10-100 fold higher affinities for the 5-HT2 receptor than for the 5-HT1C receptor and 100-1000 fold higher affinities for the 5-HT2 receptor than for the 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptor. There was a strong correlation between hallucinogenic potencies and 5-HT2 receptor affinities of the phenylisopropylamines (r = 0.90); the correlation coefficients for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1C were 0.73, 0.85, and 0.78, respectively. Because there is no evidence that 5-HT1A-selective or 5-HT1B-selective agonists are hallucinogenic and because the phenylisopropylamines are potent hallucinogens, a 5-HT2 receptor interaction is implicated and supports our previous suggestions to this effect. A secondary role for 5-HT1C receptors cannot be discounted at this time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Increased interleukin-1β levels following low dose MDMA induces tolerance against the 5-HT neurotoxicity produced by challenge MDMA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Preconditioning is a phenomenon by which tolerance develops to injury by previous exposure to a stressor of mild severity. Previous studies have shown that single or repeated low dose MDMA can attenuate 5-HT transporter loss produced by a subsequent neurotoxic dose of the drug. We have explored the mechanism of delayed preconditioning by low dose MDMA. Methods Male Dark Agouti rats were given low dose MDMA (3 mg/kg, i.p.) 96 h before receiving neurotoxic MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.). IL-1β and IL1ra levels and 5-HT transporter density in frontal cortex were quantified at 1 h, 3 h or 7 days. IL-1β, IL-1ra and IL-1RI were determined between 3 h and 96 h after low dose MDMA. sIL-1RI combined with low dose MDMA or IL-1β were given 96 h before neurotoxic MDMA and toxicity assessed 7 days later. Results Pretreatment with low dose MDMA attenuated both the 5-HT transporter loss and elevated IL-1β levels induced by neurotoxic MDMA while producing an increase in IL-1ra levels. Low dose MDMA produced an increase in IL-1β at 3 h and in IL-1ra at 96 h. sIL-1RI expression was also increased after low dose MDMA. Coadministration of sIL-1RI (3 μg, i.c.v.) prevented the protection against neurotoxic MDMA provided by low dose MDMA. Furthermore, IL-1β (2.5 pg, intracortical) given 96 h before neurotoxic MDMA protected against the 5-HT neurotoxicity produced by the drug, thus mimicking preconditioning. Conclusions These results suggest that IL-1β plays an important role in the development of delayed preconditioning by low dose MDMA. PMID:22114930

  17. Pharmacological profile of the receptors that mediate external carotid vasoconstriction by 5-HT in vagosympathectomized dogs.

    PubMed

    Villalón, C M; Ramírez-San Juan, E; Castillo, C; Castillo, E; López-Muñoz, F J; Terrón, J A

    1995-11-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can produce vasodilatation or vasoconstriction of the canine external carotid bed depending upon the degree of carotid sympathetic tone. Hence, external carotid vasodilatation to 5-HT in dogs with intact sympathetic tone is primarily mediated by prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors similar to the 5-HT1D subtype, which inhibit the carotid sympathetic outflow. The present investigation is devoted to the pharmacological analysis of the receptors mediating external carotid vasoconstriction by 5-HT in vagosympathectomized dogs. 2. Intracarotid (i.c.) infusions for 1 min of 5-HT (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms) resulted in dose-dependent decreases in both external carotid blood flow and the corresponding conductance; both mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged during the infusions of 5-HT. These responses to 5-HT were resistant to blockade by antagonists at 5-HT2 (ritanserin) and 5-HT3/5-HT4 (tropisetron) receptors, but were partly blocked by the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methiothepin (0.3 mg kg-1); higher doses of methiothepin (1 and 3 mg kg-1) caused little, if any, further blockade. These methiothepin (3 mg kg-1)-resistant responses to 5-HT were not significantly antagonized by MDL 72222 (0.3 mg kg-1) or tropisetron (3 mg kg-1). 3. The external carotid vasoconstrictor effects of 5-HT were mimicked by the selective 5-HT1-like receptor agonist, sumatriptan (3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms during 1 min, i.c.), which produced dose-dependent decreases in external carotid blood flow and the corresponding conductance; these effects of sumatriptan were dose-dependently antagonized by methiothepin (0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg-1), but not by 5-HT1D-like receptor blocking doses of metergoline (0.1 mg kg-1). 4. The above vasoconstrictor effects of 5-HT remained unaltered after administration of phentolamine, propranolol, atropine, hexamethonium, brompheniramine, cimetidine and haloperidol, thus excluding the

  18. Insights into the regulation of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors by scaffolding proteins and kinases.

    PubMed

    Allen, John A; Yadav, Prem N; Roth, Bryan L

    2008-11-01

    5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors are essential molecular targets for the actions of LSD-like hallucinogens and atypical antipsychotic drugs. 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors also mediate a variety of physiological processes in peripheral and central nervous systems including platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, and the modulation of mood and perception. Scaffolding proteins have emerged as important regulators of 5-HT(2A) receptors and our recent studies suggest multiple scaffolds exist for 5-HT(2A) receptors including PSD95, arrestin, and caveolin. In addition, a novel interaction has emerged between p90 ribosomal S6 kinase and 5-HT(2A) receptors which attenuates receptor signaling. This article reviews our recent studies and emphasizes the role of scaffolding proteins and kinases in the regulation of 5-HT(2A) trafficking, targeting and signaling.

  19. Pharmacological profile of the receptors that mediate external carotid vasoconstriction by 5-HT in vagosympathectomized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, C. M.; Ramírez-San Juan, E.; Castillo, C.; Castillo, E.; López-Muñoz, F. J.; Terrón, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can produce vasodilatation or vasoconstriction of the canine external carotid bed depending upon the degree of carotid sympathetic tone. Hence, external carotid vasodilatation to 5-HT in dogs with intact sympathetic tone is primarily mediated by prejunctional 5-HT1-like receptors similar to the 5-HT1D subtype, which inhibit the carotid sympathetic outflow. The present investigation is devoted to the pharmacological analysis of the receptors mediating external carotid vasoconstriction by 5-HT in vagosympathectomized dogs. 2. Intracarotid (i.c.) infusions for 1 min of 5-HT (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms) resulted in dose-dependent decreases in both external carotid blood flow and the corresponding conductance; both mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged during the infusions of 5-HT. These responses to 5-HT were resistant to blockade by antagonists at 5-HT2 (ritanserin) and 5-HT3/5-HT4 (tropisetron) receptors, but were partly blocked by the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methiothepin (0.3 mg kg-1); higher doses of methiothepin (1 and 3 mg kg-1) caused little, if any, further blockade. These methiothepin (3 mg kg-1)-resistant responses to 5-HT were not significantly antagonized by MDL 72222 (0.3 mg kg-1) or tropisetron (3 mg kg-1). 3. The external carotid vasoconstrictor effects of 5-HT were mimicked by the selective 5-HT1-like receptor agonist, sumatriptan (3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms during 1 min, i.c.), which produced dose-dependent decreases in external carotid blood flow and the corresponding conductance; these effects of sumatriptan were dose-dependently antagonized by methiothepin (0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg-1), but not by 5-HT1D-like receptor blocking doses of metergoline (0.1 mg kg-1). 4. The above vasoconstrictor effects of 5-HT remained unaltered after administration of phentolamine, propranolol, atropine, hexamethonium, brompheniramine, cimetidine and haloperidol, thus excluding the

  20. The molecular interactions of buspirone analogues with the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Jarończyk, Małgorzata; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Mazurek, Aleksander P; Nowak, Gabriel; Ravna, Aina W; Kristiansen, Kurt; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2008-10-15

    A major problem with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is the delayed onset of action. A reason for that may be that the initial SSRI-induced increase in serotonin levels activates somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors, causing a decrease in serotonin release in major forebrain areas. It has been suggested that compounds combining inhibition of the serotonin transport protein with antagonistic effects on the 5-HT(1A) receptor will shorten the onset time. The anxiolytic drug buspirone is known as 5-HT(1A) partial agonist. In the present work, we are studying the inhibition of the serotonin transporter protein by a series of buspirone analogues by molecular modelling and by experimental affinity measurements. Models of the transporter protein were constructed using the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli major facilitator family transporter-LacY and the X-ray structure of the neurotransmitter symporter family (NSS) transporter-LeuT(Aa) as templates. The buspirone analogues were docked into both SERT models and the interactions with amino acids within the protein were analyzed. Two putative binding sites were identified on the LeuT(Aa) based model, one suggested to be a high-affinity site, and the other suggested to be a low-affinity binding site. Molecular dynamic simulations of the LacY based model in complex with ligands did not induce a helical architecture of the LacY based model into an arrangement more similar to that of the LeuT(Aa) based model.

  1. 5-HT2 receptors modulate the expression of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Charron, Alexandra; Hage, Cynthia El; Servonnet, Alice; Samaha, Anne-Noël

    2015-12-01

    Antipsychotic treatment can produce supersensitivity to dopamine receptor stimulation. This compromises the efficacy of ongoing treatment and increases the risk of relapse to psychosis upon treatment cessation. Serotonin 5-HT2 receptors modulate dopamine function and thereby influence dopamine-dependent responses. Here we evaluated the hypothesis that 5-HT2 receptors modulate the behavioural expression of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity. To this end, we first treated rats with the antipsychotic haloperidol using a clinically relevant treatment regimen. We then assessed the effects of a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist (ritanserin; 0.01 and 0.1mg/kg) and of a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (MDL100,907; 0.025-0.1mg/kg) on amphetamine-induced psychomotor activity. Antipsychotic-treated rats showed increased amphetamine-induced locomotion relative to antipsychotic-naïve rats, indicating a dopamine supersensitive state. At the highest dose tested (0.1mg/kg for both antagonists), both ritanserin and MDL100,907 suppressed amphetamine-induced locomotion in antipsychotic-treated rats, while having no effect on this behaviour in control rats. In parallel, antipsychotic treatment decreased 5-HT2A receptor density in the prelimbic cortex and nucleus accumbens core and increased 5-HT2A receptor density in the caudate-putamen. Thus, activation of either 5-HT2 receptors or of 5-HT2A receptors selectively is required for the full expression of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity. In addition, antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity enhances the ability of 5-HT2/5-HT2A receptors to modulate dopamine-dependent behaviours. These effects are potentially linked to changes in 5-HT2A receptor density in the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. These observations raise the possibility that blockade of 5-HT2A receptors might overcome some of the behavioural manifestations of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity.

  2. [Pharmacological characterization of alpha 2-adrenoceptor regulated 5-HT release in the rat hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Numazawa, R

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to confirm the functional regulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptor on the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the rat hippocampus in vivo. Under several pharmacological conditions, extracellular levels of 5-HT were estimated by assaying its concentrations in the perfusion fluid through the use of high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Extracellular 5-HT in the hippocampus was reduced by tetrodotoxin, 10 microM co-perfusion and was increased by perfusion with a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, 10 microM. Addition of potassium (K+; 120 mM) to the perfusion fluid evoked an approximately 3-fold increase in 5-HT release, and a calcium free medium completely prevented this K(+)-evoked 5-HT release. Potassium-evoked 5-HT release from the hippocampus of freely moving rats was significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited when alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, UK14,304, 0.1 microM to 10 microM was added to the perfusion solution, while the output of a 5-HT major metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), remained unchanged. This action of UK14,304 was prevented by pretreatment with idazoxan, 5 mg/kg, i. p., an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. In rats that were catecholaminergically denervated with 6-hydroxydopamine, UK14,304, 10 microM also inhibited the potassium-evoked 5-HT release, but had no effect on the 5-HIAA output. The UK14,304-induced inhibition of 5-HT release was prevented by pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX). These findings suggest that 5-HT release is functionally modulated via alpha 2-adrenoceptors located on the serotonergic nerve terminals in the rat hippocampus. They also indicate the possibility that the inhibition of 5-HT release via alpha 2-adrenoceptors is linked to G-proteins which are substrates of PTX.

  3. Is All Radiation-Induced Emesis Ameliorated by 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    5 - HT3 receptor antagonists ;~// 9-72 Bernard M.I Rabin 0’) and Gregory L. Kingt2) -) Behavioral Sciences and 2 PhYSzo~o~y Dcpiarlrnvni . Arm,. ii - R...RY Exposing ferrets to gamuma rays or X-rays produces vomiting that can be attenuated by 5 - HT3 receptor antagonists and by subdiaphraqmatic vagotomy...Pretreating ferrets with serotonin type-3 ( 5 - HT3 ) receptor antagonists or performing bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy reliably attenuates the

  4. 5-HT receptor classification and nomenclature: towards a harmonization with the human genome.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, D; Martin, G

    1997-01-01

    Molecular biology has dramatically advanced our knowledge and understanding of receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The existence of multiple 5-HT receptors defined using traditional pharmacological and biochemical approaches has now been amply confirmed, but gene products encoding putative "new" 5-HT receptors have also been discovered. In some cases, the absence of suitably selective agonists and antagonists has hampered determination of a physiological role for these gene products. This makes their classification as formally recognised receptors premature.

  5. Sulfonyl-containing modulators of serotonin 5-HT6 receptors and their pharmacophore models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivachtchenko, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    Data published in recent years on the synthesis of serotonin 5-HT6 receptor modulators are summarized. Modulators with high affinity for 5-HT6 receptors exhibiting different degrees of selectivity — from highly selective to semiselective and multimodal — are described. Clinical trial results are reported for the most promising serotonin 5-HT6 receptor modulators attracting special attention of medicinal chemists. The bibliography includes 128 references.

  6. Signalling properties and pharmacology of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Vleugels, R; Lenaerts, C; Vanden Broeck, J; Verlinden, H

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, genome sequence data and gene structure information on invertebrate receptors has been greatly expanded by large sequencing projects and cloning studies. This information is of great value for the identification of receptors; however, functional and pharmacological data are necessary for an accurate receptor classification and for practical applications. In insects, an important group of neurotransmitter and neurohormone receptors, for which ample sequence information is available but pharmacological information is missing, are the biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the present study, we investigated the sequence information, pharmacology and signalling properties of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT7 ). The receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with cognate 5-HT7 receptors and phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptor within this 5-HT receptor group. Real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated high expression levels in the brain, indicating the possible importance of this receptor in neural processes. Trica5-HT7 was dose-dependently activated by 5-HT, which induced elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels but had no effect on calcium signalling. The synthetic agonists, α-methyl 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-carboxamidotryptamine and 8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide, showed a response, although with a much lower potency and efficacy than 5-HT. Ketanserin and methiothepin were the most potent antagonists. Both showed characteristics of competitive inhibition on Trica5-HT7 . The signalling pathway and pharmacological profile offer important information that will facilitate functional and comparative studies of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacology of invertebrate 5-HT receptors differs considerably from that of vertebrates. The present study may therefore contribute to establishing a more

  7. Rabies virus selectively alters 5-HT1 receptor subtypes in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ceccaldi, P E; Fillion, M P; Ermine, A; Tsiang, H; Fillion, G

    1993-04-15

    Rabies virus infection in man induces a series of clinical symptoms, some suggesting involvement of the central serotonergic system. The results of the present study show that, 5 days after rabies virus infection in rat, the total reversible high-affinity binding of [3H]5-HT in the hippocampus is not affected, suggesting that 5-HT1A binding is not altered. 5-HT1B sites identified by [125I]cyanopindolol binding are not affected in the cortex 3 and 5 days after the infection. Accordingly, the cellular inhibitory effect of trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) on the [3H]acetylcholine-evoked release, presumably related to 5-HT1B receptor activity, is not modified 3 days after infection. In contrast, [3H]5-HT binding determined in the presence of drugs masking 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1C receptors, is markedly (50%) reduced 3 days after the viral infection. These results suggest that 5-HT1D-like receptor subtypes may be affected specifically and at an early stage after rabies viral infection.

  8. Distinct Circuits Underlie the Effects of 5-HT1B Receptors on Aggression and Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Tanaka, Kenji F; Barr, Mary M; Tritschler, Laurent; Le Dantec, Yannick; David, Denis J; Gardier, Alain M; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René; Ahmari, Susanne E

    2015-05-06

    Impulsive and aggressive behaviors are both modulated by serotonergic signaling, specifically through the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). 5-HT1BR knockout mice show increased aggression and impulsivity, and 5-HT1BR polymorphisms are associated with aggression and drug addiction in humans. To dissect the mechanisms by which the 5-HT1BR affects these phenotypes, we developed a mouse model to spatially and temporally regulate 5-HT1BR expression. Our results demonstrate that forebrain 5-HT1B heteroreceptors expressed during an early postnatal period contribute to the development of the neural systems underlying adult aggression. However, distinct heteroreceptors acting during adulthood are involved in mediating impulsivity. Correlating with the impulsivity, dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is elevated in the absence of 5-HT1BRs and normalized following adult rescue of the receptor. Overall, these data show that while adolescent expression of 5-HT1BRs influences aggressive behavior, a distinct set of 5-HT1B receptors modulates impulsive behavior during adulthood.

  9. Distinct circuits underlie the effects of 5-HT1B receptors on aggression and impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Tanaka, Kenji F.; Barr, Mary M.; Tritschler, Laurent; Le Dantec, Yannick; David, Denis J.; Gardier, Alain M.; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René; Ahmari, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Impulsive and aggressive behaviors are both modulated by serotonergic signaling, specifically through the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). 5-HT1BR knockout mice show increased aggression and impulsivity, and 5-HT1BR polymorphisms are associated with aggression and drug addiction in humans. To dissect the mechanisms by which the 5-HT1BR affects these phenotypes, we developed a mouse model to spatially and temporally regulate 5-HT1BR expression. Our results demonstrate that forebrain 5-HT1B heteroreceptors expressed during an early postnatal period contribute to the development of the neural systems underlying adult aggression. However, distinct heteroreceptors acting during adulthood are involved in mediating impulsivity. Correlating with the impulsivity, dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is elevated in the absence of 5-HT1BRs, and normalized following adult rescue of the receptor. Overall, these data show that while adolescent expression of 5-HT1BRs influences aggressive behavior, a distinct set of 5-HT1B receptors modulate impulsive behavior during adulthood. PMID:25892302

  10. Could the 5-HT1B receptor inverse agonism affect learning consolidation?

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2001-03-01

    Diverse evidence indicates that, the 5-HT system might play a role in learning and memory, since it occurs in brain areas mediating such processes and 5-HT drugs modulate them. Hence in this work, in order to explore further 5-HT involvement on learning and memory 5-HT1B receptors' role is investigated. Evidence indicates that SB-224289 (a 5-HT1B receptor inverse agonist) post-training injection facilitated learning consolidation in an associative autoshaping learning task, this effect was partially reversed by GR 127935 (a 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist), but unaffected by MDL 100907 (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) or ketanserin (a 5-HT1D/2A/7 receptor antagonist) at low doses. Moreover, SB-224289 antagonized the learning deficit produced by TFMPP (a 5-HT1A/1B/1D/2A/2C receptor agonist), GR 46611 (a 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptor agonist), mCPP (a 5-HT2A/2C/3/7 receptor agonist/antagonist) or GR 127935 (at low dose). SB-224289 did not alter the 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist) learning facilitatory effect. SB-224289 eliminated the deficit learning produced by the anticholinergic muscarinic scopolamine or the glutamatergic antagonist dizocilpine. Administration of both, GR 127935 (5mg/kg) plus ketanserin (0.01 mg/kg) did not modify learning consolidation; nevertheless, when ketanserin dose was increased (0.1-1.0mg/kg) and SB-224289 dose was maintained constant, a learning facilitation effect was observed. Notably, SB-224289 at 1.0mg/kg potentiated a subeffective dose of the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist/antagonist mixed GR 127935, which facilitated learning consolidation and this effect was abolished by ketanserin at a higher dose. Collectively, the data confirm and extend the earlier findings with GR 127935 and the effects of non-selective 5-HT(1B) receptor agonists. Clearly 5-HT1B agonists induced a learning deficit which can be reversed with SB-224289. Perhaps more importantly, SB-224289 enhances learning consolidation when given alone and can reverse the deficits

  11. The 5-HT3 receptor is essential for exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Shimada, S

    2015-11-01

    Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the 5-HT system has been suggested to have an important role in these exercise-induced neuronal effects. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, analysis of the 5-HT type 3A receptor subunit-deficient (htr3a(-/-)) mice revealed that lack of the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor resulted in loss of exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects, but not of learning enhancement. Furthermore, stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptor promoted neurogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the 5-HT3 receptor is the critical target of 5-HT action in the brain following exercise, and is indispensable for hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects induced by exercise. This is the first report of a pivotal 5-HT receptor subtype that has a fundamental role in exercise-induced morphological changes and psychological effects.

  12. A behavioural and biochemical study in mice and rats of putative selective agonists and antagonists for 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, G. M.; Green, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radioligand binding techniques have demonstrated the existence of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) binding subtypes: 5-HT2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B. These techniques have also indicated that certain drugs appear to show sub-type specificity: 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin(8-OH-DPAT), a 5-HT1A agonist; 5-methoxy-3(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)1-H indole (RU 24969), a 5-HT1B agonist; and ritanserin, a 5-HT2 antagonist. (-)-Propranolol is a 5-HT1 antagonist of uncertain sub-type specificity. An examination has been made in mice and rats of the behavioural and biochemical effects of these drugs to determine whether the binding sites have physiological functions and further characterise the behavioural models. Administration of carbidopa (25 mg kg-1) plus 5-hydroxytryptophan (100 mg kg-1) produced head-twitch behaviour in mice which was antagonized by ritanserin (ED50 = 65 micrograms kg-1) but not (-)-propranolol (20 mg kg-1). 8-OH-DPAT (1-10 mg kg-1 s.c.) and RU 24949 (5 mg kg-1 i.p.) did not produce head-twitch behaviour. 8-OH-DPAT decreased 5-HTP- but not 5-methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (5 mg kg-1)-induced head-twitch by a (-)-propranolol-insensitive mechanism. Locomotor activity produced in mice by RU 24969 (3 mg kg-1) was antagonized by (-)-propranolol (20 mg kg-1) but not the (+)-isomer. (-)-Propranolol did not antagonize the behaviour induced in rats. In mice, both 8-OH-DPAT and RU 24969 markedly inhibited whole brain 5-HT synthesis and this effect was not antagonized by (-)-propranolol. In rats, 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg kg-1 s.c.) produced all the behavioural changes seen after quipazine (25 mg kg-1). (-)-Propranolol inhibited the behaviour changes produced by both agonists, while ritanserin antagonized the behaviour produced by quipazine but not 8-OH-DPAT. It is concluded, therefore, that the 5-HT1A receptor exists between the 5-HT2 receptor and the behavioural effectors. 8-OH-DPAT (at 20 degrees C ambient temperature) rapidly decreased rat body temperature, an effect

  13. Selective blockade of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptors enhances 5-HT transmission, antidepressant-like behavior, and rapid eye movement sleep suppression induced by citalopram in rodents.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, Pascal; Kelly, Lisa; Aluisio, Leah; Shelton, Jonathan; Lord, Brian; Galici, Ruggero; Miller, Kirsten; Atack, John; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Dugovic, Christine

    2007-05-01

    Evidence has accumulated supporting a role for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptors in circadian rhythms, sleep, and mood disorders, presumably as a consequence of the modulation of 5-HT-mediated neuronal activity. We hypothesized that a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]-pyrrolidine (SB-269970), should increase activity of 5-HT neurons and potentiate the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram). In rats, administration of 3 mg/kg s.c. citalopram alone increased the extracellular concentration of 5-HT. This effect of citalopram on extracellular 5-HT concentration was significantly enhanced by an ineffective dose of SB-269970. Combining this dose of SB-269970 with a low dose of citalopram also resulted in a significant increase in extracellular concentration of 5-HT, suggesting a potentiation of neurochemical effects. In mice, citalopram and SB-269970 dose-dependently decreased immobility time in the tail suspension test. The dose-effect curve of citalopram was shifted leftward by coadministration of an effective dose of SB-269970. Furthermore, combining ineffective doses of citalopram and SB-269970 also resulted in a significant decrease of immobility time in the tail suspension test, suggesting potentiation of antidepressant-like effects. In rats, SB-269970 potentiated the increase of rapid eye movement (REM) latency and the REM sleep decrease induced by citalopram. SB-269970 also reversed the increase in sleep fragmentation induced by citalopram. Rat plasma and brain concentrations of citalopram were not affected by coadministration of SB-269970, arguing for a pharmacodynamic rather than a pharmacokinetic mechanism. Overall, these results indicate that selective blockade of 5-HT7 receptors may enhance the antidepressant efficacy of citalopram and may provide a novel therapy to alleviate sleep disturbances associated with depression.

  14. Novel class of arylpiperazines containing N-acylated amino acids: their synthesis, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A receptor affinity, and in vivo pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Tatarczyńska, Ewa; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Chojnacka-Wójcik, Ewa; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2007-04-15

    Novel arylpiperazines with N-acylated amino acids, selected on the basis of a preliminary screening of two libraries previously synthesized on SynPhase Lanterns, were prepared in solution and their affinity for 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and D(2) receptors was evaluated. The compounds bearing (3-acylamino)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (19-26) and N-acylprolinamide (29-34) moieties showed high affinity for 5-HT(1A) (K(i)=3-47 nM), high-to-low for 5-HT(2A) (K(i)=4.2-990 nM), and low for D(2) receptors (K(i)=0.77-21.19 microM). All the new o-methoxy derivatives of (3-acylamino)pyrrolidine-2,5-diones tested in vivo revealed agonistic activity at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, while m-chloro derivatives were classified as antagonists of these sites; similar relations were observed for o-methoxy (29) and m-chlorophenylpiperazine derivatives of N-acylprolinamides. The reported results show that the amino acid-derived terminal fragment modified the in vivo functional profile. Finally, the selected compounds 19 and 20, a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist and a full agonist, respectively, and 26, a mixed 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A) antagonist, were evaluated in preclinical animal models of depression and anxiety. The project allowed selecting the lead compound 20 which exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect in the four-plate test in mice and revealed distinct antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests in mice.

  15. Donitriptan, but not sumatriptan, inhibits capsaicin-induced canine external carotid vasodilatation via 5-HT1B rather than 5-HT1D receptors

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Islas, E; Gupta, S; Jiménez-Mena, L R; Lozano-Cuenca, J; Sánchez-López, A; Centurión, D; Mehrotra, S; MaassenVanDenBrink, A; Villalón, C M

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: It has been suggested that during a migraine attack capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory nerves release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), resulting in cranial vasodilatation and central nociception; hence, trigeminal inhibition may prevent this vasodilatation and abort migraine headache. This study investigated the effects of the agonists sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D water-soluble), donitriptan (5-HT1B/1D lipid-soluble), PNU-142633 (5-HT1D water-soluble) and PNU-109291 (5-HT1D lipid-soluble) on vasodilator responses to capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine in dog external carotid artery. Experimental approach: 59 vagosympathectomized dogs were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded with a pressure transducer, connected to a cannula inserted into a femoral artery. A precalibrated flow probe was placed around the common carotid artery, with ligation of the internal carotid and occipital branches, and connected to an ultrasonic flowmeter. The thyroid artery was cannulated for infusion of agonists. Key results: Intracarotid infusions of capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine dose-dependently increased blood flow through the carotid artery. These responses remained unaffected after intravenous (i.v.) infusions of sumatriptan, PNU-142633, PNU-109291 or physiological saline; in contrast, donitriptan significantly attenuated the vasodilator responses to capsaicin, but not those to α-CGRP or acetylcholine. Only sumatriptan and donitriptan dose-dependently decreased the carotid blood flow. Interestingly, i.v. administration of the antagonist, SB224289 (5-HT1B), but not of BRL15572 (5-HT1D), abolished the inhibition by donitriptan. Conclusions and implications: Our results suggest that the inhibition produced by donitriptan of capsaicin-induced external carotid vasodilatation is mainly mediated by 5-HT1B, rather than 5-HT1D, receptors, probably by a central mechanism. PMID:16880765

  16. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders.

  17. Analysis of free ACh and 5-HT in milk from four different species and their bioactivity on 5-HT(3) and nACh receptors.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Limon, Agenor; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-07-25

    Milk is one of the most beneficial aliments and is highly recommended in normal conditions; however, in certain disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome, cow milk and dairy products worsen the gastric symptoms and their use is not recommended. Among the most recognized milk-induced gatrointestinal symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, which are processes controlled by cholinergic and serotonergic transmission. Whether the presence of bioavailable ACh and 5-HT in milk may contribute to normal peristalsis, or to the developing of these symptoms, is not known. In this work we attempt to determine whether the content of free ACh and 5-HT is of physiological significance in milk from four different species: cow (bovine), goat, camel and human. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify free ACh and 5-HT in milk, and activation of the serotonergic and cholinergic ionotropic receptors was investigated using electrophysiological experiments. Our principal hypothesis was that milk from these four species had sufficient free ACh and 5-HT to activate their correspondent receptors expressed in a heterologous system. Our results showed a more complex picture, in which free ACh and 5-HT and their ability to activate cholinergic and serotonergic receptors are not correlated. This work is a first step to elucidate whether 5-HT and ACh, at the concentrations present in the milk, can be associated to a direct function in the GI.

  18. Investigation of the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in the sumatriptan-induced constriction of porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses

    PubMed Central

    Vries, Peter De; Willems, Edwin W; Heiligers, Jan P C; Villalón, Carlos M; Saxena, Pramod R

    1999-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the antimigraine drug sumatriptan constricts porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses via 5-HT1-like receptors, identical to 5-HT1B/1D receptors. The recent availability of silent antagonists selective for the 5-HT1B (SB224289) and 5-HT1D (BRL15572) receptor led us to further analyse the nature of receptors involved.In pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, bilaterally vagosympathectomized pigs, sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 μg kg−1, i.v.) dose-dependently decreased carotid arteriovenous anastomotic conductance by up to 70±5%.The dose-related decreases in carotid arteriovenous anastomotic conductance by sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 μg kg−1, i.v.) remained unchanged in animals treated (i.v.) with 1 mg kg−1 of BRL15572 (maximum decrease: 72±3%), but were significantly attenuated by 1 mg kg−1 (maximum decrease: 30±11%) and abolished by 3 mg kg−1 (maximum decrease: 3±7%) of SB224289. The highest dose of SB224289 did not attenuate the hypertension, tachycardia or increases in carotid blood flow induced by bolus injections of noradrenaline (0.1–3 μg kg−1, i.v.).The results indicate that sumatriptan constricts porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses primarily via 5-HT1B, but not via 5-HT1D receptors. PMID:10385240

  19. Aminoalkyl Derivatives of 8-Alkoxypurine-2,6-diones: Multifunctional 5-HT1A /5-HT7 Receptor Ligands and PDE Inhibitors with Antidepressant Activity.

    PubMed

    Chłoń-Rzepa, Grażyna; Zagórska, Agnieszka; Żmudzki, Paweł; Bucki, Adam; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Partyka, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Kazek, Grzegorz; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Siwek, Agata; Starowicz, Gabriela; Pawłowski, Maciej

    2016-12-01

    In the search for potential psychotropic agents, a new series of 3,7-dimethyl- and 1,3-dimethyl-8-alkoxypurine-2,6-dione derivatives of arylpiperazines, perhydroisoquinolines, or tetrahydroisoquinolines with flexible alkylene spacers (5-16 and 21-32) were synthesized and evaluated for 5-HT1A /5-HT7 receptor affinities as well as PDE4B1 and PDE10A inhibitory properties. The 1-(4-(4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-3,7-dimethyl-8-propoxypurine-2,6-dione (16) and 7-(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazinylalkyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-ethoxypurine-2,6-diones (31 and 32) as potent dual 5-HT1A /5-HT7 receptor ligands with antagonistic activity produced an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test in mice. This effect was similar to that produced by citalopram. All the tested compounds were stronger phosphodiesterase isoenzyme inhibitors than theophylline and theobromine. The most potent compounds, 15 and 16, were characterized by 51 and 52% inhibition, respectively, of PDE4B1 activity at a concentration of 10(-5)  M. Concerning the above findings, it may be assumed that the inhibition of PDE4B1 may impact on the signal strength and specificity resulting from antagonism toward the 5-HT1 and 5-HT7 receptors, especially in the case of compounds 15 and 16. This dual receptor and enzyme binding mode was analyzed and explained via molecular modeling studies.

  20. 5-Chloroindole: a potent allosteric modulator of the 5-HT3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Amy S; Batis, Nikolaos; Grafton, Gillian; Caputo, Francesca; Brady, Catherine A; Lambert, Jeremy J; Peters, John A; Gordon, John; Brain, Keith L; Powell, Andrew D; Barnes, Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel that is modulated allosterically by various compounds including colchicine, alcohols and volatile anaesthetics. However the positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) identified to date have low affinity, which hinders investigation because of non-selective effects at pharmacologically active concentrations. The present study identifies 5-chloroindole (Cl-indole) as a potent PAM of the 5-HT3 receptor. Experimental Approach 5-HT3 receptor function was assessed by the increase in intracellular calcium and single-cell electrophysiological recordings in HEK293 cells stably expressing the h5-HT3A receptor and also the mouse native 5-HT3 receptor that increases neuronal contraction of bladder smooth muscle. Key Results Cl-indole (1–100 μM) potentiated agonist (5-HT) and particularly partial agonist [(S)-zacopride, DDP733, RR210, quipazine, dopamine, 2-methyl-5-HT, SR57227A, meta chlorophenyl biguanide] induced h5-HT3A receptor-mediated responses. This effect of Cl-indole was also apparent at the mouse native 5-HT3 receptor. Radioligand-binding studies identified that Cl-indole induced a small (∼twofold) increase in the apparent affinity of 5-HT for the h5-HT3A receptor, whereas there was no effect upon the affinity of the antagonist, tropisetron. Cl-indole was able to reactivate desensitized 5-HT3 receptors. In contrast to its effect on the 5-HT3 receptor, Cl-indole did not alter human nicotinic α7 receptor responses. Conclusions and Implications The present study identifies Cl-indole as a relatively potent and selective PAM of the 5-HT3 receptor; such compounds will aid investigation of the molecular basis for allosteric modulation of the 5-HT3 receptor and may assist the discovery of novel therapeutic drugs targeting this receptor. Linked Articles Recent reviews on allosteric modulation can be found at: Kenakin, T (2013). New concepts in pharmacological efficacy at 7TM receptors: IUPHAR Review 2

  1. Quipazine reduces food intake in the rat by activation of 5-HT2-receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hewson, G.; Leighton, G. E.; Hill, R. G.; Hughes, J.

    1988-01-01

    1. To determine which subtype(s) of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor are involved in the anorectic action of quipazine, the ability of selective antagonists at 5-HT2- and 5-HT3-receptors, and an antagonist at 5-HT1-like receptors, to block this response were investigated in non-deprived rats, trained to eat a palatable diet. 2. Quipazine (0.5-8 mg kg-1, i.p.) produced a dose-related reduction in the intake of palatable diet. 3. The anorectic effect of 4 mg kg-1 quipazine was antagonized by the nonselective 5-HT-receptor antagonist methysergide (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and by the selective 5-HT2-receptor antagonists ketanserin (1 mg kg-1 and 2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and ritanserin (0.5 mg kg-1 and 1 mg kg-1, i.p.). The selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist GR38032F (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) and (-)-pindolol (4 mg kg-1, i.p.), which blocks some of the effects mediated at 5-HT1-like receptors, did not block the reduction in food intake produced by this dose of quipazine. 4. None of the 5-HT-receptor antagonists had any effect on food intake when they were administered alone, suggesting that endogenous 5-HT is not involved in the tonic control of food intake under the conditions of these experiments. 5. It is concluded that the anorectic action of quipazine is mediated, at least in part, by activation of 5-HT2-receptors. PMID:2906561

  2. Effects of general anaesthetics on 5-HT neuronal activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    McCardle, Caroline E; Gartside, Sarah E

    2012-03-01

    The ascending 5-HT system has been and continues to be the subject of much research. The majority of in vivo electrophysiological and neurochemical studies of 5-HT function in rodents have been conducted in animals under anaesthesia - usually chloral hydrate or urethane. However, the effects of anaesthetics, on 5-HT function have not been systematically investigated. Here we used in vitro electrophysiology in dorsal raphe slices, to determine the effects of anaesthetically relevant concentrations of chloral hydrate (100 μM and 1 mM), urethane (10 and 30 mM), pentobarbitone (10 and 100 μM) and ketamine (10, 100 and 300 μM) on regulators of 5-HT firing activity. We examined i) basal firing (driven by α(1) adrenoceptors), ii) the excitatory response to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), iii) the 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor-mediated inhibitory response to 5-HT and iv) the GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory response to 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridinyl-3-ol (THIP, gaboxadol). Pentobarbitone selectively enhanced the response to THIP. Ketamine decreased basal firing, attenuated the response to NMDA, and enhanced responses to both 5-HT and THIP. Chloral hydrate had marginal effects on basal firing, slightly attenuated the NMDA response, and enhanced both the 5-HT and THIP responses. Urethane increased basal firing, decreased the NMDA response, increased the response to THIP, but had no effect on the 5-HT response. Our data indicate that all anaesthetics tested significantly affect the regulators of 5-HT neuronal function. These findings will aid in the interpretation of previous reports of in vivo studies of the 5-HT system and will allow researchers to make a rational selection of anaesthetic for future studies.

  3. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  4. Role of central vagal 5-HT3 receptors in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N.

    2015-01-01

    Vagal neurocircuits are vitally important in the co-ordination and modulation of GI reflexes and homeostatic functions. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is critically important in the regulation of several of these autonomic gastrointestinal (GI) functions including motility, secretion and visceral sensitivity. While several 5-HT receptors are involved in these physiological responses, the ligand-gated 5-HT3 receptor appears intimately involved in gut-brain signaling, particularly via the afferent (sensory) vagus nerve. 5-HT is released from enterochromaffin cells in response to mechanical or chemical stimulation of the GI tract which leads to activation of 5-HT3 receptors on the terminals of vagal afferents. 5-HT3 receptors are also present on the soma of vagal afferent neurons, including GI vagal afferent neurons, where they can be activated by circulating 5-HT. The central terminals of vagal afferents also exhibit 5-HT3 receptors that function to increase glutamatergic synaptic transmission to second order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius within the brainstem. While activation of central brainstem 5-HT3 receptors modulates visceral functions, it is still unclear whether central vagal neurons, i.e., nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons themselves also display functional 5-HT3 receptors. Thus, activation of 5-HT3 receptors may modulate the excitability and activity of gastrointestinal vagal afferents at multiple sites and may be involved in several physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including distention- and chemical-evoked vagal reflexes, nausea, and vomiting, as well as visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26578870

  5. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA’s but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression. PMID:24946016

  6. The role of ERp44 in maturation of serotonin transporter protein.

    PubMed

    Freyaldenhoven, Samuel; Li, Yicong; Kocabas, Arif M; Ziu, Enrit; Ucer, Serra; Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa, Raman; Miller, Grover P; Kilic, Fusun

    2012-05-18

    In heterologous and endogenous expression systems, we studied the role of ERp44 and its complex partner endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidase 1-α (Ero1-Lα) in mechanisms regulating disulfide bond formation for serotonin transporter (SERT), an oligomeric glycoprotein. ERp44 is an ER lumenal chaperone protein that favors the maturation of disulfide-linked oligomeric proteins. ERp44 plays a critical role in the release of proteins from the ER via binding to Ero1-Lα. Mutation in the thioredoxin-like domain hampers the association of ERp44C29S with SERT, which has three Cys residues (Cys-200, Cys-209, and Cys-109) on the second external loop. We further explored the role of the protein chaperones through shRNA knockdown experiments for ERp44 and Ero1-Lα. Those efforts resulted in increased SERT localization to the plasma membrane but decreased serotonin (5-HT) uptake rates, indicating the importance of the ERp44 retention mechanism in the proper maturation of SERT proteins. These data were strongly supported with the data received from the N-biotinylaminoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA-biotin) labeling of SERT on ERp44 shRNA cells. MTSEA-biotin only interacts with the free Cys residues from the external phase of the plasma membrane. Interestingly, it appears that Cys-200 and Cys-209 of SERT in ERp44-silenced cells are accessible to labeling by MTSEA-biotin. However, in the control cells, these Cys residues are occupied and produced less labeling with MTSEA-biotin. Furthermore, ERp44 preferentially associated with SERT mutants (C200S, C209S, and C109A) when compared with wild type. These interactions with the chaperone may reflect the inability of Cys-200 and Cys-209 SERT mutants to form a disulfide bond and self-association as evidenced by immunoprecipitation assays. Based on these collective findings, we hypothesize that ERp44 together with Ero1-Lα plays an important role in disulfide formation of SERT, which may be a prerequisite step for the assembly of SERT

  7. Carrier-dependent and Ca2+-dependent 5-HT and dopamine release induced by (+)-amphetamine, 3,4-methylendioxy-methamphetamine, p-chloroamphetamine and (+)-fenfluramine

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Daniela; Mennini, Tiziana; Gobbi, Marco

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism underlying 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and/or dopamine release induced by (+)-amphetamine ((+)-Amph), 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), p-chloroamphetamine (pCA) and (+)-fenfluramine ((+)-Fen) was investigated in rat brain superfused synaptosomes preloaded with the 3H neurotransmitters. Their rank order of potency for [3H]-5-HT-releasing activity was the same as for inhibition of 5-HT uptake (pCA⩾MDMA⩾(+)-Fen>>(+)-Amph). Similarly, their rank order as [3H]-dopamine releasers and dopamine uptake inhibitors was the same ((+)-Amph>>pCA=MDMA>>(+)-Fen). We also confirmed that the release induced by these compounds was prevented by selective transporter inhibitors (indalpine or nomifensine). [3H]-5-HT and/or [3H]-dopamine release induced by all these compounds was partially (31–80%), but significantly Ca2+-dependent. Lack of extracellular Ca2+ did not alter uptake mechanisms nor did it modify the carrier-dependent dopamine-induced [3H]-dopamine release. (+)-Amph-induced [3H]-dopamine release and pCA- and MDMA-induced [3H]-5-HT release were significantly inhibited by ω-agatoxin-IVA, a specific blocker of P-type voltage-operated Ca2+-channels, similar to the previous results on (+)-Fen-induced [3H]-5-HT release. Methiothepin inhibited the Ca2+-dependent component of (+)-Amph-induced [3H]-dopamine release with high potency (70 nM), as previously found with (+)-Fen-induced [3H]-5-HT release. The inhibitory effect of methiothepin was not due to its effects as a transporter inhibitor or Ca2+-channel blocker and is unlikely to be due to its antagonist properties on 5-HT1/2, dopamine or any other extracellular receptor. These results indicate that the release induced by these compounds is both ‘carrier-mediated' and Ca2+-dependent (possibly exocytotic-like), with the specific carrier allowing the amphetamines to enter the synaptosome. The Ca2+-dependent release is mediated by Ca2+-influx (mainly through P-type Ca2+-channels), possibly triggered by

  8. The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism. Comparison with other serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenghua; Larsen, Mads Breum; Sánchez, Connie; Wiborg, Ove

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of the S- and R-enantiomers (escitalopram and R-citalopram) of citalopram, with high- and low-affinity binding sites in COS-1 cell membranes expressing human SERT (hSERT) were investigated. Escitalopram affinity for hSERT and its 5-HT uptake inhibitory potency was in the nanomolar range and approximately 40-fold more potent than R-citalopram. Escitalopram considerably stabilised the [3H]-escitalopram/SERT complex via an allosteric effect at a low-affinity binding site. The stereoselectivity between escitalopram and R-citalopram was approximately 3:1 for the [3H]-escitalopram/hSERT complex. The combined effect of escitalopram and R-citalopram was additive. Paroxetine and sertraline mainly stabilised the [3H]-paroxetine/hSERT complex. Fluoxetine, duloxetine and venlafaxine have only minor effects. 5-HT stabilised the [125I]-RTI-55, [3H]-MADAM, [3H]-paroxetine, [3H]-fluoxetine and [3H]-venlafaxine/SERT complex to some extent. Thus, escitalopram shows a unique interaction with the hSERT compared with other 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and, in addition to its 5-HT reuptake inhibitory properties, displays a pronounced effect via an affinity-modulating allosteric site.

  9. P2X3 receptors induced inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Krimon, Suzy; Araldi, Dionéia; do Prado, Filipe César; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera; Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Cláudia G; Parada, Carlos Amílcar

    2013-11-01

    It has been described that endogenous ATP via activation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors contributes to inflammatory nociception in different models, including the formalin injected in subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. In this study, we have evaluated whether TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, whose activation is essential to formalin-induced inflammatory nociception, are involved in the nociception induced by activation of P2X3 receptors on subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. We have also evaluated whether the activation of P2X3 receptors increases the susceptibility of primary afferent neurons to formalin action modulated by activation of TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptors. Nociceptive response intensity was measured by observing the rat's behavior and considering the number of times the animal reflexively raised its hind paw (flinches) in 60min. Local subcutaneous administration of the selective TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonists HC 030031, tropisetron and WAY 100,135, respectively, prevented the nociceptive responses induced by the administration in the same site of the non-selective P2X3 receptor agonist αβmeATP. Administration of the selective P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist A-317491 or pretreatment with oligonucleotides antisense against P2X3 receptor prevented the formalin-induced behavioral nociceptive responses during the first and second phases. Also, the co-administration of a subthreshold dose of αβmeATP with a subthreshold dose of formalin induced nociceptive behavior, which was prevented by local administration of tropisetron, HC 030031 or WAY 100, 135. These findings have demonstrated that the activation of P2X3 receptors induces inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors. Also, they suggest that inflammatory nociception is modulated by the release of endogenous ATP and P2X3 receptor activation, which in turn, increases primary afferent nociceptor susceptibility to the action of inflammatory

  10. Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; O’Dell, Steve J.; Marshall, John F.; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, which in turn may be modulated by DA and 5HT transmission. We analyzed long-term, off-drug changes in learning from positive and negative feedback and associated striatal DA transporter (DAT) and frontocortical 5HT transporter (SERT) binding in rats pretreated with methamphetamine (mAMPH). Specifically, we assessed the reversal phase of pairwise visual discrimination learning in rats receiving single dose- (mAMPHsingle) vs. escalating-dose exposure (mAMPHescal). Using fine-grained trial-by-trial analyses, we found increased sensitivity to and reliance on positive feedback in mAMPH-pretreated animals, with the mAMPHsingle group showing more pronounced use of this type of feedback. In contrast, overall negative feedback sensitivity was not altered following any mAMPH treatment. In addition to validating the enduring effects of mAMPH on early reversal learning, we found more consecutive error commissions before the first correct response in mAMPH-pretreated rats. This behavioral rigidity was negatively correlated with subregional frontocortical SERT whereas positive feedback sensitivity negatively correlated with striatal DAT binding. These results provide new evidence for the overlapping, yet dissociable roles of DA and 5HT systems in overcoming perseveration and in learning new reward rules. PMID:24959862

  11. Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; O'Dell, Steve J; Marshall, John F; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2014-09-01

    Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, which in turn may be modulated by DA and 5HT transmission. We analyzed long-term, off-drug changes in learning from positive and negative feedback and associated striatal DA transporter (DAT) and frontocortical 5HT transporter (SERT) binding in rats pretreated with methamphetamine (mAMPH). Specifically, we assessed the reversal phase of pairwise visual discrimination learning in rats receiving single dose- (mAMPHsingle) vs. escalating-dose exposure (mAMPHescal). Using fine-grained trial-by-trial analyses, we found increased sensitivity to and reliance on positive feedback in mAMPH-pretreated animals, with the mAMPHsingle group showing more pronounced use of this type of feedback. In contrast, overall negative feedback sensitivity was not altered following any mAMPH treatment. In addition to validating the enduring effects of mAMPH on early reversal learning, we found more consecutive error commissions before the first correct response in mAMPH-pretreated rats. This behavioral rigidity was negatively correlated with subregional frontocortical SERT whereas positive feedback sensitivity negatively correlated with striatal DAT binding. These results provide new evidence for the overlapping, yet dissociable roles of DA and 5HT systems in overcoming perseveration and in learning new reward rules.

  12. Pharmacological Characterization of a 5-HT1-Type Serotonin Receptor in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Vleugels, Rut; Lenaerts, Cynthia; Baumann, Arnd; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Verlinden, Heleen

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is known for its key role in modulating diverse physiological processes and behaviors by binding various 5-HT receptors. However, a lack of pharmacological knowledge impedes studies on invertebrate 5-HT receptors. Moreover, pharmacological information is urgently needed in order to establish a reliable classification system for invertebrate 5-HT receptors. In this study we report on the molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of a 5-HT1 receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT1). The Trica5-HT1 receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with members of the 5-HT1 receptor class. Real time PCR showed high expression in the brain (without optic lobes) and the optic lobes, consistent with the role of 5-HT as neurotransmitter. Activation of Trica5-HT1 in mammalian cells decreased NKH-477-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not influence intracellular Ca2+ signaling. We studied the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT1 receptor and demonstrated that α-methylserotonin, 5-methoxytryptamine and 5-carboxamidotryptamine acted as agonists. Prazosin, methiothepin and methysergide were the most potent antagonists and showed competitive inhibition in presence of 5-HT. This study offers important information on a 5-HT1 receptor from T. castaneum facilitating functional research of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacological profiles may contribute to establish a reliable classification scheme for invertebrate 5-HT receptors. PMID:23741451

  13. 5-HT(2C) agonists as therapeutics for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Comery, Thomas A; Marquis, Karen L; Gross, Jonathan; Dunlop, John

    2012-01-01

    The 5-HT(2C) receptor is a highly complex, highly regulated receptor which is widely distributed throughout the brain. The 5-HT(2C) receptor couples to multiple signal transduction pathways leading to engagement of a number of intracellular signaling molecules. Moreover, there are multiple allelic variants of the 5-HT(2C) receptor and the receptor is subject to RNA editing in the coding regions. The complexity of this receptor is further emphasized by the studies suggesting the utility of either agonists or antagonists in the treatment of schizophrenia. While several 5-HT(2C) agonists have demonstrated clinical efficacy in obesity (lorcaserin, PRX-000933), the focus of this review is on the therapeutic potential of 5-HT(2C) agonists in schizophrenia. To this end, the preclinical profile of 5-HT(2C) agonists from a neurochemical, electrophysiological, and a behavioral perspective is indicative of antipsychotic-like efficacy without extrapyramidal symptoms or weight gain. Recently, the selective 5-HT(2C) agonist vabicaserin demonstrated clinical efficacy in a Phase II trial