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Sample records for 5-ht1a 5-ht1b 5-ht2a

  1. Stimulation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors or 5-HT uptake inhibition: short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2007-11-22

    In order to determine whether short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) function in serial or parallel manner, serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) receptor agonists were tested in autoshaping task. Results show that control-vehicle animals were modestly but significantly mastering the autoshaping task as illustrated by memory scores between STM and LTM. Thus, post-training administration of 8-OHDPAT (agonist for 5-HT(1A/7) receptors) only at 0.250 and 0.500 mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. CGS12066 (agonist for 5-HT(1B)) produced biphasic affects, at 5.0 mg/kg impaired STM but at 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, respectively, improved or impaired LTM. DOI (agonist for 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors) dose-dependently impaired STM and, at 10.0 mg/kg only impaired LTM. Both, STM and LTM were impaired by either mCPP (mainly agonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) or mesulergine (mainly antagonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) lower dose. The 5-HT(3) agonist mCPBG at 1.0 impaired STM and its higher dose impaired both STM and LTM. RS67333 (partial agonist for 5-HT(4) receptors), at 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg facilitated both STM and LTM. The higher dose of fluoxetine (a 5-HT uptake inhibitor) improved both STM and LTM. Using as head-pokes during CS as an indirect measure of food-intake showed that of 30 memory changes, 21 of these were unrelated to the former. While some STM or LTM impairments can be attributed to decrements in food-intake, but not memory changes (either increase or decreases) produced by 8-OHDPAT, CGS12066, RS67333 or fluoxetine. Except for animals treated with DOI, mCPBG or fluoxetine, other groups treated with 5-HT agonists 6 h following autoshaping training showed similar LTM and unmodified CS-head-pokes scores.

  2. Effects of the 5-HT receptor antagonists GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D) and MDL100907 (5-HT2A) in the consolidation of learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Terrón, J A; Hong, E

    1997-12-01

    We have previously reported that 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors play a role in learning and memory. The present investigation was devoted to analyze further in the autoshaping learning task: (1) the effects of the 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptor agonist, GR46611, the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935, and the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL100907. Consistent with a role of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in learning, the post-training injection of GR46611 (1-10 mg/kg) decreased the consolidation of learning whereas GR127935 (10 mg/kg) increased it; the effects of both drugs were reversed by PCA pretreatment. GR127935 abolished the decrease induced by GR46611, TFMPP and mCPP, whereas MDL100907 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) had no effect by itself but abolished the effects of DOI, ketanserin and TFMPP and moderately inhibited the effects elicited by mCPP, 1-NP and mesulergine. Neither did GR127935 nor MDL100907 significantly modify the increase in the consolidation of learning induced by 8-OH-DPAT. Thus, the present findings suggest that stimulation of presynaptic 5-HT1B/1D receptors impairs the consolidation of learning whilst stimulation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors enhances it; the blockade of 5-HT2A receptors has no effects. In addition, 5-HT2 receptors seem to modulate this cognitive stage.

  3. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors differentially modulate rate and timing of auditory responses in the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Lissandra Castellan Baldan; Sinha, Shiva R.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin is a physiological signal that translates both internal and external information about behavioral context into changes in sensory processing through a diverse array of receptors. The details of this process, particularly how receptors interact to shape sensory encoding, are poorly understood. In the inferior colliculus, a midbrain auditory nucleus, serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors have suppressive and 5-HT1B receptors have facilitatory effects on evoked responses of neurons. We explored how these two receptor classes interact by testing three hypotheses: that they 1) affect separate neuron populations, 2) affect different response properties, or 3) have different endogenous patterns of activation. The first two hypotheses were tested by iontophoretic application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists individually and together to neurons in vivo. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonists affected overlapping populations of neurons. During co-application, 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonists influenced spike rate and frequency bandwidth additively, with each moderating the effect of the other. In contrast, although both agonists individually influenced latencies and interspike intervals, the 5-HT1A agonist dominated these measurements during co-application. The third hypothesis was tested by applying antagonists of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors. Blocking 5-HT1B receptors was complementary to activation of the receptor, but blocking 5-HT1A receptors was not, suggesting the endogenous activation of additional receptor types. These results suggest that cooperative interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors shape auditory encoding in the IC, and that the effects of neuromodulators within sensory systems may depend nonlinearly on the specific profile of receptors that are activated. PMID:20646059

  4. Role of 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-08-01

    The effects of post-training (i.p.) injection of TFMPP, mCPP, DOI or 1-NP in the autoshaping learning task was explored. Furthermore, the post-training effects of these agonists after treatment with the antagonists (+/-)-pindolol, (+/-)-propranolol, NAN-190, ketanserin, ritanserin, mesulergine, MDL-72222 or p-chloroamphetamine (5-HT depleter) were studied. Rats were individually trained with a lever-press response (conditioned response; CR) on the autoshaping task and tested 24 h later. The results showed that the injection of TFMPP (1-10 mg/kg), mCPP (1-10 mg/kg), 1-NP (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) or mesulergine (0.4 mg/kg) decreased the rate of CR, while DOI (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and ritanserin (0.5 mg/kg) and ketanserin (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) increased it. However, the effect induced by TFMPP was reversed by (+/-)-pindolol, ketanserin, ritanserin and PCA; the mCPP-induced effect was antagonized by (+/-)-propranolol, ketanserin, ritanserin and MDL-72222; and the effect produced by 1-NP was reversed by ketanserin, ritanserin and PCA. In addition, the increment in CR provoked by DOI was enhanced by ketanserin, and reversed by ritanserin, mesulergine and PCA. These findings suggest that TFMPP, 1-NP and DOI exerted their effects via stimulation of presynaptic 5-HT receptors. The effects of mCPP most probably reflect activation of postsynaptic receptors. The present data suggest that both 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A-2C receptors play a significant role in the consolidation of learning.

  5. 5-HT 1A/1B receptor-mediated effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, on sleep: studies in 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 1B knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Monaca, Christelle; Boutrel, Benjamin; Hen, René; Hamon, Michel; Adrien, Joëlle

    2003-05-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are extensively used for the treatment of depression. Aside from their antidepressant properties, they provoke a deficit in paradoxical sleep (PS) that is most probably mediated by the transporter blockade-induced increase in serotonin concentration in the extracellular space. Such an effect can be accounted for by the action of serotonin at various types of serotonergic receptors involved in PS regulation, among which the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) types are the best candidates. According to this hypothesis, we examined the effects of citalopram, the most selective SSRI available to date, on sleep in the mouse after inactivation of 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1B) receptors, either by homologous recombination of their encoding genes, or pharmacological blockade with selective antagonists. For this purpose, sleep parameters of knockout mice that do not express these receptors and their wild-type counterparts were monitored during 8 h after injection of citalopram alone or in association with 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonists. Citalopram induced mainly a dose-dependent inhibition of PS during 2-6 h after injection, which was observed in wild-type and 5-HT(1B)-/- mice, but not in 5-HT(1A)-/- mutants. This PS inhibition was fully antagonized by pretreatment with the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY 100635, but only partially with the 5-HT(1B) antagonist GR 127935. These data indicate that the action of the SSRI citalopram on sleep in the mouse is essentially mediated by 5-HT(1A) receptors. Such a mechanism of action provides further support to the clinical strategy of antidepressant augmentation by 5-HT(1A) antagonists, because the latter would also counteract the direct sleep-inhibitory side-effects of SSRIs.

  6. Molecular dynamics of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors with methylated buspirone analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronowska, Agnieszka; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Leś, Andrzej; Edvardsen, Øyvind; Østensen, Roy; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2001-11-01

    In the present study experimentally determined ligand selectivity of three methylated buspirone analogues (denoted as MM2, MM5 and P55) towards 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors was theoretically investigated on a molecular level. The relationships between the ligand structure and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor affinities were studied and the results were found to be in agreement with the available site-directed mutagenesis and binding affinity data. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ligand-receptor complexes were performed for each investigated analogue, docked twice into the central cavity of 5-HT1A/5-HT2A, each time in a different orientation. Present results were compared with our previous theoretical results, obtained for buspirone and its non-methylated analogues. It was found that due to the presence of the methyl group in the piperazine ring the ligand position alters and the structure of the ligand-receptor complex is modified. Further, the positions of derivatives with pyrimidinyl aromatic moiety and quinolinyl moiety are significantly different at the 5-HT2A receptor. Thus, methylation of such derivatives alters the 3D structures of ligand-receptor complexes in different ways. The ligand-induced changes of the receptor structures were also analysed. The obtained results suggest, that helical domains of both receptors have different dynamical behaviour. Moreover, both location and topography of putative binding sites for buspirone analogues are different at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

  7. Role of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of piperine in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Ip, Siu-Po; Xian, Yan-Fang; Che, Chun-Tao

    2011-10-24

    Our previous studies have showed that treating mice with piperine significantly decreased the immobility time of the animals in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, which was related to up-regulation of serotonin (5-HT) level in the brain. The purpose of this study is to explore the contribution of 5-HT receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of piperine. The results showed that pre-treating mice with methiothepin (a non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, 0.1mg/kg, intraperitoneally), 4-(2'-methoxy-phenyl)-1-[2'-(n-2″-pyridinyl)-p-iodobenzamino-]ethyl-piperazine (a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, 1mg/kg, subcutaneously) or 1-(2-(1-pyrrolyl)-phenoxy)-3-isopropylamino-2-propanol (a 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist, 2.5mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was found to abolish the anti-immobility effect of piperine (10mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in the forced swim test. On the other hand, a sub-effective dose of piperine (1mg/kg, intraperitoneally) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect with (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 1mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or anpirtoline (a 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, 0.25mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Taken together, these results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of piperine in the mouse forced swim test may be mediated, at least in part, by the activation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptors.

  8. Evidence for 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors mediating constriction of the canine internal carotid circulation

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Ortiz, Mario I; Sánchez-López, Araceli; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2001-01-01

    The present study has investigated the preliminary pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating vasoconstriction to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the internal carotid bed of vagosympathectomised dogs. One minute intracarotid infusions of the agonists 5-HT (0.1–10 μg min−1), sumatriptan (0.3–10 μg min−1; 5-HT1B/1D), 5-methoxytryptamine (1–100 μg min−1; 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-ht6 and 5-HT7) or DOI (0.31–10 μg min−1; 5-HT2), but not 5-carboxamidotryptamine (0.01–0.3 μg min−1; 5-HT1, 5-ht5A and 5-HT7), 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (mCPBG; 1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT3) or cisapride (1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT4), resulted in dose-dependent decreases in internal carotid blood flow, without changing blood pressure or heart rate. The vasoconstrictor responses to 5-HT, which remained unaffected after saline, were resistant to blockade by i.v. administration of the antagonists ritanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2A/2B/2C) in combination with tropisetron (3000 μg kg−1; 5-HT3/4) or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (5000 μg kg−1), but were abolished by the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (30 μg kg−1). Interestingly, after administration of GR127935, the subsequent administration of ritanserin unmasked a dose-dependent vasodilator component. GR127935 or saline did not practically modify the vasoconstrictor effects of 5-MeO-T. In animals receiving GR127935, the subsequent administration of ritanserin abolished the vasoconstrictor responses to 5-MeO-T unmasking a dose-dependent vasodilator component. The vasoconstriction induced by sumatriptan was antagonized by GR127935, but not by ritanserin. Furthermore, ritanserin (100 μg kg−1) or ketanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2A), but not GR127935, abolished DOI-induced vasoconstrictor responses. The above results suggest that 5-HT-induced internal carotid vasoconstriction is predominantly mediated by 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors

  9. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    PubMed

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, José M; Cortés, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions.

  10. Social instigation and aggression in postpartum female rats: role of 5-Ht1A and 5-Ht1B receptors in the dorsal raphé nucleus and prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    da Veiga, Caroline Perinazzo; Miczek, Klaus A.; Lucion, Aldo Bolten

    2013-01-01

    Rationale 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists effectively reduce aggressive behavior in males that has been escalated by social instigation. Important sites of action for these drugs are the receptors in dorsal raphé nuclei (DRN) and the ventral–orbital prefrontal cortex (VO PFC). DRN and VO PFC areas are particularly relevant in the inhibitory control of escalated aggressive and impulsive behavior. Objectives The objectives of this study are to assess the anti-aggressive effects of 5-HT1A (8-OH-DPAT) and 5-HT1B (CP-93,129) receptor agonists microinjected into DRN and VO PFC, respectively, and to study the aggressive behavior in postpartum female Wistar rats using the social instigation protocol to increase aggression. Methods and Results 8-OH-DPAT (0.56 µg) in the DRN increased aggressive behavior in postpartum female rats. By contrast, CP-93,129 (1.0 µg) microinjected into VO PFC decreased the number of attack bites and lateral threats. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists differed in their effects on non-aggressive activities, the former decreasing rearing and grooming and the latter increasing these acts. When 8-OH-DPAT was microinjected into DRN and CP-93,129 was microinjected into VO PFC in female rats at the same time, maternal aggression decreased. Specific participation of 5-HT1B receptors was verified by reversal of the anti-aggressive effects using the selective antagonist SB-224,289 (1.0 µg). Conclusions The decrease in maternal aggressive behavior after microinjections of 5-HT1B receptor agonists into the VO PFC and DRN of female postpartum rats that were instigated socially supports the hypothesis that activation of these receptors modulates high levels of aggression in a behaviorally specific manner, due to activation of 5-HT1B receptors at the soma and terminals. PMID:21107539

  11. Novel class of arylpiperazines containing N-acylated amino acids: their synthesis, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A receptor affinity, and in vivo pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Tatarczyńska, Ewa; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Chojnacka-Wójcik, Ewa; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2007-04-15

    Novel arylpiperazines with N-acylated amino acids, selected on the basis of a preliminary screening of two libraries previously synthesized on SynPhase Lanterns, were prepared in solution and their affinity for 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and D(2) receptors was evaluated. The compounds bearing (3-acylamino)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (19-26) and N-acylprolinamide (29-34) moieties showed high affinity for 5-HT(1A) (K(i)=3-47 nM), high-to-low for 5-HT(2A) (K(i)=4.2-990 nM), and low for D(2) receptors (K(i)=0.77-21.19 microM). All the new o-methoxy derivatives of (3-acylamino)pyrrolidine-2,5-diones tested in vivo revealed agonistic activity at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, while m-chloro derivatives were classified as antagonists of these sites; similar relations were observed for o-methoxy (29) and m-chlorophenylpiperazine derivatives of N-acylprolinamides. The reported results show that the amino acid-derived terminal fragment modified the in vivo functional profile. Finally, the selected compounds 19 and 20, a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist and a full agonist, respectively, and 26, a mixed 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A) antagonist, were evaluated in preclinical animal models of depression and anxiety. The project allowed selecting the lead compound 20 which exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect in the four-plate test in mice and revealed distinct antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests in mice.

  12. The 5-HT1-like receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in the pithed rat: operational correlation with the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, Carlos M; Centurión, David; Rabelo, Gonzalo; de Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Sánchez-López, Araceli

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that the inhibition of sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses produced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in pithed rats is mediated by 5-HT1-like receptors. The present study has re-analysed this suggestion with regard to the classification schemes recently proposed by the NC-IUPHAR subcommittee on 5-HT receptors.Intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of 5-HT and the 5-HT1 receptor agonists, 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A), indorenate (5-HT1A), CP 93,129 (5-HT1B) and sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D), resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses.The sympatho-inhibitory responses induced by 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT, indorenate, CP 93,129 or sumatriptan were analysed before and after i.v. treatment with blocking doses of the putative 5-HT receptor antagonists, WAY 100635 (5-HT1A), cyanopindolol (5-HT1A/1B) or GR 127935 (5-HT1B/1D). Thus, after WAY 100635, the responses to 5-HT and indorenate, but not to 8-OH-DPAT, CP 93,129 and sumatriptan, were blocked. After cyanopindolol, the responses to 5-HT, indorenate and CP 93,129 were abolished, whilst those to 8-OH-DPAT and sumatriptan (except at the lowest frequency of stimulation) remained unaltered. In contrast, after GR 127935, the responses to 5-HT, CP 93,129 and sumatriptan, but not to 8-OH-DPAT and indorenate, were abolished.In additional experiments, the inhibition induced by 5-HT was not modified after 5-HT7 receptor blocking doses of mesulergine.The above results suggest that the 5-HT1-like receptors, which inhibit the sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, display the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D, but not that of 5-HT7, receptors. PMID:9692787

  13. The role of peripheral 5HT2A and 5HT1A receptors on the orofacial formalin test in rats with persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, K; Imbe, H; Tashiro, A; Kimura, A; Donishi, T; Tamai, Y; Senba, E

    2005-01-01

    The role of peripheral serotonin (5HT) 2A and 5HT1A receptors on the orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities evoked by the injection of formalin into the masseter muscle was evaluated in the rats with persistent temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation evoked by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities evoked by the injection of formalin into masseter muscle were significantly enhanced at 1 day (CFA day 1 group) or 7 days (CFA day 7 group) during TMJ inflammation. Pretreatment with local administration of 5HT2A receptor antagonist, ketanserin (0.01, 0.1 mg/rat) into the masseter muscle or systemic administration of ketanserin via i.p. injection (1 mg/kg) reduced the orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities of the late phase evoked by formalin injection into masseter muscle on the side of TMJ inflammation (CFA day 7 group). However, local (0.001-0.1 mg/rat) or systemic (1 mg/kg) administration of 5HT1A receptor antagonist, propranolol, into masseter muscle did not produce the antinociceptive effect in CFA day 7 group. Moreover, local administration of ketanserin (0.1 mg) or propranolol (0.1 mg) into masseter muscle did not inhibit nocifensive orofacial behavior in rats without TMJ inflammation. These data suggest that persistent TMJ inflammation causes the elevation of the orofacial nocifensive behavior, and peripheral 5HT2A receptors play an important role in mediating the deep craniofacial tissue nociception in rats with TMJ inflammation.

  14. Targeting dopamine D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors for developing effective antipsychotics: synthesis, biological characterization, and behavioral studies.

    PubMed

    Brindisi, Margherita; Butini, Stefania; Franceschini, Silvia; Brogi, Simone; Trotta, Francesco; Ros, Sindu; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Salmona, Mario; Casagni, Alice; Andreassi, Marco; Saponara, Simona; Gorelli, Beatrice; Weikop, Pia; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Scheel-Kruger, Jorgen; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra

    2014-11-26

    Combination of dopamine D3 antagonism, serotonin 5-HT1A partial agonism, and antagonism at 5-HT2A leads to a novel approach to potent atypical antipsychotics. Exploitation of the original structure-activity relationships resulted in the identification of safe and effective antipsychotics devoid of extrapyramidal symptoms liability, sedation, and catalepsy. The potential atypical antipsychotic 5bb was selected for further pharmacological investigation. The distribution of c-fos positive cells in the ventral striatum confirmed the atypical antipsychotic profile of 5bb in agreement with behavioral rodent studies. 5bb administered orally demonstrated a biphasic effect on the MK801-induced hyperactivity at dose levels not able to induce sedation, catalepsy, or learning impairment in passive avoidance. In microdialysis studies, 5bb increased the dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, 5bb represents a valuable lead for the development of atypical antipsychotics endowed with a unique pharmacological profile for addressing negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  15. Hallucinogen-like effects of N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT): possible mediation by serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Fantegrossi, William E.; Reissig, Chad J.; Katz, Elyse B.; Yarosh, Haley L.; Rice, Kenner C.; Winter, Jerrold C.

    2008-01-01

    N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT) is a synthetic tryptamine hallucinogen which has been used psychotherapeutically in humans, but has been studied preclinically only rarely. In the present studies, DPT was tested in a drug-elicited head twitch assay in mice, and in rats trained to discriminate lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), N,N-dimethyl-4-phosphoryloxytryptamine (psilocybin), or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). A separate group of rats was also trained to recognize DPT itself as a discriminative stimulus, and in all cases, the behavioral effects of DPT were challenged with the selective serotonin (5-HT)2A antagonist M100907, the 5-HT1A selective antagonist WAY-100635, or their combination. In the head twitch assay, DPT elicited dose-dependent effects, producing a biphasic dose-effect curve. WAY-100635 produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose-effect curve for head twitches, indicative of surmountable antagonism, but the antagonist effects of M100907 were functionally insurmountable. DPT produced partial to full substitution when tested in rats trained to discriminate LSD, psilocybin or MDMA, and served as a discriminative stimulus. In all cases, the antagonist effects of M100907 were more profound than were those of WAY-100635. DPT is thus active in two rodent models relevant to 5-HT2 agonist activity. The effectiveness with which M100907 antagonizes the behavioral actions of this compound strongly suggests that the 5-HT2A receptor is an important site of action for DPT, but the modulatory actions of WAY-100635 also imply a 5-HT1A-mediated component to the actions of this compound. PMID:17905422

  16. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity. PMID:25446678

  17. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity.

  18. Antidepressant-like activity of Tagetes lucida Cav. is mediated by 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Guadarrama-Cruz, G; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Limón-Morales, O; Vazquez-Palacios, G

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Tagetes lucida Cav. shows an antidepressant-like effect on the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. The aim of this study was to analyze the participation of the serotoninergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of the aqueous extract of T. lucida. Different doses of the extract of T. lucida were administered at 72, 48, 24, 18 and 1 h before FST. The animals were pretreated with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.5 mg/kg), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (ketanserin, 5 mg/kg), a β-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol, 200 mg/kg), and with a α2-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine, 1 mg/kg) alone or combined with the extract and pretreated with a serotonin synthesis inhibitor (PCPA) before treatment with 8-OH-DPAT + the extract of T. lucida. In addition, suboptimal doses of the 5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) + non-effective dose of extract was analyzed in the FST. To determine the presence of flavonoids, the aqueous extract of T. lucida (20 µl, 4 mg/ml) was injected in HPLC; however, a quercetin concentration of 7.72 mg/g of extract weight was detected. A suboptimal dose of 8-OH-DPAT + extract of T. lucida decreased immobility and increased swimming and climbing. An antidepressant-like effect with the aqueous extract of T. lucida at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg was observed on the FST with decreased immobility behavior and increased swimming; however, this effect was blocked by WAY-100635, ketanserin and PCPA but not by yohimbine and propranolol, suggesting that the extract of T. lucida could be modulating the release/reuptake of serotonin.

  19. Spinal 5-HT1A, not the 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors, mediates descending serotonergic inhibition for late-phase mechanical allodynia of carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung Min; Jeong, Seong Wook; Yang, Jihoon; Lee, Seong Heon; Kim, Woon Mo; Jeong, Seongtae; Bae, Hong Beom; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-07-23

    Previous electrophysiological studies demonstrated a limited role of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3R), but facilitatory role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT1BR in spinal nociceptive processing of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. The release of spinal 5-HT was shown to peak in early-phase and return to baseline in late-phase of carrageenan inflammation. We examined the role of the descending serotonergic projections involving 5-HT1AR, 5-HT1BR, and 5-HT3R in mechanical allodynia of early- (first 4h) and late-phase (24h after) carrageenan-induced inflammation. Intrathecal administration of 5-HT produced a significant anti-allodynic effect in late-phase, but not in early-phase. Similarly, intrathecal 5-HT1AR agonist (8-OH-DPAT) attenuated the intensity of late-phase allodynia in a dose dependent fashion which was antagonized by 5-HT1AR antagonist (WAY-100635), but produced no effect on the early-phase allodynia. However, other agonists or antagonists of 5-HT1BR (CP-93129, SB-224289) and 5-HT3R (m-CPBG, ondansetron) did not produce any anti- or pro-allodynic effect in both early- and late- phase allodynia. These results suggest that spinal 5-HT1A, but not 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors mediate descending serotonergic inhibition on nociceptive processing of late-phase mechanical allodynia in carrageenan-induced inflammation.

  20. A new class of arylpiperazine derivatives: the library synthesis on SynPhase lanterns and biological evaluation on serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2004-01-01

    An efficient solid-supported method for the synthesis of a new class of arylpiperazine derivatives containing amino acid residues has been developed. A 72-membered library was synthesized on SynPhase Lanterns functionalized by a BAL linker. A one-pot cleavage/cyclization step of aspartic and glutamic acid derivatives yielded succinimide- and pyroglutamyl-containing ligands (chemsets 9 and 10). The library representatives under study showed different levels of affinity for 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors (estimated K(i) = 24-4000 and 1-2130 nM, respectively). Several dual 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A) ligands were found, of which two (9(3,3) and 9(3,5)) displayed high 5-HT(2A) affinity comparable to that of the reference drug ritanserin. A set of individual fragment contributions for the prediction of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) affinity of all the library members were defined on the basis of the Free-Wilson analysis of 26 compounds. An alkylarylpiperazine fragment had essentially the same impact on the affinity for both receptors, whereas different terminal amide fragments were preferred by 5-HT(1A) (chemset 17, R(2) = adamantyl) and 5-HT(2A) (chemset 9, R(2) = norborn-2-ylmethyl) binding sites.

  1. Modulating the rate and rhythmicity of perceptual rivalry alternations with the mixed 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A agonist psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Hasler, Felix; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Hell, Daniel; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2005-06-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are presented simultaneously to corresponding points within the left and right eyes. Under these conditions, the observer's perception will alternate between the two perceptual alternatives. Motivated by the reported link between the rate of perceptual alternations, symptoms of psychosis and an incidental observation that the rhythmicity of perceptual alternations during binocular rivalry was greatly increased 10 h after the consumption of LSD, this study aimed to investigate the pharmacology underlying binocular rivalry and to explore the connection between the timing of perceptual switching and psychosis. Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, PY) was chosen for the study because, like LSD, it is known to act as an agonist at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A receptors and to produce an altered state sometimes marked by psychosis-like symptoms. A total of 12 healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, low-dose (115 microg/kg) and high-dose (250 microg/kg) PY conditions. In line with predictions, under both low- and high-dose conditions, the results show that at 90 min postadministration (the peak of drug action), rate and rhythmicity of perceptual alternations were significantly reduced from placebo levels. Following the 90 min testing period, the perceptual switch rate successively increased, with some individuals showing increases well beyond pretest levels at the final testing, 360 min postadministration. However, as some subjects had still not returned to pretest levels by this time, the mean phase duration at 360 min was not found to differ significantly from placebo. Reflecting the drug-induced changes in rivalry phase durations, subjects showed clear changes in psychological state as indexed by the 5D-ASC (altered states of consciousness) rating scales. This study suggests the involvement of serotonergic pathways in binocular rivalry and supports the previously proposed role of a brainstem

  2. The serotonergic hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine disrupts cortical activity in a regionally-selective manner via 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maurizio S; Bortolozzi, Analia; Campa, Letizia; Artigas, Francesc; Celada, Pau

    2016-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a natural hallucinogen, acting as a non-selective serotonin 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A)-R agonist. Psychotomimetic agents such as the non-competitive NMDA-R antagonist phencyclidine and serotonergic hallucinogens (DOI and 5-MeO-DMT) disrupt cortical synchrony in the low frequency range (<4 Hz) in rat prefrontal cortex (PFC), an effect reversed by antipsychotic drugs. Here we extend these observations by examining the effect of 5-MeO-DMT on low frequency cortical oscillations (LFCO, <4 Hz) in PFC, visual (V1), somatosensory (S1) and auditory (Au1) cortices, as well as the dependence of these effects on 5-HT(1A)-R and 5-HT(2A)-R, using wild type (WT) and 5-HT(2A)-R knockout (KO2A) anesthetized mice. 5-MeO-DMT reduced LFCO in the PFC of WT and KO2A mice. The effect in KO2A mice was fully prevented by the 5-HT(1A)-R antagonist WAY-100635. Systemic and local 5-MeO-DMT reduced 5-HT release in PFC mainly via 5-HT(1A)-R. Moreover, 5-MeO-DMT reduced LFCO in S1, Au1 and V1 of WT mice and only in V1 of KO2A mice, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT(1A)-R activation in the 5-MeO-DMT-induced disruption of V1 activity. In addition, antipsychotic drugs reversed 5-MeO-DMT effects in WT mice. The present results suggest that the hallucinogen action of 5-MeO-DMT is mediated by simultaneous alterations of the activity of sensory (S1, Au1, V1) and associative (PFC) cortical areas, also supporting a role of 5-HT(1A)-R stimulation in V1 and PFC, in addition to the well-known action on 5-HT(2A)-R. Moreover, the reversal by antipsychotic drugs of 5-MeO-DMT effects adds to previous literature supporting the usefulness of the present model in antipsychotic drug development.

  3. Distinct effect of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial nucleus of the amygdala on tonic immobility behavior.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Bruna Balbino; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2016-07-15

    The tonic immobility (TI) response is an innate fear behavior associated with intensely dangerous situations, exhibited by many species of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In humans, it is possible that TI predicts the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. This behavioral response is initiated and sustained by the stimulation of various groups of neurons distributed in the telencephalon, diencephalon and brainstem. Previous research has found the highest Fos-IR in the posteroventral part of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MEA) during TI behavior; however, the neurotransmission of this amygdaloid region involved in the modulation of this innate fear behavior still needs to be clarified. Considering that a major drug class used for the treatment of psychopathology is based on serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, we investigated the effects of serotonergic receptor activation in the MEA on the duration of TI. The results indicate that the activation of the 5HT1A receptors or the blocking of the 5HT2 receptors of the MEA can promote a reduction in fear and/or anxiety, consequently decreasing TI duration in guinea pigs. In contrast, blocking the 5HT1A receptors or activating the 5HT2 receptors in this amygdalar region increased the TI duration, suggesting an increase in fear and/or anxiety. These alterations do not appear to be due to a modification of spontaneous motor activity, which might non-specifically affect TI duration. Thus, these results suggest a distinct role of the 5HT receptors in the MEA in innate fear modulation.

  4. The antidepressant-like activity of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one involves serotonergic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/C) receptors activation.

    PubMed

    Pytka, Karolina; Walczak, Maria; Kij, Agnieszka; Rapacz, Anna; Siwek, Agata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-10-05

    Xanthone derivatives have been shown to posses many biological properties. Some of them act within the central nervous system and show neuroprotective or antidepressant-like properties. Taking this into account we investigated antidepressant-like activity in mice and the possible mechanism of action of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one (HBK-11) - a new xanthone derivative. We demonstrated that HBK-11 produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, comparable to that of venlafaxine. The combined treatment with sub-effective doses of HBK-11 and fluoxetine (but not reboxetine or bupropion) significantly reduced the immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, the antidepressant-like activity of HBK-11 in the aforementioned test was blocked by p-chlorophenylalanine, and significantly reduced by serotonergic 5HT1A receptor antagonist - WAY-1006335 and 5HT2A/C receptor antagonist - ritanserin. As none of the above treatments influenced the spontaneous locomotor activity, it can be concluded that HBK-11 mediates its activity through a serotonergic system, and its antidepressant-like effect involves 5HT1A and 5HT2A/C receptor activation. Furthermore, at antidepressant-like doses HBK-11 did not cause the mice to display locomotor deficits in rotarod or chimney tests. Considering the pharmacokinetic profile, HBK-11 demonstrated rapid absorption after i.p. administration, high clearance value, short terminal half-life, very high volume of distribution and incomplete bioavailability. The compound studied had good penetration into the brain tissue of mice. Since studied xanthone derivative seems to present interesting, untypical mechanism of antidepressant-like action i.e. 5HT2A/C receptor activation, it may have a potential in the treatment of depressive disorders, and surely requires further studies.

  5. Dual role of serotonin in the acquisition and extinction of reward-driven learning: involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Hocht, Christian; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano; Rapanelli, Maximiliano

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been proposed as a possible encoder of reward. Nevertheless, the role of this neurotransmitter in reward-based tasks is not well understood. Given that the major serotonergic circuit in the rat brain comprises the dorsal raphe nuclei and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and because the latter structure is involved in the control of complex behaviors and expresses 1A (5-HT1A), 2A (5-HT2A), and 3 (5-HT3) receptors, the aim was to study the role of 5-HT and of these receptors in the acquisition and extinction of a reward-dependent operant conditioning task. Long Evans rats were trained in an operant conditioning task while receiving fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg), tianeptine (serotonin reuptake enhancer, 10mg/kg), buspirone (5-HT1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg), risperidone (5-HT2A antagonist, 1mg/kg), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 2mg/kg) or vehicle. Then, animals that acquired the operant conditioning without any treatment were trained to extinct the task in the presence of the pharmacological agents. Fluoxetine impaired acquisition but improved extinction. Tianeptine administration induced the opposite effects. Buspirone induced a mild deficit in acquisition and had no effects during the extinction phase. Risperidone administration resulted in learning deficits during the acquisition phase, although it promoted improved extinction. Ondansetron treatment showed a deleterious effect in the acquisition phase and an overall improvement in the extinction phase. These data showed a differential role of 5-HT in the acquisition and extinction of an operant conditioning task, suggesting that it may have a dual function in reward encoding.

  6. Could the 5-HT1B receptor inverse agonism affect learning consolidation?

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2001-03-01

    Diverse evidence indicates that, the 5-HT system might play a role in learning and memory, since it occurs in brain areas mediating such processes and 5-HT drugs modulate them. Hence in this work, in order to explore further 5-HT involvement on learning and memory 5-HT1B receptors' role is investigated. Evidence indicates that SB-224289 (a 5-HT1B receptor inverse agonist) post-training injection facilitated learning consolidation in an associative autoshaping learning task, this effect was partially reversed by GR 127935 (a 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist), but unaffected by MDL 100907 (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) or ketanserin (a 5-HT1D/2A/7 receptor antagonist) at low doses. Moreover, SB-224289 antagonized the learning deficit produced by TFMPP (a 5-HT1A/1B/1D/2A/2C receptor agonist), GR 46611 (a 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptor agonist), mCPP (a 5-HT2A/2C/3/7 receptor agonist/antagonist) or GR 127935 (at low dose). SB-224289 did not alter the 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist) learning facilitatory effect. SB-224289 eliminated the deficit learning produced by the anticholinergic muscarinic scopolamine or the glutamatergic antagonist dizocilpine. Administration of both, GR 127935 (5mg/kg) plus ketanserin (0.01 mg/kg) did not modify learning consolidation; nevertheless, when ketanserin dose was increased (0.1-1.0mg/kg) and SB-224289 dose was maintained constant, a learning facilitation effect was observed. Notably, SB-224289 at 1.0mg/kg potentiated a subeffective dose of the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist/antagonist mixed GR 127935, which facilitated learning consolidation and this effect was abolished by ketanserin at a higher dose. Collectively, the data confirm and extend the earlier findings with GR 127935 and the effects of non-selective 5-HT(1B) receptor agonists. Clearly 5-HT1B agonists induced a learning deficit which can be reversed with SB-224289. Perhaps more importantly, SB-224289 enhances learning consolidation when given alone and can reverse the deficits

  7. New arylpiperazinylalkyl derivatives of 8-alkoxy-purine-2,6-dione and dihydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-f]purinedione targeting the serotonin 5-HT1A /5-HT2A /5-HT7 and dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Chłoń-Rzepa, Grażyna; Zagórska, Agnieszka; Bucki, Adam; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Pawłowski, Maciej; Satała, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Partyka, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Pękala, Elżbieta; Słoczyńska, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    To obtain potential antidepressants and/or antipsychotics, a series of new long-chain arylpiperazine derivatives of 8-alkoxy-purine-2,6-dione (10-24) and dihydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-f]purinedione (30-34) were synthesized and their serotonin (5-HT1A , 5-HT2A , 5-HT6 , 5-HT7 ) and dopamine (D2 ) receptor affinities were determined. The study allowed the identification of some potent 5-HT1A /5-HT7 /D2 ligands with moderate affinity for 5-HT2A sites. The binding mode of representative compounds from both chemical classes (11 and 31) in the site of 5-HT1A receptor was analyzed in computational studies. In functional in vitro studies, the selected compounds 15 and 16 showed antagonistic properties for the evaluated receptors. 8-Methoxy-7-{4-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-butyl}-1,3-dimethyl-purine-2,6-dione (15) showed a lack of activity in terms and under the conditions of the forced swim, four plate and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity tests in mice, probably as a result of its high first pass effect in the liver.

  8. 5-HT1A receptors modulate the consolidation of learning in normal and cognitively impaired rats.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1999-03-01

    Attempts were made to further analyze the role of 5-HT1A receptors in consolidation of learning by evaluating the role of these receptors in cognitively normal and impaired animals. The effects of post-training administration of 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, WAY 100135, WAY 100635, and S-UH-301, plus the cholinergic and glutamatergic antagonists, scopolamine and dizolcipine, respectively, were determined using an autoshaping learning task. The results showed that 8-OH-DPAT increased the number of conditioned responses, whereas WAY100135, WAY100635, and S-UH-301, and the 5-HT depleter, p-chloroamphetamine (PCA), had no effect. PCA did not change the silent properties of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonists. PCA, WAY100635, and S-UH-301, but not GR127935 (a 5-HT1B/1D-receptor antagonist) or MDL100907 (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist), reversed the effect to 8-OH-DPAT. Ketanserin (a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist) and ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), at a dose that increased the conditioned responses by itself, reversed the effect of 8-OH-DPAT. Moreover, 8-OH-DPAT or S-UH-301 reversed the learning deficit induced by scopolamine and dizocilpine whereas WAY100635 reversed the effect of scopolamine only. These data confirm a role for presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors during the consolidation of learning and support the hypothesis that serotonergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic systems interact in cognitively impaired animals.

  9. Ethanol and Mesolimbic Serotonin/Dopamine Interactions Via 5-HT1B Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    5 - HT3 receptor antagonist antagonized systemic ethanol- induced increases of DA release in the VTA [10] or the NACC [9]. Moreover, the...experiments with a selective 5 -HT1B receptor antagonist such as SB 216641 are required to strengthen this conclusion. The future experiments will be... receptor antagonist ), but not BRL 15572 (a 5 -HT1D/1A receptor antagonist ) or WAY 100635 (a 5 -HT1A receptor antagonist ). Administration

  10. A 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist inhibits light-induced suppression of pineal melatonin production.

    PubMed

    Rea, M A; Pickard, G E

    2000-03-10

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the phase adjusting effects of light on the mammalian circadian clock through the activation of presynaptic 5-HT(1B) receptors located on retinal terminals in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The current study was conducted to determine whether activation of 5-HT(1B) receptors also alters photic regulation of nocturnal pineal melatonin production. Systemic administration of the 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist TFMPP attenuated the inhibitory effect of light on pineal melatonin synthesis in a dose-related manner with an apparent ED(50) value of 0.9 mg/kg. The effect of TFMPP on light-induced melatonin suppression was blocked by the 5-HT(1) receptor antagonist, methiothepin, but not by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY 100,635, consistent with the involvement of 5-HT(1B) receptors. The results are consistent with the interpretation that activation of presynaptic 5-HT(1B) receptors on retinal terminals in the SCN attenuates the effect of light on pineal melatonin production, as well as on circadian phase.

  11. Receptor specificity and trigemino-vascular inhibitory actions of a novel 5-HT1B/1D receptor partial agonist, 311C90 (zolmitriptan)

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G R; Robertson, A D; MacLennan, S J; Prentice, D J; Barrett, V J; Buckingham, J; Honey, A C; Giles, H; Moncada, S

    1997-01-01

    311C90 (zolmitriptan zomig: (S)-4[[3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-5-yl]methyl]-2-oxazolidinone) is a novel 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist with proven efficacy in the acute treatment of migraine. Here, we describe the receptor specificity of the drug and its actions on trigeminal-evoked plasma protein extravasation into the dura mater of the anaesthetized guinea-pig. At the ‘5-HT1B-like' receptor mediating vascular contraction (rabbit saphenous vein), the compound was a potent (p[A50]=6.79±0.06) partial agonist achieving 77±4% of the maximum effect to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). In the same experiments, sumatriptan (p[A50]=6.48±0.04) was half as potent as 311C90 and produced 97±2% of the 5-HT maximum effect. Studies in which receptor inactivation methods were used to estimate the affinity (pKA) and efficacy relative to 5-HT (τrel.) for each agonist confirmed that 311C90 exhibits higher affinity than sumatriptan (pKA=6.63±0.04 and 6.16±0.03, respectively) and that both drugs are partial agonists relative to 5-HT (τrel=0.61±0.03 and 0.63±0.10, respectively, compared to 5-HT=1.0). Consistent with its effects in rabbit saphenous vein, 311C90 also produced concentration-dependent contractions of primate basilar artery and human epicardial coronary artery rings. In basilar artery, agonist potency (p[A50]=6.92±0.07) was similar to that demonstrated in rabbit saphenous vein, again being 2–3 fold higher than for sumatriptan (p[A50]=6.46±0.03). Both agonists produced about 50% of the maximum response obtained with 5-HT in the same preparations. In rings of human coronary artery, the absolute potency of 311C90 and sumatriptan was higher than in primate basilar artery (p[A50]=7.3±0.1 and 6.7±0.1, respectively), but maximum effects relative to 5-HT were lower (37±8% and 35±7%, respectively). In both types of vessel, the inability of 5-HT1B/1D agonists to achieve the same maximum as the endogenous agonist 5-HT is explained by the additional presence of 5-HT2A

  12. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori . E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.

  13. 5-HT1B autoreceptor regulation of serotonin transporter activity in synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Catherine E.; McDevitt, Ross A.; Liu, Yusha; Furay, Amy R.; Neumaier, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin-1B (5-HT1B) autoreceptors are located in serotonin (5-HT) terminals along with serotonin transporters (SERT), and play a critical role in autoregulation of serotonergic neurotransmission, and are implicated in disorders of serotonergic function, particularly emotional regulation. SERT modulates serotonergic neurotransmission by high-affinity reuptake of 5-HT. Alterations in SERT activity are associated with increased risk for depression and anxiety. Several neurotransmitter receptors are known to regulate SERT Km and Vmax, and previous work suggests that 5-HT1B autoreceptors may regulate 5-HT reuptake, in addition to modulating 5-HT release and synthesis. We used rotating disk electrode voltammetry to investigate 5-HT1B autoreceptor regulation of SERT-mediated 5-HT uptake into synaptosomes. The selective 5-HT1B antagonist SB224289 decreased SERT activity in synaptosomes prepared from wild-type but not 5-HT1B knockout mice, whereas SERT uptake was enhanced after pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT1B agonist CP94253. Furthermore, SERT activity varies as a function of 5-HT1B receptor expression—specifically, genetic deletion of 5-HT1B decreased SERT function, while viral-mediated overexpression of 5-HT1B autoreceptors in rat raphe neurons increased SERT activity in rat hippocampal synaptosomes. Considered collectively, these results provide evidence that 5-HT1B autoreceptors regulate SERT activity. Since SERT clearance rate varies as a function of 5-HT1B autoreceptor expression levels and is modulated by both activation and inhibition of 5-HT1B autoreceptors, this dynamic interaction may be an important mechanism of serotonin autoregulation with therapeutic implications. PMID:22961814

  14. RU 24969-induced emesis in the cat - 5-HT1 sites other than 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C implicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.

    1990-01-01

    RU 24969 was administered s.c. to cats and found to elicit emesis with a maximally effective dose of 1.0 mg/kg 5-Methoxytryptamine was found to have lower efficacy and to produce a higher incidence of nonspecific effects while trifluoromethylphenylpiperizine (TFMPP) was devoid of emetic effects. The emesis elicited by 1.0 mg/kg of RU 24969 was not altered by pretreatment with phentolamine, haloperidol, yohimbine or (-)-propranolol, indicating that catecholamines played no role in this response. The emesis was prevented by metergoline and methysergide but not by ketanserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, ICS 205 930, methiothepin, trimethobenzamide or BMY 7378. An indirect argument is presented that implicates a role for 5-HT1D sites. This conclusion must remain tentative until drugs selective for this site are synthesized and tested. The emesis was also prevented by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), confirming that this drug has a general antiemetic effect in cats.

  15. Modulatory effect of the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the mixed non-hallucinogenic 5-HT1A/2A agonist ergotamine on psilocybin-induced psychedelic experience.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Thomas; Preller, Katrin H; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-04-01

    The mixed serotonin (5-HT) 1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptor agonist psilocybin dose-dependently induces an altered state of consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by changes in sensory perception, mood, thought, and the sense of self. The psychological effects of psilocybin are primarily mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. However, accumulating evidence suggests that 5-HT1A or an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors may contribute to the overall effects of psilocybin. Therefore, we used a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subject design to investigate the modulatory effects of the partial 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (20mg p.o.) and the non-hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/1A agonist ergotamine (3mg p.o.) on psilocybin-induced (170 µg/kg p.o.) psychological effects in two groups (n=19, n=17) of healthy human subjects. Psychological effects were assessed using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC) rating scale. Buspirone significantly reduced the 5D-ASC main scale score for Visionary Restructuralization (VR) (p<0.001), which was mostly driven by a reduction of the VR item cluster scores for elementary and complex visual hallucinations. Further, buspirone also reduced the main scale score for Oceanic Boundlessness (OB) including derealisation and depersonalisation phenomena at a trend level (p=0.062), whereas ergotamine did not show any effects on the psilocybin-induced 5D-ASC main scale scores. The present finding demonstrates that buspirone exerts inhibitory effects on psilocybin-induced effects, presumably via 5-HT1A receptor activation, an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, or both. The data suggest that the modulation of 5-HT1A receptor activity may be a useful target in the treatment of visual hallucinations in different psychiatric and neurological diseases.

  16. Analysis of the 5-HT1A receptor involvement in passive avoidance in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Misane, Ilga; Johansson, Christina; Ove Ögren, Sven

    1998-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist DOB, the selective 5-HT1A agonist NDO 008 (3-dipropylamino-5-hydroxychroman), and the two enantiomers of the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (R(+)-8-OH-DPAT and S(−)-8-OH-DPAT) were studied in a step-through passive avoidance (PA) test in the male rat.The 5-HT1A agonists injected prior to training (conditioning) produced a dose-dependent impairment of PA retention when examined 24 h later. R(+)-8-OH-DPAT was four times more effective than S(−)-8-OH-DPAT to cause an impairment of PA retention. Both NDO 008 and the two enantiomers of 8-OH-DPAT induced the serotonin syndrome at the dose range that produced inhibition of the PA response, thus, indicating activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.Neither NDO 008 nor R(+)-8-OH-DPAT induced head-twitches, a behavioural response attributed to stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors. In contrast, DOB induced head-twitches at the 0.01 mg kg−1 dose while a 200 times higher dose was required to produce a significant impairment of PA retention.The impairment of PA retention induced by both NDO 008 and R(+)-8-OH-DPAT was fully blocked by the active S(+)- enantiomer of the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100135 and the mixed 5-HT1A/β-adrenoceptor antagonist L(−)-alprenolol. In contrast, the mixed 5-HT2A/2C antagonists ketanserin and pirenperone were found to be ineffective. Moreover, the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118551, the β1-antagonist metoprolol as well as the mixed β-adrenoceptor blocker D(+)-alprenolol all failed to modify the deficit of PA retention by NDO 008 and R(+)-8-OH-DPAT. None of the 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonists tested or the β-blockers altered PA retention by themselves.A 3 day pretreatment procedure (200+100+100 mg kg−1) with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) did not alter PA retention and did not prevent the inhibitory action of the 5-HT1A agonists, indicating that their effects on PA do not

  17. 5-HT1B receptor-mediated contractions in human temporal artery: evidence from selective antagonists and 5-HT receptor mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Verheggen, R; Hundeshagen, A G; Brown, A M; Schindler, M; Kaumann, A J

    1998-01-01

    In the human temporal artery both 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2A receptors mediate the contractile effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and we have suggested that the 5-HT1-like receptors resemble more closely recombinant 5-HT1B than 5-HT1D receptors. To investigate further which subtype is involved, we investigated the blockade of 5-HT-induced contractions by the 5-HT1B-selective antagonist SB-224289 (2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1′-methyl-5-{2-methyl-4′[(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl) biphenyl-4-yl] carbonyl} furo[2,3-f]indole-3-spiro-4′-piperidine oxalate) and the 5-HT1D-selective antagonist BRL-15572 (1-phenyl-3[4-3-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] phenylpropan-2-ol). We also used RT-PCR to search for the mRNA of 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and other 5-HT receptors.The contractile effects of 5-HT in temporal artery rings were partially antagonized by SB-224289 (20, 200 nM) (apparent KB=1 nM) and ketanserin (1 μM) but not by BRL-15572 (500 nM).Sumatriptan evoked contractions (EC50, 170 nM) that were resistant to blockade by BRL-15572 (500 nM) but antagonized by SB-224289 (20, 200 nM).The potency of 5-HT (EC50) was estimated to be 94 nM for the ketanserin-sensitive receptor and 34 nM for the SB-224289-sensitive receptor. The fraction of maximal 5-HT response mediated through SB-224289-sensitive receptors was 0.20–0.67, the remainder being mediated through ketanserin-sensitive receptors.We detected arterial receptor mRNA for the following receptors (incidence): 5-HT1B (8/8), 5-HT1D (2/8), 5-HT1F (0/4), 5-HT2A (0/8), 5-HT2B (0/8), 5-HT2C (0/8), 5-HT4 (4/8) and 5-HT7 (4/8).We conclude that the ketanserin-resistant fraction of the 5-HT effects and the effects of sumatriptan are mediated by 5-HT1B receptors. The lack of antagonism by BRL-15572 rules out 5-HT1D receptors as mediators of the contractile effects of 5-HT and sumatriptan. PMID:9723944

  18. 5-HT(1A) receptors and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT(1)-5-HT(7)). Increasing evidence suggests that 5-HT pathways, reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors represent a strategic distribution for learning and memory. A key question still remaining is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) are directly or indirectly contributing to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis or, rather, if they represent protective or adaptable mechanisms (at least in initial stages). In the current paper, the major aim is to revise recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT(1A) receptors in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in memory. An attempt is made to identify and discuss sources of discrepancies by employing an analytic approach to examine the nature and degree of difficulty of behavioral tasks used, as well as implicating other factors (for example, brain areas, training time or duration, and drug administration) which might offer new insights into the understanding and interpretation of these data. In this context, 8-OH-DPAT deserves special attention since for many years it has been the more selective 5-HT drug and, hence, more frequently used. As 5-HT(1A) receptors are key components of serotonergic signaling, investigation of their memory mechanisms and action sites and the conditions under which they might operate, could yield valuable insights. Moreover, selective drugs with agonists, neutral antagonists or inverse agonist properties for 5-HT(1A) (and 5-HT(7)) receptors may constitute a new therapeutic opportunity for learning and memory disorders.

  19. Bidirectional regulation of emotional memory by 5-HT1B receptors involves hippocampal p11.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T M; Alvarsson, A; Stan, T L; Zhang, X; Hascup, K N; Hascup, E R; Kehr, J; Gerhardt, G A; Warner-Schmidt, J; Arango-Lievano, M; Kaplitt, M G; Ogren, S O; Greengard, P; Svenningsson, P

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive impairments are common in depression and involve dysfunctional serotonin neurotransmission. The 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT(1B)R) regulates serotonin transmission, via presynaptic receptors, but can also affect transmitter release at heterosynaptic sites. This study aimed at investigating the roles of the 5-HT(1B)R, and its adapter protein p11, in emotional memory and object recognition memory processes by the use of p11 knockout (p11KO) mice, a genetic model for aspects of depression-related states. 5-HT(1B)R agonist treatment induced an impairing effect on emotional memory in wild type (WT) mice. In comparison, p11KO mice displayed reduced long-term emotional memory performance. Unexpectedly, 5-HT(1B)R agonist stimulation enhanced memory in p11KO mice, and this atypical switch was reversed after hippocampal adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfer of p11. Notably, 5-HT(1B)R stimulation increased glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus in p11KO mice, but not in WT mice, as measured by both pre- and postsynaptic criteria. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated global hippocampal reductions of inhibitory GABA, which may contribute to the memory enhancement and potentiation of pre- and post-synaptic measures of glutamate transmission by a 5-HT(1B)R agonist in p11KO mice. It is concluded that the level of hippocampal p11 determines the directionality of 5-HT(1B)R action on emotional memory processing and modulates hippocampal functionality. These results emphasize the importance of using relevant disease models when evaluating the role of serotonin neurotransmission in cognitive deficits related to psychiatric disorders.

  20. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine induces spontaneous tail-flicks in the rat via 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Millan, M J; Colpaert, F C

    1991-02-07

    In rats lightly restrained in horizontal cylinders, (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) dose dependently (0.16-10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited spontaneous tail-flicks; that is, tail-flicks in the absence of extraneous stimulation. In contrast, amphetamine over a similar dose-range was inactive. Selective inhibitors of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake and carrier-mediated 5-HT release, paroxetine and citalopram, did not induce spontaneous tail-flicks themselves and blocked those induced by MDMA. In distinction, maprotiline and bupropion, selective inhibitors of noradrenaline and dopamine uptake, respectively, failed to modify the action of MDMA. Spontaneous tail-flicks elicited by MDMA were unaffected by the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ICS 205,930 and GR 38032F. They were attenuated by the mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, methiotepin, the mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT1B receptor antagonist, (-)-alprenolol and the mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, spiperone, but not by the selective 5-HT1C/5-HT2 receptor antagonists, ritanserin, ICI 169,369 and ketanserin. The novel 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, BMY 7378 and NAN-190, each abolished MDMA-evoked spontaneous tail-flicks. Selective D1, D2, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2 antagonists had little influence upon induction of spontaneous tail-flicks by MDMA. These data indicate that MDMA evokes spontaneous tail-flicks in the rat via a release of 5-HT which acts at 5-HT1A receptors. Thus, 5-HT1A receptors appear to be involved in the acute functional actions of MDMA.

  1. 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors contribute to lurasidone-induced dopamine efflux.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Felix, Anna R; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2012-05-09

    Lurasidone is a novel, atypical antipsychotic drug with serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]2A, 5-HT7, dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist properties. The ability of lurasidone to reverse the effects of subchronic administration phencyclidine, to impair novel object recognition in rats, an animal model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, is dependent, in part, on its 5-HT1A agonist and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist properties. We tested whether 5-HT1A partial agonism or 5-HT7 antagonism, or both, contributed to the ability of lurasidone to enhance cortical and hippocampal DA efflux, which may be related to its ability to improve cognition. Here, we report that lurasidone, 0.25 and 0.5, but not 0.1 mg/kg, subcutaneously, significantly increased DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner. Lurasidone, 0.5 mg/kg, also produced a smaller increase in DA efflux in the nucleus accumbens. Pretreatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously), partially blocked the lurasidone-induced cortical and hippocampal DA efflux. Further, subeffective doses of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, tandospirone (0.2 mg/kg), or the 5-HT7 antagonist, SB269970 (0.3 mg/kg), potentiated the ability of a subeffective dose of lurasidone (0.1 mg/kg) to increase DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the effects of lurasidone on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, DA efflux are dependent, at least partially, on its 5-HT1A agonist and 5-HT7 antagonist properties and may contribute to its efficacy to reverse the effects of subchronic phencyclidine treatment and improve schizophrenia.

  2. Withdrawal from chronic cocaine up-regulates 5-HT1B receptors in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Przegaliński, Edmund; Czepiel, Klaudia; Nowak, Ewa; Dlaboga, Daniel; Filip, Małgorzata

    2003-11-20

    In the present study we examined the effect of prolonged treatment with cocaine (a sensitization and discrimination paradigm) on the expression of serotonin (5-HT)(1B) receptors in rat brain structures using a quantitative autoradiographic analysis. To estimate the distribution of 5-HT(1B) receptors in several brain coronal sections, we used [N-methyl-(3)H]GR 125743, a 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist, in the presence of ketanserin (a drug used to block 5-HT(1D) receptors). The binding of [N-methyl-(3)H]GR 125743 in the areas containing dopamine cell bodies (the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra) and terminals (the nucleus accumbens shell and core, but not in the caudate-putamen) and in the subiculum of the hippocampus was increased after withdrawal from repeated cocaine in both the discrimination and the sensitization paradigms, either being effective as confirmed by behavioral experiments. Neither acute cocaine injection nor the psychostimulant challenge following its repeated administration affected the binding of [N-methyl-(3)H]GR 125743 in the above brain areas. Our results indicate that withdrawal from chronic cocaine induces up-regulation of 5-HT(1B) receptors in a number of rat brain structures.

  3. Autoradiographic Mapping of 5-HT(1B/1D) Binding Sites in the Rhesus Monkey Brain Using [carbonyl-C]zolmitriptan.

    PubMed

    Lindhe, Orjan; Almqvist, Per; Kågedal, Matts; Gustafsson, Sven-Åke; Bergström, Mats; Nilsson, Dag; Antoni, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Zolmitriptan is a serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist that is an effective and well-tolerated drug for migraine treatment. In a human positron emission tomography study, [(11)C]zolmitriptan crossed the blood-brain barrier but no clear pattern of regional uptake was discernable. The objective of this study was to map the binding of [(11)C]zolmitriptan in Rhesus monkey brain using whole hemisphere in vitro autoradiography with [(11)C]zolmitriptan as a radioligand. In saturation studies, [(11)C]zolmitriptan showed specific (90%) binding to a population of high-affinity binding sites (Kd 0.95-5.06 nM). There was regional distribution of binding sites with the highest density in the ventral pallidum, followed by the external globus pallidus, substantia nigra, visual cortex, and nucleus accumbens. In competitive binding studies with 5-HT(1) receptor antagonists, [(11)C]zolmitriptan binding was blocked by selective 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) ligands in all target areas. There was no appreciable change in binding with the addition of a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist.

  4. Stimulation of 5-HT1B receptors decreases cocaine- and sucrose-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jazmin I; Boynton, Floren A; Kirschner, Kenneth F; Neisewander, Janet L

    2005-02-01

    Serotonin systems have been implicated in incentive motivation for cocaine, yet little is known about the role of 5-HT(1B) receptors in these processes. We used the extinction/reinstatement model to examine the effects of the 5-HT(1B/1A) receptor agonist, RU24969, on reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine subsequently underwent extinction. They were then tested twice for cue and cocaine-primed reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior, receiving saline pretreatment 1 day and their assigned dose of RU24969 (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) the other day. Rats were later trained on a schedule of sucrose reinforcement in novel chambers and then tested for effects of RU24969 on cue reinstatement of sucrose-seeking behavior and locomotion. RU24969 decreased cue and cocaine reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior and cue reinstatement of sucrose-seeking behavior. Locomotion was increased only at the highest RU24969 dose (3 mg/kg). A subsequent experiment demonstrated that the effects of RU24969 (1 mg/kg) on extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior were reversed by the 5-HT(1B) antagonist GR127935 (3 mg/kg). These findings suggest that the effects of RU24969 on cue and cocaine reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior are 5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated. Overall, the results suggest that stimulation of 5-HT(1B) receptors may produce a general decrease in motivation.

  5. Reductions in Brain 5-HT1B Receptor Availability in Primarily Cocaine-Dependent Humans

    PubMed Central

    Matuskey, David; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Planeta, Beata; Pittman, Brian; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Jason; Wanyiri, Jane; Najafzadeh, Soheila; Ropchan, Jim; Geha, Paul; Huang, Yiyun; Potenza, Marc N.; Neumeister, Alexander; Carson, Richard E.; Malison, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preclinical evidence implicates the 5-HT1B receptor in cocaine’s effects. This study explores 5-HT1B in humans by examining receptor availability in vivo with primary cocaine-dependent (CD) subjects using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods Fourteen medically healthy CD subjects (mean age=41±6 yrs) were compared to 14 age-matched healthy control subjects (41±8 yrs) with no past or current history of cocaine or other illicit substance abuse. Participants received an MRI and then a PET scan with the highly selective 5HT1B tracer, [11C]P943, for purposes of quantifying regional binding potential (BPND). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and gray matter masking (GMM) were also employed to control for potential partial volume effects. Results [11C]P943 PET imaging data in nine candidate regions (amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, pallidum, putamen, thalamus and ventral striatum) showed significant or nearly significant reductions of BPND in CD subjects in three regions, including the anterior cingulate (−16%; P<0.01), hypothalamus (−16%, P=0.03) and frontal cortex (−7%, P=0.08). VBM showed significant gray matter reductions in the frontal cortex of CD subjects. After GMM, statistically significant reductions in [11C]P943 BPND were either retained (anterior cingulate, −14%, p=0.01; hypothalamus, −20%, P<0.01) or achieved (frontal cortex, −14%, p<0.01). Whole brain voxel-wise parameter estimation confirmed these results. Secondary analyses were also significant in some regions for years of cocaine and daily tobacco use. Conclusions The reductions found in this study suggest that 5-HT1B receptors may contribute to the etiology and/or expression of cocaine dependence and potentially represent a target for medication development. PMID:24433854

  6. Structure-based discovery of selective serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, David; Brea, José; Loza, María Isabel; Carlsson, Jens

    2014-08-05

    The development of safe and effective drugs relies on the discovery of selective ligands. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) G protein-coupled receptors are therapeutic targets for CNS disorders but are also associated with adverse drug effects. The determination of crystal structures for the 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors provided an opportunity to identify subtype selective ligands using structure-based methods. From docking screens of 1.3 million compounds, 22 molecules were predicted to be selective for the 5-HT1B receptor over the 5-HT2B subtype, a requirement for safe serotonergic drugs. Nine compounds were experimentally verified as 5-HT1B-selective ligands, with up to 300-fold higher affinities for this subtype. Three of the ligands were agonists of the G protein pathway. Analysis of state-of-the-art homology models of the two 5-HT receptors revealed that the crystal structures were critical for predicting selective ligands. Our results demonstrate that structure-based screening can guide the discovery of ligands with specific selectivity profiles.

  7. Stimulation of 5-HT(1B) receptors enhances cocaine reinforcement yet reduces cocaine-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Pentkowski, Nathan S; Acosta, Jazmin I; Browning, Jenny R; Hamilton, Elizabeth C; Neisewander, Janet L

    2009-09-01

    Paradoxically, stimulation of 5-HT(1B) receptors (5-HT(1B)Rs) enhances sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine but attenuates incentive motivation for cocaine as measured using the extinction/reinstatement model. We revisited this issue by examining the effects of a 5-HT(1B)R agonist, CP94253, on cocaine reinforcement and cocaine-primed reinstatement, predicting that CP94253 would enhance cocaine-seeking behavior reinstated by a low priming dose, similar to its effect on cocaine reinforcement. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg, i.v.) paired with light and tone cues. For reinstatement experiments, they then underwent daily extinction training to reduce cocaine-seeking behavior (operant responses without cocaine reinforcement). Next, they were pre-treated with CP94253 (3-10 mg/kg, s.c.) and either tested for cocaine-primed (10 or 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or cue-elicited reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. For reinforcement, effects of CP94253 (5.6 mg/kg) across a range of self-administered cocaine doses (0-1.5 mg/kg, i.v.) were examined. Cocaine dose-dependently reinstated cocaine-seeking behavior, but contrary to our prediction, CP94253 reduced reinstatement with both priming doses. Similarly, CP94253 reduced cue-elicited reinstatement. In contrast, CP94253 shifted the self-administration dose-effect curve leftward, consistent with enhanced cocaine reinforcement. When saline was substituted for cocaine, CP94253 reduced response rates (i.e. cocaine-seeking behavior). In subsequent control experiments, CP94253 decreased open-arm exploration in an elevated plus-maze suggesting an anxiogenic effect, but had no effect on locomotion or sucrose reinforcement. These results provide strong evidence that stimulation of 5-HT(1B)Rs produces opposite effects on cocaine reinforcement and cocaine-seeking behavior, and further suggest that 5-HT(1B)Rs may be a novel target for developing medications for cocaine dependence.

  8. Long-lasting alterations in 5-HT2A receptor after a binge regimen of methamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hong-Yi; Chan, Ming-Huan; Lee, Mei-Yi; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Zhan, Zih-Yi; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    The repeated administration of methamphetamine (MA) to animals in a single-day 'binge' dosing regimen produces damage to dopamine and serotonin terminals and psychosis-like behaviours similar to those observed in MA abusers. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MA binge exposure on 5-HT2A receptors, the subtype of serotonin receptors putatively involved in psychosis. ICR male mice were treated with MA (4 × 5 mg/kg) or saline at 2 h intervals. Recognition memory and social behaviours were sequentially evaluated by a novel location recognition test, a novel object recognition test, a social interaction and a nest-building test to confirm the persistent cognitive and behavioural impairments after this dosing regimen. Subsequently, a hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced head-twitch, molecular and electrophysiological responses were monitored. Finally, the levels of 5-HT2C, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex were determined. MA binge exposure produced recognition memory impairment, reduced social behaviours, and increased DOI-induced head-twitch response, c-Fos and Egr-2 expression and field potentials in the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, MA binge exposure increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor expression in the medial frontal cortex, whereas 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors were unaffected. These data reveal that the increased behavioural, molecular and electrophysiological responses to DOI might be associated with an up-regulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex after MA binge exposure. Identifying the biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioural changes in a mouse model of MA binge exposure may facilitate targeting therapies for treatment of MA-related psychiatric disorders.

  9. Biochemical profile of YM992, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, K; Nomura, T; Hidaka, K; Takeuchi, H; Yatsugi, S; Fujii, M; Yamaguchi, T

    1996-01-01

    YM992, (S)-2-[[(7-fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride, exhibited the biochemical profile of a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity. YM922 showed the same high affinity as fluoxetine against the 5-HT reuptake site (Ki = 21 nM) and a similar affinity to that of crazodone against the 5-HT2A receptor (Ki = 86 nM). In other receptor binding studies, an affinity for the adrenergic alpha 1 receptor (Ki = 200 nM) and 5-HT2C receptor (Ki = 680 nM) was observed. In a monoamine uptake study, YM992 showed a selective 5-HT uptake inhibition (IC50 = 0.15 microM), but only very weakly inhibited both noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) uptake (IC50 = 3.1 microM (NA), > 10 microM (DA)). YM992 was also found to potently inhibit the aggregation of human platelets (IC50 = 1.9 microM), revealing antagonistic activity for the 5-HT2A receptor in vitro. Enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission, in particular that mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, has recently been reported to be important in the long-term treatment of depressive disorders with antidepressants. In addition, some 5-HT1A receptor-mediated responses are known to be potentiated by co-administration of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. Thus, YM992, having both selective 5-HT reuptake inhibition and 5-HT2A antagonistic activity, might show potent therapeutic activity as a novel antidepressant in comparison with conventional SSRIs.

  10. Diurnal variation in 5-HT1B autoreceptor function in the anterior hypothalamus in vivo: effect of chronic antidepressant drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, Tamsin J O; Hannon, Serina D; Redfern, Peter H; Martin, Keith F

    1999-01-01

    Intracerebral microdialysis was used to examine the function of the terminal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) autoreceptor in the anterior hypothalamus of anaesthetized rats at two points in the light phase of the light–dark cycle.Infusion of the 5-HT1A/1B agonist 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridyl)-1H-indole (RU24969) 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μM through the microdialysis probe led to a concentration-dependent decrease (49, 56 and 65% respectively) in 5-HT output. The effect of RU24969 (1 and 5 μM) was prevented by concurrent infusion of methiothepin (1 and 10 μM) into the anterior hypothalamus via the microdialysis probe. Infusion of methiothepin alone (1.0 and 10 μM) increased (15 and 142% respectively) 5-HT output.Infusion of RU24969 (5 μM) through the probe at mid-light and end-light resulted in a quantitatively greater decrease in 5-HT output at end-light compared with mid-light.Following treatment with either paroxetine hydrochloride (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) or desipramine hydrochloride (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) for 21 days the function of the terminal 5-HT1B autoreceptor was more markedly attenuated at end-light.The data show that, as defined by the response to RU24969, the function of the 5-HT1B receptors that control 5-HT output in the anterior hypothalamus is attenuated following chronic desipramine or paroxetine treatment in a time-of-day-dependent manner. PMID:10372820

  11. Distinct Circuits Underlie the Effects of 5-HT1B Receptors on Aggression and Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Tanaka, Kenji F; Barr, Mary M; Tritschler, Laurent; Le Dantec, Yannick; David, Denis J; Gardier, Alain M; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René; Ahmari, Susanne E

    2015-05-06

    Impulsive and aggressive behaviors are both modulated by serotonergic signaling, specifically through the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). 5-HT1BR knockout mice show increased aggression and impulsivity, and 5-HT1BR polymorphisms are associated with aggression and drug addiction in humans. To dissect the mechanisms by which the 5-HT1BR affects these phenotypes, we developed a mouse model to spatially and temporally regulate 5-HT1BR expression. Our results demonstrate that forebrain 5-HT1B heteroreceptors expressed during an early postnatal period contribute to the development of the neural systems underlying adult aggression. However, distinct heteroreceptors acting during adulthood are involved in mediating impulsivity. Correlating with the impulsivity, dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is elevated in the absence of 5-HT1BRs and normalized following adult rescue of the receptor. Overall, these data show that while adolescent expression of 5-HT1BRs influences aggressive behavior, a distinct set of 5-HT1B receptors modulates impulsive behavior during adulthood.

  12. Distinct circuits underlie the effects of 5-HT1B receptors on aggression and impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Tanaka, Kenji F.; Barr, Mary M.; Tritschler, Laurent; Le Dantec, Yannick; David, Denis J.; Gardier, Alain M.; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René; Ahmari, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Impulsive and aggressive behaviors are both modulated by serotonergic signaling, specifically through the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). 5-HT1BR knockout mice show increased aggression and impulsivity, and 5-HT1BR polymorphisms are associated with aggression and drug addiction in humans. To dissect the mechanisms by which the 5-HT1BR affects these phenotypes, we developed a mouse model to spatially and temporally regulate 5-HT1BR expression. Our results demonstrate that forebrain 5-HT1B heteroreceptors expressed during an early postnatal period contribute to the development of the neural systems underlying adult aggression. However, distinct heteroreceptors acting during adulthood are involved in mediating impulsivity. Correlating with the impulsivity, dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is elevated in the absence of 5-HT1BRs, and normalized following adult rescue of the receptor. Overall, these data show that while adolescent expression of 5-HT1BRs influences aggressive behavior, a distinct set of 5-HT1B receptors modulate impulsive behavior during adulthood. PMID:25892302

  13. Serotonergic activation of 5HT1A and 5HT2 receptors modulates sexually dimorphic communication signals in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Smith, G Troy; Combs, Nicole

    2008-06-01

    Serotonin modulates agonistic and reproductive behavior across vertebrate species. 5HT(1A) and 5HT(1B) receptors mediate many serotonergic effects on social behavior, but other receptors, including 5HT(2) receptors, may also contribute. We investigated serotonergic regulation of electrocommunication signals in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. During social interactions, these fish modulate their electric organ discharges (EODs) to produce signals known as chirps. Males chirp more than females and produce two chirp types. Males produce high-frequency chirps as courtship signals; whereas both sexes produce low-frequency chirps during same-sex interactions. Serotonergic innervation of the prepacemaker nucleus, which controls chirping, is more robust in females than males. Serotonin inhibits chirping and may contribute to sexual dimorphism and individual variation in chirping. We elicited chirps with EOD playbacks and pharmacologically manipulated serotonin receptors to determine which receptors regulated chirping. We also asked whether serotonin receptor activation generally modulated chirping or more specifically targeted particular chirp types. Agonists and antagonists of 5HT(1B/1D) receptors (CP-94253 and GR-125743) did not affect chirping. The 5HT(1A) receptor agonist 8OH-DPAT specifically increased production of high-frequency chirps. The 5HT(2) receptor agonist DOI decreased chirping. Receptor antagonists (WAY-100635 and MDL-11939) opposed the effects of their corresponding agonists. These results suggest that serotonergic inhibition of chirping may be mediated by 5HT(2) receptors, but that serotonergic activation of 5HT(1A) receptors specifically increases the production of high-frequency chirps. The enhancement of chirping by 5HT(1A) receptors may result from interactions with cortisol and/or arginine vasotocin, which similarly enhance chirping and are influenced by 5HT(1A) activity in other systems.

  14. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  15. 5-HT2A receptors are involved in cognitive but not antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Castañé, Anna; Kargieman, Lucila; Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2015-08-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in cognitive and affective functions. It contains a rich serotonergic (serotonin, 5-HT) innervation and a high density of 5-HT receptors. Endogenous 5-HT exerts robust actions on the activity of pyramidal neurons in medial PFC (mPFC) via excitatory 5-HT2A and inhibitory 5-HT1A receptors, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT neurotransmission in cortical functions. However, the underlying mechanisms must be elucidated. Here we examine the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the processing of emotional and cognitive signals evoked by increasing the 5-HT tone after acute blockade of the 5-HT transporter. Fluoxetine (5-20mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the immobility time in the tail-suspension test in wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2Aknockout (KO2A) mice, with non-significant differences between genotypes. Fluoxetine (10mg/kg i.p.) significantly impaired mice performance in the novel object recognition test 24h post-administration in WT, but not in KO2A mice. The comparable effect of fluoxetine on extracellular 5-HT in the mPFC of both genotypes suggests that presynaptic differences are not accountable. In contrast, single unit recordings of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons showed that fluoxetine (1.8-7.2mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased neuronal discharge in KO2A but not in WT mice. This effect is possibly mediated by an altered excitatory/inhibitory balance in the PFC in KO2A mice. Overall, the present results suggest that 5-HT2A receptors play a detrimental role in long-term memory deficits mediated by an excess 5-HT in PFC.

  16. G-protein-linked serotonin receptors in mouse kidney exhibit identical properties to 5-HT1b receptors in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaranello, R.D.; Tan, G.L.; Dean, R. )

    1990-03-01

    The serotonin 1b (5-HT1b) receptor is thought to mediate both pre- and postsynaptic actions of serotonin. Until recently 5-HT1b sites were thought to be present only in rodent brain. We now report the presence of high-affinity (125I)iodocyanopindolol ((125I) ICYP) binding sites in the mouse renal medulla with properties identical to those of brain 5-HT1b receptors. In vitro receptor autoradiography demonstrates that (125I)ICYP binding is highly localized to the outer stripe of the renal medulla. Association and dissociation kinetics, saturation analysis and competition displacement analyses indicate that renal medullary (125I)ICYP binding sites exhibit identical properties with brain 5-HT1b receptors. Incubation of renal medullary or brain membranes with guanylimidodiphosphate results in a decreased affinity of 5-HT1b sites for 5-HT and (125I)ICYP; this can be reversed by the addition of a purified mixture of G proteins (Gi/Go). Treatment of brain or kidney membranes with N-ethylmaleimide results in a decrease in 5-HT1b binding which can also be restored by reconstitution with purified G proteins. Adenylyl cyclase from renal medullary homogenates or minces can be stimulated more than 3-fold by forskolin and attenuated by 5-HT. These results indicate that mouse kidney contains high-affinity 5-HT1b receptors with identical properties to those found in brain. These are localized in the outer stripe of the renal medulla and are functionally coupled to adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (Gi) G-proteins.

  17. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2016-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies. PMID:26851834

  18. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V

    2016-03-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies.

  19. Normalization of hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT 1B) receptor and NPY in cancer anorexia after tumor resection: an immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Makarenko, Irina G; Meguid, Michael M; Gatto, Louis; Chen, Chung; Ramos, Eduardo J B; Goncalves, Carolina G; Ugrumov, Michael V

    2005-08-05

    Tumor growth leads to anorexia and decreased food intake, the regulation of which is via the integrated hypothalamic peptidergic and monoaminergic system. Serotonin (5-HT), an anorectic monoamine acts primarily via 5-HT 1B-receptors in hypothalamic nuclei while neuropeptide Y (NPY) acts an orexigenic peptide. We previously reported that 5-HT 1B-receptors are up regulated while NPY is down regulated in tumor-bearing (TB)-related anorexia, contributing to food intake reduction. In anorectic TB rats we hypothesize that after tumor resection when food intake has reverted to normal, normalization of 5-HT 1B-receptor and NPY will occur. The aim of this study was to demonstrate normalization of these hypothalamic changes compared to Controls. In anorectic tumor-bearing rats after tumor resection (TB-R) and in sham-operated (Control) rats, distribution of 5-HT 1B-receptors and NPY in hypothalamic nuclei was analyzed using peroxidase antiperoxidase immunocytochemical methods. Image analysis of immunostaining was performed and the data were statistically analyzed. Immunostaining specificity was controlled by omission of primary or secondary antibodies and pre-absorption test. Our results show that after TB-R versus Controls a normalization of food intake, 5-H-1B-receptor and NPY expression in the hypothalamus occurs. These data, discussed in context with our previous studies, support the hypothesis that tumor resection results not only in normalization of food intake but also in reversible changes of anorectic and orexigenic hypothalamic modulators.

  20. [Regulation of potential-dependant calcium channels by 5-HT1B serotonin receptors in various populations of hippocampal cells].

    PubMed

    Kononov, A V; Ivanov, S V; Zinchenko, V P

    2013-01-01

    Metabotropic serotonin receptors of 5HT1-type in brain neurons participate in regulation of such human emotional states as aggression, fear and dependence on alcohol. Activated presynaptic 5-HT1B receptors suppress the Ca2+ influx through the potential-dependent calcium channels in certain neurons. The Ca2+ influx into the cells has been measured by increase of calcium ions concentration in cytoplasm in reply to the depolarization caused by 35mM KC1. Using system of image analysis in hippocampal cells culture we found out that Ca2+-signals to depolarization oin various populations of neurons differed in form, speed and amplitude. 5HT1B receptor agonists in 86 +/- 3 % of neurons slightly suppressed the activity of potential-dependent calcium channels. Two minor cell populations (5-8 % of cells each) were found out, that strongly differed in Ca2+ signal desensitization. Calcium signal caused by depolarization in one cells population differed in characteristic delay and high rate of decay. 5HT1B receptor agonists strongly inhibited the amplitude of the Ca2+ response on KCl only in this population of neurons. The calcium signal in second cell population differed by absence desensitization and smaller amplitude which constantly increased during depolarization. 5HT 1 B receptor agonists increased the calcium response amplitude to depolarization in this population of neurons. Thus we show various sensitivity of potential-dependent calcium channels of separate neurons to 5HTB1 receptor agonist.

  1. Reduced 5-HT(1B) receptor binding in the dorsal brain stem after cognitive behavioural therapy of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tiger, Mikael; Rück, Christian; Forsberg, Anton; Varrone, Andrea; Lindefors, Nils; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars; Lundberg, Johan

    2014-08-30

    Major depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease, and its pathophysiology is largely unknown. The serotonin hypothesis is, however, the model with most supporting data, although the details are only worked out to some extent. Recent clinical imaging measurements indeed imply a role in major depressive disorder (MDD) for the inhibitory serotonin autoreceptor 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (5-HT1B). The aim of the current study was to examine 5-HT1B receptor binding in the brain of MDD patients before and after psychotherapy. Ten patients with an ongoing untreated moderate depressive episode were examined with positron emission tomography (PET) and the 5-HT1B receptor selective radioligand [(11)C]AZ10419369, before and after treatment with internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy. All of the patients examined responded to treatment, and 70% were in remission by the time of the second PET measurement. A statistically significant 33% reduction of binding potential (BPND) was found in the dorsal brain stem (DBS) after treatment. No other significant changes in BPND were found. The DBS contains the raphe nuclei, which regulate the serotonin system. This study gives support for the importance of serotonin and the 5-HT1B receptor in the biological response to psychological treatment of MDD.

  2. Fluoxetine potentiation of methylphenidate-induced gene regulation in striatal output pathways: potential role for 5-HT1B receptor.

    PubMed

    Van Waes, Vincent; Ehrlich, Sarah; Beverley, Joel A; Steiner, Heinz

    2015-02-01

    Drug combinations that include the psychostimulant methylphenidate plus a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) such as fluoxetine are increasingly used in children and adolescents. For example, this combination is indicated in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression comorbidity and other mental disorders. Such co-exposure also occurs in patients on SSRIs who use methylphenidate as a cognitive enhancer. The neurobiological consequences of these drug combinations are poorly understood. Methylphenidate alone can produce gene regulation effects that mimic addiction-related gene regulation by cocaine, consistent with its moderate addiction liability. We have previously shown that combining SSRIs with methylphenidate potentiates methylphenidate-induced gene regulation in the striatum. The present study investigated which striatal output pathways are affected by the methylphenidate + fluoxetine combination, by assessing effects on pathway-specific neuropeptide markers, and which serotonin receptor subtypes may mediate these effects. Our results demonstrate that a 5-day repeated treatment with fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) potentiates methylphenidate (5 mg/kg)-induced expression of both dynorphin (direct pathway marker) and enkephalin (indirect pathway). These changes were accompanied by correlated increases in the expression of the 5-HT1B, but not 5-HT2C, serotonin receptor in the same striatal regions. A further study showed that the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP94253 (3-10 mg/kg) mimics the fluoxetine potentiation of methylphenidate-induced gene regulation. These findings suggest a role for the 5-HT1B receptor in the fluoxetine effects on striatal gene regulation. Given that 5-HT1B receptors are known to facilitate addiction-related gene regulation and behavior, our results suggest that SSRIs may enhance the addiction liability of methylphenidate by increasing 5-HT1B receptor signaling.

  3. Gi-protein-coupled 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan induces type I hyperalgesic priming.

    PubMed

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2016-08-01

    We have recently described a novel form of hyperalgesic priming (type II) induced by agonists at two clinically important Gi-protein-coupled receptors (Gi-GPCRs), mu-opioid and A1-adenosine. Like mu-opioids, the antimigraine triptans, which act at 5-HT1B/D Gi-GPCRs, have been implicated in pain chronification. We determined whether sumatriptan, a prototypical 5-HT1B/D agonist, produces type II priming. Characteristic of hyperalgesic priming, intradermal injection of sumatriptan (10 ng) induced a change in nociceptor function such that a subsequent injection of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) induces prolonged mechanical hyperalgesia. However, onset to priming was delayed 3 days, characteristic of type I priming. Also characteristic of type I priming, a protein kinase Cε, but not a protein kinase A inhibitor attenuated the prolongation phase of PGE2 hyperalgesia. The prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia was also permanently reversed by intradermal injection of cordycepin, a protein translation inhibitor. Also, hyperalgesic priming did not occur in animals pretreated with pertussis toxin or isolectin B4-positive nociceptor toxin, IB4-saporin. Finally, as observed for other agonists that induce type I priming, sumatriptan did not induce priming in female rats. The prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by sumatriptan was partially prevented by coinjection of antagonists for the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D, but not 5-HT7, serotonin receptors and completely prevented by coadministration of a combination of the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D antagonists. Moreover, the injection of selective agonists, for 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors, also induced hyperalgesic priming. Our results suggest that sumatriptan, which signals through Gi-GPCRs, induces type I hyperalgesic priming, unlike agonists at other Gi-GPCRs, which induce type II priming.

  4. Suppression of inflammatory events associated to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by 5-HT1A blockade in mice.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Simona; Arcaro, Valentina; Vivo, Valentina; Rapalli, Alberto; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Saccani, Francesca; Flammini, Lisa; Domenichini, Giuseppe; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2014-03-01

    Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a potentially life-threatening disease, ensuing from various clinical conditions. Experimentally, either protective or detrimental roles have been attributed to 5-HT in the functional and morphological injury caused by mesenteric I/R. Recently, we proved the involvement of 5-HT2A receptors in the intestinal dysmotility and leukocyte recruitment induced by 45min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) followed by 24h reperfusion in mice. Starting from these premises, the aim of our present work was to investigate the role played by endogenous 5-HT in the same experimental model where 45min SMA clamping was followed by 5h reflow. To this end, we first observed that ischemic preconditioning before I/R injury (IPC+I/R) reverted the increase in 5-HT tissue content and in inflammatory parameters induced by I/R in mice. Second, the effects produced by intravenous administration of 5-HT1A ligands (partial agonist buspirone 10mgkg(-1), antagonist WAY100135 0.5-5mgkg(-1)), 5-HT2A antagonist sarpogrelate (10mgkg(-1)), 5-HT3 antagonist alosetron (0.1mgkg(-1)), 5-HT4 antagonist GR125487 (5mgkg(-1)) and 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10mgkg(-1)) on I/R-induced inflammatory response were investigated in I/R mice and compared to those obtained in sham-operated animals (S). Our results confirmed the significant role played by 5-HT2A receptors not only in the late but also in the early I/R-induced microcirculatory dysfunction and showed that blockade of 5-HT1A receptors protected against the intestinal leukocyte recruitment, plasma extravasation and reactive oxygen species formation triggered by SMA occlusion and reflow. The ability of α7 nicotinic receptor (α7nAchR) antagonist methyllycaconitine (5mgkg(-1)) to counteract the beneficial action provided by buspirone on I/R-induced neutrophil infiltration suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect produced by 5-HT1A receptor antagonism could be partly ascribed to the

  5. Differences in 5-HT2A and mGlu2 Receptor Expression Levels and Repressive Epigenetic Modifications at the 5-HT2A Promoter Region in the Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High- (RHA-I) Avoidance Rat Strains.

    PubMed

    Fomsgaard, Luna; Moreno, Jose L; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Brudek, Tomasz; Adamsen, Dea; Rio-Alamos, Cristobal; Saunders, Justin; Klein, Anders Bue; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blazquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernandez-Teruel, Albert; Gonzalez-Maeso, Javier; Aznar, Susana

    2017-03-06

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putative genetic rat model of schizophrenia-related features. The RHA-I strain shows increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor binding levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we looked for differences in gene expression and transcriptional regulation of these receptors. The striatum (STR) was included in the analysis. 5-HT2A, 5-HT1A, and mGlu2 mRNA and [(3)H]ketanserin binding levels were measured in brain homogenates. As expected, 5-HT2A binding was significantly increased in PFC in the RHA-I rats, while no difference in binding was observed in STR. Surprisingly, 5-HT2A gene expression was unchanged in PFC but significantly decreased in STR. mGlu2 receptor gene expression was significantly decreased in both PFC and STR. No differences were observed for the 5-HT1A receptor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed increased trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at the promoter region of the HTR2A gene in the STR. We further looked at the Akt/GSK3 signaling pathway, a downstream point of convergence of the serotonin and glutamate system, and found increased phosphorylation levels of GSK3β at tyrosine 216 and increased β-catenin levels in the PFC of the RHA-I rats. These results reveal region-specific regulation of the 5-HT2A receptor in the RHA-I rats probably due to absence of mGlu2 receptor that may result in differential regulation of downstream pathways.

  6. Neonatal DSP-4 treatment impairs 5-HT(1B) receptor reactivity in adult rats. Behavioral and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Ferdyn-Drosik, Marzena; Nowak, Przemysław; Bojanek, Kamila; Bałasz, Michał; Kasperski, Jacek; Skaba, Dariusz; Muchacki, Rafał; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effect of a central noradrenergic lesion on the reactivity of the 5-HT(1B) receptor we compared intact male rats with rats in which noradrenergic nerve terminals were largely destroyed with the neurotoxin DSP-4 (50 mg/kg x 2, on the 1st and 3rd days of postnatal life). When rats attained 10 weeks of age, control and DSP-4 rats were divided into two subgroups receiving either saline or the serotonin (5-HT) synthesis inhibitor (p-chlorophenylalanine; p-CPA; 100 mg/kg). Employing an elevated plus maze test, we demonstrated that CP 94,253 (5-propoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine hydrochloride) (4.0 mg/kg; 5-HT(1B) agonist) induced an anxiogenic-like action in control rats; however, it failed to elicit this effect in the DSP-4 group. Surprisingly, in p-CPA pretreated rats anxiogenic-like activity was observed both in control and DSP-4 treated rats. CP 94,253 significantly attenuated 5-HT synthesis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of control rats, and SB 216641 (N-{3-[3-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]-4-methoxyphenyl}-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride) (4.0 mg/kg; 5-HT(1B) antagonist) was able to antagonize this effect. Conversely, CP 94,253 failed to significantly inhibit the 5-HT synthesis rate in DSP-4-treated rats. In the microdialysis study CP 94,253 induced long-lasting attenuation of 5-HT release in the mPFC of control rats but had no effect in DSP-4 rats. These data lead to the proposal that presynaptic 5-HT(1B) autoreceptors underwent desensitization in DSP-4 treated rats.

  7. Kinetic modeling of the serotonin 5-HT1B receptor radioligand [11C]P943 in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Neumeister, Alexander; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Williams, Wendol A; Singhal, Tarun; Kim, Sunhee; Maguire, R Paul; McCarthy, Timothy; Frost, J James; Huang, Yiyun; Ding, Yu-Shin; Carson, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    [11C]P943 is a new radioligand recently developed to image and quantify serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptors with positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to evaluate [11C]P943 for this application in humans, and to determine the most suitable quantification method. Positron emission tomography data and arterial input function measurements were acquired in a cohort of 32 human subjects. Using arterial input functions, compartmental modeling, the Logan graphical analysis, and the multilinear method MA1 were tested. Both the two tissue-compartment model and MA1 provided good fits of the PET data and reliable distribution volume estimates. Using the cerebellum as a reference region, BPND binding potential estimates were computed. [11C]P943 BPND estimates were significantly correlated with in vitro measurements of the density of 5-HT1B receptors, with highest values in the occipital cortex and pallidum. To evaluate noninvasive methods, two- and three-parameter graphical analyses, Simplified Reference Tissue Models (SRTM and SRTM2), and Multilinear Reference Tissue Models (MRTM and MRTM2) were tested. The MRTM2 model provided the best correlation with MA1 binding-potential estimates. Parametric images of the volume of distribution or binding potential of [11C]P943 could be computed using both MA1 and MRTM2. The results show that [11C]P943 provides quantitative measurements of 5-HT1B binding potential. PMID:19773803

  8. Interaction between μ-opioid and 5-HT1A receptors in the regulation of panic-related defensive responses in the rat dorsal periaqueductal grey.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Marcel P; Zangrossi, Hélio; Roncon, Camila M; Graeff, Frederico G; Audi, Elisabeth A

    2014-12-01

    A wealth of evidence indicates that the activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG) inhibits escape, a panic-related defensive behaviour. Results that were previously obtained with the elevated T-maze test of anxiety/panic suggest that 5-HT1A and μ-opioid receptors in this midbrain area work together to regulate this response. To investigate the generality of this finding, we assessed whether the same cooperative mechanism is engaged when escape is evoked by a different aversive stimulus electrical stimulation of the dPAG. Administration of the μ-receptor blocker CTOP into the dPAG did not change the escape threshold, but microinjection of the μ-receptor agonist DAMGO (0.3 and 0.5 nmol) or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OHDPAT (1.6 nmol) increased this index, indicating a panicolytic-like effect. Pretreatment with CTOP antagonised the anti-escape effect of 8-OHDPAT. Additionally, combined administration of subeffective doses of DAMGO and 8-OHDPAT increased the escape threshold, indicating drug synergism. Therefore, regardless of the aversive nature of the stimulus, μ-opioid and 5-HT1A receptors cooperatively act to regulate escape behaviour. A better comprehension of this mechanism might allow for new therapeutic strategies for panic disorder.

  9. Effect of the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor antagonist MM-77 on stressed mice treated with 5-HT1A receptor agents.

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Briones-Aranda; Ofir, Picazo

    2005-01-31

    The pharmacological effect of the 5-HT1A receptor ligands, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), indorenate, and buspirone, alone or in combination with the antagonist MM-77, was studied in mice subjected to forced swimming. It was confirmed that this stressful factor produces an anxiolytic-like effect, which is reversed by the mentioned 5-HT1A receptor agonists. Only the 8-OH-DPAT-induced decrease of such an effect could be blocked by the postsynaptic antagonist of the 5-HT1A receptor 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[(4-succinimido)butyl]-piperazine (MM-77). Stressing by forced swimming seems to induce plastic changes in 5-HT1A receptors, which in turn modify the behavioural actions of 5-HT1A receptor agents.

  10. Medial hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors regulate neuroendocrine responses to stress and exploratory locomotor activity: application of recombinant adenovirus containing 5-HT1A sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Holmes, Andrew; Ma, Li; Van de Kar, Louis D; Garcia, Francisca; Murphy, Dennis L

    2004-12-01

    Our previous studies found that serotonin transporter (SERT) knock-out mice showed increased sensitivity to minor stress and increased anxiety-like behavior but reduced locomotor activity. These mice also showed decreased density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A) receptors in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and dorsal raphe. To evaluate the contribution of hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors to these phenotypes of SERT knock-out mice, two studies were conducted. Recombinant adenoviruses containing 5-HT1A sense and antisense sequences (Ad-1AP-sense and Ad-1AP-antisense) were used to manipulate 5-HT1A receptors in the hypothalamus. The expression of the 5-HT1A genes is controlled by the 5-HT1A promoter, so that they are only expressed in 5-HT1A receptor-containing cells. (1) Injection of Ad-1AP-sense into the hypothalamus of SERT knock-out mice restored 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus; this effect was accompanied by elimination of the exaggerated adrenocorticotropin responses to a saline injection (minor stress) and reduced locomotor activity but not by a change in increased exploratory anxiety-like behavior. (2) To further confirm the observation in SERT-/- mice, Ad-1AP-antisense was injected into the hypothalamus of normal mice. The density and the function of 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus were significantly reduced in Ad-1AP-antisense-treated mice. Compared with the control group (injected with Ad-track), Ad-1A-antisense-treated mice showed a significant reduction in locomotor activity, but again no changes in exploratory anxiety-like behaviors, tested by elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. Thus, the present results demonstrate that medial hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors regulate stress responses and locomotor activity but may not regulate exploratory anxiety-like behaviors.

  11. Vortioxetine dose-dependently reverses 5-HT depletion-induced deficits in spatial working and object recognition memory: a potential role for 5-HT1A receptor agonism and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Jensen, Jesper Bornø; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that the investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, reversed 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits while escitalopram and duloxetine did not. The present report studied the effects of vortioxetine and the potential impact of its 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist properties on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits. Recognition and spatial working memory were assessed in the object recognition (OR) and Y-maze spontaneous alternation (SA) tests, respectively. 5-HT depletion was induced in female Long-Evans rats using 4-cholro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl (PCPA) and receptor occupancies were determined by ex vivo autoradiography. Rats were acutely dosed with vortioxetine, ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or flesinoxan (5-HT1A receptor agonist). The effects of chronic vortioxetine administration on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits were also assessed. 5-HT depletion reliably impaired memory performance in both the tests. Vortioxetine reversed PCPA-induced memory deficits dose-dependently with a minimal effective dose (MED) ≤0.1mg/kg (∼80% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR) and ≤3.0mg/kg (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 receptor occupancy: ∼15%, 60%, 95%) in SA. Ondansetron exhibited a MED ≤3.0μg/kg (∼25% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR), but was inactive in the SA test. Flesinoxan had a MED ≤1.0mg/kg (∼25% 5-HT1A receptor occupancy; SA); only 1.0mg/kg ameliorated deficits in the NOR. Chronic p.o. vortioxetine administration significantly improved memory performance in OR and occupied 95%, 66%, and 9.5% of 5-HT3, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. Vortioxetine's effects on SA performance may involve 5-HT1A receptor agonism, but not 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, whereas the effects on OR performance may involve 5-HT3 receptor antagonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism.

  12. Transcriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A receptor: implications for mental illness.

    PubMed

    Albert, Paul R

    2012-09-05

    The serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor is an abundant post-synaptic 5-HT receptor (heteroreceptor) implicated in regulation of mood, emotion and stress responses and is the major somatodendritic autoreceptor that negatively regulates 5-HT neuronal activity. Based on animal models, an integrated model for opposing roles of pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in anxiety and depression phenotypes and response to antidepressants is proposed. Understanding differential transcriptional regulation of pre- versus post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors could provide better tools for their selective regulation. This review examines the transcription factors that regulate brain region-specific basal and stress-induced expression of the 5-HT(1A) receptor gene (Htr1a). A functional polymorphism, rs6295 in the Htr1a promoter region, blocks the function of specific repressors Hes1, Hes5 and Deaf1, resulting in increased 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor expression in animal models and humans. Its association with altered 5-HT(1A) expression, depression, anxiety and antidepressant response are related to genotype frequency in different populations, sample homogeneity, disease outcome measures and severity. Preliminary evidence from gene × environment studies suggests the potential for synergistic interaction of stress-mediated repression of 5-HT(1A) heteroreceptors, and rs6295-induced upregulation of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. Targeted therapeutics to inhibit 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor expression and induce 5-HT(1A) heteroreceptor expression may ameliorate treatment of anxiety and major depression.

  13. Overexpression of 5-HT(1B) mRNA in nucleus accumbens shell projection neurons differentially affects microarchitecture of initiation and maintenance of ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Furay, Amy R; Neumaier, John F; Mullenix, Andrew T; Kaiyala, Karl K; Sandygren, Nolan K; Hoplight, Blair J

    2011-02-01

    Serotonin 1B (5-HT(1B)) heteroreceptors on nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) projection neurons have been shown to enhance the voluntary consumption of alcohol by rats, presumably by modulating the activity of the mesolimbic reward pathway. The present study examined whether increasing 5-HT(1B) receptors expressed on NAcSh projection neurons by means of virus-mediated gene transfer enhances ethanol consumption during the initiation or maintenance phase of drinking and alters the temporal pattern of drinking behavior. Animals received stereotaxic injections of viral vectors expressing either 5-HT(1B) receptor and green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP alone. Home cages equipped with a three-bottle (water and 6 and 12% ethanol) lickometer system recorded animals' drinking behaviors continuously, capturing either initiation or maintenance of drinking behavior patterns. Overexpression of 5-HT(1B) receptors during initiation increased consumption of 12% ethanol during both forced-access and free-choice consumption. There was a shift in drinking pattern for 6% ethanol with an increase in number of drinking bouts per day, although the total number of drinking bouts for 12% ethanol was not different. Finally, increased 5-HT(1B) expression induced more bouts with very high-frequency licking from the ethanol bottle sippers. During the maintenance phase of drinking, there were no differences between groups in total volume of ethanol consumed; however, there was a shift toward drinking bouts of longer duration, especially for 12% ethanol. This suggests that during maintenance drinking, increased 5-HT(1B) receptors facilitate longer drinking bouts of more modest volumes. Taken together, these results indicate that 5-HT(1B) receptors expressed on NAcSh projection neurons facilitate ethanol drinking, with different effects during initiation and maintenance of ethanol-drinking behavior.

  14. Characterization of 5-HT receptors mediating constriction of porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses; involvement of 5-HT1B/1D and novel receptors

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, Peter; Villalón, Carlos M; Heiligers, Jan P C; Saxena, Pramod R

    1998-01-01

    It was previously shown that porcine cranial arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) constrict to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, as well as sumatriptan and that sumatriptan acts exclusively via 5-HT1B/1D receptors. The present study was devoted to establish the contribution of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the constriction of AVAs elicited by 5-HT (in presence of 0.5 mg kg−1 ketanserin), ergotamine and dihydroergotamine in anaesthetized pigs.Intracarotid infusion of 5-HT (2 μg kg−1 min−1) and intravenous doses of ergotamine (2.5–20 μg kg−1) and dihydroergotamine (3–100 μg kg−1) reduced AVA and increased nutrient blood flows and vascular conductances. The vasodilator response to 5-HT, observed mainly in the skin and ear, was much more prominent than that of the ergot alkaloids.Treatment with the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist GR127935 (0.5 mg kg−1, i.v.) significantly attenuated both ergot-induced AVA constriction and arteriolar dilatation, whereas GR127935 only slightly affected the carotid vascular effects of 5-HT.The results suggest that 5-HT constricts carotid AVAs primarily via receptors, which seem to differ from those (5-HT1B/1D) stimulated by sumatriptan. The ergot alkaloids produce AVA constriction for a substantial part via 5-HT1B/1D receptors, but also stimulate unidentified receptors. Both these non-5-HT1B/1D receptors may be targets for the development of novel antimigraine drugs.The moderate vasodilator response to the ergot derivatives seems to be mediated, at least in part, by 5-HT1B/1D receptors, whereas the arteriolar dilatation caused by 5-HT may be mediated by other, possibly 5-HT7 receptors. PMID:9605562

  15. The TRPM8 channel forms a complex with the 5-HT(1B) receptor and phospholipase D that amplifies its reversal of pain hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vinuela-Fernandez, Ignacio; Sun, Liting; Jerina, Helen; Curtis, John; Allchorne, Andrew; Gooding, Hayley; Rosie, Roberta; Holland, Pamela; Tas, Basak; Mitchell, Rory; Fleetwood-Walker, Sue

    2014-04-01

    Effective relief from chronic hypersensitive pain states remains an unmet need. Here we report the discovery that the TRPM8 ion channel, co-operating with the 5-HT(1B) receptor (5-HT(1B)R) in a subset of sensory afferents, exerts an influence at the spinal cord level to suppress central hypersensitivity in pain processing throughout the central nervous system. Using cell line models, ex vivo rat neural tissue and in vivo pain models, we assessed functional Ca(2+) fluorometric responses, protein:protein interactions, immuno-localisation and reflex pain behaviours, with pharmacological and molecular interventions. We report 5-HT(1B)R expression in many TRPM8-containing afferents and direct interaction of these proteins in a novel multi-protein signalling complex, which includes phospholipase D1 (PLD1). We provide evidence that the 5-HT(1B)R activates PLD1 to subsequently activate PIP 5-kinase and generate PIP2, an allosteric enhancer of TRPM8, achieving a several-fold increase in potency of TRPM8 activation. The enhanced activation responses of synaptoneurosomes prepared from spinal cord and cortical regions of animals with a chronic inflammatory pain state are inhibited by TRPM8 activators that were applied in vivo topically to the skin, an effect potentiated by co-administered 5-HT(1B)R agonists and attenuated by 5-HT(1B)R antagonists, while 5-HT(1B)R agents alone had no detectable effect. Corresponding results are seen when assessing reflex behaviours in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Control experiments with alternative receptor/TRP channel combinations reveal no such synergy. Identification of this novel receptor/effector/channel complex and its impact on nociceptive processing give new insights into possible strategies for enhanced analgesia in chronic pain.

  16. Insights into the regulation of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors by scaffolding proteins and kinases.

    PubMed

    Allen, John A; Yadav, Prem N; Roth, Bryan L

    2008-11-01

    5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors are essential molecular targets for the actions of LSD-like hallucinogens and atypical antipsychotic drugs. 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors also mediate a variety of physiological processes in peripheral and central nervous systems including platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, and the modulation of mood and perception. Scaffolding proteins have emerged as important regulators of 5-HT(2A) receptors and our recent studies suggest multiple scaffolds exist for 5-HT(2A) receptors including PSD95, arrestin, and caveolin. In addition, a novel interaction has emerged between p90 ribosomal S6 kinase and 5-HT(2A) receptors which attenuates receptor signaling. This article reviews our recent studies and emphasizes the role of scaffolding proteins and kinases in the regulation of 5-HT(2A) trafficking, targeting and signaling.

  17. Functions of 5-HT2A receptor and its antagonists in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Takafumi; Rashid, Mamunur; Abul Muntasir, Habib; Komiyama, Tadazumi

    2004-10-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have conventionally been divided into seven subfamilies, most of which have several subtypes. Among them, 5-HT(2A) receptor is associated with the contraction of vascular smooth muscle, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation and coronary artery spasms. Accordingly, selective 5-HT(2A) antagonists may have potential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist, has been introduced clinically as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic diseases associated with thrombosis. Molecular modeling studies also suggest that sarpogrelate is a 5-HT(2A) selective antagonist and is likely to have pharmacological effects beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review describes the above findings as well as the signaling linkages of the 5-HT(2A) receptors and the mode of agonist binding to 5-HT(2A) receptor using data derived from molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis.

  18. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  19. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA’s but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression. PMID:24946016

  20. Neuroticism and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Någren, Kjell; Hietala, Jarmo

    2015-10-30

    Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with vulnerability for mood and anxiety disorders. Serotonergic mechanisms likely contribute to neuroticism. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are altered in mood and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT1A receptors are associated with neuroticism in healthy subjects is unclear. We measured brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in 34 healthy subjects in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635. Binding potential (BPP) was determined using the golden standard of kinetic compartmental modeling using arterial blood samples and radiometabolite determination. Personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. We found a strong negative association between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor BPP and neuroticism. That is, individuals with high neuroticism tended to have lower 5-HT1A receptor binding than individuals with low neuroticism. This finding was confirmed with an independent voxel-based whole-brain analysis. Other personality traits did not correlate with 5-HT1A receptor BPP. Previous observations have reported lower serotonin 5-HT1A receptor density in major depression. This neurobiological finding may be a trait-like phenomenon and partly explained by higher neuroticism in patients with affective disorders. The link between personality traits and 5-HT1A receptors should be studied in patients with major depression.

  1. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a new model of arylpiperazines. 5. Study of the physicochemical influence of the pharmacophore on 5-HT(1a)/alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor affinity: synthesis of a new derivative with mixed 5-HT(1a)/d(2) antagonist properties.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, M L; Morcillo, M J; Fernández, E; Porras, E; Orensanz, L; Beneytez, M E; Manzanares, J; Fuentes, J A

    2001-01-18

    In this paper we have designed and synthesized a test series of 32 amide arylpiperazine derivatives VI in order to gain insight into the physicochemical influence of the pharmacophores of 5-HT(1A) and alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors. The training set was designed applying a fractional factorial design using six physicochemical descriptors. The amide moiety is a bicyclohydantoin or a diketopiperazine (X = -(CH(2))(3)-, -(CH(2))(4)-; m = 0, 1), the spacer length is 3 or 4 methylene units, which are the optimum values for both receptors, and the aromatic substituent R occupies the ortho- or meta-position and has been selected from a database of 387 substituents using the EDISFAR program. The 5-HT(1A) and alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor binding affinities of synthesized compounds VI (1-32) have been determined. This data set has been used to derive classical quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and neural networks models for both receptors (following paper). A comparison of these models gives information for the design of the new ligand EF-7412 (46) (5-HT(1A): K(i) = 27 nM; alpha(1): K(i) > 1000 nM). This derivative displays affinity for the dopamine D(2) receptor (K(i) = 22 nM) and is selective versus all other receptors examined (5-HT(2A), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4) and Bz; K(i) > 1000 nM). EF-7412 (46) acts as an antagonist in vivo in pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor sites and as an antagonist in the dopamine D(2) receptor. Thus, EF-7412 (46) is a derivative with mixed 5-HT(1A)/D(2) antagonist properties and this derivative could be useful as a pharmacological tool.

  2. Hippocampal 5-HT1A Receptor and Spatial Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.; Stout, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition is fundamental for survival in the topographically complex environments inhabited by humans and other animals. The hippocampus, which has a central role in spatial cognition, is characterized by high concentration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor binding sites, particularly of the 1A receptor (5-HT1A) subtype. This review highlights converging evidence for the role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in spatial learning and memory. We consider studies showing that activation or blockade of the 5-HT1A receptors using agonists or antagonists, respectively, lead to changes in spatial learning and memory. For example, pharmacological manipulation to induce 5-HT release, or to block 5-HT uptake, have indicated that increased extracellular 5-HT concentrations maintain or improve memory performance. In contrast, reduced levels of 5-HT have been shown to impair spatial memory. Furthermore, the lack of 5-HT1A receptor subtype in single gene knockout mice is specifically associated with spatial memory impairments. These findings, along with evidence from recent cognitive imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and studies of individual genetic variance in 5-HT1A receptor availability, strongly suggests that 5-HT, mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, plays a key role in spatial learning and memory. PMID:26696889

  3. (3H)WB4101 labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor subtype in rat brain. Guanine nucleotide and divalent cation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Creese, I.

    1985-12-01

    In the presence of a 30 nM prazosin mask, (/sup 3/H)-2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane ((/sup 3/H)WB4101) can selectively label 5-HT1 serotonin receptors. Serotonin exhibits high affinity (Ki = 2.5 nM) and monophasic competition for (/sup 3/H) WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. We have found a significant correlation (r = 0.96) between the affinities of a number of serotonergic and nonserotonergic compounds at (/sup 3/H)WB4101-binding sites in the presence of 30 nM prazosin and (/sup 3/H) lysergic acid diethylamide ((/sup 3/H)LSD)-labeled 5-HT1 serotonin receptors in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex. Despite similar pharmacological profiles, distribution studies indicate that, in the presence of 5 mM MgSO4, the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 is significantly lower than the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)LSD in various brain regions. WB4101 competition for (/sup 3/H) LSD-labeled 5-HT1 receptors fits best to a computer-derived model assuming two binding sites, with the KH for WB4101 being similar to the KD of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding derived from saturation experiments. This suggests that (/sup 3/H)WB4101 labels only one of the subtypes of the 5-HT1 serotonin receptors labeled by (/sup 3/H)LSD. The selective 5-HT1A serotonin receptor antagonist, spiperone, and the selective 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline, exhibit high affinity and monophasic competition for (/sup 3/H)WB4101 but compete for multiple (/sup 3/H)LSD 5-HT1 binding sites. These data indicate that (/sup 3/H)WB4101 selectively labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, whereas (/sup 3/H) LSD appears to label both the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT1B serotonin receptor subtypes. The divalent cations, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were found to markedly increase the affinity and Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. Conversely, the guanine nucleotides guanylylimidodiphosphate and GTP, but not the adenosine nucleotide ATP, markedly reduce the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)WB4101 binding.

  4. Serotonin and psychostimulant addiction: focus on 5-HT1A-receptors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian P; Carey, Robert J; Huston, Joseph P; De Souza Silva, Maria A

    2007-02-01

    Serotonin(1A)-receptors (5-HT(1A)-Rs) are important components of the 5-HT system in the brain. As somatodendritic autoreceptors they control the activity of 5-HT neurons, and, as postsynaptic receptors, the activity in terminal areas. Cocaine (COC), amphetamine (AMPH), methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy", MDMA) are psychostimulant drugs that can lead to addiction-related behavior in humans and in animals. At the neurochemical level, these psychostimulant drugs interact with monoamine transporters and increase extracellular 5-HT, dopamine and noradrenalin activity in the brain. The increase in 5-HT, which, in addition to dopamine, is a core mechanism of action for drug addiction, hyperactivates 5-HT(1A)-Rs. Here, we first review the role of the various 5-HT(1A)-R populations in spontaneous behavior to provide a background to elucidate the contribution of the 5-HT(1A)-Rs to the organization of psychostimulant-induced addiction behavior. The progress achieved in this field shows the fundamental contribution of brain 5-HT(1A)-Rs to virtually all behaviors associated with psychostimulant addiction. Importantly, the contribution of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT(1A)-Rs can be dissociated and frequently act in opposite directions. We conclude that 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptors mainly facilitate psychostimulant addiction-related behaviors by a limitation of the 5-HT response in terminal areas. Postsynaptic 5-HT(1A)-Rs, in contrast, predominantly inhibit the expression of various addiction-related behaviors directly. In addition, they may also influence the local 5-HT response by feedback mechanisms. The reviewed findings do not only show a crucial role of 5-HT(1A)-Rs in the control of brain 5-HT activity and spontaneous behavior, but also their complex role in the regulation of the psychostimulant-induced 5-HT response and subsequent addiction-related behaviors.

  5. Application of Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Models of 5-HT1A Receptor Binding to Virtual Screening Identifies Novel and Potent 5-HT1A Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) serotonin receptor has been an attractive target for treating mood and anxiety disorders such as schizophrenia. We have developed binary classification quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models of 5-HT1A receptor binding activity using data retrieved from the PDSP Ki database. The prediction accuracy of these models was estimated by external 5-fold cross-validation as well as using an additional validation set comprising 66 structurally distinct compounds from the World of Molecular Bioactivity database. These validated models were then used to mine three major types of chemical screening libraries, i.e., drug-like libraries, GPCR targeted libraries, and diversity libraries, to identify novel computational hits. The five best hits from each class of libraries were chosen for further experimental testing in radioligand binding assays, and nine of the 15 hits were confirmed to be active experimentally with binding affinity better than 10 μM. The most active compound, Lysergol, from the diversity library showed very high binding affinity (Ki) of 2.3 nM against 5-HT1A receptor. The novel 5-HT1A actives identified with the QSAR-based virtual screening approach could be potentially developed as novel anxiolytics or potential antischizophrenic drugs. PMID:24410373

  6. Neurochemical correlates of accumbal dopamine D2 and amygdaloid 5-HT 1B receptor densities on observational learning of aggression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideo; Lucas, Louis R

    2015-06-01

    Social learning theory postulates that individuals learn to engage in aggressive behavior through observing an aggressive social model. Prior studies have shown that repeatedly observing aggression, also called "chronic passive exposure to aggression," changes accumbal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and amygdaloid 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) densities in observers. But, the association between these outcomes remains unknown. Thus, in our study, we used a rat paradigm to comprehensively examine the linkage between aggression, D2R density in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), and 5-HT1BR density in the medial (MeA), basomedial (BMA), and basolateral (BLA) amygdala following chronic passive exposure to aggression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 72) were passively exposed to either aggression or nonaggression acutely (1 day) or chronically (23 days). When observer rats were exposed to aggression chronically, they showed increased aggressive behavior and reduced D2R density in bilateral AcbSh. On the other hand, exposure to aggression, regardless of exposure length, increased the 5-HT1BR density in bilateral BLA. Finally, low D2R in the AcbSh significantly interacted with high 5-HT1BR density in the BLA to predict high levels of aggression in observer rats. Our results advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms in the observational learning of aggression, highlighting that dopamine-serotonin interaction, or AcbSh-BLA interaction, may contribute to a risk factor for aggression in observers who chronically witness aggressive interactions.

  7. Neurochemical Correlates of Accumbal Dopamine D2 and Amygdaloid 5-HT1B Receptor Densities on Observational Learning of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideo; Lucas, Louis R.

    2015-01-01

    Social learning theory postulates that individuals learn to engage in aggressive behavior through observing an aggressive social model. Prior studies have shown that repeatedly observing aggression, also called “chronic passive exposure to aggression,” changes accumbal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and amygdaloid 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) densities in observers. But, the association between these outcomes remains unknown. Thus, our study used a rat paradigm to comprehensively examine the linkage between aggression, D2R density in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), and 5-HT1BR density in the medial (MeA), basomedial (BMA), and basolateral (BLA) amygdala following chronic passive exposure to aggression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 72) were passively exposed to either aggression or non-aggression acutely (1 day) or chronically (23 days). When observer rats were exposed to aggression chronically, they showed increased aggressive behavior and reduced D2R density in the bilateral AcbSh. On the other hand, exposure to aggression, regardless of exposure length, increased 5-HT1BR density in the bilateral BLA. Finally, low D2R in the AcbSh significantly interacted with high 5-HT1BR density in the BLA in predicting high levels of aggression in observer rats. Our results advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms for observational learning of aggression, highlighting that dopamine-serotonin interaction, or AcbSh-BLA interaction, may contribute to a risk factor for aggression in observers who chronically witness aggressive interactions. PMID:25650085

  8. Fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and 5-HT2C receptor inactivation induce appetite-suppressing effects in mice via 5-HT1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Nozue, Kana; Takahashi, Yukiko; Yamashita, Nobuyuki; Hiraoka, Shuichi; Kumano, Hiroaki; Kuboki, Tomifusa; Oka, Yohsitomo

    2007-10-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2C receptors and the downstream melanocortin pathway are suggested to mediate the appetite-suppressing effects of 5-HT drugs such as m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and fenfluramine. Here, we report that fluvoxamine (3-30 mg/kg), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), in the presence of SB 242084 (1-2 mg/kg), a selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, exerts appetite-suppressing effects while fluvoxamine or SB 242084 alone has no effect. The appetite-suppressing effects were attenuated in the presence of SB 224289 (5 mg/kg), a selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist. Moreover, CP 94253 (5-10 mg/kg), a selective 5-HT1B receptor agonist, exerted appetite-suppressing effects and significantly increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression and decreased hypothalamic orexin gene expression. These results suggest that fluvoxamine and inactivation of 5-HT2C receptors exert feeding suppression through activation of 5-HT1B receptors, and that 5-HT1B receptors up-regulate hypothalamic POMC and CART gene expression and down-regulate hypothalamic orexin gene expression in mice.

  9. Polysynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials that trigger spasms after spinal cord injury in rats are inhibited by 5-HT1B and 5-HT1F receptors.

    PubMed

    Murray, Katherine C; Stephens, Marilee J; Rank, Michelle; D'Amico, Jessica; Gorassini, Monica A; Bennett, David J

    2011-08-01

    Sensory afferent transmission and associated spinal reflexes are normally inhibited by serotonin (5-HT) derived from the brain stem. Spinal cord injury (SCI) that eliminates this 5-HT innervation leads to a disinhibition of sensory transmission and a consequent emergence of unusually long polysynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons. These EPSPs play a critical role in triggering long polysynaptic reflexes (LPRs) that initiate muscles spasms. In the present study we examined which 5-HT receptors modulate the EPSPs and whether these receptors adapt to a loss of 5-HT after chronic spinal transection in rats. The EPSPs and associated LPRs recorded in vitro in spinal cords from chronic spinal rats were consistently inhibited by 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(1F) receptor agonists, including zolmitriptan (5-HT(1B/1D/1F)) and LY344864 (5-HT(1F)), with a sigmoidal dose-response relation, from which we computed the 50% inhibition (EC(50)) and potency (-log EC(50)). The potencies of 5-HT receptor agonists were highly correlated with their binding affinity to 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1F) receptors, and not to other 5-HT receptors. Zolmitriptan also inhibited the LPRs and general muscle spasms recorded in vivo in the awake chronic spinal rat. The 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonists SB216641 and GR127935 and the inverse agonist SB224289 reduced the inhibition of LPRs by 5-HT(1B) agonists (zolmitriptan). However, when applied alone, SB224289, SB216641, and GR127935 had no effect on the LPRs, indicating that 5-HT(1B) receptors do not adapt to chronic injury, remaining silent, without constitutive activity. The reduction in EPSPs with zolmitriptan unmasked a large glycine-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) after SCI. This IPSC and associated chloride current reversed at -73 mV, slightly below the resting membrane potential. Zolmitriptan did not change motoneuron properties. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT(1B/1F) agonists, such as zolmitriptan, can restore inhibition

  10. Signalling pathways activated by 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptors in native smooth muscle and primary cultures of rabbit renal artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J M; Hill, P; Jeremy, J; Garland, C

    2000-01-01

    The potential of primary cultures of rabbit renal artery vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was assessed as a means to investigate the signalling pathways linked to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptors in native arteries. In renal artery segments denuded of endothelium, incubated with ketanserin and prazosin (each 1 microM), and prestimulated with 20 mM K(+) Krebs buffer, 5-HT and CP 93,129, a 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, evoked concentration-dependent contractions. GR 127935, a 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist, significantly antagonised 5-HT-evoked contractions at nanomolar concentrations. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mRNA from smooth muscle cells from the isolated renal artery and from primary cultures of VSMCs from the same artery expressed mRNA transcripts for the 5-HT(1B) receptor and the 5-HT(1D) receptor in both preparations. The sequence of the PCR fragments corresponded to the known sequence for these receptors. Application of 5-HT evoked a concentration-dependent, pertussis toxin (PTx)-sensitive reduction in cyclic AMP in both cultured cells and intact artery (cyclic AMP concentration reduced by 65.53 +/- 3.33 and 52.65 +/- 5.34% from basal with 10 microM 5-HT, respectively). The effect of 10 microM 5-HT on cAMP was increased in the presence of 20 mM K(+) (reduced by 82.50 +/- 2.50 and 87.54 +/- 3.97%, respectively). In intact arteries, contraction through 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1D) receptors was significantly attenuated by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (wortmannin) and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MEK (U0126). In the cultured VSMCs, activated MAPK was identified by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting after stimulation with 5-HT, but only if 20 mM K(+) was present at the onset of stimulation. These data provide the first direct evidence that 5-HT(1B)/5-HT(1B) receptors are linked to the activation of MAPK and indicate that primary cultures of renal VSMCs could provide a

  11. The effects of aging and chronic fluoxetine treatment on circadian rhythms and suprachiasmatic nucleus expression of neuropeptide genes and 5-HT1B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Marilyn J.; Hester, James M.; Hopper, Jason A.; Franklin, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Age-related changes in circadian rhythms, including attenuation of photic phase shifts, are associated with changes in the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Aging decreases expression of mRNA for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a key neuropeptide for rhythm generation and photic phase shifts, and increases expression of serotonin transporters and 5-HT1B receptors, whose activation inhibits these phase shifts. Here we describe studies in hamsters showing that aging decreases SCN expression of mRNA for gastrin-releasing peptide, which also modulates photic phase resetting. Because serotonin innervation trophically supports SCN VIP mRNA expression, and serotonin transporters decrease extracellular serotonin, we predicted that chronic administration of the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, would attenuate the age-related changes in SCN VIP mRNA expression and 5-HT1B receptors. In situ hybridization studies showed that fluoxetine treatment does not alter SCN VIP mRNA expression, in either age group, at zeitgeber time (ZT)6 or 13 (ZT12 corresponds to lights off). However, receptor autoradiographic studies showed that fluoxetine prevents the age-related increase in SCN 5-HT1B receptors at ZT6, and decreases SCN 5-HT1B receptors in both ages at ZT13. Therefore, aging effects on SCN VIP mRNA and SCN 5-HT1B receptors are differentially regulated; the age-related increase in serotonin transporter sites mediates the latter but not the former. The studies also showed that aging and chronic fluoxetine treatment decrease total daily wheel running without altering the phase of the circadian wheel running rhythm, in contrast to previous reports of phase resetting by acute fluoxetine treatment. PMID:20525077

  12. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms in Croatian subjects with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Babic, Marina; Smurinic, Maja; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-08-15

    Disturbances in the expression/function of the 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in autism. The association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene with autism was studied in the Croatian population. Distribution frequencies for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of -1438 A/G and His452Tyr polymorphisms were compared in samples of 103 autistic and 214 control subjects. Significant overrepresentation of the G allele and the GG genotype of the -1438 A/G polymorphism was observed in group of autistic subjects, supporting the possible involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor in the development of autism.

  13. Role of spinal 5-HT5A, and 5-HT1A/1B/1D, receptors in neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Avila-Rojas, Sabino Hazael; Velázquez-Lagunas, Isabel; Salinas-Abarca, Ana Belen; Barragán-Iglesias, Paulino; Pineda-Farias, Jorge Baruch; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2015-10-05

    Serotonin (5-HT) participates in pain modulation by interacting with different 5-HT receptors. The role of 5-HT5A receptor in neuropathic pain has not previously studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate: A) the role of 5-HT5A receptors in rats subjected to spinal nerve injury; B) the expression of 5-HT5A receptors in dorsal spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Neuropathic pain was induced by L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation. Tactile allodynia in neuropathic rats was assessed with von Frey filaments. Western blot methodology was used to determine 5-HT5A receptor protein expression. Intrathecal administration (on day 14th) of 5-HT (10-100 nmol) or 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 0.03-0.3 nmol) reversed nerve injury-induced tactile allodynia. Intrathecal non-selective (methiothepin, 0.1-0.8 nmol) and selective (SB-699551, 1-10 nmol) 5-HT5A receptor antagonists reduced, by ~60% and ~25%, respectively, the antiallodynic effect of 5-HT (100 nmol) or 5-CT (0.3 nmol). Moreover, both selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonists, WAY-100635 (0.3-1 nmol) and GR-127935 (0.3-1 nmol), respectively, partially diminished the antiallodynic effect of 5-HT or 5-CT by about 30%. Injection of antagonists, by themselves, did not affect allodynia. 5-HT5A receptors were expressed in the ipsilateral dorsal lumbar spinal cord and DRG and L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation did not modify 5-HT5A receptor protein expression in those sites. Results suggest that 5-HT5A receptors reduce pain processing in the spinal cord and that 5-HT and 5-CT reduce neuropathic pain through activation of 5-HT5A and 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptors. These receptors could be an important part of the descending pain inhibitory system.

  14. The function and structural influence of selective relaxed constraint at functional intracellular loop3 of 5-HT(1A) serotonin-1 receptor family.

    PubMed

    Dass, J Febin Prabhu; Sudandiradoss, C

    2012-10-25

    Serotonin (5-HT) and its receptors have been involved in critical signal transduction mechanism and deregulation implicated in mood-related disorders. 5-HT activities are mediated through a family of transmembrane spanning serotonin receptors. Both within the family and species, 5-HT receptor protein sequence diversity and 7-transmembrane structural homogeneity have long been intriguing. In this study, we have analyzed the codon site constraint in 5-HT1 subclass receptors from 13 orthologous mammalian mRNA coding sequence. Further, the study was extended to computationally investigate the impact of non-synonymous sites with respect to function and structural significance through sequence homology algorithm and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). Codon sites with significant posterior probability were observed in 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptor indicating variations in site constraint within the 5-HT1 sub-class genes. In 5-HT(1A) receptor, seven sites were detected at the functional intracellular loop(3) (ICL(3)) with higher substitution rate through Codeml program. Sequence homology algorithm identifies that these sites were functionally tolerant within the mammals representing a selectively relaxed constraint at this domain. On the other hand, the root mean square deviation (rmsd) values from MDS suggest differences in structural conformation of ICL(3) models among the species. Specifically, the human ICL(3) model fluctuation was comparatively more stable than other species. Hence, we argue that these sites may have varying influence in G-proteins coupling and activation of effectors systems through downstream interacting accessory proteins of cell among the species. However, further experimental studies are required to elucidate the precise role and the seeming difference of these sites in 5-HT receptors between species.

  15. Prelimbic cortex 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors are involved in the hypophagic effects caused by fluoxetine in fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Stanquini, Laura A; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Joca, Sâmia R L; Scopinho, América A

    2015-09-01

    The regulation of food intake involves a complex interplay between the central nervous system and the activity of organs involved in energy homeostasis. Besides the hypothalamus, recognized as the center of this regulation, other structures are involved, especially limbic regions such as the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC). Monoamines, such as serotonin (5-HT), play an important role in appetite regulation. However, the effect in the vMPFC of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, on food intake has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to study the effects on food intake of fed and fasted rats evoked by fluoxetine injection into the prelimbic cortex (PL), a sub-region of the vMPFC, or given systemically, and which 5-HT receptors in the PL are involved in fluoxetine responses. Fluoxetine was injected into the PL or given systemically in male Wistar rats. Independent groups of rats were pretreated with intra-PL antagonists of 5-HT receptors: 5-HT1A (WAY100635), 5-HT2C (SB242084) or 5-HT1B (SB216641). Fluoxetine (0.1; 1; 3; 10nmol/200nL) injected into the PL induced a dose-dependent hypophagic effect in fasted rats. This effect was reversed by prior local treatment with WAY100635 (1; 10nmol) or SB242084 (1; 10nmol), but not with SB216641 (0.2; 2.5; 10nmol). Systemic fluoxetine induced a hypophagic effect, which was blocked by intra-PL 5-HT2C antagonist (10nmol) administration. Our findings suggest that PL 5-HT neurotransmission modulates the central control of food intake and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors in the PL could be potential targets for the action of fluoxetine.

  16. 5-HT1A receptors in mood and anxiety: recent insights into autoreceptor versus heteroreceptor function

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Alvaro; Tancredi, Adrian Newman-; Leonardo, E. David

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is intimately linked to anxiety and depression and a diverse body of evidence supports the involvement of the main inhibitory serotonergic receptor, the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) subtype, in both disorders. Objectives In this review, we examine the function of 5-HT1A receptor sub-populations and re-interpret our understanding of their role in mental illness in light of new data, separating both spatial (autoreceptor vs heteroreceptor) and the temporal (developmental vs adult) roles of the endogenous 5-HT1A receptors, emphasizing their distinct actions in mediating anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Results It is difficult to unambiguously distinguish the effects of different populations of the 5-HT1A receptors with traditional genetic animal models and pharmacological approaches. However, with the advent of novel genetic systems and subpopulation-selective pharmacological agents, direct evidence for distinct roles of these populations in governing emotion related behavior are emerging. Conclusions There is strong and growing evidence for a functional dissociation between auto and heteroreceptor populations in mediating anxiety and depressive-like behaviors respectively. Furthermore, while it is well established that 5-HT1A receptors act developmentally to establish normal anxiety-like behaviors, the developmental role of 5-HT1A heteroreceptors is less clear, and the specific mechanisms underlying the developmental role of each subpopulation are likely to be key elements determining mood control in adult subjects. PMID:24337875

  17. Molecular imaging of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in relation to human cognition.

    PubMed

    Borg, Jacqueline

    2008-12-16

    Animal studies and pharmacological studies in man have suggested that the serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor may serve as a biomarker for cognitive functioning and a target for treatment of cognitive impairment. Consistent findings in man have nonetheless hitherto remained sparse. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in patients with Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and depression implicate an alteration in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding compared to control subjects, but it is yet unknown whether these alterations are related to the cognitive impairment associated with these disorders. Pharmacological challenge studies using 5-HT(1A) agonism and antagonism to manipulate the serotonin system support involvement of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in human cognition, mainly in verbal memory functioning. However, the effect varies across studies and it remains unclear if the 5-HT(1A) receptor serves as a validated target for treatment of cognitive deficits. This lack of confirmation of experimental preclinical data, calls for increased efforts in translational research. Molecular imaging techniques such as PET, holds the potential to facilitate translational neuroscience by confirming observations from animal models in man, and aid development of validated animal models of use for advancement of pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, in combination with molecular genetics, molecular imaging may suggest novel strategies for prevention and intervention, based on an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis of major neuropsychiatric disorder and associated cognitive impairment.

  18. Chronic imipramine enhances 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors-mediated inhibition of panic-like behavior in the rat dorsal periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Cláudia A; Cabral, Alfredo H C L; Almeida, Leandro P; Magierek, Valeska; Ramos, Patrício L; Zanoveli, Janaína M; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Zangrossi, Hélio; Nogueira, Regina L

    2002-07-01

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) has been used to induce panic-like behavior in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic imipramine treatment on the sensitivity of different 5-HT receptor subtypes in inhibiting aversion induced by electrical stimulation of this brain area. For that, the effects of intra-DPAG administration of the endogenous agonist 5-HT (20 nmol), the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (8 nmol) and the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist DOI (16 nmol) were measured in female Wistar rats given either chronic injection of imipramine (15 mg/kg, 3 weeks, ip) or saline. The results showed that the three receptor agonists raised the threshold of aversive electrical stimulation in both groups of animals, but this antiaversive effect was significantly higher in rats treated with imipramine. Treatment with imipramine did not change the basal threshold of aversive electrical stimulation measured before intra-DPAG injection of the 5-HT agonists. The results suggest that sensitization of both 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors within the DPAG may be involved in the beneficial effect of imipramine in panic disorder (PD).

  19. N-desalkylquetiapine, a potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and partial 5-HT1A agonist, as a putative mediator of quetiapine's antidepressant activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Niels H; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Caron, Marc G; Wetsel, William C; Rothman, Richard B; Roth, Bryan L

    2008-09-01

    Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is also US FDA approved for treating bipolar depression, albeit by an unknown mechanism. To discover the potential mechanism for this apparently unique action, we screened quetiapine, its metabolite N-Desalkylquetiapine, and dibenzo[b,f][1,4]thiazepine-11(10-H)-one (DBTO) against a large panel of G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitter transporters. DBTO was inactive at all tested molecular targets. N-Desalkylquetiapine had a high affinity (3.4 nM) for the histamine H(1) receptor and moderate affinities (10-100 nM) for the norepinephrine reuptake transporter (NET), the serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1E), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(7) receptors, the alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor, and the M(1), M(3), and M(5) muscarinic receptors. The compound had low affinities (100-1000 nM) for the 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(5), 5-HT(6), alpha(1A), alpha(2A), alpha(2B), alpha(2C), H(2), M(2), M(4), and dopamine D(1), D(2), D(3), and D(4) receptors. N-Desalkylquetiapine potently inhibited human NE transporter with a K(i) of 12 nM, about 100-fold more potent than quetiapine itself. N-Desalkylquetiapine was also 10-fold more potent and more efficacious than quetiapine at the 5-HT(1A) receptor. N-Desalkylquetiapine was an antagonist at 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(2C), alpha(1A), alpha(1D), alpha(2A), alpha(2C), H(1), M(1), M(3), and M(5) receptors. In the mouse tail suspension test, N-Desalkylquetiapine displayed potent antidepressant-like activity in VMAT2 heterozygous mice at doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg. These data strongly suggest that the antidepressant activity of quetiapine is mediated, at least in part, by its metabolite N-Desalkylquetiapine through NET inhibition and partial 5-HT(1A) agonism. Possible contributions of this metabolite to the side effects of quetiapine are discussed.

  20. Functional 5-HT1a receptor polymorphism selectively modulates error-specific subprocesses of performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Domschke, Katharina; Kolev, Vasil; Yordanova, Juliana; Baffa, Anna; Falkenstein, Michael; Konrad, Carsten

    2010-04-01

    Our study investigates the dependence of response monitoring and error detection on genetic influences modulating the serotonergic system. This was done using the event-related potentials (ERPs) after error (Ne/ERN) and correct trials (Nc/CRN). To induce a sufficient amount of errors, a standard flanker task was used. The subjects (N = 94) were genotyped for the functional 5-HT1A C(-1019)G polymorphism. The results show that the 5-HT1A C(-1019)G polymorphism specifically modulates error detection. Neurophysiological modulations on error detection were paralleled by a similar modulation of response slowing after an error, reflecting the behavioral adaptation. The 5-HT1A -1019 CC genotype group showed a larger Ne and stronger posterror slowing than the CG and GG genotype groups. More general processes of performance monitoring, as reflected in the Nc/CRN, were not affected. The finding that error-specific processes, but not general response monitoring processes, are modulated by the 5-HT1A C(-1019)G polymorphism is underlined by a wavelet analysis. In summary, the results suggest a specific effect of the 5-HT1A C(-1019)G polymorphism on error monitoring, as reflected in the Ne, and suggest a neurobiological dissociation between processes of error monitoring and general response monitoring at the level of the serotonin 1A receptor system.

  1. Desensitization of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors induced by neonatal DSP-4 treatment.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Joanna; Nowak, Przemysław; Brus, Ryszard

    2007-01-15

    To examine the effect of noradrenergic lesion on the reactivity of central 5-HT(1A) receptors, DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) was administered neonatally 30 min after zimelidine (10 mg/kg) administration. 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors are involved in the regulation of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis. In HPLC assay R-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.03 mg/kg) significantly decreased 5-HT synthesis rate in striatum, hypothalamus and frontal cortex of control, whilst nonsignificantly in DSP-4-lesioned adult rats (10-12 weeks old). To determine which type of receptor, pre- or postsynaptically located, is involved in the attenuated response to 5-HT(1A) receptors' agonist, behavioral tests were conducted. R-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.015 mg/kg) caused hyperphagia of control rats, but did not change feeding of DSP-4 treated rats. R-(+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg/kg) induced hypothermia and "5-HT(1A) syndrome" in both control and DSP-4-lesioned animals. The nature of this phenomenon is attributable to the presynaptic adaptive mechanism and suggests the desensitization of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors of rats with neonatal lesion of the central noradrenergic system.

  2. Donitriptan, but not sumatriptan, inhibits capsaicin-induced canine external carotid vasodilatation via 5-HT1B rather than 5-HT1D receptors

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Islas, E; Gupta, S; Jiménez-Mena, L R; Lozano-Cuenca, J; Sánchez-López, A; Centurión, D; Mehrotra, S; MaassenVanDenBrink, A; Villalón, C M

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: It has been suggested that during a migraine attack capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory nerves release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), resulting in cranial vasodilatation and central nociception; hence, trigeminal inhibition may prevent this vasodilatation and abort migraine headache. This study investigated the effects of the agonists sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D water-soluble), donitriptan (5-HT1B/1D lipid-soluble), PNU-142633 (5-HT1D water-soluble) and PNU-109291 (5-HT1D lipid-soluble) on vasodilator responses to capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine in dog external carotid artery. Experimental approach: 59 vagosympathectomized dogs were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded with a pressure transducer, connected to a cannula inserted into a femoral artery. A precalibrated flow probe was placed around the common carotid artery, with ligation of the internal carotid and occipital branches, and connected to an ultrasonic flowmeter. The thyroid artery was cannulated for infusion of agonists. Key results: Intracarotid infusions of capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine dose-dependently increased blood flow through the carotid artery. These responses remained unaffected after intravenous (i.v.) infusions of sumatriptan, PNU-142633, PNU-109291 or physiological saline; in contrast, donitriptan significantly attenuated the vasodilator responses to capsaicin, but not those to α-CGRP or acetylcholine. Only sumatriptan and donitriptan dose-dependently decreased the carotid blood flow. Interestingly, i.v. administration of the antagonist, SB224289 (5-HT1B), but not of BRL15572 (5-HT1D), abolished the inhibition by donitriptan. Conclusions and implications: Our results suggest that the inhibition produced by donitriptan of capsaicin-induced external carotid vasodilatation is mainly mediated by 5-HT1B, rather than 5-HT1D, receptors, probably by a central mechanism. PMID:16880765

  3. Role of 5-HT5A and 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the antinociception produced by ergotamine and valerenic acid in the rat formalin test.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Cantú, Guadalupe C; Jiménez-Hernández, Mildred; Rocha-González, Héctor I; Villalón, Carlos M; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta

    2016-06-15

    Sumatriptan, dihydroergotamine and methysergide inhibit 1% formalin-induced nociception by activation of peripheral 5-HT1B/1D receptors. This study set out to investigate the pharmacological profile of the antinociception produced by intrathecal and intraplantar administration of ergotamine (a 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT5A/5B receptor agonist) and valerenic acid (a partial agonist at 5-HT5A receptors). Intraplantar injection of 1% formalin in the right hind paw resulted in spontaneous flinching behavior of the injected hindpaw of female Wistar rats. Intrathecal ergotamine (15nmol) or valerenic acid (1 nmol) blocked in a dose dependent manner formalin-induced nociception. The antinociception by intrathecal ergotamine (15nmol) or valerenic acid (1nmol) was partly or completely blocked by intrathecal administration of the antagonists: (i) methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT5A/5B; 0.01-0.1nmol); (ii) SB-699551 (selective 5-HT5A; up to 10nmol); (iii) anti-5-HT5A antibody; (iv) SB-224289 (selective 5-HT1B; 0.1-1nmol); or (v) BRL-15572 (selective 5-HT1D; 0.1-1nmol). Likewise, antinociception by intraplantar ergotamine (15nmol) and valerenic acid (10nmol) was: (i) partially blocked by methiothepin (1nmol), SB-699551 (10nmol) or SB-224289 (1nmol); and (ii) abolished by BRL-15572 (1nmol). The above doses of antagonists (which did not affect per se the formalin-induced nociception) were high enough to completely block their respective receptors. Our results suggest that ergotamine and valerenic acid produce antinociception via 5-HT5A and 5-HT1B/1D receptors located at both spinal and peripheral sites. This provides new evidence for understanding the modulation of nociceptive pathways in inflammatory pain.

  4. Investigation of the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in the sumatriptan-induced constriction of porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses

    PubMed Central

    Vries, Peter De; Willems, Edwin W; Heiligers, Jan P C; Villalón, Carlos M; Saxena, Pramod R

    1999-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the antimigraine drug sumatriptan constricts porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses via 5-HT1-like receptors, identical to 5-HT1B/1D receptors. The recent availability of silent antagonists selective for the 5-HT1B (SB224289) and 5-HT1D (BRL15572) receptor led us to further analyse the nature of receptors involved.In pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, bilaterally vagosympathectomized pigs, sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 μg kg−1, i.v.) dose-dependently decreased carotid arteriovenous anastomotic conductance by up to 70±5%.The dose-related decreases in carotid arteriovenous anastomotic conductance by sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 μg kg−1, i.v.) remained unchanged in animals treated (i.v.) with 1 mg kg−1 of BRL15572 (maximum decrease: 72±3%), but were significantly attenuated by 1 mg kg−1 (maximum decrease: 30±11%) and abolished by 3 mg kg−1 (maximum decrease: 3±7%) of SB224289. The highest dose of SB224289 did not attenuate the hypertension, tachycardia or increases in carotid blood flow induced by bolus injections of noradrenaline (0.1–3 μg kg−1, i.v.).The results indicate that sumatriptan constricts porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses primarily via 5-HT1B, but not via 5-HT1D receptors. PMID:10385240

  5. LSD and DOB: interaction with 5-HT2A receptors to inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Arvanov, V L; Liang, X; Russo, A; Wang, R Y

    1999-09-01

    Both the phenethylamine hallucinogen (-)-1-2, 5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOB), a selective serotonin 5-HT2A,2C receptor agonist, and the indoleamine hallucinogen D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, which binds to 5-HT1A, 1B, 1D, 1E, 1F, 2A, 2C, 5, 6, 7, dopamine D1 and D2, and alpha1 and alpha2 adrenergic receptors), but not their non-hallucinogenic congeners, inhibited N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced inward current and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the forceps minor in pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortical slices. The inhibitory effect of hallucinogens was mimicked by 5-HT in the presence of selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The inhibitory action of DOB, LSD and 5-HT on the NMDA transmission was blocked by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists R-(+)-alpha-(2, 3-dimethoxyphenil)-1-[4-fluorophenylethyl]-4-piperidineme thanol (M100907) and ketanserin. However, at low concentrations, when both LSD and DOB by themselves only partially depressed the NMDA response, they blocked the inhibitory effect of 5-HT, suggesting a partial agonist action. Whereas N-(4-aminobutyl)-5-chloro-2-naphthalenesulphonamide (W-7, a calmodulin antagonist) and N-[2-[[[3-(4'-chlorophenyl)- 2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4'-methoxy-b enzenesulphonamide phosphate (KN-93, a Ca2+/CaM-KII inhibitor), but not the negative control 2-[N-4'methoxybenzenesulphonyl]amino-N-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-propeny l-N -methylbenzylamine phosphate (KN-92), blocked the inhibitory action of LSD and DOB, the selective protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine was without any effect. We conclude that phenethylamine and indoleamine hallucinogens may exert their hallucinogenic effect by interacting with 5-HT2A receptors via a Ca2+/CaM-KII-dependent signal transduction pathway as partial agonists and modulating the NMDA receptors-mediated sensory, perceptual, affective and cognitive processes.

  6. Pharmacology of the hypothermic response to 5-HT1A receptor activation in humans.

    PubMed

    Lesch, K P; Poten, B; Söhnle, K; Schulte, H M

    1990-01-01

    The selective 5-HT1A receptor ligand ipsapirone (IPS) caused dose-related hypothermia in humans. The response was attenuated by the nonselective 5-HT1/2 receptor antagonist metergoline and was completely antagonized by the nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist pindolol, which interacts stereoselectively with the 5-HT1A receptor. The selective beta 1-adrenergic antagonist betaxolol had no effect. The findings indicate that IPS-induced hypothermia specifically involves activation of (presynaptic) 5-HT1A receptors. Therefore, the hypothermic response to IPS may provide a convenient in vivo paradigma to assess the function of the presynaptic 5-HT receptor in affective disorders and its involvement in the effects of psychotropic drugs.

  7. Compositions and methods related to serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    DOEpatents

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar [Irvine, CA; Saigal, Neil [Fresno, CA; Saigal, legal representative, Harsh

    2012-09-25

    Contemplated substituted arylpiperazinyl compounds, and most preferably .sup.18F-Mefway, exhibit desirable in vitro and in vivo binding characteristics to the 5-HT1A receptor. Among other advantageous parameters, contemplated compounds retain high binding affinity, display optimal lipophilicity, and are radiolabeled efficiently with .sup.18F-fluorine in a single step. Still further, contemplated compounds exhibit high target to non-target ratios in receptor-rich regions both in vitro and in vivo, and selected compounds can be effectively and sensitively displaced by serotonin, thus providing a quantitative tool for measuring 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin concentration changes in the living brain.

  8. Compositions and methods related to serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    DOEpatents

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Saigal, Neil

    2010-06-08

    Contemplated substituted arylpiperazinyl compounds, and most preferably 18F-Mefway, exhibit desirable in vitro and in vivo binding characteristics to the 5-HT1A receptor. Among other advantageous parameters, contemplated compounds retain high binding affinity, display optimal lipophilicity, and are radiolabeled efficiently with 18F-fluorine in a single step. Still further, contemplated compounds exhibit high target to non-target ratios in receptor-rich regions both in vitro and in vivo, and selected compounds can be effectively and sensitively displaced by serotonin, thus providing a quantitative tool for measuring 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin concentration changes in the living brain.

  9. Compositions and methods related to serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    DOEpatents

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Saigal, Neil; Saigal, legal representative, Harsh

    2012-09-25

    Contemplated substituted arylpiperazinyl compounds, and most preferably 18F-Mefway, exhibit desirable in vitro and in vivo binding characteristics to the 5-HT1A receptor. Among other advantageous parameters, contemplated compounds retain high binding affinity, display optimal lipophilicity, and are radiolabeled efficiently with 18F-fluorine in a single step. Still further, contemplated compounds exhibit high target to non-target ratios in receptor-rich regions both in vitro and in vivo, and selected compounds can be effectively and sensitively displaced by serotonin, thus providing a quantitative tool for measuring 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin concentration changes in the living brain.

  10. Platelet 5-HT(1A) receptor correlates with major depressive disorder in drug-free patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Wang, Di; Man, Sui Cheung; Ng, Roger; McAlonan, Grainne M; Wong, Hei Kiu; Wong, Wendy; Lee, Jade; Tan, Qing-Rong

    2014-08-04

    The platelet serotonergic system has potential biomarker utility for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, platelet expression of 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin transporter (SERT) proteins, and serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were quantified in 53 patients with MDD and 22 unaffected controls. All were drug-free, non-smokers and had no other psychiatric and cardiovascular comorbidity. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Patients with MDD had significantly higher expression of platelet 5-HT1A receptors but significantly lower contents of platelet 5-HT, platelet-poor plasma (PPP) 5-HT and PPP 5-HIAA compared to healthy controls, and this was correlated with the severity of depression. SERT expression did not differ between the two groups. Correlation analysis confirmed a strong, inverse relationship between the 5-HT1A receptor expression and the 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels. Thus overexpression of platelet 5-HT1A receptors and reduced 5-HT tone may function as a peripheral marker of depression.

  11. Enhanced reactivity of 5-HT1A receptors in the rat dorsal periaqueductal gray matter after chronic treatment with fluoxetine and sertraline: evidence from the elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Zanoveli, Janaina Menezes; Nogueira, Regina Lúcia; Zangrossi, Hélio

    2007-03-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that sensitization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) may underlie the therapeutic effect of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in panic disorder. These results were obtained from studies using animal models that associate escape behavior with panic attacks, such as the elevated T-maze. In this test, chronic administration of the non-selective SRI imipramine enhances the inhibitory effect on escape caused by the intra-DPAG injection of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT. We here evaluated the generality of this finding by investigating the effect of chronic administration of two selective SRIs (SSRIs), fluoxetine and sertraline, on the reactivity of the rat DPAG 5-HT1A receptors. The results showed that both SSRIs inhibited escape behavior in the elevated T-maze, suggestive of a panicolytic-like effect. Whereas intra-DPAG injection of a low dose of 8-OH-DPAT (0.4nmol) had no effect on escape in control animals, it significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect caused by the SSRIs on this response. Microinjection of 8-OH-DPAT in SSRI-treated rats also inhibited the acquisition of inhibitory avoidance, another defensive response measured by the elevated T-maze. The results indicate that chronic administration of fluoxetine and sertraline sensitizes 5-HT1A receptors in the DPAG. Overall, they support the view that facilitation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the DPAG is implicated in the therapeutic effect of SRIs on panic disorder.

  12. Alcohol-heightened aggression in mice: attenuation by 5-HT1A receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Miczek, K A; Hussain, S; Faccidomo, S

    1998-09-01

    One of the critical mechanisms by which alcohol heightens aggression involves forebrain serotonin (5-HT) systems, possibly via actions on 5-HT1A receptors. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that activating 5-HT1A receptors by selective agonists will block the aggression-heightening effects of ethanol. Initially, the selective antagonist WAY 100635 was used to assess whether or not the changes in aggressive behavior after treatment with 8-OH-DPAT and flesinoxan result from action at the 5-HT1A receptors. Resident male CFW mice engaged in aggressive behavior (i.e. attack bites, sideways threats, tail rattle) during 5-min confrontations with a group-housed intruder male. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral repertoire revealed systematic reductions in all salient elements of aggressive behavior after treatment with 8-OH-DPAT (0.1-0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or flesinoxan (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). The 5-HT1A agonists also reduced motor activities such as walking, rearing and grooming, although to a lesser degree. Pretreatment with the antagonist WAY 100635 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) shifted the agonist dose-effect curves for behavioral effects to the right. In a further experiment, oral ethanol (1.0 g/kg, p.o.) increased the frequency of attacks in excess of 2 SD from their mean vehicle level of attacks in 19 out of 76 resident mice. Low doses of 8-OH-DPAT (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) and flesinoxan (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg), given before the ethanol treatment, attenuated the alcohol-heightened aggression in a dose-dependent fashion. By contrast, these low 5-HT1A agonist doses affected motor activity in ethanol-treated resident mice to a lesser degree, suggesting behavioral specificity of these anti-aggressive effects. The current results support the hypothesized significant role of 5-HT1A receptors in the aggression-heightening effects of alcohol. If these effects are in fact due to action at somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, then the anti-aggressive effects would be associated with

  13. Memory time-course: mRNA 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Meneses, Alfredo

    2009-08-24

    In an attempt to clarify conflicting results about serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in memory formation, their mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR in key brain areas for explicit and implicit memory. The time-course (0-120 h) of autoshaped responses was progressive and mRNA 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(7) receptors expression monotonically augmented or declined in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and raphe nuclei, respectively. At 24-48 h acutely 8-OH-DPAT (0.062 mg/kg) administration enhanced memory and attenuated mRNA 5-HT(1A)<5-HT(7) receptors expression respect to saline group. WAY100635 (0.3 mg/kg) or SB-269970 (10.0 mg/kg) did not affect the former, partially blocked or reversed the latter, respectively. Furthermore, lower WAY100635 (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) or SB-269970 (1.0-5.0 mg/kg) doses plus 8-OHDPAT not affected memory; however both combinations suppressed or up-regulated mRNA expression 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(7) receptors. In contrast, AS19 (5.0 mg/kg) facilitated memory consolidation, decreased or increased hippocampal 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1A) receptors expression. Together these data revealed that, when both 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors were stimulated by 8-OHDPAT under memory consolidation, subtle changes emerged, not evident at behavioral level though detectable at genes expression. Notably, high levels of efficient memory were maintained even when serotonergic tone, via either 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(7) receptor, was down- or up-regulated. Nevertheless, WAY100635 plus SB-269970 impaired memory consolidation and suppressed their expression. Considering that serotonergic changes are prominent in AD patients with an earlier onset of disease the present approach might be useful in the identification of functional changes associated to memory formation, memory deficits and reversing or even preventing these deficits.

  14. Involvement of serotoninergic 5-HT1A/2A, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic D1 receptors in St. John's wort-induced prepulse inhibition deficit: a possible role of hyperforin.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Mariane G; Mohamed, Mohamed R; Youssef, Amal M; Sabry, Gilane M; Sabry, Nagwa A; Khalifa, Amani E

    2009-05-16

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response is a valuable paradigm for sensorimotor gating processes. Previous research showed that acute administration of St. John's wort extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) to rats caused significant disruption of PPI while elevating monoamines levels in some brain areas. The cause-effect relationship between extract-induced PPI disruption and augmented monoaminergic transmission was studied using different serotoninergic, adrenergic and dopaminergic antagonists. The effects of hypericin and hyperforin, as the main active constituents of the extract, on PPI response were also tested. PPI disruption was prevented after blocking the serotoninergic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic D1 receptors. Results also demonstrated a significant PPI deficit after acute treatment of rats with hyperforin, and not hypericin. In some conditions manifesting disrupted PPI response, apoptosis coexists. Electrophoresis of DNA isolated from brains of hyperforin-treated animals revealed absence of any abnormal DNA fragmentation patterns. It is concluded that serotoninergic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic D1 receptors are involved in the disruptive effect of St. John's wort extract on PPI response in rats. We can also conclude that hyperforin, and not hypericin, is one of the active ingredients responsible for St. John's wort-induced PPI disruption with no relation to apoptotic processes.

  15. Role of maternal 5-HT(1A) receptor in programming offspring emotional and physical development.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, A; Toth, M

    2010-11-01

    Serotonin(1A) receptor (5-HT(1A)R) deficiency has been associated with anxiety and depression and mice with genetic receptor inactivation exhibit heightened anxiety. We have reported that 5-HT(1A)R is not only a genetic but also a maternal 'environmental' factor in the development of anxiety in Swiss-Webster mice. Here, we tested whether the emergence of maternal genotype-dependent adult anxiety is preceded by early behavioral abnormalities or whether it is manifested following a normal emotional development. Pups born to null or heterozygote mothers had significantly reduced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) between postnatal day (P) 4 and 12, indicating an influence of the maternal genotype. The offspring's own genotype had an effect limited to P4. Furthermore, we observed reduced weight gain in the null offspring of null but not heterozygote mothers, indicating that a complete maternal receptor deficiency compromises physical development of the offspring. Except a short perinatal deficit during the dark period, heterozygote females displayed normal maternal behavior, which, with the early appearance of USV deficit, suggests a role for 5-HT(1A)R during pre-/perinatal development. Consistent with this notion, adult anxiety in the offspring is determined during the pre-/perinatal period. In contrast to heterozygote females, null mothers exhibited impaired pup retrieval and nest building that may explain the reduced weight gain of their offspring. Taken together, our data indicate an important role for the maternal 5-HT(1A)R in regulating emotional and physical development of their offspring. Because reduced receptor binding has been reported in depression, including postpartum depression, reduced 5-HT(1A)R function in mothers may influence the emotional development of their offspring.

  16. Emotional management and 5-HT2A receptor gene variance in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi-Hsuan; Tsai, Guochuan E; Liao, Chun-Hui; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Tsuang, Hui-Chun; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognitive functions, particularly emotion management. Emotion management may be partially regulated by the serotoninergic system; the -1438 A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of the 5-HT2A gene can modulate 5-HT2A activity and is linked to certain emotional traits and anger- and aggression-related behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate whether this 5-HT2A genetic variance is associated with social cognitive function, particularly the management of emotions. One hundred and fifteen patients with chronic schizophrenia were stabilized with an optimal-dose of antipsychotic treatment. All were genotyped for the -1438 A/G polymorphism and assessed with symptom rating scales, neurocognitive instruments, and the "Managing Emotions" section of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Multiple regression showed that patients with the A/G genotype performed better than those with G/G in managing emotion (p=0.018) but did not differ from those with the A/A genotype. Regarding the two subtasks of the Managing Emotions section, the A/G heterozygotes also performed better than the G/G homozygotes in the emotion management (p=0.026) and emotional relations (p=0.027) subtasks. The results suggest that variability in the 5-HT2A gene may influence emotion management in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. [5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor interplay: Chronic activation of 5-HT7 receptors decreases the functional activity of 5-HT1A receptor and its сontent in the mouse brain].

    PubMed

    Kondaurova, E M; Bazovkina, D V; Naumenko, V S

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 are involved in the development of various psychopathologies. Some data indicate that there is an interplay between 5-HT1A 5-HT7 receptors that could be implicated in the regulation of their function. This work analyzed the effects of chronic 5-HT7 activation on the functional activity of 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors, on the corresponding protein levels, and on the expression of genes encoding 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors in the mouse brain. Chronic administration of the 5-HT7 selective agonist LP44 (20.5 nmol, i.c.v., 14 days) produced considerable desensitization of both 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. In LP44-treated mice, the hypothermic responses mediated by both 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors were attenuated. Moreover, the levels of 5-HT1A receptor protein in the midbrain and the frontal cortex of LP44-treated mice were significantly decreased. However, the brain levels of 5-HT7 receptor protein did not differ between LP44-treated and control mice. Chronic LP44 treatment did not alter the expression of the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptor genes in all investigated brain structure. These data suggest that 5-HT7 receptors participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A receptors functioning.

  18. Escalated aggression after alcohol drinking in male mice: dorsal raphé and prefrontal cortex serotonin and 5-HT(1B) receptors.

    PubMed

    Faccidomo, Sara; Bannai, Makoto; Miczek, Klaus A

    2008-11-01

    A significant minority of individuals engages in escalated levels of aggression after consuming moderate doses of alcohol (Alc). Neural modulation of escalated aggression involves altered levels of serotonin (5-HT) and the activity of 5-HT(1B) receptors. The aim of these studies was to determine whether 5-HT(1B) receptors in the dorsal raphé (DRN), orbitofrontal (OFC), and medial prefrontal (mPFC) cortex attenuate heightened aggression and regulate extracellular levels of 5-HT. Male mice were trained to self-administer Alc by performing an operant response that was reinforced with a delivery of 6% Alc. To identify Alc-heightened aggressors, each mouse was repeatedly tested for aggression after consuming either 1.0 g/kg Alc or H2O. Next, a cannula was implanted into either the DRN, OFC, or mPFC, and subsets of mice were tested for aggression after drinking either Alc or H(2)O prior to a microinjection of the 5-HT(1B) agonist, CP-94,253. Additional mice were implanted with a microdialysis probe into the mPFC, through which CP-94,253 was perfused and samples were collected for 5-HT measurement. Approximately 60% of the mice were more aggressive after drinking Alc, confirming the aggression-heightening effects of 1.0 g/kg Alc. Infusion of 1 microg CP-94,253 into the DRN reduced both aggressive and motor behaviors. However, infusion of 1 microg CP-94,253 into the mPFC, but not the OFC, after Alc drinking, increased aggressive behavior. In the mPFC, reverse microdialysis of CP-94,253 increased extracellular levels of 5-HT; levels decreased immediately after the perfusion. This 5-HT increase was attenuated in self-administering mice. These results suggest that 5-HT(1B) receptors in the mPFC may serve to selectively disinhibit aggressive behavior in mice with a history of Alc self-administration.

  19. Pharmacological profile of lurasidone, a novel antipsychotic agent with potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7) and 5-HT1A receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Tadashi; Horisawa, Tomoko; Tokuda, Kumiko; Ishiyama, Takeo; Ogasa, Masaaki; Tagashira, Rie; Matsumoto, Kenji; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yoko; Toma, Satoko; Oki, Hitomi; Tanno, Norihiko; Saji, Ikutaro; Ito, Akira; Ohno, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Mitsutaka

    2010-07-01

    Lurasidone [(3aR,4S,7R,7aS)-2-[(1R,2R)-2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)piperazin-1-ylmethyl]cyclohexylmethyl]hexahydro-4,7-methano-2H-isoindole-1,3-dione hydrochloride; SM-13496] is an azapirone derivative and a novel antipsychotic candidate. The objective of the current studies was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of lurasidone. Receptor binding affinities of lurasidone and several antipsychotic drugs were tested under comparable assay conditions using cloned human receptors or membrane fractions prepared from animal tissue. Lurasidone was found to have potent binding affinity for dopamine D(2), 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT(2A)), 5-HT(7), 5-HT(1A), and noradrenaline alpha(2C) receptors. Affinity for noradrenaline alpha(1), alpha(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptors was weak, whereas affinity for histamine H(1) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was negligible. In vitro functional assays demonstrated that lurasidone acts as an antagonist at D(2) and 5-HT(7) receptors and as a partial agonist at the 5-HT(1A) receptor subtype. Lurasidone showed potent effects predictive of antipsychotic activity, such as inhibition of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior in rats, similar to other antipsychotics. Furthermore, lurasidone had only weak extrapyramidal effects in rodent models. In animal models of anxiety disorders and depression, treatment with lurasidone was associated with significant improvement. Lurasidone showed a preferential effect on the frontal cortex (versus striatum) in increasing dopamine turnover. Anti-alpha(1)-noradrenergic, anticholinergic, and central nervous system (CNS) depressant actions of lurasidone were also very weak. These results demonstrate that lurasidone possesses antipsychotic activity and antidepressant- or anxiolytic-like effects with potentially reduced liability for extrapyramidal and CNS depressant side effects.

  20. Role of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in the facilitatory response induced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Terrón, J A

    2001-06-01

    The present study further explored the mechanisms involved in the facilitatory effect induced by (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on learning consolidation. For this purpose, we analyzed in parallel the effects of LY215840 and ritanserin, two 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists with high affinity for the 5-HT(7) receptor, and WAY100635, a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on the facilitatory effect induced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation. We also determined whether LY215840 and/or ritanserin could be beneficial in restoring a deficient learning condition. Using the model of autoshaping task, post-training injection of LY215840 or WAY100635 had no effect on learning consolidation. However, both drugs abolished the enhancing effect of 8-OH-DPAT, with LY215840 being slightly more effective than WAY100635 in this respect. Ritanserin produced an increase in performance by itself and also abolished the effect of 8-OH-DPAT. Remarkably, selective blockade of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors with MDL100907 and SB200646, respectively, failed to alter the 8-OH-DPAT effect. LY215840 and ritanserin, at the doses that inhibited the 8-OH-DPAT-induced response, reversed the learning deficits induced by scopolamine and dizocilpine. The present results suggest that the enhancing effect produced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation involves activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors and an additional mechanism, probably related to the 5-HT(7) receptor. Blockade of 5-HT(2) receptors, and perhaps of 5-HT(7) receptors as well, may provide some benefit in reversing learning deficits associated with decreased cholinergic and/or glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  1. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors as targets for agents to treat psychiatric disorders: rationale and current status of research.

    PubMed

    Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2013-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders represent a large economic burden in modern societies. However, pharmacological treatments are still far from optimal. Drugs used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (selective serotonin [5-HT] reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) are pharmacological refinements of first-generation tricyclic drugs, discovered by serendipity, and show low efficacy and slowness of onset. Moreover, antipsychotic drugs are partly effective in positive symptoms of schizophrenia, yet they poorly treat negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The present article reviews the neurobiological basis of 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) function and the role of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in the treatment of MDD, anxiety and psychotic disorders. The activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in corticolimbic areas appears beneficial for the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. However, presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs play a detrimental role in MDD, since individuals with high density or function of presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs are more susceptible to mood disorders and suicide, and respond poorly to antidepressant drugs. Moreover, the indirect activation of presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs by SSRIs/SNRIs reduces 5-HT neuron activity and terminal 5-HT release, thus opposing the elevation of extracellular 5-HT produced by blockade of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the forebrain. Chronic antidepressant treatment desensitizes presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs, thus reducing the effectiveness of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback. The prevention of this process by the non-selective partial agonist pindolol accelerates clinical antidepressant effects. Two new antidepressant drugs, vilazodone (marketed in the USA) and vortioxetine (in development) incorporate partial 5-HT1A-R agonist properties with SERT blockade. Several studies with transgenic mice have also established the respective role of pre- and

  2. The partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist buspirone enhances neurogenesis in the opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Grabiec, Marta; Turlejski, Kris; Djavadian, Rouzanna L

    2009-06-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that neurogenesis in the adult Monodelphis opossum has a typical mammalian pattern and occurs only in the dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. In these two brain regions neurogenesis is present throughout the lifespan, although its rate is reduced by half in the old age. Treatment with buspirone, a partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist which is used in human clinic as an anxiolytic agent, boosts proliferation in the SVZ and DG in both adult and aged opossums. The neuronal phenotype dominates among newly generated cells in both non-treated and buspirone-treated opossums. We suggest that if functional importance of adult neurogenesis is in improving olfactory discrimination and generation of hippocampus-dependent memory, both spatial and emotional, then administration of drugs increasing the rate of neurogenesis via activation of 5-HT1A receptors may be a valuable aid in combating problems of the advanced age.

  3. Design and synthesis of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Edward; Zhu, Xue Y; Etukala, Jagan R; Peprah, Kwakye; Jordan, Kamanski R; Adkins, Adia A; Bricker, Barbara A; Kang, Hye J; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2016-08-15

    5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors have been at the center of discussions recently due in part to their major role in the etiology of major central nervous system diseases such as depression, sleep disorders, and schizophrenia. As part of our search to identify dual targeting ligands for these receptors, we have carried out a systematic modification of a selective 5HT7 receptor ligand culminating in the identification of several dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands. Compound 16, a butyrophenone derivative of tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ), was identified as the most potent agent with low nanomolar binding affinities to both receptors. Interestingly, compound 16 also displayed moderate affinity to other clinically relevant dopamine receptors. Thus, it is anticipated that compound 16 may serve as a lead for further exploitation in our quest to identify new ligands with the potential to treat diseases of CNS origin.

  4. Drug evaluation: PRX-00023, a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist for depression.

    PubMed

    de Paulis, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    EPIX Pharmaceuticals Inc (formerly Predix Pharmaceuticals Inc) is developing PRX-00023, an oral aryl piperazine 5-HT1A agonist, for the potential treatment of depression. While initially in development for generalized anxiety disorder, EPIX is now only focusing on the development of PRX-00023 for depression. In November 2006, EPIX reported that it planned to initiate a phase II trial in patients with depression in the first half of 2007.

  5. PET imaging of the serotonin transporter and 5HT1A receptor in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Gil, Roberto; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Huang, Yiyun; Perez, Audrey; Frankle, W. Gordon; Laruelle, Marc; Krystal, John; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2009-01-01

    Background Rodent models as well as studies in humans have suggested alterations in serotonin (5HT) innervation and transmission in early onset genetically determined or type II alcoholism. This study examines two indices of serotonergic transmission, 5HT transporter levels and 5-HT1A availability, in vivo, in type II alcoholism. This is the first report of combined tracers for pre and post-synaptic serotonergic transmission in the same alcoholic subjects and the first study of 5HT1A receptors in alcoholism. Method Fourteen alcohol dependent subjects were scanned (11 with both tracers, 1 with [11C]DASB only and two with [11C]WAY100635 only). Twelve healthy controls (HC) subjects were scanned with [11C]DASB and another 13 were scanned with [11C]WAY100635. Binding Potential (BPp, mL/cm3) and the specific to nonspecific partition coefficient (BPND, unitless) were derived for both tracers using 2 tissue compartment model and compared to HC across different brain regions. Relationships to severity of alcoholism were assessed. Results No significant differences were observed in regional BPp or BPND between patients and controls in any of the regions examined. No significant relationships were observed between regional 5HT transporter availability, 5-HT1A availability, and disease severity with the exception of a significant negative correlation between SERT and years of dependence in amygdala and insula. Conclusion This study did not find alterations in measures of 5-HT1A or 5HT transporter levels in patients with type II alcoholism. PMID:18962444

  6. Mutational analysis of the promoter and the coding region of the 5-HT1A gene

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, J.; Noethen, M.M.; Shimron-Abarbanell, D.

    1994-09-01

    Disturbances of serotonergic pathways have been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Serotonin (5HT) receptors can be subdivided into at least three major families (5HT1, 5HT2, and 5HT3). Five human 5HT1 receptor subtypes have been cloned, namely 1A, 1D{alpha}, 1D{beta}, 1E, and 1F. Of these, the 5HT1A receptor is the best characterized subtype. In the present study we sought to identify genetic variation in the 5HT1A receptor gene which through alteration of protein function or level of expression might contribute to the genetics of neuropsychiatric diseases. The coding region and the 5{prime} promoter region of the 5HT1A gene from 159 unrelated subjects (45 schizophrenic, 46 bipolar affective, and 43 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 25 controls) were analyzed using SSCA. SSCA revealed the presence of two mutations both located in the coding region of the 5HT1A receptor gene. The first mutation is a rare silent C{r_arrow}T substitution at nucleotide position 549. The second mutation is characterized by a base pair substitution (A{r_arrow}G) at the first position of codon 28 and results in an amino acid exchange (Ile{r_arrow}Val). Since Val28 was found only in a single schizophrenic patient and in none of the other patients or controls, we decided to extend our samples and to use a restriction assay for screening a further 74 schizophrenic, 95 bipolar affective, and 49 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 185 controls, for the presence of the mutation. In total, the mutation was found in 2 schizophrenic patients, in 3 bipolars, in 1 Tourette patient, and in 5 controls. To our knowledge the Ile-28-Val substitution reported here is the first natural occuring molecular variant which has been identified for a serotonin receptor so far.

  7. Arylpiperazines with N-acylated amino acids as 5-HT1A receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2006-07-01

    A library consisting of 60 arylpiperazines modified with N-acylated amino acids was prepared on BAL linker SynPhasetrade mark Lanterns and evaluated in vitro for 5-HT(1A) receptor affinity. Biological screening, followed by a simple Fujita-Ban analysis, enabled the description of structure-activity relationships and allowed the selection of some potent, high-affinity ligands for in vivo pharmacological investigations.

  8. Interplay between serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Popova, Nina K; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Ponimaskin, Evgeni G

    2014-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. Besides the important role of 5-HT receptors in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and in their clinical medications, underlying mechanisms are far from being completely understood. This review focuses on possible cross talk between two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1A and the 5-HT7 . Although these receptors are highly co-expressed in brain regions implicated in depression, and most agonists developed for the 5-HT1A or 5-HT7 receptors have cross-reactivity, their functional interaction has not been yet established. It has been recently shown that 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors form homo- and heterodimers both in vitro and in vivo. From the functional point of view, heterodimerization has been shown to play an important role in regulation of receptor-mediated signaling and internalization, suggesting the implication of heterodimerization in the development and maintenance of depression. Interaction between these receptors is also of clinical interest, because both receptors represent an important pharmacological target for the treatment of depression and anxiety.

  9. (±)-Nantenine analogs as antagonists at human 5-HT2A receptors: C1 and flexible congeners

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Sandeep; Pecic, Stevan; LeGendre, Onica; Navarro, Hérnan A.; Harding, Wayne W.

    2009-01-01

    C1 and flexible analogs of (±)-nantenine were synthesized and evaluated for antagonist activity at human 5-HT2A receptors in a calcium mobilization assay. This work has resulted in the identification of the most potent 5-HT2A antagonist known based on an aporphine. Our results also suggest that the C1 position may be a key site for increasing 5-HT2A antagonist activity in this compound series. In addition, the structural rigidity of the aporphine core appears to be required for nantenine to function as a 5-HT2A antagonist. PMID:19328689

  10. 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR BIOLOGY: Interacting proteins, kinases and paradoxical regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Bryan L

    2011-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) serotonin receptors are important pharmacological targets for a large number of central nervous system and peripheral serotonergic medications. In this review article I summarize work mainly from my lab regarding serotonin receptor anatomy, pharmacology, signaling and regulation. I highlight the role of serotonin receptor interacting proteins and the emerging paradigm of G-protein coupled receptor functional selectivity. PMID:21288474

  11. 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 reduces serotonin synthesis: An autoradiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Shu; Fikre-Merid, Maraki; Diksic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the administration of the serotonin (5-HT)2A antagonist, M100907, on 5-HT synthesis rates, were evaluated using the α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan (α-MTrp) autoradiographic method. In the treatment study, M100907 (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before the α-MTrp injection (30 μCi over 2 min). A single dose of M100907 caused a significant decrease in the synthesis in the anterior olfactory nucleus, accumbens nucleus, frontal cortex, sensory-motor cortex, cingulate cortex, medial caudate-putamen, dorsal thalamus, substantia nigra, inferior collicus, raphe magnus nucleus, superior olive, and raphe pallidus nucleus. These data suggest that the terminal 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of 5-HT synthesis in the entire brain. Further, 5-HT synthesis is likely regulated by the 5-HT2A antagonistic property of M100907 in the cortices, anterior olfactory nucleus, caudate putamen, and nucleus accumbens. PMID:22056993

  12. 5-HT2A/C receptors mediate the antipsychotic-like effects of alstonine.

    PubMed

    Linck, V M; Bessa, M M; Herrmann, A P; Iwu, M M; Okunji, C O; Elisabetsky, E

    2012-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of alstonine, an indole alkaloid with putative antipsychotic effects, on working memory by using the step-down inhibitory avoidance paradigm and MK801-induced working memory deficits in mice. Additionally, the role of serotonin 5-HT2A/C receptors in the effects of alstonine on mouse models associated with positive (MK801-induced hyperlocomotion), negative (MK801-induced social interaction deficit), and cognitive (MK801-induced working memory deficit) schizophrenia symptoms was examined. Treatment with alstonine was able to prevent MK801-induced working memory deficit, indicating its potential benefit for cognitive deficits now seen as a core symptom in the disease. Corroborating previously reported data, alstonine was also effective in counteracting MK801-induced hyperlocomotion and social interaction deficit. Ritanserin, a 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist, prevented alstonine's effects on these three behavioral parameters. This study presents additional evidence that 5-HT2A/C receptors are central to the antipsychotic-like effects of alstonine, consistently seen in mouse models relevant to the three dimensions of schizophrenia symptoms.

  13. 5-HT2A SNPs and the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    PubMed

    Serretti, Alessandro; Calati, Raffaella; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Colombo, Cristina; Rujescu, Dan

    2007-08-15

    Temperamental traits, the most basic part of personality, have been largely correlated with neurotransmitter systems and are under genetic control. Among serotonin candidates, the 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)) received considerable attention. We analyzed four SNPs (rs643627, rs594242, rs6311 and rs6313) in the 5-HT(2A) gene and their association with personality traits, as measured with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The sample was composed of three sub-groups: two German sub-samples, consisting of a healthy group of 289 subjects (42.6% males, mean age: 45.2+/-14.9) and a psychiatric patient group of 111 suicide attempters (38.7% males, mean age: 39.2+/-13.6), and an Italian sub-sample, composed of 60 mood disorder patients (35.0% males, mean age: 44.0+/-14.8). Controlling for sex, age and educational level, the SNPs were not strongly associated with personality dimensions. Only the rs594242 showed an association with Self-Directedness (p=0.003) in the German sample, while rs6313 was marginally associated with Novelty Seeking (p=0.01) in the Italian sample. We conclude that 5-HT(2A) SNPs may marginally modulate personality traits but further studies are required.

  14. Effects of 5-HT1A receptor agonists and L-5-HTP in Montgomery's conflict test.

    PubMed

    Söderpalm, B; Hjorth, S; Engel, J A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the pyrimidinyl-piperazines buspirone, gepirone, ipsapirone and their common metabolite 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine (PmP) as well as of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP) were investigated in Montgomery's conflict test--an animal anxiety model based on the animal's inborn urge to explore a new environment and its simultaneous fear of elevated, open spaces. Subcutaneous buspirone (32-128 nmol/kg), gepirone (32-128 nmol/kg), ipsapirone (32-512 nmol/kg) and 8-OH-DPAT (50-200 nmol/kg), as well as intraperitoneal L-5-HTP (56 mumol/kg) produced anxiolytic-like effects. However, at higher doses the magnitude of these effects decreased and overall the dose-response curves displayed inverted U-shapes. The highest doses (2048 nmol/kg) of buspirone and of gepirone even decreased responding below control levels, possibly in part due to concomitant sedation/motor impairment. After L-5-HTP (448 mumol/kg) and PmP (512 nmol/kg) anxiogenic-like effects were observed. The results indicate that anxiolytic- and anxiogenic-like effects of drugs affecting central serotonergic neurotransmission can be obtained in a sensitive rat anxiety model which neither involves consummatory behavior nor punishment. The anxiolytic-like effects of these compounds may be due to their 5-HT1A agonistic properties. Moreover, the present data may provide support for a possible reciprocal association of presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors vs. postsynaptic 5-HT1A as well as 5-HT2 receptors with regard to anxiety.

  15. 5-HT(1A)-like receptor activation inhibits abstinence-induced methamphetamine withdrawal in planarians.

    PubMed

    Rawls, Scott M; Shah, Hardik; Ayoub, George; Raffa, Robert B

    2010-10-29

    No pharmacological therapy is approved to treat methamphetamine physical dependence, but it has been hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT)-enhancing drugs might limit the severity of withdrawal symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we used a planarian model of physical dependence that quantifies withdrawal as a reduction in planarian movement. Planarians exposed to methamphetamine (10 μM) for 60 min, and then placed (tested) into drug-free water for 5 min, displayed less movement (i.e., withdrawal) than either methamphetamine-naïve planarians tested in water or methamphetamine-exposed planarians tested in methamphetamine. A concentration-related inhibition of withdrawal was observed when methamphetamine-exposed planarians were placed into a solution containing either methamphetamine and 5-HT (0.1-100 μM) or methamphetamine and the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (10, 20 μM). Planarians with prior methamphetamine exposure displayed enhanced withdrawal when tested in a solution of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635) (1 μM). Methamphetamine-induced withdrawal was not affected by the 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPZ) (0.1-20 μM). These results provide pharmacological evidence that serotonin-enhancing drugs inhibit expression of methamphetamine physical dependence in an invertebrate model of withdrawal, possibly through a 5-HT(1A)-like receptor-dependent mechanism.

  16. Effect of buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, on esophageal motility in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, M; Papathanasopoulos, A; Blondeau, K; Vos, R; Boecxstaens, V; Farré, R; Rommel, N; Tack, J

    2012-07-01

    There are limited data concerning the effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor activation on esophageal motility. Sumatriptan, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, was recently reported to enhance esophageal peristalsis after intravenous administration. Buspirone, an orally available 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, was shown to modulate gastroduodenal motor function. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of buspirone on esophageal motility of healthy volunteers. On two separate visits, 20 healthy volunteers aged 21-29 years (nine women) underwent esophageal manometry before and 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of buspirone 20-mg or placebo capsule, according to a double-blind crossover design. At each time point, we compared buspirone and placebo effects on: resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES); residual pressure and duration of LES relaxation; amplitude, duration, and onset velocity of esophageal body contractions, during 10 swallows of 5 mL of water. Significant analysis of variance differences (P < 0.05) are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Buspirone significantly increased mean distal esophageal wave amplitude (151 vs. 87 mmHg, P < 0.05) and duration (6.1 vs. 4.2 seconds, P < 0.05). Similarly, buspirone significantly increased mean LES resting pressure (26 vs. 21 mmHg, P < 0.05) and mean residual LES pressure (7.9 vs. 2 mmHg, P < 0.05), whereas reduced mean LES relaxation duration (7.2 vs. 8.0 seconds, P < 0.05) and mean distal onset velocity (7.6 vs. 14.7 cm/second, P < 0.05). Buspirone enhances esophageal peristalsis and LES function in healthy volunteers. Further study is warranted on the effects of buspirone on esophageal function and symptoms in patients with ineffective esophageal motility.

  17. Oleanolic acid acrylate elicits antidepressant-like effect mediated by 5-HT1A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fajemiroye, James O.; Polepally, Prabhakar R.; Chaurasiya, Narayan D.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Costa, Elson A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new drugs for the treatment of depression is strategic to achieving clinical needs of patients. This study evaluates antidepressant-like effect and neural mechanisms of four oleanolic acid derivatives i.e. acrylate (D1), methacrylate (D2), methyl fumarate (D3) and ethyl fumarate (D4). All derivatives were obtained by simple one-step esterification of oleanolic acid prior to pharmacological screening in the forced swimming (FS) and open field (OF) tests. Pharmacological tools like α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT, catecholamine depletor), p-chlorophenylalanine (serotonin depletor), prazosin (PRAZ, selective α1-receptor antagonist), WAY-100635 (selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) as well as monoamine oxidase (MAO) and functional binding assays were conducted to investigate possible neural mechanisms. In the FS test, D1 showed the most promising antidepressant-like effect without eliciting locomotor incoordination. Unlike group of mice pretreated with AMPT 100 mg/kg, PCPA 100 mg/kg or PRAZ 1 mg/kg, the effect of D1 was attenuated by WAY-100635 0.3 mg/kg pretreatment. D1 demonstrated moderate inhibition of MAO-A (IC50 = 48.848 ± 1.935 μM), potency (pEC50 = 6.1 ± 0.1) and intrinsic activity (Emax = 26 ± 2.0%) on 5-HT1A receptor. In conclusion, our findings showed antidepressant-like effect of D1 and possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptor. PMID:26199018

  18. Nicotine alters limbic function in adolescent rat by a 5-HT1A receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dao, Jasmin M; McQuown, Susan C; Loughlin, Sandra E; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that adolescent smoking is associated with health risk behaviors, including high-risk sexual activity and illicit drug use. Using rat as an animal model, we evaluated the behavioral and biochemical effects of a 4-day, low-dose nicotine pretreatment (60 μg/kg; intravenous) during adolescence and adulthood. Nicotine pretreatment significantly increased initial acquisition of cocaine self-administration, quinpirole-induced locomotor activity, and penile erection in adolescent rats, aged postnatal day (P)32. These effects were long lasting, remaining evident 10 days after the last nicotine treatment, and were observed when nicotine pretreatment was administered during early adolescence (P28-31), but not late adolescence (P38-41) or adulthood (P86-89). Neurochemical analyses of c-fos mRNA expression, and of monoamine transmitter and transporter levels, showed that forebrain limbic systems are continuing to develop during early adolescence, and that this maturation is critically altered by brief nicotine exposure. Nicotine selectively increased c-fos mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and basolateral amygdala in adolescent, but not adult animals, and altered serotonin markers in these regions as well as the prefrontal cortex. Nicotine enhancement of cocaine self-administration and quinpirole-induced locomotor activity was blocked by co-administration of WAY 100 635 (N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl] ethyl}-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide), a selective serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor antagonist. Early adolescent pretreatment with the mixed autoreceptor/heteroceptor 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, but not the autoreceptor-selective agonist, S-15535, also enhanced quinpirole-induced locomotor activation. Nicotine enhancement of quinpirole-induced penile erection was not blocked by WAY 100 635 nor mimicked by 8-OH-DPAT. These findings indicate that early adolescent nicotine exposure uniquely alters limbic

  19. Reduction of spinal sensory transmission by facilitation of 5-HT1B/D receptors in noninjured and spinal cord-injured humans

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Jessica M.; Li, Yaqing; Bennett, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of receptors by serotonin (5-HT1) and norepinephrine (α2) on primary afferent terminals and excitatory interneurons reduces transmission in spinal sensory pathways. Loss or reduction of descending sources of serotonin and norepinephrine after spinal cord injury (SCI) and the subsequent reduction of 5-HT1/α2 receptor activity contributes, in part, to the emergence of excessive motoneuron activation from sensory afferent pathways and the uncontrolled triggering of persistent inward currents that depolarize motoneurons during muscle spasms. We tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether facilitating 5-HT1B/D receptors with the agonist zolmitriptan reduces the sensory activation of motoneurons during an H-reflex in both noninjured control and spinal cord-injured participants. In both groups zolmitriptan, but not placebo, reduced the size of the maximum soleus H-reflex with a peak decrease to 59% (noninjured) and 62% (SCI) of predrug values. In SCI participants we also examined the effects of zolmitriptan on the cutaneomuscular reflex evoked in tibialis anterior from stimulation to the medial arch of the foot. Zolmitriptan, but not placebo, reduced the long-latency, polysynaptic component of the cutaneomuscular reflex (first 200 ms of reflex) by ∼50%. This ultimately reduced the triggering of the long-lasting component of the reflex (500 ms poststimulation to end of reflex) known to be mediated by persistent inward currents in the motoneuron. These results demonstrate that facilitation of 5-HT1B/D receptors reduces sensory transmission in both monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex pathways to ultimately reduce long-lasting reflexes (spasms) after SCI. PMID:23221401

  20. Canine external carotid vasoconstriction to methysergide, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine: role of 5-HT1B/1D receptors and α2-adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, Carlos M; De Vries, Peter; Rabelo, Gonzalo; Centurión, David; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Saxena, Pramod

    1999-01-01

    The antimigraine drugs methysergide, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine (DHE) produce selective vasoconstriction in the external carotid bed of vagosympathectomized dogs anaesthetized with pentobarbital and artificially respired, but the receptors involved have not yet been completely characterized. Since the above drugs display affinity for several binding sites, including α-adrenoceptors and several 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes, this study has analysed the mechanisms involved in the above responses. Intracarotid (i.c.) infusions during 1 min of methysergide (31–310 μg min−1), ergotamine (0.56–5.6 μg min−1) or DHE (5.6–31 μg min−1) dose-dependently reduced external carotid blood flow (ECBF) by up to 46±4, 37±4 and 49±5%, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged. The reductions in ECBF by methysergide were abolished and even reversed to increases in animals pre-treated with GR127935 (10 μg kg−1, i.v.). The reductions in ECBF by ergotamine and DHE remained unchanged in animals pre-treated (i.v.) with prazosin (300 μg kg−1), but were partly antagonized in animals pre-treated with either GR127935 (10 or 30 μg kg−1) or yohimbine (1000 μg kg−1). Pre-treatment with a combination of GR127935 (30 μg kg−1) and yohimbine (1000 μg kg−1) abolished the responses to both ergotamine and DHE. The above doses of antagonists were shown to produce selective antagonism at their respective receptors. These results suggest that the external carotid vasoconstrictor responses to methysergide primarily involve 5-HT1B/1D receptors, whereas those to ergotamine and DHE are mediated by 5-HT1B/1D receptors as well as α2-adrenoceptors. PMID:10188968

  1. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): enhancing serotonin release by combining serotonin (5HT) transporter inhibition with actions at 5HT receptors (5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT1D, 5HT7 receptors).

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-04-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant that targets multiple pharmacologic modes of action at sites--or nodes--where serotonergic neurons connect to various brain circuits. These multimodal pharmacologic actions of vortioxetine lead to enhanced release of various neurotransmitters, including serotonin, at various nodes within neuronal networks.

  2. Modification of the anxiolytic effects of 5-HT1A agonists by shock intensity.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1993-11-01

    Contradictory evidence exists concerning the anxiolytic effects of 5-HT1A agonists in the conflict test. In the present work, a modification of the Vogel conflict model was used to assess different doses of diazepam (0.1-5.6 mg/kg), ipsapirone (1.0-17.8 mg/kg), buspirone (1.7-17.8 mg/kg), and indorenate (0.56-17.8 mg/kg) in rats receiving two different electric shock intensities (0.16 and 0.32 mA). The results show that the three 5-HT1A agonists had a smaller anticonflict effect than diazepam. The anticonflict effect with each compound was of a greater magnitude at 0.16 mA intensity than at 0.32 mA. This study shows that, using different electric shock intensities, compounds produce a differential effect: the anticonflict effects were more pronounced with the lower electric shock intensity than with the higher intensity. The present results suggest that the use of different shock intensities can play distinct roles over the drug's effect in the conflict test.

  3. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies.

  4. The effects of chronic ethanol self-administration on hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Elizabeth J.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Davenport, April T.; Hemby, Scott E.; Friedman, David P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic alcohol consumption reduces brain serotonin and alters the synaptic mechanisms involved in memory formation. Hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors modulate these mechanisms, but the neuroadaptive response of 5HT1A receptors to chronic alcohol self-administration is not well understood. METHODS Hippocampal tissue from monkeys that voluntarily self-administered ethanol for 12 months (n=9) and accompanying controls (n=8) were prepared for in vitro receptor autoradiography and laser capture microdissection. The 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, [3H]MPPF, and the agonist, [3H]8-OH-DPAT, were used to measure total and G-protein coupled 5-HT1A receptors respectively. The expression of the genes encoding the 5-HT1A receptor and its trafficking protein Yif1B was measured in microdissected dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurons. RESULTS An increase in G-protein coupled, but not total, receptors was observed in the posterior pyramidal cell layer of CA1 in ethanol drinkers compared to controls. Chronic ethanol self-administration was also associated with an up-regulation of total and G-protein coupled 5-HT1A receptors in the posterior DG polymorphic layer. Changes in receptor binding were not associated with concomitant changes in 5-HT1A receptor mRNA expression. Chronic ethanol self-administration was associated with a significant increase in Yif1B gene expression in posterior CA1 pyramidal neurons. CONCLUSIONS Chronic, ethanol self-administration up-regulates hippocampal 5-HT1A receptor density in a region-specific manner that does not appear to be due to alterations at the level of transcription but instead may be due to increased receptor trafficking. Further exploration of the mechanisms mediating chronic ethanol-induced 5-HT1A receptor up-regulation and how hippocampal neurotransmission is altered is warranted. PMID:24467872

  5. The phytocannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, can act through 5-HT1A receptors to produce antipsychotic effects

    PubMed Central

    Cascio, Maria Grazia; Zamberletti, Erica; Marini, Pietro; Parolaro, Daniela; Pertwee, Roger G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study aimed to address the questions of whether Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) can (i) enhance activation of 5-HT1A receptors in vitro and (ii) induce any apparent 5-HT1A receptor-mediated antipsychotic effects in vivo. Experimental Approach In vitro studies investigated the effect of THCV on targeting by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) of 5-HT1A receptors in membranes obtained from rat brainstem or human 5-HT1A CHO cells, using [35S]-GTPγS and 8-[3H]-OH-DPAT binding assays. In vivo studies investigated whether THCV induces signs of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated antipsychotic effects in rats. Key Results THCV (i) potently, albeit partially, displaced 8-[3H]-OH-DPAT from specific binding sites in rat brainstem membranes; (ii) at 100 nM, significantly enhanced 8-OH-DPAT-induced activation of receptors in these membranes; (iii) produced concentration-related increases in 8-[3H]-OH-DPAT binding to specific sites in membranes of human 5-HT1A receptor-transfected CHO cells; and (iv) at 100 nM, significantly enhanced 8-OH-DPAT-induced activation of these human 5-HT1A receptors. In phencyclidine-treated rats, THCV, like clozapine (i) reduced stereotyped behaviour; (ii) decreased time spent immobile in the forced swim test; and (iii) normalized hyperlocomotor activity, social behaviour and cognitive performance. Some of these effects were counteracted by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635, or could be reproduced by the CB1 antagonist, AM251. Conclusions and Implications Our findings suggest that THCV can enhance 5-HT1A receptor activation, and that some of its apparent antipsychotic effects may depend on this enhancement. We conclude that THCV has therapeutic potential for ameliorating some of the negative, cognitive and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25363799

  6. Involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in animal tests of anxiety and depression: evidence from genetic models.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, David H; Commissaris, Randall C; De La Garza, Richard; File, Sandra E; Knapp, Darin J; Seiden, Lewis S

    2003-06-01

    Clinical studies have suggested the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in anxiety and depressive disorders because partial 5-HT1A receptor agonists such as buspirone are therapeutic. The present review considers evidence from genetic animal models that support a role for 5-HT1A receptors in anxiety-like and depressed-like behavior in animals. Selective breeding for differential hypothermic responses to a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist led to the development of the high DPAT sensitive (HDS) and low DPAT sensitive (LDS) lines of rats. The HDS rats differ from the LDS rats on several behavioral measures reflective of anxiety or depression, including reduced social interaction, reduced responding in a conflict task and exaggerated immobility in the forced swim test. However, they do not differ from the LDS rats in the elevated plus maze task, which is a commonly used test of anxiety. Nor do the HDS rats exhibit a typical anxiogenic response to the hippocampal administration of the 5-HT1A agonist. Although the HDS rats do exhibit elevations in 5-HT1A receptors in regions of the limbic cortex, it is not clear whether these increases account for the behavioral differences. Paradoxically, 5-HT1A receptor knockout mice also exhibit anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze, open field and conflict tests compared to wild type mice. However, the knockouts exhibited less immobility in the forced swim test than wild type control mice. Recent studies using selective regional reinstatement of the receptor have implicated the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in these changes in anxiety-like behavior. Thus, preliminary evidence from two different types of genetic animal models suggests that anxiety-like behavior can arise if the 5-HT1A receptor function is eliminated or overexpressed. Further study with additional tests of anxiety are needed to confirm this intriguing relationship.

  7. New insight into the therapeutic role of 5-HT1A receptors in central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    The serotonergic system plays a crucial role in regulating psychoemotional, cognitive and motor functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Among 5-HT receptor subtypes, 5-HT(1A) receptors have long been implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders. 5-HT(1A) receptors function as both presynaptic (autoreceptor) and postsynaptic receptors in specific brain regions such as the limbic areas, septum and raphe nuclei. 5-HT(1A) receptors negatively regulate cAMP-dependent signal transduction and inhibit neuronal activity by opening G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. The therapeutic action of 5-HT(1A) agonists and their mechanism in alleviating anxiety and depressive disorders have been well documented. In addition, recent studies have revealed new insights into the therapeutic role of 5-HT(1A) receptors in treating various CNS disorders, including not only depressive disorders (e.g., delayed onset of action and refractory symptoms), but also schizophrenia (e.g., cognitive impairment and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects) and Parkinson's disease (e.g., extrapyramidal motor symptoms and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia). These lines of evidences encourage us to design new generation 5-HT(1A) ligands such as 5-HT(1A) agonists with greater potency, higher selectivity and improved pharmacokinetic properties, and 5-HT(1A) ligands which combine multiple pharmacological actions (e.g., inhibition of serotonin transporter, dopamine D(2) receptors and other 5-HT receptor subtypes). Such new 5-HT(1A) ligands may overcome clinical efficacy limitations and/or improve adverse reactions in current CNS therapies.

  8. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 Receptor Antagonists Promote Sleep in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morairty, Stephen R.; Hedley, Linda; Flores, Judith; Martin, Renee; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Serotonin (5-HT) has long been implicated in the control of sleep and wakefulness. This study evaluated the hypnotic efficacy of the 5-HT6 antagonist RO4368554 (RO) and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 (MDL) relative to zolpidem. Design: A randomized, repeated-measures design was utilized in which Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of RO (1.0, 3.0, and 10 mg/kg), MDL (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), zolpidem (10 mg/kg), or vehicle in the middle of the dark (active) period. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity were analyzed for 6 hours after injection. Measurements and Results: RO, MDL, and zolpidem all produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking, compared with vehicle control. All 3 doses of MDL produced more consolidated sleep, increased non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) sleep, and increased electroencephalographic delta power during NREM sleep. The highest dose of RO (10.0 mg/kg) produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking during hour 2 following dosing. These increases in sleep duration were associated with greater delta power during NREM sleep. ZO Zolpidem induced sleep with the shortest latency and significantly increased NREM sleep and delta power but also suppressed rapid eye movement sleep sleep; in contrast, neither RO nor MDL affected rapid eye movement sleep. Whereas RO did not affect Tb, both zolpidem and MDL reduced Tb relative to vehicle-injected controls. Conclusions: These results support a role for 5-HT2A receptor modulation in NREM sleep and suggest a previously unrecognized role for 5-HT6 receptors in sleep-wake regulation. Citation: Morairty SR; Hedley L; Flores J; Martin R; Kilduff TS. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 receptor antagonists promote sleep in rats. SLEEP 2008;31(1):34-44. PMID:18220076

  9. Disrupting 5-HT2A Receptor/PDZ Protein Interactions Reduces Hyperalgesia and Enhances SSRI Efficacy in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Xavier; Wattiez, Anne S; Becamel, Carine; Ehrlich, Ingrid; Bockaert, Joel; Eschalier, Alain; Marin, Philippe; Courteix, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressants are one of the first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. Despite the influence of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in pain modulation, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are less effective than tricyclic antidepressants. Here, we show, in diabetic neuropathic rats, an alteration of the antihyperalgesic effect induced by stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors, which are known to mediate SSRI-induced analgesia. 5-HT2A receptor density was not changed in the spinal cord of diabetic rats, whereas postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), one of the PSD-95/disc large suppressor/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domain containing proteins interacting with these receptors, was upregulated. Intrathecal injection of a cell-penetrating peptidyl mimetic of the 5-HT2A receptor C-terminus, which disrupts 5-HT2A receptor–PDZ protein interactions, induced an antihyperalgesic effect in diabetic rats, which results from activation of 5-HT2A receptors by endogenous 5-HT. The peptide also enhanced antihyperalgesia induced by the SSRI fluoxetine. Its effects likely resulted from an increase in receptor responsiveness, because it revealed functional 5-HT2A receptor-operated Ca2+ responses in neurons, an effect mimicked by knockdown of PSD-95. Hence, 5-HT2A receptor/PDZ protein interactions might contribute to the resistance to SSRI-induced analgesia in painful diabetic neuropathy. Disruption of these interactions might be a valuable strategy to design novel treatments for neuropathic pain and to increase the effectiveness of SSRIs. PMID:20531396

  10. Signal transduction and functional selectivity of F15599, a preferential post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Martel, J-C; Assié, M-B; Buritova, J; Lauressergues, E; Cosi, C; Heusler, P; Slot, L Bruins; Colpaert, FC; Vacher, B; Cussac, D

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Activation of post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors may provide enhanced therapy against depression. We describe the signal transduction profile of F15599, a novel 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Experimental approach: F15599 was compared with a chemical congener, F13714, and with (+)8-OH-DPAT in models of signal transduction in vitro and ex vivo. Key results: F15599 was highly selective for 5-HT1A receptors in binding experiments and in [35S]-GTPγS autoradiography of rat brain, where F15599 increased labelling in regions expressing 5-HT1A receptors. In cell lines expressing h5-HT1A receptors, F15599 more potently stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, compared with G-protein activation, internalization of h5-HT1A receptors or inhibition of cAMP accumulation. F13714, (+)8-OH-DPAT and 5-HT displayed a different rank order of potency for these responses. F15599 stimulated [35S]-GTPγS binding more potently in frontal cortex than raphe. F15599, unlike 5-HT, more potently and efficaciously stimulated Gαi than Gαo activation. In rat prefrontal cortex (a region expressing post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors), F15599 potently activated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and strongly induced c-fos mRNA expression. In contrast, in raphe regions (expressing pre-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors) F15599 only weakly or did not induce c-fos mRNA expression. Finally, despite its more modest affinity in vitro, F15599 bound to 5-HT1A receptors in vivo almost as potently as F13714. Conclusions and implications: F15599 showed a distinctive activation profiles for 5-HT1A receptor-mediated signalling pathways, unlike those of reference agonists and consistent with functional selectivity at 5-HT1A receptors. In rat, F15599 potently activated signalling in prefrontal cortex, a feature likely to underlie its beneficial effects in models of depression and cognition. PMID:19154445

  11. Transcriptional dys-regulation in anxiety and major depression: 5-HT1A gene promoter architecture as a therapeutic opportunity.

    PubMed

    Albert, Paul R; Fiori, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of major depression remains unclear, but reduced activity of the serotonin (5-HT) system remains implicated and treatments that increase 5-HT neurotransmission can ameliorate depressive symptoms. 5-HT1A receptors are critical regulators of the 5- HT system. They are expressed as both presynaptic autoreceptors that negatively regulate 5-HT neurons, and as post-synaptic heteroreceptors on non-serotonergic neurons in the hippocampus, cortex, and limbic system that are critical to mediate the antidepressant actions of 5-HT. Thus, 5-HT1A auto- and heteroreceptors have opposite actions on serotonergic neurotransmission. Because most 5-HT1A ligands target both auto- and heteroreceptors their efficacy has been limited, resulting in weak or unclear responses. We propose that by understanding the transcriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A receptor it may be possible to regulate its expression differentially in raphe and projection regions. Here we review the transcriptional architecture of the 5-HT1A gene (HTR1A) with a focus on specific DNA elements and transcription factors that have been shown to regulate 5-HT1A receptor expression in the brain. Association studies with the functional HTR1A promoter polymorphism rs6295 suggest a new model for the role of the 5-HT1A receptor in susceptibility to depression involving early deficits in cognitive, fear and stress reactivity as stressors that may ultimately lead to depression. We present evidence that by targeting specific transcription factors it may be possible to oppositely regulate 5-HT1A auto- and heteroreceptor expression, synergistically increasing serotonergic neurotransmission for the treatment of depression.

  12. 5-HT1A receptor pharmacophores to screen for off-target activity of α1-adrenoceptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Tony; Nicholas, Timothy J.; Chen, Junli; Finch, Angela M.; Griffith, Renate

    2013-04-01

    The α1-adrenoceptors (α1-ARs), in particular the α1A-AR subtype, are current therapeutic targets of choice for the treatment of urogenital conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Due to the similarity between the transmembrane domains of the α1-AR subtypes, and the serotonin receptor subtype 1A (5-HT1A-R), currently used α1-AR subtype-selective drugs to treat BPH display considerable off-target affinity for the 5-HT1A-R, leading to side effects. We describe the construction and validation of pharmacophores for 5-HT1A-R agonists and antagonists. Through the structural diversity of the training sets used in their development, these pharmacophores define the properties of a compound needed to bind to 5-HT1A receptors. Using these and previously published pharmacophores in virtual screening and profiling, we have identified unique chemical compounds (hits) that fit the requirements to bind to our target, the α1A-AR, selectively over the off-target, the 5-HT1A-R. Selected hits have been obtained and their affinities for α1A-AR, α1B-AR and 5-HT1A-R determined in radioligand binding assays, using membrane preparations which contain human receptors expressed individually. Three of the tested hits demonstrate statistically significant selectivity for α1A-AR over 5-HT1A-R. All seven tested hits bind to α1A-AR, with two compounds displaying K i values below 1 μM, and a further two K i values of around 10 μM. The insights and knowledge gained through the development of the new 5-HT1A-R pharmacophores will greatly aid in the design and synthesis of derivatives of our lead compound, and allow the generation of more efficacious and selective ligands.

  13. 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 serotonergic receptors recruitment in tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception: role of dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Ferreira, Célio Marcos dos Reis; Urbina, Maria Angélica Castiblanco; Mariño, Andrés Uribe; Carvalho, Andressa Daiane; Butera, Giuseppe; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacological studies have been focused on the involvement of different neural pathways in the organization of antinociception that follows tonic-clonic seizures, including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-, norepinephrine-, acetylcholine- and endogenous opioid peptide-mediated mechanisms, giving rise to more in-depth comprehension of this interesting post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. The present work investigated the involvement of 5-HT(1A/1B), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7) serotonergic receptors through peripheral pretreatment with methiothepin at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg in the organization of the post-ictal antinociception elicited by pharmacologically (with pentylenetetrazole at 64 mg/kg)-induced tonic-clonic seizures. Methiothepin at 1.0 mg/kg blocked the post-ictal antinociception recorded after the end of seizures, whereas doses of 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg potentiated the post-ictal antinociception. The nociceptive thresholds were kept higher than those of the control group. However, when the same 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors antagonist was microinjected (at 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 microg/0.2 microL) in the dorsal raphe nucleus, a mesencephalic structure rich in serotonergic neurons and 5-HT receptors, the post-ictal hypo-analgesia was consistently antagonized. The present findings suggest a dual effect of methiothepin, characterized by a disinhibitory effect on the post-ictal antinociception when peripherally administered (possibly due to an antagonism of pre-synaptic 5-HT(1A) serotonergic autoreceptors in the pain endogenous inhibitory system) and an inhibitory effect (possibly due to a DRN post-synaptic 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7) serotonergic receptors blockade) when centrally administered. The present data also suggest that serotonin-mediated mechanisms of the dorsal raphe nucleus exert a key-role in the modulation of the post-ictal antinociception.

  14. MDMA stimulus generalization to the 5-HT(1A) serotonin agonist 8-hydroxy-2- (di-n-propylamino)tetralin.

    PubMed

    Glennon, R A; Young, R

    2000-07-01

    The abused substance N-methyl-1-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane, or MDMA, serves as a training drug in animals. Because the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist NAN-190 has been shown to partially antagonize the MDMA stimulus, and because NAN-190 binds at several different types of receptors, in the present study we examined other agents (e.g., adrenergic, dopaminergic, sigma) in tests of stimulus generalization and stimulus antagonism to determine their influence on the MDMA stimulus. Each of these agents (i.e., clenbuterol, S(-)propranolol, R(+)SCH-23390, amantadine, NANM) was without effect on MDMA-appropriate responding. The finding that NAN-190 behaves as a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist in some studies prompted examination of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH DPAT and its optical isomers. MDMA-stimulus generalization occurred to racemic 8-OH DPAT (ED(50) = 0.3 mg/kg), R(+)8-OH DPAT (ED(50) = 0.2 mg/kg), and to the 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist S(-)8-OH DPAT (ED(50) = 0.4 mg/kg). The results suggest that the MDMA stimulus might possess a 5-HT(1A) component of action. Furthermore, because 8-OH DPAT is known to enhance the stimulus effects of hallucinogens as discriminative stimuli, and because MDMA reportedly enhances the effects of hallucinogenic agents in humans ("flipping," "candy flipping"), this latter MDMA-induced phenomenon might involve a 5-HT(1A) mechanism.

  15. 5-HT(2A) and mGlu2 receptor binding levels are related to differences in impulsive behavior in the Roman Low- (RLA) and High- (RHA) avoidance rat strains.

    PubMed

    Klein, A B; Ultved, L; Adamsen, D; Santini, M A; Tobeña, A; Fernandez-Teruel, A; Flores, P; Moreno, M; Cardona, D; Knudsen, G M; Aznar, S; Mikkelsen, J D

    2014-03-28

    The Roman Low- and High-Avoidance rat strains (RLA-I vs RHA-I) have been bidirectionally selected and bred according to their performance in the two-way active avoidance response in the shuttle-box test. Numerous studies have reported a pronounced divergence in emotionality between the two rat strains including differences in novelty seeking, anxiety, stress coping, and susceptibility to addictive substances. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these divergent phenotypes are not known. Here, we determined impulsivity using the 5-choice serial reaction time task and levels of serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding using highly specific radioligands ((3)H-escitalopram, (3)H-MDL100907 and (3)H-WAY100635) and mGlu2/3 receptor binding ((3)H-LY341495) using receptor autoradiography in fronto-cortical sections from RLA-I (n=8) and RHA-I (n=8) male rats. In the more impulsive RHA-I rats, 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(1A) and SERT binding in the frontal cortex was significantly higher compared to RLA-I rats. In contrast, mGlu2/3 receptor binding was decreased by 40% in RHA-I rats compared to RLA-I rats. To differentiate between mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor protein levels, these were further studied using western blotting, which showed non-detectable levels of mGlu2 receptor protein in RHA rats, while no differences were observed for mGlu3 receptor protein levels. Collectively, these data show general congenital differences in the serotonergic system and a pronounced difference in mGlu2 receptor protein levels. We suggest that the differences in the serotonergic system may mediate some of the phenotypic characteristics in this strain such as hyper-impulsivity and susceptibility to drug addiction.

  16. Selective siRNA-mediated suppression of 5-HT1A autoreceptors evokes strong anti-depressant-like effects.

    PubMed

    Bortolozzi, A; Castañé, A; Semakova, J; Santana, N; Alvarado, G; Cortés, R; Ferrés-Coy, A; Fernández, G; Carmona, M C; Toth, M; Perales, J C; Montefeltro, A; Artigas, F

    2012-06-01

    Depression is a major health problem worldwide. Most prescribed anti-depressants, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) show limited efficacy and delayed onset of action, partly due to the activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptors by the excess extracellular serotonin (5-HT) produced by SSRI in the raphe nuclei. Likewise, 5-HT(1A) receptor (5-HT(1A)R) gene polymorphisms leading to high 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptor expression increase depression susceptibility and decrease treatment response. In this study, we report on a new treatment strategy based on the administration of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) to acutely suppress 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback mechanisms. We developed a conjugated siRNA (C-1A-siRNA) by covalently binding siRNA targeting 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA with the SSRI sertraline in order to concentrate it in serotonin axons, rich in serotonin transporter (SERT) sites. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of C-1A-siRNA to mice resulted in its selective accumulation in serotonin neurons. This evoked marked anti-depressant-like effects in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, but did not affect anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze. In parallel, C-1A-siRNA administration markedly decreased 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptor expression and suppressed 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia (a pre-synaptic 5-HT(1A)R effect in mice) without affecting post-synaptic 5-HT(1A)R expression in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Moreover, i.c.v. C-1A-siRNA infusion augmented the increase in extracellular serotonin evoked by fluoxetine in prefrontal cortex to the level seen in 5-HT(1A)R knockout mice. Interestingly, intranasal C-1A-siRNA administration produced the same effects, thus opening the way to the therapeutic use of C-1A-siRNA. Hence, C-1A-siRNA represents a new approach to treat mood disorders as monotherapy or in combination with SSRI.

  17. 5-HT1A Agonist Properties Contribute to a Robust Response to Vilazodone in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Alvaro L.; Navarro-Sobrino, Míriam; Pilosof, Gila; Banerjee, Pradeep; Dranovsky, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background: Differences in 5-HT1A receptor function have been implicated in vulnerability to depression and in response to treatment. Adding 5-HT1A partial agonists to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been touted as a strategy to increase their efficacy. Here we use the novelty suppressed feeding paradigm to compare the effects of vilazodone, a high-potency selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, with high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors to the reference selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine across several mouse strains that differ in their response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Methods: To confirm 5-HT1A agonist activity, body temperature was measured after acute administration of vilazodone or fluoxetine, as administration of 5-HT1A agonists induces hypothermia. We next used 3 strains of mice to examine the effects of the drugs on latency in the novelty suppressed feeding, a paradigm generally sensitive to chronic but not acute effects of antidepressants. Results: Vilazodone induces robust hypothermia and blocks stress-induced hyperthermia in a 5-HT1A-dependent manner, consistent with agonist effects at 5-HT1A autoreceptors. In 129SvEv mice, vilazodone (10mg/kg/d) reduces the latency to eat in the novelty suppressed feeding test within 8 days, while no effect of fluoxetine (20mg/kg/d) was detected at that time. In contrast, both vilazodone and fluoxetine are effective at decreasing latency to eat in the novelty suppressed feeding paradigm in a strain with low autoreceptor levels. In mice with higher autoreceptor levels, no significant difference was detected between fluoxetine and vehicle (P=.8) or vilazodone and vehicle (P=.06). Conclusion: In mice, vilazodone may offer advantages in time of onset and efficacy over a reference selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in the novelty suppressed feeding test. PMID:27352617

  18. Pre- or postsynaptic activity of 5-HT1A compounds in mice depends on the anxiety paradigm.

    PubMed

    López-Rubalcava, C

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the contribution of pre and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors to the anxiolytic effects of serotonergic1A compounds in two animal models of anxiety. To this aim, the 5-HT1A ligands buspirone, ipsapirone, indorenate, and 8-OH-DPAT were tested in the burying behavior test and the avoidance exploratory behavior paradigm in control, pCPA-treated, and 5,7-DHT-lesioned mice, p-CPA and 5,7-DHT treatments did not modify the burying behavior per se, while 5-HT1A agonists produced a significant reduction in this behavior in both p-CPA- and 5,7,-DHT-lesioned animals. In the exploratory behavior paradigm, p-CPA per se but not 5,7-DHT increased the black/white transitions, interpreted as an antianxiety action. The ICV injection of 5,7-DHT blocked such effect of the 5-HT1A compounds in the avoidance exploratory behavior test. Data suggest that the effect of 5-HT1A compounds in the burying behavior test is mediated via the stimulation of postsynaptic receptors, while in the avoidance exploratory behavior paradigm these compounds act through the stimulation of the presynaptic site. Discussion is based on the differences between the animal models of anxiety.

  19. The psychostimulant d-threo-(R,R)-methylphenidate binds as an agonist to the 5HT(1A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, J S; DeVane, C L; Ramamoorthy, S; Zhu, Hao-Jie

    2009-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether d-threo-(R,R)-methylphenidate (MPH) was exerting binding activity as an agonist or antagonist of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B receptors. [35S]guanosine5'[gamma-thio]triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding assay and field-stimulated Guinea pig ileum assay were used to determine 5-HT(1A) receptor agonism and antagonism activity of d-threo-(R,R)-MPH. The results suggested d-threo-(R,R)-MPH induced 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist activity at 100 microM. The Guinea pig ileum functional assay showed that d-threo-(R,R)-MPH produced agonist-like reduction of neurogenic twitch with an EC50 5.65 +/- 0.36 microM. At 30 microM concentrations, d-threo-(R,R)-MPH produced 171 +/- 4.24% of the relaxation relative to that caused by 0.12 microM 8-OH-DPAT. However, d-threo-(R,R)-MPH exhibited no significant pharmacological activity in rat stomach fundus 5-HT(2B) receptor functional assay. Thus, d-threo-(R,R)-MPH appears to act as a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist in vitro. It is speculated that the activation of 5-HT(1A) receptor might play a partial role in d-threo-(R,R)-MPH mediated dopamine (DA) release in the brain.

  20. What Do We Really Know About 5-HT1A Receptor Signaling in Neuronal Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Paulina S.; Fiedler, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of 5-HT receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR), specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons. The 5-HT1AR differs from other 5-HT receptors because it is coupled to different pathways, depending on the targeted cell. The signaling pathway associated with this receptor is determined by Gα isoforms and some cascades involve βγ signaling. The activity of 5-HT1AR usually promotes a reduction in neuronal excitability and firing, provokes a variation in cAMP and Ca2+, levels which may be linked to specific types of behavior and cognition. Furthermore, evidence indicates that 5-HT1AR induces neuritogesis and synapse formation, probably by modulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton through MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways. Advances in understanding the actions of 5-HT1AR and its association with different signaling pathways in the central nervous system will reveal their pivotal role in health and disease. PMID:27932955

  1. 5-HT(1A) and NMDA receptors interact in the rat medial septum and modulate hippocampal-dependent spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Elvander-Tottie, Elin; Eriksson, Therese M; Sandin, Johan; Ogren, Sven Ove

    2009-12-01

    Cholinergic and GABAergic neurons in the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MS/vDB) projecting to the hippocampus, constitute the septohippocampal projection, which is important for hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. There is also evidence for an extrinsic as well as an intrinsic glutamatergic network within the MS/vDB. GABAergic and cholinergic septohippocampal neurons express the serotonergic 5-HT(1A) receptor and most likely also glutamatergic NMDA receptors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether septal 5-HT(1A) receptors are important for hippocampal-dependent long-term memory and whether these receptors interact with glutamatergic NMDA receptor transmission in a manner important for hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Intraseptal infusion of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (R)-8-OH-DPAT (1 or 4 microg/rat) did not affect spatial learning in the water maze task but impaired emotional memory in the passive avoidance task at the higher dose tested (4 microg/rat). While intraseptal administration of (R)-8-OH-DPAT (4 microg) combined with a subthreshold dose of the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 (1 microg) only marginally affected spatial acquisition, it produced a profound impairment in spatial memory. In conclusion, septal 5-HT(1A) receptors appears to play a more prominent role in emotional than in spatial memory. Importantly, septal 5-HT(1A) and NMDA receptors appear to interact in a manner, which is particularly critical for the expression or retrieval of hippocampal-dependent long-term spatial memory. It is proposed that NMDA receptor hypofunction in the septal area may unmask a negative effect of 5-HT(1A) receptor activation on memory, which may be clinically relevant.

  2. Effects of amyloid-β peptides on the serotoninergic 5-HT1A receptors in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Verdurand, Mathieu; Bérod, Anne; Le Bars, Didier; Zimmer, Luc

    2011-01-01

    A recent [(18)F]MPPF-positron emission tomography study has highlighted an overexpression of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the hippocampus of patients with mild cognitive impairment compared to a decrease in those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) [Truchot, L., Costes, S.N., Zimmer, L., Laurent, B., Le Bars, D., Thomas-Antérion, C., Croisile, B., Mercier, B., Hermier, M., Vighetto, A., Krolak-Salmon, P., 2007. Up-regulation of hippocampal serotonin metabolism in mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 69 (10), 1012-1017]. We used in vivo and in vitro neuroimaging to evaluate the longitudinal effects of injecting amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides (1-40) into the dorsal hippocampus of rats. In vivo microPET imaging showed no significant change in [(18)F]MPPF binding in the dorsal hippocampus over time, perhaps due to spatial resolution. However, in vitro autoradiography with [(18)F]MPPF (which is antagonist) displayed a transient increase in 5-HT(1A) receptor density 7 days after Aβ injection, whereas [(18)F]F15599 (a radiolabelled 5-HT(1A) agonist) binding was unchanged suggesting that the overexpressed 5-HT(1A) receptors were in a non-functional state. Complementary histology revealed a loss of glutamatergic neurons and an intense astroglial reaction at the injection site. Although a neurogenesis process cannot be excluded, we propose that Aβ injection leads to a transient astroglial overexpression of 5-HT(1A) receptors in compensation for the local neuronal loss. Exploration of the functional consequences of these serotoninergic modifications during the neurodegenerative process may have an impact on therapeutics targeting 5-HT(1A) receptors in AD.

  3. 5-HT2A receptor antagonists improve motor impairments in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Marcus C; Nayyar, Tultul; Deutch, Ariel Y; Ansah, Twum A

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that ritanserin, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist may reduce motor deficits in persons with Parkinson's Disease (PD). To better understand the potential antiparkinsonian actions of ritanserin, we compared the effects of ritanserin with the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 and the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 206553 on motor impairments in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MPTP-treated mice exhibited decreased performance on the beam-walking apparatus. These motor deficits were reversed by acute treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa). Both the mixed 5-HT(2A/C) antagonist ritanserin and the selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist M100907 improved motor performance on the beam-walking apparatus. In contrast, SB 206553 was ineffective in improving the motor deficits in MPTP-treated mice. These data suggest that 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists may represent a novel approach to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

  4. The role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in memory and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Stackman, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) are widely distributed in the central nervous system, especially in brain region essential for learning and cognition. In addition to endogenous 5-HT, several hallucinogens, antipsychotics, and antidepressants function by targeting 5-HT2ARs. Preclinical studies show that 5-HT2AR antagonists have antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, whereas agonist ligands possess cognition-enhancing and hallucinogenic properties. Abnormal 5-HT2AR activity is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders and conditions, including depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In addition to its traditional activity as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), recent studies have defined novel operations of 5-HT2ARs. Here we review progress in the (1) receptor anatomy and biology: distribution, signaling, polymerization and allosteric modulation; and (2) receptor functions: learning and memory, hallucination and spatial cognition, and mental disorders. Based on the recent progress in basic research on the 5-HT2AR, it appears that post-training 5-HT2AR activation enhances non-spatial memory consolidation, while pre-training 5-HT2AR activation facilitates fear extinction. Further, the potential influence that 5-HT2AR-elicited visual hallucinations may have on visual cue (i.e., landmark) guided spatial cognition is discussed. We conclude that the development of selective 5-HT2AR modulators to target distinct signaling pathways and neural circuits represents a new possibility for treating emotional, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26500553

  5. Effectiveness of ipsapirone, a 5-HT-1A partial agonist, in major depressive disorder: support for the role of 5-HT-1A receptors in the mechanism of action of serotonergic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M.; Kaiser, Lee; Roeschen, Julie; Keppel Hesselink, Jan M.; Orazem, John

    1998-07-01

    Desensitisation of serotonin 1A (5-HT-1A) receptors is a leading hypothesis for the mechanism of action of antidepressants which block serotonin reuptake. This hypothesis predicts that direct-acting 5-HT-1A agonists should also exhibit anti-depressant properties. Here we report the results of the first large-scale controlled study of the efficacy and tolerability of a 5-HT-1A agonist in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Three hundred and seventy-three subjects meeting DSM-III-R criteria for MDD participated in this randomised, double-blind comparison of the 5-HT-1A partial agonist ipsapirone (5 mg, 7.5 mg and 10 mg t.i.d.) to placebo t.i.d. Improvement in depressive symptoms relative to placebo, as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, occurred in the ipsapirone (7.5 mg t.i.d.) group with a magnitude of effect (D=-2.53 points) that was statistically significant (p=0.010). Adverse events occurred in 76% of the placebo patients and 92% of the ipsapirone patients. A dose-related increase in the incidence of adverse events led to discontinuation of treatment with the 10 mg t.i.d. Results of this study demonstrate that ipsapirone, at a dose of 7.5 mg t.i.d., is an effective antidepressant agent in the treatment of MDD, supporting the hypothesised role of 5-HT-1A receptors in the mechanism of action of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However, as a potential therapeutic agent for depression, ipsapirone shows only a modest magnitude of drug-placebo differences as well as a side-effect profile less favorable than many of the newer antidepressants.

  6. Dopamine D3 and 5-HT1B receptor dysregulation as a result of psychostimulant intake and forced abstinence: Implications for medications development.

    PubMed

    Neisewander, Janet L; Cheung, Timothy H C; Pentkowski, Nathan S

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants, including cocaine and amphetamine, is associated with dysregulation of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Neuroadaptations in these systems vary depending on the stage of the drug taking-abstinence-relapse cycle. Consequently, the effects of potential treatments that target these systems may vary depending on whether they are given during abstinence or relapse. In this review, we discuss evidence that dopamine D3 receptors (D3Rs) and 5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) are dysregulated in response to both chronic psychostimulant use and subsequent abstinence. We then review findings from preclinical self-administration models which support targeting D3Rs and 5-HT1BRs as potential medications for psychostimulant dependence. Potential side effects of the treatments are discussed and attention is given to studies reporting positive treatment outcomes that depend on: 1) whether testing occurs during self-administration versus abstinence, 2) whether escalation of drug self-administration has occurred, 3) whether the treatments are given repeatedly, and 4) whether social factors influence treatment outcomes. We conclude that D3/D2 agonists may decrease psychostimulant intake; however, side effects of D3/D2R full agonists may limit their therapeutic potential, whereas D3/D2R partial agonists have fewer undesirable side effects. D3-selective antagonists may not reduce psychostimulant intake during relapse, but nonetheless, may decrease motivation for seeking psychostimulants with relatively few side-effects. 5-HT1BR agonists provide a striking example of treatment outcomes that are dependent on the stage of the addiction cycle. Specifically, these agonists initially increase cocaine's reinforcing effects during maintenance of self-administration, but after a period of abstinence they reduce psychostimulant seeking and the resumption of self-administration. In conclusion, we suggest that factors contributing to dysregulation of

  7. 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Density in Adult Male Rats’ Hippocampus after Morphine-based Conditioned Place Preference

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rabie; Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation. Methods: Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP). We used a hotplate test of analgesia to assess induction of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine on days 1 and 8 of injections. Later, two groups of rats were sacrificed one day after 7 days of injections, their whole brains removed, and the striatum and PFC immediately dissected. Then, the NR1 gene expression was examined with a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Results: Our data showed that the maximum response was obtained with 2.5 mg/kg of morphine. The density of 5-HT2A receptor in different areas of the hippocampus increased significantly at sham-morphine and CPP groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, the CPP groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than sham-morphine groups and also the sham-morphine groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than the control groups. Conclusion: We concluded that the phenomenon of conditioned place preference induced by morphine can cause a significant increase in the number of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in neurons of all areas of hippocampus. PMID:27563418

  8. 5-HT2A receptors control body temperature in mice during LPS-induced inflammation via regulation of NO production.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Irina P; Khramova, Galina M; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Petrovskii, Dmitrii V; Bazovkina, Daria V; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of numerous normal and pathological physiological functions. At the same time, its involvement in the regulation of body temperature (Tb) in normal conditions is obscure. Here we study the effect of the 5-HT2A receptor activation or blockade on Tb in sick animals. The experiments were carried out on adult C57BL/6 mouse males. Systemic inflammation and sickness were produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg, ip), while the 5-HT2A receptor was stimulated or blocked through the administration of the receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin (1mg/kg), respectively. LPS, DOI or ketanserin alone produced no effect on Tb. However, administration of LPS together with a peripheral or central ketanserin injection reduced Tb (32.2°C). Ketanserin reversed the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase in the brain. Consequently, an involvement of NO in the mechanism of the hypothermic effect of ketanserin in sick mice was hypothesized. Administration of LPS together with NO synthase inhibitor, l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (60mg/kg, ip) resulted in deep (28.5°C) and prolonged (8h) hypothermia, while administration of l-nitro-arginine methyl ester alone produced no effect on Tb. Thus, 5-HT2A receptors play a key role in Tb control in sick mice. Blockade of this GPCR produces hypothermia in mice with systemic inflammation via attenuation of LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate an unexpected role of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammation and NO production and have a considerable biological impact on understanding the mechanism of animal adaptation to pathogens and parasites. Moreover, adverse side effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in patients with inflammation may be expected.

  9. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 enhances antidepressant-like behavioral effects of the SSRI fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Marek, Gerard J; Martin-Ruiz, Raul; Abo, Allyson; Artigas, Francesc

    2005-12-01

    The addition of low doses of atypical antipsychotic drugs, which saturate 5-HT(2A) receptors, enhances the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with major depression as well as treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. The purpose of the present studies was to test the effects of combined treatment with a low dose of a highly selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (M100907; formerly MDL 100,907) and low doses of a SSRI using a behavioral screen in rodents (the differential-reinforcement-of low rate 72-s schedule of reinforcement; DRL 72-s) which previously has been shown to be sensitive both to 5-HT(2) antagonists and SSRIs. M100907 has a approximately 100-fold or greater selectivity at 5-HT(2A) receptors vs other 5-HT receptor subtypes, and would not be expected to appreciably occupy non-5-HT(2A) receptors at doses below 100 microg/kg. M100907 increased the reinforcement rate, decreased the response rate, and shifted the inter-response time distributions to the right in a pattern characteristic of antidepressant drugs. In addition, a positive synergistic interaction occurred when testing low doses of the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (6.25-12.5 microg/kg) with clinically relevant doses of the SSRI fluoxetine (2.5-5 mg/kg), which both exerted minimal antidepressant-like effects by themselves. In vivo microdialysis study revealed that a low dose of M100907 (12.5 microg/kg) did not elevate extracellular 5-HT levels in the prefrontal cortex over those observed with fluoxetine alone (5 mg/kg). These results will be discussed in the context that the combined blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters (SERT) may result in greater efficacy in treating neuropsychiatric syndromes than blocking either site alone.

  10. Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Canton, H; Barrett, R J; Sanders-Bush, E

    1998-11-01

    Extensive behavioral and biochemical evidence suggests an agonist role at the 5-HT2A receptor, and perhaps the 5-HT2C receptor, in the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. However the published in vitro pharmacological properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an hallucinogenic tryptamine analog, are not consistent with this hypothesis. We, therefore, undertook an extensive investigation into the properties of DMT at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. In fibroblasts transfected with the 5-HT2A receptor or the 5-HT2C receptor, DMT activated the major intracellular signaling pathway (phosphoinositide hydrolysis) to an extent comparable to that produced by serotonin. Because drug efficacy changes with receptor density and cellular microenvironment, we also examined the properties of DMT in native preparations using a behavioral and biochemical approach. Rats were trained to discriminate an antagonist ketanserin from an agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) in a two-lever choice paradigm. Pharmacological studies showed that responding on the DOI and ketanserin lever reflected agonist and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors, and hence, was a suitable model for evaluating the in vivo functional properties of DMT. Like other 5-HT2A receptor agonists, DMT substituted fully for DOI. Intact choroid plexus was used to evaluate the agonist properties at endogenous 5-HT2C receptors; DMT was a partial agonist at 5-HT2C receptors in this native preparation. Thus, we conclude that DMT behaves as an agonist at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2A receptors. One difference was evident in that the 5-HT2C, but not the 5-HT2A, receptor showed a profound desensitization to DMT over time. This difference is interesting in light of the recent report that the hallucinogenic activity of DMT does not tolerate in humans and suggests the 5-HT2C receptor plays a less prominent role in the action of DMT.

  11. Prenatal stress alters diazepam withdrawal syndrome and 5HT1A receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lakehayli, S; Said, N; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2016-08-25

    Early-life events have long-term effects on brain structures and cause behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress on diazepam-induced withdrawal syndrome and serotonin-1A (5HT1A) receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. The results of the present study reveal that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress increased the anxiety-like behavior in the prenatally stressed (PS) animals withdrawn from chronic diazepam (2.5mg/kg/day i.p for 1week). Moreover, prenatal stress induced a down-regulation of 5HT1A mRNA in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress enhances diazepam withdrawal symptoms and alters 5HT1A receptor gene expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. Thus, more studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the decrease of 5HT1A receptors expression in the raphe nuclei of PS rats.

  12. The 5-HT1A serotonin receptor is located on calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Susana; Qian, Zhaoxia; Shah, Reshma; Rahbek, Birgitte; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2003-01-03

    The 5-HT(1A) receptor is a well-characterized serotonin receptor playing a role in many central nervous functions and known to be involved in depression and other mental disorders. In situ hybridization, immunocytochemical, and binding studies have shown that the 5-HT(1A) receptor is widely distributed in the rat brain, with a particularly high density in the limbic system. The receptor's localization in the different neuronal subtypes, which may be of importance for understanding its role in neuronal circuitries, is, however, unknown. In this study we show by immunocytochemical double-labeling techniques, that the 5-HT(1A) receptor is present on both pyramidal and principal cells, and calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons, which generally define two different subtypes of interneurons. Moreover, semiquantitative analysis showed that the receptor's distribution in the different neuronal types varies between brain areas. In cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala the receptor was located on both principal cells and calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons. In septum and thalamus, the receptor was mostly present on calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing cells. Especially in the medial septum and thalamic reticular nucleus, the receptor highly colocalized with parvalbumin-positive neurons. These results suggest a diverse function of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in modulating neuronal circuitry in different brain areas, that may depend on the type of neuron the receptor is predominantly located on.

  13. 5-HT1a Receptor Antagonists Block Perforant Path-Dentate LTP Induced in Novel, but Not Familiar, Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanberg, Cyndy Davis; Jones, Floretta L.; Do, Viet H.; Dieguez, Dario, Jr.; Derrick, Brian E.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest roles for monoamines in modulating long-term potentiation (LTP). Previously, we reported that both induction and maintenance of perforant path-dentate gyrus LTP is enhanced when induced while animals explore novel environments. Here we investigate the contribution of serotonin and 5-HT1a receptors to the novelty-mediated…

  14. Disruption of 5-HT1A function in adolescence but not early adulthood leads to sustained increases of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, A L; Meng, Q; Richardson-Jones, J; Dranovsky, A; Leonardo, E D

    2016-05-03

    Current evidence suggests that anxiety disorders have developmental origins. Early insults to the circuits that sub-serve emotional regulation are thought to cause disease later in life. Evidence from studies in mice demonstrate that the serotonergic system in general, and serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptors in particular, are critical during the early postnatal period for the normal development of circuits that subserve anxious behavior. However, little is known about the role of serotonin signaling through 5-HT1A receptors between the emergence of normal anxiety behavior after weaning, and the mature adult phenotype. Here, we use both transgenic and pharmacological approaches in male mice, to identify a sensitive period for 5-HT1A function in the stabilization of circuits mediating anxious behavior during adolescence. Using a transgenic approach we show that suppression of 5-HT1A receptor expression beginning in early adolescence results in an anxiety-like phenotype in the open field test. We further demonstrate that treatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100,635 between postnatal day (P)35 and P50, but not at later timepoints, results in altered anxiety in ethologically based conflict tests like the open field test and elevated plus maze. This change in anxiety behavior occurs without impacting behavior in the more depression-related sucrose preference test or forced swim test. The treatment with WAY 100,635 does not affect adult 5-HT1A expression levels, but leads to increased expression of the serotonin transporter in the raphe, along with enhanced serotonin levels in both the prefrontal cortex and raphe that correlate with the behavioral changes observed in adult mice. This work demonstrates that signaling through 5-HT1A receptors during adolescence (a time when pathological anxiety emerges), but not early adulthood, is critical in regulating anxiety setpoints. These data suggest the possibility that brief interventions in the serotonergic system during

  15. COMT and 5-HT1A-receptor genotypes potentially affect executive functions improvement after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bosia, Marta; Bechi, Margherita; Pirovano, Adele; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Lorenzi, Cristina; Cocchi, Federica; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been proved to improve cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and to enhance functional outcomes of classical rehabilitation. However, CRT outcomes are heterogeneous and predictors of response are still unknown. Genetic variability, especially in the dopaminergic system, has been hypothesized to affect CRT. We previously reported that rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltrasferase (COMT) influences improvements in executive functions in patients treated with CRT, but this result was not confirmed by other studies. Such inconsistent findings may depend, other than on clinical variables, also on other genes involved in cognition. Recent studies proved that serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) regulates dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and clinical works suggested a 5-HT1A-R role in cognition. We then analysed possible effects of COMT rs4680 and 5-HT1A-R rs6295 on CRT outcomes, taking into account also clinical and demographic factors. Eighty-six clinically stabilized schizophrenia patients treated with three months CRT were assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, as a measure of executive functions, at enrolment and after CRT treatment, and underwent COMT and 5-HT1A-R genotyping. We found a significant main effect of COMT genotype and an interaction with 5-HT1A-R on executive function improvement after CRT. The results suggest that these two polymorphisms may have an additive effect on individual capacity to recover from cognitive deficit, probably through their role on PFC dopaminergic transmission modulation, known to be critical for modulating cognitive functions. PMID:25750798

  16. Serotonin (5-HT) regulates neurite outgrowth through 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Paulina S; Neira, David; Muñoz, Mauricio; Lavandero, Sergio; Fiedler, Jenny L

    2014-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) production and expression of 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) occur early during prenatal development. Recent evidence suggests that, in addition to its classical role as a neurotransmitter, 5-HT regulates neuronal connectivity during mammalian development by modulating cell migration and neuronal cytoarchitecture. Given the variety of 5-HTRs, researchers have had difficulty clarifying the specific role of each receptor subtype in brain development. Signalling mediated by the G-protein-coupled 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R, however, has been associated with neuronal plasticity. Thus, we hypothesized that 5-HT promotes neurite outgrowth through 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R. The involvement of 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R in the morphology of rat hippocampal neurons was evaluated by treating primary cultures at 2 days in vitro with 5-HT and specific antagonists for 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R (WAY-100635 and SB269970, respectively). The stimulation of hippocampal neurons with 100 nM 5-HT for 24 hr produced no effect on either the number or the length of primary neurites. Nonetheless, after 5HT7 R was blocked, the addition of 5-HT increased the number of primary neurites, suggesting that 5HT7 R could inhibit neuritogenesis. In contrast, 5-HT induced secondary neurite outgrowth, an effect inhibited by 1 μM WAY-100635 or SB269970. These results suggest that both serotonergic receptors participate in secondary neurite outgrowth. We conclude that 5-HT1A R and 5-HT7 R regulate neuronal morphology in primary hippocampal cultures by promoting secondary neurite outgrowth.

  17. [On the role of selective silencer Freud-1 in the regulation of the brain 5-HT(1A) receptor gene expression].

    PubMed

    Naumenko, V S; Osipova, D V; Tsybko, A S

    2010-01-01

    Selective 5-HT(1A) receptor silencer (Freud-1) is known to be one of the main factors for transcriptional regulation of brain serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor. However, there is a lack of data on implication of Freud-1 in the mechanisms underlying genetically determined and experimentally altered 5-HT(1A) receptor system state in vivo. In the present study we have found a difference in the 5-HT(1A) gene expression in the midbrain of AKR and CBA inbred mouse strains. At the same time no distinction in Freud-1 expression was observed. We have revealed 90.3% of homology between mouse and rat 5-HT(1A) receptor DRE-element, whereas there was no difference in DRE-element sequence between AKR and CBA mice. This indicates the absence of differences in Freud-1 binding site in these mouse strains. In the model of 5-HT(1A) receptor desensitization produced by chronic 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist administration, a significant reduction of 5-HT(1A) receptor gene expression together with considerable increase of Freud-1 expression were found. These data allow us to conclude that the selective silencer of 5-HT(1A) receptor, Freud-1, is involved in the compensatory mechanisms that modulate the functional state of brain serotonin system, although it is not the only factor for 5-HT(1A) receptor transcriptional regulation.

  18. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene variants influence antidepressant response to repeated total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Barbini, Barbara; Bernasconi, Alessandro; Fulgosi, Mara Cigala; Colombo, Cristina; Dallaspezia, Sara; Gavinelli, Chiara; Marino, Elena; Pirovano, Adele; Radaelli, Daniele; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2008-12-12

    5-HT2A receptor density in prefrontal cortex was associated with depression and suicide. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism rs6313 was associated with 5-HT2A receptor binding potential, with the ability of individuals to use environmental support in order to prevent depression, and with sleep improvement after antidepressant treatment with mirtazapine. Studies on response to antidepressant drugs gave inconsistent results. Here we studied the effect of rs6313 on response to repeated total sleep deprivation (TSD) in 80 bipolar depressed inpatients treated with three consecutive TSD cycles (each one made of 36 h awake followed by a night of undisturbed sleep). All genotype groups showed comparable acute effects of the first TSD, but patients homozygotes for the T variant had better perceived and observed benefits from treatment than carriers of the C allele. These effects became significant after the first recovery night and during the following days, leading to a 36% higher final response rate (Hamilton depression rating<8). The higher density of postsynaptic excitatory 5-HT2A receptors in T/T homozygotes could have led to higher behavioural effects of increased 5-HT neurotransmission due to repeated TSD. Other possible mechanisms involve allostatic/homeostatic adaptation to sleep loss, and a different effect of the allele variants on epigenetic influences. Results confirm the interest for individual gene variants of the serotonin pathway in shaping clinical characteristics of depression and antidepressant response.

  19. Expression of α(1)-adrenergic receptors in rat prefrontal cortex: cellular co-localization with 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Santana, Noemí; Mengod, Guadalupe; Artigas, Francesc

    2013-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in behavioural control and cognitive processes that are altered in schizophrenia. The brainstem monoaminergic systems control PFC function, yet the cells/networks involved are not fully known. Serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) increase PFC neuronal activity through the activation of α(1)-adrenergic receptors (α(1)ARs) and 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT(2A)Rs), respectively. Neurochemical and behavioural interactions between these receptors have been reported. Further, classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs share nm in vitro affinity for α(1)ARs while having preferential affinity for D(2) and 5-HT(2A)Rs, respectively. Using double in situ hybridization we examined the cellular expression of α(1)ARs in pyramidal (vGluT1-positive) and GABAergic (GAD(65/67)-positive) neurons in rat PFC and their co-localization with 5-HT(2A)Rs. α(1)ARs are expressed by a high proportion of pyramidal (59-85%) and GABAergic (52-79%) neurons. The expression in pyramidal neurons exhibited a dorsoventral gradient, with a lower percentage of α(1)AR-positive neurons in infralimbic cortex compared to anterior cingulate and prelimbic cortex. The expression of α(1A), α(1B) and α(1D) adrenergic receptors was segregated in different layers and subdivisions. In all them there is a high co-expression with 5-HT(2A)Rs (∼80%). These observations indicate that NE controls the activity of most PFC pyramidal neurons via α(1)ARs, either directly or indirectly, via GABAergic interneurons. Antipsychotic drugs can thus modulate the activity of PFC via α(1)AR blockade. The high co-expression with 5-HT(2A)Rs indicates a convergence of excitatory serotonergic and noradrenergic inputs onto the same neuronal populations. Moreover, atypical antipsychotics may exert a more powerful control of PFC function through the simultaneous blockade of α(1)ARs and 5-HT(2A)Rs.

  20. The antidepressant 5-HT2A receptor antagonists pizotifen and cyproheptadine inhibit serotonin-enhanced platelet function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Olivia A; Karim, Zubair A; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V P; Khasawneh, Fadi T

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  1. Internalization and recycling of 5-HT2A receptors activated by serotonin and protein kinase C-mediated mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Puri, Sapna; Miledi, Ricardo; Panicker, Mitradas M.

    2002-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), a major neurotransmitter, has a large number of G protein-coupled receptors in mammals. On activation by exposure to their ligand, 5-HT2 receptor subtypes increase IP3 levels and undergo desensitization and internalization. To visualize the receptor in cells during these processes, we have constructed a 5-HT2A-enhanced GFP (SR2-GFP) fusion receptor. We show that this fusion receptor undergoes internalization on exposure to its natural ligand, 5-HT. Because 5-HT2A receptors activate the phospholipase C pathway, we studied the effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on the internalization process and found that activation of PKC by its specific activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, in the absence of 5-HT, leads to internalization of the receptor. Moreover, inhibition of PKC by its inhibitor sphingosine in the presence of 5-HT prevents the internalization process, suggesting that activation of PKC is sufficient and necessary for the internalization of 5-HT2A receptors. We also show that SR2-GFP recycles back to the plasma membrane after 5-HT-dependent internalization, suggesting a mechanism for resensitization. In addition, receptors that have been internalized on addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in the absence of 5-HT also recycle to the surface, with a time course similar to that seen after activation of the receptors by 5-HT. Our study suggests that 5-HT2A receptors internalize and return to the surface after both serotonin- and PKC-mediated processes. This study reveals a role for PKC in receptor internalization and also shows that 5-HT2A receptors are recycled. PMID:12388782

  2. MDMA Increases Excitability in the Dentate Gyrus: Role of 5HT2A Receptor Induced PGE2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Stuart A.; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA treated rats which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA treated rats. PMID:26670377

  3. F 11440, a potent, selective, high efficacy 5-HT1A receptor agonist with marked anxiolytic and antidepressant potential.

    PubMed

    Koek, W; Patoiseau, J F; Assié, M B; Cosi, C; Kleven, M S; Dupont-Passelaigue, E; Carilla-Durand, E; Palmier, C; Valentin, J P; John, G; Pauwels, P J; Tarayre, J P; Colpaert, F C

    1998-10-01

    F 11440 (4-methyl-2-[4-(4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-piperazino)-butyl]-2H, 4H-1,2,4-triazin-3,5-dione) was the outcome of a research effort guided by the hypothesis that the magnitude of the intrinsic activity of agonists at 5-HT1A receptors determines the magnitude of their antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects. The affinity of F 11440 for 5-HT1A binding sites (pKi, 8.33) was higher than that of buspirone (pKi, 7.50), and somewhat lower than that of flesinoxan (pKi, 8.91). In vivo, F 11440 was 4- to 20-fold more potent than flesinoxan, and 30- to 60-fold more potent than buspirone, in exerting 5-HT1A agonist activity at pre- and postsynaptic receptors in rats (measured by, for example, its ability to decrease hippocampal extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels and to increase plasma corticosterone levels, respectively). F 11440 did not have detectable antidopaminergic activity (unlike buspirone, which inhibited all of the directly observable behavioral effects of methylphenidate in rats), showed no evidence of antihistaminergic activity (unlike flesinoxan, which protected against the effects of a histamine aerosol in guinea pigs), and had a 70-fold separation between its 5-HT1A agonist and alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist properties (measured as the ability to inhibit the methoxamineinduced increase in blood pressure in rats), unlike flesinoxan, which showed a <3-fold separation. In HeLa cells expressing human 5-HT1A receptors, F 11440 decreased the forskolin-induced increase in AMP, and, based on its maximal effect, was found to have an intrinsic activity of 1.0 relative to that of 5-HT, which was significantly higher than that of buspirone (0.49), ipsapirone (0.46) and flesinoxan (0.93). Consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, F 11440 produced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in animal models (i.e., increased punished responding in a pigeon conflict procedure and decreased immobility in a rat forced swimming test, respectively) that were more

  4. 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors differently modulate AMPA receptor-mediated hippocampal synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Costa, L; Trovato, C; Musumeci, S A; Catania, M V; Ciranna, L

    2012-04-01

    We have studied the effects of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) serotonin receptor activation in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission using patch clamp on mouse brain slices. Application of either 5-HT or 8-OH DPAT, a mixed 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(7) receptor agonist, inhibited AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory post synaptic currents (EPSCs); this effect was mimicked by the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH PIPAT and blocked by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist NAN-190. 8-OH DPAT increased paired-pulse facilitation and reduced the frequency of mEPSCs, indicating a presynaptic reduction of glutamate release probability. In another group of neurons, 8-OH DPAT enhanced EPSC amplitude but did not alter paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting a postsynaptic action; this effect persisted in the presence of NAN-190 and was blocked by the 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970. To confirm that EPSC enhancement was mediated by 5-HT(7) receptors, we used the compound LP-44, which is considered a selective 5-HT(7) agonist. However, LP-44 reduced EPSC amplitude in most cells and instead increased EPSC amplitude in a subset of neurons, similarly to 8-OH DPAT. These effects were respectively antagonized by NAN-190 and by SB-269970, indicating that under our experimental condition LP-44 behaved as a mixed agonist. 8-OH DPAT also modulated the current evoked by exogenously applied AMPA, inducing either a reduction or an increase of amplitude in distinct neurons; these effects were respectively blocked by 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, indicating that both receptors exert a postsynaptic action. Our results show that 5-HT(1A) receptors inhibit CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission acting both pre- and postsynaptically, whereas 5-HT(7) receptors enhance CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission acting exclusively at a postsynaptic site. We suggest that a selective pharmacological targeting of either subtype may be envisaged in pathological loss of hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. In this respect, we underline the

  5. Synthesis and structural investigation of some pyrimido[5,4-c]quinolin-4(3H)-one derivatives with a long-chain arylpiperazine moiety as potent 5-HT(1A/2A) and 5-HT(7) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Lewgowd, Wieslawa; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Szczesio, Malgorzata; Olczak, Andrzej; Glowka, Marek L; Mordalski, Stefan; Stanczak, Andrzej

    2011-08-01

    A series of new pyrimido[5,4-c]quinolin-4(3H)-ones with variable length of the spacer between amide and 4-arylpiperazine moiety were prepared to further explore the role of a terminal portion in the serotonergic activity. The majority of compounds demonstrated high in vitro affinity for 5-HT(1A) receptor, and moderate-to-low affinity for 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(7) receptors. X-ray analysis, two-dimensional NMR, conformational studies and docking into the 5-HT(1A) receptor model were conducted to investigate conformational preferences of selected 5-HT(1A) receptor ligands in different environments. The extended conformation of tetramethylene derivatives was found in a solid state, in DMSO (for a protonated form) and as a global energy minimum during conformational analysis in simulated water environment. Ligand geometry in top-scored complexes, obtained by docking to a set of 100 receptor models, were either fully extended or with central spacer torsion in synclinal conformation.

  6. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and neuroendocrine effects of PRX-00023, a novel 5-HT1A agonist, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ganesh R; Reinhard, John F; Oshana, Scott; Kauffman, Michael; Donahue, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    PRX-00023 is a novel, nonazapirone 5-HT1A agonist in clinical development for treatment of affective disorders. The objectives of the initial clinical phase I studies (a single ascending dose study and multiple dose-ascending and high-dose titration studies) were to measure the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic (neuroendocrine) effects, and tolerability of PRX-00023 in healthy subjects. The studies evaluated 10-mg to 150-mg doses of PRX-00023 in up to 112 healthy male and female subjects aged 18 to 54 years. Single and multiple oral doses of PRX-00023 were found to be safe and well tolerated in healthy subjects. PRX-00023 was absorbed relatively rapidly, with a tmax of 0.5 to 2 hours, and eliminated with a half-life of approximately 12 hours. PRX-00023 treatment transiently increased blood prolactin levels 2 to 3 hours after administration, consistent with its mechanism as a 5-HT1A agonist.

  7. Synergistic effect of 5-HT1A and σ1 receptor activation on prefrontal dopaminergic transmission under circulating steroid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Naoki; Ago, Yukio; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nishimura, Akira; Mori, Kazuya; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2013-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)1A and σ1 receptors have been implicated in psychiatric disorders. We previously found that combined 5-HT reuptake inhibition and σ1 receptor activation has a synergistic effect on prefrontal dopaminergic transmission in adrenalectomized/castrated mice lacking circulating steroid hormones. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying this neurochemical synergism. Systemic administration of fluvoxamine, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor with agonistic activity towards the σ1 receptor, increased prefrontal dopamine (DA) levels, and adrenalectomy/castration potentiated this fluvoxamine-induced increase in DA. This enhancement of DA release was blocked by WAY100635 (a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist), but not by ritanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), azasetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or SB269970 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist). Individually, osemozotan (a 5-HT1A receptor agonist) and (+)-SKF-10,047 (a σ1 receptor agonist) did not alter prefrontal monoamine levels in adrenalectomized/castrated and sham-operated mice differentially. In contrast, co-administration of these drugs increased prefrontal DA levels to a greater extent in adrenalectomized/castrated mice than in sham-operated animals. Furthermore, co-administration of osemozotan and (+)-SKF-10,047 increased expression of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos in the ventral tegmental area of adrenalectomized/castrated mice, but not in sham-operated animals. These findings suggest that combined activation of 5-HT1A and σ1 receptors has a synergistic effect on prefrontal dopaminergic transmission under circulating steroid deficiency, and that this interaction may play an important role in the regulation of the prefrontal DA system.

  8. Behavioural evidence for a functional interaction between central 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Backus, L. I.; Sharp, T.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    1. The possibility of 5-HT2 receptor modulation of central 5-HT1A receptor function has been examined using the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) behavioural syndrome induced by 5-HT1A receptor active drugs in rats. 2. The 5-HT2/5-HTIC antagonist ritanserin (0.1-2 mg kg-1) increased the 5-HT behavioural syndrome induced by submaximally effective doses of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT) and gepirone. 3. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2/5-HT1C antagonist ICI 170,809 (0.25-5 mg kg-1) also enhanced the behavioural syndrome induced by 8-OH-DPAT or 5-MeODMT. 4. The 5-HT2/alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist ketanserin in a low dose (0.25 mg kg-1) significantly increased the 5-HT behavioural syndrome induced by 8-OH-DPAT or 5-MeODMT, while in a higher dose (2.5 mg kg-1) this drug decreased the response. Experiments with prazosin indicate that the higher dose of ketanserin might reduce the 5-HT behavioural syndrome through blockade of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. 5. Ritanserin and ICI 170,809 had no effect on apomorphine-induced stereotypy or hyperactivity, indicating that these drugs do not produce non-specific behavioural activation. 6. Ritanserin and ICI 170,809 inhibited quipazine-induced wet dog shakes at doses similar to those enhancing the 5-HT behavioural syndrome. 7. We suggest that ritanserin, ICI 170,809 and ketanserin enhance 5-HT1A agonist-induced behaviour through blockade of an inhibitory 5-HT2 receptor regulating or coupled to 5-HT1A receptor-mediated function. PMID:2145051

  9. Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic newborn pigs: role of 5HT(1A) and CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M Ruth; Mohammed, Nagat; Lafuente, Hector; Santos, Martin; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Moreno, Estefania; Valdizan, Elsa; Romero, Julián; Pazos, Angel; Franco, Rafael; Hillard, Cecilia J; Alvarez, Francisco J; Martínez-Orgado, Jose

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol (CBD) were studied in vivo using a hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury model in newborn pigs. One- to two-day-old piglets were exposed to HI for 30 min by interrupting carotid blood flow and reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 10%. Thirty minutes after HI, the piglets were treated with vehicle (HV) or 1 mg/kg CBD, alone (HC) or in combination with 1 mg/kg of a CB₂ receptor antagonist (AM630) or a serotonin 5HT(1A) receptor antagonist (WAY100635). HI decreased the number of viable neurons and affected the amplitude-integrated EEG background activity as well as different prognostic proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy (H(±)-MRS)-detectable biomarkers (lactate/N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartate/choline ratios). HI brain damage was also associated with increases in excitotoxicity (increased glutamate/N-acetylaspartate ratio), oxidative stress (decreased glutathione/creatine ratio and increased protein carbonylation) and inflammation (increased brain IL-1 levels). CBD administration after HI prevented all these alterations, although this CBD-mediated neuroprotection was reversed by co-administration of either WAY100635 or AM630, suggesting the involvement of CB₂ and 5HT(1A) receptors. The involvement of CB₂ receptors was not dependent on a CBD-mediated increase in endocannabinoids. Finally, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies indicated that CB₂ and 5HT(1A) receptors may form heteromers in living HEK-293T cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CBD exerts robust neuroprotective effects in vivo in HI piglets, modulating excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation, and that both CB₂ and 5HT(1A) receptors are implicated in these effects.

  10. 5-HT1A receptor-responsive pedunculopontine tegmental neurons suppress REM sleep and respiratory motor activity.

    PubMed

    Grace, Kevin P; Liu, Hattie; Horner, Richard L

    2012-02-01

    Serotonin type 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor-responsive neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTn) become maximally active immediately before and during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. A prevailing model of REM sleep generation indicates that activation of such neurons contributes significantly to the generation of REM sleep, and if correct then inactivation of such neurons ought to suppress REM sleep. We test this hypothesis using bilateral microperfusion of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 10 μm) into the PPTn; this tool has been shown to selectively silence REM sleep-active PPTn neurons while the activity of wake/REM sleep-active PPTn neurons is unaffected. Contrary to the prevailing model, bilateral microperfusion of 8-OH-DPAT into the PPTn (n = 23 rats) significantly increased REM sleep both as a percentage of the total recording time and sleep time, compared with both within-animal vehicle controls and between-animal time-controls. This increased REM sleep resulted from an increased frequency of REM sleep bouts but not their duration, indicating an effect on mechanisms of REM sleep initiation but not maintenance. Furthermore, an increased proportion of the REM sleep bouts stemmed from periods of low REM sleep drive quantified electrographically. Targeted suppression of 5-HT(1A) receptor-responsive PPTn neurons also increased respiratory rate and respiratory-related genioglossus activity, and increased the frequency and amplitude of the sporadic genioglossus activations occurring during REM sleep. These data indicate that 5-HT(1A) receptor-responsive PPTn neurons normally function to restrain REM sleep by elevating the drive threshold for REM sleep induction, and restrain the expression of respiratory rate and motor activities.

  11. Effects of the 5-HT(1A) Receptor Agonist Tandospirone on ACTH-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Ryuki; Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Sendo, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Kamei, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor agonist tandospirone versus that of the benzodiazepine hypnotic flunitrazepam in a rat model of long-term adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced sleep disturbance. Rats implanted with electrodes for recording electroencephalogram and electromyogram were injected with ACTH once daily at a dose of 100 µg/rat. Administration of ACTH for 10 d caused a significant increase in sleep latency, decrease in non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep time, and increase in wake time. Tandospirone caused a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in non-REM sleep time in rats treated with ACTH. The effect of tandospirone on sleep patterns was antagonized by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635. In contrast, flunitrazepam had no significant effect on sleep parameters in ACTH-treated rats. These results clearly indicate that long-term administration of ACTH causes sleep disturbance, and stimulating the 5-HT1A receptor by tandospirone may be efficacious for improving sleep in cases in which benzodiazepine hypnotics are ineffective.

  12. Peripheral 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Serotonergic Receptors Modulate Parasympathetic Neurotransmission in Long-Term Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Beatriz; Martín, María Luisa; San Román, Luis; Morán, Asunción

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the modulation of serotonin on the bradycardia induced in vivo by vagal electrical stimulation in alloxan-induced long-term diabetic rats. Bolus intravenous administration of serotonin had a dual effect on the bradycardia induced either by vagal stimulation or exogenous Ach, increasing it at low doses and decreasing it at high doses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), effect reproduced by 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (5-CT), a 5-HT1/7 agonist. The enhancement of the bradycardia at low doses of 5-CT was reproduced by 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) and abolished by WAY-100,635, 5-HT1A antagonist. Pretreatment with 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin blocked the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of 5-CT, whereas pimozide, 5-HT7 antagonist, only abolished 5-CT inhibitory action. In conclusion, long-term diabetes elicits changes in the subtype of the 5-HT receptor involved in modulation of vagally induced bradycardia. Activation of the 5-HT1A receptors induces enhancement, whereas attenuation is due to 5-HT7 receptor activation. This 5-HT dual effect occurs at pre- and postjunctional levels. PMID:21403818

  13. Yohimbine is a 5-HT1A agonist in rats in doses exceeding 1 mg/kg

    PubMed Central

    Zaretsky, Dmitry V.; Zaretskaia, Maria V.; DiMicco, Joseph A.; Rusyniak, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Yohimbine is a prototypical alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Due to its relatively high selectivity, yohimbine is often used in experiments whose purpose is to examine the role of these receptors. For example, yohimbine has been employed at doses of 1–5 mg/kg to reinstate drug-seeking behavior after extinction or to antagonize general anesthesia, an effects presumably being a consequence of blocking alpha2-adrenergic receptors. In this report we characterized dose-dependent autonomic and behavioral effects of yohimbine and its interaction with an antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors, WAY 100635. In low doses (0.5 – 2 mg/kg i.p.) yohimbine induced locomotor activation which was accompanied by a tachycardia and mild hypertension. Increasing the dose to 3–4.5 mg/kg reversed the hypertension and locomotor activation and induced profound hypothermia. The hypothermia as well as the suppression of the locomotion and the hypertension could be reversed by the blockade of 5-HT1A receptors with WAY 100635. Our data confirm that yohimbine possesses 5-HT1A properties, and demonstrated that in doses above 1 mg/kg significantly activate these receptors. PMID:26366943

  14. Role of 5-HT1A receptors in the forced swimming wheel test in reserpine-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, K; Nagatani, T; Takao, K; Hashimoto, S

    1993-01-01

    The antidepressant-like effect of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin(8-OH-DPAT), a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, was studied in the forced swimming wheel test in reserpine-treated mice. 8-OH-DPAT and the antidepressant imipramine, dose-dependently increased the number of turns of a water wheel made by mice. This effect of imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was enhanced by reserpine treatment 24 hr before the test. The effect of 8-OH-DPAT (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) was also enhanced in reserpine-treated mice. This enhanced effect of 8-OH-DPAT was blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonists, (-)-propranolol (3 mg/kg, i.p.) and NAN-190 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), but was not blocked by a beta-blocker, (-)-atenolol (3 mg/kg, i.p.). 8-OH-DPAT did not affect locomotor activity in the reserpinized mice and did not affect the reduction of monoamine content induced by reserpine. These results suggest that the effect of 8-OH-DPAT in increasing the number of turns of the wheel made by mice was exerted through a 5-HT1A receptor and that this effect did not reflect only changes in the locomotor activity of the mice.

  15. The antipsychotic aripiprazole induces antinociceptive effects: Possible role of peripheral dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Santos, Ana F; Ferreira, Renata C M; Duarte, Igor D; Aguiar, Daniele C; Romero, Thiago R L; Moreira, Fabricio A

    2015-10-15

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts by multiple mechanisms, including partial agonism at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Since these neurotransmitters also modulate pain and analgesia, we tested the hypothesis that systemic or local administration of aripiprazole induces antinociceptive responses. Systemic aripiprazole (0.1-10 mg/kg; i.p.) injection in mice inhibited formalin-induced paw licking and PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw pressure test. This effect was mimicked by intra-plantar administration (12.5-100 µg/paw) in the ipsi, but not contralateral, paw. The peripheral action of aripiprazole (100 µg/paw) was reversed by haloperidol (0.1-10 µg/paw), suggesting the activation of dopamine receptors as a possible mechanism. Accordingly, quinpirole (25-100 µg/paw), a full agonist at D2/D3 receptors, also reduced nociceptive responses.. In line with the partial agoniztic activity of aripiprazole, low dose of this compound inhibited the effect of quinpirole (both at 25 µg/paw). Finally, peripheral administration of NAN-190 (0.1-10 μg/paw), a 5-HT1A antagonist, also prevented aripiprazole-induced antinociception. In conclusion, systemic or local administration of aripiprazole induces antinociceptive effects. Similar to its antipsychotic activity, the possible peripheral mechanism involves dopamine D2 and serotoninergic 5-HT1A receptors. Aripiprazole and other dopaminergic modulators should be further investigated as new treatments for certain types of pain.

  16. Effects of Constant Flickering Light on Refractive Status, 5-HT and 5-HT2A Receptor in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zheng, Changyue; Ji, Shunmei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of constant flickering light on refractive development, the role of serotonin (i.e.5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)and 5-HT2A receptor in myopia induced by flickering light in guinea pigs. Methods Forty-five guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: control, form deprivation myopia (FDM) and flickering light induced myopia (FLM) groups(n = 15 for each group). The right eyes of the FDM group were covered with semitransparent hemispherical plastic shells serving as eye diffusers. Guinea pigs in FLM group were raised with illumination of a duty cycle of 50% at a flash frequency of 0.5Hz. The refractive status, axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature(CRC) were measured by streak retinoscope, A-scan ultrasonography and keratometer, respectively. Ultramicroscopy images were taken by electron microscopy. The concentrations of 5-HTin the retina, vitreous body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography, the retinal 5-HT2A receptor expression was evaluated by immunohistofluorescence and western blot. Results The refraction of FDM and FLM eyes became myopic from some time point (the 4th week and the 6th week, respectively) in the course of the experiment, which was indicated by significantly decreased refraction and longer AL when compared with the controls (p<0.05). The concentrations of 5-HT in the retina, vitreous body and RPE of FDM and FLM eyes were significantly increased in comparison with those of control eyes (both p<0.05). Similar to FDM eyes, the expression of retinal 5-HT2A receptor in FLM eyes was significantly up-regulated compared to that of control eyes (both p<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that retinal 5-HT2A receptor level elevated less in the FLM eyes than that in the FDM eyes. Moreover, the levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine in FDM and FLM groups generally decreased when compared with control groups (all p<0.05). Conclusions Constant flickering

  17. Evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT3 receptors in the antidepressant-like effect caused by oral administration of bis selenide in mice.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Cristiano R; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2010-03-17

    The present study investigated a possible antidepressant-like activity of bis selenide using two predictive tests for antidepressant effect on rodents: the forced swimming test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). Bis selenide (0.5-5 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased the immobility time in the mouse FST and TST. The anti-immobility effect of bis selenide (1 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA; 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis), ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist), and ondasentron (1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist). Pretreatment of mice with prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), propranolol (2 mg/kg, i.p., a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist), or WAY 100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) did not block the antidepressant-like effect of bis selenide (1 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST. Administration of bis selenide (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (1 mg/kg), at subeffective doses, produced an antidepressant-like effect in the TST. Bis selenide did not alter Na(+) K(+) ATPase, MAO-A and MAO-B activities in whole brains of mice. Bis selenide produced an antidepressant-like effect in the mouse TST and FST, which may be related to the serotonergic system (5-HT(2A/2C) and 5-HT(3) receptors).

  18. Detection of new biased agonists for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor: modeling and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solano, Maria; Iglesias, Alba; de Fabritiis, Gianni; Sanz, Ferran; Brea, José; Loza, M Isabel; Pastor, Manuel; Selent, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Detection of biased agonists for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor can guide the discovery of safer and more efficient antipsychotic drugs. However, the rational design of such drugs has been hampered by the difficulty detecting the impact of small structural changes on signaling bias. To overcome these difficulties, we characterized the dynamics of ligand-receptor interactions of known biased and balanced agonists using molecular dynamics simulations. Our analysis revealed that interactions with residues S5.46 and N6.55 discriminate compounds with different functional selectivity. Based on our computational predictions, we selected three derivatives of the natural balanced ligand serotonin and experimentally validated their ability to act as biased agonists. Remarkably, our approach yielded compounds promoting an unprecedented level of signaling bias at the 5-HT2A receptor, which could help interrogate the importance of particular pathways in conditions like schizophrenia.

  19. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD.

  20. T102C polymorphism in the 5HT2A gene and schizophrenia: relation to phenotype and drug response variability.

    PubMed Central

    Joober, R; Benkelfat, C; Brisebois, K; Toulouse, A; Turecki, G; Lal, S; Bloom, D; Labelle, A; Lalonde, P; Fortin, D; Alda, M; Palmour, R; Rouleau, G A

    1999-01-01

    Although genes play a major role in the etiology of schizophrenia, no major genes involved in this disease have been identified. However, several genes with small effect have been reported, though inconsistently, to increase the risk for schizophrenia. Recently, the 5HT2A 2 allele (T102C polymorphism) was reported to be over-represented in patients with schizophrenia. Other reports have found an excess of allele 2(C) only in schizophrenic patients who are resistant to clozapine, not in those who respond to clozapine. In this study, the 5HT2A receptor allele 2 frequencies were compared between 2 groups of patients with schizophrenia (39 responders and 63 nonresponders) based on long-term outcome and response to typical neuroleptics. A control group of 90 healthy volunteers screened for mental disorders was also included. Genotype 2/2 tended to be more frequent in patients with schizophrenia with poor long-term outcome and poor response to typical neuroleptics (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.09). This difference was significant in men (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.054) but not in women. In addition, the age at first contact with psychiatric care was significantly younger in the patients with schizophrenia with genotype 2/2 than in patients with genotype 1/1. These result suggest that the 5HT2A-receptor gene may play a role in a subset of schizophrenia characterized by poor long-term outcome and poor response to neuroleptics. PMID:10212557

  1. The role of activation of the 5-HT1A receptor and adenylate cyclase in the antidepressant-like effect of YL-0919, a dual 5-HT1A agonist and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Qin, Juan-Juan; Chen, Hong-Xia; Zhao, Nan; Yuan, Li; Zhang, You-Zhi; Yang, Ri-Fang; Zhang, Li-Ming; Li, Yun-Feng

    2014-10-17

    This study aimed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like effect of YL-0919, a novel antidepressant candidate with dual activity as a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The animal models commonly used to evaluate potential antidepressants, i.e., tail suspension (TST) in mice and forced swimming test (FST) in mice were used to evaluate the antidepressant effect of YL-0919. The activity of adenylate cyclase (AC) on the synaptic membrane was determined by the homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) immunoassay. The results indicated that YL-0919 (1.25-2.5mg/kg, i.g.) significantly decreased the immobility time in both the tail suspension test and the forced swim test in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the antidepressant-like effect of YL-0919. Furthermore, this effect was completely antagonized by the co-administration of WAY-100635 (0.3mg/kg, s.c.), a 5-HT1A selective antagonist. YL-0919 (10(-9)-10(-5)mol/L) was also shown to activate AC in vitro in a dose-dependent manner in synaptic membranes extracted from the rat prefrontal cortex, and this effect (10(-7)-10(-5)mol/L) was antagonized by WAY-100635 (10(-7)mol/L). Finally, the antidepressant-like effect of YL-0919 (2.5mg/kg, i.g.) was also blocked by the co-administration of H-89 (3 μg/site, i.c.v.), a protein kinase A (PKA) selective inhibitor. These results indicate that the activation of 5-HT1A receptors and the subsequent activation of the AC-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway in the frontal cortex play a critical role in the antidepressant-like effect of YL-0919.

  2. Differential involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Munzar, Patrik; Justinova, Zuzana; Kutkat, Scott W; Goldberg, Steven R

    2002-02-01

    Involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine versus methamphetamine was studied in Sprague Dawley rats (n=10) trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine, i.p., from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 (FR10) schedule of food presentation. The ability of (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist, and ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, to either substitute for or block the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine, or to shift the cocaine dose-response curve, was evaluated. DOI (0.18-1.0 mg/kg) partially substituted for the training dose of 10 mg/kg cocaine, but only at doses that decreased rates of responding. At the highest dose of DOI tested (1.0 mg/kg), there was about 65% cocaine-appropriate responding. Substitution of DOI for cocaine and DOI-induced decreases in rates of responding were completely reversed by ketanserin (3.0 mg/kg). Ketanserin (3.0 mg/kg) also produced a significant shift to the right of the cocaine dose-response curve and antagonized increases in rates of responding produced by lower doses of cocaine. Ketanserin (1.0-10.0 mg/kg), however, did not block the discriminative-stimulus effects of the training dose of cocaine. When DOI (0.3 mg/kg) was co-administered with different doses of cocaine, there was a slight leftward shift in the cocaine dose-response curve, which was not significant and appeared to reflect simple additive effects of DOI and cocaine. In contrast, the same dose of DOI (0.3 mg/kg) produced a marked and highly significant shift to the left of the methamphetamine (0.18-1.0 mg/kg) dose-response curve in the same subjects and the effects of DOI and methamphetamine were clearly more than additive. The present findings provide new evidence that there is some serotonergic modulation of cocaine's discriminative-stimulus actions, which appears to involve stimulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. However, involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptor activity in the

  3. Morphology and distribution of neurons expressing serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in the rat hypothalamus and the surrounding diencephalic and telencephalic areas.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Eric; Scrogin, Karie; Dudás, Bertalan

    2010-07-01

    Disorders of serotonergic neurotransmission are involved in disturbances of numerous hypothalamic functions including circadian rhythm, mood, neuroendocrine functions, sleep and feeding. Among the serotonin receptors currently recognized, 5-HT(1A) receptors have received considerable attention due to their importance in the etiology of mood disorders. While previous studies have shown the presence of 5-HT(1A) receptors in several regions of the rat brain, there is no detailed map of the cellular distribution of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the rat diencephalon. In order to characterize the distribution and morphology of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors in the diencephalon and the adjacent telencephalic areas, single label immunohistochemistry was utilized. Large, multipolar, 5-HT(1A)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were mainly detected in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and in the nucleus of diagonal band of Broca, while the supraoptic nucleus contained mainly fusiform neurons. Medium-sized 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons with triangular or round-shaped somata were widely distributed in the diencephalon, populating the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamic area, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, substantia innominata, dorsomedial and premamillary nuclei, paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of stria terminalis. The present study provides schematic mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons in the rat diencephalon. In addition, the morphology of the detected 5-HT(1A)-IR neural elements is also described. Since rat is a widely used laboratory animal in pharmacological models of altered serotoninergic neurotransmission, detailed mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR structures is pivotal for the neurochemical characterization of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors.

  4. Serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) of the sea lamprey: cDNA cloning and expression in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Anadón, Ramón; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2013-09-01

    Serotonergic cells are among the earliest neurons to be born in the developing central nervous system and serotonin is known to regulate the development of the nervous system. One of the major targets of the activity of serotonergic cells is the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A), an ancestral archetypical serotonin receptor. In this study, we cloned and characterized the 3D structure of the sea lamprey 5-HT1A, and studied the expression of its transcript in the central nervous system by means of in situ hybridization. In phylogenetic analyses, the sea lamprey 5-HT1A sequence clustered together with 5-HT1A sequences of vertebrates and emerged as an outgroup to all gnathostome sequences. In situ hybridization analysis during prolarval, larval and adult stages showed a widespread expression of the lamprey 5-ht1a transcript. In P1 prolarvae 5-ht1a mRNA expression was observed in diencephalic nuclei, the rhombencephalon and rostral spinal cord. At P2 prolarval stage the 5-ht1a expression extended to other brain areas including telencephalic regions. 5-ht1a expression in larvae was observed throughout almost all the main brain regions with the strongest expression in the olfactory bulbs, lateral pallium, striatum, preoptic region, habenula, prethalamus, thalamus, pretectum, hypothalamus, rhombencephalic reticular area, dorsal column nucleus and rostral spinal cord. In adults, the 5-ht1a transcript was also observed in cells of the subcommissural organ. Comparison of the expression of 5-ht1a between the sea lamprey and other vertebrates reveals a conserved pattern in most of the brain regions, likely reflecting the ancestral vertebrate condition.

  5. Oppositional Effects of Serotonin Receptors 5-HT1a, 2, and 2c in the Regulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Klempin, Friederike; Babu, Harish; Tonelli, Davide De Pietri; Alarcon, Edson; Fabel, Klaus; Kempermann, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) appears to play a major role in controlling adult hippocampal neurogenesis and thereby it is relevant for theories linking failing adult neurogenesis to the pathogenesis of major depression and the mechanisms of action of antidepressants. Serotonergic drugs lacked acute effects on adult neurogenesis in many studies, which suggested a surprisingly long latency phase. Here we report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, which has no acute effect on precursor cell proliferation, causes the well-described increase in net neurogenesis upon prolonged treatment partly by promoting the survival and maturation of new postmitotic neurons. We hypothesized that this result is the cumulative effect of several 5-HT-dependent events in the course of adult neurogenesis. Thus, we used specific agonists and antagonists to 5-HT1a, 2, and 2c receptor subtypes to analyze their impact on different developmental stages. We found that 5-HT exerts acute and opposing effects on proliferation and survival or differentiation of precursor cells by activating the diverse receptor subtypes on different stages within the neuronal lineage in vivo. This was confirmed in vitro by demonstrating that 5-HT1a receptors are involved in self-renewal of precursor cells, whereas 5-HT2 receptors effect both proliferation and promote neuronal differentiation. We propose that under acute conditions 5-HT2 effects counteract the positive proliferative effect of 5-HT1a receptor activation. However, prolonged 5-HT2c receptor activation fosters an increase in late-stage progenitor cells and early postmitotic neurons, leading to a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Our data indicate that serotonin does not show effect latency in the adult dentate gyrus. Rather, the delayed response to serotonergic drugs with respect to endpoints downstream of the immediate receptor activity is largely due to the initially antagonistic and un-balanced action of different 5-HT receptors. PMID

  6. Intracellular Loop 2 Peptides of the Human 5HT1a Receptor are Differential Activators of Gi

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian; Squires, Carley; Parker, Keith K.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide mimics of intracellular loop 2 (ic2) of the human 5HT1a receptor have been studied with respect to their ability to inhibit agonist binding via interference with receptor-G-protein coupling. These peptides give shallow concentration-effect relationships. Additionally, these peptides have been studied with respect to their ability to trigger the signal transduction system of this Gi-coupled receptor. Two signaling parameters have been quantified: concentration of intracellular cAMP and changes in incorporation into the G protein of a stable analog of GTP. In both cases, peptide mimics near midloop of ic2 actually show agonist activity with efficacy falling off toward both loop termini near TM 3 and TM 4. Previous results have suggested that the loop region near the TM3/ic2 interface is primarily responsible for receptor-G-protein coupling, while the current result emphasizes the mid-ic2 loop region's ability to activate the G protein following initial coupling. A limited number of peptides from the receptor's TM5/ic3 loop vicinity were also studied regarding agonist inhibition and G-protein activation. These peptides provide additional evidence that the human 5HT1a receptor, TM5/ic3 loop region, is involved in both coupling and activation actions. Overall, these results provide further information about potential pharmacological intervention and drug development with respect to the human 5HT1a receptor/G-protein system. Finally, the structural evidence generated here provides testable models pending crystallization and X-ray analysis of the receptor. PMID:22649462

  7. Cloned human 5-HT1A receptor pharmacology determined using agonist binding and measurement of cAMP accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Najam A; Drace, Colene D; Williams, Gary W; Crider, Julie Y

    2004-10-01

    Twenty agonists and nine antagonists were evaluated for their ability to compete for [3H]-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin ([3H]-8-OH-DPAT) binding to the cloned human serotonin-1A (ch-5-HT1A) receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and for their ability to alter adenylyl cyclase activity in the same cells. The most potent full agonists of high affinity included N,N-dipropyl-5-carboxamidotryptamine (pEC50=9.6 +/- 0.1), MDL 73005EF (pEC50=9.3 +/- 0.2), 5-methyl-urapidil (pEC50=9.2 +/- 0.1), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (pEC50=9.1 +/- 0.2), R(+)-8-OH-DPAT (pEC50=8.6 +/- 0.1) and BMY-7378 (pEC50=8.6 +/- 0.1). WB-4101 (pEC50=8.3 +/- 0.2; IA=79%), clozapine (pEC50=8.1 +/- 0.3; IA=29%), (buspirone (pEC50=7.6 +/- 0.2; IA=79%), quipazine (pEC50 <5; IA=45%) and R-DOI (pEC50 < 5; IA=31%) were weaker agonists with partial agonist properties. The most potent antagonists were WAY-100,635 (pKi=10.2 +/- 0.1), methiothepin (pKi=8.8 +/- 0.2), spiperone (pKi=8.7 +/- 0.2) and NAN-190 (pKi=8.5 +/- 0.2). The receptor affinities and functional potencies were well correlated (r=0.88; P <0.0001). Our binding data correlated well with the pharmacology of endogenous 5-HT1A receptors in the rabbit iris-ciliary body (r=0.91; P <0.001) and rat hippocampus (r=0.93, P <0.0001). Our functional cAMP data correlated well with other cAMP accumulation data (r=0.8, P <0.01 vs calf hippocampus) but less so with [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to the ch-5-HT(1A) receptor as a functional activity read-out (r=0.58, P <0.05). The present study provides a detailed pharmacological characterization of the ch-5-HT1A receptor using binding and functional assays.

  8. Verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptors in healthy volunteers--A PET study with [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Jani; Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Lumme, Ville; Ilonen, Tuula; Någren, Kjell; Hietala, Jarmo

    2016-03-01

    The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is a putative drug development target in disorders with cognitive and in particular memory deficits. However, previous human positron emission tomography (PET) studies on 5-HT1A receptor binding and memory functions have yielded discrepant results. We explored the association between verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptor binding in 24 healthy subjects (14 male, 10 female, aged 18-41 years). The cognitive tests included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 5-HT1A receptor binding was measured with PET and the radioligand [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635, which was quantified with the gold standard method based on kinetic modeling using arterial blood samples. We found that global 5-HT1A receptor binding was positively correlated with measures of verbal memory, such that subjects who had higher receptor binding tended to have better verbal memory than subjects who had lower receptor binding. Regional analyses suggested significant correlations in multiple neocortical brain regions and the raphe nuclei. We did not find significant correlations between 5-HT1A receptor binding and executive functions as measured with WCST. We conclude that neocortical as well as raphe 5-HT1A receptors are involved in verbal memory function in man.

  9. Activation of the serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus inhibits water intake and increases urinary excretion in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza Villa, Patrícia; Menani, José Vanderlei; de Arruda Camargo, Gabriela Maria Pavan; de Arruda Camargo, Luiz Antônio; Saad, Wilson Abrão

    2008-10-09

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) may be considered as a dynamic mosaic of chemically-specified subgroups of neurons. 5-HT(1A) is one of the prime receptors identified and there is expressed throughout all magnocellular regions of the PVN. Several reports have demonstrated that a subpopulation of the magnocellular neurons expressing 5-HT(1A) receptors are oxytocin (OT) neurons and activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the PVN increases the plasma OT. Increasing evidence shows that OT inhibits water intake and increases urinary excretion in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serotonergic 5-HT(1A) receptors in the lateral-medial posterior magnocellular region of the PVN in the water intake and diuresis induced by 24 h of water deprivation. Cannulae were implanted in the PVN of rats. 5-HT injections in the PVN reduced water intake and increased urinary excretion. 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT(1A) agonist) injections blocked the water intake and increased urinary output in all the periods of the observation. pMPPF (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist) injected bilaterally before the 8-OH-DPAT blocked its inhibitory effect on water intake and its diuretic effect. We suggest that antidipsogenic and diuretic responses seem to be mediated via 5-HT(1A) receptors of the lateral-medial posterior magnocellular region of the PVN in water-deprived rats.

  10. High intensity social conflict in the Swiss albino mouse induces analgesia modulated by 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Canto de Souza, A; Nunes de Souza, R L; Péla, I R; Graeff, F G

    1997-03-01

    Social conflict between mice produces analgesia in the attacked mouse. Both the magnitude and type (opioid or nonopioid) of this analgesia have been related to attack intensity and strain of mouse. In the present study low intensity social conflict (7 bites) did not produce analgesia, whereas high intensity - 30 and 60 bites - interactions produced, respectively, short-lasting (5 min) and very short-lasting (1 min) analgesia in Swiss albino mice, when compared with nonaggressive interaction (0 bite). The 30 bites aggressive interaction induced analgesia (AIIA) was not affected by IP injection of either naloxone (5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) or diazepam (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg). However, this attack-induced analgesia was reduced after IP administration of the 5-HT1A agonists, gepirone (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg) and BAY R 1531 (0.01 mg/kg). These results indicate that the analgesia induced by 30 bites social conflict in Swiss albino mice does not involve opioid and GABA-benzodiazepine (GABA-BZD) mechanisms. In addition, they suggest that high-intensity social conflict activates serotonergic pain modulatory systems that act through 5-HT1A receptors.

  11. Levo-Tetrahydroberberrubine Produces Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Mice through the 5-HT1A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Guiyun; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Huichun; Gao, Yunyun; Li, Nuomin; Yu, Boyang; Yang, Hongju; Yang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPBs) are isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from the Chinese herb Corydalis yanhusuo. In the present study, we performed competitive binding assays to examine the binding of l-THBr to neurotransmitter receptors known to be involved in sedation, hypnosis and anxiety. Our results show that l-THBr does not interact with GABAergic receptors but has binding affinities for dopamine and serotonin receptors. In addition, cAMP and [35S]GTPγS assays were used to determine the agonist or antagonist properties of l-THBr at dopamine (D1, D2) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. Our results show that l-THBr displays D1 and D2 antagonist and 5-HT1A agonist properties. Moreover, l-THBr-treated rodents exhibit anxiolytic-like effects in the light/dark box and elevated plus-maze tests, and the anxiolytic effect of l-THBr can be reduced by WAY-100635, a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Our results suggest that l-THBr may produce potent anxiolytic-like effects mainly through serotonin receptors. PMID:28085967

  12. CREB-mediated synaptogenesis and neurogenesis is crucial for the role of 5-HT1a receptors in modulating anxiety behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Cai, Cheng-Yun; Wu, Hai-Yin; Zhu, Li-Juan; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin 1a-receptor (5-HT1aR) has been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety. However, the mechanism underlying the role of 5-HT1aR in anxiety remains poorly understood. Here we show in mice that the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus functions as an effector of 5-HT1aR in modulating anxiety-related behaviors. We generated recombinant lentivirus LV-CREB133-GFP expressing a dominant negative CREB which could not be phosphorylated at Ser133 to specifically reduce CREB activity, and LV-VP16-CREB-GFP expressing a constitutively active fusion protein VP16-CREB which could be phosphorylated by itself to specifically enhance CREB activity. LV-CREB133-GFP neutralized 5-HT1aR agonist-induced up-regulation of synapse density, spine density, dendrite complexity, neurogenesis, and the expression of synapsin and spinophilin, two well-characterized synaptic proteins, and abolished the anxiolytic effect of 5-HT1aR agonist; whereas LV-VP16-CREB-GFP rescued the 5-HT1aR antagonist-induced down-regulation of synapse density, spine density, dendrite complexity, neurogenesis and synapsin and spinophilin expression, and reversed the anxiogenic effect of 5-HT1aR antagonist. The deletion of neurogenesis by irradiation or the diminution of synaptogenesis by knockdown of synapsin expression abolished the anxiolytic effects of both CREB and 5-HT1aR activation. These findings suggest that CREB-mediated hippoacampus structural plasticity is crucial for the role of 5-HT1aR in modulating anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:27404655

  13. Motor effects of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol that are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Porras, Francisco; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Pertwee, Roger G; Mechoulam, Raphael; García, Concepción

    2013-12-01

    The broad presence of CB1 receptors in the basal ganglia, mainly in GABA- or glutamate-containing neurons, as well as the presence of TRPV1 receptors in dopaminergic neurons and the identification of CB2 receptors in some neuronal subpopulations within the basal ganglia, explain the powerful motor effects exerted by those cannabinoids that can activate/block these receptors. By contrast, cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid with a broad therapeutic profile, is generally presented as an example of a cannabinoid compound with no motor effects due to its poor affinity for the CB1 and the CB2 receptor, despite its activity at the TRPV1 receptor. However, recent evidence suggests that CBD may interact with the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor to produce some of its beneficial effects. This may enable CBD to directly influence motor activity through the well-demonstrated role of serotonergic transmission in the basal ganglia. We have investigated this issue in rats using three different pharmacological and neurochemical approaches. First, we compared the motor effects of various i.p. doses of CBD with the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; i.p.). Second, we investigated whether the motor effects of CBD are sensitive to 5-HT1A receptor blockade in comparison with CB1 receptor antagonism. Finally, we investigated whether CBD was able to potentiate the effect of a sub-effective dose of 8-OH-DPAT. Our results demonstrated that: (i) only high doses of CBD (>10 mg/kg) altered motor behavior measured in a computer-aided actimeter; (ii) these alterations were restricted to vertical activity (rearing) with only modest changes in other parameters; (iii) similar effects were produced by 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg), although this agonist affected exclusively vertical activity, with no effects on other motor parameters, and it showed always more potency than CBD; (iv) the effects of 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg) and CBD (20 mg/kg) on vertical activity

  14. DRD2, DRD3 and 5HT2A receptor genes polymorphisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, H; Cruz, C; Camarena, B; Orozco, B; Kennedy, J L; King, N; Weissbecker, K; de la Fuente, J R; Sidenberg, D

    1996-12-01

    We performed an association analysis of the DRD2, DRD3 and 5HT2A genes polymorphisms in 67 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients and 54 healthy controls. There were no statistically significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies for any of the polymorphisms studied between OCD subjects and controls. For the subgrouped analysis, no results were significant after correction for multiple testing, although homozygosity of DRD2/A2A2 in subjects displaying vocal or motor tics approached significance compared to controls (Fisher exact test, P = 0.008). Our results may follow the notion that OCD patients with tics represent a different genetic subtype of the disease.

  15. Effects of the 5-HT1B receptor antagonist NAS-181 on extracellular levels of acetylcholine, glutamate and GABA in the frontal cortex and ventral hippocampus of awake rats: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao Jing; Wang, Fu-Hua; Stenfors, Carina; Ogren, Sven Ove; Kehr, Jan

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist NAS-181 ((R)-(+)-2-(3-morpholinomethyl-2H-chromen-8-yl) oxymethyl-morpholine methanesulfonate) on cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABA-ergic neurotransmission in the rat brain in vivo. Extracellular levels of acetylcholine, glutamate and GABA were monitored by microdialysis in the frontal cortex (FC) and ventral hippocampus (VHipp) in separate groups of freely moving rats. NAS-181 (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a dose-dependent increase in ACh levels, reaching the maximal values of 500% (FC) and 230% (VHipp) of controls at 80 min post-injection. On the contrary, NAS-181 injected at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg s.c. had no effect on basal extracellular levels of Glu and GABA in these areas. The present data suggest that ACh neurotransmission in the FC and VHipp, the brain structures strongly implicated in cognitive function, is under tonic inhibitory control of 5-HT(1B) heteroreceptors localized at the cholinergic terminals in these areas.

  16. Expression of 5-HT2A receptors in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons projecting to nucleus accumbens. Potential relevance for atypical antipsychotic action.

    PubMed

    Mocci, Giuseppe; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Adell, Albert; Cortés, Roser; Artigas, Francesc

    2014-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in higher brain functions altered in schizophrenia. Classical antipsychotic drugs modulate information processing in cortico-limbic circuits via dopamine D2 receptor blockade in nucleus accumbens (NAc) whereas atypical antipsychotic drugs preferentially target cortical serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The brain networks involved in the therapeutic action of atypical drugs are not fully understood. Previous work indicated that medial PFC (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to ventral tegmental area express 5-HT2A receptors suggesting that atypical antipsychotic drugs modulate dopaminergic activity distally, via 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2A-R) blockade in PFC. Since the mPFC also projects heavily to NAc, we examined whether NAc-projecting pyramidal neurons also express 5-HT2A-R. Using a combination of retrograde tracing experiments and in situ hybridization we report that a substantial proportion of mPFC-NAc pyramidal neurons in rat brain express 5-HT2A-R mRNA in a layer- and area-specific manner (up to 68% in layer V of contralateral cingulate). The functional relevance of 5-HT2A-R to modulate mPFC-NAc projections was examined in dual-probe microdialysis experiments. The application of the preferential 5-HT2A-R agonist DOI into mPFC enhanced glutamate release locally (+66 ± 18%) and in NAc (+74 ± 12%) indicating that cortical 5-HT2A-R activation augments glutamatergic transmission in NAc. Since NAc integrates glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs, blockade of 5-HT2A-R by atypical drugs may reduce cortical excitatory inputs onto GABAergic neurons of NAc, adding to dopamine D2 receptor blockade. Together with previous observations, the present results suggest that atypical antipsychotic drugs may control the activity of the mesolimbic pathway at cell body and terminal level.

  17. Association study of T102C 5-HT2A polymorphism in schizophrenic patients: diagnosis, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Humberto; De Marco, Luiz; Boson, Wolfanga; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antó L.; Campo, Valdir R.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between the serotonin (5-HT)2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. We studied 129 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia according to a structured clinicai interview (MINI-PLUS), Patients underwent a semistructured interview to assess suicide attempt history and its characteristics, in addition, at least one close relative of the patient was interviewed to assess prohand and family suicidal behavior. Healthy controls were students and hospital staff members free of psychiatric and medical illness. Genotypes were determined after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the region of 5-HT2A/T102C containing the polymorphic site and digestion with the restriction enzyme Hpall, We found no association between suicidal attempt history and suicide attempt characteristics and genotypic or aileie frequencies. Suicidal behavior was also not associated with demographic or psychopathological characteristics. These results suggest that the S-HT2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) is not involved in genetic susceptibility to suicidal behavior, but further studies in a larger sample are needed. PMID:17506229

  18. Initial in vivo PET imaging of 5-HT1A receptors with 3-[(18)F]mefway.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Dustin W; Hillmer, Ansel T; Murali, Dhanabalan; Barnhart, Todd E; Thio, Joanne P; Bajwa, Alisha K; Bonab, Ali A; Normandin, Marc D; Schneider, Mary L; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Christian, Bradley T

    2014-01-01

    4-trans-[(18)F]Mefway is a PET radiotracer with high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors. Our preliminary work indicated the positional isomer, 3-[(18)F]mefway, would be suitable for PET imaging of 5-HT1A receptors. We now compare the in vivo behaviour of 3-mefway with 4-mefway to evaluate 3-[(18)F]mefway as a potential 5-HT1A PET radiotracer. Two male rhesus macaques were given bolus injections of both 3- and 4-trans-[(18)F]mefway in separate experiments. 90 minute dynamic PET scans were acquired. TACs were extracted in the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) and caudal anterior cingulate gyrus (cACg). The cerebellum (CB) was used as a reference region. In vivo behavior of the radiotracers in the CB was compared based upon the ratio of normalized PET uptake for 3- and 4-trans-[(18)F]mefway. Specific binding was compared by examining MTL/CB and cACg/CB ratios. The subject-averaged ratio of 3-[(18)F]mefway to 4-trans-[(18)F]mefway in the cerebellum was 0.96 for 60-90 minutes. MTL/CB reached plateaus of ~2.7 and ~6 by 40 minutes and 90 minutes for 3- and 4-trans-[(18)F]mefway, respectively. cACg/CB reached plateaus of ~2.5 and ~6 by 40 minutes and 70 minutes for 3- and 4-trans-[(18)F]mefway, respectively. The short pseudoequilibration times and sufficient uptake of 3-[(18)F]mefway may be useful in studies requiring short scan times. Furthermore, the similar nondisplaceable clearance in the CB to 4-trans-[(18)F]mefway suggests the lower BPND of 3-[(18)F]mefway is due to a lower affinity. The lower affinity of 3-[(18)F]mefway may make it useful for measuring changes in endogenous 5-HT levels, however, this remains to be ascertained.

  19. Shifting topographic activation and 5-HT1A receptor-mediated inhibition of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons produced by nicotine exposure and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Robin; Commons, Kathryn G

    2011-05-01

    Nicotine activates serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] neurons innervating the forebrain, and this is thought to reduce anxiety. Nicotine withdrawal has also been associated with an activation of 5-HT neurotransmission, although withdrawal increases anxiety. In each case, 5-HT1A receptors have been implicated in the response. To determine whether there are different subgroups of 5-HT cells activated during nicotine administration and withdrawal, we mapped the appearance of Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in 5-HT cells of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and median raphe nucleus (MR). To understand the role of 5-HT1A receptor feedback inhibitory pathways in 5-HT cell activity during these conditions, we administered a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist and measured novel disinhibited Fos expression within 5-HT cells. Using these approaches, we found evidence that acute nicotine exposure activates 5-HT neurons rostrally and in the lateral wings of the DR, whereas there is 5-HT1A receptor-dependent inhibition of cells located ventrally at both the rostral level and mid-level. Previous chronic nicotine exposure did not modify the pattern of activation produced by acute nicotine exposure, but increased 5-HT1A receptor-dependent inhibition of 5-HT cells in the caudal DR. This pattern was nearly reversed during nicotine withdrawal, when there was evidence for caudal activation and mid-level and rostral 5-HT1A receptor-dependent inhibition. These results suggest that the distinct behavioral states produced by nicotine exposure and withdrawal correlate with reciprocal rostral-caudal patterns of activation and 5-HT1A receptor-mediated inhibition of DR 5-HT neurons. The complementary patterns of activation and inhibition suggest that 5-HT1A receptors may help to shape distinct topographic patterns of activation within the DR.

  20. Effect of prenatal stress on memory, nicotine withdrawal and 5HT1A expression in raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Said, N; Lakehayli, S; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Maternal distress has often been associated with cognitive deficiencies and drug abuse in rats. This study examined these behavioral effects in offspring of mothers stressed during gestation. To this end, pregnant dams were subjected to daily electric foot shocks during the last 10 days of pregnancy. We measured litter parameters and body weights of the descendants after weaning (21 days) and at adulthood (80 days). Afterwards, prenatally stressed and control rats' performances in the novel object recognition test were compared in order to evaluate their memory while others underwent the Water consumption test to assess the nicotine withdrawal intensity after perinatal manipulations. Meanwhile, another set of rats were sacrificed and 5HT1A receptors' mRNA expression was measured in the raphe nuclei by quantitative Real Time PCR. We noticed no significant influence of maternal stress on litter size and body weight right after weaning. However, control rats were heavier than the stressed rats in adulthood. The results also showed a significant decrease in the recognition score in rats stressed in utero compared to the controls. Moreover, a heightened anxiety symptom was observed in the prenatally stressed offspring following nicotine withdrawal. Additionally, the Real Time PCR method revealed that prenatal stress induced a significant decrease in 5HT1A receptors' levels in the raphe nuclei. Nicotine had a similar effect on these receptors' expression in both nicotine-treated control and prenatally stressed groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that the cognitive functions and drug dependence can be triggered by early adverse events in rats.

  1. 5-HT1A receptor activation counteracted the effect of acute immobilization of noradrenergic neurons in the rat locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Rioja, José; Santín, Luis J; López-Barroso, Diana; Doña, Alicia; Ulzurrun, Eugenia; Aguirre, José A

    2007-01-22

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of acute stress and the 5-HT(1A) receptor involvement in both, the hippocampus noradrenaline (NA) tissue levels and the c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-IR) in the catecholaminergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). Double immunocytochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) and c-Fos protein combined with stereological techniques were used to study the specific cell activation in the LC neurons in five experimental groups (control group, immobilization (1h) group, 8-OH-DPAT group (8-OH-DPAT 0.3mg/kg, s.c.), DPAT+IMMO group (8-OH-DPAT 0.3mg/kg, s.c., 30' prior acute immobilization) and WAY+DPAT+IMMO group (WAY-100635 0.3mg/kg, s.c. and 8-OH-DPAT 0.3mg/kg, s.c., 45'and 30', respectively, before immobilization). The results showed that hippocampal NA tissue levels and c-Fos-IR in the TH positive neurons of the LC were significantly increased immediately and after 90', respectively, after the immobilization period. Pre-treatment with 8-OH-DPAT counteracted the effects induced by immobilization, but pre-treatment with WAY-100635 did not block the effects induced by 8-OH-DPAT. These results suggest that noradrenaline system is associated in a significant way with immobilization stress. The role of 5-HT(1A) receptor activation in this stress response is also discussed.

  2. Cannabidiol attenuates catalepsy induced by distinct pharmacological mechanisms via 5-HT1A receptor activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Felipe V; Del Bel, Elaine A; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2013-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa plant that produces antipsychotic effects in rodents and humans. It also reverses L-dopa-induced psychotic symptoms and improves motor function in Parkinson's patients. This latter effect raised the possibility that CBD could have beneficial effects on motor related striatal disorders. To investigate this possibility we evaluated if CBD would prevent catalepsy induced by drugs with distinct pharmacological mechanisms. The catalepsy test is largely used to investigate impairments of motor function caused by interference on striatal function. Male Swiss mice received acute pretreatment with CBD (5, 15, 30 or 60mg/kg, ip) 30min prior to the D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.6mg/kg), the non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-nitro-N-arginine (L-NOARG, 80mg/kg) or the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (5mg/kg). The mice were tested 1, 2 or 4h after haloperidol, L-NOARG or WIN55,212-2 injection. These drugs significantly increased catalepsy time and this effect was attenuated dose-dependently by CBD. CBD, by itself, did not induce catalepsy. In a second set of experiments the mechanism of CBD effects was investigated. Thirty minutes before CBD (30mg/kg) the animals received the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg). The anticataleptic effect of CBD was prevented by WAY100635. These findings indicate that CBD can attenuate catalepsy caused by different mechanisms (D2 blockade, NOS inhibition and CB1 agonism) via 5-HT1A receptor activation, suggesting that it could be useful in the treatment of striatal disorders.

  3. Evidence for the existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes in the midbrain raphe 5-HT system.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Narvaez, Manuel; Pérez-Alea, Mileidys; Tarakanov, Alexander O; Jiménez-Beristain, Antonio; Mudó, Giuseppa; Agnati, Luigi F; Ciruela, Francisco; Belluardo, Natale; Fuxe, Kjell

    2015-01-02

    The ascending midbrain 5-HT neurons known to contain 5-HT1A autoreceptors may be dysregulated in depression due to a reduced trophic support. With in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) and supported by co-location of the FGFR1 and 5-HT1A immunoreactivities in midbrain raphe 5-HT cells, evidence for the existence of FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complexes were obtained in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei of the Sprague-Dawley rat. Their existence in the rat medullary raphe RN33B cell cultures was also established. After combined FGF-2 and 8-OH-DPAT treatment, a marked and significant increase in PLA positive clusters was found in the RN33B cells. Similar results were reached upon coactivation by agonists in HEK293T cells using the Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) technique resulting in increased FRETmax and reduced FRET50 values. The heteroreceptor complex formation was dependent on TMV of the 5-HT1A receptor since it was blocked by incubation with TMV but not with TMII. Taken together, the 5-HT1A autoreceptors by being recruited into a FGFR1-5-HT1A heteroreceptor complex in the midbrain raphe 5-HT nerve cells may develop a novel function, namely a trophic role in many midbrain 5-HT neuron systems originating from the dorsal and medianus raphe nuclei.

  4. The GR127935-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors mediating canine internal carotid vasoconstriction: resemblance to the 5-HT1B, but not to the 5-HT1D or 5-ht1F, receptor subtype

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Sánchez-López, Araceli; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2001-01-01

    This study has further investigated the pharmacological profile of the GR127935-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors mediating vasoconstriction in the internal carotid bed of anaesthetized vagosympathectomized dogs. One-minute intracarotid infusions of the agonists 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 0.1–10 μg min−1; endogenous ligand) and sumatriptan (0.3–10 μg min−1; 5-HT1B/1D), but not PNU-142633 (1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT1D) or LY344864 (1–1000 μg min−1; 5-ht1F), produced dose-dependent decreases in internal carotid blood flow without changing blood pressure or heart rate. The responses to 5-HT were apparently resistant to blockade by i.v. administration of the antagonists SB224289 (300 μg kg−1; 5-HT1B), BRL15572 (300 μg kg−1; 5-HT1D) or ritanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2). In contrast, the responses to sumatriptan were antagonized by SB224289, but not by BRL15572. In the animals receiving SB224289, but not those receiving BRL15572, the subsequent administration of ritanserin abolished the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction and unmasked a vasodilator component. Similarly, in ritanserin-treated animals, the subsequent administration of SB224289, but not BRL15572, completely blocked the 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction, revealing vasodilatation. In animals receiving initially BRL15572, the subsequent administration of SB224289 did not affect (except at 10 μg min−1) the vasoconstrictor responses to 5-HT. Notably, in animals pretreated with 1000 μg kg−1 of mesulergine, a 5-HT2/7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT produced a dose-dependent vasoconstriction, which was practically abolished by SB224289. After BRL15572, no further blockade was produced and the subsequent administration of ritanserin was similarly inactive. These results suggest that the GR127935-sensitive 5-HT1 receptors mediating canine internal carotid vasoconstriction resemble the 5-HT1B but not the 5-HT1D or 5-ht1F, receptor subtype. PMID:11226129

  5. 5-HT2A Receptor Binding in the Frontal Cortex of Parkinson's Disease Patients and Alpha-Synuclein Overexpressing Mice: A Postmortem Study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Brudek, Tomasz; Plenge, Per; Klein, Anders Bue; Westin, Jenny E; Fog, Karina; Wörtwein, Gitta; Aznar, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive function are also steadily being associated with this disease. Not much is known about the pathophysiology behind this. The aim of this study was thereby twofold: (1) to investigate 5-HT2A receptor binding levels in Parkinson's brains and (2) to investigate whether PD associated pathology, alpha-synuclein (AS) overexpression, could be associated with 5-HT2A alterations. Binding density for the 5-HT2A-specific radioligand [(3)H]-MDL 100.907 was measured in membrane suspensions of frontal cortex tissue from PD patients. Protein levels of AS were further measured using western blotting. Results showed higher AS levels accompanied by increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in PD brains. In a separate study, we looked for changes in 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex in 52-week-old transgenic mice overexpressing human AS. We performed region-specific 5-HT2A receptor binding measurements followed by gene expression analysis. The transgenic mice showed lower 5-HT2A binding in the frontal association cortex that was not accompanied by changes in gene expression levels. This study is one of the first to look at differences in serotonin receptor levels in PD and in relation to AS overexpression.

  6. Involvement of 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) receptors on memory formation: simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism?

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-12-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptors subdivision into the 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) subtypes along with the advent of the selective antagonists has allowed a more detailed investigation on the role and therapeutic significance of these subtypes in cognitive functions. The present study further analyzed the 5-HT2 receptors role on memory consolidation. 2. The SB-200646 (a selective 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist) and LY215840 (a nonselective 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist) posttraining administration had no effect on an autoshaped memory consolidation. However, both drugs significantly and differentially antagonized the memory impairments induced by 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 1-naphtyl-piperazine (1-NP), mesulergine, or N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP). 3. In contrast, SB-200646 failed to modify the facilitatory procognitive effect produced by (+/-)-2.5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) or ketanserin, which were sensitive to MDL100907 (a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and to a LY215840 high dose. 4. Finally, SB-200646 reversed the learning deficit induced by dizocilpine, but not that by scopolamine: while SB-200646 and MDL100907 coadministration reversed memory deficits induced by both drugs. 5. It is suggested that 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors might be involved on memory formation probably mediating a suppressive or constraining action. Whether the drug-induced memory impairments in this study are explained by simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism at 5-HT2 receptors remains unclear at this time. 6. Notably, the 5-HT2 receptor subtypes blockade may provide some benefit to reverse poor memory consolidation conditions associated with decreasedcholinergic, glutamatergic, and/or serotonergic neurotransmission.

  7. Divergent effects of the ‘biased’ 5-HT1A receptor agonists F15599 and F13714 in a novel object pattern separation task

    PubMed Central

    van Goethem, N P; Schreiber, R; Newman-Tancredi, A; Varney, M; Prickaerts, J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pattern separation, that is, the formation of distinct representations from similar inputs, is an important hippocampal process implicated in cognitive domains like episodic memory. A deficit in pattern separation could lead to memory impairments in several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Hence, mechanisms by which pattern separation can be increased are of potential therapeutic interest. Experimental approach 5-HT1A receptors are involved in spatial memory. Herein we tested the ‘biased’ 5-HT1A receptor agonists F15599, which preferentially activates post-synaptic heteroreceptors, and F13714, which preferentially activates raphe-located autoreceptors, in rats in a novel spatial task assessing pattern separation, the object pattern separation (OPS) task. Key Results The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, which served as a positive control, significantly improved spatial pattern separation at a dose of 1 mg·kg−1, p.o. F15599 increased pattern separation at 0.04 mg·kg−1, i.p., while F13714 decreased pattern separation at 0.0025 mg·kg−1, i.p. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (0.63 mg·kg−1, s.c.) counteracted the effects of both agonists. These data suggest that acute preferential activation of post-synaptic 5-HT1A heteroreceptors improves spatial pattern separation, whereas acute preferential activation of raphe-located 5-HT1A autoreceptors impairs performance. Conclusions and Implications We successfully established and validated a novel, simple and robust OPS task and observed a diverging profile of response with ‘biased’ 5-HT1A receptor agonists based on their targeting of receptors in distinct brain regions. Our data suggest that the post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor consists of a potential novel molecular target to improve pattern separation performance. PMID:25572672

  8. 5-HT1A receptor-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is modulated by regulator of G protein signaling protein 19.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Terauchi, Akiko; Yee, Christopher H; Umemori, Hisashi; Traynor, John R

    2014-09-01

    The 5-HT1A receptor is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that activates G proteins of the Gαi/o family. 5-HT1A receptors expressed in the raphe, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are implicated in the control of mood and are targets for anti-depressant drugs. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are members of a large family that play important roles in signal transduction downstream of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The main role of RGS proteins is to act as GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs) to dampen or negatively regulate GPCR-mediated signaling. We have shown that a mouse expressing Gαi2 that is insensitive to all RGS protein GAP activity has an anti-depressant-like phenotype due to increased signaling of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, thus implicating the 5-HT1A receptor-Gαi2 complex as an important target. Here we confirm that RGS proteins act as GAPs to regulate signaling to adenylate cyclase and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of the 5-HT1A receptor, using RGS-insensitive Gαi2 protein expressed in C6 cells. We go on to use short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to show that RGS19 is responsible for the GAP activity in C6 cells and also that RGS19 acts as a GAP for 5-HT1A receptor signaling in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and primary hippocampal neurons. In addition, in both cell types the synergy between 5-HT1A receptor and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 in stimulating the MAPK pathway is enhanced following shRNA reduction of RGS19 expression. Thus RGS19 may be a viable new target for anti-depressant medications.

  9. Gender-specific decrease in NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor proteins in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Albert, Paul R; Burns, Ariel M; Czesak, Margaret; Overholser, James C; Jurjus, George J; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Konick, Lisa C; Dieter, Lesa; Herbst, Nicole; May, Warren; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A; Austin, Mark C

    2009-03-01

    A variety of studies have documented alterations in 5-HT1A receptor binding sites in the brain of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). The recently identified transcription factor, nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor (NUDR/Deaf-1) has been shown to function as a transcriptional modulator of the human 5-HT1A receptor gene. The present study was undertaken to document the regional and cellular localization of NUDR in the human prefrontal cortex and to examine the levels of NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor protein in prefrontal cortex of female and male depressed and control subjects. NUDR immunoreactivity was present in neurons and glia across cortical layers and was co-localized with 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactive neurons. NUDR immunoreactivity as measured by Western blot was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex of female depressed subjects (42%, p=0.02) and unchanged in male depressed subjects relative to gender-matched control subjects. Similarly, 5-HT1A receptor protein level was significantly reduced in the prefrontal cortex of female depressed subjects (46%, p=0.03) and unchanged in male depressed subjects compared to gender-matched control subjects. Reduced protein expression of NUDR in the prefrontal cortex of female subjects with MDD may reflect a functional alteration in this transcription factor, which may contribute to the decrease in 5-HT1A receptors observed in the same female subjects with MDD. In addition, the gender-specific alterations in cortical NUDR and 5-HT1A receptor proteins could represent an underlying biological mechanism associated with the higher incidence of depression in women.

  10. Chronic mild stress and antidepressant treatment alter 5-HT1A receptor expression by modifying DNA methylation of a conserved Sp4 site

    PubMed Central

    Le François, Brice; Soo, Jeremy; Millar, Anne M.; Daigle, Mireille; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Leman, Samuel; Minier, Frédéric; Belzung, Catherine; Albert, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A), a critical regulator of the brain serotonergic tone, is implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) where it is often found to be dys-regulated. However, the extent to which stress and antidepressant treatment impact 5-HT1A expression in adults remains unclear. To address this issue, we subjected adult male BALB/c mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) to induce a depression-like phenotype that was reversed by chronic treatment with the antidepressant imipramine. In prefrontal cortex (PFC) and midbrain tissue, UCMS increased 5-HT1A RNA and protein levels, changes that are expected to decrease the brain serotonergic activity. The stress-induced increase in 5-HT1A expression was paralleled by a specific increase in DNA methylation of the conserved -681 CpG promoter site, located within a Sp1-like element. We show that the -681 CpG site is recognized and repressed by Sp4, the predominant neuronal Sp1-like factor and that Sp4-induced repression is attenuated by DNA methylation, despite a stress-induced increase in PFC Sp4 levels. These results indicate that adult life stress induces DNA methylation of the conserved promoter site, antagonizing Sp4 repression to increase 5-HT1A expression. Chronic imipramine treatment fully reversed the UCMS-induced increase in methylation of the -681 CpG site in the PFC but not midbrain of stressed animals and also increased 5-HT1A expression in the PFC of control animals. Incomplete reversal by imipramine of stress-induced changes in 5-HT1A methylation and expression indicates a persistence of stress vulnerability, and that sustained reversal of behavioral impairments may require additional pathways. PMID:26188176

  11. Long-term estrogen therapy and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in postmenopausal women; a single photon emission tomography (SPET) study.

    PubMed

    Compton, J; Travis, M J; Norbury, R; Erlandsson, K; van Amelsvoort, T; Daly, E; Waddington, W; Matthiasson, P; Eersels, J L H; Whitehead, M; Kerwin, R W; Ell, P J; Murphy, D G M

    2008-01-01

    Variation in estrogen level is reported by some to affect brain maturation and memory. The neurobiological basis for this may include modulation of the serotonergic system. No neuroimaging studies have directly examined the effect of extended estrogen therapy (ET), on the 5-HT(2A) receptor in human brain. We investigated the effect of long-term ET on cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor availability in postmenopausal women. In a cross-sectional study, we compared cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor availability in 17 postmenopausal ERT-naive women and 17 long-term oophorectomised estrogen-users, age- and IQ-matched using single photon emission tomography and the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor ligand (123)I-5-I-R91150. Also, we used the Revised Wechsler Memory Scale to relate memory function to 5-HT(2A) receptor availability. Never-users had significantly higher 5-HT(2A) receptor availability than estrogen-users in hippocampus (1.17 vs. 1.11, respectively, p=0.02), although this did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor availability correlated negatively with verbal and general memory and delayed recall (r=-0.45, p=0.01; r=-0.40, p=0.02; r=-0.36, p=0.04). Right superior temporal 5-HT(2A) receptor availability correlated negatively with verbal memory (r=-0.36, p=0.04). In estrogen-users, receptor availability correlated negatively with verbal and general memory (r=-0.70, p=0.002; r=-0.69, p=0.002); and in never-users, receptor availability negatively correlated with attention and concentration (r=-0.54, p=0.02). Long-term ET may be associated with lower 5-HT(2A) receptor availability in hippocampus. This may reflect increased activity within the serotonergic pathway leading to down-regulation of post-synaptic receptor. Also, increased availability of the 5-HT(2A) receptor in hippocampus is associated with poorer memory function.

  12. 5HT1A receptor agonist differentially increases cyclic AMP concentration in intact and lesioned goldfish retina. In vitro inhibition of outgrowth by forskolin.

    PubMed

    Urbina, M; Schmeer, C; Lima, L

    1996-11-01

    5HT1A receptors occur in the retina of various species and the administration of 5HT1A agonists results in the inhibition of outgrowth from postcrush goldfish retinal explants. The levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) play a role in the modulation of the outgrowth of the nevous system. Moreover, the stimulation of central 5HT1A receptors with the agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin has been reported to produce an increase or decrease in the activity of adenylate cyclase. In the present investigation we studied the effect of adenylate cyclase stimulation by forskolin, as well as the modulatory effects of 5HT1A receptor agonists and antagonists on the production of cAMP in the goldfish retina, and on the outgrowth of this tissue in vitro. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in cAMP concentration. This effect was not additive to the stimulation produced by forskolin. By contrast, as previously described, the 5HT1A agonist decreased cAMP concentration in the hippocampus of the rat. Both effects were significantly impaired by the 5HT1A antagonist WAY-100,135. A significant effect of the antagonist alone was observed only in the goldfish retina. The increase in cAMP levels was greater in the intact than in the postcrush retina. In addition, forskolin decreased the outgrowth of postcrush retinal explants in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting the importance of critical levels of cAMP in this process. Taken together, 5HT1A receptors seem to be positively coupled to adenylate cyclase in the goldfish retina, where cAMP plays a role as a modulator of outgrowth and regeneration. The inhibitory effect of 5HT1A receptor agonists on retinal outgrowth might be mediated through the production of cAMP. The activation of other subtypes of 5HT receptors positively coupled to adenylate cyclase by the 5HT1A agonist, such as 5HT7, cannot be discarded.

  13. Anti-dyskinetic mechanisms of amantadine and dextromethorphan in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease: role of NMDA vs. 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Melanie A; Martinez, Alex A; Macheda, Teresa; Meshul, Charles K; Johnson, Steven W; Berger, S Paul; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Amantadine and dextromethorphan suppress levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. These effects have been attributed to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism. However, amantadine and dextromethorphan are also thought to block serotonin (5-HT) uptake and cause 5-HT overflow, leading to stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors, which has been shown to reduce LID. We undertook a study in 6-OHDA rats to determine whether the anti-dyskinetic effects of these two compounds are mediated by NMDA antagonism and/or 5-HT(1A) agonism. In addition, we assessed the sensorimotor effects of these drugs using the Vibrissae-Stimulated Forelimb Placement and Cylinder tests. Our data show that the AIM-suppressing effect of amantadine was not affected by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100635, but was partially reversed by the NMDA agonist d-cycloserine. Conversely, the AIM-suppressing effect of dextromethorphan was prevented by WAY-100635 but not by d-cycloserine. Neither amantadine nor dextromethorphan affected the therapeutic effects of L-DOPA in sensorimotor tests. We conclude that the anti-dyskinetic effect of amantadine is partially dependent on NMDA antagonism, while dextromethorphan suppresses AIMs via indirect 5-HT(1A) agonism. Combined with previous work from our group, our results support the investigation of 5-HT(1A) agonists as pharmacotherapies for LID in PD patients.

  14. Effects of intra-prelimbic prefrontal cortex injection of cannabidiol on anxiety-like behavior: involvement of 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience.

    PubMed

    Fogaça, M V; Reis, F M C V; Campos, A C; Guimarães, F S

    2014-03-01

    The prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL) is an important encephalic structure involved in the expression of emotional states. In a previous study, intra-PL injection of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant, reduced the expression of fear conditioning response. Although its mechanism remains unclear, CBD can facilitate 5HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission when injected into several brain structures. This study was aimed at verifying if intra-PL CBD could also induce anxiolytic-like effect in a conceptually distinct animal model, the elevated plus maze (EPM). We also verified if CBD effects in the EPM and contextual fear conditioning test (CFC) depend on 5HT1A receptors and previous stressful experience. CBD induced opposite effects in the CFC and EPM, being anxiolytic and anxiogenic, respectively. Both responses were prevented by WAY100,635, a 5HT1A receptor antagonist. In animals that had been previously (24h) submitted to a stressful event (2h-restraint) CBD caused an anxiolytic, rather than anxiogenic, effect in the EPM. This anxiolytic response was abolished by previous injection of metyrapone, a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker. Moreover, restraint stress increased 5HT1A receptors expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus, an effect that was attenuated by injection of metyrapone before the restraint procedure. Taken together, these results suggest that CBD modulation of anxiety in the PL depend on 5HT1A-mediated neurotransmission and previous stressful experience.

  15. Discovery of SMP-304, a novel benzylpiperidine derivative with serotonin transporter inhibitory activity and 5-HT1A weak partial agonistic activity showing the antidepressant-like effect.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Hidefumi; Masumoto, Shuji; Koyama, Koji; Kinomura, Naoya; Matsumoto, Yuji; Kato, Taro; Baba, Satoko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Horisawa, Tomoko; Oki, Hitomi; Yabuuchi, Kazuki; Kodo, Toru

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of a novel benzylpiperidine derivative with serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitory activity and 5-HT1A receptor weak partial agonistic activity showing the antidepressant-like effect. The 3-methoxyphenyl group and the phenethyl group of compound 1, which has weak SERT binding activity, but potent 5-HT1A binding activity, were optimized, leading to compound 35 with potent and balanced dual SERT and 5-HT1A binding activity, but also potent CYP2D6 inhibitory activity. Replacement of the methoxy group in the left part of compound 35 with a larger alkoxy group, such as ethoxy, isopropoxy or methoxy-ethoxy group ameliorated CYP2D6 inhibition, giving SMP-304 as a candidate. SMP-304 with serotonin uptake inhibitory activity and 5-HT1A weak partial agonistic activity, which could work as a 5-HT1A antagonist, displayed faster onset of antidepressant-like effect than a representative SSRI paroxetine in an animal model.

  16. Discovery of Natural Product-Derived 5-HT1A Receptor Binders by Cheminfomatics Modeling of Known Binders, High Throughput Screening and Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    The human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype 1A (5-HT1A) is highly expressed in the raphe nuclei region and limbic structures; for that reason 5-HT1A has served as a promising target for treating human mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. We have developed binary quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for 5- HT1A binding using data retrieved from the WOMBAT database and the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) machine learning method. A rigorous QSAR modeling and screening workflow had been followed, with extensive internal and external validation processes. The models' classification accuracies to discriminate 5-HT1A binders from the non-binders are as high as 96% for the external validation. These models were employed further to mine two major natural products screening libraries, i.e. TimTec Natural Product Library (NPL) and Natural Derivatives Library (NDL). In the end five screening hits were tested by radioligand binding assays with a success rate of 40%, and two Library compounds were confirmed to be binders at the μM concentration against the human 5-HT1A receptor. The combined application of rigorous QSAR modeling and model-based virtual screening presents a powerful means for profiling natural products compounds with important biomedical activities.

  17. 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT binding during the menstrual cycle in healthy women examined with [(11)C] WAY100635 and [(11)C] MADAM PET.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Hristina; Karlsson, Per; Cerin, Asta; Halldin, Christer; Nordström, Anna-Lena

    2009-04-30

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of the menstrual cycle phases on 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT binding potentials (BPs) in healthy women by using positron emission tomography (PET). Women were investigated in the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle with radioligands [(11)C]WAY10035 (n=13) and [(11)C]MADAM (n=8) to study 5-HT(1A) and 5-HTT BPs. The BPs values were quantified using the simplified reference tissue model. The phases of the menstrual cycle were characterized by transvaginal ultrasound (TSV) and plasma levels of hormones estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).The 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT BPs did not significantly differ between follicular and luteal phases in any of the investigated regions. There were no significant correlations between the change in E(2) or P(4) values with the change in 5-HT(1A) receptor or 5-HTT BPs. The results provide principally a new in vivo finding in human female biology, suggesting the absence of influence of menstrual cycle phase on 5-HT(1A) receptors or 5-HTT. The finding however does not preclude that gonadal hormones differentially influence central serotonin system inwomen and men, which might contribute to gender differences in serotonin-associated disorders.

  18. [Differences between the effects of indorenate and other 5-HT1A agonists on the rabbit aorta].

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Rosas-Lezama, M A; Castillo, E F; Larios, F J; Hong, E

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if like buspirone, ipsapirone and 8-hydroxy-2(di-N-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), the alpha 1-adrenoceptors are involved in the responses elicited by indorenate in rabbit aorta. Exception made of ipsapirone, all the 5-HT1A agonists above mentioned contracted aortic rings. The contraction elicited by buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT was blocked with prazosin (alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist), whereas the effect of indorenate was unaffected with this blocker but it was inhibited with ritanserin (5-HT2 antagonist). On the other hand, buspirone, ipsapirone and 8-OH-DPAT but not indorenate relaxed arteries precontracted with methoxamine (alpha 1-adrenergic agonist) and none of the agonists relaxed preparations precontracted with acetylcholine or KCl. The results indicate that buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT are partial alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists since they elicited contractions which are blocked with prazosin and relaxed only rings precontracted with methoxamine. Ipsapirone behaved as an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist since it showed the relaxant but not the contractile effect. Finally, we found no evidence that indorenate has afinity for alpha 1-adrenoceptors. Contraction elicited by this agonist seems to be mediated by 5-HT2 receptors, inasmuch it was blocked with ritanserin.

  19. Psychological, neuroimaging, and biochemical studies on functional association between impulsive behavior and the 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism in humans.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Michio; Nomura, Yasuyuki

    2006-11-01

    It has been suggested that impulsive behavior is caused by dysfunctional serotonergic 5-HT neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Brain neuroimaging studies have shown that behavioral inhibition is linked to the activation of cortex sites such as the ventral frontal cortex. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [(18)F]altanserin to characterize 5-HT(2A) receptor binding revealed a reduction in 5-HT(2A) binding in the ventral frontal cortex in women who had recovered from impulsive diseases. These clinical, neuroimaging, and pharmacological studies appear to support the hypothesis that functional alteration of neurotransmission due to genetic polymorphisms of the 5-HT receptors may be involved in impulsive behavior modulation. Following evaluation by a self-reporting measure, it was proposed that a polymorphism in the promoter of the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene is the underlying cause of impulsive behavior; however, this hypothesis is not convincing. We examined whether the polymorphism in the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene promoter is involved in impulsive aggression by evaluating a behavioral task (Go/No-go task) in normal volunteers. The polymorphism of the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene promoter in lymphocytes from 71 volunteers was analyzed by using PCR. Impulsivity was defined as the number of commission errors (responding when one should not) recorded during a Go/No-go task; a larger number of commission errors indicate greater difficulty in inhibiting impulsive behavior. The subjects of the A-1438A allele group for the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene made more commission errors under the punishment-reward (PR)condition in a Go/No-go task than those in the G-1438G group. In the present review, we discuss and suggest the possible involvement of the A-1438A polymorphism of the 5HT2A receptor gene promoter in impulsive behavior. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a behavioral task measure that could directly reveal impulsive behavioral traits in humans.

  20. Benzothiazoles as probes for the 5HT1A receptor and the serotonin transporter (SERT): a search for new dual-acting agents as potential antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue Y; Etukala, Jagan R; Eyunni, Suresh V K; Setola, Vincent; Roth, Bryan L; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2012-07-01

    The synthesis and evaluation of several benzothiazole-based compounds are described in an attempt to identify novel dual-acting 5HT(1A) receptor and SERT inhibitors as new antidepressants. Binding affinities at the 5HT(1A) receptor and the serotonin transporter do not appear to be congruent and other areas of the binding sites would need to be explored in order to improve binding simultaneously at both sites. Compounds 20 and 23 show moderate binding affinity at the 5HT(1A) receptor and the SERT site and thus, have the potential to be further explored as dual-acting agents. In addition, compound 20 binds with low affinity to the dopamine transporter (DAT), the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and 5HT(2C) receptor, which are desirable properties as selectivity for SERT (and not DAT or NET) is associated with an absence of cardiovascular side effects.

  1. Discovering the mechanisms underlying serotonin (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C receptor regulation following nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Magdalena; Alenina, Natalia; Wydra, Karolina; Fröhler, Sebastian; Kuśmider, Maciej; McCreary, Andrew C; Chen, Wei; Bader, Michael; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that nicotine withdrawal produces depression-like behavior and that serotonin (5-HT)2A/2C receptor ligands modulate that mood-like state. In the present study we aimed to identify the mechanisms (changes in radioligand binding, transcription or RNA-editing) related to such a behavioral outcome. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) for 5 days in home cages. Brain 5-HT2A/2C receptors were analyzed on day 3 of nicotine withdrawal. Nicotine withdrawal increased [(3)H]ketanserin binding to 5-HT2A receptors in the ventral tegmental area and ventral dentate gyrus, yet decreased binding in the nucleus accumbens shell. Reduction in [(3)H]mesulergine binding to 5-HT2C receptors was seen in the ventral dentate gyrus. Profound decrease in the 5-HT2A receptor transcript level was noted in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area. Out of five 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing sites, deep sequencing data showed a reduction in editing at the E site and a trend toward reduction at the C site in the hippocampus. In the ventral tegmental area, a reduction for the frequency of CD 5-HT2C receptor transcript was seen. These results show that the reduction in the 5-HT2A receptor transcript level may be an auto-regulatory response to the increased receptor density in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area during nicotine withdrawal, while decreased 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing may explain the reduction in receptor labeling in the hippocampus. Serotonin (5-HT)2A/2C receptor ligands alleviate depression-like state in nicotine-withdrawn rats. Here, we show that the reduction in 5-HT2A receptor transcript level may be an auto-regulatory response to the increased receptor number in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area during nicotine withdrawal, while attenuated 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing in the hippocampus might explain reduced inverse agonist binding to 5-HT2C receptor and suggest a shift toward a population of more active receptors. 5

  2. Alterations of 5-HT1A receptor-induced G-protein functional activation and relationship to memory deficits in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Herrera, Manola; Velasco, Ana Luisa; Velasco, Francisco; Trejo, David; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; Nuche-Bricaire, Avril; Vázquez-Barrón, Daruni; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda; Rocha, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT1A) receptors are known to be involved in the inhibition of seizures in epilepsy. Moreover, studies propose a role for the 5-HT1A receptor in memory function; it is believed that the higher density of this receptor in the hippocampus plays an important role in its regulation. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) have demonstrated that a decrease in 5-HT1A receptor binding in temporal regions may play a role in memory impairment. The evidences lead us to speculate whether this decrease in receptor binding is associated with a reduced receptor number or if the functionality of the 5-HT1A receptor-induced G-protein activation and/or the second messenger cascade is modified. The purpose of the present study is to determine 5-HT1A receptor-induced G-protein functional activation by 8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding assay in hippocampal tissue of surgical patients with mTLE. We correlate functional activity with epilepsy history and neuropsychological assessment of memory. We found that maximum functional activation stimulation values (Emax) of [(35)S]GTPγS binding were significantly increased in mTLE group when compared to autopsy samples. Furthermore, significant correlations were found: (1) positive coefficients between the Emax with the age of patient and frequency of seizures; (2) negative coefficients between the Emax and working memory, immediate recall and delayed recall memory tasks. Our data suggest that the epileptic hippocampus of patients with mTLE presents an increase in 5-HT1A receptor-induced G-protein functional activation, and that this altered activity is related to age and seizure frequency, as well as to memory consolidation deficit.

  3. 17β-estradiol-induced regulation of the novel 5-HT1A-related transcription factors NUDR and Freud-1 in SH SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Adeosun, Samuel O; Albert, Paul R; Austin, Mark C; Iyo, Abiye H

    2012-05-01

    Nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (NUDR/Deaf-1) and five prime repressor element under dual repression (Freud-1) are novel transcriptional regulators of the 5-HT(1A) receptor, a receptor that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric illnesses. The antidepressant effect of 17β-Estradiol (17βE(2)) is purported to involve the downregulation of this receptor. We investigated the possible role of NUDR and Freud-1 in 17βE(2)-induced downregulation of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the neuroblastoma cell line SH SY5Y. Cells were treated with 10 nM of 17βE(2) for 3 or 48 h, followed by a 24-h withdrawal period. Proteins were isolated and analyzed by western blotting. 17βE(2) treatment increased NUDR immunoreactivity while Freud-1 and the 5-HT(1A) receptor showed significant decreases. Upon withdrawal of 17βE(2), protein expression returned to control levels, except for NUDR, which remained significantly elevated in the 3-h treatment. Taken together, these data support a non-genomic downregulation of 5-HT(1A) receptor protein by 17βE(2), which does not involve NUDR and Freud-1. Rather, changes in both transcription factors seem to be compensatory/homeostatic responses to changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor induced by 17βE(2). These observations further highlight the importance of NUDR and Freud-1 in regulating 5-HT(1A) receptor expression.

  4. The Antidepressant-Like Effect of Fish Oil: Possible Role of Ventral Hippocampal 5-HT1A Post-synaptic Receptor.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, Bruno; Delattre, Ana Marcia; Pudell, Claudia; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Suchecki, Deborah; Machado, Ricardo B; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Piazzetta, Sílvia Regina; Hammerschmidt, Ivilim; Zanata, Sílvio M; Lima, Marcelo M S; Zanoveli, Janaína Menezes; Ferraz, Anete Curte

    2015-08-01

    The pathophysiology of depression is not completely understood; nonetheless, numerous studies point to serotonergic dysfunction as a possible cause. Supplementation with fish oil rich docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) during critical periods of development produces antidepressant effects by increasing serotonergic neurotransmission, particularly in the hippocampus. In a previous study, the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors was demonstrated and we hypothesized that fish oil supplementation (from conception to weaning) alters the function of post-synaptic hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors. To test this hypothesis, female rats were supplemented with fish oil during habituation, mating, gestation, and lactation. The adult male offspring was maintained without supplementation until 3 months of age, when they were subjected to the modified forced swimming test (MFST) after infusion of vehicle or the selective 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY100635, and frequency of swimming, immobility, and climbing was recorded for 5 min. After the behavioral test, the hippocampi were obtained for quantification of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and for 5-HT1A receptor expression by Western blotting analysis. Fish oil-supplemented offspring displayed less depressive-like behaviors in the MFST reflected by decreased immobility and increased swimming and higher 5-HT hippocampal levels. Although there was no difference in the expression of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors, intra-hippocampal infusion of a sub-effective dose of 8-OH-DPAT enhanced the antidepressant effect of fish oil in supplemented animals. In summary, the present findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of fish oil supplementation are likely related to increased hippocampal serotonergic neurotransmission and sensitization of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors.

  5. Conservation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated autoinhibition of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in mice with altered 5-HT homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Araragi, Naozumi; Mlinar, Boris; Baccini, Gilda; Gutknecht, Lise; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Corradetti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Firing activity of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is controlled by inhibitory somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. This autoinhibitory mechanism is implicated in the etiology of disorders of emotion regulation, such as anxiety disorders and depression, as well as in the mechanism of antidepressant action. Here, we investigated how persistent alterations in brain 5-HT availability affect autoinhibition in two genetically modified mouse models lacking critical mediators of serotonergic transmission: 5-HT transporter knockout (Sert-/-) and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 knockout (Tph2-/-) mice. The degree of autoinhibition was assessed by loose-seal cell-attached recording in DRN slices. First, application of the 5-HT1A-selective agonist R(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin showed mild sensitization and marked desensitization of 5-HT1A receptors in Tph2-/- mice and Sert-/- mice, respectively. While 5-HT neurons from Tph2-/- mice did not display autoinhibition in response to L-tryptophan, autoinhibition of these neurons was unaltered in Sert-/- mice despite marked desensitization of their 5-HT1A autoreceptors. When the Tph2-dependent 5-HT synthesis step was bypassed by application of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP), neurons from both Tph2-/- and Sert-/- mice decreased their firing rates at significantly lower concentrations of 5-HTP compared to wildtype controls. Our findings demonstrate that, as opposed to the prevalent view, sensitivity of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors does not predict the magnitude of 5-HT neuron autoinhibition. Changes in 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity may rather be seen as an adaptive mechanism to keep autoinhibition functioning in response to extremely altered levels of extracellular 5-HT resulting from targeted inactivation of mediators of serotonergic signaling.

  6. Interaction between serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphisms influences personality trait of persistence in Austrian Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Schosser, Alexandra; Fuchs, Karoline; Scharl, Theresa; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Kindler, Jochen; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Kaufmann, Rainer M; Leisch, Friedrich; Kasper, Siegfried; Sieghart, Werner; Aschauer, Harald N

    2010-03-01

    We examined 89 normal volunteers using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Genotyping the 102T/C polymorphism of the serotonin 5HT2A receptor gene and the ser9gly polymorphism in exon 1 of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene was performed using PCR-RFLP, whereas the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism was investigated using PCR amplification followed by electrophoresis in an 8% acrylamide gel with a set of size markers. We found a nominally significant association between gender and harm avoidance (P=0.017; women showing higher scores). There was no association of either DAT1, DRD3 or 5HT2A alleles or genotypes with any dimension of the TCI applying Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum tests. Comparing homozygote and heterozygote DAT1 genotypes, we found higher novelty seeking scores in homozygotes (P=0.054). We further found a nominally significant interaction between DAT1 and 5HT2A homo-/heterozygous gene variants (P=0.0071; DAT1 and 5HT2A genotypes P value of 0.05), performing multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Examining the temperamental TCI subscales, this interaction was associated with persistence (genotypes: P=0.004; homo-/heterozygous gene variants: P=0.0004). We conclude that an interaction between DAT1 and 5HT2A genes might influence the temperamental personality trait persistence.

  7. Regional distribution and behavioral correlates of 5-HT(2A) receptors in Alzheimer's disease with [(18)F]deuteroaltanserin and PET.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Lekshmi; Estok, Kristina M; Vogel, Rebecca S; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Baldwin, Ronald M; Mitsis, Effie M; Macavoy, Martha G; Staley, Julie K; van Dyck, Christopher H

    2009-09-30

    Postmortem studies show reductions in brain serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Converging evidence also suggests that serotonergic dysregulation may contribute to behavioral symptoms that frequently occur in AD. This study aimed to define regional reductions in 5-HT(2A) binding in AD patients and to examine their behavioral correlates. Nine patients with probable AD and eight elderly controls were studied using a constant infusion paradigm for equilibrium modeling of [(18)F]deuteroaltanserin with positron emission tomography (PET). Region of interest analyses were performed on PET images coregistered to MRI scans. The outcome measures BP(P) (ratio of specific brain uptake to total plasma parent concentration) and BP(ND) (ratio of specific to nondisplaceable uptake) were obtained for pertinent cortical and subcortical regions. AD patients showed a statistically significant decrease in the anterior cingulate in both BP(P) and BP(ND), but in no other region. Within the AD patient sample, no significant correlations were observed between regional 5-HT(2A) binding and behavioral measures, including depressive and psychotic symptoms. These results confirm a reduction in cortical 5-HT(2A) receptors in AD, specifically in the anterior cingulate. However, in a limited AD patient sample, they fail to demonstrate a relationship between regional 5-HT(2A) binding and major behavioral symptoms.

  8. Distribution of 5-HT2A receptor immunoreactivity in the rat amygdaloid complex and colocalization with γ-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Bombardi, Cristiano

    2011-01-25

    The 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2Ar) is located in a variety of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in many regions of the central nervous system and is a major target for atypical antipsychotic drugs. In the present study, an immunoperoxidase experiment was used to investigate the distribution of 5-HT2Ar immunoreactivity in the rat amygdaloid complex. In the basolateral amygdala, the colocalization of 5-HT2Ar with inhibitory transmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied using double-immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The staining pattern obtained was colchicine-sensitive. In fact, pretreatment with colchicine increased the number of 5-HT2Ar-immunoreactive somata. Accordingly, with the exception of the intercalated nuclei, the amygdaloid complex of colchicine-injected rats exhibited a high density of 5-HT2Ar-IR somata. Morphological analyses indicated that 5-HT2Ar was located on both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the rat amygdaloid complex. In addition, double-immunofluorescence observations revealed that the great majority of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the basolateral amygdala exhibited 5-HT2Ar immunoreactivity (66.3%-70.6% depending on the nucleus). These data help to clarify the complex role of the 5-HT2Ar in the amygdaloid complex suggesting that this receptor can regulate amygdaloid activity by acting on different neuronal populations.

  9. Reversal of amphetamine-induced behaviours by MDL 100,907, a selective 5-HT2A antagonist.

    PubMed

    Moser, P C; Moran, P M; Frank, R A; Kehne, J H

    1996-01-01

    MDL 100,907 is a potent and selective antagonist of the 5-HT2A receptor which, unlike other antagonists at this receptor, has little affinity for the 5-HT2C receptor. We have investigated the antipsychotic potential of MDL 100,907 by examining its ability to antagonise different behavioural effects of amphetamine in rats. MDL 100,907 reversed the locomotor stimulant effects of amphetamine in rats without itself having any effect on locomotor activity. It also antagonised the disruptive effects of amphetamine on the development of latent inhibition. In contrast, MDL 100,907 had no effect on the discriminative stimulus properties of amphetamine, nor did it affect the ability of amphetamine to reduce the threshold required to sustain rewarding brain stimulation in the ventral tegmental area. This profile is different from that of typical and atypical neuroleptics, and also from other 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, which lack the selectivity of MDL 100,907. These results suggest that MDL 100,907 may have a unique interaction with dopaminergic systems and support the further development of selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonists as a novel therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia.

  10. The role of 5-HT1A receptors in mediating acute negative effects of antidepressants: implications in pediatric depression.

    PubMed

    Rahn, K A; Cao, Y-J; Hendrix, C W; Kaplin, A I

    2015-05-05

    Acute antidepressant exposure elevates the frequency of impulsive behavior and suicidal thoughts in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Long-term antidepressant treatment, however, is beneficial for pediatric MDD, so it is necessary to explore novel treatments that prevent the potentially dangerous consequences of acute antidepressant initiation. In the present study, a treatment strategy designed to reverse the acute negative behavioral effects of antidepressants was tested in rodents. Co-administration of the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) antagonist WAY-100635 reversed the negative effects of acute fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, but not reboxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, supporting the involvement of 5-HT1AR in mediating the negative consequences of acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. No 5-HT1AR antagonists are currently approved for use in pediatric populations, so alternative strategies should be explored. One such strategy was suggested based on the hypothesis that the rate of 5-HT1AR activation and the subsequent inhibition of serotonergic neuron activity caused by acute SSRI administration is proportional to the loading rate of an antidepressant. Existing pharmacological data were examined, and significant correlations were observed between the half-life of antidepressants and the rate of suicide-related events (SREs). Specifically, antidepressants with longer half-lives have lower rates of SREs. On the basis of these data, novel dosing strategies were developed for five antidepressants to mimic the pharmacological profile of the antidepressant with the longest half-life, fluoxetine. These dosing strategies could be used to decrease the rate of SREs associated with acute antidepressant treatment in pediatric MDD until an improved pharmacological treatment is developed.

  11. Extensive Rigid Analogue Design Maps the Binding Conformation of Potent N-Benzylphenethylamine 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Agonist Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Based on the structure of the superpotent 5-HT2A agonist 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, which consists of a ring-substituted phenethylamine skeleton modified with an N-benzyl group, we designed and synthesized a small library of constrained analogues to identify the optimal arrangement of the pharmacophoric elements of the ligand. Structures consisted of diversely substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines, piperidines, and one benzazepine. Based on the structure of (S,S)-9b, which showed the highest affinity of the series, we propose an optimal binding conformation. (S,S)-9b also displayed 124-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2A over the 5-HT2C receptor, making it the most selective 5-HT2A receptor agonist ligand currently known. PMID:23336049

  12. Increasing spinal 5-HT2A receptor responsiveness mediates anti-allodynic effect and potentiates fluoxetine efficacy in neuropathic rats. Evidence for GABA release.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Amandine; Wattiez, Anne-Sophie; Pinguet, Jérémy; Richard, Damien; Libert, Frédéric; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sion, Benoit; Ardid, Denis; Marin, Philippe; Eschalier, Alain; Courteix, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Antidepressants are one of the first line treatments for neuropathic pain but their use is limited by the incidence and severity of side effects of tricyclics and the weak effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin type 2A (5-HT2A) receptors interact with PDZ proteins that regulate their functionality and SSRI efficacy to alleviate pain. We investigated whether an interfering peptide (TAT-2ASCV) disrupting the interaction between 5-HT2A receptors and associated PDZ proteins would improve the treatment of traumatic neuropathic allodynia. Tactile allodynia was assessed in spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain in rats using von Frey filaments after acute treatment with TAT-2ASCV and/or 5-HT2A receptor agonist, alone or in combination with repeated treatment with fluoxetine. In vivo microdialysis was performed in order to examine the involvement of GABA in TAT-2ASCV/fluoxetine treatment-associated analgesia. TAT-2ASCV (100ng, single i.t. injection) improved SNL-induced tactile allodynia by increasing 5-HT2A receptor responsiveness to endogenous 5-HT. Fluoxetine alone (10mg/kg, five i.p. injections) slightly increased tactile thresholds and its co-administration with TAT-2ASCV (100ng, single i.t. injection) further enhanced the anti-allodynic effect. This effect depends on the integrity of descending serotonergic bulbospinal pathways and spinal release of GABA. The anti-allodynic effect of fluoxetine can be enhanced by disrupting 5-HT2A receptor-PDZ protein interactions. This enhancement depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation, spinal GABA release and GABAA receptor activation.

  13. Activation of 5-HT2a receptors in the basolateral amygdala promotes defeat-induced anxiety and the acquisition of conditioned defeat in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Clinard, Catherine T; Bader, Lauren R; Sullivan, Molly A; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    Conditioned defeat is a model in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in which normal territorial aggression is replaced by increased submissive and defensive behavior following acute social defeat. The conditioned defeat response involves both a fear-related memory for a specific opponent as well as anxiety-like behavior indicated by avoidance of novel conspecifics. We have previously shown that systemic injection of a 5-HT2a receptor antagonist reduces the acquisition of conditioned defeat. Because neural activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for the acquisition of conditioned defeat and BLA 5-HT2a receptors can modulate anxiety but have a limited effect on emotional memories, we investigated whether 5-HT2a receptor modulation alters defeat-induced anxiety but not defeat-related memories. We injected the 5-HT2a receptor antagonist MDL 11,939 (0 mM, 1.7 mM or 17 mM) or the 5-HT2a receptor agonist TCB-2 (0 mM, 8 mM or 80 mM) into the BLA prior to social defeat. We found that injection of MDL 11,939 into the BLA impaired acquisition of the conditioned defeat response and blocked defeat-induced anxiety in the open field, but did not significantly impair avoidance of former opponents in the Y-maze. Furthermore, we found that injection of TCB-2 into the BLA increased the acquisition of conditioned defeat and increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field, but did not alter avoidance of former opponents. Our data suggest that 5-HT2a receptor signaling in the BLA is both necessary and sufficient for the development of conditioned defeat, likely via modulation of defeat-induced anxiety.

  14. Differential regulation of 5-HT2A receptor mRNA expression following withdrawal from a chronic escalating dose regimen of D-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kristen A; Gilbert, Yamiece E; Noble, Erika S

    2011-05-16

    Several lines of evidence indicate that psychostimulant withdrawal can induce negative emotional symptoms, such as anhedonia and dysphoria, which may be due in part, to dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system, including alterations in 5-HT receptors. For example, changes in 5-HT(2A) receptor function in prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been reported in association with psychostimulant withdrawal. However, it is not known if alterations in 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression occur in the PFC or other limbic-associated areas following withdrawal from chronic psychostimulant treatment. The goal of the current study was to determine the effects of chronic, escalating doses of D-amphetamine (D-AMPH) and withdrawal on the expression of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the cortex, caudate putamen, NAc and hippocampus of rat brain. Animals were treated three times a day for 4 days with escalating doses of D-AMPH (1-10 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after the final dose of D-AMPH, animals were sacrificed and the tissue processed for in situ hybridization histochemistry. Chronic, escalating doses of D-AMPH, followed by a 24 h withdrawal period, significantly decreased 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression in the prefrontal, motor and cingulate cortices, while 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression in the NAc, caudal CPu and hippocampus were significantly increased. These data indicate that region-specific changes in 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression occur in limbic system and associated areas following chronic D-AMPH treatment, supporting the notion that alterations in the 5-HT system may contribute to the negative emotional aspects of psychostimulant withdrawal.

  15. Role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to aortic constriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Lairez, O; Cognet, T; Schaak, S; Calise, D; Guilbeau-Frugier, C; Parini, A; Mialet-Perez, J

    2013-06-01

    Serotonin, in addition to its fundamental role as a neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in the cardiovascular system, where it is thought to be involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Indeed, we recently found that mice with deletion of monoamine oxidase A had enhanced levels of blood and cardiac 5-HT, which contributed to exacerbation of hypertrophy in a model of experimental pressure overload. 5-HT2A receptors are expressed in the heart and mediate a hypertrophic response to 5-HT in cardiac cells. However, their role in cardiac remodeling in vivo and the signaling pathways associated are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907, on the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac 5-HT2A receptor expression was transiently increased after TAC, and was recapitulated in cardiomyocytes, as observed with 5-HT2A in situ labeling by immunohistochemistry. Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy, as measured by echocardiography, cardiomyocyte area and heart weight-to-body weight ratio. Interestingly, activation of calmodulin kinase (CamKII), which is a core mechanism in cardiac hypertrophy, was reduced in cardiac samples from M100907-treated TAC mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. In addition, phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a downstream partner of CamKII was significantly diminished in M100907-treated TAC mice. Thus, our results show that selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors has beneficial effect in the development of cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of the CamKII/HDAC4 pathway.

  16. Tolerance to LSD and DOB induced shaking behaviour: differential adaptations of frontocortical 5-HT(2A) and glutamate receptor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Dieterich, Daniela C; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker

    2015-03-15

    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethoxy-bromoamphetamine (DOB), provoke stereotype-like shaking behaviour in rodents, which is hypothesised to engage frontocortical glutamate receptor activation secondary to serotonin2A (5-HT2A) related glutamate release. Challenging this hypothesis, we here investigate whether tolerance to LSD and DOB correlates with frontocortical adaptations of 5-HT2A and/or overall-glutamate binding sites. LSD and DOB (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) induce a ketanserin-sensitive (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment) increase in shaking behaviour (including head twitches and wet dog shakes), which with repeated application (7× in 4 ds) is undermined by tolerance. Tolerance to DOB, as indexed by DOB-sensitive [(3)H]spiroperidol and DOB induced [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding, is accompanied by a frontocortical decrease in 5-HT2A binding sites and 5-HT2 signalling, respectively; glutamate-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate binding sites, in contrast, remain unchanged. As to LSD, 5-HT2 signalling and 5-HT2A binding, respectively, are not or only marginally affected, yet [(3)H]glutamate binding is significantly decreased. Correlation analysis interrelates tolerance to DOB to the reduced 5-HT2A (r=.80) as well as the unchanged [(3)H]glutamate binding sites (r=.84); tolerance to LSD, as opposed, shares variance with the reduction in [(3)H]glutamate binding sites only (r=.86). Given that DOB and LSD both induce tolerance, one correlating with 5-HT2A, the other with glutamate receptor adaptations, it might be inferred that tolerance can arise at either level. That is, if a hallucinogen (like LSD in our study) fails to induce 5-HT2A (down-)regulation, glutamate receptors (activated postsynaptic to 5-HT2A related glutamate release) might instead adapt and thus prevent further overstimulation of the cortex.

  17. Lack of GSK3β activation and modulation of synaptic plasticity by dopamine in 5-HT1A-receptor KO mice.

    PubMed

    Meunier, C N J; Cancela, J-M; Fossier, P

    2017-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders are associated with excitation-inhibition (E-I) balance impairment in the prefrontal cortex. However, how the E-I balance is regulated is poorly known. The E-I balance of neuronal networks is linked to the action of numerous neuromodulators such as dopamine and 5-HT. We investigated the role of D2-receptors in tuning the E-I balance in a mouse model of anxiety, the 5-HT1A-receptor KO mice. We focused on synaptic plasticity of excitation and inhibition on layer 5 pyramidal neurons. We show that D2-receptor activation decreases the excitation and favors HFS-induced LTD of excitatory synapses via the activation of GSK3β. This effect is absent in 5-HT1A-receptor KO mice. Our data show that the fine control of excitatory transmission by GSK3β requires recruitment of D2-receptors and depends on the presence of 5-HT1A-receptors. In psychiatric disorders in which the number of 5-HT1A-receptors decreased, therapies should reconsider how serotonin and dopamine receptors interact and control neuronal network activity.

  18. Role of dorsal raphe nucleus 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors in tonic immobility modulation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mateus Dalbem; Menescal-de-Oliveira, Leda

    2009-08-18

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate defensive behavior characterized by a state of physical inactivity and diminished responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Behavioral adaptations to changes in the external and internal milieu involve complex neuronal network activity and a large number of chemical neurotransmitters. The TI response is thought to be influenced by serotonin (5-HT) activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates, but the neuronal groups involved in the mechanisms underlying this behavior are poorly understood. Owing to its extensive afferents and efferents, the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) has been implicated in a great variety of physiological and behavioral functions. In the current study, we investigated the influence of serotonergic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptor activity within the DRN on the modulation of TI behavior in the guinea pig. Microinjection of a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT, 0.01 and 0.1 microg) decreased TI behavior, an effect blocked by pretreatment with WAY-100635 (0.033 microg), a 5-HT(1A) antagonist. In contrast, activation of 5-HT(2) receptors within the DRN (alpha-methyl-5-HT, 0.5 microg) increased the TI duration, and this effect could be reversed by pretreatment with an ineffective dose (0.01 microg) of ketanserine. Since the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) agonists decreased and increased, respectively, the duration of TI, different serotonin receptor subtypes may play distinct roles in the modulation of TI in the guinea pig.

  19. INCREASED 5-HT2A RECEPTOR AVAILABILITY IN THE ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX OF PHYSICALLY AGGRESSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDERED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Daniel R.; Thompson, Judy L.; Slifstein, Mark; Xu, Xiaoyan; Frankle, W. Gordon; New, Antonia S.; Goodman, Marianne; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Laruelle, Marc; Dargham, Anissa Abi; Siever, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Impulsive physical aggression is a common and problematic feature of many personality disorders. The serotonergic system is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of aggression, and multiple lines of evidence have implicated the 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR). We sought to examine the role of the 5-HT2AR in impulsive aggression specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), given that our own studies and an extensive literature indicate that serotonergic disturbances in the OFC are linked to aggression. We have previously hypothesized that increased 5-HT2AR function in the OFC is a state phenomenon which promotes impulsive aggression. Methods 5-HT2AR availability was measured with positron emission tomography and the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist radioligand [11C]MDL100907 in two groups of impulsively aggressive personality disordered patients --14 with current physical aggression, and 15 without current physical aggression --and 25 healthy controls. Clinical ratings of various symptom dimensions were also obtained. Results Orbitofrontal 5-HT2AR availability was greater in patients with current physical aggression compared to patients without current physical aggression and healthy controls; no differences in OFC 5-HT2AR availability were observed between patients without current physical aggression and healthy controls. No significant differences in 5-HT2AR availability were observed in other brain regions examined. Among both groups of impulsively aggressive personality disordered patients combined, OFC 5-HT2AR availability was correlated, specifically, with a state measure of impulsive aggression. Conclusions These findings are consistent with our previously described model in which impulsive aggression is related to dynamic changes in 5-HT2AR function in the OFC. PMID:20434136

  20. 5-HT2A Gene Variants Moderate the Association between PTSD and Reduced Default Mode Network Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark W; Sperbeck, Emily; Robinson, Meghan E; Sadeh, Naomi; Wolf, Erika J; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark; Schichman, Steven A; Stone, Angie; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been used to study disruptions of functional connectivity in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies indicate that the serotonin system exerts a modulatory influence on DMN connectivity; however, no prior study has examined associations between serotonin receptor gene variants and DMN connectivity in either clinical or healthy samples. We examined serotonin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PTSD, and their interactions for association with DMN connectivity in 134 White non-Hispanic veterans. We began by analyzing candidate SNPs identified in prior meta-analyses of relevant psychiatric traits and found that rs7997012 (an HTR2A SNP), implicated previously in anti-depressant medication response in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives for Depression study (STAR(*)D; McMahon et al., 2006), interacted with PTSD to predict reduced connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the right medial prefrontal cortex and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). rs130058 (HTR1B) was associated with connectivity between the PCC and right angular gyrus. We then expanded our analysis to 99 HTR1B and HTR2A SNPs and found two HTR2A SNPs (rs977003 and rs7322347) that significantly moderated the association between PTSD severity and the PCC-right MTG component of the DMN after correcting for multiple testing. Finally, to obtain a more precise localization of the most significant SNP × PTSD interaction, we performed a whole cortex vertex-wise analysis of the rs977003 effect. This analysis revealed the locus of the pre-frontal effect to be in portions of the superior frontal gyrus, while the temporal lobe effect was centered in the middle and inferior temporal gyri. These findings point to the influence of HTR2A variants on DMN connectivity and advance knowledge of the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the neurobiology of PTSD.

  1. 5-HT2A Gene Variants Moderate the Association between PTSD and Reduced Default Mode Network Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Sperbeck, Emily; Robinson, Meghan E.; Sadeh, Naomi; Wolf, Erika J.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Logue, Mark; Schichman, Steven A.; Stone, Angie; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been used to study disruptions of functional connectivity in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies indicate that the serotonin system exerts a modulatory influence on DMN connectivity; however, no prior study has examined associations between serotonin receptor gene variants and DMN connectivity in either clinical or healthy samples. We examined serotonin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PTSD, and their interactions for association with DMN connectivity in 134 White non-Hispanic veterans. We began by analyzing candidate SNPs identified in prior meta-analyses of relevant psychiatric traits and found that rs7997012 (an HTR2A SNP), implicated previously in anti-depressant medication response in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives for Depression study (STAR*D; McMahon et al., 2006), interacted with PTSD to predict reduced connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the right medial prefrontal cortex and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). rs130058 (HTR1B) was associated with connectivity between the PCC and right angular gyrus. We then expanded our analysis to 99 HTR1B and HTR2A SNPs and found two HTR2A SNPs (rs977003 and rs7322347) that significantly moderated the association between PTSD severity and the PCC-right MTG component of the DMN after correcting for multiple testing. Finally, to obtain a more precise localization of the most significant SNP × PTSD interaction, we performed a whole cortex vertex-wise analysis of the rs977003 effect. This analysis revealed the locus of the pre-frontal effect to be in portions of the superior frontal gyrus, while the temporal lobe effect was centered in the middle and inferior temporal gyri. These findings point to the influence of HTR2A variants on DMN connectivity and advance knowledge of the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the neurobiology of PTSD. PMID:27445670

  2. The differential effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation on dopamine receptor-mediated abnormal involuntary movements and rotations in the primed hemiparkinsonian rat.

    PubMed

    Dupre, Kristin B; Eskow, Karen L; Negron, Giselle; Bishop, Christopher

    2007-07-16

    Serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)R) agonists have emerged as valuable supplements to l-DOPA therapy, demonstrating that they can decrease side effects and enhance motor function in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and human PD patients. The precise mechanism by which these receptors act remains unknown and there is limited information on how 5-HT(1A)R stimulation impacts striatal dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) and D2 receptor (D2R) function. The current study examined the effects of 5-HT(1A)R stimulation on DA receptor-mediated behaviors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered hemiparkinsonian by unilateral 6-OHDA lesions and primed with the D1R agonist SKF81297 (0.8 mg/kg, i.p.) in order to sensitize DA receptors. Using a randomized within subjects design, rats received a first injection of: Vehicle (dH(2)O) or the 5-HT(1A)R agonist +/-8-OH-DPAT (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by a second injection of: Vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide), the D1R agonist SKF81297 (0.8 mg/kg, i.p.), the D2R agonist quinpirole (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), or l-DOPA (12 mg/kg+benserazide, 15 mg/kg, i.p.). On test days, rats were monitored over a 2-h period immediately following the second injection for abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), analogous to dyskinesia observed in PD patients, and contralateral rotations. The present findings indicate that 5-HT(1A)R stimulation reduces AIMs induced by D1R, D2R and l-DOPA administration while its effects on DA agonist-induced rotations were receptor-dependent, suggesting that direct 5-HT(1A)R and DA receptor interactions may contribute to the unique profile of 5-HT(1A)R agonists for the improvement of PD treatment.

  3. Similar anxiolytic effects of agonists targeting serotonin 5-HT1A or cannabinoid CB receptors on zebrafish behavior in novel environments

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Kristin A.; Valenti, Theodore W.; Lawless, Kelly; Sackerman, James; Onaivi, Emmanuel S.; Brooks, Bryan W.; Gould, Georgianna G.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are present and bioaccumulate in aquatic ecosystems have spurred studies of fish serotonin transporters (SERTs) and changes in SSRI-sensitive behaviors as adverse outcomes relevant for risk assessment. Many SSRIs also act at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Since capitolizing on this action may improve treatments of clinical depression and other psychiatric disorders, novel multimodal drugs that agonize 5-HT1A and block SERT were introduced. In mammals both 5-HT1A and CB agonists, such as buspirone and WIN55,212-2, reduce anxious behaviors. Immunological and behavioral evidence suggests that 5-HT1A-like receptors may function similarly in zebrafish (Danio rerio), yet their pharmacological properties are not well characterized. Herein we compared the density of [3H] 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) binding to 5-HT1A-like sites in the zebrafish brain, to that of simalarly Gαi/o-coupled cannabinoid receptors. [3H] 8-OH-DPAT specific binding was 176 ± 8, 275 ± 32, and 230 ± 36 fmol/mg protein in the hypothalamus, optic tectum, and telencephalon. [3H] WIN55,212-2 binding density was higher in those same brain regions at 6 ± 0.3, 5.5 ± 0.4 and 7.3 ± 0.3 pm/mg protein. The aquatic light-dark plus maze was used to examine behavioral effects of 5-HT1A and CB receptor agonists on zebrafish novelty-based anxiety. With acute exposure to the 5-HT1A partial-agonist buspirone (50 mg/L), or dietary exposure to WIN55,212-2 (7 μg/week) zebrafish spent more time in and/or entered white arms more often than controls (p < 0.05). Acute exposure to WIN55,212-2 at 0.5-50 mg/L, reduced mobility. These behavioral findings suggest that azipirones, like cannabinoid agonists, have anxiolytic and/or sedative properties on fish in novel environments. These observations highlight the need to consider potential ecological risks of azapirones and multimodal antidepressants in the future. PMID

  4. 5-HT(1A)-receptor over-expressing mice: genotype and sex dependent responses to antidepressants in the forced swim-test.

    PubMed

    Günther, Lydia; Rothe, Julia; Rex, André; Voigt, Jörg-Peter; Millan, Mark J; Fink, Heidrun; Bert, Bettina

    2011-09-01

    Deficiencies in serotonergic neurotransmission are involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Due to its modulatory effect on serotonin (5-HT) release, the 5-HT(1A)-receptor is thought to play a decisive role in the therapy of this mood disorder. However, it is not fully understood how antidepressant effects are mediated by pre- and postsynaptic receptor sites. In this study we examined the impact of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A)-receptor over-expression in corticolimbic areas of male and female mice on the performance in the forced swim-test (FST). Furthermore, we investigated their response to the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram in comparison to the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, as well as the partial 5-HT(1A)-receptor agonists, buspirone and S 15535. Additionally, these drugs were evaluated in the open field-test in order to observe effects on motor activity. The density of 5-HT(1A)-receptors in discrete corticolimbic regions was determined in detail by quantitative autoradiography with [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT to investigate genotype as well as sex dependent differences in the expression pattern. [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding differed depending on sex with female mice of both genotypes displaying higher receptor binding in distinct brain areas. In the FST untreated male but not female over-expressing (OE) mice showed an antidepressant-like behaviour compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Citalopram yielded an antidepressant effect without influencing locomotor activity in OE mice but not in WT mice. Reboxetine had no antidepressant-like effect in OE mice, but sex-dependently in WT mice. The two partial agonists, buspirone and S 15535 produced no antidepressant-like activity in both genotypes and sexes, but aberrant motor effects. The antidepressant-like phenotype of male transgenic mice accounts for an involvement of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A)-receptors in the FST behaviour. In addition, the selective over-expression of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A

  5. Antidepressant-Like Activity of YL-0919: A Novel Combined Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor and 5-HT1A Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-ming; Xue, Rui; Xu, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Zhi-kun; Wang, Xian-wang; Zhang, You-zhi; Yang, Ri-fang; Li, Yun-feng

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that drugs combining activities of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor agonist may form a novel strategy for higher therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant. The present study aimed to examine the pharmacology of YL-0919, a novel synthetic compound with combined high affinity and selectivity for serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptors. We performed in vitro binding and function assays and in vivo behavioral tests to assess the pharmacological properties and antidepressant-like efficacy of YL-0919. YL-0919 displayed high affinity in vitro to both 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT transporter prepared from rat cortical tissue. It exerted an inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation and potently inhibited 5-HT uptake in both rat cortical synaptosomes and recombinant cells. After acute p.o. administration, very low doses of YL-0919 reduced the immobility time in tail suspension test and forced swimming test in mice and rats, with no significant effect on locomotor activity in open field test. Furthermore, WAY-100635 (a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg) significantly blocked the effect of YL-0919 in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. In addition, chronic YL-0919 treatment significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors in chronically stressed rats. These findings suggest that YL-0919, a novel structure compound, exerts dual effect on the serotonergic system, as both 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT uptake blocker, showing remarkable antidepressant effects in animal models. Therefore, YL-0919 may be used as a new option for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:24367588

  6. 5-HT1A receptor activation counteracts c-Fos immunoreactivity induced in serotonin neurons of the raphe nuclei after immobilization stress in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Rioja, José; Santín, Luis J; Doña, Alicia; de Pablos, Laura; Minano, Francisco J; Gonzalez-Baron, Salvador; Aguirre, Jose A

    2006-04-24

    The serotoninergic system and the 5-HT1A receptors have been involved in the brain response to acute stress. The aim of our study was evaluate the role of the 5-HT1A receptors in serotoninergic cells of rostral and caudal raphe nuclei under acute immobilization in rats. Double immunocytochemical staining of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine and c-Fos protein and stereology techniques were used to study the specific cell activation in the raphe nuclei neurons in five groups (control group, immobilization group (immobilization lasting 1 h), DPAT group (8-OH-DPAT 0.3 mg/kg, s.c.), DPAT+IMMO group (8-OH-DPAT 0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 30' prior acute immobilization) and WAY+DPAT+IMMO group (WAY-100635 0.3 mg/kg, s.c. and 8-OH-DPAT 0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 45' and 30', respectively, before immobilization). Our results showed an increase in the number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei in serotoninergic cells in both dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the immobilized group. The 8-OH-DPAT pretreatment counteracted the excitatory effects of the acute immobilization in these brain regions. In addition, WAY-100635 administration reduced the effect of 8-OH-DPAT injection, suggesting a selective 5-HT1A receptor role. Raphe pallidus and raphe obscurus did not show any differences among experimental groups. We suggest that somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors in rostral raphe nuclei may play a crucial role in both mediating the consequences of uncontrollable stress and the possible beneficial effects of treatment with 5-HT1A receptor agonists.

  7. Serotonin transporter, 5-HT1A receptor, and behavior in DBA/2J mice in comparison with four inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Tibeikina, Marina A; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2009-12-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI), the reduction in acoustic startle produced when it is preceded by a weak prepulse stimulus, is impaired in schizophrenic patients. The DBA/2J mouse strain displayed deficient PPI and is therefore suggested as an experimental animal model for the loss of sensorimotor gating in schizophrenia. Brain serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. In the present study, behavior, 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) mRNA level, 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA level, and 5-HT(1A) receptor density in the brain regions were studied in DBA/2J mice in comparison with four inbred mouse strains (CBA/Lac, C57BL/6, BALB/c, and ICR). A decrease in 5-HTT mRNA level in the midbrain and a reduced density of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the frontal cortex without significant changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA level in DBA/2J mice were found. It was shown that, along with decreased PPI, DBA/2J mice demonstrated considerably reduced immobility in the tail suspension test and in the forced swim test. No significant interstrain differences in intermale aggression, or in light-dark box and elevated plus-maze tests, were found. The results suggested the involvement of decreased 5-HTT gene expression and 5-HT(1A) receptor density in genetically defined PPI deficiency and showed a lack of any association between PPI deficiency and predisposition to aggressive, anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors.

  8. Antidepressant-like activity of YL-0919: a novel combined selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-xia; Jin, Zeng-liang; Zhang, Li-ming; Xue, Rui; Xu, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Zhi-kun; Wang, Xian-wang; Zhang, You-zhi; Yang, Ri-fang; Li, Yun-feng

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that drugs combining activities of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor agonist may form a novel strategy for higher therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant. The present study aimed to examine the pharmacology of YL-0919, a novel synthetic compound with combined high affinity and selectivity for serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptors. We performed in vitro binding and function assays and in vivo behavioral tests to assess the pharmacological properties and antidepressant-like efficacy of YL-0919. YL-0919 displayed high affinity in vitro to both 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT transporter prepared from rat cortical tissue. It exerted an inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation and potently inhibited 5-HT uptake in both rat cortical synaptosomes and recombinant cells. After acute p.o. administration, very low doses of YL-0919 reduced the immobility time in tail suspension test and forced swimming test in mice and rats, with no significant effect on locomotor activity in open field test. Furthermore, WAY-100635 (a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg) significantly blocked the effect of YL-0919 in tail suspension test and forced swimming test. In addition, chronic YL-0919 treatment significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors in chronically stressed rats. These findings suggest that YL-0919, a novel structure compound, exerts dual effect on the serotonergic system, as both 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT uptake blocker, showing remarkable antidepressant effects in animal models. Therefore, YL-0919 may be used as a new option for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  9. Repeated adolescent MDMA ("Ecstasy") exposure in rats increases behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to a 5-HT2A/2C agonist.

    PubMed

    Biezonski, Dominik K; Courtemanche, Andrea B; Hong, Sang B; Piper, Brian J; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-02-03

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a popular recreational drug among adolescents. The present study aimed to determine the effects of repeated intermittent administration of 10 mg/kg MDMA during adolescence on behavioral (Experiment 1) and neuroendocrine (Experiment 2) responses of rats to the 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and on [(3)H]ketanserin binding to 5-HT(2A) receptors. In the first experiment, MDMA pretreatment increased the frequency of head twitches and back muscle contractions, but not wet-dog shakes, to a high-dose DOI challenge. In the second experiment, both the prolactin and corticosterone responses to DOI were potentiated in MDMA-pretreated animals. No changes were found in 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in the hypothalamus or other forebrain areas that were examined. These results indicate that intermittent adolescent MDMA exposure enhances sensitivity of 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors in the CNS, possibly through changes in downstream signaling mechanisms.

  10. Cerebral metabolic responses to 5-HT2A/C receptor activation in mice with genetically modified serotonin transporter (SERT) expression.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Neil; Ferrington, Linda; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Kelly, Paul A T

    2011-01-01

    Variation in the human serotonin transporter gene (hSERT; 5-HTT) resulting in a life-long alteration in SERT function influences anxiety and the risk of developing affective disorders. The mechanisms underlying the influence of the hSERT gene on these phenotypes remain unclear but may involve altered 5-HT receptor function. Here we characterise the cerebral metabolic response to 5-HT(2A/C) receptor activation in two transgenic mouse models of altered SERT function, SERT knock-out (SERT KO) and hSERT over-expressing (hSERT OE) mice, to test the hypothesis that genetically mediated variability in SERT expression alters 5-HT(2A/C) function. We found that a constitutive increase in SERT expression (hSERT OE) enhanced, whereas a constitutive decrease in SERT expression (SERT KO) attenuated, 5-HT(2A/C) function. Therefore, altered 5-HT(2A/C) receptor functioning in response to hSERT gene variation may contribute to its influence on affective phenotypes.

  11. Allosteric signaling through an mGlu2 and 5-HT2A heteromeric receptor complex and its potential contribution to schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, José L.; Miranda-Azpiazu, Patricia; García-Bea, Aintzane; Younkin, Jason; Cui, Meng; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Ben-Ezra, Ariel; Voloudakis, Georgios; Fakira, Amanda K.; Baki, Lia; Ge, Yongchao; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Morón, José A.; Milligan, Graeme; López-Giménez, Juan F.; Robakis, Nikolaos K.; Logothetis, Diomedes E.; Meana, J. Javier; González-Maeso, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) can form multiprotein complexes (heteromers), which can alter the pharmacology and functions of the constituent receptors. Previous findings demonstrated that the Gq/11-coupled serotonin 5-HT2A receptor and the Gi/o-coupled metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptor—GPCRs that are involved in signaling alterations associated with psychosis—assemble into a heteromeric complex in the mammalian brain. In single-cell experiments with various mutant versions of the mGlu2 receptor, we showed that stimulation of cells expressing mGlu2–5-HT2A heteromers with an mGlu2 agonist led to activation of Gq/11 proteins by the 5-HT2A receptors. For this crosstalk to occur, one of the mGlu2 subunits had to couple to Gi/o proteins, and we determined the relative location of the Gi/o-contacting subunit within the mGlu2 homodimer of the heteromeric complex. Additionally, mGlu2-dependent activation of Gq/11, but not Gi/o, was reduced in the frontal cortex of 5-HT2A knockout mice and was reduced in the frontal cortex of postmortem brains from schizophrenic patients. These findings offer structural insights into this important target in molecular psychiatry. PMID:26758213

  12. A homology-based model of the human 5-HT2A receptor derived from an in silico activated G-protein coupled receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, James J.; Nichols, David E.

    2002-07-01

    A homology-based model of the 5-HT2A receptor was produced utilizing an activated form of the bovine rhodopsin (Rh) crystal structure [1,2]. In silico activation of the Rh structure was accomplished by isomerization of the 11- cis-retinal (1) chromophore, followed by constrained molecular dynamics to relax the resultant high energy structure. The activated form of Rh was then used as a structural template for development of a human 5-HT2A receptor model. Both the 5-HT2A receptor and Rh are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family. The resulting homology model of the receptor was then used for docking studies of compounds representing a cross-section of structural classes that activate the 5-HT2A receptor, including ergolines, tryptamines, and amphetamines. The ligand/receptor complexes that ensued were refined and the final binding orientations were observed to be compatible with much of the data acquired through both diversified ligand design and site directed mutagenesis.

  13. Amelioration of hypoxia-induced striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor, 5-HT transporter and HIF1 alterations by glucose, oxygen and epinephrine in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Anju, T R; Paulose, C S

    2011-09-20

    Alterations in neurotransmitters and its receptors expression induce brain injury during neonatal hypoxic insult. Molecular processes regulating the serotonergic receptors play an important role in the control of respiration under hypoxic insult. The present study focused on the serotonergic regulation of neonatal hypoxia and its resuscitation methods. Receptor binding assays and gene expression studies were done to evaluate the changes in 5HT(2A) receptors and its transporter in the corpus striatum of hypoxic neonatal rats and hypoxic rats resuscitated with glucose, oxygen and epinephrine. Total 5HT and 5HT(2A) receptor number was increased in hypoxic neonates along with an up regulation of 5HT(2A) receptor and 5HT transporter gene. The enhanced striatal 5HT(2A) receptors modulate the ventilatory response to hypoxia. Immediate glucose resuscitation was found to ameliorate the receptor and transporter alterations. Hypoxia induced ATP depletion mediated reduction in blood glucose levels can be encountered by glucose administration and oxygenation helps in overcoming the anaerobic condition. The adverse effect of immediate oxygenation and epinephrine supplementation was also reported. This has immense clinical significance in establishing a proper resuscitation for the management of neonatal hypoxia.

  14. Effect of fluvoxamine on platelet 5-HT2A receptors as studied by [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Spigset, O; Mjörndal, T

    1997-09-01

    Alterations in platelet 5-HT2A receptor characteristics have been reported in major depression as well as in other psychiatric diseases, and some effort has been made to utilize platelet 5-HT2A receptor status as a biological correlate to antidepressant drug response. In order to investigate whether treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor affects platelet 5-HT2A receptors, we have studied platelet [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding in healthy subjects treated with fluvoxamine in increasing dosage once weekly for 4 weeks. After 1 week of fluvoxamine treatment (25 mg/day), both Bmax and Kd were significantly lower than before the start of the treatment (19.9 versus 25.5 fmol/mg protein, P = 0.005 for Bmax; 0.45 versus 0.93 nM, P = 0.006 for Kd). Bmax returned to baseline during week 2, whereas Kd was lower than the baseline value throughout the treatment period. After discontinuation of fluvoxamine treatment, there was a significant increase in Kd (0.50 nM before discontinuation vs. 1.14 nM after discontinuation; P = 0.001), but not in Bmax. The study demonstrates that fluvoxamine affects platelet 5-HT2A receptor status irrespective of underlying psychiatric disease, and that this effect is evident already after 1 week at a subtherapeutic fluvoxamine dose.

  15. Potentiating action of MKC-242, a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, on the photic entrainment of the circadian activity rhythm in hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Moriya, T; Yoshinobu, Y; Ikeda, M; Yokota, S; Akiyama, M; Shibata, S

    1998-01-01

    Serotonergic projections from the midbrain raphe nuclei to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) are known to regulate the photic entrainment of circadian clocks. However, it is not known which 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the circadian regulation. In order to verify the role of 5-HT1A receptors, we examined the effects of 5-{3-[((2S)-1,4-benzodioxan-2-ylmethyl)amino]propoxy}-1,3-benzodioxole HCl (MKC-242), a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, on photic entrainment of wheel-running circadian rhythms of hamsters.MKC-242 (3 mg kg−1, i.p.) significantly accelerated the re-entrainment of wheel-running rhythms to a new 8 h delayed or advanced light-dark cycle.MKC-242 (3 mg kg−1, i.p.) also potentiated the phase advance of the wheel-running rhythm produced by low (5 lux) or high (60 lux) intensity light pulses. In contrast, 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT)(5 mg kg−1, i.p.), a well known 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor agonist, only suppressed low intensity (5 lux) light-induced phase advances.The potentiating actions of MKC-242 on light pulse-induced phase advances were observed even when injected 20 or 60 min after the light exposure.The potentiating action of MKC-242 was antagonized by WAY100635, a selective 5-HT1A receptor blocker, but not by ritanserin, a 5-HT2/5-HT7 receptor blocker, indicating that MKC-242 is activating 5-HT1A receptors.Light pulse-induced c-fos expression in the SCN and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) were unaffected by MKC-242 (3 mg kg−1, i.p.).HPLC analysis demonstrated that MKC-242 (3 mg kg−1, i.p.) decreased the 5-HIAA content in the SCN.The present results suggest that presynaptic 5-HT1A receptor activation may be involved in the potentiation of photic entrainment by MKC-242 in hamsters. PMID:9863658

  16. Synthesis and Docking of Novel 3-Indolylpropyl Derivatives as New Polypharmacological Agents Displaying Affinity for 5-HT1A R/SERT.

    PubMed

    Pessoa-Mahana, Hernán; Silva-Matus, Paul; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Chung, Hery; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Quiroz, Gabriel; Möller-Acuña, Patricia; Zapata-Torres, Gerald; Saitz-Barría, Claudio; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel 3-indolylpropyl derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for their binding affinities at the serotonin-1A receptor subtype (5-HT1A R) and the 5-HT transporter (SERT). Compounds 11b and 14b exhibited the highest affinities at the 5-HT1A R (Ki  = 43 and 56 nM), whereas compounds 11c and 14a were the most potent analogs at the SERT (Ki  = 34 and 17 nM). On the other hand, compounds 14b and 11d showed potent activity at both targets, displaying a profile that makes them promising leads for the search for novel potent ligands with a dual mechanism of action. Molecular docking studies in all the compounds unveiled relevant drug-target interactions, which allowed rationalizing the observed affinities.

  17. Deletion of GIRK2 Subunit of GIRK Channels Alters the 5-HT1A Receptor-Mediated Signaling and Results in a Depression-Resistant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Llamosas, Nerea; Bruzos-Cidón, Cristina; Rodríguez, José Julio; Ugedo, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Targeting dorsal raphe 5-HT1A receptors, which are coupled to G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, has revealed their contribution not only to behavioral and functional aspects of depression but also to the clinical response to its treatment. Although GIRK channels containing GIRK2 subunits play an important role controlling excitability of several brain areas, their impact on the dorsal raphe activity is still unknown. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate the involvement of GIRK2 subunit-containing GIRK channels in depression-related behaviors and physiology of serotonergic neurotransmission. Methods: Behavioral, functional, including in vivo extracellular recordings of dorsal raphe neurons, and neurogenesis studies were carried out in wild-type and GIRK2 mutant mice. Results: Deletion of the GIRK2 subunit promoted a depression-resistant phenotype and determined the behavioral response to the antidepressant citalopram without altering hippocampal neurogenesis. In dorsal raphe neurons of GIRK2 knockout mice, and also using GIRK channel blocker tertiapin-Q, the basal firing rate was higher than that obtained in wild-type animals, although no differences were observed in other firing parameters. 5-HT1A receptors were desensitized in GIRK2 knockout mice, as demonstrated by a lower sensitivity of dorsal raphe neurons to the inhibitory effect of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, and the antidepressant citalopram. Conclusions: Our results indicate that GIRK channels formed by GIRK2 subunits determine depression-related behaviors as well as basal and 5-HT1A receptor-mediated dorsal raphe neuronal activity, becoming alternative therapeutic targets for psychiatric diseases underlying dysfunctional serotonin transmission. PMID:25956878

  18. Long-Term Citalopram Treatment Alters the Stress Responses of the Cortical Dopamine and Noradrenaline Systems: the Role of Cortical 5-HT1A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Fumi; Kishikawa, Yuki; Hanada, Yuuki; Yamada, Makiko; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Nishi, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cortical dopamine and noradrenaline are involved in the stress response. Citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has direct and indirect effects on the serotonergic system. Furthermore, long-term treatment with citalopram affects the dopamine and noradrenaline systems, which could contribute to the therapeutic action of antidepressants. Methods: The effects of long-term treatment with citalopram on the responses of the dopamine and noradrenaline systems in the rat prefrontal cortex to acute handling stress were evaluated using in vivo microdialysis. Results: Acute handling stress increased dopamine and noradrenaline levels in the prefrontal cortex. The dopamine and noradrenaline responses were suppressed by local infusion of a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 7-(Dipropylamino)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ol;hydrobromide, into the prefrontal cortex. The dopamine response was abolished by long-term treatment with citalopram, and the abolished dopamine response was reversed by local infusion of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (Z)-but-2-enedioic acid;N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-N-pyridin-2-ylcyclohexanecarboxamide into the prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, long-term treatment with citalopram reduced the basal noradrenaline levels (approximately 40% of the controls), but not the basal dopamine levels. The noradrenaline response was maintained despite the low basal noradrenaline levels. Signaling from the 5-HT1A receptors and α2-adrenoceptors was not involved in the decrease in the basal noradrenaline levels but partially affected the noradrenaline response. Conclusions: Chronic citalopram treatment differentially suppresses the dopamine and noradrenaline systems in the prefrontal cortex, and the dopamine stress response was preferentially controlled by upregulating 5-HT1A receptor signaling. Our findings provide insight into how antidepressants modulate the dopamine and noradrenaline systems to overcome acute stress. PMID

  19. A comparative study of the effects of some 5-HT1A receptor agonists on the blood pressure of pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Bobadilla, R A; Ibarra, M; Castillo, E F; Hong, E

    1995-01-01

    The intention of this study was to supply additional information about direct effects of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist indorenate on the arterial blood pressure. The effects of indorenate were compared with those of buspirone and ipsapirone (all selective 5-HT1A agonists) on the blood pressure of pithed rats. These compounds increased the blood pressure in a dose-dependent fashion. The effects of either ipsapirone or buspirone were clearly inhibited with 100 micrograms/kg of prazosin (selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist), whereas 1 mg/kg of this blocker elicited only a mild inhibition of the pressor effect of indorenate. Pindolol (100 micrograms/kg; a beta-adrenoceptor and 5-HT1 receptor blocker) was unable to modify the effects of all the 5-HT1A agonists tested. In addition, the 5-HT2 receptor and weak alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker ketanserin (10-100 micrograms/kg) antagonized the pressor effect of indorenate. Nevertheless, only a mild inhibition was observed in the case of both ipsapirone and buspirone. On the other hand, the latter drugs diminished the blood pressure of pithed rats intravenously infused with norepinephrine, but indorenate was inactive. However, in rats infused with quipazine, all the 5-HT1A agonists failed to reduce blood pressure. These results indicate that buspirone and ipsapirone behaved as partial alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists. Furthermore, the results show that indorenate-elicited pressor effects are probably due to stimulation of 5-HT2 receptors. Thus, unlike ipsapirone and buspirone, indorenate did not show conclusively activity related with alpha 1-adrenoceptors.

  20. The guinea-pig ileum preparation as a model for 5-HT1A receptors: anomalous effects with RS-30199-193.

    PubMed Central

    Small, C.; Brown, C. M.; Redfern, W. S.; Spedding, M.

    1991-01-01

    1. Agents that have high and selective affinity for the 5-HT1A site such as 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and N,N-dipropyl-5-carboxamidotryptamine (DP5CT) inhibited the responses to field stimulation in guinea-pig ileum preparations; the inhibitory effects were antagonized by methiothepin and spiperone, consistent with effects at the 5-HT1A site. 2. The inhibitory effects of DP5CT were pronounced in Tyrode solution containing low Ca2+ (0.9 mM), but were much less apparent in Tyrode solution containing 1.8 or 5.4 mM Ca2+. 3. Responses to DP5CT were abolished by pretreatment with phorbol dibutyrate (3 microM), whereas the responses to UK14304 were only slightly inhibited. 4. Buspirone and ipsapirone (1 microM) inhibited the responses to field stimulation, and the effects were resistant to idazoxan, but inhibited by 8-OH-DPAT or spiperone. 5. RS-30199-193 (5-chloro-2-methyl-1,2,3,4,8,9,10,10a-octahydronaphth-[1,8-cd]- aze pine hydrochloride) an azepine with high affinity for the 5-HT1A site in rat cerebral cortex in binding experiments, augmented contractions, but did not antagonize the responses to DP5CT or to 8-OH-DPAT. 6. The hybrid compound of RS-30199-193 with buspirone, RS-64459-193 (5-chloro-2-[4-(8-azaspiro[4,5]decane-7,9-dione)-but-1-yl]- 1,2,3,4,8,9,10,10a-octahydronaphth[1,8-cd]-3-azepine hydrochloride) maintained high affinity for the 5-HT1A binding site in rat brain and both inhibited the response to field stimulation and antagonized the responses to 8-OH-DPAT and DP5CT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1839137

  1. DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant effect with minimal undesirable effects in juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Taro; Matsumoto, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masanori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Baba, Satoko; Nakamichi, Keiko; Matsuda, Harumi; Nishimuta, Haruka; Yabuuchi, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission has been the main stream of treatment for patients with depression. However, delayed therapeutic onset and undesirable side effects are major drawbacks for conventional serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Here, we show that DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant efficacy with minimal undesirable effects, especially nausea and emesis in animal models. DSP-1053 bound human serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor with the Ki values of 1.02 ± 0.06 and 5.05 ± 1.07 nmol/L, respectively. This compound inhibited the serotonin transporter with an IC50 value of 2.74 ± 0.41 nmol/L and had an intrinsic activity for 5-HT1A receptors of 70.0 ± 6.3%. In rat microdialysis, DSP-1053, given once at 3 and 10 mg kg−1, dose-dependently increased extracellular 5-HT levels. In the rat forced swimming test, 2-week administration of DSR-1053 (1 mg kg−1) significantly reduced rats immobility time after treatment, whereas paroxetine (3 and 10 mg kg−1) required 3-week administration to reduce rats immobility time. In olfactory bulbectomy model, 1- and 2-week administration of DSP-1053 reduced both of emotional scores and activity in the open field, whereas paroxetine required 2 weeks to show similar beneficial effects. Although single administration of DSP-1053-induced emesis and vomiting in the rat and Suncus murinus, multiple treatment with this compound, but not with paroxetine, decreased the number of vomiting episodes. These results highlight the important role of 5-HT1A receptors in both the efficacy and tolerability of DSP-1053 as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of depression. PMID:26171224

  2. Aggressive Encounters Alter the Activation of Serotonergic Neurons and the Expression of 5-HT1A mRNA in the Hamster Dorsal Raphe Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Matthew A.; Grober, Matthew S.; Nicholas, Christopher; Huhman, Kim L.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) have been implicated in stress-induced changes in behavior. Previous research indicates that stressful stimuli activate 5-HT neurons in select subregions of the DRN. Uncontrollable stress is thought to sensitize 5-HT neurons in the DRN and allow for an exaggerated 5-HT response to future stimuli. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that following aggressive encounters, losing male Syrian hamsters would exhibit increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in 5-HT DRN neurons compared to winners or controls. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that losers would have decreased 5-HT1A mRNA levels in the DRN compared to winners or controls. We found that a single 15-min aggressive encounter increased c-Fos expression in 5-HT and non-5-HT neurons in losers compared to winners and controls. The increased c-Fos expression in losers was restricted to ventral regions of the rostral DRN. We also found that four 5-min aggressive encounters reduced total 5-HT1A mRNA levels in the DRN in losers compared to winners and controls, and that differences in mRNA levels were not restricted to specific DRN subregions. These results suggest that social defeat activates neurons in select subregions of the DRN and reduces message for DRN 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Our results support the hypothesis that social stress can activate 5-HT neurons in the DRN, reduce 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibition, and lead to hyperactivity of 5-HT neurons. PMID:19362123

  3. Prolonged reversal of the phencyclidine-induced impairment in novel object recognition by a serotonin (5-HT)1A-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Masakuni; Miyauchi, Masanori; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2016-03-15

    Many acute treatments transiently reverse the deficit in novel object recognition (NOR) produced by subchronic treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor non-competitive antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), in rodents. Treatments which restore NOR for prolonged periods after subchronic PCP treatment may have greater relevance for treating the cognitive impairment in schizophrenia than those which restore NOR transiently. We examined the ability of post-PCP subchronic lurasidone, an atypical APD with potent serotonin (5-HT)1A partial agonism and subchronic tandospirone, a selective 5-HT1A partial agonist, to enable prolonged reversal of the subchronic PCP-induced NOR deficit. Rats treated with subchronic PCP (2mg/kg, twice daily for 7 days) or vehicle, followed by a 7day washout period were subsequently administered lurasidone or tandospirone twice daily for 7 days (day 15-21), and tested for NOR weekly for up to two additional weeks. Subchronic lurasidone (1, but not 0.1mg/kg) or tandospirone (5, but not 0.6mg/kg) significantly reversed the PCP-induced NOR deficit at 24h and 7days after the last injection, respectively. The effect of lurasidone persisted for one more week (day 36, 14 days after the last lurasidone dose), while tandospirone-treated rats were able to perform NOR at 7, but not 14, days after the last tandospirone dose. Co-administration of WAY100635 (0.6mg/kg), a 5-HT1A antagonist, with lurasidone, blocked the ability of lurasidone to restore NOR, suggesting that 5-HT1A receptor stimulation is necessary for lurasidone to reverse the effects of PCP. The role of dopamine, GABA and the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway in the persistent, but not indefinite, restoration of NOR is discussed.

  4. 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor crosstalk in the regulation of emotional memory: implications for effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Therese M; Holst, Sarah; Stan, Tiberiu L; Hager, Torben; Sjögren, Benita; Ogren, Sven Öve; Svenningsson, Per; Stiedl, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    This study utilized pharmacological manipulations to analyze the role of direct and indirect activation of 5-HT(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) in passive avoidance learning by assessing emotional memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Additionally, 5-HT(7)R binding affinity and 5-HT(7)R-mediated protein phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets were determined. Elevation of 5-HT by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine had no effect by itself, but facilitated emotional memory performance when combined with the 5-HT(1A)R antagonist NAD-299. This facilitation was blocked by the selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist SB269970, revealing excitatory effects of the SSRI via 5-HT(7)Rs. The enhanced memory retention by NAD-299 was blocked by SB269970, indicating that reduced activation of 5-HT(1A)Rs results in enhanced 5-HT stimulation of 5-HT(7)Rs. The putative 5-HT(7)R agonists LP-44 when administered systemically and AS19 when administered both systemically and into the dorsal hippocampus failed to facilitate memory. This finding is consistent with the low efficacy of LP-44 and AS19 to stimulate protein phosphorylation of 5-HT(7)R-activated signaling cascades. In contrast, increasing doses of the dual 5-HT(1A)R/5-HT(7)R agonist 8-OH-DPAT impaired memory, while co-administration with NAD-299 facilitated of emotional memory in a dose-dependent manner. This facilitation was blocked by SB269970 indicating 5-HT(7)R activation by 8-OH-DPAT. Dorsohippocampal infusion of 8-OH-DPAT impaired passive avoidance retention through hippocampal 5-HT(1A)R activation, while 5-HT(7)Rs appear to facilitate memory processes in a broader cortico-limbic network and not the hippocampus alone.

  5. DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant effect with minimal undesirable effects in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, Taro; Matsumoto, Yuji; Yamamoto, Masanori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Baba, Satoko; Nakamichi, Keiko; Matsuda, Harumi; Nishimuta, Haruka; Yabuuchi, Kazuki

    2015-06-01

    Enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission has been the main stream of treatment for patients with depression. However, delayed therapeutic onset and undesirable side effects are major drawbacks for conventional serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Here, we show that DSP-1053, a novel serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT1A partial agonistic activity, displays fast antidepressant efficacy with minimal undesirable effects, especially nausea and emesis in animal models. DSP-1053 bound human serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor with the K i values of 1.02 ± 0.06 and 5.05 ± 1.07 nmol/L, respectively. This compound inhibited the serotonin transporter with an IC50 value of 2.74 ± 0.41 nmol/L and had an intrinsic activity for 5-HT1A receptors of 70.0 ± 6.3%. In rat microdialysis, DSP-1053, given once at 3 and 10 mg kg(-1), dose-dependently increased extracellular 5-HT levels. In the rat forced swimming test, 2-week administration of DSR-1053 (1 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced rats immobility time after treatment, whereas paroxetine (3 and 10 mg kg(-1)) required 3-week administration to reduce rats immobility time. In olfactory bulbectomy model, 1- and 2-week administration of DSP-1053 reduced both of emotional scores and activity in the open field, whereas paroxetine required 2 weeks to show similar beneficial effects. Although single administration of DSP-1053-induced emesis and vomiting in the rat and Suncus murinus, multiple treatment with this compound, but not with paroxetine, decreased the number of vomiting episodes. These results highlight the important role of 5-HT1A receptors in both the efficacy and tolerability of DSP-1053 as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of depression.

  6. Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: role of 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Linge, Raquel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Campa, Leticia; Pilar-Cuéllar, Fuencisla; Vidal, Rebeca; Pazos, Angel; Adell, Albert; Díaz, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotomimetic component of marihuana, exhibits anxiolytic-like properties in many behavioural tests, although its potential for treating major depression has been poorly explored. Moreover, the mechanism of action of CBD remains unclear. Herein, we have evaluated the effects of CBD following acute and chronic administration in the olfactory bulbectomy mouse model of depression (OBX), and investigated the underlying mechanism. For this purpose, we conducted behavioural (open field and sucrose preference tests) and neurochemical (microdialysis and autoradiography of 5-HT1A receptor functionality) studies following treatment with CBD. We also assayed the pharmacological antagonism of the effects of CBD to dissect out the mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that CBD exerts fast and maintained antidepressant-like effects as evidenced by the reversal of the OBX-induced hyperactivity and anhedonia. In vivo microdialysis revealed that the administration of CBD significantly enhanced serotonin and glutamate levels in vmPFCx in a different manner depending on the emotional state and the duration of the treatment. The potentiating effect upon neurotransmitters levels occurring immediately after the first injection of CBD might underlie the fast antidepressant-like actions in OBX mice. Both antidepressant-like effect and enhanced cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission induced by CBD were prevented by 5-HT1A receptor blockade. Moreover, adaptive changes in pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor functionality were also found after chronic CBD. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CBD could represent a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signalling through a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent mechanism.

  7. Serotonin modifies the spontaneous spiking activity of gracile nucleus neurons in rats: role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Grasso, C; Li Volsi, G; Barresi, M

    2016-06-01

    We tested the effects of microiontophoretic application of serotonin (5-HT) on the firing rate of neurons located in the gracile nucleus (GN) of rats. Application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 agonists and antagonists respectively mimicked/ modulated and blocked the effects produced by the amine, respectively. Among the tested neurons, 88.2% modified their background firing activity in the presence of 5-HT. Responsive neurons decreased their mean firing activity (MFA) in 56.7% of cases and increased it in the remaining 43.3%. To ascertain the specificity of the effects induced by 5-HT, we utilized 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (α-MET-5-HT), agonists for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors, respectively. The microiontophoresis of 8-OH-DPAT modified the background firing rate of all GN neurons (100% of tested neurons) mimicking the decrease of MFA evoked by 5-HT. The application of a-MET-5-HT modified the MFA in 76.9% of tested neurons, decreasing it in 61.5% of cases and increasing in the remaining 23.1%. The decrease of MFA induced by 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by application of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-[2-[-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide maleate salt (WAY100635), while application of 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserine tartrate (KET) antagonized only the increase of MFA induced by a-MET-5-HT. These results indicate that 5-HT is able to modulate the background firing activity of GN neurons by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.

  8. Effect of selective agonist of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors on defensive behavior in mice with different predisposition to catalepsy.

    PubMed

    Bazovkina, D V; Terenina, E E; Kulikov, A V

    2010-12-01

    We studied the effect of activation of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors with selective agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) on intraspecies aggression and freezing reaction (catalepsy) in male mice of catalepsy-resistant AKR/J and two catalepsy-prone strains CBA/Lac and congenic AKR.CBA-D13Mit76. The latter strain differs from AKR strain only by terminal chromosome 13 fragment transferred from CBA strain and containing a locus determining predisposition to catalepsy and a gene encoding 5-HT1A receptor. 8-OH-DPAT in a low dose (0.1 mg/kg) affecting primarily presynaptic receptors suppressed aggressive behavior in CBA mice, but had no effect on the time of cataleptic freezing. At the same time, this dose of the drug produced no significant effect on aggression in AKR and AKR.CBA-D13Mit76 mice, but significantly attenuated freezing in AKR.CBA-D13Mit76 mice. High doses of 8-OH-DPAT (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) which affected mainly postsynaptic receptors inhibited catalepsy in CBA and AKR.CBA-D13Mit76 mice and in a dose of 1 mg/kg it suppressed aggression in all tested mouse strains. We concluded that the genome of the recipient strain (AKR) modulated the involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors into the regulation of aggression and catalepsy in mice.

  9. Treadmill exercise improves depression-like symptoms by enhancing serotonergic function through upregulation of 5-HT1A expression in the olfactory bulbectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Park, Sang-Seo; Lee, Jae-Min; Kim, Tae-Woon; Kim, Young-Pyo

    2017-01-01

    The olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) is a well-known method inducing animal model of depression. Depression is associated with dysfunction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. In the present study, antidepressive effect of treadmill exercise was investigated using olfactory bulbectomized rats. After bilateral bulbectomy, the rats in the treadmill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day during 28 days. Increased immobility time and decreased fast time in the forced swim test were observed in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Sucrose preference in the sucrose preference test was decreased and activity in the open field test was also increased in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Treadmill exercise decreased immobility time and activity and increased fast time and sucrose preference in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Expressions of 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe of rats were suppressed by OBX and treadmill exercise increased the expressions of 5-HT and TPH in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. Serotonin receptor type 1A (5-HT1A) expression in the dorsal raphe was reduced by OBX and treadmill exercise increased 5-HT1A expression in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise ameliorated OBX-induced depressive symptoms. The antidepressive effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the enhancement of serotonergic function through upregulation of 5-HT1A expression in the dorsal raphe. PMID:28349031

  10. [CROSS-TALK BETWEEN 5-HT1A AND 5-HT7 RECEPTORS: ROLE IN THE AUTOREGULATION OF THE BRAIN SEROTONIN SYSTEM AND IN MECHANISM OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS ACTION].

    PubMed

    Popova, N K; Ponimaskin, E G; Naumenko, V S

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies considerably extended our knowledge of the mechanisms and physiological role of the interaction between different receptors in the brain. Current review summarizes data on the formation of receptor complexes and the role of such complexes in the autoregulation of the brain serotonin system, behavioral abnormalities and mechanism of antidepressants action. Particular attention is paid to 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor heterodimers. The results described in the present review indicate that: i) dimerization and formation of mobile receptor complexes is a common feature for the members of G-protein coupled receptor superfamily; ii) 5-HT7 receptor appears to be a modulator for 5-HT1A receptor - the key autoregulator of the brain serotonin system; iii) 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor complexes formation is one of the mechanisms for inactivation and desensitization of the 5-HTIA receptors in the brain; iv) differences in the 5-HT7 receptor and 5-HTIA/5-HT7 heterodimers density define different sensitivity of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTlA receptors to chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  11. P2X3 receptors induced inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Krimon, Suzy; Araldi, Dionéia; do Prado, Filipe César; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera; Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Cláudia G; Parada, Carlos Amílcar

    2013-11-01

    It has been described that endogenous ATP via activation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors contributes to inflammatory nociception in different models, including the formalin injected in subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. In this study, we have evaluated whether TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, whose activation is essential to formalin-induced inflammatory nociception, are involved in the nociception induced by activation of P2X3 receptors on subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. We have also evaluated whether the activation of P2X3 receptors increases the susceptibility of primary afferent neurons to formalin action modulated by activation of TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptors. Nociceptive response intensity was measured by observing the rat's behavior and considering the number of times the animal reflexively raised its hind paw (flinches) in 60min. Local subcutaneous administration of the selective TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonists HC 030031, tropisetron and WAY 100,135, respectively, prevented the nociceptive responses induced by the administration in the same site of the non-selective P2X3 receptor agonist αβmeATP. Administration of the selective P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist A-317491 or pretreatment with oligonucleotides antisense against P2X3 receptor prevented the formalin-induced behavioral nociceptive responses during the first and second phases. Also, the co-administration of a subthreshold dose of αβmeATP with a subthreshold dose of formalin induced nociceptive behavior, which was prevented by local administration of tropisetron, HC 030031 or WAY 100, 135. These findings have demonstrated that the activation of P2X3 receptors induces inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors. Also, they suggest that inflammatory nociception is modulated by the release of endogenous ATP and P2X3 receptor activation, which in turn, increases primary afferent nociceptor susceptibility to the action of inflammatory

  12. Effects of novel antipsychotics with mixed D(2) antagonist/5-HT(1A) agonist properties on PCP-induced social interaction deficits in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bruins Slot, Liesbeth A; Kleven, Mark S; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    Considerable interest has arisen in identifying antipsychotic agents with improved efficacy against negative symptoms, such as social withdrawal. In rats, a social interaction deficit can be induced by the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). Here, we examined the effects of antipsychotics, reported to exert dual 5-HT(1A)/D(2) actions, on PCP-induced social interaction deficits. Drugs were administered daily for 3 days in combination with either vehicle or PCP (2.5mg/kg, SC) and social interaction was measured on the last day of drug treatment. Pairs of unfamiliar rats receiving the same treatment were placed in a large open field for 10 min and the number of social behaviors were scored. The results indicate that: (1) PCP significantly reduced social interaction by over 50% compared with vehicle-treated controls; (2) haloperidol (0.0025-0.16 mg/kg, SC) and clozapine (0.04-10mg/kg, IP) did not reverse PCP-induced social interaction deficits; (3) the substituted benzamide remoxipride reversed PCP-induced deficits at 0.63 and 2.5mg/kg (4) the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT was inactive (at 0.01-0.63 mg/kg, SC); (5) among compounds reported to exert dual 5-HT(1A)/D(2) actions, SSR181507 (at 0.16 mg/kg, SC) and aripiprazole (at 0.04 and 0.16 mg/kg, IP), but not ziprasidone (0.04-2.5mg/kg, IP), SLV313 (0.0025-0.16 mg/kg, SC) or bifeprunox (0.01-0.63 mg/kg, IP), significantly reversed PCP-induced social interaction deficits; and (6) the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635 blocked the effects of SSR181507 and aripiprazole. These findings indicate that the balance of activity at 5-HT(1A) and D(2) receptors profoundly influences the activity of antipsychotics in this model of social withdrawal, and their potential benefit on at least some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  13. 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight by reducing total meals with no conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect.

  14. The effect of the selective 5-HT1A agonists alnespirone (S-20499) and 8-OH-DPAT on extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine in different regions of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Casanovas, J M; Lésourd, M; Artigas, F

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the effects of the systemic administration of the selective 5-HT1A agonist alnespirone (S-20499) on in vivo 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in the dorsal raphe nucleus, the median raphe nucleus and four forebrain areas innervated differentially by both (dorsal striatum, frontal cortex, ventral hippocampus and dorsal hippocampus). Alnespirone (0.1–3 mg kg−1, s.c.) dose-dependently reduced extracellular 5-HT in the six areas examined. In forebrain, the maximal reductions occurred in striatum and frontal cortex (maximal reduction to 23 and 29% of baseline, respectively). Those in dorsal and ventral hippocampus were more moderate (to ca 65% of baseline). In contrast, the decrease in 5-HT elicited in the median raphe nucleus was more marked than that in the dorsal raphe nucleus (to ca 30 and 60% of baseline, respectively). The selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 (0.5 mg kg−1, s.c.) prevented the decrease in 5-HT induced by alnespirone (0.3 mg kg−1, s.c.) in frontal cortex. 8-OH-DPAT (0.025, 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg−1, s.c.) also reduced extracellular 5-HT in a regionally-selective manner (e.g., to 32% of baseline in striatum and to 69% in dorsal hippocampus at 0.1 mg kg−1, s.c.). In midbrain, 8-OH-DPAT reduced the dialysate 5-HT slightly more in the median than in the dorsal raphe nucleus at all doses examined. Doses of both compounds close to their respective ED50 values (0.3 mg kg−1 alnespirone, 0.025 mg kg−1 8-OH-DPAT) reduced 5-HT to a comparable extent in all regions examined. However, the reductions attained at higher doses were more pronounced for 8-OH-DPAT. These data show that the reduction of 5-HT release elicited by alnespirone and 8-OH-DPAT is more important in forebrain areas innervated by 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones of the dorsal raphe nucleus. This regional selectivity seems unlikely to be accounted for by differences in the sensitivity of 5-HT1A autoreceptors controlling 5-HT release, given

  15. Centrally acting hypotensive agents with affinity for 5-HT1A binding sites inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in calf hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Schoeffter, P.; Hoyer, D.

    1988-01-01

    1. A number of centrally acting hypotensive agents and other ligands with high affinity for 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) recognition sites have been tested on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in calf hippocampus, a functional model for 5-HT1A-receptors. 2. Concentration-dependent inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was elicited by the reference 5-HT1-receptor agonists (mean EC50 value, nM): 5-HT (22), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 3.2), 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 8.6), N,N-dipropyl-5-carboxamidotryptamine (DP-5-CT, 2.3), 1-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-piperazine (PAPP or LY 165163, 20), 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H indole (RU 24969, 20), buspirone (65) and ipsapirone (56). Emax amounted to 18-20% inhibition for all but the latter two agonists (14%). 3. The following hypotensive agents with high affinity for 5-HT1A sites were potent agonists in this system (mean EC50 value, nM): flesinoxan (24), indorenate (99), erythro-1-(1-[2-(1,4-benzodioxan-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-4-piperidyl )- 2-benzimidazolinone (R 28935, 2.5), urapidil (390) and 5-methyl-urapidil (3.5). The first two agents were full agonists, whereas the latter three acted as partial agonists with 60-80% efficacy. 4. Metergoline and methysergide behaved as full agonists and cyanopindolol as a partial agonist with low efficacy. Spiroxatrine and 2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)aminomethyl- 1,4-benzodioxane (WB 4101) which bind to 5-HT1A sites with nanomolar affinity, were agonists and inhibited potently forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in calf hippocampus, showing mean EC50 values of 23 and 15 nM, respectively. Spiroxatrine and WB 4101 yielded 90% and 50% efficacy, respectively. 5. Spiperone and methiothepin (each 1 microM) caused rightward shifts of the concentration-effect curve to 8-OH-DPAT, without loss of the maximal effect, as did the partial agonist cyanopindolol (0.1 microM) and the

  16. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists.

  17. Repeated administration of Yokukansan inhibits DOI-induced head-twitch response and decreases expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Ishibashi, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Okuno, Ryoko; Abe, Moe; Uchida, Naoki; Mishima, Kenichi; Takasaki, Kotaro; Nishimura, Ryoji; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2008-08-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of senile dementia. BPSD have a serious impact on the quality of life of dementia patients, as well as their caregivers. However, an effective drug therapy for BPSD has not been established. Recently, the traditional Japanese medicine Yokukansan (YKS, Yi-gan san in Chinese) has been reported to improve BPSD in a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Moreover, abnormalities of the serotonin (5-HT) system such as 5-HT2A receptors have been reported to be associated with BPSD of AD patients. In the present study, we investigated the effect of YKS on head-twitch response induced by 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice, a behavioral response that is mediated, in part, by 5-HT2A receptors. Acute treatment with YKS (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) had no effect on the DOI-induced head-twitch response, whilst 14 days repeated treatment with YKS (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited this response. Moreover, repeated treatment with YKS (300 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex, which is part of the circuitry mediating the head-twitch response. These findings suggest that the inhibition of DOI-induced head-twitch response by YKS may be mediated, in part, by altered expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex, which suggests the involvement of the 5-HT system in psychopharmacological effects of YKS.

  18. Effects of the 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on mismatch negativity generation and AX-continuous performance task: implications for the neuropharmacology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Umbricht, Daniel; Vollenweider, Franz X; Schmid, Liselotte; Grübel, Claudia; Skrabo, Anja; Huber, Theo; Koller, Rene

    2003-01-01

    Previously the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine was shown to disrupt generation of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) and the performance of an 'AX'-type continuous performance test (AX-CPT)--measures of auditory and visual context-dependent information processing--in a similar manner as observed in schizophrenia. This placebo-controlled study investigated effects of the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist psilocybin on the same measures in 18 healthy volunteers. Psilocybin administration induced significant performance deficits in the AX-CPT, but failed to reduce MMN generation significantly. These results indirectly support evidence that deficient MMN generation in schizophrenia may be a relatively distinct manifestation of deficient NMDAR functioning. In contrast, secondary pharmacological effects shared by NMDAR antagonists and the 5-HT(2A) agonist (ie disruption of glutamatergic neurotransmission) may be the mechanism underlying impairments in AX-CPT performance observed during both psilocybin and ketamine administration. Comparable deficits in schizophrenia may result from independent dysfunctions of 5-HT(2A) and NMDAR-related neurotransmission.

  19. MDMA-induced loss of parvalbumin interneurons within the dentate gyrus is mediated by 5HT2A and NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stuart A; Gudelsky, Gary A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2015-08-15

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes a rapid and robust release of the monoaminergic neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Recently, it was shown that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dorsal hippocampus, which is dependent on serotonin release and 5HT2A/2C receptor activation. The increased extracellular glutamate concentration coincides with a loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons of the dentate gyrus region. Given the known susceptibility of PV interneurons to excitotoxicity, we examined whether MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate in the dentate gyrus are necessary for the loss of PV cells in rats. Extracellular glutamate concentrations increased in the dentate gyrus during systemic and local administration of MDMA. Administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, during systemic injections of MDMA, prevented the loss of PV-IR interneurons seen 10 days after MDMA exposure. Local administration of MDL100907, a selective 5HT2A receptor antagonist, prevented the increases in glutamate caused by reverse dialysis of MDMA directly into the dentate gyrus and prevented the reduction of PV-IR. These findings provide evidence that MDMA causes decreases in PV within the dentate gyrus through a 5HT2A receptor-mediated increase in glutamate and subsequent NMDA receptor activation.

  20. Bidirectional amygdaloid control of neuropathic hypersensitivity mediated by descending serotonergic pathways acting on spinal 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Sagalajev, B; Bourbia, N; Beloushko, E; Wei, H; Pertovaara, A

    2015-04-01

    Amygdala is involved in processing of primary emotions and particularly its central nucleus (CeA) also in pain control. Here we studied mechanisms mediating the descending control of mechanical hypersensitivity by the CeA in rats with a peripheral neuropathy in the left hind limb. For drug administrations, the animals had a guide cannula in the right CeA and an intrathecal catheter or another guide cannula in the medullary raphe. Hypersensitivity was tested with monofilaments. Glutamate administration in the CeA produced a bidirectional effect on hypersensitivity that varied from an increase at a low-dose (9μg) to a reduction at high doses (30-100μg). The increase but not the reduction of hypersensitivity was prevented by blocking the amygdaloid NMDA receptor with a dose of MK-801 that alone had no effects. The glutamate-induced increase in hypersensitivity was reversed by blocking the spinal 5-HT3 receptor with ondansetron, whereas the reduction in hypersensitivity was reversed by blocking the spinal 5-HT1A receptor with WAY-100635. Both the increase and decrease of hypersensitivity induced by amygdaloid glutamate treatment were reversed by medullary administration of a 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, that presumably produced autoinhibition of serotonergic cell bodies in the medullary raphe. The results indicate that depending on the dose, glutamate in the CeA has a descending facilitatory or inhibitory effect on neuropathic pain hypersensitivity. Serotoninergic raphe neurons are involved in mediating both of these effects. Spinally, the 5-HT3 receptor contributes to the increase and the 5-HT1A receptor to the decrease of neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by amygdaloid glutamate.

  1. 5-HT1A receptor blockade targeting the basolateral amygdala improved stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Sardari, M; Rezayof, A; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-08-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) 5-HT1A receptors in memory formation under stress. We also examined whether the blockade of these receptors is involved in stress-induced state-dependent memory. Adult male Wistar rats received cannula implants that bilaterally targeted the BLA. Long-term memory was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Behavioral stress was evoked by exposure to an elevated platform (EP) for 10, 20 and 30min. Post-training exposure to acute stress (30min) impaired the memory consolidation. In addition, pre-test exposure to acute stress-(20 and 30min) induced the impairment of memory retrieval. Interestingly, the memory impairment induced by post-training exposure to stress was restored in the animals that received 20- or 30-min pre-test stress exposure, suggesting stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Post-training BLA-targeted injection of a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat), prevented the impairing effect of stress on memory consolidation. Pre-test injection of the same doses of (S)-WAY-100135 that was targeted to the BLA also reversed stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. It should be considered that post-training or pre-test BLA-targeted injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (0.5-2μg/rat) by itself had no effect on the memory formation. Moreover, pre-test injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat) that targeted the BLA inhibited the stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Taken together, our findings suggest that post-training or pre-test exposure to acute stress induced the impairment of memory consolidation, retrieval and state-dependent learning. The BLA 5-HT1A receptors have a critical role in learning and memory under stress.

  2. Measurement of 5-HT(1A) receptor density and in-vivo binding parameters of [(18)F]mefway in the nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Dustin W; Hillmer, Ansel T; Moirano, Jeffrey M; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Slesarev, Maxim; Barnhart, Todd E; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Schneider, Mary L; Christian, Bradley T

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this work was to characterize the in-vivo behavior of [(18)F]mefway as a suitable positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for the assay of 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptor density (B(max)). Six rhesus monkeys were studied using a multiple-injection (M-I) protocol consisting of three sequential bolus injections of [(18)F]mefway. Injection times and amounts of unlabeled mefway were optimized for the precise measurement of B(max) and specific binding parameters k(off) and k(on) for estimation of apparent K(D). The PET time series were acquired for 180 minutes with arterial sampling performed throughout. Compartmental analysis using the arterial input function was performed to obtain estimates for K(1), k(2), k(off), B(max), and K(Dapp) in the cerebral cortex and raphe nuclei (RN) using a model that accounted for nontracer doses of mefway. Averaged over subjects, highest binding was seen in the mesial temporal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices with B(max) values of 42±8 and 36±8 pmol/mL, respectively, and lower values in the superior temporal cortex, RN, and parietal cortex of 24±4, 19±4, and 13±2 pmol/mL, respectively. The K(Dapp) of mefway for the 5-HT(1A) receptor sites was 4.3±1.3 nmol/L. In conclusion, these results show that M-I [(18)F]mefway PET experiments can be used for the in-vivo measurement of 5-HT(1A) receptor density.

  3. Brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity is potentiated by activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A/5-HT7 receptors in the rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Madden, C. J.; Morrison, S. F.

    2008-01-01

    In urethane-chloralose anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, ventilated rats, microinjection of NMDA (12 pmol) into the right fourth thoracic segment (T4) spinal intermediolateral nucleus (IML) immediately increased ipsilateral brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathetic nerve activity (SNA; peak +492% of control), expired CO2 (+0.1%) heart rate (+48 beats min−1) and arterial pressure (+8 mmHg). The increase in BAT SNA evoked by T4 IML microinjection of NMDA was potentiated when it was administered immediately following a T4 IML microinjection of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 100 pmol) or the 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (600 pmol), (area under the curve: 184%, and 259% of the NMDA-only response, respectively). In contrast, T4 IML microinjection of the 5-HT2 receptor agonist, DOI (28 pmol) did not potentiate the NMDA-evoked increase in BAT SNA (101% of NMDA-only response). Microinjection into the T4 IML of the selective 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY-100635 (500 pmol), plus the 5-HT7 antagonist, SB-269970 (500 pmol), prevented the 5-HT-induced potentiation of the NMDA-evoked increase in BAT SNA. When administered separately, WAY-100635 (800 pmol) and SB-269970 (800 pmol) attenuated the 8-OH-DPAT-induced potentiation of the NMDA-evoked increase in BAT SNA through effects on the amplitude and duration of the response, respectively. The selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin (100 pmol), did not attenuate the potentiations of the NMDA-evoked increase in BAT SNA induced by either 5-HT or 8-OH-DPAT. These results demonstrate that activation of 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptors can act synergistically with NMDA receptor activation within the IML to markedly increase BAT SNA. PMID:18082230

  4. Age-Dependent Switch of the Role of Serotonergic 5-HT1A Receptors in Gating Long-Term Potentiation in Rat Visual Cortex In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gagolewicz, Peter J.; Dringenberg, Hans C.

    2016-01-01

    The rodent primary visual cortex (V1) is densely innervated by serotonergic axons and previous in vitro work has shown that serotonin (5-HT) can modulate plasticity (e.g., long-term potentiation (LTP)) at V1 synapses. However, little work has examined the effects of 5-HT on LTP under in vivo conditions. We examined the role of 5-HT on LTP in V1 elicited by theta burst stimulation (TBS) of the lateral geniculate nucleus in urethane-anesthetized (adult and juvenile) rats. Thalamic TBS consistently induced potentiation of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) recorded in V1. While 5-HT application (0.1–10 mM) itself did not alter LTP levels, the broad-acting 5-HT receptor antagonists methiothepin (1 mM) resulted in a clear facilitation of LTP in adult animals, an effect that was mimicked by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (1 mM). Interestingly, in juvenile rats, WAY 100635 application inhibited LTP, indicative of an age-dependent switch in the role of 5-HT1A receptors in gating V1 plasticity. Analyses of spontaneous electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in V1 indicated that the antagonist-induced LTP enhancement was not related to systematic changes in oscillatory activity in V1. Together, these data suggest a facilitating role of 5-HT1A receptor activation on LTP in the juvenile V1, which switches to a tonic, inhibitory influence in adulthood. PMID:27247804

  5. Higher Pre-treatment 5-HT1A Receptor Binding Potential in Bipolar Disorder Depression is Associated with Treatment Remission: A Naturalistic Treatment Pilot PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Martin J; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ciarleglio, Adam; Ogden, R Todd; Sullivan, Gregory M; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar Disorder is a major cause of disability and a high risk for suicide. The pathophysiology of the disorder remains largely unknown. Medication choice for bipolar depression patients involves trial and error. Our group reported previously that brain serotonin 1A (5HT1A) receptor binding measured by positron emission tomography (PET) is higher in bipolar depression. We now investigated whether pretreatment 5HT1A levels correlates with antidepressant medication outcome. 41 medication-free DSM-IV diagnosed, bipolar patients in a major depressive episode (MDE) had brain PET scans performed using [11C]WAY-100635 and a metabolite corrected arterial input function. The patients then received naturalistic psychopharmacologic treatment as outpatients and a follow up Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) after 3 months of treatment. Patients with 24 item HDRS scores less than 10 were considered to have remitted. A linear mixed effects model was used to compare BPF (binding potential, proportional to the total number of available receptors) in 13 brain regions of interest between remitters and non-remitters. 34 patients completed 3 months of treatment and ratings; 9 had remitted. Remitters and non-remitters did not differ in age, sex or recent medication history with serotonergic medications. Remitters had higher [11C]WAY-100635 BPF across all brain regions compared with non-remitters (p=0.02). Higher pre-treatment brain 5HT1A receptor binding was associated with remission after 3 months of pharmacological treatment in bipolar depression. Prospective treatment studies are warranted to determine whether this test predicts outcome of specific types of treatment. PMID:23720414

  6. Potential antidepressant properties of SR 57746A, a novel compound with selectivity and high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Cervo, L; Bendotti, C; Tarizzo, G; Cagnotto, A; Skorupska, M; Mennini, T; Samanin, R

    1994-02-21

    SR 57746A, 4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-N-[2-(naphth-2-yl)ethyl]-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine HCl, was studied for its specific 5-HT1A receptor agonist action and antidepressant-like effects in the rat. The compound showed a high affinity for 5-HT1A specific binding sites in the rat hippocampus (IC50 3 nM), moderate affinity (10(-7)-10(-6) M) for dopamine D2 receptor, 5-HT uptake, 5-HT2 and alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites and practically no effect on binding sites of monoamine, GABAA, benzodiazepine and histamine receptors. It inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in rat hippocampal membranes at concentrations of 10(-6) and 10(-5) M. The effect of 10(-6) M SR 57746A on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was completely antagonized by 10(-6) M (-)-propranolol. Administered per os as a three-dose course to rats, SR 57746A significantly increased struggling in the forced swimming test at doses from 0.3 to 3 mg/kg. Single doses had no such effect. The effect of a three-dose course with 1 mg/kg SR 57746A on rats' struggling was antagonized by pretreatment with 5 mg/kg i.p. metergoline, a non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, and by 20 mg/kg i.p. (-)-propranolol, an antagonist at 5-HT1 receptors. Three oral doses of 100 mg/kg parachlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, and 100 mg/kg i.p. (+/-)-sulpiride, an antagonist at dopamine D2 receptors, also antagonized the effect of SR 57746A in the forced swimming test. The results show that SR 57746A has selectivity and high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Higher pretreatment 5-HT1A receptor binding potential in bipolar disorder depression is associated with treatment remission: a naturalistic treatment pilot PET study.

    PubMed

    Lan, Martin J; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ciarleglio, Adam; Ogden, R Todd; Sullivan, Gregory M; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2013-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a major cause of disability and a high risk for suicide. The pathophysiology of the disorder remains largely unknown. Medication choice for bipolar depression patients involves trial and error. Our group reported previously that brain serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor binding measured by positron emission tomography (PET) is higher in bipolar depression. We now investigated whether pretreatment 5-HT(1A) levels correlates with antidepressant medication outcome. Forty-one medication-free DSM-IV diagnosed, bipolar patients in a major depressive episode had brain PET scans performed using [(11)C]WAY-100635 and a metabolite corrected arterial input function. The patients then received naturalistic psychopharmacologic treatment as outpatients and a follow up Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) after 3 months of treatment. Patients with 24 item HDRS scores less than 10 were considered to have remitted. A linear mixed effects model was used to compare BP(F) (binding potential, proportional to the total number of available receptors) in 13 brain regions of interest between remitters and nonremitters. Thirty-four patients completed 3 months of treatment and ratings; 9 had remitted. Remitters and nonremitters did not differ in age, sex, or recent medication history with serotonergic medications. Remitters had higher [(11)C]WAY-100635 BP(F) across all brain regions compared with nonremitters (P = 0.02). Higher pretreatment brain 5-HT(1A) receptor binding was associated with remission after 3 months of pharmacological treatment in bipolar depression. Prospective treatment studies are warranted to determine whether this test predicts outcome of specific types of treatment.

  8. Women with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Have Increased Harm Avoidance and Reduced 5-HT1A Receptor Binding Potential in the Anterior Cingulate and Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Åhs, Fredrik; Savic, Ivanka

    2013-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a common condition, characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Contrary to the expectations it was recently found that persons with MCS activate the odor-processing brain regions less than controls, while their activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is increased. The present follow-up study was designed to test the hypotheses that MCS subjects have increased harm avoidance and deviations in the serotonin system, which could render them intolerant to environmental odors. Twelve MCS and 11 control subjects, age 22–44, all working or studying females, were included in a PET study where 5-HT1A receptor binding potential (BP) was assessed after bolus injection of [11C]WAY100635. Psychological profiles were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. All MCS and 12 control subjects were also tested for emotional startle modulation in an acoustic startle test. MCS subjects exhibited significantly increased harm avoidance, and anxiety compared to controls. They also had a reduced 5-HT1A receptor BP in amygdala (p = 0.029), ACC (p = 0.005) (planned comparisons, significance level 0.05), and insular cortex (p = 0.003; significance level p<0.005 with Bonferroni correction), and showed an inverse correlation between degree of anxiety and the BP in the amygdala (planned comparison). No group by emotional category difference was found in the startle test. Increased harm avoidance and the observed changes in the 5-HT1A receptor BP in the regions processing harm avoidance provides a plausible pathophysiological ground for the symptoms described in MCS, and yields valuable information for our general understanding of idiopathic environmental intolerances. PMID:23349968

  9. Activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors in the parafascicular nucleus suppresses the affective reaction of rats to noxious stimulation.

    PubMed

    Harte, Steven E; Kender, Robert G; Borszcz, George S

    2005-02-01

    The antinociceptive effects of the serotonin (5-HT)1A/7 receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) administered into the medial thalamus were evaluated. Pain behaviors organized at spinal (spinal motor reflexes, SMRs), medullary (vocalizations during shock, VDSs), and forebrain (vocalization after discharges, VADs) levels of the neuraxis were elicited by tailshock. Administration of 8-OH-DPAT (5, 10, and 20 microg/side) into nucleus parafascicularis (nPf) produced dose-dependent increases in VDS and VAD thresholds, but failed to elevate SMR threshold. The increase in VAD threshold was significantly greater than that of VDS threshold. Similar effects were observed with administration of 8-OH-DPAT (20 microg/side) into the rostral portion of the central lateral thalamic nucleus. The bilateral or unilateral administration of 8-OH-DPAT (20 microg) into other thalamic nuclei, or into sites dorsal to nPf, did not elevate vocalization thresholds. Increases in vocalization thresholds produced by nPf-administered 8-OH-DPAT were mediated by both 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors. Intra-nPf administration of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (0.05 or 0.5 microg/side), or the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 (1 or 2 microg/side), but not the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (10 microg/side), reversed 8-OH-DPAT induced elevations in vocalization thresholds. These results provide the first reported evidence of behavioral antinociception following the administration of a 5-HT agonist into the medial thalamus.

  10. Concentration-Dependent Dual Mode of Zn Action at Serotonin 5-HT1A Receptors: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Satała, Grzegorz; Duszyńska, Beata; Stachowicz, Katarzyna; Rafalo, Anna; Pochwat, Bartlomiej; Luckhart, Christine; Albert, Paul R; Daigle, Mireille; Tanaka, Kenji F; Hen, René; Lenda, Tomasz; Nowak, Gabriel; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Szewczyk, Bernadeta

    2016-12-01

    Recent data has indicated that Zn can modulate serotonergic function through the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR); however, the exact mechanisms are unknown. In the present studies, radioligand binding assays and behavioural approaches were used to characterize the pharmacological profile of Zn at 5-HT1ARs in more detail. The influence of Zn on agonist binding to 5-HT1ARs stably expressed in HEK293 cells was investigated by in vitro radioligand binding methods using the agonist [(3)H]-8-OH-DPAT. The in vivo effects of Zn were compared with those of 8-OH-DPAT in hypothermia, lower lip retraction (LLR), 5-HT behavioural syndrome and the forced swim (FST) tests. In the in vitro studies, biphasic effects, which involved allosteric potentiation of agonist binding at sub-micromolar Zn concentrations and inhibition at sub-millimolar Zn concentrations, were found. The in vivo studies showed that Zn did not induce LLR or elements of 5-HT behavioural syndrome but blocked such effects induced by 8-OH-DPAT. Zn decreased body temperature in rats and mice; however, Zn failed to induce hypothermia in the 5-HT1A autoreceptor knockout mice. In the FST, Zn potentiated the effect of 8-OH-DPAT. However, in the FST performed with the 5-HT1A autoreceptor knockout mice, the anti-immobility effect of Zn was partially blocked. Both the binding and behavioural studies suggest a concentration-dependent dual mechanism of Zn action at 5-HT1ARs, with potentiation at low dose and inhibition at high dose. Moreover, the in vivo studies indicate that Zn can modulate both presynaptic and postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs; however, Zn's effects at presynaptic receptors seem to be more potent.

  11. 5-HTT and 5-HT(1A) receptor occupancy of the novel substance vortioxetine (Lu AA21004). A PET study in control subjects.

    PubMed

    Stenkrona, Per; Halldin, Christer; Lundberg, Johan

    2013-10-01

    Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) is a new potential substance for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. It has high affinity for the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and moderate affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor in vitro. Positron emission tomography (PET) has commonly been used to examine the relation between dose/plasma concentration and occupancy to predict relevant dose intervals in a clinical setting. In this study 11 control subjects were examined with PET and [¹¹C]MADAM at baseline, after a single dose and after 9 days of dosing with Lu AA21004 (2.5, 10 or 60 mg) for quantification of 5-HTT occupancy. Four subjects were examined with PET and [¹¹C]WAY 100635 at baseline, after a single dose and after 9 days of dosing of Lu AA21004 (30 mg) for quantification of 5-HT(1A) occupancy. To allow for quantification of binding in the raphe nuclei, PET data were analyzed using wavelet aided parametric imaging. 5-HTT occupancy ranged from 2 (mean, 2.5 mg day 1) to 97% (60 mg day 9). The apparent affinity of Lu AA21004 binding to 5-HTT (KD(ND)) was calculated to 16.7 nM (R=0.95), and the corresponding oral dose (KD(ND)-dose) to 8.5 mg (R=0.91). No significant occupancy of 5-HT(1A) receptors was found after dosing of 30 mg Lu AA21004. Based on the literature and the present [¹¹C]MADAM binding data, a dose of 20-30 mg Lu AA21004 is suggested to give clinically relevant occupancy of the 5-HTT.

  12. On the role of brain 5-HT7 receptor in the mechanism of hypothermia: comparison with hypothermia mediated via 5-HT1A and 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Kondaurova, Elena M; Popova, Nina K

    2011-12-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of selective agonist of serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor LP44 (4-[2-(methylthio)phenyl]-N-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl)-1-pyperasinehexanamide hydrochloride; 10.3, 20.5 or 41.0 nmol) produced considerable hypothermic response in CBA/Lac mice. LP44-induced (20.5 nmol) hypothermia was significantly attenuated by the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970 (16.1 fmol, i.c.v.) pretreatment. At the same time, intraperitoneal administration of LP44 in a wide range of doses 1.0, 2.0 or 10.0 mg/kg (2.0, 4.0, 20.0 μmol/kg) did not cause considerable hypothermic response. These findings indicate the implication of central, rather than peripheral 5-HT(7) receptors in the regulation of hypothermia. The comparison of LP44-induced (20.5 nmol) hypothermic reaction in eight inbred mouse strains (DBA/2J, CBA/Lac, C57BL/6, BALB/c, ICR, AKR/J, C3H and Asn) was performed and a significant effect of genotype was found. In the same eight mouse strains, functional activity of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptors was studied. The comparison of hypothermic responses produced by 5-HT(7) receptor agonist LP44 (20.5 nmol, i.c.v.) and 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. (3.0 μmol/kg), 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-CPBG (40.0 nmol, i.c.v.) did not reveal considerable interstrain correlations between 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(3) receptor-induced hypothermia. The selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970 (16.1 fmol, i.c.v.) failed to attenuate the hypothermic effect of 8-OH-DPAT 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. (3.0 μmol/kg) and m-CPBG (40.0 nmol, i.c.v.) indicating that the brain 5-HT(7) receptor is not involved in the hypothermic effects of 8-OH-DPAT or m-CPBG. The obtained results suggest that the central 5-HT(7) receptor plays an essential role in the mediation of thermoregulation independent of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptors.

  13. A 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, mitigates developmental neurotoxicity of ethanol to serotonergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Tsukasa; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the reduction of serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons in the midbrain raphe nuclei. In the present study, we examined whether an activation of signaling via 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors during the fetal period is able to prevent the reduction of 5-HTergic neurons induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a liquid diet containing 2.5 to 5.0% (w/v) ethanol on gestational days (GDs) 10 to 20 (Et). As a pair-fed control, other pregnant rats were fed the same liquid diet except that the ethanol was replaced by isocaloric sucrose (Pf). Each Et and Pf group was subdivided into two groups; one of the groups was treated with 1 mg/kg (i.p.) of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), an agonist for 5-HT2A/2C receptors, during GDs 13 to 19 (Et-DOI or Pf-DOI), and another was injected with saline vehicle only (Et-Sal or Pf-Sal). Their fetuses were removed by cesarean section on GD 19 or 20, and fetal brains were collected. An immunohistological examination of 5-HTergic neurons in the fetuses on embryonic day 20 using an antibody against tryptophan hydroxylase revealed that the number of 5-HTergic neurons in the midbrain raphe nuclei was significantly reduced in the Et-Sal fetuses compared to that of the Pf-Sal and Pf-DOI fetuses, whereas there were no significant differences between Et-DOI and each Pf control. Thus, we concluded that the reduction of 5-HTergic neurons that resulted in prenatal ethanol exposure could be alleviated by the enhancement of signaling via 5-HT2A/2C receptors during the fetal period.

  14. Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors attenuates the increased temperature response in brown adipose tissue to restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ootsuka, Youichirou; Blessing, William W; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that 5-HT2A receptors may be involved in the central control of thermoregulation and of the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to test whether these receptors mediate thermogenic and tachycardiac responses induced by acute psychological stress. Three groups of adult male Hooded Wistar rats were instrumented with: (i) a thermistor in the interscapular area (for recording brown adipose tissue temperature) and an ultrasound Doppler probe (to record tail blood flow); (ii) temperature dataloggers to record core body temperature; (iii) ECG electrodes. On the day of the experiment, rats were subjected to a 30-min restraint stress preceded by s.c. injection of either vehicle or SR-46349B (a serotonin 2A receptor antagonist) at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg. The restraint stress caused a rise in brown adipose tissue temperature (from, mean +/- s.e.m., 36.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C), transient cutaneous vasoconstriction (tail blood flow decreased from 12 +/- 2 to 5 +/- 1 cm/s), increase in heart rate (from 303 +/- 15 to 453 +/- 15 bpm at the peak, then reduced to 393 +/- 12 bpm at the steady state), and defaecation (6 +/- 1 pellets per restraint session). The core body temperature was not affected by the restraint. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors attenuated the increase in brown adipose tissue temperature and transient cutaneous vasoconstriction, but not tachycardia and defaecation elicited by restraint stress. These results indicate that psychological stress causes activation of 5-HT2A receptors in neural pathways that control thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue and facilitate cutaneous vasoconstriction.

  15. A Model of Post-Infection Fatigue Is Associated with Increased TNF and 5-HT2A Receptor Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Yvonne; Xie, Qin; Lundberg, Louise; Sharp, Trevor; Anthony, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in psychiatric illness. For example, myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS), which is often provoked by infection, is a disabling illness with an unknown aetiology and diagnosis is based on symptom-specific criteria. However, 5-HT2A receptor expression and peripheral cytokines are known to be upregulated in ME. We sought to examine the relationship between the 5-HT system and cytokine expression following systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge (LPS, 0.5mg/kg i.p.), at a time when the acute sickness behaviours have largely resolved. At 24 hours post-injection mice exhibit no overt changes in locomotor behaviour, but do show increased immobility in a forced swim test, as well as decreased sucrose preference and reduced marble burying activity, indicating a depressive-like state. While peripheral IDO activity was increased after LPS challenge, central activity levels remained stable and there was no change in total brain 5-HT levels or 5-HIAA/5-HT. However, within the brain, levels of TNF and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA within various regions increased significantly. This increase in receptor expression is reflected by an increase in the functional response of the 5-HT2A receptor to agonist, DOI. These data suggest that regulation of fatigue and depressive-like moods after episodes of systemic inflammation may be regulated by changes in 5-HT receptor expression, rather than by levels of enzyme activity or cytokine expression in the CNS. PMID:26147001

  16. Aminoalkyl Derivatives of 8-Alkoxypurine-2,6-diones: Multifunctional 5-HT1A /5-HT7 Receptor Ligands and PDE Inhibitors with Antidepressant Activity.

    PubMed

    Chłoń-Rzepa, Grażyna; Zagórska, Agnieszka; Żmudzki, Paweł; Bucki, Adam; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Partyka, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Kazek, Grzegorz; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Siwek, Agata; Starowicz, Gabriela; Pawłowski, Maciej

    2016-12-01

    In the search for potential psychotropic agents, a new series of 3,7-dimethyl- and 1,3-dimethyl-8-alkoxypurine-2,6-dione derivatives of arylpiperazines, perhydroisoquinolines, or tetrahydroisoquinolines with flexible alkylene spacers (5-16 and 21-32) were synthesized and evaluated for 5-HT1A /5-HT7 receptor affinities as well as PDE4B1 and PDE10A inhibitory properties. The 1-(4-(4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-3,7-dimethyl-8-propoxypurine-2,6-dione (16) and 7-(2-hydroxyphenyl)piperazinylalkyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-ethoxypurine-2,6-diones (31 and 32) as potent dual 5-HT1A /5-HT7 receptor ligands with antagonistic activity produced an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test in mice. This effect was similar to that produced by citalopram. All the tested compounds were stronger phosphodiesterase isoenzyme inhibitors than theophylline and theobromine. The most potent compounds, 15 and 16, were characterized by 51 and 52% inhibition, respectively, of PDE4B1 activity at a concentration of 10(-5)  M. Concerning the above findings, it may be assumed that the inhibition of PDE4B1 may impact on the signal strength and specificity resulting from antagonism toward the 5-HT1 and 5-HT7 receptors, especially in the case of compounds 15 and 16. This dual receptor and enzyme binding mode was analyzed and explained via molecular modeling studies.

  17. Blockade of Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors Suppresses Behavioral Sensitization and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal Symptoms in Morphine-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Gang; Wu, Xian; Tao, Xinrong; Mao, Ruoying; Liu, Xueke; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Stackman, Robert W.; Dong, Liuyi; Zhang, Gongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prescription of opioids is fueling an epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths. Morphine is a highly addictive drug characterized by a high relapse rate – even after a long period of abstinence. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of morphine dependence, as well as the expression of morphine withdrawal. In this study, we examined the effect of blockade of 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in male mice. 5-HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed acute morphine (5.0 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced increase in locomotor activity. Mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of morphine (10 mg/kg) was administered to induce the expression of behavioral sensitization. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment suppressed the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice on day 7. Moreover, chronic morphine treatment increased 5-HT2AR protein level and decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these results by the first time demonstrate that 5-HT2ARs modulate opioid dependence and blockade of 5-HT2AR may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of morphine use disorders. Highlights (i) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. (ii) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-treated mice. (iii) Chronic morphine exposure induces an increase in 5-HT2A receptor protein level and a decrease in ERK protein phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex. PMID:28082900

  18. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of phenoxyphenyl-methanamine compounds with 5HT2A, SERT, and hERG activities.

    PubMed

    Mente, Scot; Gallaschun, Randall; Schmidt, Anne; Lebel, Lorrie; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Fliri, Anton

    2008-12-01

    QSAR models have been used to evaluate activities for compounds in the phenoxyphenyl-methanamine (PPMA) class of compounds. These models utilize Hammett-type donating-withdrawing substituent values as well as simple parameters to describe substituent size and elucidate the SAR of the 'A' and 'B' rings. Using this methodology, intuitive QSAR relationships were found for the three biological activities with R(2) values of 0.73, 0.45, and 0.58 for 5HT(2A), SerT, and hERG activities.

  19. 5-HT1A receptor gene silencers Freud-1 and Freud-2 are differently expressed in the brain of rats with genetically determined high level of fear-induced aggression or its absence.

    PubMed

    Kondaurova, Elena M; Ilchibaeva, Tatiana V; Tsybko, Anton S; Kozhemyakina, Rimma V; Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S

    2016-09-01

    Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is known to play a crucial role in the mechanisms of genetically defined aggression. In its turn, 5-HT1A receptor functional state is under control of multiple factors. Among others, transcriptional factors Freud-1 and Freud-2 are known to be involved in the repression of 5-HT1A receptor gene expression. However, implication of these factors in the regulation of behavior is unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of 5-HT1A receptor and silencers Freud-1 and Freud-2 in the brain of rats selectively bred for 85 generations for either high level of fear-induced aggression or its absence. It was shown that Freud-1 and Freud-2 levels were different in aggressive and nonaggressive animals. Freud-1 protein level was decreased in the hippocampus, whereas Freud-2 protein level was increased in the frontal cortex of highly aggressive rats. There no differences in 5-HT1A receptor gene expression were found in the brains of highly aggressive and nonaggressive rats. However, 5-HT1A receptor protein level was decreased in the midbrain and increased in the hippocampus of highly aggressive rats. These data showed the involvement of Freud-1 and Freud-2 in the regulation of genetically defined fear-induced aggression. However, these silencers do not affect transcription of the 5-HT1A receptor gene in the investigated rats. Our data indicate the implication of posttranscriptional rather than transcriptional regulation of 5-HT1A receptor functional state in the mechanisms of genetically determined aggressive behavior. On the other hand, the implication of other transcriptional regulators for 5-HT1A receptor gene in the mechanisms of genetically defined aggression could be suggested.

  20. Cerebral 5-HT release correlates with [(11)C]Cimbi36 PET measures of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy in the pig brain.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Louise M; Weikop, Pia; Villadsen, Jonas; Visnapuu, Tanel; Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Hanne D; Baandrup, Anders O; Andersen, Flemming L; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Thomsen, Carsten; Jespersen, Bo; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can, when used with appropriate radioligands, non-invasively generate temporal and spatial information about acute changes in brain neurotransmitter systems. We for the first time evaluate the novel 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET radioligand, [(11)C]Cimbi-36, for its sensitivity to detect changes in endogenous cerebral 5-HT levels, as induced by different pharmacological challenges. To enable a direct translation of PET imaging data to changes in brain 5-HT levels, we calibrated the [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET signal in the pig brain by simultaneous measurements of extracellular 5-HT levels with microdialysis and [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET after various acute interventions (saline, citalopram, citalopram + pindolol, fenfluramine). In a subset of pigs, para-chlorophenylalanine pretreatment was given to deplete cerebral 5-HT. The interventions increased the cerebral extracellular 5-HT levels to 2-11 times baseline, with fenfluramine being the most potent pharmacological enhancer of 5-HT release, and induced a varying degree of decline in [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding in the brain, consistent with the occupancy competition model. The observed correlation between changes in the extracellular 5-HT level in the pig brain and the 5-HT2A receptor occupancy indicates that [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding is sensitive to changes in endogenous 5-HT levels, although only detectable with PET when the 5-HT release is sufficiently high.

  1. Evidence for a common biological basis of the Absorption trait, hallucinogen effects, and positive symptoms: epistasis between 5-HT2a and COMT polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ott, Ulrich; Reuter, Martin; Hennig, Juergen; Vaitl, Dieter

    2005-08-05

    Absorption represents a disposition to experience altered states of consciousness characterized by intensively focused attention. It is correlated with hypnotic susceptibility and includes phenomena ranging from vivid perceptions and imaginations to mystical experiences. Based on the assumption that drug-induced and naturally occurring mystical experiences share common neural mechanisms, we hypothesized that Absorption is influenced by the T102C polymorphism affecting the 5-HT2a receptor, which is known to be an important target site of hallucinogens like LSD. Based on the pivotal role ascribed to the prefrontal executive control network for absorbed attention and positive symptoms in schizophrenia, it was further hypothesized that Absorption is associated with the VAL158MET polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affecting the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The Tellegen Absorption Scale was administered to 336 subjects (95 male, 241 female). Statistical analysis revealed that the group with the T/T genotype of the T102C polymorphism, implying a stronger binding potential of the 5-HT2a receptor, indeed had significantly higher Absorption scores (F = 10.00, P = 0.002), while no main effect was found for the COMT polymorphism. However, the interaction between T102C and COMT genotypes yielded significance (F = 3.89; P = 0.049), underlining the known functional interaction between the 5-HT and the dopaminergic system. These findings point to biological foundations of the personality trait of Absorption.

  2. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

    2010-09-01

    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated.

  3. The secret ingredient for social success of young males: a functional polymorphism in the 5HT2A serotonin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Zijlstra, Lieuwe; Bouma, Esther; Veenstra, René

    2013-01-01

    In adolescence, being socially successful depends to a large extent on being popular with peers. Even though some youths have what it takes to be popular, they are not, whereas others seem to have a secret ingredient that just makes the difference. In this study the G-allele of a functional polymorphism in the promotor region of the 5HT2A serotonin receptor gene (-G1438A) was identified as a secret ingredient for popularity among peers. These findings build on and extend previous work by Burt (2008, 2009). Tackling limitations from previous research, the role of the 5HT2A serotonin receptor gene was examined in adolescent males (N = 285; average age 13) using a unique sample of the TRAILS study. Carrying the G-allele enhanced the relation between aggression and popularity, particularly for those boys who have many female friends. This seems to be an "enhancer" effect of the G-allele whereby popularity relevant characteristics are made more noticeable. There is no "popularity gene", as the G-allele by itself had no effect on popularity.

  4. Effect of GABAergic ligands on the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI (a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist) in the four-plate test in mice.

    PubMed

    Massé, Fabienne; Hascoët, Martine; Bourin, Michel

    2007-01-01

    5-HTergic and GABAergic systems are involved in neurobiology of anxiety. Precedent studies have demonstrated that SSRIs possessed an anxiolytic-like effect in the four-plate test (FPT) at doses that did not modify spontaneous locomotor activity. This effect seems to be mediated through the activation of 5-HT(2A) postsynaptic receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the implication of GABA system in the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI in the FPT. To achieve this, the co-administration of DOI (5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonists) with GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor ligands was evaluated in the FPT. Alprazolam, diazepam and muscimol (for higher dose) potentiated the anxiolytic-like effect of DOI. Bicuculline, picrotoxin and baclofen inhibited the anxiolytic-like effect of DOI. Flumazenil and CGP 35348 had no effect on the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI. These results suggest that the GABA system seems to be strongly implicated in the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI in the FPT.

  5. The 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's disorder: A PET study with [¹¹C]MDL 100907 and [¹¹C]DASB.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Ragy R; Slifstein, Mark; Xu, Xiaoyan; Frankle, W Gordon; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Wasserman, Stacey; Pepa, Lauren; Kolevzon, Alexander; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Laruelle, Marc; Hollander, Eric

    2011-12-30

    Evidence from biochemical, imaging, and treatment studies suggest abnormalities of the serotonin system in autism spectrum disorders, in particular in frontolimbic areas of the brain. We used the radiotracers [(11)C]MDL 100907 and [(11)C]DASB to characterize the 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's Disorder. Seventeen individuals with Asperger's Disorder (age=34.3 ± 11.1 years) and 17 healthy controls (age=33.0 ± 9.6 years) were scanned with [(11)C]MDL 100907. Of the 17 patients, eight (age=29.7 ± 7.0 years) were also scanned with [¹¹C]DASB, as were eight healthy controls (age=28.7 ± 7.0 years). Patients with Asperger's Disorder and healthy control subjects were matched for age, gender, and ethnicity, and all had normal intelligence. Metabolite-corrected arterial plasma inputs were collected and data analyzed by two-tissue compartment modeling. The primary outcome measure was regional binding potential BP(ND). Neither regional [¹¹C]MDL 100907 BP(ND) nor [¹¹C]DASB BP(ND) was statistically different between the Asperger's and healthy subjects. This study failed to find significant alterations in binding parameters of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters in adult subjects with Asperger's disorder.

  6. Test-retest variability of high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cortical serotonin (5HT2A) receptors in older, healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Position emission tomography (PET) imaging using [18F]-setoperone to quantify cortical 5-HT2A receptors has the potential to inform pharmacological treatments for geriatric depression and dementia. Prior reports indicate a significant normal aging effect on serotonin 5HT2A receptor (5HT2AR) binding potential. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest variability of [18F]-setoperone PET with a high resolution scanner (HRRT) for measuring 5HT2AR availability in subjects greater than 60 years old. Methods: Six healthy subjects (age range = 65–78 years) completed two [18F]-setoperone PET scans on two separate occasions 5–16 weeks apart. Results The average difference in the binding potential (BPND) as measured on the two occasions in the frontal and temporal cortical regions ranged between 2 and 12%, with the lowest intraclass correlation coefficient in anterior cingulate regions. Conclusion We conclude that the test-retest variability of [18F]-setoperone PET in elderly subjects is comparable to that of [18F]-setoperone and other 5HT2AR radiotracers in younger subject samples. PMID:19580676

  7. The paradox of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine: an indoleamine hallucinogen that induces stimulus control via 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Winter, J C; Filipink, R A; Timineri, D; Helsley, S E; Rabin, R A

    2000-01-01

    Stimulus control was established in rats trained to discriminate either 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (3 mg/kg) or (-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (0.56 mg/kg) from saline. Tests of antagonism of stimulus control were conducted using the 5-HT1A antagonists (+/-)-pindolol and WAY-100635, and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist pirenperone. In rats trained with 5-MeO-DMT, pindolol and WAY-100635 both produced a significant degree of antagonism of stimulus control, but pirenperone was much less effective. Likewise, the full generalization of 5-MeO-DMT to the selective 5-HT1A agonist [+/-]-8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin was blocked by WAY-100635, but unaffected by pirenperone. In contrast, the partial generalization of 5-MeO-DMT to the 5-HT2 agonist DOM was completely antagonized by pirenperone, but was unaffected by WAY-100635. Similarly, in rats trained with (-)-DOM, pirenperone completely blocked stimulus control, but WAY-100635 was inactive. The results obtained in rats trained with (-)-DOM and tested with 5-MeO-DMT were more complex. Although the intraperitoneal route had been used for both training drugs, a significant degree of generalization of (-)-DOM to 5-MeO-DMT was seen only when the latter drug was administered subcutaneously. Furthermore, when the previously effective dose of pirenperone was given in combination with 5-MeO-DMT (s.c.), complete suppression of responding resulted. However, the combination of pirenperone and WAY-100635 given prior to 5-MeO-DMT restored responding in (-)-DOM-trained rats, and provided evidence of antagonism of the partial substitution of 5-MeO-DMT for (-)-DOM. The present data indicate that 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control is mediated primarily by interactions with 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, however, the present findings suggest that 5-MeO-DMT induces a compound stimulus that includes an element mediated by interactions with a 5-HT2 receptors. The latter component is not essential for 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus

  8. Sleep and EEG power spectrum effects of the 5-HT1A antagonist NAN-190 alone and in combination with citalopram.

    PubMed

    Neckelmann, D; Bjørkum, A A; Bjorvatn, B; Ursin, R

    1996-02-01

    The sleep and waking and EEG power spectrum effects of the putative 5-HT1A antagonist NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were studied alone and in co-administration with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in the rat. Citalopram, as in a prior dose-response study, reduced REM sleep. In addition, a slight increase in NREM sleep was observed. Citalopram reduced NREM fronto-parietal (FP) EEG power density in the 5-20 Hz range. When administered alone, NAN-190 suppressed REM sleep in the first 2 h, and reduced SWS-2 in the first 4 after administration. NAN-190 also suppressed selectively NREM sleep slow-wave activity in both fronto-frontal (FF) and FP EEG power spectrum. When administered in combination with citalopram, an attenuation of the power density reduction in the 7-15 Hz range in the FF EEG of citalopram alone, was observed. However, the EEG power spectral density and REM sleep suppressive effects of NAN-190 were both augmented. The results are compatible with the notion that serotonin is involved in the modulation of the slow wave activity in the EEG during NREM sleep. The results are cordant with other data suggesting that postsynaptic 5-HT1A stimulation might increase slow wave activity in the NREM EEG, and that serotonergic stimulation of other receptor subtypes (possibly 5-HT2) may decrease slow wave activity in the NREM EEG.

  9. Effect of Sarizotan, a 5-HT1a and D2-Like Receptor Agonist, on Respiration in Three Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Ana P.; Lioy, Daniel T.; Garg, Saurabh K.; Knopp, Sharon J.; Paton, Julian F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances in respiration are common and debilitating features of Rett syndrome (RTT). A previous study showed that the 5-HT1a receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) significantly reduced the incidence of apnea and the irregular breathing pattern in a mouse model of the disorder. 8-OH-DPAT, however, is not available for clinical practice. Sarizotan, a full 5-HT1a agonist and a dopamine D2–like agonist/partial agonist, has been used in clinical trials for the treatment of l-dopa–induced dyskinesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sarizotan on respiration and locomotion in mouse models of RTT. Studies were performed in Bird and Jaenisch strains of methyl-CpG–binding protein 2-–deficient heterozygous female and Jaenisch strain Mecp2 null male mice and in knock-in heterozygous female mice of a common nonsense mutation (R168X). Respiratory pattern was determined with body plethysmography, and locomotion was determined with open-field recording. Sarizotan or vehicle was administered 20 minutes before a 30-minute recording of respiratory pattern or motor behavior. In separate studies, a crossover design was used to administer the drug for 7 and for 14 days. Sarizotan reduced the incidence of apnea in all three RTT mouse models to approximately 15% of their pretreatment levels. The irregular breathing pattern was corrected to that of wild-type littermates. When administered for 7 or 14 days, apnea decreased to 25 to 33% of the incidence seen with vehicle. This study indicates that the clinically approved drug sarizotan is an effective treatment for respiratory disorders in mouse models of RTT. PMID:24351104

  10. Third Trimester Equivalent Alcohol Exposure Reduces Modulation of Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission by 5-HT1A Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders that have been linked to altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling, including depression and anxiety. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy) 5-HT neurons undergo significant functional maturation and their axons reach target regions in the forebrain (e.g., cortex and hippocampus). The objective of this study was to identify the effects of third trimester ethanol (EtOH) exposure on hippocampal 5-HT signaling. Using EtOH vapor inhalation chambers, we exposed rat pups to EtOH for 4 h/day from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. The average serum EtOH concentration in the pups was 0.13 ± 0.04 g/dl (legal intoxication limit in humans = 0.08 g/dl). We used brain slices to assess the modulatory actions of 5-HT on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the hippocampal CA3 region at P13-P15. Application of the GABAA/glycine receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, caused broadening of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), an effect that was reversed by application of 5-HT in slices from air exposed rats. However, this effect of 5-HT was absent in EtOH exposed animals. In slices from naïve animals, application of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist blocked the effect of 5-HT on the fEPSPs recorded in presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that third trimester ethanol exposure acts by inhibiting the function of these receptors. Studies indicate that 5-HT1A receptors play a critical role in the development of hippocampal circuits. Therefore, inhibition of these receptors by third trimester ethanol exposure could contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:27375424

  11. Ex vivo study of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists and antagonists on cAMP accumulation during memory formation and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Perez-García, G; Meneses, A

    2008-12-16

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a second messenger and a central component of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate a wide range of biological functions, including memory. Hence, in this work, firstly the time-course of memory formation was determined in an autoshaping learning task, which had allowed the identification of testing times for increases or decreases in performance. Next, untrained, trained and overtrained groups were compared in cAMP production. Moreover, selective stimulation and antagonism of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors during memory formation and cAMP production were determined. Finally, since there is scarce information about how pharmacological models of amnesia affect cAMP production, the cholinergic or glutamatergic antagonists, scopolamine and dizocilpine, were tested. The major findings of this work showed that when the time-course was determined inasmuch as training and testing sessions occurred, memory performance was graduate and progressive. Notably, for the fourth to seventh (i.e., 48-120 h following autoshaping training session) testing session performance was significantly higher from the previous ones. When animals received 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists and antagonists or amnesic drugs significant increases or decrements in memory performance were observed at 24 and 48 h. Moreover, when ex vivo cAMP production from trained and overtrained groups were compared to untrained ones, significant differences were observed among groups and brain areas. Trained animals treated with 8-OHDPAT, AS19, 8-OHDPAT plus AS19, WAY100635, SB-269970, scopolamine or dizocilpine were compared to similar untrained groups, and eightfold-reduced cAMP production was evident, showing the importance of cAMP production in the signaling case in mammalian memory formation.

  12. Effect of Sarizotan, a 5-HT1a and D2-like receptor agonist, on respiration in three mouse models of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdala, Ana P; Lioy, Daniel T; Garg, Saurabh K; Knopp, Sharon J; Paton, Julian F R; Bissonnette, John M

    2014-06-01

    Disturbances in respiration are common and debilitating features of Rett syndrome (RTT). A previous study showed that the 5-HT1a receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) significantly reduced the incidence of apnea and the irregular breathing pattern in a mouse model of the disorder. 8-OH-DPAT, however, is not available for clinical practice. Sarizotan, a full 5-HT1a agonist and a dopamine D2-like agonist/partial agonist, has been used in clinical trials for the treatment of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sarizotan on respiration and locomotion in mouse models of RTT. Studies were performed in Bird and Jaenisch strains of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2--deficient heterozygous female and Jaenisch strain Mecp2 null male mice and in knock-in heterozygous female mice of a common nonsense mutation (R168X). Respiratory pattern was determined with body plethysmography, and locomotion was determined with open-field recording. Sarizotan or vehicle was administered 20 minutes before a 30-minute recording of respiratory pattern or motor behavior. In separate studies, a crossover design was used to administer the drug for 7 and for 14 days. Sarizotan reduced the incidence of apnea in all three RTT mouse models to approximately 15% of their pretreatment levels. The irregular breathing pattern was corrected to that of wild-type littermates. When administered for 7 or 14 days, apnea decreased to 25 to 33% of the incidence seen with vehicle. This study indicates that the clinically approved drug sarizotan is an effective treatment for respiratory disorders in mouse models of RTT.

  13. Cannabidiol inhibits the reward-facilitating effect of morphine: involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Katsidoni, Vicky; Anagnostou, Ilektra; Panagis, George

    2013-03-01

    Cannabidiol is a non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa, which induces central effects in rodents. It has been shown that cannabidiol attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. However, to the best of our knowledge, its effects on brain stimulation reward and the reward-facilitating effects of drugs of abuse have not yet been examined. Therefore, we investigated the effects of cannabidiol on brain reward function and on the reward-facilitating effect of morphine and cocaine using the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm. Rats were prepared with a stimulating electrode into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), and a guide cannula into the dorsal raphe (microinjection experiments), and were trained to respond for electrical brain stimulation. A low dose of cannabidiol did not affect the reinforcing efficacy of brain stimulation, whereas higher doses significantly elevated the threshold frequency required for MFB ICSS. Both cocaine and morphine lowered ICSS thresholds. Cannabidiol inhibited the reward-facilitating effect of morphine, but not cocaine. This effect was reversed by pre-treatment with an intra-dorsal raphe injection of the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635. The present findings indicate that cannabidiol does not exhibit reinforcing properties in the ICSS paradigm at any of the doses tested, while it decreases the reward-facilitating effects of morphine. These effects were mediated by activation of 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal raphe. Our results suggest that cannabidiol interferes with brain reward mechanisms responsible for the expression of the acute reinforcing properties of opioids, thus indicating that cannabidiol may be clinically useful in attenuating the rewarding effects of opioids.

  14. Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT1A receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Sara Jane; McAllister, Sean D; Kawamura, Rumi; Murase, Ryuchi; Neelakantan, Harshini; Walker, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Paclitaxel (PAC) is associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CIPN) that can lead to the cessation of treatment in cancer patients even in the absence of alternate therapies. We previously reported that chronic administration of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) prevents PAC-induced mechanical and thermal sensitivity in mice. Hence, we sought to determine receptor mechanisms by which CBD inhibits CIPN and whether CBD negatively effects nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy. Experimental Approach The ability of acute CBD pretreatment to prevent PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was assessed, as was the effect of CBD on place conditioning and on an operant-conditioned learning and memory task. The potential interaction of CBD and PAC on breast cancer cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Key Results PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was prevented by administration of CBD (2.5 – 10 mg·kg−1) in female C57Bl/6 mice. This effect was reversed by co-administration of the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635, but not the CB1 antagonist SR141716 or the CB2 antagonist SR144528. CBD produced no conditioned rewarding effects and did not affect conditioned learning and memory. Also, CBD + PAC combinations produce additive to synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Conclusions and Implications Our data suggest that CBD is protective against PAC-induced neurotoxicity mediated in part by the 5-HT1A receptor system. Furthermore, CBD treatment was devoid of conditioned rewarding effects or cognitive impairment and did not attenuate PAC-induced inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Hence, adjunct treatment with CBD during PAC chemotherapy may be safe and effective in the prevention or attenuation of CIPN. PMID:24117398

  15. Differential effects of protein kinase C activation on 5-HT1A receptor coupling to Ca2+ and K+ currents in rat serotonergic neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Penington, N J

    1996-01-01

    1. Activation of the enzyme protein kinase C (PKC) partially uncouples receptors from the inhibition of Ca2+ current. We have studied the effect of PKC activation on 5-HT1A receptor coupling of Ca2+ currents and 5-HT-induced K+ current (IK,5-HT) in acutely isolated adult rat dorsal raphe neurones. 2. The phorbol ester 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA; 1 microM) did not significantly alter the peak Ca2+ current. A maximal dose of 5-HT inhibited Ca2+ current on average by 52%; after application of PMA, the inhibition was only 30% and the effect was irreversible for the duration of the experiment. 3. The inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol (1 microM) did not reduce the effectiveness of 5-HT. When the kinase inhibitor staurosporine (ST; 200 nM) was added, PMA reduced the effect of 5-HT by only 13.9%. ST partially prevented or reversed the effect of PMA, depending on the order of addition. 4. The voltage-dependent rate or re-inhibition by 5-HT was reduced by PMA, suggesting that fewer activated G-protein subunits are available to interact with Ca2+ channel after the action of PMA. 5. In contrast, PMA (1 microM) did not have a significant effect on IK,5-HT. 6. PKC activation has an inhibitory effect on one branch of the 5-HT1A receptor transduction fork, namely inhibition of Ca2+ influx, but not on the activation of IK,5-HT. PMID:8910201

  16. The spleen is required for 5-HT1A receptor agonist-mediated increases in mean circulatory filling pressure during hemorrhagic shock in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tiniakov, Ruslan; Scrogin, Karie E

    2009-05-01

    The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8- OH-DPAT, increases whole body venous tone (mean circulatory filling pressure; MCFP), and attenuates metabolic acidosis in a rat model of unresuscitated hemorrhagic shock. To determine whether improved acid-base balance was associated with sympathetic activation and venous constriction, MCFP, sympathetic activity (SA), and blood gases were compared in hemorrhaged rats following administration of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT, the arterial vasoconstrictor arginine vasopressin (AVP), or saline. To further determine whether protection of acid-base balance was dependent on splenic contraction and blood mobilization, central venous pressure (CVP), MCFP, and blood gases were determined during hemorrhage and subsequent 8-OH-DPAT-administration in rats subjected to real or sham splenectomy. Subjects were hemorrhaged to an arterial pressure of 50 mmHg for 25 min and subsequently were treated with 8-OH-DPAT (30 nmol/kg iv), AVP titrated to match the pressor effect of 8-OH-DPAT (approximately 2 ng/min iv), or infusion of normal saline. 8-OH-DPAT increased MAP, CVP, MCFP, and SA, and decreased lactate accumulation. AVP did not affect CVP or SA, but raised MCFP slightly to a level intermediate between 8-OH-DPAT- and saline-treated rats. Infusion of AVP also produced a modest protection against metabolic acidosis. Splenectomy prevented the rise in CVP, MCFP, and protection against metabolic acidosis produced by 8-OH-DPAT but had no effect on the immediate pressor response to the drug. Together, the data indicate that 8-OH-DPAT produces a pattern of cardiovascular responses consistent with a sympathetic-mediated venoconstriction that is, in part, responsible for the drug's beneficial effect on acid-base balance. Moreover, blood mobilization stimulated by the spleen is required for the beneficial effects of 8-OH-DPAT.

  17. Antidepressant- and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of New Dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Antagonists in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Pytka, Karolina; Partyka, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Mordyl, Barbara; Kazek, Grzegorz; Rapacz, Anna; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Błachuta, Marian; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Filipek, Barbara; Wesołowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further characterize pharmacological properties of two phenylpiperazine derivatives: 1-{2-[2-(2,6-dimethlphenoxy)ethoxy]ethyl}-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazynine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 2-[2-(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxy]ethyl-4-(2- methoxyphenyl)piperazynine dihydrochloride (HBK-15) in radioligand binding and functional in vitro assays as well as in vivo models. Antidepressant-like properties were investigated in the forced swim test (FST) in mice and rats. Anxiolytic-like activity was evaluated in the four-plate test in mice and elevated plus maze test (EPM) in rats. Imipramine and escitalopram were used as reference drugs in the FST, and diazepam was used as a standard anxiolytic drug in animal models of anxiety. Our results indicate that HBK-14 and HBK-15 possess high or moderate affinity for serotonergic 5-HT2, adrenergic α1, and dopaminergic D2 receptors as well as being full 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists. We also present their potent antidepressant-like activity (HBK-14—FST mice: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; FST rats: 5 mg/kg) and (HBK-15—FST mice: 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; FST rats: 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg). We show that HBK-14 (four-plate test: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; EPM: 2.5 mg/kg) and HBK-15 (four-plate test: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; EPM: 5 mg/kg) possess anxiolytic-like properties. Among the two, HBK-15 has stronger antidepressant-like properties, and HBK-14 displays greater anxiolytic-like activity. Lastly, we demonstrate the involvement of serotonergic system, particularly 5-HT1A receptor, in the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions of investigated compounds. PMID:26554929

  18. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders.

  19. Involvement of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Quercitrin and Evidence of the Involvement of the Monoaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Liu, Qian-tong; Chen, Yi; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jin-li; Liu, Yong; Guo, Jian-you

    2016-01-01

    Quercitrin is a well-known flavonoid that is contained in Flos Albiziae, which has been used for the treatment of anxiety. The present study investigated the anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin in experimental models of anxiety. Compared with the control group, repeated treatment with quercitrin (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for seven days significantly increased the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In the light/dark box test, quercitrin exerted an anxiolytic-like effect at 5 and 10 mg/kg. In the marble-burying test, quercitrin (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) also exerted an anxiolytic-like effect. Furthermore, quercitrin did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity. The anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin in the elevated plus maze and light/dark box test were blocked by the serotonin-1A (5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT1A)) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) but not by the γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor antagonist flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The levels of brain monoamines (5-HT and dopamine) and their metabolites (5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid) were decreased after quercitrin treatment. These data suggest that the anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin might be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors but not by benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors. The results of the neurochemical studies suggest that these effects are mediated by modulation of the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters. PMID:27298626

  20. Enhanced effects of amphetamine but reduced effects of the hallucinogen, 5-MeO-DMT, on locomotor activity in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice: implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    van den Buuse, Maarten; Ruimschotel, Emma; Martin, Sally; Risbrough, Victoria B; Halberstadt, Adam L

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors may play a role in schizophrenia and the effects of certain antipsychotic drugs. However, the mechanism of interaction of 5-HT(1A) receptors with brain systems involved in schizophrenia, remains unclear. Here we show that 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice display enhanced locomotor hyperactivity to acute treatment with amphetamine, a widely used animal model of hyperdopaminergic mechanisms in psychosis. In contrast, the effect of MK-801 on locomotor activity, modeling NMDA receptor hypoactivity, was unchanged in the knockouts. The effect of the hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) was markedly reduced in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice. There were no changes in apomorphine-induced disruption of PPI, a model of sensory gating deficits seen in schizophrenia. Similarly, there were no major changes in density of dopamine transporters (DAT) or dopamine D(1) or D(2) receptors which could explain the behavioural changes observed in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice. These results extend our insight into the possible role of these receptors in aspects of schizophrenia. As also suggested by previous studies using agonist and antagonist drugs, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play an important role in hallucinations and to modulate dopaminergic activity in the brain.

  1. The atypical 5-HT2 receptor mediating tachycardia in pithed rats: pharmacological correlation with the 5-HT2A receptor subtype

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Ortiz, Mario I; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2002-01-01

    In pithed rats, 5-HT mediates tachycardia both directly (by 5-HT2 receptors) and indirectly (by a tyramine-like effect). The receptor mediating tachycardia directly has been classified as an ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptor since it was ‘weakly' blocked by ketanserin. Moreover, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT2 agonist, failed to mimic 5-HT-induced tachycardia. Since 5-HT2 receptors consist of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C subtypes, this study investigated if these subtypes mediate the above response. In pithed rats, intraperitoneally (i.p.) pre-treated with reserpine (5 mg kg−1), intravenous (i.v.) administration of 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-T), 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (10, 30, 100 and 300 μg kg−1 each), produced dose-dependent tachycardic responses. Interestingly, DOI (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.) induced only slight, dose-unrelated, tachycardic responses, whilst the 5-HT2C agonist, Ro 60-0175 (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.), produced a slight tachycardia only at 300 and 1000 μg kg−1. In contrast, sumatriptan and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)- piperazine (TFMPP) were inactive. The rank order of potency was: 5-HT⩾5-MeO-T> mCPP⩾5-CT⩾DOI>Ro 60-0175. The tachycardic responses to 5-HT, which remained unaffected after i.v. saline (0.3 and 1 ml kg−1) or propranolol (3 mg kg−1), were selectively blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonists ketanserin (30 and 100 μg kg−1) or spiperone (10 and 30 μg kg−1) as well as by the non-selective 5-HT2 antagonists, ritanserin (10 and 30 μg kg−1) or mesulergine (100 μg kg−1). Remarkably, these responses were unaffected by the antagonists rauwolscine (5-HT2B), SB204741 (5-HT2B/2C) or Ro 04-6790 (5-ht6) (300 and 1000 μg kg−1 each). These results suggest that the ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptors mediating tachycardia in reserpinized pithed rats are pharmacologically similar to the 5-HT2A

  2. Effects of imipramine and bupropion on the duration of immobility of ACTH-treated rats in the forced swim test: involvement of the expression of 5-HT2A receptor mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Fujitani, Yoshika; Kitagawa, Kouhei; Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Sagara, Hidenori; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Sendo, Toshiaki; Gomita, Yutaka

    2008-02-01

    We examined the effect of chronic administration of imipramine and bupropion, monoamine reuptake inhibitors, on the duration of immobility in the forced swim test and serotonin (5-HT)(2A) receptor function in the form of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA levels in rats chronically treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The immobility-decreasing effect of bupropion without imipramine did not influence the chronic ACTH treatment. The effect on the expression of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA of chronic ACTH treatment was decreased by bupropion, but not imipramine. These results suggest that bupropion has the effect of reducing immobility time in the forced swim test in the tricyclic antidepressant-resistant depressive model induced by chronic ACTH treatment in rats, and that decreased 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA levels may be involved in this phenomenon.

  3. Comparison of the anti-dopamine D₂ and anti-serotonin 5-HT(2A) activities of chlorpromazine, bromperidol, haloperidol and second-generation antipsychotics parent compounds and metabolites thereof.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics, which have become the standard drug therapies for schizophrenia, are known to have a serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor blocking effect in addition to a dopamine D₂ receptor blocking effect. However, although chlorpromazine (CPZ) has a 5-HT(2A) receptor blocking effect and has the profile of a second-generation antipsychotic in vitro, it loses this pharmacological profile in vivo. In order to elucidate the differences between the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological characteristics of CPZ, we used a radioreceptor assay to measure the anti-D₂ activity and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity of CPZ and five major metabolites of CPZ, and compared the results to the anti-D₂ activity and anti-5-HT(2A) activity of risperidone, zotepine, perospirone, the major metabolites of each of these drugs, and olanzapine, bromperidol, and haloperidol. The subjects were 182 patients who had received diagnoses of schizophrenia based on the DSM-IV criteria. The results revealed that CPZ exhibited little anti-5-HT(2A) activity, regardless of the anti-D₂ activity level, and that none of the metabolites possessed anti-5-HT(2A) activity. However, both the parent compounds and the metabolites of each of the second-generation antipsychotics possessed both anti-D₂ activity and anti-5-HT(2A) activity. This clarified that, unlike second-generation antipsychotics, the reason CPZ loses its second-generation antipsychotic profiles in vivo is because it does not have any metabolites that possess anti-5-HT(2A) activity.

  4. Effects of the serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor ligands on the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Magdalena; McCreary, Andrew C; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Malgorzata

    2007-10-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that serotonergic (5-HT) 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors or their pharmacological stimulation modulated the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in male Wistar rats. To this end the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist R-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-4-piperidinemethanol (M100,907; 0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), the functional 5-HT2A receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI; 0.1-1 mg/kg, s.c.), the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist 6-chloro-5-methyl-1-{[2-(2-methylpyrid-3-yloxy)pyrid-5-yl]carbamoyl}indoline (SB 242,084; 0.25-1 mg/kg, i.p.) and the 5-HT2C receptor agonists (S)-2-chloro-5-fluoro-indol-1-yl)-1-methylethylamine fumarate (Ro 60-0175; 0.3-1 mg/kg, s.c.) and (7bR, 10aR)-1,2,3,4,8,9,10,10a-octahydro-7bH-cyclopenta-[b][1,4]diazepino[6,7,1hi]indole (WAY 163,909; 0.75-1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were used. Additionally, the effects of the selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype agonist 5-iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-IA; 0.01 mg/kg, s.c.) were investigated. In rats trained to discriminate (-)-nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) from saline in a two-lever, water-reinforced fixed ratio 10 task, substitutions were not observed with 5-HT2 receptor ligands (<32% nicotine-lever responding), conversely 5-IA induced a full substitution (100% nicotine-lever responding). In combination studies, fixed doses of M100,907 (0.5-1 mg/kg) or SB 242,084 (0.25-1 mg/kg) did not alter the dose-response curve of nicotine, while DOI (0.3 mg/kg), Ro 60-0175 (1 mg/kg) and WAY 163,909 (1 and 1.5 mg/kg) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. The decrease in the expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine produced by DOI was blocked by M100,907 (1 mg/kg), but not by SB 242,084 (1 mg/kg), while that evoked by Ro 60-0175 or WAY 163,909 was blocked by SB 242,084 (1 mg/kg), but not by M100,907 (1 mg/kg). Further studies showed that

  5. The effects of the preferential 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on prepulse inhibition of startle in healthy human volunteers depend on interstimulus interval.

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, Franz X; Csomor, Philipp A; Knappe, Bernhard; Geyer, Mark A; Quednow, Boris B

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists are used for animal models of schizophrenia because they mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia in humans and induce PPI deficits in animals. Nevertheless, one report indicates that the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist psilocybin increases PPI in healthy humans. Hence, we investigated these inconsistent results by assessing the dose-dependent effects of psilocybin on PPI in healthy humans. Sixteen subjects each received placebo or 115, 215, and 315 microg/kg of psilocybin at 4-week intervals in a randomized and counterbalanced order. PPI at 30-, 60-, 120-, 240-, and 2000-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) was measured 90 and 165 min after drug intake, coinciding with the peak and post-peak effects of psilocybin. The effects of psilocybin on psychopathological core dimensions and sustained attention were assessed by the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (5D-ASC) and the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR). Psilocybin dose-dependently reduced PPI at short (30 ms), had no effect at medium (60 ms), and increased PPI at long (120-2000 ms) ISIs, without affecting startle reactivity or habituation. Psilocybin dose-dependently impaired sustained attention and increased all 5D-ASC scores with exception of Auditory Alterations. Moreover, psilocybin-induced impairments in sustained attention performance were positively correlated with reduced PPI at the 30 ms ISI and not with the concomitant increases in PPI observed at long ISIs. These results confirm the psilocybin-induced increase in PPI at long ISIs and reveal that psilocybin also produces a decrease in PPI at short ISIs that is correlated with impaired attention and consistent with deficient PPI in schizophrenia.

  6. Variation in Dopamine D2 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Genes is Associated with Working Memory Processing and Response to Treatment with Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Pierluigi; Fazio, Leonardo; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Taurisano, Paolo; Masellis, Rita; Romano, Raffaella; Mancini, Marina; Zhang, Fengyu; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Apud, Jose; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors contribute to modulate prefrontal cortical physiology and response to treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Similarly, functional variation in the genes encoding these receptors is also associated with these phenotypes. In particular, the DRD2 rs1076560 T allele predicts a lower ratio of expression of D2 short/long isoforms, suboptimal working memory processing, and better response to antipsychotic treatment compared with the G allele. Furthermore, the HTR2A T allele is associated with lower 5-HT2A expression, impaired working memory processing, and poorer response to antipsychotics compared with the C allele. Here, we investigated in healthy subjects whether these functional polymorphisms have a combined effect on prefrontal cortical physiology and related cognitive behavior linked to schizophrenia as well as on response to treatment with second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. In a total sample of 620 healthy subjects, we found that subjects with the rs1076560 T and rs6314 T alleles have greater fMRI prefrontal activity during working memory. Similar results were obtained within the attentional domain. Also, the concomitant presence of the rs1076560 T/rs6314 T alleles also predicted lower behavioral accuracy during working memory. Moreover, we found that rs1076560 T carrier/rs6314 CC individuals had better responses to antipsychotic treatment in two independent samples of patients with schizophrenia (n=63 and n=54, respectively), consistent with the previously reported separate effects of these genotypes. These results indicate that DRD2 and HTR2A genetic variants together modulate physiological prefrontal efficiency during working memory and also modulate the response to antipsychotics. Therefore, these results suggest that further exploration is needed to better understand the clinical consequences of these genotype–phenotype relationships. PMID:25563748

  7. Effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake inhibition plus 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism on the firing activity of norepinephrine neurons.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Steven T; Blier, Pierre

    2002-09-01

    YM992 [(S)-2-[[(7-fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride] is a selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a potent 5-HT(2A) antagonist. The aim of the present study was to assess, using in vivo extracellular unitary recordings, the effect of acute and sustained administration of YM992 (40 mg kg(-1) day(-1) s.c., using osmotic minipumps) on the spontaneous firing activity of locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE) neurons. Acute intravenous injection of YM992 (4 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased NE neuron firing activity by 29% and blocked the inhibitory effect of a subsequent injection of the 5-HT(2) agonist DOI [1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride]. A 2-day treatment with YM992 decreased the firing rate of NE neurons by 66%, whereas a partial recovery was observed after a 7-day treatment and a complete one after a 21-day treatment. Following the injection of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (1 mg kg(-1) i.v.), NE neuron firing was equalized in controls and 2-day YM992-treated rats. This put into evidence an increased degree of activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors in the treated rats. The suppressant effect of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine was significantly decreased in long-term YM992-treated rats. The recovery of LC firing activity after long-term YM992 administration could thus be explained by a decreased sensitivity of alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors. Sustained SSRI administration leads to a gradual reduction of the firing activity of NE neurons during long-term administration, whereas YM992 produced opposite effects. The exact basis for the increased synaptic availability of NE by YM992 remains to be elucidated. This NE activity, resulting from 5-HT reuptake inhibition plus 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism, might confer additional benefits in affective and anxiety disorders.

  8. Clozapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole but not haloperidol protect against kainic acid-induced lesion of the striatum in mice, in vivo: role of 5-HT1A receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Cosi, Cristina; Waget, Aurelie; Rollet, Karin; Tesori, Valentina; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2005-05-10

    Excessive activation of non-NMDA receptors, AMPA and kainate, contributes to neuronal degeneration in acute and progressive pathologies, possibly including schizophrenia. Because 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists have neuroprotective properties (e.g., against NMDA-induced neurotoxicity), we compared the effects of the antipsychotics, clozapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole, that are partial agonists at 5-HT(1A) receptor, with those of haloperidol, which is devoid of 5-HT(1A) agonist properties, on kainic acid (KA)-induced striatal lesion volumes, in C57Bl/6N mice. The involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors was determined by antagonist studies with WAY100635, and data were compared with those obtained using the potent and high efficacy 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, F13714. Intra-striatal KA lesioning and measurement of lesion volumes using cresyl violet staining were carried out at 48 h after surgery. F13714, antipsychotics or vehicle were administered ip twice, 30 min before and 3 1/2 h after KA injection. WAY100635 (0.63 mg/kg) or vehicle were given sc 30 min before each drug injection. Clozapine (2 x 10 mg/kg), ziprasidone (2 x 20 mg/kg) and aripiprazole (2 x 10 mg/kg) decreased lesion volume by 61%, 59% and 73%, respectively. WAY100635 antagonized the effect of ziprasidone and of aripiprazole but only slightly attenuated that of clozapine. In contrast, haloperidol (2 x 0.16 mg/kg) did not affect KA-induced lesion volume. F13714 dose-dependently decreased lesion volume. The 61% decrease of lesion volume obtained with F13714 (2 x 0.63 mg/kg) was antagonized by WAY100635. WAY100635 alone did not affect lesion volume. These results show that 5-HT(1A) receptor activation protects against KA-induced striatal lesions and indicate that some atypical antipsychotic agents with 5-HT(1A) agonist properties may protect against excitotoxic injury, in vivo.

  9. 5-HT1A/1B Receptors as Targets for Optimizing Pigmentary Responses in C57BL/6 Mouse Skin to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua-Li; Pang, Si-Lin; Liu, Qiong-Zhen; Wang, Qian; Cai, Min-Xuan; Shang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been reported to induce alterations of skin pigmentary response. Acute stress is associated with increased turnover of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) whereas chronic stress causes a decrease. 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells, indicating their role in skin pigmentation. To ascertain the precise role of 5-HT in stress-induced pigmentary responses, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CRS and CUMS, two models of chronic stress) for 21 days, finally resulting in abnormal pigmentary responses. Subsequently, stressed mice were characterized by the absence of a black pigment in dorsal coat. The down-regulation of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2) expression in stressed skin was accompanied by reduced levels of 5-HT and decreased expression of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) system. In both murine B16F10 melanoma cells and normal human melanocytes (NHMCs), 5-HT had a stimulatory effect on melanin production, dendricity and migration. When treated with 5-HT in cultured hair follicles (HFs), the increased expression of melanogenesis-related genes and the activation of 5-HT1A, 1B and 7 receptors also occurred. The serum obtained from stressed mice showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity in NHMCs compared to that from nonstressed mice. The decrease in tyrosinase activity was further augmented in the presence of 5-HTR1A, 1B and 7 antagonists, WAY100635, SB216641 and SB269970. In vivo, stressed mice received 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a member of the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine; FX) and 5-HTR1A/1B agonists (8-OH-DPAT/CP94253), finally contributing to the normalization of pigmentary responses. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the serotoninergic system plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced depigmentation, which can be mediated by 5-HT1A/1B receptors. 5-HT and 5-HTR1A

  10. Central amygdala nicotinic and 5-HT1A receptors mediate the reversal effect of nicotine and MDMA on morphine-induced amnesia.

    PubMed

    Tirgar, F; Rezayof, A; Zarrindast, M-R

    2014-09-26

    The present study was designed to investigate possible involvement of the central amygdala (CeA) nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptors in the reversal effect of nicotine and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) on morphine-induced amnesia. Two guide cannulas were stereotaxically implanted in the CeA regions and a step-through passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retrieval in adult male Wistar rats. Our results indicated that post-training s.c. administration of morphine (3-7-mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test administration of nicotine (0.3- and 0.5-mg/kg, s.c.) reversed morphine-induced amnesia. In addition, pre-test intra-CeA injection of MDMA (1-2-μg/rat) with an ineffective dose of nicotine (0.1-mg/kg, s.c.) improved memory retrieval, suggesting the interactive effect of the drugs on memory formation. It should be noted that that pre-test intra-CeA injection of 2-μg/rat of MDMA by itself produced amnesia. Interestingly, pre-test intra-CeA injection of mecamylamine, a nACh receptor antagonist (1-2-μg/rat) or (S)-WAY 100135 (0.25-1-μg/rat), a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist inhibited the improvement of morphine-induced amnesia which was produced by pre-test co-injection of nicotine and MDMA. Pre-test intra-CeA injection of the same doses of MDMA, mecamylamine or (S)-WAY 100135 by itself had no effect on morphine-induced amnesia. Moreover, pre-test injection of the same doses of mecamylamine or (S)-WAY 100135 into the CeA alone could not change memory retrieval. Taken together, it can be concluded that there is a functional interaction between morphine, nicotine and MDMA via the CeA nicotinic and serotonergic receptor mechanisms in passive avoidance memory retrieval. Moreover, cross state-dependent memory retrieval may have been induced between the drugs and this probably depends on the rewarding effects of the drugs.

  11. Activation of 5-HT1A receptors in the rat dorsomedial hypothalamus inhibits stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Stamper, Christopher E; Hassell, James E; Kapitz, Adam J; Renner, Kenneth J; Orchinik, Miles; Lowry, Christopher A

    2017-03-27

    Acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to the release of corticosteroid hormones into the circulation, is an adaptive response to perceived threats. Persistent activation of the HPA axis can lead to impaired physiological or behavioral function with maladaptive consequences. Thus, efficient control and termination of stress responses is essential for well-being. However, inhibitory control mechanisms governing the HPA axis are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that serotonergic systems, acting within the medial hypothalamus, play an important role in inhibitory control of stress-induced HPA axis activity. To test this hypothesis, we surgically implanted chronic jugular cannulae in adult male rats and conducted bilateral microinjection of vehicle or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; 8 nmol, 0.2 μL, 0.1 μL/min, per side) into the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) immediately prior to a 40 min period of restraint stress. Repeated blood sampling was conducted using an automated blood sampling system and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bilateral intra-DMH microinjections of 8-OH-DPAT suppressed stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone within 10 min of the onset of handling prior to restraint and, as measured by area-under-the-curve analysis of plasma corticosterone concentrations, during the 40 min period of restraint. These data support an inhibitory role for serotonergic systems, acting within the DMH, on stress-induced activation of the HPA axis. Lay summary: Inhibitory control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone response is important for well-being. One neurochemical implicated in inhibitory control of the HPA axis is serotonin. In this study we show that activation of serotonin receptors, specifically inhibitory 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsomedial

  12. Citrus aurantium L. essential oil exhibits anxiolytic-like activity mediated by 5-HT1A-receptors and reduces cholesterol after repeated oral treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current treatments for anxiety disorders and depression have multiple adverse effects in addition to a delayed onset of action, which has prompted efforts to find new substances with potential activity in these disorders. Citrus aurantium was chosen based on ethnopharmacological data because traditional medicine refers to the Citrus genus as useful in diminishing the symptoms of anxiety or insomnia, and C. aurantium has more recently been proposed as an adjuvant for antidepressants. In the present work, we investigated the biological activity underlying the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of C. aurantium essential oil (EO), the putative mechanism of the anxiolytic-like effect, and the neurochemical changes in specific brain structures of mice after acute treatment. We also monitored the mice for possible signs of toxicity after a 14-day treatment. Methods The anxiolytic-like activity of the EO was investigated in a light/dark box, and the antidepressant activity was investigated in a forced swim test. Flumazenil, a competitive antagonist of benzodiazepine binding, and the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 were used in the experimental procedures to determine the mechanism of action of the EO. To exclude false positive results due to motor impairment, the mice were submitted to the rotarod test. Results The data suggest that the anxiolytic-like activity observed in the light/dark box procedure after acute (5 mg/kg) or 14-day repeated (1 mg/kg/day) dosing was mediated by the serotonergic system (5-HT1A receptors). Acute treatment with the EO showed no activity in the forced swim test, which is sensitive to antidepressants. A neurochemical evaluation showed no alterations in neurotransmitter levels in the cortex, the striatum, the pons, and the hypothalamus. Furthermore, no locomotor impairment or signs of toxicity or biochemical changes, except a reduction in cholesterol levels, were observed after treatment with the EO. Conclusion

  13. Alcohol intake in high alcohol drinking (HAD) rats is suppressed by FG5865, a novel 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Long, T A; Kalmus, G W; Björk, A; Myers, R D

    1996-01-01

    Both the 5-HT2 antagonist, FG5606 (amperozide), and the mixed 5-HT1 agonist/5-HT2 antagonist, FG5893, attenuate significantly the volitional intake of alcohol in the cyanamide treated rat. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect on alcohol drinking in the selectively bred, high alcohol drinking (HAD) rat of a new and novel 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2 antagonist, FG5865 (2-[4-[4,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)butyl]-1-piperazinyl]-3-pyridinecarboxy lic acid methyl ester), which shares pharmacological properties with FG5893. Initially, a standard three bottle preference test for water vs. 3% to 30% alcohol solutions was given over 11 days to determine the maximally preferred concentration for each animal. Then water and this solution, which ranged between 9% and 20% with an overall mean absolute intake of 6.3 +/- 0.5 g/kg per day, was offered over three consecutive 4-day test sequences: (1) predrug control; (2) SC injections b.i.d. of either 1.0 mg/kg or 2.5 mg/kg FG5865 or saline control vehicle; and (3) postdrug. Whereas saline failed to alter alcohol consumption of the HAD rats, FG5865 caused a significant dose dependent reduction by as much as 75% in the intakes of alcohol during its administration in terms of both g/kg (p < 0.01) and proportion of alcohol to total fluid intake (p < 0.01). During the administration of 2.5 mg/kg FG5865, alcohol drinking declined from 6.5 +/- 0.3 g/kg to as low as 2.3 +/- 0.2 g/kg per day. Neither the body weight of the HAD animals nor their intake of food was affected by either dose of FG5865. These results uphold the concept that the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the brain play a part in the aberrant drinking of alcohol of the HAD rat. Because FG5865 influences the activity of serotonergic neurons in the mesolimbic system of the rat, it is envisaged that the drug suppresses alcohol drinking by way of its action on these neurons.

  14. Contribution of the Striatum to the Effects of 5-HT1A Receptor Stimulation in L-DOPA-treated Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christopher; Krolewski, David M.; Eskow, Karen L.; Barnum, Christopher J.; Dupre, Kristin B.; Deak, Terrence; Walker, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies implicate the use of serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor agonists for the reduction of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID). Although raphe nuclei likely play a role in these antidyskinetic effects, an unexplored population of striatal 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR) may also contribute. To better characterize this mechanism, L-DOPA-primed hemiparkinsonian rats received the 5-HT1AR agonist ±8-OH-DPAT (0, 0.1, 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) with or without cotreatment with the 5-HT1AR antagonist WAY100635 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 5 min after L-DOPA, after which abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), rotations, and forelimb akinesia were quantified. To establish the effects of 5-HT1AR stimulation on L-DOPA-induced c-fos and preprodynorphin (PPD) mRNA within the dopamine-depleted striatum, immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively, were used. Finally, to determine the contribution of striatal 5-HT1AR to these effects, L-DOPA-primed hemiparkinsonian rats received bilateral intrastriatal microinfusions of ±8-OH-DPAT (0, 5, or 10 μg/side), WAY100635 (5 μg/side), or both (10 μg + 5 μg/side) 5 min after L-DOPA, after which AIMs and rotations were examined. Systemic ±8-OH-DPAT dose- and receptor-dependently attenuated L-DOPA-mediated AIMs and improved forelimb akinesia. Striatal c-fos immuno-reactivity and PPD mRNA ipsilateral to the lesion were strongly induced by L-DOPA, while ±8-OH-DPAT suppressed these effects. Finally, intrastriatal infusions of ±8-OH-DPAT reduced AIMs while coinfusion of WAY100635 reversed its antidyskinetic effect. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that the cellular and behavioral properties of 5-HT1AR agonists are conveyed in part via a population of functional 5-HT1AR within the striatum. PMID:19115412

  15. Decreased expression of Freud-1/CC2D1A, a transcriptional repressor of the 5-HT1A receptor, in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depression.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Albert, Paul R; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Fitzgibbon, Heidi; May, Warren L; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J; Stockmeier, Craig A; Woolverton, William L; Kyle, Patrick B; Wang, Zhixia; Austin, Mark C

    2010-09-01

    Serotonin1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors are reported altered in the brain of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies have identified transcriptional regulators of the 5-HT(1A) receptor and have documented gender-specific alterations in 5-HT(1A) transcription factor and 5-HT(1A) receptors in female MDD subjects. The 5' repressor element under dual repression binding protein-1 (Freud-1) is a calcium-regulated repressor that negatively regulates the 5-HT(1A) receptor gene. This study documented the cellular expression of Freud-1 in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) and quantified Freud-1 protein in the PFC of MDD and control subjects as well as in the PFC of rhesus monkeys chronically treated with fluoxetine. Freud-1 immunoreactivity was present in neurons and glia and was co-localized with 5-HT(1A) receptors. Freud-1 protein level was significantly decreased in the PFC of male MDD subjects (37%, p=0.02) relative to gender-matched control subjects. Freud-1 protein was