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Sample records for 5-ht2a receptor blockade

  1. Blockade of Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors Suppresses Behavioral Sensitization and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal Symptoms in Morphine-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Gang; Wu, Xian; Tao, Xinrong; Mao, Ruoying; Liu, Xueke; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Stackman, Robert W.; Dong, Liuyi; Zhang, Gongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prescription of opioids is fueling an epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths. Morphine is a highly addictive drug characterized by a high relapse rate – even after a long period of abstinence. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of morphine dependence, as well as the expression of morphine withdrawal. In this study, we examined the effect of blockade of 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in male mice. 5-HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed acute morphine (5.0 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced increase in locomotor activity. Mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of morphine (10 mg/kg) was administered to induce the expression of behavioral sensitization. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment suppressed the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice on day 7. Moreover, chronic morphine treatment increased 5-HT2AR protein level and decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these results by the first time demonstrate that 5-HT2ARs modulate opioid dependence and blockade of 5-HT2AR may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of morphine use disorders. Highlights (i) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. (ii) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-treated mice. (iii) Chronic morphine exposure induces an increase in 5-HT2A receptor protein level and a decrease in ERK protein phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex. PMID:28082900

  2. Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors attenuates the increased temperature response in brown adipose tissue to restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ootsuka, Youichirou; Blessing, William W; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that 5-HT2A receptors may be involved in the central control of thermoregulation and of the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to test whether these receptors mediate thermogenic and tachycardiac responses induced by acute psychological stress. Three groups of adult male Hooded Wistar rats were instrumented with: (i) a thermistor in the interscapular area (for recording brown adipose tissue temperature) and an ultrasound Doppler probe (to record tail blood flow); (ii) temperature dataloggers to record core body temperature; (iii) ECG electrodes. On the day of the experiment, rats were subjected to a 30-min restraint stress preceded by s.c. injection of either vehicle or SR-46349B (a serotonin 2A receptor antagonist) at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg. The restraint stress caused a rise in brown adipose tissue temperature (from, mean +/- s.e.m., 36.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C), transient cutaneous vasoconstriction (tail blood flow decreased from 12 +/- 2 to 5 +/- 1 cm/s), increase in heart rate (from 303 +/- 15 to 453 +/- 15 bpm at the peak, then reduced to 393 +/- 12 bpm at the steady state), and defaecation (6 +/- 1 pellets per restraint session). The core body temperature was not affected by the restraint. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors attenuated the increase in brown adipose tissue temperature and transient cutaneous vasoconstriction, but not tachycardia and defaecation elicited by restraint stress. These results indicate that psychological stress causes activation of 5-HT2A receptors in neural pathways that control thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue and facilitate cutaneous vasoconstriction.

  3. Insights into the regulation of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors by scaffolding proteins and kinases.

    PubMed

    Allen, John A; Yadav, Prem N; Roth, Bryan L

    2008-11-01

    5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors are essential molecular targets for the actions of LSD-like hallucinogens and atypical antipsychotic drugs. 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors also mediate a variety of physiological processes in peripheral and central nervous systems including platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, and the modulation of mood and perception. Scaffolding proteins have emerged as important regulators of 5-HT(2A) receptors and our recent studies suggest multiple scaffolds exist for 5-HT(2A) receptors including PSD95, arrestin, and caveolin. In addition, a novel interaction has emerged between p90 ribosomal S6 kinase and 5-HT(2A) receptors which attenuates receptor signaling. This article reviews our recent studies and emphasizes the role of scaffolding proteins and kinases in the regulation of 5-HT(2A) trafficking, targeting and signaling.

  4. Functions of 5-HT2A receptor and its antagonists in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Takafumi; Rashid, Mamunur; Abul Muntasir, Habib; Komiyama, Tadazumi

    2004-10-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have conventionally been divided into seven subfamilies, most of which have several subtypes. Among them, 5-HT(2A) receptor is associated with the contraction of vascular smooth muscle, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation and coronary artery spasms. Accordingly, selective 5-HT(2A) antagonists may have potential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist, has been introduced clinically as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic diseases associated with thrombosis. Molecular modeling studies also suggest that sarpogrelate is a 5-HT(2A) selective antagonist and is likely to have pharmacological effects beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review describes the above findings as well as the signaling linkages of the 5-HT(2A) receptors and the mode of agonist binding to 5-HT(2A) receptor using data derived from molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis.

  5. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  6. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori . E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.

  7. 5-HT2A receptors are involved in cognitive but not antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Castañé, Anna; Kargieman, Lucila; Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2015-08-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in cognitive and affective functions. It contains a rich serotonergic (serotonin, 5-HT) innervation and a high density of 5-HT receptors. Endogenous 5-HT exerts robust actions on the activity of pyramidal neurons in medial PFC (mPFC) via excitatory 5-HT2A and inhibitory 5-HT1A receptors, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT neurotransmission in cortical functions. However, the underlying mechanisms must be elucidated. Here we examine the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the processing of emotional and cognitive signals evoked by increasing the 5-HT tone after acute blockade of the 5-HT transporter. Fluoxetine (5-20mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the immobility time in the tail-suspension test in wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2Aknockout (KO2A) mice, with non-significant differences between genotypes. Fluoxetine (10mg/kg i.p.) significantly impaired mice performance in the novel object recognition test 24h post-administration in WT, but not in KO2A mice. The comparable effect of fluoxetine on extracellular 5-HT in the mPFC of both genotypes suggests that presynaptic differences are not accountable. In contrast, single unit recordings of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons showed that fluoxetine (1.8-7.2mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased neuronal discharge in KO2A but not in WT mice. This effect is possibly mediated by an altered excitatory/inhibitory balance in the PFC in KO2A mice. Overall, the present results suggest that 5-HT2A receptors play a detrimental role in long-term memory deficits mediated by an excess 5-HT in PFC.

  8. 5-HT2A receptors control body temperature in mice during LPS-induced inflammation via regulation of NO production.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Irina P; Khramova, Galina M; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Petrovskii, Dmitrii V; Bazovkina, Daria V; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of numerous normal and pathological physiological functions. At the same time, its involvement in the regulation of body temperature (Tb) in normal conditions is obscure. Here we study the effect of the 5-HT2A receptor activation or blockade on Tb in sick animals. The experiments were carried out on adult C57BL/6 mouse males. Systemic inflammation and sickness were produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg, ip), while the 5-HT2A receptor was stimulated or blocked through the administration of the receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin (1mg/kg), respectively. LPS, DOI or ketanserin alone produced no effect on Tb. However, administration of LPS together with a peripheral or central ketanserin injection reduced Tb (32.2°C). Ketanserin reversed the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase in the brain. Consequently, an involvement of NO in the mechanism of the hypothermic effect of ketanserin in sick mice was hypothesized. Administration of LPS together with NO synthase inhibitor, l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (60mg/kg, ip) resulted in deep (28.5°C) and prolonged (8h) hypothermia, while administration of l-nitro-arginine methyl ester alone produced no effect on Tb. Thus, 5-HT2A receptors play a key role in Tb control in sick mice. Blockade of this GPCR produces hypothermia in mice with systemic inflammation via attenuation of LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate an unexpected role of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammation and NO production and have a considerable biological impact on understanding the mechanism of animal adaptation to pathogens and parasites. Moreover, adverse side effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in patients with inflammation may be expected.

  9. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms in Croatian subjects with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Babic, Marina; Smurinic, Maja; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-08-15

    Disturbances in the expression/function of the 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in autism. The association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene with autism was studied in the Croatian population. Distribution frequencies for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of -1438 A/G and His452Tyr polymorphisms were compared in samples of 103 autistic and 214 control subjects. Significant overrepresentation of the G allele and the GG genotype of the -1438 A/G polymorphism was observed in group of autistic subjects, supporting the possible involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor in the development of autism.

  10. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 enhances antidepressant-like behavioral effects of the SSRI fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Marek, Gerard J; Martin-Ruiz, Raul; Abo, Allyson; Artigas, Francesc

    2005-12-01

    The addition of low doses of atypical antipsychotic drugs, which saturate 5-HT(2A) receptors, enhances the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with major depression as well as treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. The purpose of the present studies was to test the effects of combined treatment with a low dose of a highly selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (M100907; formerly MDL 100,907) and low doses of a SSRI using a behavioral screen in rodents (the differential-reinforcement-of low rate 72-s schedule of reinforcement; DRL 72-s) which previously has been shown to be sensitive both to 5-HT(2) antagonists and SSRIs. M100907 has a approximately 100-fold or greater selectivity at 5-HT(2A) receptors vs other 5-HT receptor subtypes, and would not be expected to appreciably occupy non-5-HT(2A) receptors at doses below 100 microg/kg. M100907 increased the reinforcement rate, decreased the response rate, and shifted the inter-response time distributions to the right in a pattern characteristic of antidepressant drugs. In addition, a positive synergistic interaction occurred when testing low doses of the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (6.25-12.5 microg/kg) with clinically relevant doses of the SSRI fluoxetine (2.5-5 mg/kg), which both exerted minimal antidepressant-like effects by themselves. In vivo microdialysis study revealed that a low dose of M100907 (12.5 microg/kg) did not elevate extracellular 5-HT levels in the prefrontal cortex over those observed with fluoxetine alone (5 mg/kg). These results will be discussed in the context that the combined blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters (SERT) may result in greater efficacy in treating neuropsychiatric syndromes than blocking either site alone.

  11. Expression of α(1)-adrenergic receptors in rat prefrontal cortex: cellular co-localization with 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Santana, Noemí; Mengod, Guadalupe; Artigas, Francesc

    2013-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in behavioural control and cognitive processes that are altered in schizophrenia. The brainstem monoaminergic systems control PFC function, yet the cells/networks involved are not fully known. Serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) increase PFC neuronal activity through the activation of α(1)-adrenergic receptors (α(1)ARs) and 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT(2A)Rs), respectively. Neurochemical and behavioural interactions between these receptors have been reported. Further, classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs share nm in vitro affinity for α(1)ARs while having preferential affinity for D(2) and 5-HT(2A)Rs, respectively. Using double in situ hybridization we examined the cellular expression of α(1)ARs in pyramidal (vGluT1-positive) and GABAergic (GAD(65/67)-positive) neurons in rat PFC and their co-localization with 5-HT(2A)Rs. α(1)ARs are expressed by a high proportion of pyramidal (59-85%) and GABAergic (52-79%) neurons. The expression in pyramidal neurons exhibited a dorsoventral gradient, with a lower percentage of α(1)AR-positive neurons in infralimbic cortex compared to anterior cingulate and prelimbic cortex. The expression of α(1A), α(1B) and α(1D) adrenergic receptors was segregated in different layers and subdivisions. In all them there is a high co-expression with 5-HT(2A)Rs (∼80%). These observations indicate that NE controls the activity of most PFC pyramidal neurons via α(1)ARs, either directly or indirectly, via GABAergic interneurons. Antipsychotic drugs can thus modulate the activity of PFC via α(1)AR blockade. The high co-expression with 5-HT(2A)Rs indicates a convergence of excitatory serotonergic and noradrenergic inputs onto the same neuronal populations. Moreover, atypical antipsychotics may exert a more powerful control of PFC function through the simultaneous blockade of α(1)ARs and 5-HT(2A)Rs.

  12. Expression of 5-HT2A receptors in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons projecting to nucleus accumbens. Potential relevance for atypical antipsychotic action.

    PubMed

    Mocci, Giuseppe; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Adell, Albert; Cortés, Roser; Artigas, Francesc

    2014-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in higher brain functions altered in schizophrenia. Classical antipsychotic drugs modulate information processing in cortico-limbic circuits via dopamine D2 receptor blockade in nucleus accumbens (NAc) whereas atypical antipsychotic drugs preferentially target cortical serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The brain networks involved in the therapeutic action of atypical drugs are not fully understood. Previous work indicated that medial PFC (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to ventral tegmental area express 5-HT2A receptors suggesting that atypical antipsychotic drugs modulate dopaminergic activity distally, via 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2A-R) blockade in PFC. Since the mPFC also projects heavily to NAc, we examined whether NAc-projecting pyramidal neurons also express 5-HT2A-R. Using a combination of retrograde tracing experiments and in situ hybridization we report that a substantial proportion of mPFC-NAc pyramidal neurons in rat brain express 5-HT2A-R mRNA in a layer- and area-specific manner (up to 68% in layer V of contralateral cingulate). The functional relevance of 5-HT2A-R to modulate mPFC-NAc projections was examined in dual-probe microdialysis experiments. The application of the preferential 5-HT2A-R agonist DOI into mPFC enhanced glutamate release locally (+66 ± 18%) and in NAc (+74 ± 12%) indicating that cortical 5-HT2A-R activation augments glutamatergic transmission in NAc. Since NAc integrates glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs, blockade of 5-HT2A-R by atypical drugs may reduce cortical excitatory inputs onto GABAergic neurons of NAc, adding to dopamine D2 receptor blockade. Together with previous observations, the present results suggest that atypical antipsychotic drugs may control the activity of the mesolimbic pathway at cell body and terminal level.

  13. 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR BIOLOGY: Interacting proteins, kinases and paradoxical regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Bryan L

    2011-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) serotonin receptors are important pharmacological targets for a large number of central nervous system and peripheral serotonergic medications. In this review article I summarize work mainly from my lab regarding serotonin receptor anatomy, pharmacology, signaling and regulation. I highlight the role of serotonin receptor interacting proteins and the emerging paradigm of G-protein coupled receptor functional selectivity. PMID:21288474

  14. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD.

  15. 5-HT2A/C receptors mediate the antipsychotic-like effects of alstonine.

    PubMed

    Linck, V M; Bessa, M M; Herrmann, A P; Iwu, M M; Okunji, C O; Elisabetsky, E

    2012-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of alstonine, an indole alkaloid with putative antipsychotic effects, on working memory by using the step-down inhibitory avoidance paradigm and MK801-induced working memory deficits in mice. Additionally, the role of serotonin 5-HT2A/C receptors in the effects of alstonine on mouse models associated with positive (MK801-induced hyperlocomotion), negative (MK801-induced social interaction deficit), and cognitive (MK801-induced working memory deficit) schizophrenia symptoms was examined. Treatment with alstonine was able to prevent MK801-induced working memory deficit, indicating its potential benefit for cognitive deficits now seen as a core symptom in the disease. Corroborating previously reported data, alstonine was also effective in counteracting MK801-induced hyperlocomotion and social interaction deficit. Ritanserin, a 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist, prevented alstonine's effects on these three behavioral parameters. This study presents additional evidence that 5-HT2A/C receptors are central to the antipsychotic-like effects of alstonine, consistently seen in mouse models relevant to the three dimensions of schizophrenia symptoms.

  16. (±)-Nantenine analogs as antagonists at human 5-HT2A receptors: C1 and flexible congeners

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Sandeep; Pecic, Stevan; LeGendre, Onica; Navarro, Hérnan A.; Harding, Wayne W.

    2009-01-01

    C1 and flexible analogs of (±)-nantenine were synthesized and evaluated for antagonist activity at human 5-HT2A receptors in a calcium mobilization assay. This work has resulted in the identification of the most potent 5-HT2A antagonist known based on an aporphine. Our results also suggest that the C1 position may be a key site for increasing 5-HT2A antagonist activity in this compound series. In addition, the structural rigidity of the aporphine core appears to be required for nantenine to function as a 5-HT2A antagonist. PMID:19328689

  17. 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 reduces serotonin synthesis: An autoradiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Shu; Fikre-Merid, Maraki; Diksic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the administration of the serotonin (5-HT)2A antagonist, M100907, on 5-HT synthesis rates, were evaluated using the α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan (α-MTrp) autoradiographic method. In the treatment study, M100907 (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before the α-MTrp injection (30 μCi over 2 min). A single dose of M100907 caused a significant decrease in the synthesis in the anterior olfactory nucleus, accumbens nucleus, frontal cortex, sensory-motor cortex, cingulate cortex, medial caudate-putamen, dorsal thalamus, substantia nigra, inferior collicus, raphe magnus nucleus, superior olive, and raphe pallidus nucleus. These data suggest that the terminal 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of 5-HT synthesis in the entire brain. Further, 5-HT synthesis is likely regulated by the 5-HT2A antagonistic property of M100907 in the cortices, anterior olfactory nucleus, caudate putamen, and nucleus accumbens. PMID:22056993

  18. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 Receptor Antagonists Promote Sleep in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morairty, Stephen R.; Hedley, Linda; Flores, Judith; Martin, Renee; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Serotonin (5-HT) has long been implicated in the control of sleep and wakefulness. This study evaluated the hypnotic efficacy of the 5-HT6 antagonist RO4368554 (RO) and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 (MDL) relative to zolpidem. Design: A randomized, repeated-measures design was utilized in which Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of RO (1.0, 3.0, and 10 mg/kg), MDL (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), zolpidem (10 mg/kg), or vehicle in the middle of the dark (active) period. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity were analyzed for 6 hours after injection. Measurements and Results: RO, MDL, and zolpidem all produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking, compared with vehicle control. All 3 doses of MDL produced more consolidated sleep, increased non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) sleep, and increased electroencephalographic delta power during NREM sleep. The highest dose of RO (10.0 mg/kg) produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking during hour 2 following dosing. These increases in sleep duration were associated with greater delta power during NREM sleep. ZO Zolpidem induced sleep with the shortest latency and significantly increased NREM sleep and delta power but also suppressed rapid eye movement sleep sleep; in contrast, neither RO nor MDL affected rapid eye movement sleep. Whereas RO did not affect Tb, both zolpidem and MDL reduced Tb relative to vehicle-injected controls. Conclusions: These results support a role for 5-HT2A receptor modulation in NREM sleep and suggest a previously unrecognized role for 5-HT6 receptors in sleep-wake regulation. Citation: Morairty SR; Hedley L; Flores J; Martin R; Kilduff TS. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 receptor antagonists promote sleep in rats. SLEEP 2008;31(1):34-44. PMID:18220076

  19. Disrupting 5-HT2A Receptor/PDZ Protein Interactions Reduces Hyperalgesia and Enhances SSRI Efficacy in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Xavier; Wattiez, Anne S; Becamel, Carine; Ehrlich, Ingrid; Bockaert, Joel; Eschalier, Alain; Marin, Philippe; Courteix, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressants are one of the first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. Despite the influence of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in pain modulation, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are less effective than tricyclic antidepressants. Here, we show, in diabetic neuropathic rats, an alteration of the antihyperalgesic effect induced by stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors, which are known to mediate SSRI-induced analgesia. 5-HT2A receptor density was not changed in the spinal cord of diabetic rats, whereas postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), one of the PSD-95/disc large suppressor/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domain containing proteins interacting with these receptors, was upregulated. Intrathecal injection of a cell-penetrating peptidyl mimetic of the 5-HT2A receptor C-terminus, which disrupts 5-HT2A receptor–PDZ protein interactions, induced an antihyperalgesic effect in diabetic rats, which results from activation of 5-HT2A receptors by endogenous 5-HT. The peptide also enhanced antihyperalgesia induced by the SSRI fluoxetine. Its effects likely resulted from an increase in receptor responsiveness, because it revealed functional 5-HT2A receptor-operated Ca2+ responses in neurons, an effect mimicked by knockdown of PSD-95. Hence, 5-HT2A receptor/PDZ protein interactions might contribute to the resistance to SSRI-induced analgesia in painful diabetic neuropathy. Disruption of these interactions might be a valuable strategy to design novel treatments for neuropathic pain and to increase the effectiveness of SSRIs. PMID:20531396

  20. Role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to aortic constriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Lairez, O; Cognet, T; Schaak, S; Calise, D; Guilbeau-Frugier, C; Parini, A; Mialet-Perez, J

    2013-06-01

    Serotonin, in addition to its fundamental role as a neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in the cardiovascular system, where it is thought to be involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Indeed, we recently found that mice with deletion of monoamine oxidase A had enhanced levels of blood and cardiac 5-HT, which contributed to exacerbation of hypertrophy in a model of experimental pressure overload. 5-HT2A receptors are expressed in the heart and mediate a hypertrophic response to 5-HT in cardiac cells. However, their role in cardiac remodeling in vivo and the signaling pathways associated are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907, on the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac 5-HT2A receptor expression was transiently increased after TAC, and was recapitulated in cardiomyocytes, as observed with 5-HT2A in situ labeling by immunohistochemistry. Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy, as measured by echocardiography, cardiomyocyte area and heart weight-to-body weight ratio. Interestingly, activation of calmodulin kinase (CamKII), which is a core mechanism in cardiac hypertrophy, was reduced in cardiac samples from M100907-treated TAC mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. In addition, phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a downstream partner of CamKII was significantly diminished in M100907-treated TAC mice. Thus, our results show that selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors has beneficial effect in the development of cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of the CamKII/HDAC4 pathway.

  1. Involvement of 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) receptors on memory formation: simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism?

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-12-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptors subdivision into the 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) subtypes along with the advent of the selective antagonists has allowed a more detailed investigation on the role and therapeutic significance of these subtypes in cognitive functions. The present study further analyzed the 5-HT2 receptors role on memory consolidation. 2. The SB-200646 (a selective 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist) and LY215840 (a nonselective 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist) posttraining administration had no effect on an autoshaped memory consolidation. However, both drugs significantly and differentially antagonized the memory impairments induced by 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 1-naphtyl-piperazine (1-NP), mesulergine, or N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP). 3. In contrast, SB-200646 failed to modify the facilitatory procognitive effect produced by (+/-)-2.5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) or ketanserin, which were sensitive to MDL100907 (a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and to a LY215840 high dose. 4. Finally, SB-200646 reversed the learning deficit induced by dizocilpine, but not that by scopolamine: while SB-200646 and MDL100907 coadministration reversed memory deficits induced by both drugs. 5. It is suggested that 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors might be involved on memory formation probably mediating a suppressive or constraining action. Whether the drug-induced memory impairments in this study are explained by simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism at 5-HT2 receptors remains unclear at this time. 6. Notably, the 5-HT2 receptor subtypes blockade may provide some benefit to reverse poor memory consolidation conditions associated with decreasedcholinergic, glutamatergic, and/or serotonergic neurotransmission.

  2. The role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in memory and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Stackman, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) are widely distributed in the central nervous system, especially in brain region essential for learning and cognition. In addition to endogenous 5-HT, several hallucinogens, antipsychotics, and antidepressants function by targeting 5-HT2ARs. Preclinical studies show that 5-HT2AR antagonists have antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, whereas agonist ligands possess cognition-enhancing and hallucinogenic properties. Abnormal 5-HT2AR activity is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders and conditions, including depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In addition to its traditional activity as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), recent studies have defined novel operations of 5-HT2ARs. Here we review progress in the (1) receptor anatomy and biology: distribution, signaling, polymerization and allosteric modulation; and (2) receptor functions: learning and memory, hallucination and spatial cognition, and mental disorders. Based on the recent progress in basic research on the 5-HT2AR, it appears that post-training 5-HT2AR activation enhances non-spatial memory consolidation, while pre-training 5-HT2AR activation facilitates fear extinction. Further, the potential influence that 5-HT2AR-elicited visual hallucinations may have on visual cue (i.e., landmark) guided spatial cognition is discussed. We conclude that the development of selective 5-HT2AR modulators to target distinct signaling pathways and neural circuits represents a new possibility for treating emotional, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26500553

  3. 5-HT2A receptor antagonists improve motor impairments in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Marcus C; Nayyar, Tultul; Deutch, Ariel Y; Ansah, Twum A

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that ritanserin, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist may reduce motor deficits in persons with Parkinson's Disease (PD). To better understand the potential antiparkinsonian actions of ritanserin, we compared the effects of ritanserin with the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 and the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 206553 on motor impairments in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MPTP-treated mice exhibited decreased performance on the beam-walking apparatus. These motor deficits were reversed by acute treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa). Both the mixed 5-HT(2A/C) antagonist ritanserin and the selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist M100907 improved motor performance on the beam-walking apparatus. In contrast, SB 206553 was ineffective in improving the motor deficits in MPTP-treated mice. These data suggest that 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists may represent a novel approach to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Canton, H; Barrett, R J; Sanders-Bush, E

    1998-11-01

    Extensive behavioral and biochemical evidence suggests an agonist role at the 5-HT2A receptor, and perhaps the 5-HT2C receptor, in the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. However the published in vitro pharmacological properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an hallucinogenic tryptamine analog, are not consistent with this hypothesis. We, therefore, undertook an extensive investigation into the properties of DMT at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. In fibroblasts transfected with the 5-HT2A receptor or the 5-HT2C receptor, DMT activated the major intracellular signaling pathway (phosphoinositide hydrolysis) to an extent comparable to that produced by serotonin. Because drug efficacy changes with receptor density and cellular microenvironment, we also examined the properties of DMT in native preparations using a behavioral and biochemical approach. Rats were trained to discriminate an antagonist ketanserin from an agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) in a two-lever choice paradigm. Pharmacological studies showed that responding on the DOI and ketanserin lever reflected agonist and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors, and hence, was a suitable model for evaluating the in vivo functional properties of DMT. Like other 5-HT2A receptor agonists, DMT substituted fully for DOI. Intact choroid plexus was used to evaluate the agonist properties at endogenous 5-HT2C receptors; DMT was a partial agonist at 5-HT2C receptors in this native preparation. Thus, we conclude that DMT behaves as an agonist at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2A receptors. One difference was evident in that the 5-HT2C, but not the 5-HT2A, receptor showed a profound desensitization to DMT over time. This difference is interesting in light of the recent report that the hallucinogenic activity of DMT does not tolerate in humans and suggests the 5-HT2C receptor plays a less prominent role in the action of DMT.

  5. 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Density in Adult Male Rats’ Hippocampus after Morphine-based Conditioned Place Preference

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rabie; Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation. Methods: Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP). We used a hotplate test of analgesia to assess induction of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine on days 1 and 8 of injections. Later, two groups of rats were sacrificed one day after 7 days of injections, their whole brains removed, and the striatum and PFC immediately dissected. Then, the NR1 gene expression was examined with a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Results: Our data showed that the maximum response was obtained with 2.5 mg/kg of morphine. The density of 5-HT2A receptor in different areas of the hippocampus increased significantly at sham-morphine and CPP groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, the CPP groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than sham-morphine groups and also the sham-morphine groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than the control groups. Conclusion: We concluded that the phenomenon of conditioned place preference induced by morphine can cause a significant increase in the number of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in neurons of all areas of hippocampus. PMID:27563418

  6. Internalization and recycling of 5-HT2A receptors activated by serotonin and protein kinase C-mediated mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Puri, Sapna; Miledi, Ricardo; Panicker, Mitradas M.

    2002-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), a major neurotransmitter, has a large number of G protein-coupled receptors in mammals. On activation by exposure to their ligand, 5-HT2 receptor subtypes increase IP3 levels and undergo desensitization and internalization. To visualize the receptor in cells during these processes, we have constructed a 5-HT2A-enhanced GFP (SR2-GFP) fusion receptor. We show that this fusion receptor undergoes internalization on exposure to its natural ligand, 5-HT. Because 5-HT2A receptors activate the phospholipase C pathway, we studied the effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on the internalization process and found that activation of PKC by its specific activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, in the absence of 5-HT, leads to internalization of the receptor. Moreover, inhibition of PKC by its inhibitor sphingosine in the presence of 5-HT prevents the internalization process, suggesting that activation of PKC is sufficient and necessary for the internalization of 5-HT2A receptors. We also show that SR2-GFP recycles back to the plasma membrane after 5-HT-dependent internalization, suggesting a mechanism for resensitization. In addition, receptors that have been internalized on addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in the absence of 5-HT also recycle to the surface, with a time course similar to that seen after activation of the receptors by 5-HT. Our study suggests that 5-HT2A receptors internalize and return to the surface after both serotonin- and PKC-mediated processes. This study reveals a role for PKC in receptor internalization and also shows that 5-HT2A receptors are recycled. PMID:12388782

  7. Emotional management and 5-HT2A receptor gene variance in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi-Hsuan; Tsai, Guochuan E; Liao, Chun-Hui; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Tsuang, Hui-Chun; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognitive functions, particularly emotion management. Emotion management may be partially regulated by the serotoninergic system; the -1438 A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of the 5-HT2A gene can modulate 5-HT2A activity and is linked to certain emotional traits and anger- and aggression-related behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate whether this 5-HT2A genetic variance is associated with social cognitive function, particularly the management of emotions. One hundred and fifteen patients with chronic schizophrenia were stabilized with an optimal-dose of antipsychotic treatment. All were genotyped for the -1438 A/G polymorphism and assessed with symptom rating scales, neurocognitive instruments, and the "Managing Emotions" section of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Multiple regression showed that patients with the A/G genotype performed better than those with G/G in managing emotion (p=0.018) but did not differ from those with the A/A genotype. Regarding the two subtasks of the Managing Emotions section, the A/G heterozygotes also performed better than the G/G homozygotes in the emotion management (p=0.026) and emotional relations (p=0.027) subtasks. The results suggest that variability in the 5-HT2A gene may influence emotion management in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Biochemical profile of YM992, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, K; Nomura, T; Hidaka, K; Takeuchi, H; Yatsugi, S; Fujii, M; Yamaguchi, T

    1996-01-01

    YM992, (S)-2-[[(7-fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride, exhibited the biochemical profile of a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity. YM922 showed the same high affinity as fluoxetine against the 5-HT reuptake site (Ki = 21 nM) and a similar affinity to that of crazodone against the 5-HT2A receptor (Ki = 86 nM). In other receptor binding studies, an affinity for the adrenergic alpha 1 receptor (Ki = 200 nM) and 5-HT2C receptor (Ki = 680 nM) was observed. In a monoamine uptake study, YM992 showed a selective 5-HT uptake inhibition (IC50 = 0.15 microM), but only very weakly inhibited both noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) uptake (IC50 = 3.1 microM (NA), > 10 microM (DA)). YM992 was also found to potently inhibit the aggregation of human platelets (IC50 = 1.9 microM), revealing antagonistic activity for the 5-HT2A receptor in vitro. Enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission, in particular that mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, has recently been reported to be important in the long-term treatment of depressive disorders with antidepressants. In addition, some 5-HT1A receptor-mediated responses are known to be potentiated by co-administration of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. Thus, YM992, having both selective 5-HT reuptake inhibition and 5-HT2A antagonistic activity, might show potent therapeutic activity as a novel antidepressant in comparison with conventional SSRIs.

  9. Molecular dynamics of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors with methylated buspirone analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronowska, Agnieszka; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Leś, Andrzej; Edvardsen, Øyvind; Østensen, Roy; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2001-11-01

    In the present study experimentally determined ligand selectivity of three methylated buspirone analogues (denoted as MM2, MM5 and P55) towards 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors was theoretically investigated on a molecular level. The relationships between the ligand structure and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor affinities were studied and the results were found to be in agreement with the available site-directed mutagenesis and binding affinity data. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ligand-receptor complexes were performed for each investigated analogue, docked twice into the central cavity of 5-HT1A/5-HT2A, each time in a different orientation. Present results were compared with our previous theoretical results, obtained for buspirone and its non-methylated analogues. It was found that due to the presence of the methyl group in the piperazine ring the ligand position alters and the structure of the ligand-receptor complex is modified. Further, the positions of derivatives with pyrimidinyl aromatic moiety and quinolinyl moiety are significantly different at the 5-HT2A receptor. Thus, methylation of such derivatives alters the 3D structures of ligand-receptor complexes in different ways. The ligand-induced changes of the receptor structures were also analysed. The obtained results suggest, that helical domains of both receptors have different dynamical behaviour. Moreover, both location and topography of putative binding sites for buspirone analogues are different at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

  10. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene variants influence antidepressant response to repeated total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Barbini, Barbara; Bernasconi, Alessandro; Fulgosi, Mara Cigala; Colombo, Cristina; Dallaspezia, Sara; Gavinelli, Chiara; Marino, Elena; Pirovano, Adele; Radaelli, Daniele; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2008-12-12

    5-HT2A receptor density in prefrontal cortex was associated with depression and suicide. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism rs6313 was associated with 5-HT2A receptor binding potential, with the ability of individuals to use environmental support in order to prevent depression, and with sleep improvement after antidepressant treatment with mirtazapine. Studies on response to antidepressant drugs gave inconsistent results. Here we studied the effect of rs6313 on response to repeated total sleep deprivation (TSD) in 80 bipolar depressed inpatients treated with three consecutive TSD cycles (each one made of 36 h awake followed by a night of undisturbed sleep). All genotype groups showed comparable acute effects of the first TSD, but patients homozygotes for the T variant had better perceived and observed benefits from treatment than carriers of the C allele. These effects became significant after the first recovery night and during the following days, leading to a 36% higher final response rate (Hamilton depression rating<8). The higher density of postsynaptic excitatory 5-HT2A receptors in T/T homozygotes could have led to higher behavioural effects of increased 5-HT neurotransmission due to repeated TSD. Other possible mechanisms involve allostatic/homeostatic adaptation to sleep loss, and a different effect of the allele variants on epigenetic influences. Results confirm the interest for individual gene variants of the serotonin pathway in shaping clinical characteristics of depression and antidepressant response.

  11. Long-lasting alterations in 5-HT2A receptor after a binge regimen of methamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hong-Yi; Chan, Ming-Huan; Lee, Mei-Yi; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Zhan, Zih-Yi; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    The repeated administration of methamphetamine (MA) to animals in a single-day 'binge' dosing regimen produces damage to dopamine and serotonin terminals and psychosis-like behaviours similar to those observed in MA abusers. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MA binge exposure on 5-HT2A receptors, the subtype of serotonin receptors putatively involved in psychosis. ICR male mice were treated with MA (4 × 5 mg/kg) or saline at 2 h intervals. Recognition memory and social behaviours were sequentially evaluated by a novel location recognition test, a novel object recognition test, a social interaction and a nest-building test to confirm the persistent cognitive and behavioural impairments after this dosing regimen. Subsequently, a hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced head-twitch, molecular and electrophysiological responses were monitored. Finally, the levels of 5-HT2C, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex were determined. MA binge exposure produced recognition memory impairment, reduced social behaviours, and increased DOI-induced head-twitch response, c-Fos and Egr-2 expression and field potentials in the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, MA binge exposure increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor expression in the medial frontal cortex, whereas 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors were unaffected. These data reveal that the increased behavioural, molecular and electrophysiological responses to DOI might be associated with an up-regulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex after MA binge exposure. Identifying the biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioural changes in a mouse model of MA binge exposure may facilitate targeting therapies for treatment of MA-related psychiatric disorders.

  12. Effects of the 5-HT receptor antagonists GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D) and MDL100907 (5-HT2A) in the consolidation of learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Terrón, J A; Hong, E

    1997-12-01

    We have previously reported that 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors play a role in learning and memory. The present investigation was devoted to analyze further in the autoshaping learning task: (1) the effects of the 5-HT1A/1B/1D receptor agonist, GR46611, the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935, and the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL100907. Consistent with a role of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in learning, the post-training injection of GR46611 (1-10 mg/kg) decreased the consolidation of learning whereas GR127935 (10 mg/kg) increased it; the effects of both drugs were reversed by PCA pretreatment. GR127935 abolished the decrease induced by GR46611, TFMPP and mCPP, whereas MDL100907 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) had no effect by itself but abolished the effects of DOI, ketanserin and TFMPP and moderately inhibited the effects elicited by mCPP, 1-NP and mesulergine. Neither did GR127935 nor MDL100907 significantly modify the increase in the consolidation of learning induced by 8-OH-DPAT. Thus, the present findings suggest that stimulation of presynaptic 5-HT1B/1D receptors impairs the consolidation of learning whilst stimulation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors enhances it; the blockade of 5-HT2A receptors has no effects. In addition, 5-HT2 receptors seem to modulate this cognitive stage.

  13. The antidepressant 5-HT2A receptor antagonists pizotifen and cyproheptadine inhibit serotonin-enhanced platelet function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Olivia A; Karim, Zubair A; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V P; Khasawneh, Fadi T

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  14. MDMA Increases Excitability in the Dentate Gyrus: Role of 5HT2A Receptor Induced PGE2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Stuart A.; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA treated rats which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA treated rats. PMID:26670377

  15. Effects of Constant Flickering Light on Refractive Status, 5-HT and 5-HT2A Receptor in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zheng, Changyue; Ji, Shunmei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of constant flickering light on refractive development, the role of serotonin (i.e.5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)and 5-HT2A receptor in myopia induced by flickering light in guinea pigs. Methods Forty-five guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: control, form deprivation myopia (FDM) and flickering light induced myopia (FLM) groups(n = 15 for each group). The right eyes of the FDM group were covered with semitransparent hemispherical plastic shells serving as eye diffusers. Guinea pigs in FLM group were raised with illumination of a duty cycle of 50% at a flash frequency of 0.5Hz. The refractive status, axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature(CRC) were measured by streak retinoscope, A-scan ultrasonography and keratometer, respectively. Ultramicroscopy images were taken by electron microscopy. The concentrations of 5-HTin the retina, vitreous body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography, the retinal 5-HT2A receptor expression was evaluated by immunohistofluorescence and western blot. Results The refraction of FDM and FLM eyes became myopic from some time point (the 4th week and the 6th week, respectively) in the course of the experiment, which was indicated by significantly decreased refraction and longer AL when compared with the controls (p<0.05). The concentrations of 5-HT in the retina, vitreous body and RPE of FDM and FLM eyes were significantly increased in comparison with those of control eyes (both p<0.05). Similar to FDM eyes, the expression of retinal 5-HT2A receptor in FLM eyes was significantly up-regulated compared to that of control eyes (both p<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that retinal 5-HT2A receptor level elevated less in the FLM eyes than that in the FDM eyes. Moreover, the levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine in FDM and FLM groups generally decreased when compared with control groups (all p<0.05). Conclusions Constant flickering

  16. Detection of new biased agonists for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor: modeling and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solano, Maria; Iglesias, Alba; de Fabritiis, Gianni; Sanz, Ferran; Brea, José; Loza, M Isabel; Pastor, Manuel; Selent, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Detection of biased agonists for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor can guide the discovery of safer and more efficient antipsychotic drugs. However, the rational design of such drugs has been hampered by the difficulty detecting the impact of small structural changes on signaling bias. To overcome these difficulties, we characterized the dynamics of ligand-receptor interactions of known biased and balanced agonists using molecular dynamics simulations. Our analysis revealed that interactions with residues S5.46 and N6.55 discriminate compounds with different functional selectivity. Based on our computational predictions, we selected three derivatives of the natural balanced ligand serotonin and experimentally validated their ability to act as biased agonists. Remarkably, our approach yielded compounds promoting an unprecedented level of signaling bias at the 5-HT2A receptor, which could help interrogate the importance of particular pathways in conditions like schizophrenia.

  17. Differential involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Munzar, Patrik; Justinova, Zuzana; Kutkat, Scott W; Goldberg, Steven R

    2002-02-01

    Involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine versus methamphetamine was studied in Sprague Dawley rats (n=10) trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine, i.p., from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 (FR10) schedule of food presentation. The ability of (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist, and ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, to either substitute for or block the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine, or to shift the cocaine dose-response curve, was evaluated. DOI (0.18-1.0 mg/kg) partially substituted for the training dose of 10 mg/kg cocaine, but only at doses that decreased rates of responding. At the highest dose of DOI tested (1.0 mg/kg), there was about 65% cocaine-appropriate responding. Substitution of DOI for cocaine and DOI-induced decreases in rates of responding were completely reversed by ketanserin (3.0 mg/kg). Ketanserin (3.0 mg/kg) also produced a significant shift to the right of the cocaine dose-response curve and antagonized increases in rates of responding produced by lower doses of cocaine. Ketanserin (1.0-10.0 mg/kg), however, did not block the discriminative-stimulus effects of the training dose of cocaine. When DOI (0.3 mg/kg) was co-administered with different doses of cocaine, there was a slight leftward shift in the cocaine dose-response curve, which was not significant and appeared to reflect simple additive effects of DOI and cocaine. In contrast, the same dose of DOI (0.3 mg/kg) produced a marked and highly significant shift to the left of the methamphetamine (0.18-1.0 mg/kg) dose-response curve in the same subjects and the effects of DOI and methamphetamine were clearly more than additive. The present findings provide new evidence that there is some serotonergic modulation of cocaine's discriminative-stimulus actions, which appears to involve stimulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. However, involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptor activity in the

  18. 5-HT2A Receptor Binding in the Frontal Cortex of Parkinson's Disease Patients and Alpha-Synuclein Overexpressing Mice: A Postmortem Study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Brudek, Tomasz; Plenge, Per; Klein, Anders Bue; Westin, Jenny E; Fog, Karina; Wörtwein, Gitta; Aznar, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive function are also steadily being associated with this disease. Not much is known about the pathophysiology behind this. The aim of this study was thereby twofold: (1) to investigate 5-HT2A receptor binding levels in Parkinson's brains and (2) to investigate whether PD associated pathology, alpha-synuclein (AS) overexpression, could be associated with 5-HT2A alterations. Binding density for the 5-HT2A-specific radioligand [(3)H]-MDL 100.907 was measured in membrane suspensions of frontal cortex tissue from PD patients. Protein levels of AS were further measured using western blotting. Results showed higher AS levels accompanied by increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in PD brains. In a separate study, we looked for changes in 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex in 52-week-old transgenic mice overexpressing human AS. We performed region-specific 5-HT2A receptor binding measurements followed by gene expression analysis. The transgenic mice showed lower 5-HT2A binding in the frontal association cortex that was not accompanied by changes in gene expression levels. This study is one of the first to look at differences in serotonin receptor levels in PD and in relation to AS overexpression.

  19. Long-term estrogen therapy and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in postmenopausal women; a single photon emission tomography (SPET) study.

    PubMed

    Compton, J; Travis, M J; Norbury, R; Erlandsson, K; van Amelsvoort, T; Daly, E; Waddington, W; Matthiasson, P; Eersels, J L H; Whitehead, M; Kerwin, R W; Ell, P J; Murphy, D G M

    2008-01-01

    Variation in estrogen level is reported by some to affect brain maturation and memory. The neurobiological basis for this may include modulation of the serotonergic system. No neuroimaging studies have directly examined the effect of extended estrogen therapy (ET), on the 5-HT(2A) receptor in human brain. We investigated the effect of long-term ET on cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor availability in postmenopausal women. In a cross-sectional study, we compared cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor availability in 17 postmenopausal ERT-naive women and 17 long-term oophorectomised estrogen-users, age- and IQ-matched using single photon emission tomography and the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor ligand (123)I-5-I-R91150. Also, we used the Revised Wechsler Memory Scale to relate memory function to 5-HT(2A) receptor availability. Never-users had significantly higher 5-HT(2A) receptor availability than estrogen-users in hippocampus (1.17 vs. 1.11, respectively, p=0.02), although this did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor availability correlated negatively with verbal and general memory and delayed recall (r=-0.45, p=0.01; r=-0.40, p=0.02; r=-0.36, p=0.04). Right superior temporal 5-HT(2A) receptor availability correlated negatively with verbal memory (r=-0.36, p=0.04). In estrogen-users, receptor availability correlated negatively with verbal and general memory (r=-0.70, p=0.002; r=-0.69, p=0.002); and in never-users, receptor availability negatively correlated with attention and concentration (r=-0.54, p=0.02). Long-term ET may be associated with lower 5-HT(2A) receptor availability in hippocampus. This may reflect increased activity within the serotonergic pathway leading to down-regulation of post-synaptic receptor. Also, increased availability of the 5-HT(2A) receptor in hippocampus is associated with poorer memory function.

  20. 5-HT2A/C receptors do not mediate the attenuation of compulsive checking by mCPP in the quinpirole sensitization rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    PubMed

    Tucci, Mark C; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Johnson, Eric; Wong, Michael; Szechtman, Henry

    2015-02-15

    There is emerging evidence for a dopamine (DA)-serotonin (5-HT) interaction underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the quinpirole sensitization rat model of OCD, compulsive checking is induced by chronic treatment with the DA agonist quinpirole, and is attenuated by the 5-HT agonist drug mCPP. However, mCPP has affinity for a number of 5-HT receptor subtypes, and it is unknown by which receptors mCPP exerts its effects on quinpirole-treated animals. The present study tested in rats whether mCPP activity at 5-HT2A/C receptors mediates the attenuation of compulsive checking in quinpirole-treated animals. Rats were chronically treated with quinpirole on the open field for the induction of compulsive checking. Following the induction phase, animals were treated with mCPP (1.25 mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist ritanserin (1 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg) to test whether blockade of 5-HT2A/C receptors inhibits attenuation of checking by mCPP. Results showed that as expected, quinpirole induced compulsive checking, and mCPP reduced its performance. However, 5-HT2A/C receptor blockade by ritanserin did not inhibit the attenuation of compulsive checking by mCPP. These results suggest that the reduction in compulsive checking by mCPP is not mediated by activity at 5-HT2A/C receptors, but by another receptor subtype.

  1. Discovering the mechanisms underlying serotonin (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C receptor regulation following nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Magdalena; Alenina, Natalia; Wydra, Karolina; Fröhler, Sebastian; Kuśmider, Maciej; McCreary, Andrew C; Chen, Wei; Bader, Michael; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that nicotine withdrawal produces depression-like behavior and that serotonin (5-HT)2A/2C receptor ligands modulate that mood-like state. In the present study we aimed to identify the mechanisms (changes in radioligand binding, transcription or RNA-editing) related to such a behavioral outcome. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) for 5 days in home cages. Brain 5-HT2A/2C receptors were analyzed on day 3 of nicotine withdrawal. Nicotine withdrawal increased [(3)H]ketanserin binding to 5-HT2A receptors in the ventral tegmental area and ventral dentate gyrus, yet decreased binding in the nucleus accumbens shell. Reduction in [(3)H]mesulergine binding to 5-HT2C receptors was seen in the ventral dentate gyrus. Profound decrease in the 5-HT2A receptor transcript level was noted in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area. Out of five 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing sites, deep sequencing data showed a reduction in editing at the E site and a trend toward reduction at the C site in the hippocampus. In the ventral tegmental area, a reduction for the frequency of CD 5-HT2C receptor transcript was seen. These results show that the reduction in the 5-HT2A receptor transcript level may be an auto-regulatory response to the increased receptor density in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area during nicotine withdrawal, while decreased 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing may explain the reduction in receptor labeling in the hippocampus. Serotonin (5-HT)2A/2C receptor ligands alleviate depression-like state in nicotine-withdrawn rats. Here, we show that the reduction in 5-HT2A receptor transcript level may be an auto-regulatory response to the increased receptor number in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area during nicotine withdrawal, while attenuated 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing in the hippocampus might explain reduced inverse agonist binding to 5-HT2C receptor and suggest a shift toward a population of more active receptors. 5

  2. Psychological, neuroimaging, and biochemical studies on functional association between impulsive behavior and the 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism in humans.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Michio; Nomura, Yasuyuki

    2006-11-01

    It has been suggested that impulsive behavior is caused by dysfunctional serotonergic 5-HT neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Brain neuroimaging studies have shown that behavioral inhibition is linked to the activation of cortex sites such as the ventral frontal cortex. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [(18)F]altanserin to characterize 5-HT(2A) receptor binding revealed a reduction in 5-HT(2A) binding in the ventral frontal cortex in women who had recovered from impulsive diseases. These clinical, neuroimaging, and pharmacological studies appear to support the hypothesis that functional alteration of neurotransmission due to genetic polymorphisms of the 5-HT receptors may be involved in impulsive behavior modulation. Following evaluation by a self-reporting measure, it was proposed that a polymorphism in the promoter of the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene is the underlying cause of impulsive behavior; however, this hypothesis is not convincing. We examined whether the polymorphism in the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene promoter is involved in impulsive aggression by evaluating a behavioral task (Go/No-go task) in normal volunteers. The polymorphism of the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene promoter in lymphocytes from 71 volunteers was analyzed by using PCR. Impulsivity was defined as the number of commission errors (responding when one should not) recorded during a Go/No-go task; a larger number of commission errors indicate greater difficulty in inhibiting impulsive behavior. The subjects of the A-1438A allele group for the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene made more commission errors under the punishment-reward (PR)condition in a Go/No-go task than those in the G-1438G group. In the present review, we discuss and suggest the possible involvement of the A-1438A polymorphism of the 5HT2A receptor gene promoter in impulsive behavior. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a behavioral task measure that could directly reveal impulsive behavioral traits in humans.

  3. A homology-based model of the human 5-HT2A receptor derived from an in silico activated G-protein coupled receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, James J.; Nichols, David E.

    2002-07-01

    A homology-based model of the 5-HT2A receptor was produced utilizing an activated form of the bovine rhodopsin (Rh) crystal structure [1,2]. In silico activation of the Rh structure was accomplished by isomerization of the 11- cis-retinal (1) chromophore, followed by constrained molecular dynamics to relax the resultant high energy structure. The activated form of Rh was then used as a structural template for development of a human 5-HT2A receptor model. Both the 5-HT2A receptor and Rh are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family. The resulting homology model of the receptor was then used for docking studies of compounds representing a cross-section of structural classes that activate the 5-HT2A receptor, including ergolines, tryptamines, and amphetamines. The ligand/receptor complexes that ensued were refined and the final binding orientations were observed to be compatible with much of the data acquired through both diversified ligand design and site directed mutagenesis.

  4. Evidence for 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors mediating constriction of the canine internal carotid circulation

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Ortiz, Mario I; Sánchez-López, Araceli; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2001-01-01

    The present study has investigated the preliminary pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating vasoconstriction to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the internal carotid bed of vagosympathectomised dogs. One minute intracarotid infusions of the agonists 5-HT (0.1–10 μg min−1), sumatriptan (0.3–10 μg min−1; 5-HT1B/1D), 5-methoxytryptamine (1–100 μg min−1; 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-ht6 and 5-HT7) or DOI (0.31–10 μg min−1; 5-HT2), but not 5-carboxamidotryptamine (0.01–0.3 μg min−1; 5-HT1, 5-ht5A and 5-HT7), 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (mCPBG; 1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT3) or cisapride (1–1000 μg min−1; 5-HT4), resulted in dose-dependent decreases in internal carotid blood flow, without changing blood pressure or heart rate. The vasoconstrictor responses to 5-HT, which remained unaffected after saline, were resistant to blockade by i.v. administration of the antagonists ritanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2A/2B/2C) in combination with tropisetron (3000 μg kg−1; 5-HT3/4) or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (5000 μg kg−1), but were abolished by the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (30 μg kg−1). Interestingly, after administration of GR127935, the subsequent administration of ritanserin unmasked a dose-dependent vasodilator component. GR127935 or saline did not practically modify the vasoconstrictor effects of 5-MeO-T. In animals receiving GR127935, the subsequent administration of ritanserin abolished the vasoconstrictor responses to 5-MeO-T unmasking a dose-dependent vasodilator component. The vasoconstriction induced by sumatriptan was antagonized by GR127935, but not by ritanserin. Furthermore, ritanserin (100 μg kg−1) or ketanserin (100 μg kg−1; 5-HT2A), but not GR127935, abolished DOI-induced vasoconstrictor responses. The above results suggest that 5-HT-induced internal carotid vasoconstriction is predominantly mediated by 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A receptors

  5. Distribution of 5-HT2A receptor immunoreactivity in the rat amygdaloid complex and colocalization with γ-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Bombardi, Cristiano

    2011-01-25

    The 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2Ar) is located in a variety of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in many regions of the central nervous system and is a major target for atypical antipsychotic drugs. In the present study, an immunoperoxidase experiment was used to investigate the distribution of 5-HT2Ar immunoreactivity in the rat amygdaloid complex. In the basolateral amygdala, the colocalization of 5-HT2Ar with inhibitory transmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied using double-immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The staining pattern obtained was colchicine-sensitive. In fact, pretreatment with colchicine increased the number of 5-HT2Ar-immunoreactive somata. Accordingly, with the exception of the intercalated nuclei, the amygdaloid complex of colchicine-injected rats exhibited a high density of 5-HT2Ar-IR somata. Morphological analyses indicated that 5-HT2Ar was located on both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the rat amygdaloid complex. In addition, double-immunofluorescence observations revealed that the great majority of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the basolateral amygdala exhibited 5-HT2Ar immunoreactivity (66.3%-70.6% depending on the nucleus). These data help to clarify the complex role of the 5-HT2Ar in the amygdaloid complex suggesting that this receptor can regulate amygdaloid activity by acting on different neuronal populations.

  6. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    PubMed

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, José M; Cortés, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions.

  7. Increasing spinal 5-HT2A receptor responsiveness mediates anti-allodynic effect and potentiates fluoxetine efficacy in neuropathic rats. Evidence for GABA release.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Amandine; Wattiez, Anne-Sophie; Pinguet, Jérémy; Richard, Damien; Libert, Frédéric; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sion, Benoit; Ardid, Denis; Marin, Philippe; Eschalier, Alain; Courteix, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Antidepressants are one of the first line treatments for neuropathic pain but their use is limited by the incidence and severity of side effects of tricyclics and the weak effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Serotonin type 2A (5-HT2A) receptors interact with PDZ proteins that regulate their functionality and SSRI efficacy to alleviate pain. We investigated whether an interfering peptide (TAT-2ASCV) disrupting the interaction between 5-HT2A receptors and associated PDZ proteins would improve the treatment of traumatic neuropathic allodynia. Tactile allodynia was assessed in spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain in rats using von Frey filaments after acute treatment with TAT-2ASCV and/or 5-HT2A receptor agonist, alone or in combination with repeated treatment with fluoxetine. In vivo microdialysis was performed in order to examine the involvement of GABA in TAT-2ASCV/fluoxetine treatment-associated analgesia. TAT-2ASCV (100ng, single i.t. injection) improved SNL-induced tactile allodynia by increasing 5-HT2A receptor responsiveness to endogenous 5-HT. Fluoxetine alone (10mg/kg, five i.p. injections) slightly increased tactile thresholds and its co-administration with TAT-2ASCV (100ng, single i.t. injection) further enhanced the anti-allodynic effect. This effect depends on the integrity of descending serotonergic bulbospinal pathways and spinal release of GABA. The anti-allodynic effect of fluoxetine can be enhanced by disrupting 5-HT2A receptor-PDZ protein interactions. This enhancement depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation, spinal GABA release and GABAA receptor activation.

  8. Differential regulation of 5-HT2A receptor mRNA expression following withdrawal from a chronic escalating dose regimen of D-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kristen A; Gilbert, Yamiece E; Noble, Erika S

    2011-05-16

    Several lines of evidence indicate that psychostimulant withdrawal can induce negative emotional symptoms, such as anhedonia and dysphoria, which may be due in part, to dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system, including alterations in 5-HT receptors. For example, changes in 5-HT(2A) receptor function in prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been reported in association with psychostimulant withdrawal. However, it is not known if alterations in 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression occur in the PFC or other limbic-associated areas following withdrawal from chronic psychostimulant treatment. The goal of the current study was to determine the effects of chronic, escalating doses of D-amphetamine (D-AMPH) and withdrawal on the expression of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the cortex, caudate putamen, NAc and hippocampus of rat brain. Animals were treated three times a day for 4 days with escalating doses of D-AMPH (1-10 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after the final dose of D-AMPH, animals were sacrificed and the tissue processed for in situ hybridization histochemistry. Chronic, escalating doses of D-AMPH, followed by a 24 h withdrawal period, significantly decreased 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression in the prefrontal, motor and cingulate cortices, while 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression in the NAc, caudal CPu and hippocampus were significantly increased. These data indicate that region-specific changes in 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression occur in limbic system and associated areas following chronic D-AMPH treatment, supporting the notion that alterations in the 5-HT system may contribute to the negative emotional aspects of psychostimulant withdrawal.

  9. Activation of 5-HT2a receptors in the basolateral amygdala promotes defeat-induced anxiety and the acquisition of conditioned defeat in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Clinard, Catherine T; Bader, Lauren R; Sullivan, Molly A; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    Conditioned defeat is a model in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in which normal territorial aggression is replaced by increased submissive and defensive behavior following acute social defeat. The conditioned defeat response involves both a fear-related memory for a specific opponent as well as anxiety-like behavior indicated by avoidance of novel conspecifics. We have previously shown that systemic injection of a 5-HT2a receptor antagonist reduces the acquisition of conditioned defeat. Because neural activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for the acquisition of conditioned defeat and BLA 5-HT2a receptors can modulate anxiety but have a limited effect on emotional memories, we investigated whether 5-HT2a receptor modulation alters defeat-induced anxiety but not defeat-related memories. We injected the 5-HT2a receptor antagonist MDL 11,939 (0 mM, 1.7 mM or 17 mM) or the 5-HT2a receptor agonist TCB-2 (0 mM, 8 mM or 80 mM) into the BLA prior to social defeat. We found that injection of MDL 11,939 into the BLA impaired acquisition of the conditioned defeat response and blocked defeat-induced anxiety in the open field, but did not significantly impair avoidance of former opponents in the Y-maze. Furthermore, we found that injection of TCB-2 into the BLA increased the acquisition of conditioned defeat and increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field, but did not alter avoidance of former opponents. Our data suggest that 5-HT2a receptor signaling in the BLA is both necessary and sufficient for the development of conditioned defeat, likely via modulation of defeat-induced anxiety.

  10. Interaction between serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphisms influences personality trait of persistence in Austrian Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Schosser, Alexandra; Fuchs, Karoline; Scharl, Theresa; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Kindler, Jochen; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Kaufmann, Rainer M; Leisch, Friedrich; Kasper, Siegfried; Sieghart, Werner; Aschauer, Harald N

    2010-03-01

    We examined 89 normal volunteers using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Genotyping the 102T/C polymorphism of the serotonin 5HT2A receptor gene and the ser9gly polymorphism in exon 1 of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene was performed using PCR-RFLP, whereas the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism was investigated using PCR amplification followed by electrophoresis in an 8% acrylamide gel with a set of size markers. We found a nominally significant association between gender and harm avoidance (P=0.017; women showing higher scores). There was no association of either DAT1, DRD3 or 5HT2A alleles or genotypes with any dimension of the TCI applying Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum tests. Comparing homozygote and heterozygote DAT1 genotypes, we found higher novelty seeking scores in homozygotes (P=0.054). We further found a nominally significant interaction between DAT1 and 5HT2A homo-/heterozygous gene variants (P=0.0071; DAT1 and 5HT2A genotypes P value of 0.05), performing multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Examining the temperamental TCI subscales, this interaction was associated with persistence (genotypes: P=0.004; homo-/heterozygous gene variants: P=0.0004). We conclude that an interaction between DAT1 and 5HT2A genes might influence the temperamental personality trait persistence.

  11. Regional distribution and behavioral correlates of 5-HT(2A) receptors in Alzheimer's disease with [(18)F]deuteroaltanserin and PET.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Lekshmi; Estok, Kristina M; Vogel, Rebecca S; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Baldwin, Ronald M; Mitsis, Effie M; Macavoy, Martha G; Staley, Julie K; van Dyck, Christopher H

    2009-09-30

    Postmortem studies show reductions in brain serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Converging evidence also suggests that serotonergic dysregulation may contribute to behavioral symptoms that frequently occur in AD. This study aimed to define regional reductions in 5-HT(2A) binding in AD patients and to examine their behavioral correlates. Nine patients with probable AD and eight elderly controls were studied using a constant infusion paradigm for equilibrium modeling of [(18)F]deuteroaltanserin with positron emission tomography (PET). Region of interest analyses were performed on PET images coregistered to MRI scans. The outcome measures BP(P) (ratio of specific brain uptake to total plasma parent concentration) and BP(ND) (ratio of specific to nondisplaceable uptake) were obtained for pertinent cortical and subcortical regions. AD patients showed a statistically significant decrease in the anterior cingulate in both BP(P) and BP(ND), but in no other region. Within the AD patient sample, no significant correlations were observed between regional 5-HT(2A) binding and behavioral measures, including depressive and psychotic symptoms. These results confirm a reduction in cortical 5-HT(2A) receptors in AD, specifically in the anterior cingulate. However, in a limited AD patient sample, they fail to demonstrate a relationship between regional 5-HT(2A) binding and major behavioral symptoms.

  12. Extensive Rigid Analogue Design Maps the Binding Conformation of Potent N-Benzylphenethylamine 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Agonist Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Based on the structure of the superpotent 5-HT2A agonist 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, which consists of a ring-substituted phenethylamine skeleton modified with an N-benzyl group, we designed and synthesized a small library of constrained analogues to identify the optimal arrangement of the pharmacophoric elements of the ligand. Structures consisted of diversely substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines, piperidines, and one benzazepine. Based on the structure of (S,S)-9b, which showed the highest affinity of the series, we propose an optimal binding conformation. (S,S)-9b also displayed 124-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2A over the 5-HT2C receptor, making it the most selective 5-HT2A receptor agonist ligand currently known. PMID:23336049

  13. Role of 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-08-01

    The effects of post-training (i.p.) injection of TFMPP, mCPP, DOI or 1-NP in the autoshaping learning task was explored. Furthermore, the post-training effects of these agonists after treatment with the antagonists (+/-)-pindolol, (+/-)-propranolol, NAN-190, ketanserin, ritanserin, mesulergine, MDL-72222 or p-chloroamphetamine (5-HT depleter) were studied. Rats were individually trained with a lever-press response (conditioned response; CR) on the autoshaping task and tested 24 h later. The results showed that the injection of TFMPP (1-10 mg/kg), mCPP (1-10 mg/kg), 1-NP (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) or mesulergine (0.4 mg/kg) decreased the rate of CR, while DOI (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and ritanserin (0.5 mg/kg) and ketanserin (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) increased it. However, the effect induced by TFMPP was reversed by (+/-)-pindolol, ketanserin, ritanserin and PCA; the mCPP-induced effect was antagonized by (+/-)-propranolol, ketanserin, ritanserin and MDL-72222; and the effect produced by 1-NP was reversed by ketanserin, ritanserin and PCA. In addition, the increment in CR provoked by DOI was enhanced by ketanserin, and reversed by ritanserin, mesulergine and PCA. These findings suggest that TFMPP, 1-NP and DOI exerted their effects via stimulation of presynaptic 5-HT receptors. The effects of mCPP most probably reflect activation of postsynaptic receptors. The present data suggest that both 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A-2C receptors play a significant role in the consolidation of learning.

  14. Amelioration of hypoxia-induced striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor, 5-HT transporter and HIF1 alterations by glucose, oxygen and epinephrine in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Anju, T R; Paulose, C S

    2011-09-20

    Alterations in neurotransmitters and its receptors expression induce brain injury during neonatal hypoxic insult. Molecular processes regulating the serotonergic receptors play an important role in the control of respiration under hypoxic insult. The present study focused on the serotonergic regulation of neonatal hypoxia and its resuscitation methods. Receptor binding assays and gene expression studies were done to evaluate the changes in 5HT(2A) receptors and its transporter in the corpus striatum of hypoxic neonatal rats and hypoxic rats resuscitated with glucose, oxygen and epinephrine. Total 5HT and 5HT(2A) receptor number was increased in hypoxic neonates along with an up regulation of 5HT(2A) receptor and 5HT transporter gene. The enhanced striatal 5HT(2A) receptors modulate the ventilatory response to hypoxia. Immediate glucose resuscitation was found to ameliorate the receptor and transporter alterations. Hypoxia induced ATP depletion mediated reduction in blood glucose levels can be encountered by glucose administration and oxygenation helps in overcoming the anaerobic condition. The adverse effect of immediate oxygenation and epinephrine supplementation was also reported. This has immense clinical significance in establishing a proper resuscitation for the management of neonatal hypoxia.

  15. INCREASED 5-HT2A RECEPTOR AVAILABILITY IN THE ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX OF PHYSICALLY AGGRESSIVE PERSONALITY DISORDERED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Daniel R.; Thompson, Judy L.; Slifstein, Mark; Xu, Xiaoyan; Frankle, W. Gordon; New, Antonia S.; Goodman, Marianne; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Laruelle, Marc; Dargham, Anissa Abi; Siever, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Impulsive physical aggression is a common and problematic feature of many personality disorders. The serotonergic system is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of aggression, and multiple lines of evidence have implicated the 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR). We sought to examine the role of the 5-HT2AR in impulsive aggression specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), given that our own studies and an extensive literature indicate that serotonergic disturbances in the OFC are linked to aggression. We have previously hypothesized that increased 5-HT2AR function in the OFC is a state phenomenon which promotes impulsive aggression. Methods 5-HT2AR availability was measured with positron emission tomography and the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist radioligand [11C]MDL100907 in two groups of impulsively aggressive personality disordered patients --14 with current physical aggression, and 15 without current physical aggression --and 25 healthy controls. Clinical ratings of various symptom dimensions were also obtained. Results Orbitofrontal 5-HT2AR availability was greater in patients with current physical aggression compared to patients without current physical aggression and healthy controls; no differences in OFC 5-HT2AR availability were observed between patients without current physical aggression and healthy controls. No significant differences in 5-HT2AR availability were observed in other brain regions examined. Among both groups of impulsively aggressive personality disordered patients combined, OFC 5-HT2AR availability was correlated, specifically, with a state measure of impulsive aggression. Conclusions These findings are consistent with our previously described model in which impulsive aggression is related to dynamic changes in 5-HT2AR function in the OFC. PMID:20434136

  16. Allosteric signaling through an mGlu2 and 5-HT2A heteromeric receptor complex and its potential contribution to schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, José L.; Miranda-Azpiazu, Patricia; García-Bea, Aintzane; Younkin, Jason; Cui, Meng; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Ben-Ezra, Ariel; Voloudakis, Georgios; Fakira, Amanda K.; Baki, Lia; Ge, Yongchao; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Morón, José A.; Milligan, Graeme; López-Giménez, Juan F.; Robakis, Nikolaos K.; Logothetis, Diomedes E.; Meana, J. Javier; González-Maeso, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) can form multiprotein complexes (heteromers), which can alter the pharmacology and functions of the constituent receptors. Previous findings demonstrated that the Gq/11-coupled serotonin 5-HT2A receptor and the Gi/o-coupled metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptor—GPCRs that are involved in signaling alterations associated with psychosis—assemble into a heteromeric complex in the mammalian brain. In single-cell experiments with various mutant versions of the mGlu2 receptor, we showed that stimulation of cells expressing mGlu2–5-HT2A heteromers with an mGlu2 agonist led to activation of Gq/11 proteins by the 5-HT2A receptors. For this crosstalk to occur, one of the mGlu2 subunits had to couple to Gi/o proteins, and we determined the relative location of the Gi/o-contacting subunit within the mGlu2 homodimer of the heteromeric complex. Additionally, mGlu2-dependent activation of Gq/11, but not Gi/o, was reduced in the frontal cortex of 5-HT2A knockout mice and was reduced in the frontal cortex of postmortem brains from schizophrenic patients. These findings offer structural insights into this important target in molecular psychiatry. PMID:26758213

  17. Tolerance to LSD and DOB induced shaking behaviour: differential adaptations of frontocortical 5-HT(2A) and glutamate receptor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Dieterich, Daniela C; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker

    2015-03-15

    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethoxy-bromoamphetamine (DOB), provoke stereotype-like shaking behaviour in rodents, which is hypothesised to engage frontocortical glutamate receptor activation secondary to serotonin2A (5-HT2A) related glutamate release. Challenging this hypothesis, we here investigate whether tolerance to LSD and DOB correlates with frontocortical adaptations of 5-HT2A and/or overall-glutamate binding sites. LSD and DOB (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) induce a ketanserin-sensitive (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment) increase in shaking behaviour (including head twitches and wet dog shakes), which with repeated application (7× in 4 ds) is undermined by tolerance. Tolerance to DOB, as indexed by DOB-sensitive [(3)H]spiroperidol and DOB induced [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding, is accompanied by a frontocortical decrease in 5-HT2A binding sites and 5-HT2 signalling, respectively; glutamate-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate binding sites, in contrast, remain unchanged. As to LSD, 5-HT2 signalling and 5-HT2A binding, respectively, are not or only marginally affected, yet [(3)H]glutamate binding is significantly decreased. Correlation analysis interrelates tolerance to DOB to the reduced 5-HT2A (r=.80) as well as the unchanged [(3)H]glutamate binding sites (r=.84); tolerance to LSD, as opposed, shares variance with the reduction in [(3)H]glutamate binding sites only (r=.86). Given that DOB and LSD both induce tolerance, one correlating with 5-HT2A, the other with glutamate receptor adaptations, it might be inferred that tolerance can arise at either level. That is, if a hallucinogen (like LSD in our study) fails to induce 5-HT2A (down-)regulation, glutamate receptors (activated postsynaptic to 5-HT2A related glutamate release) might instead adapt and thus prevent further overstimulation of the cortex.

  18. Effect of fluvoxamine on platelet 5-HT2A receptors as studied by [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Spigset, O; Mjörndal, T

    1997-09-01

    Alterations in platelet 5-HT2A receptor characteristics have been reported in major depression as well as in other psychiatric diseases, and some effort has been made to utilize platelet 5-HT2A receptor status as a biological correlate to antidepressant drug response. In order to investigate whether treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor affects platelet 5-HT2A receptors, we have studied platelet [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) binding in healthy subjects treated with fluvoxamine in increasing dosage once weekly for 4 weeks. After 1 week of fluvoxamine treatment (25 mg/day), both Bmax and Kd were significantly lower than before the start of the treatment (19.9 versus 25.5 fmol/mg protein, P = 0.005 for Bmax; 0.45 versus 0.93 nM, P = 0.006 for Kd). Bmax returned to baseline during week 2, whereas Kd was lower than the baseline value throughout the treatment period. After discontinuation of fluvoxamine treatment, there was a significant increase in Kd (0.50 nM before discontinuation vs. 1.14 nM after discontinuation; P = 0.001), but not in Bmax. The study demonstrates that fluvoxamine affects platelet 5-HT2A receptor status irrespective of underlying psychiatric disease, and that this effect is evident already after 1 week at a subtherapeutic fluvoxamine dose.

  19. Cerebral metabolic responses to 5-HT2A/C receptor activation in mice with genetically modified serotonin transporter (SERT) expression.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Neil; Ferrington, Linda; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Kelly, Paul A T

    2011-01-01

    Variation in the human serotonin transporter gene (hSERT; 5-HTT) resulting in a life-long alteration in SERT function influences anxiety and the risk of developing affective disorders. The mechanisms underlying the influence of the hSERT gene on these phenotypes remain unclear but may involve altered 5-HT receptor function. Here we characterise the cerebral metabolic response to 5-HT(2A/C) receptor activation in two transgenic mouse models of altered SERT function, SERT knock-out (SERT KO) and hSERT over-expressing (hSERT OE) mice, to test the hypothesis that genetically mediated variability in SERT expression alters 5-HT(2A/C) function. We found that a constitutive increase in SERT expression (hSERT OE) enhanced, whereas a constitutive decrease in SERT expression (SERT KO) attenuated, 5-HT(2A/C) function. Therefore, altered 5-HT(2A/C) receptor functioning in response to hSERT gene variation may contribute to its influence on affective phenotypes.

  20. DRD2, DRD3 and 5HT2A receptor genes polymorphisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, H; Cruz, C; Camarena, B; Orozco, B; Kennedy, J L; King, N; Weissbecker, K; de la Fuente, J R; Sidenberg, D

    1996-12-01

    We performed an association analysis of the DRD2, DRD3 and 5HT2A genes polymorphisms in 67 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients and 54 healthy controls. There were no statistically significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies for any of the polymorphisms studied between OCD subjects and controls. For the subgrouped analysis, no results were significant after correction for multiple testing, although homozygosity of DRD2/A2A2 in subjects displaying vocal or motor tics approached significance compared to controls (Fisher exact test, P = 0.008). Our results may follow the notion that OCD patients with tics represent a different genetic subtype of the disease.

  1. MDMA-induced loss of parvalbumin interneurons within the dentate gyrus is mediated by 5HT2A and NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stuart A; Gudelsky, Gary A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2015-08-15

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes a rapid and robust release of the monoaminergic neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Recently, it was shown that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dorsal hippocampus, which is dependent on serotonin release and 5HT2A/2C receptor activation. The increased extracellular glutamate concentration coincides with a loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons of the dentate gyrus region. Given the known susceptibility of PV interneurons to excitotoxicity, we examined whether MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate in the dentate gyrus are necessary for the loss of PV cells in rats. Extracellular glutamate concentrations increased in the dentate gyrus during systemic and local administration of MDMA. Administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, during systemic injections of MDMA, prevented the loss of PV-IR interneurons seen 10 days after MDMA exposure. Local administration of MDL100907, a selective 5HT2A receptor antagonist, prevented the increases in glutamate caused by reverse dialysis of MDMA directly into the dentate gyrus and prevented the reduction of PV-IR. These findings provide evidence that MDMA causes decreases in PV within the dentate gyrus through a 5HT2A receptor-mediated increase in glutamate and subsequent NMDA receptor activation.

  2. The role of peripheral 5HT2A and 5HT1A receptors on the orofacial formalin test in rats with persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, K; Imbe, H; Tashiro, A; Kimura, A; Donishi, T; Tamai, Y; Senba, E

    2005-01-01

    The role of peripheral serotonin (5HT) 2A and 5HT1A receptors on the orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities evoked by the injection of formalin into the masseter muscle was evaluated in the rats with persistent temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation evoked by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities evoked by the injection of formalin into masseter muscle were significantly enhanced at 1 day (CFA day 1 group) or 7 days (CFA day 7 group) during TMJ inflammation. Pretreatment with local administration of 5HT2A receptor antagonist, ketanserin (0.01, 0.1 mg/rat) into the masseter muscle or systemic administration of ketanserin via i.p. injection (1 mg/kg) reduced the orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities of the late phase evoked by formalin injection into masseter muscle on the side of TMJ inflammation (CFA day 7 group). However, local (0.001-0.1 mg/rat) or systemic (1 mg/kg) administration of 5HT1A receptor antagonist, propranolol, into masseter muscle did not produce the antinociceptive effect in CFA day 7 group. Moreover, local administration of ketanserin (0.1 mg) or propranolol (0.1 mg) into masseter muscle did not inhibit nocifensive orofacial behavior in rats without TMJ inflammation. These data suggest that persistent TMJ inflammation causes the elevation of the orofacial nocifensive behavior, and peripheral 5HT2A receptors play an important role in mediating the deep craniofacial tissue nociception in rats with TMJ inflammation.

  3. Repeated administration of Yokukansan inhibits DOI-induced head-twitch response and decreases expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Ishibashi, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Okuno, Ryoko; Abe, Moe; Uchida, Naoki; Mishima, Kenichi; Takasaki, Kotaro; Nishimura, Ryoji; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2008-08-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of senile dementia. BPSD have a serious impact on the quality of life of dementia patients, as well as their caregivers. However, an effective drug therapy for BPSD has not been established. Recently, the traditional Japanese medicine Yokukansan (YKS, Yi-gan san in Chinese) has been reported to improve BPSD in a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Moreover, abnormalities of the serotonin (5-HT) system such as 5-HT2A receptors have been reported to be associated with BPSD of AD patients. In the present study, we investigated the effect of YKS on head-twitch response induced by 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice, a behavioral response that is mediated, in part, by 5-HT2A receptors. Acute treatment with YKS (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) had no effect on the DOI-induced head-twitch response, whilst 14 days repeated treatment with YKS (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited this response. Moreover, repeated treatment with YKS (300 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex, which is part of the circuitry mediating the head-twitch response. These findings suggest that the inhibition of DOI-induced head-twitch response by YKS may be mediated, in part, by altered expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex, which suggests the involvement of the 5-HT system in psychopharmacological effects of YKS.

  4. Differences in 5-HT2A and mGlu2 Receptor Expression Levels and Repressive Epigenetic Modifications at the 5-HT2A Promoter Region in the Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High- (RHA-I) Avoidance Rat Strains.

    PubMed

    Fomsgaard, Luna; Moreno, Jose L; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Brudek, Tomasz; Adamsen, Dea; Rio-Alamos, Cristobal; Saunders, Justin; Klein, Anders Bue; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blazquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernandez-Teruel, Albert; Gonzalez-Maeso, Javier; Aznar, Susana

    2017-03-06

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putative genetic rat model of schizophrenia-related features. The RHA-I strain shows increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor binding levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we looked for differences in gene expression and transcriptional regulation of these receptors. The striatum (STR) was included in the analysis. 5-HT2A, 5-HT1A, and mGlu2 mRNA and [(3)H]ketanserin binding levels were measured in brain homogenates. As expected, 5-HT2A binding was significantly increased in PFC in the RHA-I rats, while no difference in binding was observed in STR. Surprisingly, 5-HT2A gene expression was unchanged in PFC but significantly decreased in STR. mGlu2 receptor gene expression was significantly decreased in both PFC and STR. No differences were observed for the 5-HT1A receptor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed increased trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at the promoter region of the HTR2A gene in the STR. We further looked at the Akt/GSK3 signaling pathway, a downstream point of convergence of the serotonin and glutamate system, and found increased phosphorylation levels of GSK3β at tyrosine 216 and increased β-catenin levels in the PFC of the RHA-I rats. These results reveal region-specific regulation of the 5-HT2A receptor in the RHA-I rats probably due to absence of mGlu2 receptor that may result in differential regulation of downstream pathways.

  5. LSD and DOB: interaction with 5-HT2A receptors to inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Arvanov, V L; Liang, X; Russo, A; Wang, R Y

    1999-09-01

    Both the phenethylamine hallucinogen (-)-1-2, 5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOB), a selective serotonin 5-HT2A,2C receptor agonist, and the indoleamine hallucinogen D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, which binds to 5-HT1A, 1B, 1D, 1E, 1F, 2A, 2C, 5, 6, 7, dopamine D1 and D2, and alpha1 and alpha2 adrenergic receptors), but not their non-hallucinogenic congeners, inhibited N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced inward current and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the forceps minor in pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortical slices. The inhibitory effect of hallucinogens was mimicked by 5-HT in the presence of selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The inhibitory action of DOB, LSD and 5-HT on the NMDA transmission was blocked by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists R-(+)-alpha-(2, 3-dimethoxyphenil)-1-[4-fluorophenylethyl]-4-piperidineme thanol (M100907) and ketanserin. However, at low concentrations, when both LSD and DOB by themselves only partially depressed the NMDA response, they blocked the inhibitory effect of 5-HT, suggesting a partial agonist action. Whereas N-(4-aminobutyl)-5-chloro-2-naphthalenesulphonamide (W-7, a calmodulin antagonist) and N-[2-[[[3-(4'-chlorophenyl)- 2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4'-methoxy-b enzenesulphonamide phosphate (KN-93, a Ca2+/CaM-KII inhibitor), but not the negative control 2-[N-4'methoxybenzenesulphonyl]amino-N-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-propeny l-N -methylbenzylamine phosphate (KN-92), blocked the inhibitory action of LSD and DOB, the selective protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine was without any effect. We conclude that phenethylamine and indoleamine hallucinogens may exert their hallucinogenic effect by interacting with 5-HT2A receptors via a Ca2+/CaM-KII-dependent signal transduction pathway as partial agonists and modulating the NMDA receptors-mediated sensory, perceptual, affective and cognitive processes.

  6. The atypical 5-HT2 receptor mediating tachycardia in pithed rats: pharmacological correlation with the 5-HT2A receptor subtype

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Ortiz, Mario I; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2002-01-01

    In pithed rats, 5-HT mediates tachycardia both directly (by 5-HT2 receptors) and indirectly (by a tyramine-like effect). The receptor mediating tachycardia directly has been classified as an ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptor since it was ‘weakly' blocked by ketanserin. Moreover, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT2 agonist, failed to mimic 5-HT-induced tachycardia. Since 5-HT2 receptors consist of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C subtypes, this study investigated if these subtypes mediate the above response. In pithed rats, intraperitoneally (i.p.) pre-treated with reserpine (5 mg kg−1), intravenous (i.v.) administration of 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-T), 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (10, 30, 100 and 300 μg kg−1 each), produced dose-dependent tachycardic responses. Interestingly, DOI (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.) induced only slight, dose-unrelated, tachycardic responses, whilst the 5-HT2C agonist, Ro 60-0175 (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.), produced a slight tachycardia only at 300 and 1000 μg kg−1. In contrast, sumatriptan and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)- piperazine (TFMPP) were inactive. The rank order of potency was: 5-HT⩾5-MeO-T> mCPP⩾5-CT⩾DOI>Ro 60-0175. The tachycardic responses to 5-HT, which remained unaffected after i.v. saline (0.3 and 1 ml kg−1) or propranolol (3 mg kg−1), were selectively blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonists ketanserin (30 and 100 μg kg−1) or spiperone (10 and 30 μg kg−1) as well as by the non-selective 5-HT2 antagonists, ritanserin (10 and 30 μg kg−1) or mesulergine (100 μg kg−1). Remarkably, these responses were unaffected by the antagonists rauwolscine (5-HT2B), SB204741 (5-HT2B/2C) or Ro 04-6790 (5-ht6) (300 and 1000 μg kg−1 each). These results suggest that the ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptors mediating tachycardia in reserpinized pithed rats are pharmacologically similar to the 5-HT2A

  7. A Model of Post-Infection Fatigue Is Associated with Increased TNF and 5-HT2A Receptor Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Yvonne; Xie, Qin; Lundberg, Louise; Sharp, Trevor; Anthony, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in psychiatric illness. For example, myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS), which is often provoked by infection, is a disabling illness with an unknown aetiology and diagnosis is based on symptom-specific criteria. However, 5-HT2A receptor expression and peripheral cytokines are known to be upregulated in ME. We sought to examine the relationship between the 5-HT system and cytokine expression following systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge (LPS, 0.5mg/kg i.p.), at a time when the acute sickness behaviours have largely resolved. At 24 hours post-injection mice exhibit no overt changes in locomotor behaviour, but do show increased immobility in a forced swim test, as well as decreased sucrose preference and reduced marble burying activity, indicating a depressive-like state. While peripheral IDO activity was increased after LPS challenge, central activity levels remained stable and there was no change in total brain 5-HT levels or 5-HIAA/5-HT. However, within the brain, levels of TNF and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA within various regions increased significantly. This increase in receptor expression is reflected by an increase in the functional response of the 5-HT2A receptor to agonist, DOI. These data suggest that regulation of fatigue and depressive-like moods after episodes of systemic inflammation may be regulated by changes in 5-HT receptor expression, rather than by levels of enzyme activity or cytokine expression in the CNS. PMID:26147001

  8. Novel class of arylpiperazines containing N-acylated amino acids: their synthesis, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A receptor affinity, and in vivo pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Tatarczyńska, Ewa; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Chojnacka-Wójcik, Ewa; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2007-04-15

    Novel arylpiperazines with N-acylated amino acids, selected on the basis of a preliminary screening of two libraries previously synthesized on SynPhase Lanterns, were prepared in solution and their affinity for 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and D(2) receptors was evaluated. The compounds bearing (3-acylamino)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (19-26) and N-acylprolinamide (29-34) moieties showed high affinity for 5-HT(1A) (K(i)=3-47 nM), high-to-low for 5-HT(2A) (K(i)=4.2-990 nM), and low for D(2) receptors (K(i)=0.77-21.19 microM). All the new o-methoxy derivatives of (3-acylamino)pyrrolidine-2,5-diones tested in vivo revealed agonistic activity at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, while m-chloro derivatives were classified as antagonists of these sites; similar relations were observed for o-methoxy (29) and m-chlorophenylpiperazine derivatives of N-acylprolinamides. The reported results show that the amino acid-derived terminal fragment modified the in vivo functional profile. Finally, the selected compounds 19 and 20, a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist and a full agonist, respectively, and 26, a mixed 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A) antagonist, were evaluated in preclinical animal models of depression and anxiety. The project allowed selecting the lead compound 20 which exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect in the four-plate test in mice and revealed distinct antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests in mice.

  9. A 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, mitigates developmental neurotoxicity of ethanol to serotonergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Tsukasa; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the reduction of serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons in the midbrain raphe nuclei. In the present study, we examined whether an activation of signaling via 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors during the fetal period is able to prevent the reduction of 5-HTergic neurons induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a liquid diet containing 2.5 to 5.0% (w/v) ethanol on gestational days (GDs) 10 to 20 (Et). As a pair-fed control, other pregnant rats were fed the same liquid diet except that the ethanol was replaced by isocaloric sucrose (Pf). Each Et and Pf group was subdivided into two groups; one of the groups was treated with 1 mg/kg (i.p.) of 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), an agonist for 5-HT2A/2C receptors, during GDs 13 to 19 (Et-DOI or Pf-DOI), and another was injected with saline vehicle only (Et-Sal or Pf-Sal). Their fetuses were removed by cesarean section on GD 19 or 20, and fetal brains were collected. An immunohistological examination of 5-HTergic neurons in the fetuses on embryonic day 20 using an antibody against tryptophan hydroxylase revealed that the number of 5-HTergic neurons in the midbrain raphe nuclei was significantly reduced in the Et-Sal fetuses compared to that of the Pf-Sal and Pf-DOI fetuses, whereas there were no significant differences between Et-DOI and each Pf control. Thus, we concluded that the reduction of 5-HTergic neurons that resulted in prenatal ethanol exposure could be alleviated by the enhancement of signaling via 5-HT2A/2C receptors during the fetal period.

  10. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

    2010-09-01

    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated.

  11. Cerebral 5-HT release correlates with [(11)C]Cimbi36 PET measures of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy in the pig brain.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Louise M; Weikop, Pia; Villadsen, Jonas; Visnapuu, Tanel; Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Hanne D; Baandrup, Anders O; Andersen, Flemming L; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Thomsen, Carsten; Jespersen, Bo; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can, when used with appropriate radioligands, non-invasively generate temporal and spatial information about acute changes in brain neurotransmitter systems. We for the first time evaluate the novel 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET radioligand, [(11)C]Cimbi-36, for its sensitivity to detect changes in endogenous cerebral 5-HT levels, as induced by different pharmacological challenges. To enable a direct translation of PET imaging data to changes in brain 5-HT levels, we calibrated the [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET signal in the pig brain by simultaneous measurements of extracellular 5-HT levels with microdialysis and [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET after various acute interventions (saline, citalopram, citalopram + pindolol, fenfluramine). In a subset of pigs, para-chlorophenylalanine pretreatment was given to deplete cerebral 5-HT. The interventions increased the cerebral extracellular 5-HT levels to 2-11 times baseline, with fenfluramine being the most potent pharmacological enhancer of 5-HT release, and induced a varying degree of decline in [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding in the brain, consistent with the occupancy competition model. The observed correlation between changes in the extracellular 5-HT level in the pig brain and the 5-HT2A receptor occupancy indicates that [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding is sensitive to changes in endogenous 5-HT levels, although only detectable with PET when the 5-HT release is sufficiently high.

  12. The secret ingredient for social success of young males: a functional polymorphism in the 5HT2A serotonin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Zijlstra, Lieuwe; Bouma, Esther; Veenstra, René

    2013-01-01

    In adolescence, being socially successful depends to a large extent on being popular with peers. Even though some youths have what it takes to be popular, they are not, whereas others seem to have a secret ingredient that just makes the difference. In this study the G-allele of a functional polymorphism in the promotor region of the 5HT2A serotonin receptor gene (-G1438A) was identified as a secret ingredient for popularity among peers. These findings build on and extend previous work by Burt (2008, 2009). Tackling limitations from previous research, the role of the 5HT2A serotonin receptor gene was examined in adolescent males (N = 285; average age 13) using a unique sample of the TRAILS study. Carrying the G-allele enhanced the relation between aggression and popularity, particularly for those boys who have many female friends. This seems to be an "enhancer" effect of the G-allele whereby popularity relevant characteristics are made more noticeable. There is no "popularity gene", as the G-allele by itself had no effect on popularity.

  13. The 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's disorder: A PET study with [¹¹C]MDL 100907 and [¹¹C]DASB.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Ragy R; Slifstein, Mark; Xu, Xiaoyan; Frankle, W Gordon; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Wasserman, Stacey; Pepa, Lauren; Kolevzon, Alexander; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Laruelle, Marc; Hollander, Eric

    2011-12-30

    Evidence from biochemical, imaging, and treatment studies suggest abnormalities of the serotonin system in autism spectrum disorders, in particular in frontolimbic areas of the brain. We used the radiotracers [(11)C]MDL 100907 and [(11)C]DASB to characterize the 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's Disorder. Seventeen individuals with Asperger's Disorder (age=34.3 ± 11.1 years) and 17 healthy controls (age=33.0 ± 9.6 years) were scanned with [(11)C]MDL 100907. Of the 17 patients, eight (age=29.7 ± 7.0 years) were also scanned with [¹¹C]DASB, as were eight healthy controls (age=28.7 ± 7.0 years). Patients with Asperger's Disorder and healthy control subjects were matched for age, gender, and ethnicity, and all had normal intelligence. Metabolite-corrected arterial plasma inputs were collected and data analyzed by two-tissue compartment modeling. The primary outcome measure was regional binding potential BP(ND). Neither regional [¹¹C]MDL 100907 BP(ND) nor [¹¹C]DASB BP(ND) was statistically different between the Asperger's and healthy subjects. This study failed to find significant alterations in binding parameters of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters in adult subjects with Asperger's disorder.

  14. Test-retest variability of high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cortical serotonin (5HT2A) receptors in older, healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Position emission tomography (PET) imaging using [18F]-setoperone to quantify cortical 5-HT2A receptors has the potential to inform pharmacological treatments for geriatric depression and dementia. Prior reports indicate a significant normal aging effect on serotonin 5HT2A receptor (5HT2AR) binding potential. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest variability of [18F]-setoperone PET with a high resolution scanner (HRRT) for measuring 5HT2AR availability in subjects greater than 60 years old. Methods: Six healthy subjects (age range = 65–78 years) completed two [18F]-setoperone PET scans on two separate occasions 5–16 weeks apart. Results The average difference in the binding potential (BPND) as measured on the two occasions in the frontal and temporal cortical regions ranged between 2 and 12%, with the lowest intraclass correlation coefficient in anterior cingulate regions. Conclusion We conclude that the test-retest variability of [18F]-setoperone PET in elderly subjects is comparable to that of [18F]-setoperone and other 5HT2AR radiotracers in younger subject samples. PMID:19580676

  15. Effects of imipramine and bupropion on the duration of immobility of ACTH-treated rats in the forced swim test: involvement of the expression of 5-HT2A receptor mRNA.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Fujitani, Yoshika; Kitagawa, Kouhei; Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Sagara, Hidenori; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Sendo, Toshiaki; Gomita, Yutaka

    2008-02-01

    We examined the effect of chronic administration of imipramine and bupropion, monoamine reuptake inhibitors, on the duration of immobility in the forced swim test and serotonin (5-HT)(2A) receptor function in the form of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA levels in rats chronically treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The immobility-decreasing effect of bupropion without imipramine did not influence the chronic ACTH treatment. The effect on the expression of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA of chronic ACTH treatment was decreased by bupropion, but not imipramine. These results suggest that bupropion has the effect of reducing immobility time in the forced swim test in the tricyclic antidepressant-resistant depressive model induced by chronic ACTH treatment in rats, and that decreased 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA levels may be involved in this phenomenon.

  16. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Trovero, Fabrice; David, Sabrina; Bernard, Philippe; Puech, Alain; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively) blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v) and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs.

  17. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Trovero, Fabrice; David, Sabrina; Bernard, Philippe; Puech, Alain; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively) blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v) and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs. PMID:26968030

  18. Effects of the serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor ligands on the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Magdalena; McCreary, Andrew C; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Malgorzata

    2007-10-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that serotonergic (5-HT) 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors or their pharmacological stimulation modulated the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in male Wistar rats. To this end the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist R-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-4-piperidinemethanol (M100,907; 0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), the functional 5-HT2A receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI; 0.1-1 mg/kg, s.c.), the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist 6-chloro-5-methyl-1-{[2-(2-methylpyrid-3-yloxy)pyrid-5-yl]carbamoyl}indoline (SB 242,084; 0.25-1 mg/kg, i.p.) and the 5-HT2C receptor agonists (S)-2-chloro-5-fluoro-indol-1-yl)-1-methylethylamine fumarate (Ro 60-0175; 0.3-1 mg/kg, s.c.) and (7bR, 10aR)-1,2,3,4,8,9,10,10a-octahydro-7bH-cyclopenta-[b][1,4]diazepino[6,7,1hi]indole (WAY 163,909; 0.75-1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were used. Additionally, the effects of the selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype agonist 5-iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-IA; 0.01 mg/kg, s.c.) were investigated. In rats trained to discriminate (-)-nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) from saline in a two-lever, water-reinforced fixed ratio 10 task, substitutions were not observed with 5-HT2 receptor ligands (<32% nicotine-lever responding), conversely 5-IA induced a full substitution (100% nicotine-lever responding). In combination studies, fixed doses of M100,907 (0.5-1 mg/kg) or SB 242,084 (0.25-1 mg/kg) did not alter the dose-response curve of nicotine, while DOI (0.3 mg/kg), Ro 60-0175 (1 mg/kg) and WAY 163,909 (1 and 1.5 mg/kg) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. The decrease in the expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine produced by DOI was blocked by M100,907 (1 mg/kg), but not by SB 242,084 (1 mg/kg), while that evoked by Ro 60-0175 or WAY 163,909 was blocked by SB 242,084 (1 mg/kg), but not by M100,907 (1 mg/kg). Further studies showed that

  19. Crucial role of the 5-HT2C receptor, but not of the 5-HT2A receptor, in the down regulation of stimulated dopamine release produced by pressure exposure in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Kriem, B; Rostain, J C; Abraini, J H

    1998-06-15

    Helium pressure of more than 2 MPa is a well known factor underlying pressure-dependent central neuroexcitatory disorders, referred to as the high-pressure neurological syndrome. This includes an increase in both serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) release. The relationship between the increase in 5-HT transmission produced by helium pressure and its effect on DA release has been clarified in a recent study, which have first demonstrated that the helium pressure-induced increase in DA release was dependent on some 5-HT receptor activation. In the present study, we examined in freely moving rats the role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the increase in DA release induced by 8 MPa helium pressure. We used the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin and the 5-HT2C receptor agonist m-CPP which have been demonstrated to reduce DA function. Because neither ketanserin is an ideal 5-HT2A receptor antagonist nor m-CPP an ideal 5-HT2C receptor agonist, additional experiments were made at normal pressure to check up on the selectivity of ketanserin and m-CPP for 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, respectively. Administration of m-CPP reduced both DA basal level and the helium pressure-induced increase in DA release, whereas administration of ketanserin only showed a little effect on the increase in DA release produced by high helium pressure. These results suggest that the 5-HT2C receptor, but not the 5-HT2A receptor, would play a crucial role in the helium pressure-induced increase in DA release. This further suggests that helium pressure may simultaneously induce an increase in 5-HT transmission at the level of 5-HT2A receptors and a decrease in 5-HT transmission at the level of 5-HT2C receptors.

  20. Variation in Dopamine D2 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Genes is Associated with Working Memory Processing and Response to Treatment with Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Pierluigi; Fazio, Leonardo; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Taurisano, Paolo; Masellis, Rita; Romano, Raffaella; Mancini, Marina; Zhang, Fengyu; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Apud, Jose; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors contribute to modulate prefrontal cortical physiology and response to treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Similarly, functional variation in the genes encoding these receptors is also associated with these phenotypes. In particular, the DRD2 rs1076560 T allele predicts a lower ratio of expression of D2 short/long isoforms, suboptimal working memory processing, and better response to antipsychotic treatment compared with the G allele. Furthermore, the HTR2A T allele is associated with lower 5-HT2A expression, impaired working memory processing, and poorer response to antipsychotics compared with the C allele. Here, we investigated in healthy subjects whether these functional polymorphisms have a combined effect on prefrontal cortical physiology and related cognitive behavior linked to schizophrenia as well as on response to treatment with second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. In a total sample of 620 healthy subjects, we found that subjects with the rs1076560 T and rs6314 T alleles have greater fMRI prefrontal activity during working memory. Similar results were obtained within the attentional domain. Also, the concomitant presence of the rs1076560 T/rs6314 T alleles also predicted lower behavioral accuracy during working memory. Moreover, we found that rs1076560 T carrier/rs6314 CC individuals had better responses to antipsychotic treatment in two independent samples of patients with schizophrenia (n=63 and n=54, respectively), consistent with the previously reported separate effects of these genotypes. These results indicate that DRD2 and HTR2A genetic variants together modulate physiological prefrontal efficiency during working memory and also modulate the response to antipsychotics. Therefore, these results suggest that further exploration is needed to better understand the clinical consequences of these genotype–phenotype relationships. PMID:25563748

  1. Individual Differences in Impulsive Action Reflect Variation in the Cortical Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Latham HL; Anastasio, Noelle C; Fox, Robert G; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, and individual variation in the degree of inherent impulsivity could play a role in the generation or exacerbation of problematic behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) actions at the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) promote and 5-HT2AR antagonists suppress impulsive action (the inability to withhold premature responses; motor impulsivity) upon systemic administration or microinfusion directly into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a node in the corticostriatal circuit that is thought to play a role in the regulation of impulsive action. We hypothesized that the functional capacity of the 5-HT2AR, which is governed by its expression, localization, and protein/protein interactions (eg, postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95)), may drive the predisposition to inherent impulsive action. Stable high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI) phenotypes were identified from an outbred rodent population with the 1-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task. HI rats exhibited a greater head-twitch response following administration of the preferential 5-HT2AR agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and were more sensitive to the effects of the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907 to suppress impulsive action relative to LI rats. A positive correlation was observed between levels of premature responses and 5-HT2AR binding density in frontal cortex ([3H]-ketanserin radioligand binding). Elevated mPFC 5-HT2AR protein expression concomitant with augmented association of the 5-HT2AR with PSD95 differentiated HI from LI rats. The observed differential sensitivity of HI and LI rats to 5-HT2AR ligands and associated distinct 5-HT2AR protein profiles provide evidence that spontaneously occurring individual differences in impulsive action reflect variation in the cortical 5-HT2AR system. PMID:25666313

  2. Hallucinogen-like effects of N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT): possible mediation by serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Fantegrossi, William E.; Reissig, Chad J.; Katz, Elyse B.; Yarosh, Haley L.; Rice, Kenner C.; Winter, Jerrold C.

    2008-01-01

    N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT) is a synthetic tryptamine hallucinogen which has been used psychotherapeutically in humans, but has been studied preclinically only rarely. In the present studies, DPT was tested in a drug-elicited head twitch assay in mice, and in rats trained to discriminate lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), N,N-dimethyl-4-phosphoryloxytryptamine (psilocybin), or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). A separate group of rats was also trained to recognize DPT itself as a discriminative stimulus, and in all cases, the behavioral effects of DPT were challenged with the selective serotonin (5-HT)2A antagonist M100907, the 5-HT1A selective antagonist WAY-100635, or their combination. In the head twitch assay, DPT elicited dose-dependent effects, producing a biphasic dose-effect curve. WAY-100635 produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose-effect curve for head twitches, indicative of surmountable antagonism, but the antagonist effects of M100907 were functionally insurmountable. DPT produced partial to full substitution when tested in rats trained to discriminate LSD, psilocybin or MDMA, and served as a discriminative stimulus. In all cases, the antagonist effects of M100907 were more profound than were those of WAY-100635. DPT is thus active in two rodent models relevant to 5-HT2 agonist activity. The effectiveness with which M100907 antagonizes the behavioral actions of this compound strongly suggests that the 5-HT2A receptor is an important site of action for DPT, but the modulatory actions of WAY-100635 also imply a 5-HT1A-mediated component to the actions of this compound. PMID:17905422

  3. Effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake inhibition plus 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism on the firing activity of norepinephrine neurons.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Steven T; Blier, Pierre

    2002-09-01

    YM992 [(S)-2-[[(7-fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride] is a selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a potent 5-HT(2A) antagonist. The aim of the present study was to assess, using in vivo extracellular unitary recordings, the effect of acute and sustained administration of YM992 (40 mg kg(-1) day(-1) s.c., using osmotic minipumps) on the spontaneous firing activity of locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE) neurons. Acute intravenous injection of YM992 (4 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased NE neuron firing activity by 29% and blocked the inhibitory effect of a subsequent injection of the 5-HT(2) agonist DOI [1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride]. A 2-day treatment with YM992 decreased the firing rate of NE neurons by 66%, whereas a partial recovery was observed after a 7-day treatment and a complete one after a 21-day treatment. Following the injection of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (1 mg kg(-1) i.v.), NE neuron firing was equalized in controls and 2-day YM992-treated rats. This put into evidence an increased degree of activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors in the treated rats. The suppressant effect of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine was significantly decreased in long-term YM992-treated rats. The recovery of LC firing activity after long-term YM992 administration could thus be explained by a decreased sensitivity of alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors. Sustained SSRI administration leads to a gradual reduction of the firing activity of NE neurons during long-term administration, whereas YM992 produced opposite effects. The exact basis for the increased synaptic availability of NE by YM992 remains to be elucidated. This NE activity, resulting from 5-HT reuptake inhibition plus 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism, might confer additional benefits in affective and anxiety disorders.

  4. Potential Modes of Interaction of 9-Aminomethyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene (AMDA) Derivatives with the 5-HT2A Receptor: A Ligand Structure-Affinity Relationship, Receptor Mutagenesis and Receptor Modeling Investigation⊕

    PubMed Central

    Runyon, Scott P.; Mosier, Philip D.; Roth, Bryan L.; Glennon, Richard A.; Westkaemper, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 3-position substitution of 9-aminomethyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene (AMDA) on 5-HT2A receptor affinity were determined and compared to a parallel series of DOB-like 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropanes substituted at the 4-position. The results were interpreted within the context of 5-HT2A receptor models that suggest that members of the DOB-like series can bind to the receptor in two distinct modes that correlate with the compounds’ functional activity. Automated ligand docking and molecular dynamics suggest that all of the AMDA derivatives, the parent of which is a 5-HT2A antagonist, bind in a fashion analogous to that for the sterically demanding antagonist DOB-like compounds. The failure of the F3406.52L mutation to adversely affect the affinity of AMDA and the 3-bromo derivative is consistent with the proposed modes of orientation. Evaluation of ligand-receptor complex models suggest that a valine/threonine exchange between the 5-HT2A and D2 receptors may be the origin of selectivity for AMDA and two substituted derivatives. PMID:18847250

  5. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity. PMID:25446678

  6. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity.

  7. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor binding in platelets from healthy subjects as studied by [3H]-lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]-LSD): intra- and interindividual variability.

    PubMed

    Spigset, O; Mjörndal, T

    1997-04-01

    In studies on platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, there has been a marked variability and a considerable overlap of values between patients and controls. The causes of the large variability in 5-HT2A receptor parameters is still unsettled. In the present study, we have quantified the intra- and interindividual variability of platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding in 112 healthy subjects and explored factors that may influence 5-HT2A receptor binding, using [3H]-lysergic acid diethylamide as radioligand. Age, gender, blood pressure, and metabolic capacity of the liver enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 did not influence Bmax and Kd values. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed a negative correlation with Kd (p = .04 and .03, respectively), but not with Bmax. Bmax was significantly lower in the light half of the year than in the dark half of the year (p = .001), and Kd was significantly lower in the fall than in the summer and winter (p < .001). In females, there was a significant increase in Bmax from week 1 to week 2 of the menstrual cycle (p = .03). Females taking contraceptive pills had significantly higher Kd than drug-free females in weeks 1 and 4 of the menstrual cycle (p = .04). This study shows that a number of factors should be taken into account when using platelet 5-HT2A receptor binding in studies of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter and 5-HT2A receptor binding after chronic hypercorticosteronemia, (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane administration or neurotoxin-induced depletion of central nervous system 5-HT in the rat.

    PubMed

    Owens, M J; Ballenger, C A; Knight, D L; Nemeroff, C B

    1996-09-01

    There is considerable evidence that the number of platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter binding sites, as measured by [3H]imipramine binding, are significantly decreased, and platelet 5-HT2 receptor density is increased, in drug-free patients with major depression. To investigate whether these changes in the platelet 5-HT transporter or 5-HT2 receptor sites resulted from known or hypothesized biochemical changes observed in major depression, we examined, in the rat, whether a chronic hyperglucocorticoid state, or decreases or increases in central nervous system 5-HT neurotransmission, altered binding of the selective ligands [3H]citalopram and [125I] (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane to platelet and brain 5-HT transporters and 5-HT2 receptors, respectively. Chronic (6 weeks) hypercorticosteronemia did not alter either brain or platelet 5-HT transporter or 5-HT2A receptor binding. Similarly, 8-week administration of the 5-HT2A/5-HT2C agonist (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane, at a dose which down-regulates brain 5-HT2A/2C receptors, did not alter brain or platelet 5-HT transporters or platelet 5-HT2A receptors. Additionally, para-chloroamphetamine-(11 weeks) or fenfluramine-induced chronic (1.5-10 weeks) depletion of central nervous system 5-HT did not alter platelet 5-HT transporter or 5-HT2A receptor binding. Finally, there was no correlation between the number of 5-HT transporters in brain and platelets in any of the control or treatment groups. These findings suggest that the observed changes in platelet 5-HT transporter and 5-HT2A receptor binding in depressed patients are more apt to be of genetic origin (i.e., trait-dependent) rather than an epiphenomenon of hypercortisolemia or altered central nervous system 5-HT status.

  9. Cognitive Impairment Induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Occurs through Heteromers between Cannabinoid CB1 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Viñals, Xavier; Moreno, Estefanía; Lanfumey, Laurence; Cordomí, Arnau; Pastor, Antoni; de La Torre, Rafael; Gasperini, Paola; Navarro, Gemma; Howell, Lesley A; Pardo, Leonardo; Lluís, Carmen; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produces a variety of negative effects with major consequences in cannabis users that constitute important drawbacks for the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. For this reason, there is a tremendous medical interest in harnessing the beneficial effects of THC. Behavioral studies carried out in mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) revealed a remarkable 5-HT2AR-dependent dissociation in the beneficial antinociceptive effects of THC and its detrimental amnesic properties. We found that specific effects of THC such as memory deficits, anxiolytic-like effects, and social interaction are under the control of 5-HT2AR, but its acute hypolocomotor, hypothermic, anxiogenic, and antinociceptive effects are not. In biochemical studies, we show that CB1R and 5-HT2AR form heteromers that are expressed and functionally active in specific brain regions involved in memory impairment. Remarkably, our functional data shows that costimulation of both receptors by agonists reduces cell signaling, antagonist binding to one receptor blocks signaling of the interacting receptor, and heteromer formation leads to a switch in G-protein coupling for 5-HT2AR from Gq to Gi proteins. Synthetic peptides with the sequence of transmembrane helices 5 and 6 of CB1R, fused to a cell-penetrating peptide, were able to disrupt receptor heteromerization in vivo, leading to a selective abrogation of memory impairments caused by exposure to THC. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism for the functional interaction between CB1R and 5-HT2AR mediating cognitive impairment. CB1R-5-HT2AR heteromers are thus good targets to dissociate the cognitive deficits induced by THC from its beneficial antinociceptive properties.

  10. Cognitive Impairment Induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Occurs through Heteromers between Cannabinoid CB1 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lanfumey, Laurence; Cordomí, Arnau; Pastor, Antoni; de La Torre, Rafael; Gasperini, Paola; Navarro, Gemma; Howell, Lesley A.; Pardo, Leonardo; Lluís, Carmen; Canela, Enric I.; McCormick, Peter J.; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produces a variety of negative effects with major consequences in cannabis users that constitute important drawbacks for the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. For this reason, there is a tremendous medical interest in harnessing the beneficial effects of THC. Behavioral studies carried out in mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) revealed a remarkable 5-HT2AR-dependent dissociation in the beneficial antinociceptive effects of THC and its detrimental amnesic properties. We found that specific effects of THC such as memory deficits, anxiolytic-like effects, and social interaction are under the control of 5-HT2AR, but its acute hypolocomotor, hypothermic, anxiogenic, and antinociceptive effects are not. In biochemical studies, we show that CB1R and 5-HT2AR form heteromers that are expressed and functionally active in specific brain regions involved in memory impairment. Remarkably, our functional data shows that costimulation of both receptors by agonists reduces cell signaling, antagonist binding to one receptor blocks signaling of the interacting receptor, and heteromer formation leads to a switch in G-protein coupling for 5-HT2AR from Gq to Gi proteins. Synthetic peptides with the sequence of transmembrane helices 5 and 6 of CB1R, fused to a cell-penetrating peptide, were able to disrupt receptor heteromerization in vivo, leading to a selective abrogation of memory impairments caused by exposure to THC. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism for the functional interaction between CB1R and 5-HT2AR mediating cognitive impairment. CB1R-5-HT2AR heteromers are thus good targets to dissociate the cognitive deficits induced by THC from its beneficial antinociceptive properties. PMID:26158621

  11. A new class of arylpiperazine derivatives: the library synthesis on SynPhase lanterns and biological evaluation on serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2004-01-01

    An efficient solid-supported method for the synthesis of a new class of arylpiperazine derivatives containing amino acid residues has been developed. A 72-membered library was synthesized on SynPhase Lanterns functionalized by a BAL linker. A one-pot cleavage/cyclization step of aspartic and glutamic acid derivatives yielded succinimide- and pyroglutamyl-containing ligands (chemsets 9 and 10). The library representatives under study showed different levels of affinity for 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors (estimated K(i) = 24-4000 and 1-2130 nM, respectively). Several dual 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A) ligands were found, of which two (9(3,3) and 9(3,5)) displayed high 5-HT(2A) affinity comparable to that of the reference drug ritanserin. A set of individual fragment contributions for the prediction of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) affinity of all the library members were defined on the basis of the Free-Wilson analysis of 26 compounds. An alkylarylpiperazine fragment had essentially the same impact on the affinity for both receptors, whereas different terminal amide fragments were preferred by 5-HT(1A) (chemset 17, R(2) = adamantyl) and 5-HT(2A) (chemset 9, R(2) = norborn-2-ylmethyl) binding sites.

  12. Antidepressant-like activity of Tagetes lucida Cav. is mediated by 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Guadarrama-Cruz, G; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Limón-Morales, O; Vazquez-Palacios, G

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Tagetes lucida Cav. shows an antidepressant-like effect on the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. The aim of this study was to analyze the participation of the serotoninergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of the aqueous extract of T. lucida. Different doses of the extract of T. lucida were administered at 72, 48, 24, 18 and 1 h before FST. The animals were pretreated with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.5 mg/kg), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (ketanserin, 5 mg/kg), a β-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol, 200 mg/kg), and with a α2-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine, 1 mg/kg) alone or combined with the extract and pretreated with a serotonin synthesis inhibitor (PCPA) before treatment with 8-OH-DPAT + the extract of T. lucida. In addition, suboptimal doses of the 5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) + non-effective dose of extract was analyzed in the FST. To determine the presence of flavonoids, the aqueous extract of T. lucida (20 µl, 4 mg/ml) was injected in HPLC; however, a quercetin concentration of 7.72 mg/g of extract weight was detected. A suboptimal dose of 8-OH-DPAT + extract of T. lucida decreased immobility and increased swimming and climbing. An antidepressant-like effect with the aqueous extract of T. lucida at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg was observed on the FST with decreased immobility behavior and increased swimming; however, this effect was blocked by WAY-100635, ketanserin and PCPA but not by yohimbine and propranolol, suggesting that the extract of T. lucida could be modulating the release/reuptake of serotonin.

  13. Cognition-induced modulation of serotonin in the orbitofrontal cortex: a controlled cross-over PET study of a delayed match-to-sample task using the 5-HT2a receptor antagonist [18F]altanserin.

    PubMed

    Hautzel, Hubertus; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Herzog, Hans; Grandt, Rüdiger

    2011-10-01

    Behavioral and cellular studies indicate that serotonin interacting with the 5-HT2a receptor (5-HT2aR) is involved in cognitive processes supporting working memory (WM). However, 5-HT receptor neuroimaging studies directly relating WM-induced neuronal activations to concomitant changes in the availability of 5-HT receptors as a functional measure for serotonin release are lacking. This controlled cross-over PET study aimed to identify brain regions with WM-induced changes in the binding potential (BP(nd)) of the 5-HT2aR antagonist [(18)F]altanserin. Ten young males underwent a delayed match-to-sample task using photographs of faces and a control task. The BP(nd)s for both conditions were calculated by applying Ichise's noninvasive plot. Statistics were performed with the SPM toolbox statistical nonparametric mapping (SnPM3) particularly suited for analyzing whole-brain PET data in an exploratory way. A higher BP(nd) for [(18)F]altanserin during WM versus control was found in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) pointing towards an increased [(18)F]altanserin/5-HT2aR interaction in OFC while BP(nd) decreases during WM were not found. Furthermore, no BP(nd) changes in regions known from functional neuroimaging studies to be more specifically involved in WM were identified. These findings may suggest that the increased [(18)F]altanserin BP(nd) under WM challenge and hence the increased availability of 5-HT2aR reflects a decrease in local OFC serotonin. As the OFC plays a prominent role in decision-making and supports cognitive processes related to the central executive functions of WM it might be modulated by the serotoninergic system via the 5-HT2aR in order to support and optimize basic cognitive functions.

  14. Examination of the hippocampal contribution to serotonin 5-HT2A receptor-mediated facilitation of object memory in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Cinalli, David; Cohen, Sarah J; Knapp, Kristina D; Rios, Lisa M; Martínez-Hernández, José; Luján, Rafael; Stackman, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    The rodent hippocampus supports non-spatial object memory. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) are widely expressed throughout the hippocampus. We previously demonstrated that the activation of 5-HT2ARs enhanced the strength of object memory assessed 24 h after a limited (i.e., weak memory) training procedure. Here, we examined the subcellular distribution of 5-HT2ARs in the hippocampal CA1 region and underlying mechanisms of 5-HT2AR-mediated object memory consolidation. Analyses with immuno-electron microscopy revealed the presence of 5-HT2ARs on the dendritic spines and shafts of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and presynaptic terminals in the CA1 region. In an object recognition memory procedure that places higher demand on the hippocampus, only post-training systemic or intrahippocampal administration of the 5-HT2AR agonist TCB-2 enhanced object memory. Object memory enhancement by TCB-2 was blocked by the 5-HT2AR antagonist, MDL 11,937. The memory-enhancing dose of systemic TCB-2 increased extracellular glutamate levels in hippocampal dialysate samples, and increased the mean in vivo firing rate of hippocampal CA1 neurons. In summary, these data indicate a pre- and post-synaptic distribution of 5-HT2ARs, and activation of 5-HT2ARs selectively enhanced the consolidation of object memory, without affecting encoding or retrieval. The 5-HT2AR-mediated facilitation of hippocampal memory may be associated with an increase in hippocampal neuronal firing and glutamate efflux during a post-training time window in which recently encoded memories undergo consolidation.

  15. Effects of olanzapine and betahistine co-treatment on serotonin transporter, 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptor binding density.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2013-12-02

    Olanzapine is widely used in treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms but induces serious metabolic side-effects. Recent evidence has showed that co-treatment of betahistine (a histaminergic H1 receptor agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) is effective for preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain/obesity, however it is not clear whether this co-treatment affects on the primary therapeutic receptor binding sites of olanzapine such as serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) and dopaminergic D2 receptors (D2R). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of this co-treatment on 5-HT2AR, 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and D2R bindings in various brain regions involved in antipsychotic efficacy. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered orally (t.i.d.) with either olanzapine (1mg/kg), betahistine (2.7 mg/kg), olanzapine plus betahistine (O+B), or vehicle (control) for 2 weeks. Quantitative autoradiography was used to detect the density of [(3)H]ketanserin, [(3)H]paroxetine and [(3)H]raclopride binding site to 5-HT2AR, 5-HTT and D2R. Compared to the controls, olanzapine significantly decreased [(3)H]ketanserin bindings to 5-HT2AR in the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Similar changes in 5-HT2AR bindings in these nuclei were also observed in the O+B co-treatment group. Olanzapine also significantly decreased [(3)H]paroxetine binding to 5-HTT in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, however, both olanzapine only and O+B co-treatment did not affect [(3)H]raclopride binding to D2R. The results confirmed the important role of 5-HT2AR in the efficacy of olanzapine, which is not influenced by the O+B co-treatment. Therefore, betahistine co-treatment would be an effective combination therapy to reduce olanzapine-induced weight gain side-effects without affecting olanzapine's actions on 5-HT2AR transmissions.

  16. Responding for a conditioned reinforcer, and its enhancement by nicotine, is blocked by dopamine receptor antagonists and a 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist but not by a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Guy, Elizabeth Glenn; Fletcher, Paul J

    2014-10-01

    An aspect of nicotine reinforcement that may contribute to tobacco addiction is the effect of nicotine to enhance the motivational properties of reward-associated cues, or conditioned stimuli (CSs). Several studies have now shown that nicotine enhances responding for a stimulus that has been paired with a natural reinforcer. This effect of nicotine to enhance responding for a conditioned reinforcer is likely due to nicotine-induced enhancements in mesolimbic dopaminergic activity, but this has not been directly assessed. In this study, we assessed roles for dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 receptors, and two serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes known to modulate DA activity, the 5-HT2C or 5-HT2A subtypes, on nicotine-enhanced responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Water-restricted rats were exposed to Pavlovian conditioning sessions, where a CS was paired with water delivery. Then, in a second phase, animals were required to perform a novel, lever-pressing response for presentations of the CS as a conditioned reinforcer. Nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) enhanced responding for the conditioned reinforcer. To examine potential roles for dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) receptors in this effect, separate groups of animals were used to assess the impact of administering the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390, D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, 5-HT2C receptor agonist Ro 60-0175, or 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 on nicotine-enhanced responding for conditioned reinforcement. SCH 23390, eticlopride, and Ro 60-0175 all reduced responding for conditioned reinforcement, and the ability of nicotine to enhance this effect. M100907 did not alter this behavior. Together, these studies indicate that DA D1 and D2 receptors, but not 5-HT2A receptors, contribute to the effect of nicotine to enhance responding for a conditioned reinforcer. This effect can also be modulated by 5-HT2C receptor activation.

  17. Evaluation of 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptors in postmortem prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder: effect of antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Muguruza, Carolina; Miranda-Azpiazu, Patricia; Díez-Alarcia, Rebeca; Morentin, Benito; González-Maeso, Javier; Callado, Luis F; Meana, J Javier

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated alterations in serotonin 5-HT2A (5-HT2AR) and glutamate metabotropic mGlu2 (mGlu2R) receptors in depression, but never in the same sample population. Recently it has been shown that both receptors form a functional receptor heterocomplex that is altered in schizophrenia. The present study evaluates the gene expression and protein density of 5-HT2AR and mGlu2/3R in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder (n = 14) compared with control subjects (n = 14) in a paired design. No significant differences between subjects with depression and controls in the relative mRNA levels of the genes HTR2A, GRM2 and GRM3 were observed. The 5-HT2AR density evaluated by [(3)H]ketanserin binding was significantly lower in antidepressant-treated subjects (Bmax = 313 ± 17 fmol/mg protein; p < 0.05) compared to controls (Bmax = 360 ± 12 fmol/mg protein) but not in antidepressant-free subjects (Bmax = 394 ± 16 fmol/mg protein; p > 0.05). In rats, chronic treatment with citalopram (10 mg/kg/day) and mirtazapine (5 mg/kg/day) decreased mRNA expression and 5-HT2AR density whereas reboxetine (20 mg/kg/day) modified only mRNA expression. The mGlu2/3R density evaluated by [(3)H]LY341495 binding was not significantly different between depression and control subjects. The present results demonstrate no changes in expression and density of both 5-HT2AR and mGlu2/3R in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder under basal conditions. However, antidepressant treatment induces a decrease in 5-HT2AR density. This finding suggests that 5-HT2AR down-regulation may be a mechanism for antidepressant effect.

  18. Enhanced responsivity of 5-HT2A receptors at warm ambient temperatures is responsible for the augmentation of the 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI)-induced hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Tao, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Warm ambient temperature facilitates hyperthermia and other neurotoxic responses elicited by psychogenic drugs such as MDMA and methamphetamine. However, little is known about the neural mechanism underlying such effects. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a warm ambient temperature may enhance the responsivity of 5-HT2A receptors in the central nervous system and thereafter cause an augmented response to 5-HT2A receptor agonists. This hypothesis was tested by measuring changes in body-core temperature in response to the 5-HT2A receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) administered at four different ambient temperature levels: 12 °C (cold), 22 °C (standard), 27 °C (thermoneutral zone) and 32 °C (warm). It was found that DOI only evoked a small increase in body-core temperature at the standard (22 °C) or thermoneutral ambient temperature (27 °C). In contrast, there was a large increase in body-core temperature when the experiments were conducted at the warmer ambient temperature (32 °C). Interestingly, the effect of DOI at the cold ambient temperature of 12 °C was significantly reduced. Moreover, the ambient temperature-dependent response to DOI was completely blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that 5-HT2A receptors may be responsible for some neurotoxic effects of psychogenic drugs in the central nervous system, the activity of which is functionally inhibited at cold but enhanced at warm ambient temperature in contrast to that at standard experimental conditions. PMID:21172407

  19. Differences in the C-terminus contribute to variations in trafficking between rat and human 5-HT(2A) receptor isoforms: identification of a primate-specific tripeptide ASK motif that confers GRK-2 and beta arrestin-2 interactions.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Aditi; Sankar, Shobhana; Panicker, Mitradas M

    2010-02-01

    Internalization and recycling of G-protein coupled receptors are important cellular processes regulating receptor function. These are receptor-subtype and cell type-specific. Although important, trafficking variations between receptor isoforms of different species has received limited attention. We report here, differences in internalization and recycling between rat and human serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) isoforms expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells in response to serotonin. Although the human and rat 5-HT(2A)Rs differ by only a few amino acids, the human receptor takes longer to recycle to the cell surface after internalization, with the additional involvement of beta arrestin-2 and G-protein receptor kinase 2. The interaction of beta arrestin-2 with the human receptor causes the delay in recycling and is dependent on a primate-specific ASK motif present in the C-terminus of the receptor. Conversion of this motif to NCT, the corresponding sequence present in the rat isoform, results in the human isoform trafficking like the rat receptor. Replacing the serine 457 with alanine in the ASK motif of human isoform resulted in faster recycling, although with continued arrestin-dependent internalization. This study establishes significant differences between the two isoforms with important implications in our understanding of the human 5-HT(2A)R functions; and indicates that extrapolating results from non-human receptor isoforms to human subtypes is not without caveats.

  20. Stress and withdrawal from d-amphetamine alter 5-HT2A receptor mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ryan C; Hebbard, John C; Logan, Anna S; Vanchipurakel, Golda A; Gilbert, Yamiece E; Horner, Kristen A

    2014-01-24

    Psychostimulant withdrawal results in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive impairments, which may be exacerbated by stress. However, little is known about the neurochemical changes that occur when these two conditions are experienced concomitantly. 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is diminished following withdrawal from d-amphetamine (AMPH) and may underlie the emotional and cognitive impairments observed in psychostimulant withdrawal, but whether stress affects 5-HT2AR mRNA expression during psychostimulant withdrawal is unknown. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of forced swim test (FST) exposure during AMPH withdrawal on 5-HT2AR mRNA expression in PFC. Animals were treated 3 times a day for 4 days with escalating doses of AMPH (1-10mg/kg) and 24h or 4 days after the final injection, animals were subjected to FST. At 24h of withdrawal, AMPH-treated animals showed greater immobility in FST and at 4 days of withdrawal, AMPH-treated animals did not show immobility. At 24h of withdrawal, animals showed lower 5-HT2AR mRNA expression in the PFC relative to saline-treated animals, and exposure to FST did not further decrease expression in these animals. At 4 days of withdrawal, AMPH-treated animals showed greater 5-HT2AR mRNA expression relative to saline-treated animals in the PFC, an effect that was diminished by exposure to FST. These data indicate that stress and short-term AMPH withdrawal affect prefrontal 5-HT2AR mRNA expression to a similar degree, and stress experienced during long-term AMPH withdrawal can diminish the recovery of 5-HT2AR mRNA expression. Together, these data suggest that exposure to stress during extended AMPH withdrawal could prolong withdrawal-induced, 5-HT2AR mRNA expression which could be related to 5-HT2AR mediated deficits.

  1. Polymorphism of the 5-HT2A Receptor Gene: Association with Stress-Related Indices in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiocco, Alexandra J.; Joober, Ridha; Poirier, Judes; Lupien, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Past research has concentrated on the stress system and personality in order to explain the variance found in cognitive performance in old age. A growing body of research is starting to focus on genetic polymorphism as an individual difference factor to explain the observed heterogeneity in cognitive function. While the functional mechanism is still under investigation, polymorphism of the 5-HT2A receptor gene (−1438A/G) has been linked to certain behavioral and physiological outcomes, including cortisol secretion, the expression of certain personality traits, and memory performance. It was the goal of the present study to investigate the association between the −1438A/G polymorphism and stress hormone secretion, stress-related psychological measures, and cognitive performance in a group of adults between the ages of 50 and 65. To examine these associations, 101 middle-aged adults were recruited, completed a battery of psychological questionnaires and were administered a battery of cognitive tasks that assess frontal lobe and hippocampal function. Basal and stress-reactive salivary cortisol levels were collected, at home and in the laboratory. Analyses on psychological measures showed that participants with the GG genotype reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism compared to the AG group and higher levels of depression and more emotion-based coping strategies compared to both the AG and AA group. In terms of cortisol secretion, the AA genotype was related to a significantly higher awakening cortisol response (ACR) compared to the AG and GG group and the GG genotype group displayed a greater increase in cortisol secretion following a psychosocial stressor compared to the two other groups. On measures of cognitive performance, the AA genotype group performed significantly better on a test of declarative memory and selective attention compared to the other two groups. Together, these results suggest that carriers of the GG genotype are more susceptible

  2. Extended characterisation of the serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor-selective PET radiotracer 11C-MDL100907 in humans: quantitative analysis, test-retest reproducibility, and vulnerability to endogenous 5-HT tone

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Peter S.; Slifstein, Mark; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Huang, Yiyun; Scher, Erica; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Laruelle, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Introduction scanning properties and analytic methodology of the 5-HT2A receptor-selective positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 11C-MDL100907 have been partially characterised in previous reports. We present an extended characterisation in healthy human subjects. Methods 64 11C-MDL100907 PET scans with metabolite-corrected arterial input function were performed in 39 healthy adults (18–55 yr). 12 subjects were scanned twice (duration 150 min) to provide data on plasma analysis, model order estimation, and stability and test-retest characteristics of outcome measures. All other scans were 90 min duration. 3 subjects completed scanning at baseline and following 5-HT2A receptor antagonist medication (risperidone or ciproheptadine) to provide definitive data on the suitability of the cerebellum as reference region. 10 subjects were scanned under reduced 5-HT and control conditions using rapid tryptophan depletion to investigate vulnerability to competition with endogenous 5-HT. 13 subjects were scanned as controls in clinical protocols. Pooled data were used to analyze the relationship between tracer injected mass and receptor occupancy, and age-related decline in 5-HT2A receptors. Results optimum analytic method was a 2-tissue compartment model with arterial input function. However, basis function implementation of SRTM may be suitable for measuring between-group differences non-invasively and warrants further investigation. Scan duration of 90 minutes achieved stable outcome measures in all cortical regions except orbitofrontal which required 120 minutes. Binding potential (BPP and BPND) test-retest variability was very good (7–11%) in neocortical regions other than orbitofrontal, and moderately good (14–20%) in orbitofrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Saturation occupancy of 5-HT2A receptors by risperidone validates the use of the cerebellum as a region devoid of specific binding for the purposes of PET. We advocate a mass limit of 4.6 µg to remain

  3. Blonanserin Ameliorates Phencyclidine-Induced Visual-Recognition Memory Deficits: the Complex Mechanism of Blonanserin Action Involving D3-5-HT2A and D1-NMDA Receptors in the mPFC

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT2A/dopamine-D2 receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D2/3 receptors than for serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D3 receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D3 receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr197 and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser897 by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser896 by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D1-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25120077

  4. The Role of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and mGlu2 Receptors in the Behavioral Effects of Tryptamine Hallucinogens N,N-Dimethyltryptamine and N,N-Diisopropyltryptamine in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carbonaro, Theresa M.; Eshleman, Amy J.; Forster, Michael J.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.; Gatch, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors are thought to be the primary pharmacological mechanisms for serotonin-mediated hallucinogenic drugs, but recently there has been interest in metabotropic glutamate (mGluR2) receptors as contributors to the mechanism of hallucinogens. Objective: The present study assesses the role of these 5-HT and glutamate receptors as molecular targets for two tryptamine hallucinogens, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DiPT). Methods: Drug discrimination, head twitch and radioligand binding assays were used. A 5-HT2AR inverse agonist (MDL100907), 5-HT2CR antagonist (SB242084) and mGluR2/3 agonist (LY379268) were tested for their ability to attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT and DiPT; an mGluR2/3 antagonist (LY341495) was tested for potentiation. MDL100907 was used to attenuate head twitches induced by DMT and DiPT. Radioligand binding studies and inosital-1-phosphate (IP-1) accumulation were performed at the 5-HT2CR for DiPT. Results: MDL100907 fully blocked the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT, but only partially blocked DiPT. SB242084 partially attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of DiPT, but produced minimal attenuation of DMT’s effects. LY379268 produced potent, but only partial blockade of the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT. LY341495 facilitated DMT- and DiPT-like effects. Both compounds elicited head twitches (DiPT>DMT) which were blocked by MDL1000907. DiPT was a low potency full agonist at 5-HT2CR in vitro. Conclusions: The 5-HT2AR likely plays a major role in mediating the effects of both compounds. 5-HT2C and mGluR2 receptors likely modulate the discriminative stimulus effects of both compounds to some degree. PMID:24985890

  5. Serotonin 5-HT2A but not 5-HT2C receptor antagonism reduces hyperlocomotor activity induced in dopamine-depleted rats by striatal administration of the D1 agonist SKF 82958.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher; Daut, Gregory S; Walker, Paul D

    2005-09-01

    While recent work has indicated that D1 receptor agonist-induced hyperlocomotion in DA-depleted rats is reduced by striatal 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, the 5-HT receptor(s) subtypes mediating these effects are not yet known. In the present study, we examined the influence(s) of striatal 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors on locomotor behavior induced by D1 agonism in neonatal DA-depleted rats. On postnatal day 3, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=68) were treated with either vehicle or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 60 microg) which produced >98% DA depletion. Sixty days later, all rats were fitted with bilateral striatal cannulae. A subset of control and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats (n=20) was tested for locomotor responses to striatal infusion of the D1 agonist SKF 82958 (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10 microg/side). The remaining rats (n=48) were tested for locomotor responses to intrastriatal SKF 82958 (2.0 microg/side) alone or in combination with the 5-HT2A- or 5-HT2C-preferring antagonists M100907 or RS102221 (0.1 or 1.0 microg/side), respectively. Intrastriatal SKF 82958 dose-dependently increased measures of motor activity within DA-depleted rats. This hyperlocomotor activity was suppressed by co-infusion of M100907, but not RS102221. These results indicate that DA depletion strengthens striatal 5-HT2A/D1 receptor interactions and suggest that 5-HT2A receptor antagonists may prove useful in reducing D1-related movements.

  6. Effects of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist Ro60-0175 and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Paul J; Rizos, Zoë; Noble, Kevin; Soko, Ashlie D; Silenieks, Leo B; Lê, Anh Dzung; Higgins, Guy A

    2012-06-01

    The reinforcing effects of nicotine are mediated in part by brain dopamine systems. Serotonin, acting via 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors, modulates dopamine function. In these experiments we examined the effects of the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist Ro60-0175 and the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (M100907, volinanserin) on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. Male Long-Evans rats self-administered nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, IV) on either a FR5 or a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Ro60-0175 reduced responding for nicotine on both schedules. While Ro60-0175 also reduced responding for food reinforcement, response rates under drug treatment were several-fold higher than in animals responding for nicotine. M100907 did not alter responding for nicotine, or food, on either schedule. In tests of reinstatement of nicotine-seeking, rats were first trained to lever press for IV infusions of nicotine; each infusion was also accompanied by a compound cue consisting of a light and tone. This response was then extinguished over multiple sessions. Injecting rats with a nicotine prime (0.15 mg/kg) reinstated responding; reinstatement was also observed when responses were accompanied by the nicotine associated cue. Ro60-0175 attenuated reinstatement of responding induced by nicotine and by the cue. The effects of Ro60-0175 on both forms of reinstatement were blocked by the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB242084. M100907 also reduced reinstatement induced by either the nicotine prime or by the nicotine associated cue. The results indicate that 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(2A) receptors may be potential targets for therapies to treat some aspects of nicotine dependence.

  7. Targeting dopamine D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors for developing effective antipsychotics: synthesis, biological characterization, and behavioral studies.

    PubMed

    Brindisi, Margherita; Butini, Stefania; Franceschini, Silvia; Brogi, Simone; Trotta, Francesco; Ros, Sindu; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Salmona, Mario; Casagni, Alice; Andreassi, Marco; Saponara, Simona; Gorelli, Beatrice; Weikop, Pia; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Scheel-Kruger, Jorgen; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra

    2014-11-26

    Combination of dopamine D3 antagonism, serotonin 5-HT1A partial agonism, and antagonism at 5-HT2A leads to a novel approach to potent atypical antipsychotics. Exploitation of the original structure-activity relationships resulted in the identification of safe and effective antipsychotics devoid of extrapyramidal symptoms liability, sedation, and catalepsy. The potential atypical antipsychotic 5bb was selected for further pharmacological investigation. The distribution of c-fos positive cells in the ventral striatum confirmed the atypical antipsychotic profile of 5bb in agreement with behavioral rodent studies. 5bb administered orally demonstrated a biphasic effect on the MK801-induced hyperactivity at dose levels not able to induce sedation, catalepsy, or learning impairment in passive avoidance. In microdialysis studies, 5bb increased the dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, 5bb represents a valuable lead for the development of atypical antipsychotics endowed with a unique pharmacological profile for addressing negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  8. Assessment of the roles of serines 5.43(239) and 5.46(242) for binding and potency of agonist ligands at the human serotonin 5-HT2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Braden, Michael R; Nichols, David E

    2007-11-01

    We assessed the relative importance of two serine residues located near the top of transmembrane helix 5 of the human 5-HT(2A) receptor, comparing the wild type with S5.43(239)A or S5.46(242)A mutations. Using the ergoline lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and a series of substituted tryptamine and phenethylamine 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists, we found that Ser5.43(239) is more critical for agonist binding and function than Ser5.46(242). Ser5.43(239) seems to engage oxygen substituents at either the 4- or 5-position of tryptamine ligands and the 5-position of phenylalkylamine ligands. Even when a direct binding interaction cannot occur, our data suggest that Ser5.43(239) is still important for receptor activation. Polar ring-substituted tryptamine ligands also seem to engage Ser5.46(242), but tryptamines lacking such a substituent may adopt an alternate binding orientation that does not engage this residue. Our results are consistent with the role of Ser5.43(239) as a hydrogen bond donor, whereas Ser5.46(242) seems to serve as a hydrogen bond acceptor. These results are consistent with the functional topography and utility of our in silico-activated homology model of the h5-HT(2A) receptor. In addition, being more distal from the absolutely conserved Pro5.50, a strong interaction with Ser5.43(239) may be more effective in straightening the kink in helix 5, a feature that is possibly common to all type A GPCRs that have polar residues at position 5.43.

  9. The antidepressant-like activity of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one involves serotonergic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/C) receptors activation.

    PubMed

    Pytka, Karolina; Walczak, Maria; Kij, Agnieszka; Rapacz, Anna; Siwek, Agata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-10-05

    Xanthone derivatives have been shown to posses many biological properties. Some of them act within the central nervous system and show neuroprotective or antidepressant-like properties. Taking this into account we investigated antidepressant-like activity in mice and the possible mechanism of action of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one (HBK-11) - a new xanthone derivative. We demonstrated that HBK-11 produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, comparable to that of venlafaxine. The combined treatment with sub-effective doses of HBK-11 and fluoxetine (but not reboxetine or bupropion) significantly reduced the immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, the antidepressant-like activity of HBK-11 in the aforementioned test was blocked by p-chlorophenylalanine, and significantly reduced by serotonergic 5HT1A receptor antagonist - WAY-1006335 and 5HT2A/C receptor antagonist - ritanserin. As none of the above treatments influenced the spontaneous locomotor activity, it can be concluded that HBK-11 mediates its activity through a serotonergic system, and its antidepressant-like effect involves 5HT1A and 5HT2A/C receptor activation. Furthermore, at antidepressant-like doses HBK-11 did not cause the mice to display locomotor deficits in rotarod or chimney tests. Considering the pharmacokinetic profile, HBK-11 demonstrated rapid absorption after i.p. administration, high clearance value, short terminal half-life, very high volume of distribution and incomplete bioavailability. The compound studied had good penetration into the brain tissue of mice. Since studied xanthone derivative seems to present interesting, untypical mechanism of antidepressant-like action i.e. 5HT2A/C receptor activation, it may have a potential in the treatment of depressive disorders, and surely requires further studies.

  10. The highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptor antagonist, EMD 281014, significantly increases swimming and decreases immobility in male congenital learned helpless rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh G; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Edwards, Emmeline; Ashby, Charles R

    2004-04-01

    We examined the effect of the highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile HCl (EMD 281014) in congenital learned helpless male rats in the forced swim test. The administration of EMD-281014 (0.3-30 mg/kg i.p.) to congenital learned helpless rats dose-dependently and significantly (at 10 and 30 mg/kg) decreased immobility and increased swimming compared to vehicle-treated animals. Thus, EMD 281014 produces effects in the forced swim test resembling those of antidepressants.

  11. Binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites in platelets from healthy children, adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Sigurdh, J; Spigset, O; Allard, P; Mjörndal, T; Hägglöf, B

    1999-11-01

    Possible age effects on binding of [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([(3)H]LSD) to serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors and of [(3)H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites were studied in platelets from healthy children (11-12 years of age), adolescents (16-17 years of age) and adults. Significant overall age effects were found both for the number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), the affinity constant (K(d)) for [(3)H]LSD binding (p < 0.001), B(max) for [(3)H]paroxetine binding (p < 0.001) and K(d) for [(3)H] paroxetine binding (p = 0.006). In general, there was a decrease in B(max) with increasing age, which predominantly occurred between the ages 11-12 years and 16-17 years for the 5-HT(2A) receptor, and after 16-17 years of age for the serotonin uptake site. These developmental changes might have an impact on the effect of treatment with serotonergic drugs in children and adolescents. When the platelet serotonin variables investigated are employed in studies in children or adolescents, age matching or, alternatively, introduction of age control in the statistical analysis should be performed.

  12. 5-HT(2A) and mGlu2 receptor binding levels are related to differences in impulsive behavior in the Roman Low- (RLA) and High- (RHA) avoidance rat strains.

    PubMed

    Klein, A B; Ultved, L; Adamsen, D; Santini, M A; Tobeña, A; Fernandez-Teruel, A; Flores, P; Moreno, M; Cardona, D; Knudsen, G M; Aznar, S; Mikkelsen, J D

    2014-03-28

    The Roman Low- and High-Avoidance rat strains (RLA-I vs RHA-I) have been bidirectionally selected and bred according to their performance in the two-way active avoidance response in the shuttle-box test. Numerous studies have reported a pronounced divergence in emotionality between the two rat strains including differences in novelty seeking, anxiety, stress coping, and susceptibility to addictive substances. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these divergent phenotypes are not known. Here, we determined impulsivity using the 5-choice serial reaction time task and levels of serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding using highly specific radioligands ((3)H-escitalopram, (3)H-MDL100907 and (3)H-WAY100635) and mGlu2/3 receptor binding ((3)H-LY341495) using receptor autoradiography in fronto-cortical sections from RLA-I (n=8) and RHA-I (n=8) male rats. In the more impulsive RHA-I rats, 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(1A) and SERT binding in the frontal cortex was significantly higher compared to RLA-I rats. In contrast, mGlu2/3 receptor binding was decreased by 40% in RHA-I rats compared to RLA-I rats. To differentiate between mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor protein levels, these were further studied using western blotting, which showed non-detectable levels of mGlu2 receptor protein in RHA rats, while no differences were observed for mGlu3 receptor protein levels. Collectively, these data show general congenital differences in the serotonergic system and a pronounced difference in mGlu2 receptor protein levels. We suggest that the differences in the serotonergic system may mediate some of the phenotypic characteristics in this strain such as hyper-impulsivity and susceptibility to drug addiction.

  13. Evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT3 receptors in the antidepressant-like effect caused by oral administration of bis selenide in mice.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Cristiano R; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2010-03-17

    The present study investigated a possible antidepressant-like activity of bis selenide using two predictive tests for antidepressant effect on rodents: the forced swimming test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). Bis selenide (0.5-5 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased the immobility time in the mouse FST and TST. The anti-immobility effect of bis selenide (1 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA; 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis), ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist), and ondasentron (1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist). Pretreatment of mice with prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), propranolol (2 mg/kg, i.p., a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist), or WAY 100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) did not block the antidepressant-like effect of bis selenide (1 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST. Administration of bis selenide (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (1 mg/kg), at subeffective doses, produced an antidepressant-like effect in the TST. Bis selenide did not alter Na(+) K(+) ATPase, MAO-A and MAO-B activities in whole brains of mice. Bis selenide produced an antidepressant-like effect in the mouse TST and FST, which may be related to the serotonergic system (5-HT(2A/2C) and 5-HT(3) receptors).

  14. Distinct effect of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial nucleus of the amygdala on tonic immobility behavior.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Bruna Balbino; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2016-07-15

    The tonic immobility (TI) response is an innate fear behavior associated with intensely dangerous situations, exhibited by many species of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In humans, it is possible that TI predicts the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. This behavioral response is initiated and sustained by the stimulation of various groups of neurons distributed in the telencephalon, diencephalon and brainstem. Previous research has found the highest Fos-IR in the posteroventral part of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MEA) during TI behavior; however, the neurotransmission of this amygdaloid region involved in the modulation of this innate fear behavior still needs to be clarified. Considering that a major drug class used for the treatment of psychopathology is based on serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, we investigated the effects of serotonergic receptor activation in the MEA on the duration of TI. The results indicate that the activation of the 5HT1A receptors or the blocking of the 5HT2 receptors of the MEA can promote a reduction in fear and/or anxiety, consequently decreasing TI duration in guinea pigs. In contrast, blocking the 5HT1A receptors or activating the 5HT2 receptors in this amygdalar region increased the TI duration, suggesting an increase in fear and/or anxiety. These alterations do not appear to be due to a modification of spontaneous motor activity, which might non-specifically affect TI duration. Thus, these results suggest a distinct role of the 5HT receptors in the MEA in innate fear modulation.

  15. Hallucinogen-like effects of 2-([2-(4-cyano-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl) ethylamino]methyl)phenol (25CN-NBOH), a novel N-benzylphenethylamine with 100-fold selectivity for 5-HT2A receptors, in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Bradley W.; Bailey, Jessica M.; Smith, Douglas; Hansen, Martin; Kristensen, Jesper L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale 2-([2-(4-cyano-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamino]methyl)phenol (25CN-NBOH) is structurally similar to N-benzyl substituted phenethylamine hallucinogens currently emerging as drugs of abuse. 25CN-NBOH exhibits dramatic selectivity for 5-HT2A receptors in vitro, but has not been behaviorally characterized. Objective 25CN-NBOH was compared to the traditional phenethylamine hallucinogen R(−)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) using mouse models of drug-elicited head twitch behavior and drug discrimination. Methods Drug-elicited head twitches were quantified for 10 min following administration of various doses of either DOI or 25CN-NBOH, with and without pretreatments of 0.01 mg/kg 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 or 3.0 mg/kg 5-HT2C antagonist RS102221. The capacity of 25CN-NBOH to attenuate DOI-elicited head twitch was also investigated. Mice were trained to discriminate DOI or M100907 from saline, and 25CN-NBOH was tested for generalization. Results 25CN-NBOH induced a head twitch response in the mouse that was lower in magnitude than that of DOI, blocked by M100907, but not altered by RS102221. DOI-elicited head twitch was dose-dependently attenuated by 25CN-NBOH pretreatment. 25CN-NBOH produced an intermediate degree of generalization (55%) for the DOI training dose, and these interoceptive effects were attenuated by M100907. Finally, 25CN-NBOH did not generalize to M100907 at any dose, but ketanserin fully substituted in these animals. Conclusions 25CN-NBOH was behaviorally active, but less effective than DOI in two mouse models of hallucinogenic effects. The effectiveness with which M100907 antagonized the behavioral actions of 25CN-NBOH strongly suggests that the 5-HT2A receptor is an important site of agonist action for this compound in vivo. PMID:25224567

  16. Effects of central activation of serotonin 5-HT2A/2C or dopamine D2/3 receptors on the acute and repeated effects of clozapine in the conditioned avoidance response test

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Gao, Jun; Sui, Nan; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Acute administration of clozapine (a gold standard of atypical antipsychotics) disrupts avoidance response in rodents, while repeated administration often causes a tolerance effect. Objective: The present study investigated the neuroanatomical basis and receptor mechanisms of acute and repeated effects of clozapine treatment in the conditioned avoidance response test in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amphetamine, a preferential 5-HT2A/2C agonist) or quinpirole (a preferential dopamine D2/3 agonist) was microinjected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or nucleus accumbens shell (NAs), and their effects on the acute and long-term avoidance-disruptive effect of clozapine were tested. Results: Intra-mPFC microinjection of quinpirole enhanced the acute avoidance disruptive effect of clozapine (10 mg/kg, sc), while DOI microinjections reduced it marginally. Repeated administration of clozapine (10 mg/kg, sc) daily for 5 days caused a progressive decrease in its inhibition of avoidance responding, indicating tolerance development. Intra-mPFC microinjection of DOI at 25.0 (but not 5.0) μg/side during this period completely abolished the expression of clozapine tolerance. This was indicated by the finding that clozapine-treated rats centrally infused with 25.0 μg/side DOI did not show higher levels of avoidance responses than the vehicle-treated rats in the clozapine challenge test. Microinjection of DOI into the mPFC immediately before the challenge test also decreased the expression of clozapine tolerance. Conclusions: Acute behavioral effect of clozapine can be enhanced by activation of the D2/3 receptors in the mPFC. Clozapine tolerance expression relies on the neuroplasticity initiated by its antagonist action against 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25288514

  17. Cultural consonance, a 5HT2A receptor polymorphism, and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study of gene x culture interaction in urban Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    In this study in urban Brazil we examine, as a predictor of depressive symptoms, the interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 2A receptor in the serotonin system (-1438G/A) and cultural consonance in family life, a measure of the degree to which an individual perceives her family as corresponding to a widely shared cultural model of the prototypical family. A community sample of 144 adults was followed over a 2-year-period. Cultural consonance in family life was assessed by linking individuals' perceptions of their own families with a shared cultural model of the family derived from cultural consensus analysis. The -1438G/A polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was genotyped using a standard protocol for DNA extracted from leukocytes. Covariates included age, sex, socioeconomic status, and stressful life events. Cultural consonance in family life was prospectively associated with depressive symptoms. In addition, the interaction between genotype and cultural consonance in family life was significant. For individuals with the A/A variant of the -1438G/A polymorphism of the 2A receptor gene, the effect of cultural consonance in family life on depressive symptoms over a 2-year-period was larger (beta = -0.533, P < 0.01) than those effects for individuals with either the G/A (beta = -0.280, P < 0.10) or G/G (beta = -0.272, P < 0.05) variants. These results are consistent with a process in which genotype moderates the effects of culturally meaningful social experience on depressive symptoms.

  18. Dual role of serotonin in the acquisition and extinction of reward-driven learning: involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Hocht, Christian; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano; Rapanelli, Maximiliano

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been proposed as a possible encoder of reward. Nevertheless, the role of this neurotransmitter in reward-based tasks is not well understood. Given that the major serotonergic circuit in the rat brain comprises the dorsal raphe nuclei and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and because the latter structure is involved in the control of complex behaviors and expresses 1A (5-HT1A), 2A (5-HT2A), and 3 (5-HT3) receptors, the aim was to study the role of 5-HT and of these receptors in the acquisition and extinction of a reward-dependent operant conditioning task. Long Evans rats were trained in an operant conditioning task while receiving fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg), tianeptine (serotonin reuptake enhancer, 10mg/kg), buspirone (5-HT1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg), risperidone (5-HT2A antagonist, 1mg/kg), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 2mg/kg) or vehicle. Then, animals that acquired the operant conditioning without any treatment were trained to extinct the task in the presence of the pharmacological agents. Fluoxetine impaired acquisition but improved extinction. Tianeptine administration induced the opposite effects. Buspirone induced a mild deficit in acquisition and had no effects during the extinction phase. Risperidone administration resulted in learning deficits during the acquisition phase, although it promoted improved extinction. Ondansetron treatment showed a deleterious effect in the acquisition phase and an overall improvement in the extinction phase. These data showed a differential role of 5-HT in the acquisition and extinction of an operant conditioning task, suggesting that it may have a dual function in reward encoding.

  19. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14–0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10–3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain. PMID:27999378

  20. Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A Receptor (5-HT2AR):5-HT2CR Imbalance in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Associates with Motor Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Anastasio, Noelle C; Stutz, Sonja J; Fink, Latham H L; Swinford-Jackson, Sarah E; Sears, Robert M; DiLeone, Ralph J; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-07-15

    A feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders is motor impulsivity. Recent studies have implicated serotonin (5-HT) systems in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating individual differences in motor impulsivity, notably the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2CR. We investigated the hypothesis that differences in the ratio of 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein expression in mPFC would predict the individual level of motor impulsivity and that the engineered loss of the 5-HT2CR would result in high motor impulsivity concomitant with elevated 5-HT2AR expression and pharmacological sensitivity to the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907. High and low impulsive rats were identified in a 1-choice serial reaction time task. Native protein levels of the 5-HT2AR and the 5-HT2CR predicted the intensity of motor impulsivity and the 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR ratio in mPFC positively correlated with levels of premature responses in individual outbred rats. The possibility that the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR act in concert to control motor impulsivity is supported by the observation that high phenotypic motor impulsivity associated with a diminished mPFC synaptosomal 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein:protein interaction. Knockdown of mPFC 5-HT2CR resulted in increased motor impulsivity and triggered a functional disruption of the local 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR balance as evidenced by a compensatory upregulation of 5-HT2AR protein expression and a leftward shift in the potency of M100907 to suppress impulsive behavior. We infer that there is an interactive relationship between the mPFC 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR, and that a 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR imbalance may be a functionally relevant mechanism underlying motor impulsivity.

  1. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-12-19

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10-3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain.

  2. Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2A Receptor (5-HT2AR):5-HT2CR Imbalance in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Associates with Motor Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Noelle C.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Fink, Latham H. L.; Swinford-Jackson, Sarah E.; Sears, Robert M; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    A feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders is motor impulsivity. Recent studies have implicated serotonin (5-HT) systems in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating individual differences in motor impulsivity, notably the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2CR. We investigated the hypothesis that differences in the ratio of 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein expression in mPFC would predict the individual level of motor impulsivity and that the engineered loss of the 5-HT2CR would result in high motor impulsivity concomitant with elevated 5-HT2AR expression and pharmacological sensitivity to the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907. High and low impulsive rats were identified in a 1-choice serial reaction time task. Native protein levels of the 5-HT2AR and the 5-HT2CR predicted the intensity of motor impulsivity and the 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR ratio in mPFC positively correlated with levels of premature responses in individual outbred rats. The possibility that the 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR act in concert to control motor impulsivity is supported by the observation that high phenotypic motor impulsivity associated with a diminished mPFC synaptosomal 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR protein:protein interaction. Knockdown of mPFC 5-HT2CR resulted in increased motor impulsivity and triggered a functional disruption of the local 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR balance as evidenced by a compensatory upregulation of 5-HT2AR protein expression and a leftward shift in the potency of M100907 to suppress impulsive behavior. We infer that there is an interactive relationship between the mPFC 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR, and that a 5-HT2AR:5-HT2CR imbalance may be a functionally-relevant mechanism underlying motor impulsivity. PMID:26120876

  3. Restricted access to standard or high fat chow alters sensitivity of rats to the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM)

    PubMed Central

    Serafine, Katherine M.; France, Charles P.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding conditions can impact sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine receptors; less is known about the impact of feeding conditions on the effects of drugs acting on serotonin (5-HT) receptors. This study examined the effects of feeding condition on sensitivity to the direct-acting 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM; 0.1–3.2 mg/kg) and the direct-acting dopamineD3/D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (0.0032–0.32 mg/kg). Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access (11 weeks) followed by restricted access (6 weeks) to high (34.3%, n = 8) fat or standard (5.7% fat; n = 7) chow. Rats eating high fat chow became insulin resistant and gained more weight than rats eating standard chow. Free access to high fat chow did not alter sensitivity to DOM-induced head twitch but increased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning. Restricting access to high fat or standard chow shifted the DOM-induced head twitch dose-response curve to the right and shifted the quinpirole-induced yawning dose-response curve downward in both groups of rats. Some drugs of abuse and many therapeutic drugs act on 5-HT and dopamine systems; these results demonstrate that feeding condition impacts sensitivity to drugs acting on these systems, thereby possibly impacting vulnerability to abuse as well as therapeutic effectiveness of drugs. PMID:24346289

  4. Binding of [3H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites and of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide to 5-HT2A receptors in platelets from women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder during gonadotropin releasing hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Bixo, M; Allard, P; Bäckström, T; Mjörndal, T; Nyberg, S; Spigset, O; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2001-08-01

    Changes in serotonergic parameters have been reported in psychiatric conditions such as depression but also in the premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). In addition, hormonal effects on serotonergic activity have been established. In the present study, binding of [3H]paroxetine to platelet serotonin uptake sites and binding of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) to platelet serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors were studied in patients with PMDD treated with a low dose of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (buserelin) or placebo and compared to controls. The PMDD patients were relieved of premenstrual symptoms like depression and irritability during buserelin treatment. The number of [3H]paroxetine binding sites (Bmax) were significantly higher in the follicular phase in untreated PMDD patients compared to controls. When treated with buserelin the difference disappeared. No differences in [3H]LSD binding between the three groups were shown. The present study demonstrated altered platelet [3H]paroxetine binding characteristics in women with PMDD compared to controls. Furthermore, [3H]paroxetine binding was affected by PMDD treatment with a low dose of buserelin. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in serotonergic transmission could be a trait in the premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

  5. Extending David Horrobin's membrane phospholipid theory of schizophrenia: overactivity of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) in the brain is caused by overdrive of coupled serotonergic 5HT(2A/2C) receptors in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2012-12-01

    David Horrobin's membrane phospholipid theory of schizophrenia has held up well over time because his therapeutic prediction that dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) would have a therapeutic effect has been partially verified and undergoes continued testing. In the final version of his theory, he hypothesized that there was hyperactivity of phosphoslipase A(2) (PLA(2)) or a related enzyme but did not explain how the hyperactivity came about. It is known that serotonergic 5HT(2A/2C) receptors are coupled to PLA(2), which hydrolyzes both arachidonic acid (AA) and EPA from diacylglycerides at the sn-2 position. In this paper, Horrobin's theory is combined with a previously published theory of chronic stress in which it was hypothesized that a disinhibited dorsal raphe nucleus, the principal nucleus of the serotonergic system, can organize the neuropathology of diseases such as migraine, hypertension, and the metabolic syndrome. The new or combined theory is that schizophrenia is a disease of chronic stress in which a disinhibited DRN causes widespread serotonergic overdrive in the cerebral cortex. This in turn causes overdrive of cPLA(2) and both central and peripheral depletion of AA and EPA. Because EPA is present in smaller amounts, it falls below threshold for maintaining an intracellular balance between AA-derived and EPA-derived second messenger cascades, which leads to abnormal patterns of neuronal firing. There are two causes of neuronal dysfunction: the disinhibited DRN and EPA depletion. Schizophrenia is statistically associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and migraine because they form a cluster of diseases with similar pathophysiology. The theory provides an explanation for both the central and peripheral phospholipid abnormalities in schizophrenia. It also explains the role of stress in schizophrenia, elevated serum PLA(2) activity in schizophrenia, the relationship between untreated schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome

  6. Stimulation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors or 5-HT uptake inhibition: short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2007-11-22

    In order to determine whether short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) function in serial or parallel manner, serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) receptor agonists were tested in autoshaping task. Results show that control-vehicle animals were modestly but significantly mastering the autoshaping task as illustrated by memory scores between STM and LTM. Thus, post-training administration of 8-OHDPAT (agonist for 5-HT(1A/7) receptors) only at 0.250 and 0.500 mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. CGS12066 (agonist for 5-HT(1B)) produced biphasic affects, at 5.0 mg/kg impaired STM but at 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, respectively, improved or impaired LTM. DOI (agonist for 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors) dose-dependently impaired STM and, at 10.0 mg/kg only impaired LTM. Both, STM and LTM were impaired by either mCPP (mainly agonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) or mesulergine (mainly antagonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) lower dose. The 5-HT(3) agonist mCPBG at 1.0 impaired STM and its higher dose impaired both STM and LTM. RS67333 (partial agonist for 5-HT(4) receptors), at 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg facilitated both STM and LTM. The higher dose of fluoxetine (a 5-HT uptake inhibitor) improved both STM and LTM. Using as head-pokes during CS as an indirect measure of food-intake showed that of 30 memory changes, 21 of these were unrelated to the former. While some STM or LTM impairments can be attributed to decrements in food-intake, but not memory changes (either increase or decreases) produced by 8-OHDPAT, CGS12066, RS67333 or fluoxetine. Except for animals treated with DOI, mCPBG or fluoxetine, other groups treated with 5-HT agonists 6 h following autoshaping training showed similar LTM and unmodified CS-head-pokes scores.

  7. The serotonergic hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine disrupts cortical activity in a regionally-selective manner via 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maurizio S; Bortolozzi, Analia; Campa, Letizia; Artigas, Francesc; Celada, Pau

    2016-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a natural hallucinogen, acting as a non-selective serotonin 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A)-R agonist. Psychotomimetic agents such as the non-competitive NMDA-R antagonist phencyclidine and serotonergic hallucinogens (DOI and 5-MeO-DMT) disrupt cortical synchrony in the low frequency range (<4 Hz) in rat prefrontal cortex (PFC), an effect reversed by antipsychotic drugs. Here we extend these observations by examining the effect of 5-MeO-DMT on low frequency cortical oscillations (LFCO, <4 Hz) in PFC, visual (V1), somatosensory (S1) and auditory (Au1) cortices, as well as the dependence of these effects on 5-HT(1A)-R and 5-HT(2A)-R, using wild type (WT) and 5-HT(2A)-R knockout (KO2A) anesthetized mice. 5-MeO-DMT reduced LFCO in the PFC of WT and KO2A mice. The effect in KO2A mice was fully prevented by the 5-HT(1A)-R antagonist WAY-100635. Systemic and local 5-MeO-DMT reduced 5-HT release in PFC mainly via 5-HT(1A)-R. Moreover, 5-MeO-DMT reduced LFCO in S1, Au1 and V1 of WT mice and only in V1 of KO2A mice, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT(1A)-R activation in the 5-MeO-DMT-induced disruption of V1 activity. In addition, antipsychotic drugs reversed 5-MeO-DMT effects in WT mice. The present results suggest that the hallucinogen action of 5-MeO-DMT is mediated by simultaneous alterations of the activity of sensory (S1, Au1, V1) and associative (PFC) cortical areas, also supporting a role of 5-HT(1A)-R stimulation in V1 and PFC, in addition to the well-known action on 5-HT(2A)-R. Moreover, the reversal by antipsychotic drugs of 5-MeO-DMT effects adds to previous literature supporting the usefulness of the present model in antipsychotic drug development.

  8. New arylpiperazinylalkyl derivatives of 8-alkoxy-purine-2,6-dione and dihydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-f]purinedione targeting the serotonin 5-HT1A /5-HT2A /5-HT7 and dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Chłoń-Rzepa, Grażyna; Zagórska, Agnieszka; Bucki, Adam; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Pawłowski, Maciej; Satała, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Partyka, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Pękala, Elżbieta; Słoczyńska, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    To obtain potential antidepressants and/or antipsychotics, a series of new long-chain arylpiperazine derivatives of 8-alkoxy-purine-2,6-dione (10-24) and dihydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-f]purinedione (30-34) were synthesized and their serotonin (5-HT1A , 5-HT2A , 5-HT6 , 5-HT7 ) and dopamine (D2 ) receptor affinities were determined. The study allowed the identification of some potent 5-HT1A /5-HT7 /D2 ligands with moderate affinity for 5-HT2A sites. The binding mode of representative compounds from both chemical classes (11 and 31) in the site of 5-HT1A receptor was analyzed in computational studies. In functional in vitro studies, the selected compounds 15 and 16 showed antagonistic properties for the evaluated receptors. 8-Methoxy-7-{4-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-butyl}-1,3-dimethyl-purine-2,6-dione (15) showed a lack of activity in terms and under the conditions of the forced swim, four plate and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity tests in mice, probably as a result of its high first pass effect in the liver.

  9. 5-HT2A SNPs and the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    PubMed

    Serretti, Alessandro; Calati, Raffaella; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Colombo, Cristina; Rujescu, Dan

    2007-08-15

    Temperamental traits, the most basic part of personality, have been largely correlated with neurotransmitter systems and are under genetic control. Among serotonin candidates, the 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)) received considerable attention. We analyzed four SNPs (rs643627, rs594242, rs6311 and rs6313) in the 5-HT(2A) gene and their association with personality traits, as measured with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The sample was composed of three sub-groups: two German sub-samples, consisting of a healthy group of 289 subjects (42.6% males, mean age: 45.2+/-14.9) and a psychiatric patient group of 111 suicide attempters (38.7% males, mean age: 39.2+/-13.6), and an Italian sub-sample, composed of 60 mood disorder patients (35.0% males, mean age: 44.0+/-14.8). Controlling for sex, age and educational level, the SNPs were not strongly associated with personality dimensions. Only the rs594242 showed an association with Self-Directedness (p=0.003) in the German sample, while rs6313 was marginally associated with Novelty Seeking (p=0.01) in the Italian sample. We conclude that 5-HT(2A) SNPs may marginally modulate personality traits but further studies are required.

  10. T102C polymorphism in the 5HT2A gene and schizophrenia: relation to phenotype and drug response variability.

    PubMed Central

    Joober, R; Benkelfat, C; Brisebois, K; Toulouse, A; Turecki, G; Lal, S; Bloom, D; Labelle, A; Lalonde, P; Fortin, D; Alda, M; Palmour, R; Rouleau, G A

    1999-01-01

    Although genes play a major role in the etiology of schizophrenia, no major genes involved in this disease have been identified. However, several genes with small effect have been reported, though inconsistently, to increase the risk for schizophrenia. Recently, the 5HT2A 2 allele (T102C polymorphism) was reported to be over-represented in patients with schizophrenia. Other reports have found an excess of allele 2(C) only in schizophrenic patients who are resistant to clozapine, not in those who respond to clozapine. In this study, the 5HT2A receptor allele 2 frequencies were compared between 2 groups of patients with schizophrenia (39 responders and 63 nonresponders) based on long-term outcome and response to typical neuroleptics. A control group of 90 healthy volunteers screened for mental disorders was also included. Genotype 2/2 tended to be more frequent in patients with schizophrenia with poor long-term outcome and poor response to typical neuroleptics (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.09). This difference was significant in men (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.054) but not in women. In addition, the age at first contact with psychiatric care was significantly younger in the patients with schizophrenia with genotype 2/2 than in patients with genotype 1/1. These result suggest that the 5HT2A-receptor gene may play a role in a subset of schizophrenia characterized by poor long-term outcome and poor response to neuroleptics. PMID:10212557

  11. A pharmacological analysis of serotonergic receptors: effects of their activation of blockade in learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-02-01

    1. The authors have tested several 5-HT selective agonists and antagonists (5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4), an uptake inhibitor and 5-HT depletors in the autoshaping learning task. 2. The present work deals with the receptors whose stimulation increases or decreases learning. 3. Impaired consolidation of learning was observed after the presynaptic activation of 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 or the blockade of postsynaptic 5-HT2C/2B receptors. 4. In contrast, an improvement occurred after the presynaptic activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, and the blockade of presynaptic 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. 5. The blockade of postsynaptic 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptors and 5-HT inhibition of synthesis and its depletion did no alter learning by themselves. 6. The present data suggest that multiple pre- and postsynaptic serotonergic receptors are involved in the consolidation of learning. 7. Stimulation of most 5-HT receptors increases learning, however, some of 5-HT subtypes seem to limit the data storage. 8. Furthermore, the role of 5-HT receptors in learning seem to require an interaction with glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic neurotransmission systems.

  12. Repeated 7-Day Treatment with the 5-HT2C Agonist Lorcaserin or the 5-HT2A Antagonist Pimavanserin Alone or in Combination Fails to Reduce Cocaine vs Food Choice in Male Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Banks, Matthew L; Negus, S Stevens

    2017-04-01

    Cocaine use disorder is a global public health problem for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies. Emerging preclinical evidence has implicated both serotonin (5-HT) 2C and 2A receptors as potential mechanisms for mediating serotonergic attenuation of cocaine abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects. Therefore, the present study aim was to determine whether repeated 7-day treatment with the 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin (0.1-1.0 mg/kg per day, intramuscular; 0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, intravenous) or the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin (0.32-10 mg/kg per day, intramuscular) attenuated cocaine reinforcement under a concurrent 'choice' schedule of cocaine and food availability in rhesus monkeys. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine vs food choice. Repeated pimavanserin (3.2 mg/kg per day) treatments significantly increased small unit cocaine dose choice. Larger lorcaserin (1.0 mg/kg per day and 0.1 mg/kg/h) and pimavanserin (10 mg/kg per day) doses primarily decreased rates of operant behavior. Coadministration of ineffective lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg per day) and pimavanserin (0.32 mg/kg per day) doses also failed to significantly alter cocaine choice. These results suggest that neither 5-HT2C receptor activation nor 5-HT2A receptor blockade are sufficient to produce a therapeutic-like decrease in cocaine choice and a complementary increase in food choice. Overall, these results do not support the clinical utility of 5-HT2C agonists and 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists alone or in combination as candidate anti-cocaine use disorder pharmacotherapies.

  13. Repeated adolescent MDMA ("Ecstasy") exposure in rats increases behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to a 5-HT2A/2C agonist.

    PubMed

    Biezonski, Dominik K; Courtemanche, Andrea B; Hong, Sang B; Piper, Brian J; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-02-03

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a popular recreational drug among adolescents. The present study aimed to determine the effects of repeated intermittent administration of 10 mg/kg MDMA during adolescence on behavioral (Experiment 1) and neuroendocrine (Experiment 2) responses of rats to the 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and on [(3)H]ketanserin binding to 5-HT(2A) receptors. In the first experiment, MDMA pretreatment increased the frequency of head twitches and back muscle contractions, but not wet-dog shakes, to a high-dose DOI challenge. In the second experiment, both the prolactin and corticosterone responses to DOI were potentiated in MDMA-pretreated animals. No changes were found in 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in the hypothalamus or other forebrain areas that were examined. These results indicate that intermittent adolescent MDMA exposure enhances sensitivity of 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors in the CNS, possibly through changes in downstream signaling mechanisms.

  14. Comparison of the anti-dopamine D₂ and anti-serotonin 5-HT(2A) activities of chlorpromazine, bromperidol, haloperidol and second-generation antipsychotics parent compounds and metabolites thereof.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics, which have become the standard drug therapies for schizophrenia, are known to have a serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor blocking effect in addition to a dopamine D₂ receptor blocking effect. However, although chlorpromazine (CPZ) has a 5-HT(2A) receptor blocking effect and has the profile of a second-generation antipsychotic in vitro, it loses this pharmacological profile in vivo. In order to elucidate the differences between the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological characteristics of CPZ, we used a radioreceptor assay to measure the anti-D₂ activity and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity of CPZ and five major metabolites of CPZ, and compared the results to the anti-D₂ activity and anti-5-HT(2A) activity of risperidone, zotepine, perospirone, the major metabolites of each of these drugs, and olanzapine, bromperidol, and haloperidol. The subjects were 182 patients who had received diagnoses of schizophrenia based on the DSM-IV criteria. The results revealed that CPZ exhibited little anti-5-HT(2A) activity, regardless of the anti-D₂ activity level, and that none of the metabolites possessed anti-5-HT(2A) activity. However, both the parent compounds and the metabolites of each of the second-generation antipsychotics possessed both anti-D₂ activity and anti-5-HT(2A) activity. This clarified that, unlike second-generation antipsychotics, the reason CPZ loses its second-generation antipsychotic profiles in vivo is because it does not have any metabolites that possess anti-5-HT(2A) activity.

  15. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists.

  16. Effects of the 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on mismatch negativity generation and AX-continuous performance task: implications for the neuropharmacology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Umbricht, Daniel; Vollenweider, Franz X; Schmid, Liselotte; Grübel, Claudia; Skrabo, Anja; Huber, Theo; Koller, Rene

    2003-01-01

    Previously the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine was shown to disrupt generation of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) and the performance of an 'AX'-type continuous performance test (AX-CPT)--measures of auditory and visual context-dependent information processing--in a similar manner as observed in schizophrenia. This placebo-controlled study investigated effects of the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist psilocybin on the same measures in 18 healthy volunteers. Psilocybin administration induced significant performance deficits in the AX-CPT, but failed to reduce MMN generation significantly. These results indirectly support evidence that deficient MMN generation in schizophrenia may be a relatively distinct manifestation of deficient NMDAR functioning. In contrast, secondary pharmacological effects shared by NMDAR antagonists and the 5-HT(2A) agonist (ie disruption of glutamatergic neurotransmission) may be the mechanism underlying impairments in AX-CPT performance observed during both psilocybin and ketamine administration. Comparable deficits in schizophrenia may result from independent dysfunctions of 5-HT(2A) and NMDAR-related neurotransmission.

  17. Reversal of amphetamine-induced behaviours by MDL 100,907, a selective 5-HT2A antagonist.

    PubMed

    Moser, P C; Moran, P M; Frank, R A; Kehne, J H

    1996-01-01

    MDL 100,907 is a potent and selective antagonist of the 5-HT2A receptor which, unlike other antagonists at this receptor, has little affinity for the 5-HT2C receptor. We have investigated the antipsychotic potential of MDL 100,907 by examining its ability to antagonise different behavioural effects of amphetamine in rats. MDL 100,907 reversed the locomotor stimulant effects of amphetamine in rats without itself having any effect on locomotor activity. It also antagonised the disruptive effects of amphetamine on the development of latent inhibition. In contrast, MDL 100,907 had no effect on the discriminative stimulus properties of amphetamine, nor did it affect the ability of amphetamine to reduce the threshold required to sustain rewarding brain stimulation in the ventral tegmental area. This profile is different from that of typical and atypical neuroleptics, and also from other 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, which lack the selectivity of MDL 100,907. These results suggest that MDL 100,907 may have a unique interaction with dopaminergic systems and support the further development of selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonists as a novel therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia.

  18. 5-HT2A Gene Variants Moderate the Association between PTSD and Reduced Default Mode Network Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark W; Sperbeck, Emily; Robinson, Meghan E; Sadeh, Naomi; Wolf, Erika J; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark; Schichman, Steven A; Stone, Angie; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been used to study disruptions of functional connectivity in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies indicate that the serotonin system exerts a modulatory influence on DMN connectivity; however, no prior study has examined associations between serotonin receptor gene variants and DMN connectivity in either clinical or healthy samples. We examined serotonin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PTSD, and their interactions for association with DMN connectivity in 134 White non-Hispanic veterans. We began by analyzing candidate SNPs identified in prior meta-analyses of relevant psychiatric traits and found that rs7997012 (an HTR2A SNP), implicated previously in anti-depressant medication response in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives for Depression study (STAR(*)D; McMahon et al., 2006), interacted with PTSD to predict reduced connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the right medial prefrontal cortex and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). rs130058 (HTR1B) was associated with connectivity between the PCC and right angular gyrus. We then expanded our analysis to 99 HTR1B and HTR2A SNPs and found two HTR2A SNPs (rs977003 and rs7322347) that significantly moderated the association between PTSD severity and the PCC-right MTG component of the DMN after correcting for multiple testing. Finally, to obtain a more precise localization of the most significant SNP × PTSD interaction, we performed a whole cortex vertex-wise analysis of the rs977003 effect. This analysis revealed the locus of the pre-frontal effect to be in portions of the superior frontal gyrus, while the temporal lobe effect was centered in the middle and inferior temporal gyri. These findings point to the influence of HTR2A variants on DMN connectivity and advance knowledge of the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the neurobiology of PTSD.

  19. 5-HT2A Gene Variants Moderate the Association between PTSD and Reduced Default Mode Network Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Sperbeck, Emily; Robinson, Meghan E.; Sadeh, Naomi; Wolf, Erika J.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Logue, Mark; Schichman, Steven A.; Stone, Angie; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been used to study disruptions of functional connectivity in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies indicate that the serotonin system exerts a modulatory influence on DMN connectivity; however, no prior study has examined associations between serotonin receptor gene variants and DMN connectivity in either clinical or healthy samples. We examined serotonin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PTSD, and their interactions for association with DMN connectivity in 134 White non-Hispanic veterans. We began by analyzing candidate SNPs identified in prior meta-analyses of relevant psychiatric traits and found that rs7997012 (an HTR2A SNP), implicated previously in anti-depressant medication response in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives for Depression study (STAR*D; McMahon et al., 2006), interacted with PTSD to predict reduced connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the right medial prefrontal cortex and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). rs130058 (HTR1B) was associated with connectivity between the PCC and right angular gyrus. We then expanded our analysis to 99 HTR1B and HTR2A SNPs and found two HTR2A SNPs (rs977003 and rs7322347) that significantly moderated the association between PTSD severity and the PCC-right MTG component of the DMN after correcting for multiple testing. Finally, to obtain a more precise localization of the most significant SNP × PTSD interaction, we performed a whole cortex vertex-wise analysis of the rs977003 effect. This analysis revealed the locus of the pre-frontal effect to be in portions of the superior frontal gyrus, while the temporal lobe effect was centered in the middle and inferior temporal gyri. These findings point to the influence of HTR2A variants on DMN connectivity and advance knowledge of the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the neurobiology of PTSD. PMID:27445670

  20. Effect of GABAergic ligands on the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI (a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist) in the four-plate test in mice.

    PubMed

    Massé, Fabienne; Hascoët, Martine; Bourin, Michel

    2007-01-01

    5-HTergic and GABAergic systems are involved in neurobiology of anxiety. Precedent studies have demonstrated that SSRIs possessed an anxiolytic-like effect in the four-plate test (FPT) at doses that did not modify spontaneous locomotor activity. This effect seems to be mediated through the activation of 5-HT(2A) postsynaptic receptors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the implication of GABA system in the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI in the FPT. To achieve this, the co-administration of DOI (5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonists) with GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor ligands was evaluated in the FPT. Alprazolam, diazepam and muscimol (for higher dose) potentiated the anxiolytic-like effect of DOI. Bicuculline, picrotoxin and baclofen inhibited the anxiolytic-like effect of DOI. Flumazenil and CGP 35348 had no effect on the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI. These results suggest that the GABA system seems to be strongly implicated in the anxiolytic-like activity of DOI in the FPT.

  1. Evidence for a common biological basis of the Absorption trait, hallucinogen effects, and positive symptoms: epistasis between 5-HT2a and COMT polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ott, Ulrich; Reuter, Martin; Hennig, Juergen; Vaitl, Dieter

    2005-08-05

    Absorption represents a disposition to experience altered states of consciousness characterized by intensively focused attention. It is correlated with hypnotic susceptibility and includes phenomena ranging from vivid perceptions and imaginations to mystical experiences. Based on the assumption that drug-induced and naturally occurring mystical experiences share common neural mechanisms, we hypothesized that Absorption is influenced by the T102C polymorphism affecting the 5-HT2a receptor, which is known to be an important target site of hallucinogens like LSD. Based on the pivotal role ascribed to the prefrontal executive control network for absorbed attention and positive symptoms in schizophrenia, it was further hypothesized that Absorption is associated with the VAL158MET polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affecting the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The Tellegen Absorption Scale was administered to 336 subjects (95 male, 241 female). Statistical analysis revealed that the group with the T/T genotype of the T102C polymorphism, implying a stronger binding potential of the 5-HT2a receptor, indeed had significantly higher Absorption scores (F = 10.00, P = 0.002), while no main effect was found for the COMT polymorphism. However, the interaction between T102C and COMT genotypes yielded significance (F = 3.89; P = 0.049), underlining the known functional interaction between the 5-HT and the dopaminergic system. These findings point to biological foundations of the personality trait of Absorption.

  2. The effects of the preferential 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on prepulse inhibition of startle in healthy human volunteers depend on interstimulus interval.

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, Franz X; Csomor, Philipp A; Knappe, Bernhard; Geyer, Mark A; Quednow, Boris B

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists are used for animal models of schizophrenia because they mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia in humans and induce PPI deficits in animals. Nevertheless, one report indicates that the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist psilocybin increases PPI in healthy humans. Hence, we investigated these inconsistent results by assessing the dose-dependent effects of psilocybin on PPI in healthy humans. Sixteen subjects each received placebo or 115, 215, and 315 microg/kg of psilocybin at 4-week intervals in a randomized and counterbalanced order. PPI at 30-, 60-, 120-, 240-, and 2000-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) was measured 90 and 165 min after drug intake, coinciding with the peak and post-peak effects of psilocybin. The effects of psilocybin on psychopathological core dimensions and sustained attention were assessed by the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (5D-ASC) and the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR). Psilocybin dose-dependently reduced PPI at short (30 ms), had no effect at medium (60 ms), and increased PPI at long (120-2000 ms) ISIs, without affecting startle reactivity or habituation. Psilocybin dose-dependently impaired sustained attention and increased all 5D-ASC scores with exception of Auditory Alterations. Moreover, psilocybin-induced impairments in sustained attention performance were positively correlated with reduced PPI at the 30 ms ISI and not with the concomitant increases in PPI observed at long ISIs. These results confirm the psilocybin-induced increase in PPI at long ISIs and reveal that psilocybin also produces a decrease in PPI at short ISIs that is correlated with impaired attention and consistent with deficient PPI in schizophrenia.

  3. Association study of T102C 5-HT2A polymorphism in schizophrenic patients: diagnosis, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Humberto; De Marco, Luiz; Boson, Wolfanga; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antó L.; Campo, Valdir R.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between the serotonin (5-HT)2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. We studied 129 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia according to a structured clinicai interview (MINI-PLUS), Patients underwent a semistructured interview to assess suicide attempt history and its characteristics, in addition, at least one close relative of the patient was interviewed to assess prohand and family suicidal behavior. Healthy controls were students and hospital staff members free of psychiatric and medical illness. Genotypes were determined after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the region of 5-HT2A/T102C containing the polymorphic site and digestion with the restriction enzyme Hpall, We found no association between suicidal attempt history and suicide attempt characteristics and genotypic or aileie frequencies. Suicidal behavior was also not associated with demographic or psychopathological characteristics. These results suggest that the S-HT2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) is not involved in genetic susceptibility to suicidal behavior, but further studies in a larger sample are needed. PMID:17506229

  4. 5-HT2 receptors modulate the expression of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Charron, Alexandra; Hage, Cynthia El; Servonnet, Alice; Samaha, Anne-Noël

    2015-12-01

    Antipsychotic treatment can produce supersensitivity to dopamine receptor stimulation. This compromises the efficacy of ongoing treatment and increases the risk of relapse to psychosis upon treatment cessation. Serotonin 5-HT2 receptors modulate dopamine function and thereby influence dopamine-dependent responses. Here we evaluated the hypothesis that 5-HT2 receptors modulate the behavioural expression of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity. To this end, we first treated rats with the antipsychotic haloperidol using a clinically relevant treatment regimen. We then assessed the effects of a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist (ritanserin; 0.01 and 0.1mg/kg) and of a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (MDL100,907; 0.025-0.1mg/kg) on amphetamine-induced psychomotor activity. Antipsychotic-treated rats showed increased amphetamine-induced locomotion relative to antipsychotic-naïve rats, indicating a dopamine supersensitive state. At the highest dose tested (0.1mg/kg for both antagonists), both ritanserin and MDL100,907 suppressed amphetamine-induced locomotion in antipsychotic-treated rats, while having no effect on this behaviour in control rats. In parallel, antipsychotic treatment decreased 5-HT2A receptor density in the prelimbic cortex and nucleus accumbens core and increased 5-HT2A receptor density in the caudate-putamen. Thus, activation of either 5-HT2 receptors or of 5-HT2A receptors selectively is required for the full expression of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity. In addition, antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity enhances the ability of 5-HT2/5-HT2A receptors to modulate dopamine-dependent behaviours. These effects are potentially linked to changes in 5-HT2A receptor density in the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. These observations raise the possibility that blockade of 5-HT2A receptors might overcome some of the behavioural manifestations of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity.

  5. Blockade of 5-HT2 Receptor Selectively Prevents MDMA-Induced Verbal Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    van Wel, J H P; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Bosker, W M; Bakker, K; Ramaekers, J G

    2011-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ‘ecstasy' has been associated with memory deficits during abstinence and intoxication. The human neuropharmacology of MDMA-induced memory impairment is unknown. This study investigated the role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors in MDMA-induced memory impairment. Ketanserin is a 5-HT2A receptor blocker and pindolol a 5-HT1A receptor blocker. It was hypothesized that pretreatment with ketanserin and pindolol would protect against MDMA-induced memory impairment. Subjects (N=17) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject design involving six experimental conditions consisting of pretreatment (T1) and treatment (T2). T1 preceded T2 by 30 min. T1–T2 combinations were: placebo–placebo, pindolol 20 mg–placebo, ketanserin 50 mg–placebo, placebo–MDMA 75 mg, pindolol 20 mg–MDMA 75 mg, and ketanserin 50 mg–MDMA 75 mg. Memory function was assessed at Tmax of MDMA by means of a word-learning task (WLT), a spatial memory task and a prospective memory task. MDMA significantly impaired performance in all memory tasks. Pretreatment with a 5-HT2A receptor blocker selectively interacted with subsequent MDMA treatment and prevented MDMA-induced impairment in the WLT, but not in the spatial and prospective memory task. Pretreatment with a 5-HT1A blocker did not affect MDMA-induced memory impairment in any of the tasks. Together, the results demonstrate that MDMA-induced impairment of verbal memory as measured in the WLT is mediated by 5-HT2A receptor stimulation. PMID:21562484

  6. Modulating the rate and rhythmicity of perceptual rivalry alternations with the mixed 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A agonist psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Hasler, Felix; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Hell, Daniel; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2005-06-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are presented simultaneously to corresponding points within the left and right eyes. Under these conditions, the observer's perception will alternate between the two perceptual alternatives. Motivated by the reported link between the rate of perceptual alternations, symptoms of psychosis and an incidental observation that the rhythmicity of perceptual alternations during binocular rivalry was greatly increased 10 h after the consumption of LSD, this study aimed to investigate the pharmacology underlying binocular rivalry and to explore the connection between the timing of perceptual switching and psychosis. Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, PY) was chosen for the study because, like LSD, it is known to act as an agonist at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A receptors and to produce an altered state sometimes marked by psychosis-like symptoms. A total of 12 healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, low-dose (115 microg/kg) and high-dose (250 microg/kg) PY conditions. In line with predictions, under both low- and high-dose conditions, the results show that at 90 min postadministration (the peak of drug action), rate and rhythmicity of perceptual alternations were significantly reduced from placebo levels. Following the 90 min testing period, the perceptual switch rate successively increased, with some individuals showing increases well beyond pretest levels at the final testing, 360 min postadministration. However, as some subjects had still not returned to pretest levels by this time, the mean phase duration at 360 min was not found to differ significantly from placebo. Reflecting the drug-induced changes in rivalry phase durations, subjects showed clear changes in psychological state as indexed by the 5D-ASC (altered states of consciousness) rating scales. This study suggests the involvement of serotonergic pathways in binocular rivalry and supports the previously proposed role of a brainstem

  7. Chronic betahistine co-treatment reverses olanzapine's effects on dopamine D₂ but not 5-HT2A/2C bindings in rat brains.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-02

    Olanzapine is widely prescribed for treating schizophrenia and other mental disorders, although it leads to severe body weight gain/obesity. Chronic co-treatment with betahistine has been found to significantly decrease olanzapine-induced weight gain; however, it is not clear whether this co-treatment affects the therapeutic effects of olanzapine. This study investigated the effects of chronic treatment of olanzapine and/or betahistine on the binding density of the serotonergic 5-HT2A (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2C (5-HT2CR) receptors, 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), and dopaminergic D₂ receptors (D₂R) in the brain regions involved in antipsychotic efficacy, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), cingulate cortex (Cg), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and caudate putamen (CPu). Rats were treated with olanzapine (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) or vehicle for 3.5 weeks, and then olanzapine treatment was withdrawn for 19 days. From week 6, the two groups were divided into 4 groups (n=6) for 5 weeks' treatment: (1) olanzapine-only (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.), (2) betahistine-only (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d.), (3) olanzapine and betahistine co-treatment (O+B), and (4) vehicle. Compared to the control, the olanzapine-only treatment significantly decreased the bindings of 5-HT2AR, 5-HT2CR, and 5-HTT in the PFC, Cg, and NAc. Similar changes were observed in the rats receiving the O+B co-treatment. The olanzapine-only treatment significantly increased the D₂R binding in the Cg, NAc, and CPu, while the betahistine-only treatment reduced D₂R binding. The co-treatment of betahistine reversed the D₂R bindings in the NAc and CPu that were increased by olanzapine. Therefore, chronic O+B co-treatment has similar effects on serotonin transmission as the olanzapine-only treatment, but reverses the D₂R that is up-regulated by chronic olanzapine treatment. The co-treatment maintains the therapeutic effects of olanzapine but decreases/prevents the excess weight gain.

  8. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of phenoxyphenyl-methanamine compounds with 5HT2A, SERT, and hERG activities.

    PubMed

    Mente, Scot; Gallaschun, Randall; Schmidt, Anne; Lebel, Lorrie; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Fliri, Anton

    2008-12-01

    QSAR models have been used to evaluate activities for compounds in the phenoxyphenyl-methanamine (PPMA) class of compounds. These models utilize Hammett-type donating-withdrawing substituent values as well as simple parameters to describe substituent size and elucidate the SAR of the 'A' and 'B' rings. Using this methodology, intuitive QSAR relationships were found for the three biological activities with R(2) values of 0.73, 0.45, and 0.58 for 5HT(2A), SerT, and hERG activities.

  9. Habituation deficits induced by metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 receptor blockade in mice: reversal by antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Bespalov, Anton; Jongen-Rêlo, Ana-Lucia; van Gaalen, Marcel; Harich, Silke; Schoemaker, Hans; Gross, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Cortical metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) seem to be involved in habituation of simple stimulus-bound behaviors (e.g., habituation to acoustic startle or odor-elicited orienting response). Habituation deficits may contribute to the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. In the present study, male NMRI mice were injected with mGluR2/3 antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)propanoic acid (LY-341495) 30 min before being placed into novel arenas for automatic motor activity recording (2-h sessions). Administration of LY-341495 (1-10 mg/kg s.c.) dose-dependently prevented the habituation of the locomotor activity. Effects of LY-341495 (10 mg/kg) were fully and dose-dependently reversed by i.p. administration of haloperidol (0.03-0.3 mg/kg), clozapine (1-10 mg/kg), risperidone (0.01-0.1 mg/kg), olanzapine (0.3-3 mg/kg), aripiprazole (1-10 mg/kg), and sulpiride (3-30 mg/kg), each of which was given 15 min before the test. Effects of antipsychotic drugs were observed at the dose levels that did not affect spontaneous motor activity. LY-341495-induced delayed hyperactivity was also partially attenuated by lithium (50-200 mg/kg), amisulpride (1-10 mg/kg), and the selective dopamine D3 antagonist trans-N-[4-[2-(6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]cyclohexyl]-4-quinolinecarboxamide (SB-277011A; 3-30 mg/kg). Application of diazepam, imipramine, or several agonists and/or antagonists acting at various receptors that are thought to be relevant for antipsychotic treatment [e.g., 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A), 5-HT(3), and 5-HT(6) antagonists; 5-HT(1A) agonist; D4 antagonist; CB1 antagonist; ampakines; and glycine transporter inhibitor) had no appreciable effects. Thus, behavioral deficits induced by mGluR2/3 blockade (such as delayed motor hyperactivity) are selectively reversed by clinically used antipsychotic drugs.

  10. Peripheral metabolic effects of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Engeli, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous arachidonic acid derivates that activate cannabinoid receptors. The two most prominent endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. In obesity, increased concentrations of circulating and tissue endocannabinoid levels have been described, suggesting increased activity of the endocannabinoid system. Increased availability of endocannabinoids in obesity may over-stimulate cannabinoid receptors. Blockade of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors was the only successful clinical development of an anti-obesity drug during the last decade. Whereas blockade of CB1 receptors acutely reduces food intake, the long-term effects on metabolic regulation are more likely mediated by peripheral actions in liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the pancreas. Lipogenic effects of CB1 receptor signalling in liver and adipose tissue may contribute to regional adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance in the fatty liver. The association of circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol levels with decreased insulin sensitivity strongly suggests further exploration of the role of endocannabinoid signalling for insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. A few studies have suggested a specific role for the regulation of adiponectin secretion from adipocytes by endocannabinoids, but that has to be confirmed by more experiments. Also, the potential role of CB1 receptor blockade for the stimulation of energy expenditure needs to be studied in the future. Despite the current discussion of safety issues of cannabinoid receptor blockade, these findings open a new and exciting perspective on endocannabinoids as regulators of body weight and metabolism.

  11. The alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan, but not the serotonin-2A receptor antagonist M100907, partially attenuated reward deficits associated with nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2010-10-01

    Based on phenomenological similarities between anhedonia (reward deficits) associated with drug withdrawal and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we showed previously that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine attenuated reward deficits associated with psychostimulant withdrawal. Antagonism of alpha(2) adrenergic and 5-HT(2A) receptors may contribute to these effects of clozapine. We investigated here whether blockade of alpha(2) or 5-HT(2A) receptors by idazoxan and M100907, respectively, would reverse anhedonic aspects of psychostimulant withdrawal. Idazoxan treatment facilitated recovery from spontaneous nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal by attenuating reward deficits and increase the number of somatic signs. Thus, alpha(2) adrenoceptor blockade may have beneficial effects against nicotine withdrawal and may be involved in the effects of clozapine previously observed. M100907 worsened the anhedonia associated with nicotine and amphetamine withdrawal, suggesting that monotherapy with M100907 may exacerbate the expression of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia or nicotine withdrawal symptoms in people, including schizophrenia patients, attempting to quit smoking.

  12. Glycinergic inhibition in thalamus revealed by synaptic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Ghavanini, Ahmad A; Mathers, David A; Puil, Ernest

    2005-09-01

    Using juvenile rat brain slices, we examined the possibility that strychnine-sensitive receptors for glycine-like amino acids contributed to synaptic inhibition in ventrobasal thalamus, where gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) is the prevalent inhibitory transmitter. Ventrobasal nuclei showed staining for antibodies against alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of the glycine receptor. Exogenously applied glycine, taurine and beta-alanine increased membrane conductance, effects antagonized by strychnine, indicative of functional glycine receptors. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, we isolated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and currents (IPSPs and IPSCs) evoked by high-threshold stimulation of medial lemniscus. Like the responses to glycine agonists, these synaptic responses reversed near E(Cl). In comparative tests with GABA receptor antagonists, strychnine attenuated inhibition in a majority of neurons, but did not alter slow, GABA(B) inhibition. For complete blockade, the majority of fast IPSPs required co-application of strychnine with bicuculline or gabazine, GABA(A) receptor antagonists. Strychnine acting with an IC50 approximately = 33 nM, eliminated residual fast inhibition during selective GABA(A) receptor blockade with gabazine. The latency of onset for IPSPs was compatible with polysynaptic pathways or prolonged axonal propagation time. Strychnine lacked effects on monosynaptic, GABAergic IPSPs from zona incerta. The specific actions of strychnine implicated a glycine receptor contribution to fast inhibition in somatosensory thalamus.

  13. Activity blockade and GABAA receptor blockade produce synaptic scaling through chloride accumulation in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons.

    PubMed

    Lindsly, Casie; Gonzalez-Islas, Carlos; Wenner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic scaling represents a process whereby the distribution of a cell's synaptic strengths are altered by a multiplicative scaling factor. Scaling is thought to be a compensatory response that homeostatically controls spiking activity levels in the cell or network. Previously, we observed GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic spinal motoneurons following in vivo blockade of either spiking activity or GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We had determined that activity blockade triggered upward GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, thus increasing the driving force for these currents. To determine whether chloride accumulation also underlies GABAergic scaling following GABAAR blockade we have developed a new technique. We expressed a genetically encoded chloride-indicator, Clomeleon, in the embryonic chick spinal cord, which provides a non-invasive fast measure of intracellular chloride. Using this technique we now show that chloride accumulation underlies GABAergic scaling following blockade of either spiking activity or the GABAAR. The finding that GABAAR blockade and activity blockade trigger scaling via a common mechanism supports our hypothesis that activity blockade reduces GABAAR activation, which triggers synaptic scaling. In addition, Clomeleon imaging demonstrated the time course and widespread nature of GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, as it was also observed in spinal interneurons. This suggests that homeostatic scaling via chloride accumulation is a common feature in many neuronal classes within the embryonic spinal cord and opens the possibility that this process may occur throughout the nervous system at early stages of development.

  14. CTLA4 blockade broadens the peripheral T cell receptor repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Lidia; Tsoi, Jennifer; Wang, Xiaoyan; Emerson, Ryan; Homet, Blanca; Chodon, Thinle; Mok, Stephen; Huang, Rong Rong; Cochran, Alistair J.; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Koya, Richard C.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Robins, Harlan; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of CTLA-4 blockade with tremelimumab in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Experimental Design We used next generation sequencing to study the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) from the rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) variable beta (V-beta) in PBMC of 21 patients, at baseline and 30–60 days after receiving tremelimumab. Results After receiving tremelimumab there was a median of 30% increase in unique productive sequences of TCR V-beta CDR3 in 19 out of 21 patients, and a median decrease of 30% in only 2 out of 21 patients. These changes were significant for richness (p=0.01) and for Shannon index diversity (p=0.04). In comparison, serially collected PBMC from four healthy donors did not show a significant change in TCR V-beta CDR3 diversity over one year. There was a significant difference in the total unique productive TCR V-beta CDR3 sequences between patients experiencing toxicity with tremelimumab compared to patients without toxicity (p=0.05). No relevant differences were noted between clinical responders and non-responders. Conclusions CTLA4 blockade with tremelimumab diversifies the peripheral T cell pool, representing a pharmacodynamic effect of how this class of antibodies modulates the human immune system. PMID:24583799

  15. Assessment of Methods for the Intracellular Blockade of GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Laura A.; Burnell, Erica S.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective blockade of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto specific neurons is a useful tool for dissecting the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of ongoing network activity. To achieve this, intracellular recording with a patch solution capable of blocking GABAA receptors has advantages over other manipulations, such as pharmacological application of GABAergic antagonists or optogenetic inhibition of populations of interneurones, in that the majority of inhibitory transmission is unaffected and hence the remaining network activity preserved. Here, we assess three previously described methods to block inhibition: intracellular application of the molecules picrotoxin, 4,4’-dinitro-stilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DNDS) and 4,4’-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DIDS). DNDS and picrotoxin were both found to be ineffective at blocking evoked, monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) onto mouse CA1 pyramidal cells. An intracellular solution containing DIDS and caesium fluoride, but lacking nucleotides ATP and GTP, was effective at decreasing the amplitude of IPSCs. However, this effect was found to be independent of DIDS, and the absence of intracellular nucleotides, and was instead due to the presence of fluoride ions in this intracellular solution, which also blocked spontaneously occurring IPSCs during hippocampal sharp waves. Critically, intracellular fluoride ions also caused a decrease in both spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic currents and precluded the inclusion of nucleotides in the intracellular solution. Therefore, of the methods tested, only fluoride ions were effective for intracellular blockade of IPSCs but this approach has additional cellular effects reducing its selectivity and utility. PMID:27501143

  16. Effect of H1- and H2-histamine receptor blockade on postexercise insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pellinger, Thomas K; Dumke, Breanna R; Halliwill, John R

    2013-01-01

    Following a bout of dynamic exercise, humans experience sustained postexercise vasodilatation in the previously exercised skeletal muscle which is mediated by activation of histamine (H1 and H2) receptors. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake is also enhanced following dynamic exercise. Our aim was to determine if blunting the vasodilatation during recovery from exercise would have an adverse effect on blood glucose regulation. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity following exercise would be reduced with H1- and H2-receptor blockade versus control (no blockade). We studied 20 healthy young subjects (12 exercise; eight nonexercise sham) on randomized control and H1- and H2-receptor blockade (fexofenadine and ranitidine) days. Following 60 min of upright cycling at 60% VO2 peak or nonexercise sham, subjects consumed an oral glucose tolerance beverage (1.0 g/kg). Blood glucose was determined from “arterialized” blood samples (heated hand vein). Postexercise whole-body insulin sensitivity (Matsuda insulin sensitivity index) was reduced 25% with H1- and H2-receptor blockade (P < 0.05), whereas insulin sensitivity was not affected by histamine receptor blockade in the sham trials. These results indicate that insulin sensitivity following exercise is blunted by H1- and H2-receptor blockade and suggest that postexercise H1- and H2-receptor–mediated skeletal muscle vasodilatation benefits glucose regulation in healthy humans. PMID:24303118

  17. Partial neuromuscular blockade in humans enhances muscle blood flow during exercise independently of muscle oxygen uptake and acetylcholine receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Ylva; Krustrup, Peter; Iaia, F Marcello; Secher, Niels H; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one-legged knee-extensor exercise (18 W) during control conditions and with cisatracurium blockade, as well as with cisatracurium blockade with prior glycopyrrone infusion. Thigh blood flow and vascular conductance in control and with cisatracurium infusion were similar at rest and during passive movement of the leg, but higher (P < 0.05) during exercise with cisatracurium than in control (3.83 +/- 0.42 vs. 2.78 +/- 0.21 l/min and 26.9 +/- 3.4 vs. 21.8 +/- 2.0 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) at the end of exercise). Thigh oxygen uptake was similar in control and with cisatracurium infusion both at rest and during exercise, being 354 +/- 33 and 406 +/- 34 ml/min, at the end of exercise. Combined infusion of cisatracurium and glycopyrrone caused a similar increase in blood flow as cisatracurium infusion alone. The current results demonstrate that neuromuscular blockade leads to enhanced thigh blood flow and vascular conductance during exercise, events that are not associated with either acetylcholine or an increased oxygen demand. The results do not support an essential role for acetylcholine, released form the neuromuscular junction, in exercise hyperemia or for the enhanced blood flow during neuromuscular blockade. The enhanced exercise hyperemia during partial neuromuscular blockade may be related to a greater recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibers.

  18. Cannabinoid 2 receptor- and beta Arrestin 2-dependent upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Franklin, J M; Vasiljevik, T; Prisinzano, T E; Carrasco, G A

    2013-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that cannabinoid receptor agonists may regulate serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor neurotransmission in the brain, although no molecular mechanism has been identified. Here, we present experimental evidence that sustained treatment with a non-selective cannabinoid agonist (CP55,940) or selective CB2 receptor agonists (JWH133 or GP1a) upregulate 5-HT(2A) receptors in a neuronal cell line. Furthermore, this cannabinoid receptor agonist-induced upregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors was prevented in cells stably transfected with either CB2 or β-Arrestin 2 shRNA lentiviral particles. Additionally, inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis also prevented the cannabinoid receptor-induced upregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. Our results indicate that cannabinoid agonists might upregulate 5-HT(2A) receptors by a mechanism that requires CB2 receptors and β-Arrestin 2 in cells that express both CB2 and 5-HT(2A) receptors. 5-HT(2A) receptors have been associated with several physiological functions and neuropsychiatric disorders such as stress response, anxiety and depression, and schizophrenia. Therefore, these results might provide a molecular mechanism by which activation of cannabinoid receptors might be relevant to some cognitive and mood disorders in humans.

  19. Remodeling of striatal NMDA receptors by chronic A(2A) receptor blockade in Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Ferrante, Antonella; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Ferretti, Roberta; Pézzola, Antonella; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Excitotoxicity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease (HD), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) modulate excitotoxicity and have been suggested to play a pathogenetic role in HD. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of A(2A)R blockade on the expression and functions of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice (R6/2). We found that 3 weeks' treatment with SCH 58261 (0.01 mg/kg/day i.p. from the 8th week of age) modified NR1 and NR2A/NR2B expression in the striatum of R6/2 (Western blotting) while had no effect on NMDA-induced toxicity in corticostriatal slices (electrophysiological experiments). In conclusion, in vivo A(2A)R blockade induced a remodeling of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice. Even though the functional relevance of the above effect remains to be fully elucidated, these results add further evidence to the modulatory role of A(2A)Rs in HD.

  20. Cerebrocortical and medullary blood flow changes after general opiate receptor blockade during hemorrhagic shock in cats.

    PubMed

    Komjáti, K; Sandor, P; Sandor, N; Szirmai, L; H-Velkei, M; Kovach, A G

    1997-04-01

    The effect of centrally induced opiate receptor blockade on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in anesthetized, ventilated cats during the course of hemorrhagic shock. The blood flow of the medulla and the parietal cortex was measured with the H2-gas clearance technique. Hemorrhagic shock was produced by lowering the systemic mean arterial pressure to 60 mmHg for 120 min by blood withdrawal. Central opiate receptor blockade was induced by 10 micrograms/kg intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected naloxone at the 60th min of the bleeding period. Cortical blood flow showed no improvement after i.c.v. naloxone administration. Medullary blood flow, however, increased significantly and approached the pre-bleeding control flow values following central opiate receptor blockade. The results indicate involvement of endogenous opioid mechanisms in the regulation of rCBF during hemorrhage and may provide an explanation for the previously described beneficial effects of naloxone in hemorrhagic shock.

  1. NMDA receptor blockade attenuates locomotion elicited by intrastriatal dopamine D1-receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, Christian W; Walker, Paul D

    2004-07-01

    Previous behavioral studies suggest that the striatum mediates a hyperactive response to systemic NMDA receptor antagonism in combination with systemic D1 receptor stimulation. However, many experiments conducted at the cellular level suggest that inhibition of NMDA receptors should block D1 receptor-mediated locomotor activity. Therefore, we investigated the consequences of NMDA receptor blockade on the ability of striatal D1 receptors to elicit locomotor activity using systemic and intrastriatal injections of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 combined with intrastriatal injections of the D1 full agonist SKF 82958. Following drug treatment locomotor activity was measured via computerized activity monitors designed to quantify multiple parameters of rodent open-field behavior. Both systemic (0.1 mg/kg) and intrastriatal (1.0 microg) MK-801 pretreatments completely blocked locomotor and stereotypic activity elicited by 10 microg of SKF 82958 directly infused into the striatum. Further, increased activity triggered by intrastriatal SKF 82958 was attenuated by a posttreatment with intrastriatal infusion of 1 microg MK-801. These data suggest that D1-stimulated locomotor behaviors controlled by the striatum require functional NMDA channels.

  2. Angiogenesis and radiation response modulation after vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Huang Shyhmin; Armstrong, Eric A.; Fowler, John F.; Harari, Paul M. . E-mail: harari@humonc.wisc.edu

    2005-08-01

    The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) represents a critical factor in the malignant growth of solid tumors and metastases. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR2 represent central molecular targets for antiangiogenic intervention, because of their integral involvement in endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In the current study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo effects of receptor blockade on various aspects of the angiogenic process using monoclonal antibodies against VEGFR2 (cp1C11, which is human specific, and DC101, which is mouse specific). Molecular blockade of VEGFR2 inhibited several critical steps involved in angiogenesis. VEGFR2 blockade in endothelial cells attenuated cellular proliferation, reduced cellular migration, and disrupted cellular differentiation and resultant formation of capillary-like networks. Further, VEGFR2 blockade significantly reduced the growth response of human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in athymic mice. The growth-inhibitory effect of VEGFR2 blockade in tumor xenografts seems to reflect antiangiogenic influence as demonstrated by vascular growth inhibition in an in vivo angiogenesis assay incorporating tumor-bearing Matrigel plugs. Further, administration of VEGFR2-blocking antibodies in endothelial cell cultures, and in mouse xenograft models, increased their response to ionizing radiation, indicating an interactive cytotoxic effect of VEGFR2 blockade with radiation. These data suggest that molecular inhibition of VEGFR2 alone, and in combination with radiation, can enhance tumor response through molecular targeting of tumor vasculature.

  3. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade of feline myocardium. Cardiac mechanics, energetics, and beta adrenoceptor regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G; Kent, R L; McGonigle, P; Watanabe, A M

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial oxygen consumption is regulated by interrelated mechanical and inotropic conditions; there is a parallel increase in the aerobic metabolism and inotropic state during beta-adrenergic stimulation under fixed mechanical conditions. In contrast, there is some evidence that beta-blockade may reduce oxygen consumption through effects independent of its influence on mechanical conditions and contractile state, and that prolonged beta-blockade may sensitize the myocardium to beta-adrenergic stimulation. To clarify these two points, the present study examined the relationship of myocardial energetics to mechanics and inotropism during acute beta-blockade and after the withdrawal of long-term beta-blockade, whereupon the basis for any effect observed was sought by characterizing the number, affinity, and affinity states of the beta-receptors as well as the coupling of activated beta-receptors to cyclic AMP generation. Studies of right ventricular papillary muscles from control and chronically beta-blocked cats demonstrated contractile and energetic properties as well as dose-response behavior and inotropic specificity suggestive of an increase in myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the latter group. Assays of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors from further groups of control and pretreated cats, both in cardiac tissue and in isolated cardiac muscle cells, failed to define a difference between the two groups either in terms of receptor number and affinity or in terms of the proportion of receptors in the high-affinity state. However, coupling of the activated beta-adrenoceptors to cyclic AMP generation was enhanced in cardiac muscle cells from chronically beta-blocked cats. These data demonstrate that beta-adrenoceptor blockade (a) produces parallel effects on inotropic state and oxygen consumption without an independent effect on either and (b) increases myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation after beta-blockade withdrawal, not by "up

  4. Identification and characterization of a truncated variant of the 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptor produced by alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Guest, P C; Salim, K; Skynner, H A; George, S E; Bresnick, J N; McAllister, G

    2000-09-08

    We have identified an alternatively spliced 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)-R) transcript by PCR of human brain cDNA using degenerate oligonucleotide primers to transmembrane (TM) domains 3 and 7 of the 5-HT(2)-R subfamily. The variant contains a 118-bp insertion at the exon II/III boundary of the 5-HT(2A)-R, which produces a frame shift in the coding sequence and a premature stop codon. PCR analysis showed that the truncated receptor (5-HT(2A-tr)) and native 5-HT(2A)-R were co-expressed in most brain tissues, with the highest levels being found in hippocampus, corpus collosum, amygdala and caudate nucleus. Western blot analysis of HEK-293 cells transfected transiently with a 5-HT(2A-tr) construct showed that a 30-kDa protein was expressed on cell membranes. Co-transfection studies showed no effect of the 5-HT(2A-tr) variant on 3H-ketanserin binding to the native 5-HT(2A)-R or on functional coupling of the 5-HT(2A)-R to 5-HT-stimulated Ca(2+) mobilization. The functional significance of the 5-HT(2A-tr) variant and other truncated receptors remains to be established.

  5. Hepatic structural enhancement and insulin resistance amelioration due to AT1 receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the development of obesity and its comorbidities has been extensively addressed. Both circulating and local RAS components are up-regulated in obesity and involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease onset. Pharmacological manipulations of RAS are viable strategies to tackle metabolic impairments caused by the excessive body fat mass. Renin inhibitors rescue insulin resistance, but do not have marked effects on hepatic steatosis. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) yield beneficial hepatic remodeling. ARBs elicit body mass loss and normalize insulin levels, tackling insulin resistance. Also, this drug class increases adiponectin levels, besides countering interleukin-6, tumoral necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta 1. The latter is essential to prevent from liver fibrosis. When conjugated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activation, ARB fully rescues fatty liver. These effects might be orchestrated by an indirect up-regulation of MAS receptor due to angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) blockade. These associations of ARB with PPAR activation and ACE2-angiotensin (ANG) (1-7)-MAS receptor axis deserve a better understanding. This editorial provides a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding AT1R blockade effects on sensitivity to insulin and hepatic structural alterations as well as the intersections of AT1R blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation and ACE2-ANG (1-7) - MAS receptor axis. PMID:28144388

  6. Hepatic structural enhancement and insulin resistance amelioration due to AT1 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2017-01-18

    Over the last decade, the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the development of obesity and its comorbidities has been extensively addressed. Both circulating and local RAS components are up-regulated in obesity and involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease onset. Pharmacological manipulations of RAS are viable strategies to tackle metabolic impairments caused by the excessive body fat mass. Renin inhibitors rescue insulin resistance, but do not have marked effects on hepatic steatosis. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) yield beneficial hepatic remodeling. ARBs elicit body mass loss and normalize insulin levels, tackling insulin resistance. Also, this drug class increases adiponectin levels, besides countering interleukin-6, tumoral necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta 1. The latter is essential to prevent from liver fibrosis. When conjugated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activation, ARB fully rescues fatty liver. These effects might be orchestrated by an indirect up-regulation of MAS receptor due to angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) blockade. These associations of ARB with PPAR activation and ACE2-angiotensin (ANG) (1-7)-MAS receptor axis deserve a better understanding. This editorial provides a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding AT1R blockade effects on sensitivity to insulin and hepatic structural alterations as well as the intersections of AT1R blockade with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation and ACE2-ANG (1-7) - MAS receptor axis.

  7. Multiple receptor subtypes mediate the effects of serotonin on rat subfornical organ neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scrogin, K. E.; Johnson, A. K.; Schmid, H. A.

    1998-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) receives significant serotonergic innervation. However, few reports have examined the functional effects of serotonin on SFO neurons. This study characterized the effects of serotonin on spontaneously firing SFO neurons in the rat brain slice. Of 31 neurons tested, 80% responded to serotonin (1-100 microM) with either an increase (n = 15) or decrease (n = 10) in spontaneous activity. Responses to serotonin were dose dependent and persisted after synaptic blockade. Excitatory responses could also be mimicked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 1-10 microM) and could be blocked by the 5-HT2A/2C-receptor antagonist LY-53,857 (10 microM). LY-53,857 unmasked inhibitory responses to serotonin in 56% of serotonin-excited cells tested. Serotonin-inhibited cells were also inhibited by the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1-10 microM; n = 7). The data indicate that SFO neurons are responsive to serotonin via postsynaptic activation of multiple receptor subtypes. The results suggest that excitatory responses to serotonin are mediated by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors and that inhibitory responses may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, similar percentages of serotonin-excited and -inhibited cells were also sensitive to ANG II. As such the functional relationship between serotonin and ANG II in the SFO remains unclear.

  8. Interaction of anesthesia, beta-receptor blockade, and blood loss in dogs with induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Roberts, J G; Foëx, P; Clarke, T N; Bennett, M J; Ryder, W A

    1976-09-01

    The cardiovascular effects of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia, and beta-receptor blockade with either propranolol or practolol, were studied in 15 dogs in which severe myocardial infarction had been induced ten days earlier. The hemodynamic responses to blood loss amounting to 25 per cent of estimated blood volume, and its subsequent replacement, were studied before and after induction of beta-receptor blockade. In terms of cardiac output and aortic blood flow acceleration, cardiac performance in the absence of beta-blockade was markedly impaired during steady-state anesthesia, compared with corresponding values in normal dogs. Practolol (2.0 mg/kg) administered during anesthesia induced no significant circulatory change other than a 14 per cent decrease in heart rate and a 25 per cent increase in strode volum. Propranolol (0.3 mg/kg) caused a comparable reduction of heart rate, but significantly reduced cardiac output (-27 per cent), aortic blood flow acceleration (-26 per cent), and peak LV power (-19 per cent), and increased systemic vascular resistance (+49 per cent). The two drugs caused comparable shifts of the isoproterenol dose-response curve during anesthesia. Graduated blood loss during anesthesia, to a total of 25 per cent of blood volume, caused consistent circulatory changes (decreased mean arterial pressure cardiac output, peak LV power, LV minute work) that were essentially similar before and after beta-receptor blockade with either propranolol or practolol. The positive inotropic effect of calcium gluconate during halothane anesthesia was significantly reduced following either propranolol or practolol, but the hemodynamic responses to changes of systemic vascular resistance induced with acetylcholine or phenylephrine were not modified by beta-receptor blockade.

  9. Hypocretin receptor 1 blockade preferentially reduces high effort responding for cocaine without promoting sleep

    PubMed Central

    Brodnik, Zachary D.; Bernstein, David L.; Prince, Courtney D.; España, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that blockade of the hypocretin receptor 1 may act as a useful pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse. Here we investigated the extent to which various doses of a hypocretin receptor 1 antagonist, SB-334867, affect cocaine self-administration at varying doses of cocaine and across a range of effort requirements, and tested if these SB-334867 doses produce sedative effects. First, we trained animals to self-administer one of three doses of cocaine on a progressive ratio schedule, and then tested the effects of three doses of SB-334867. Responding for cocaine was then analyzed to segregate features of relatively high and low effort requirements across the progressive ratio session. In another set of experiments we tested the sleep-promoting effects of the same doses of SB-334867. Our data indicate that blockade of hypocretin receptor 1 preferentially reduces high effort responding for cocaine at levels that do not promote sedation. PMID:26049058

  10. P2X1 receptor blockade inhibits whole kidney autoregulation of renal blood flow in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, David A.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro experiments demonstrate that P2X1 receptor activation is important for normal afferent arteriolar autoregulatory behavior, but direct in vivo evidence for this relationship occurring in the whole kidney is unavailable. Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that P2X1 receptors are important for autoregulation of whole kidney blood flow. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats before and during P2 receptor blockade with PPADS, P2X1 receptor blockade with IP5I, or A1 receptor blockade with DPCPX. Both P2X1 and A1 receptor stimulation with α,β-methylene ATP and CPA, respectively, caused dose-dependent decreases in RBF. Administration of either PPADS or IP5I significantly blocked P2X1 receptor stimulation. Likewise, administration of DPCPX significantly blocked A1 receptor activation to CPA. Autoregulatory behavior was assessed by measuring RBF responses to reductions in renal perfusion pressure. In vehicle-infused rats, as pressure was decreased from 120 to 100 mmHg, there was no decrease in RBF. However, in either PPADS- or IP5I-infused rats, each decrease in pressure resulted in a significant decrease in RBF, demonstrating loss of autoregulatory ability. In DPCPX-infused rats, reductions in pressure did not cause significant reductions in RBF over the pressure range of 100–120 mmHg, but the autoregulatory curve tended to be steeper than vehicle-infused rats over the range of 80–100 mmHg, suggesting that A1 receptors may influence RBF at lower pressures. These findings are consistent with in vitro data from afferent arterioles and support the hypothesis that P2X1 receptor activation is important for whole kidney autoregulation in vivo. PMID:20335318

  11. Investigation of Prolactin Receptor Activation and Blockade Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Estelle; Fernandez, Isabelle; Zhang, Chi; Salsac, Marion; Gregor, Nathalie; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Pin, Jean Philippe; Trinquet, Eric; Goffin, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is emerging as a therapeutic target in oncology. Knowledge-based drug design led to the development of a pure PRLR antagonist (Del1-9-G129R-hPRL) that was recently shown to prevent PRL-induced mouse prostate tumorogenesis. In humans, the first gain-of-function mutation of the PRLR (PRLRI146L) was recently identified in breast tumor patients. At the molecular level, the actual mechanism of action of these two novel players in the PRL system remains elusive. In this study, we addressed whether constitutive PRLR activation (PRLRI146L) or PRLR blockade (antagonist) involved alteration of receptor oligomerization and/or of inter-chain distances compared to unstimulated and PRL-stimulated PRLR. Using a combination of various biochemical and spectroscopic approaches (co-IP, blue native electrophoresis, BRET1), we demonstrated that preformed PRLR homodimers are altered neither by PRL- or I146L-induced receptor triggering, nor by antagonist-mediated blockade. These findings were confirmed using a novel time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) technology that allows monitoring distance changes between cell surface tagged receptors. This technology revealed that PRLR blockade or activation did not involve detectable distance changes between extracellular domains of receptor chains within the dimer. This study merges with our previous structural investigations suggesting that the mechanism of PRLR activation solely involves intermolecular contact adaptations leading to subtle intramolecular rearrangements. PMID:22649370

  12. Orexin-1 receptor blockade dysregulates REM sleep in the presence of orexin-2 receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Dugovic, Christine; Shelton, Jonathan E.; Yun, Sujin; Bonaventure, Pascal; Shireman, Brock T.; Lovenberg, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the prominent role of orexins in the maintenance of wakefulness via activation of orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors, various dual OX1/2R antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans. While selective blockade of OX2R seems to be sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, the beneficial effect of additional inhibition of OX1R remains controversial. The relative contribution of OX1R and OX2R to the sleep effects induced by a dual OX1/2R antagonist was further investigated in the rat, and specifically on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep since a deficiency of the orexin system is associated with narcolepsy/cataplexy based on clinical and pre-clinical data. As expected, the dual OX1/2R antagonist SB-649868 was effective in promoting non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep following oral dosing (10 and 30 mg/kg) at the onset of the dark phase. However, a disruption of REM sleep was evidenced by a more pronounced reduction in the onset of REM as compared to NREM sleep, a marked enhancement of the REM/total sleep ratio, and the occurrence of a few episodes of direct wake to REM sleep transitions (REM intrusion). When administered subcutaneously, the OX2R antagonist JNJ-10397049 (10 mg/kg) increased NREM duration whereas the OX1R antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg) did not alter sleep. REM sleep was not affected either by OX2R or OX1R blockade alone, but administration of the OX1R antagonist in combination with the OX2R antagonist induced a significant reduction in REM sleep latency and an increase in REM sleep duration at the expense of the time spent in NREM sleep. These results indicate that additional blockade of OX1R to OX2R antagonism elicits a dysregulation of REM sleep by shifting the balance in favor of REM sleep at the expense of NREM sleep that may increase the risk of adverse events. Translation of this hypothesis remains to be tested in the clinic. PMID:24592208

  13. Suppression of inflammatory events associated to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by 5-HT1A blockade in mice.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Simona; Arcaro, Valentina; Vivo, Valentina; Rapalli, Alberto; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Saccani, Francesca; Flammini, Lisa; Domenichini, Giuseppe; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2014-03-01

    Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a potentially life-threatening disease, ensuing from various clinical conditions. Experimentally, either protective or detrimental roles have been attributed to 5-HT in the functional and morphological injury caused by mesenteric I/R. Recently, we proved the involvement of 5-HT2A receptors in the intestinal dysmotility and leukocyte recruitment induced by 45min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) followed by 24h reperfusion in mice. Starting from these premises, the aim of our present work was to investigate the role played by endogenous 5-HT in the same experimental model where 45min SMA clamping was followed by 5h reflow. To this end, we first observed that ischemic preconditioning before I/R injury (IPC+I/R) reverted the increase in 5-HT tissue content and in inflammatory parameters induced by I/R in mice. Second, the effects produced by intravenous administration of 5-HT1A ligands (partial agonist buspirone 10mgkg(-1), antagonist WAY100135 0.5-5mgkg(-1)), 5-HT2A antagonist sarpogrelate (10mgkg(-1)), 5-HT3 antagonist alosetron (0.1mgkg(-1)), 5-HT4 antagonist GR125487 (5mgkg(-1)) and 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10mgkg(-1)) on I/R-induced inflammatory response were investigated in I/R mice and compared to those obtained in sham-operated animals (S). Our results confirmed the significant role played by 5-HT2A receptors not only in the late but also in the early I/R-induced microcirculatory dysfunction and showed that blockade of 5-HT1A receptors protected against the intestinal leukocyte recruitment, plasma extravasation and reactive oxygen species formation triggered by SMA occlusion and reflow. The ability of α7 nicotinic receptor (α7nAchR) antagonist methyllycaconitine (5mgkg(-1)) to counteract the beneficial action provided by buspirone on I/R-induced neutrophil infiltration suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect produced by 5-HT1A receptor antagonism could be partly ascribed to the

  14. β-Adrenergic receptor blockade blunts postexercise skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates in humans

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew M.; Bell, Christopher; Peelor, Frederick F.

    2011-01-01

    β-Adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling is a regulator of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in mice. We hypothesized that β-AR blockade blunts postexercise skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates in adult humans. Six healthy men (mean ± SD: 26 ± 6 yr old, 39.9 ± 4.9 ml·kg−1·min−1 peak O2 uptake, 26.7 ± 2.0 kg/m2 body mass index) performed 1 h of stationary cycle ergometer exercise (60% peak O2 uptake) during 1) β-AR blockade (intravenous propranolol) and 2) administration of saline (control). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial, myofibrillar, and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis rates were assessed using [2H5]phenylalanine incorporation into skeletal muscle proteins after exercise. The mRNA content of signals for mitochondrial biogenesis was determined using real-time PCR. β-AR blockade decreased mitochondrial (from 0.217 ± 0.076 to 0.135 ± 0.031%/h, P < 0.05), but not myofibrillar or sarcoplasmic, protein synthesis rates. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α mRNA was increased ∼2.5-fold (P < 0.05) at 5 h compared with 1 h postexercise but was not influenced by β-AR blockade. We conclude that decreased β-AR signaling during cycling can blunt the postexercise increase in mitochondrial protein synthesis rates without affecting mRNA content. PMID:21613574

  15. Dopamine D2-receptor blockade enhances decoding of prefrontal signals in humans.

    PubMed

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Weber, Susanna C; Haker, Helene; Robbins, Trevor W; Tobler, Philippe N

    2015-03-04

    The prefrontal cortex houses representations critical for ongoing and future behavior expressed in the form of patterns of neural activity. Dopamine has long been suggested to play a key role in the integrity of such representations, with D2-receptor activation rendering them flexible but weak. However, it is currently unknown whether and how D2-receptor activation affects prefrontal representations in humans. In the current study, we use dopamine receptor-specific pharmacology and multivoxel pattern-based functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that blocking D2-receptor activation enhances prefrontal representations. Human subjects performed a simple reward prediction task after double-blind and placebo controlled administration of the D2-receptor antagonist amisulpride. Using a whole-brain searchlight decoding approach we show that D2-receptor blockade enhances decoding of reward signals in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Examination of activity patterns suggests that amisulpride increases the separation of activity patterns related to reward versus no reward. Moreover, consistent with the cortical distribution of D2 receptors, post hoc analyses showed enhanced decoding of motor signals in motor cortex, but not of visual signals in visual cortex. These results suggest that D2-receptor blockade enhances content-specific representations in frontal cortex, presumably by a dopamine-mediated increase in pattern separation. These findings are in line with a dual-state model of prefrontal dopamine, and provide new insights into the potential mechanism of action of dopaminergic drugs.

  16. Hypotensive effect of angiotensin II after AT1-receptor blockade with losartan.

    PubMed

    Matys, T; Pawlak, R; Kucharewicz, I; Chabielska, E; Buczko, W

    2000-03-01

    Recent data suggest that hypotensive effect of losartan may not be attributed solely to AT1-receptor blockade, but also to excessive AT2 or other receptors stimulation by elevated angiotensin II and its derivative peptides. Therefore in the present study we examined the effect of angiotensin II on mean blood pressure after AT -receptor blockade with losartan. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetised and received injection of either losartan (30 mg/kg, 1 ml/kg, i.v.) or saline (the same volume and route) followed by bolus injection of angiotensin II (100, 300 or 1,000 ng/kg; 1 ml/kg, i.v.) or 1-hour infusion of angiotensin II (200 ng/kg/min; 2.5 ml/kg/h, i.v.). Control animals received saline instead. Angiotensin II, given either as the injection or the infusion, caused an evident increase in mean blood pressure (p ranged from 0.05 to 0.001 depending on the experimental group). Losartan caused a rapid drop in mean blood pressure and blunted the hypertensive effect of angiotensin II (p < 0.01). Moreover, in the losartan-pretreated animals the hypotensive phase was enhanced by the infusion, but not single injection of angiotensin II, which was most evident from the 30 th minute of observation (p < 0.05 vs control). In conclusion, hypotensive effect of losartan may be amplified by simultaneous increase in angiotensin II level, the situation observed during chronic AT1-receptor blockade.

  17. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  18. Evidence that the positive inotropic effects of the alkylxanthines are not due to adenosine receptor blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Collis, M. G.; Keddie, J. R.; Torr, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that the positive inotropic effects of the alkylxanthines are due to adenosine receptor blockade. The potency of 8-phenyltheophylline, theophylline and enprofylline as adenosine antagonists was assessed in vitro, using the guinea-pig isolated atrium, and in vivo, using the anaesthetized dog. The order of potency of the alkylxanthines as antagonists of the negative inotropic response to 2-chloroadenosine in vitro, and of the hypotensive response to adenosine in vivo was 8-phenyltheophylline greater than theophylline greater than enprofylline. The order of potency of the alkylxanthines as positive inotropic and chronotropic agents in the anaesthetized dog was enprofylline greater than theophylline greater than 8-phenyltheophylline. The results of this study indicate that the inotropic effects of the alkylxanthines in the anaesthetized dog are not due to adenosine receptor blockade. PMID:6322898

  19. Recovery of network-driven glutamatergic activity in rat hippocampal neurons during chronic glutamate receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Eric; Belousov, Andrei B

    2009-01-28

    Previous studies indicated that a long-term decrease in the activity of ionotropic glutamate receptors induces cholinergic activity in rat and mouse hypothalamic neuronal cultures. Here we studied whether a prolonged inactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors also induces cholinergic activity in hippocampal neurons. Receptor activity was chronically suppressed in rat hippocampal primary neuronal cultures with two proportionally increasing sets of concentrations of NMDA plus non-NMDA receptor antagonists: 100 microM/10 microM AP5/CNQX (1X cultures) and 200 microM/20 microM AP5/CNQX (2X cultures). Using calcium imaging we demonstrate that cholinergic activity does not develop in these cultures. Instead, network-driven glutamate-dependent activity, that normally is detected in hyper-excitable conditions, reappears in each culture group in the presence of these antagonists and can be reversibly suppressed by higher concentrations of AP5/CNQX. This activity is mediated by non-NMDA receptors and is modulated by NMDA receptors. Further, non-NMDA receptors, the general level of glutamate receptor activity and CaMK-dependent signaling are critical for development of this network-driven glutamatergic activity in the presence of receptor antagonists. Using electrophysiology, western blotting and calcium imaging we show that some neuronal parameters are either reduced or not affected by chronic glutamate receptor blockade. However, other parameters (including neuronal excitability, mEPSC frequency, and expression of GluR1, NR1 and betaCaMKII) become up-regulated and, in some cases, proportionally between the non-treated, 1X and 2X cultures. Our data suggest recovery of the network-driven glutamatergic activity after chronic glutamate receptor blockade. This recovery may represent a form of neuronal plasticity that compensates for the prolonged suppression of the activity of glutamate receptors.

  20. Effect of {beta}{sub 1} adrenergic receptor blockade on myocardial blood flow and vasodilatory capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Boettcher, M.; Czernin, J.; Sun, K.

    1997-03-01

    The {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade reduces cardiac work and may thereby lower myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest. The effect of {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade on hyperemic MBF is unknown. To evaluate the effect of selective {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade on MBF at rest and during dipyridamole induced hyperemia, 10 healthy volunteers (8 men, 2 women, mean age 24 {+-} 5 yr) were studied using {sup 13}N-ammonia PET (two-compartment model) under control conditions and again during metoprolol (50 mg orally 12 hr and 1 hr before the study). The resting rate pressure product (6628 {+-} 504 versus 5225 {+-} 807) and heart rate (63 {+-} 6-54 {plus_minus} 5 bpm) declined during metoprolol (p < 0.05). Similarly, heart rate and rate pressure product declined from the baseline dipyridamole study to dipyridamole plus metoprolol (p < 0.05). Resting MBF declined in proportion to cardiac work by approximately 20% from 0.61 {+-} 0.09-0.51 {+-} 0.10 ml/g/min (p < 0.05). In contrast, hyperemic MBF increased when metoprolol was added to dipyridamole (1.86 {plus_minus} 0.27 {+-} 0.45 ml/g/min; p<0.05). The decrease in resting MBF together with the increase in hyperemic MBF resulted in a significant increase in the myocardial flow reserve during metoprolol (3.14 {+-} 0.80-4.61 {+-} 0.68; p<0.01). The {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade increases coronary vasodilatory capacity and myocardial flow reserve. However, the mechanisms accounting for this finding remain uncertain. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Opiate receptor blockade on human granulosa cells inhibits VEGF release.

    PubMed

    Lunger, Fabian; Vehmas, Anni P; Fürnrohr, Barbara G; Sopper, Sieghart; Wildt, Ludwig; Seeber, Beata

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the main opioid receptor (OPRM1) is present on human granulosa cells and if exogenous opiates and their antagonists can influence granulosa cell vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production via OPRM1. Granulosa cells were isolated from women undergoing oocyte retrieval for IVF. Complementary to the primary cells, experiments were conducted using COV434, a well-characterized human granulosa cell line. Identification and localization of opiate receptor subtypes was carried out using Western blot and flow cytometry. The effect of opiate antagonist on granulosa cell VEGF secretion was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For the first time, the presence of OPRM1 on human granulosa cells is reported. Blocking of opiate signalling using naloxone, a specific OPRM1 antagonist, significantly reduced granulosa cell-derived VEGF levels in both COV434 and granulosa-luteal cells (P < 0.01). The presence of opiate receptors and opiate signalling in granulosa cells suggest a possible role in VEGF production. Targeting this signalling pathway could prove promising as a new clinical option in the prevention and treatment of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  2. Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptors by blockade of mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Alcázar, J A; Hernández, I; De la Torre, M P; García, I; Santiago, E; Muñoz-Yagüe, M T; Solís-Herruzo, J A

    1995-10-13

    We have studied the effect of blockade of mitochondrial respiration on the binding of human 125I-TNF alpha to L929 cell receptors. Specific TNF alpha binding was decreased to about 20-40% of controls by blocking mitochondrial respiration. This effect was dose- and time-related and was observed independently of the level at which the respiration was blocked (respiratory chain, proton backflow, ATPase, anaerobiosis). This blockade had no effect on the half-life of the specific TNF alpha binding, the internalization or degradation of TNF alpha-receptor complexes, or the number of TNF alpha-binding sites. Scatchard analysis of TNF alpha binding data indicated a 2-4-fold decrease in the affinity of these binding sites. These effects did not appear to be related to the protein kinase C activity or to reactive oxygen radicals, since they were not antagonized by pretreatment of cells with oxygen radical scavengers, deferoxamine, or inhibitors of protein kinase C. Decrease in TNF alpha binding capacity correlated significantly with cellular ATP content (r = 0.94; p < 0.01) and with the cytocidal activity of TNF alpha against L929 cells. These findings suggest that blockade of mitochondrial respiration down-regulates the binding of TNF alpha to cells, most likely by changing the affinity of receptors for this cytokine. This down-regulation may increase the resistance of cells to TNF alpha cytotoxicity.

  3. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system mediates hypophagic and anxiety-like effects of CB₁ receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Bellocchio, Luigi; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Quarta, Carmelo; Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Cardinal, Pierre; Binder, Elke; Cannich, Astrid; Delamarre, Anna; Häring, Martin; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Vega, David; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Chaouloff, Francis; Pagotto, Uberto; Guzman, Manuel; Cota, Daniela; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2013-03-19

    Complex interactions between periphery and the brain regulate food intake in mammals. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are potent hypophagic agents, but the sites where this acute action is exerted and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effect of CB1 receptor blockade, we combined the acute injection of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant with the use of conditional CB1-knockout mice, as well as with pharmacological modulation of different central and peripheral circuits. Fasting/refeeding experiments revealed that CB1 receptor signaling in many specific brain neurons is dispensable for the acute hypophagic effects of rimonabant. CB1 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia was fully abolished by peripheral blockade of β-adrenergic transmission, suggesting that this effect is mediated by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Consistently, we found that rimonabant increases gastrointestinal metabolism via increased peripheral β-adrenergic receptor signaling in peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Blockade of both visceral afferents and glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii abolished rimonabant-induced hypophagia. Importantly, these mechanisms were specifically triggered by lipid-deprivation, revealing a nutrient-specific component acutely regulated by CB1 receptor blockade. Finally, peripheral blockade of sympathetic neurotransmission also blunted central effects of CB1 receptor blockade, such as fear responses and anxiety-like behaviors. These data demonstrate that, independently of their site of origin, important effects of CB1 receptor blockade are expressed via activation of peripheral sympathetic activity. Thus, CB1 receptors modulate bidirectional circuits between the periphery and the brain to regulate feeding and other behaviors.

  4. Androgen receptor blockade using flutamide skewed sex ratio of litters in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Vojgani, Mehdi; Akbarinejad, Vahid; Rafiee, Ghazaleh

    2016-01-01

    Maternal testosterone has been indicated to affect sex ratio of offspring. The present study was conducted to elucidate the role of androgen receptor in this regard by blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide in female mice. Mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. Mice in the control (n = 20) and treatment (n = 20) groups received 8 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection (8 IU) 47 hr later. In addition, mice in the control and treatment groups received four injections of ethanol-saline vehicle and flutamide solution (2.50 mg), respectively, started from 1 hr before eCG injection until hCG injection at 12-hr intervals. Conception rate was not different between the treatment (18/20: 90.00%) and control (19/20: 95.00%) groups (p > 0.05). Litter size was higher in the treatment (8.22 ± 0.26) than control (7.21 ± 0.28) group (p < 0.05). Male sex ratio was lower in the flutamide-treated mice (67/148: 45.30%) as compared with the untreated ones (80/137: 58.40%; odds ratio = 1.69; p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results showed that androgen receptor blockade could skew sex ratio of offspring toward females implying that the effect of testosterone on sex ratio might be through binding to androgen receptor. In addition, the blockade of androgen receptor using flutamide appeared to enhance litter size. PMID:27482363

  5. Blockade of Urotensin II Receptor Prevents Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Ae; Lee, Dong Gil; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lee, Byung Ho; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Urotensin II (UII) is a potent vasoactive peptide and mitogenic agent to induce proliferation of various cells including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we examined the effects of a novel UII receptor (UT) antagonist, KR-36676, on vasoconstriction of aorta and proliferation of aortic SMCs. In rat aorta, UII-induced vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In primary human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs), UII-induced cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by KR-36676 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, KR-36676 decreased UII-induced phosphorylation of ERK, and UII-induced cell proliferation was also significantly inhibited by a known ERK inhibitor U0126. In mouse carotid ligation model, intimal thickening of carotid artery was dramatically suppressed by oral treatment with KR-36676 (30 mg/ kg/day) for 4 weeks compared to vehicle-treated group. From these results, it is indicated that KR-36676 suppress UII-induced proliferation of VSMCs at least partially through inhibition of ERK activation, and that it also attenuates UII-induced vasoconstriction and vascular neointima formation. Our study suggest that KR-36676 may be an attractive candidate for the pharmacological management of vascular dysfunction. PMID:27582556

  6. Oncogenic fingerprint of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway and emerging epidermal growth factor receptor blockade resistance in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sobani, Zain A; Sawant, Ashwin; Jafri, Mikram; Correa, Amit Keith; Sahin, Ibrahim Halil

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been an attractive target for treatment of epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Evidence from clinical trials indicates that cetuximab and panitumumab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies) have clinical activity in patients with metastatic CRC. The discovery of intrinsic EGFR blockade resistance in Kirsten RAS (KRAS)-mutant patients led to the restriction of anti-EGFR antibodies to KRAS wild-type patients by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency. Studies have since focused on the evaluation of biomarkers to identify appropriate patient populations that may benefit from EGFR blockade. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with mutations in EGFR downstream signaling pathways including KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN could be intrinsically resistant to EGFR blockade. Recent whole genome studies also suggest that dynamic alterations in signaling pathways downstream of EGFR leads to distinct oncogenic signatures and subclones which might have some impact on emerging resistance in KRAS wild-type patients. While anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies have a clear potential in the management of a subset of patients with metastatic CRC, further studies are warranted to uncover exact mechanisms related to acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. PMID:27777877

  7. [Comparative analysis of metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate striatal receptors blockade influence on rats locomotor behaviour].

    PubMed

    Iakimovskiĭ, A F; Kerko, T V

    2013-02-01

    The influence of NMDA and metabotropic neostriatal glutamate receptors blockade to avoidance conditioning (in shuttle box) and free locomotor behavior (in open field) in chronic experiments in rats were investigated. The glutamate receptor antagonists were injected bilateral into striatum separately and with the GABA-A receptor antagonist picrotoxin (2 microg), that produced in rats the impairment of avoidance conditioning and choreo-myoklonic hyperkinesis. The most effective in preventing of negative picrotoxin influence on behavior was 5-type metabotropic glutamate receptors antagonist MTEP (3 microg). Separately injected MTEP did not influence on avoidance conditioning and free locomotor behavior. Unlike that, 1-type metabotropic glutamate receptors antagonist EMQMCM (3 microg) impaired normal locomotor behavior and did not prevent the picrotoxin effects. The NMDA glutamate receptors MK 801 (disocilpin--1 and 5 microg) impaired the picrotoxin-induced hyperkinesis, but did not to prevent the negative effects on avoidance conditioning; separately injected MK 801 reduced free locomotor activity. Based on location of investigated receptor types in neostriatal neurons membranes, we proposed that the most effective influence on 5-type metabotropic glutamate receptors is associated with their involvement in "indirect" efferent pathway, suffered in hyperkinetic extrapyramidal motor dysfunction--Huntington's chorea in human.

  8. IL-7 receptor blockade following T cell depletion promotes long-term allograft survival

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Hoa-Le; Boeffard, Françoise; Longis, Julie; Danger, Richard; Martinet, Bernard; Haspot, Fabienne; Vanhove, Bernard; Brouard, Sophie; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    T cell depletion is commonly used in organ transplantation for immunosuppression; however, a restoration of T cell homeostasis following depletion leads to increased memory T cells, which may promote transplant rejection. The cytokine IL-7 is important for controlling lymphopoiesis under both normal and lymphopenic conditions. Here, we investigated whether blocking IL-7 signaling with a mAb that targets IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) alone or following T cell depletion confers an advantage for allograft survival in murine transplant models. We found that IL-7R blockade alone induced indefinite pancreatic islet allograft survival if anti–IL-7R treatment was started 3 weeks before graft. IL-7R blockade following anti-CD4– and anti-CD8–mediated T cell depletion markedly prolonged skin allograft survival. Furthermore, IL-7 inhibition in combination with T cell depletion synergized with either CTLA-4Ig administration or suboptimal doses of tacrolimus to induce long-term skin graft acceptance in this stringent transplant model. Together, these therapies inhibited T cell reconstitution, decreased memory T cell numbers, increased the relative frequency of Tregs, and abrogated both cellular and humoral alloimmune responses. Our data suggest that IL-7R blockade following T cell depletion has potential as a robust, immunosuppressive therapy in transplantation. PMID:24569454

  9. Pharmacological blockade of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 elicits marked hyperthermia in humans.

    PubMed

    Gavva, Narender R; Treanor, James J S; Garami, Andras; Fang, Liang; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Akrami, Anna; Alvarez, Francisco; Bak, Annette; Darling, Mary; Gore, Anu; Jang, Graham R; Kesslak, James P; Ni, Liyun; Norman, Mark H; Palluconi, Gabrielle; Rose, Mark J; Salfi, Margaret; Tan, Edward; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Banfield, Christopher; Davar, Gudarz

    2008-05-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 has been identified as a molecular target for the treatment of pain associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. Hence, TRPV1 antagonists have been considered for therapeutic evaluation in such diseases. During Phase I clinical trials with AMG 517, a highly selective TRPV1 antagonist, we found that TRPV1 blockade elicited marked, but reversible, and generally plasma concentration-dependent hyperthermia. Similar to what was observed in rats, dogs, and monkeys, hyperthermia was attenuated after repeated dosing of AMG 517 (at the highest dose tested) in humans during a second Phase I trial. However, AMG 517 administered after molar extraction (a surgical cause of acute pain) elicited long-lasting hyperthermia with maximal body temperature surpassing 40 degrees C, suggesting that TRPV1 blockade elicits undesirable hyperthermia in susceptible individuals. Mechanisms of AMG 517-induced hyperthermia were then studied in rats. AMG 517 caused hyperthermia by inducing tail skin vasoconstriction and increasing thermogenesis, which suggests that TRPV1 regulates vasomotor tone and metabolic heat production. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that: (a) TRPV1-selective antagonists like AMG 517 cannot be developed for systemic use as stand alone agents for treatment of pain and other diseases, (b) individual susceptibility influences magnitude of hyperthermia observed after TRPV1 blockade, and (c) TRPV1 plays a pivotal role as a molecular regulator for body temperature in humans.

  10. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade by phentolamine increases the efficacy of vasodilators in penile corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Kim, N N; Goldstein, I; Moreland, R B; Traish, A M

    2000-03-01

    Penile trabecular smooth muscle tone, a major determinant of erectile function, is highly regulated by numerous inter- and intracellular pathways. The interaction between pathways mediating contraction and relaxation has not been studied in detail. To this end, we investigated the functional effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade with phentolamine and its interaction with vasodilators (sildenafil, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and PGE1) that elevate cyclic nucleotides on penile cavernosal smooth muscle contractility. In organ bath preparations of cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine, phentolamine significantly enhanced relaxation induced by sildenafil, VIP and PGE1. Sildenafil, VIP or PGE1 also significantly enhanced relaxation induced by phentolamine in cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine. To study the effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade and modification of cyclic nucleotide metabolism during active neurogenic input, cavernosal tissue strips in organ bath preparations were contracted with the non-adrenergic agonist endothelin-1 and subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence or presence of phentolamine and/or sildenafil. EFS (5-40Hz) typically caused biphasic relaxation and contraction responses. Phentolamine alone enhanced relaxation and reduced or prevented contraction to EFS. Sildenafil enhanced relaxation to EFS at lower frequencies (< or = 5 Hz). The combination of phentolamine and sildenafil enhanced EFS-induced relaxation at all frequencies tested. EFS, in the presence of 10 nM phentolamine and 30 nM sildenafil, produced enhanced relaxation responses which were quantitatively similar to those obtained in the presence of 50 nM sildenafil alone. Thus, blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors with phentolamine increases the efficacy of cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasodilators. Furthermore, phentolamine potentiates relaxation and attenuates contraction in response to endogenous

  11. Endothelin receptor a blockade is an ineffective treatment for adriamycin nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Roderick J; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Dong; Lin, Lin; Liu, Youhua

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin is a vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key role in vascular homeostasis, exerting its biologic effects via two receptors, the endothelin receptor A (ETA) and endothelin receptor B (ETB). Activation of ETA and ETB has opposing actions, in which hyperactive ETA is generally vasoconstrictive and pathologic. Selective ETA blockade has been shown to be beneficial in renal injuries such as diabetic nephropathy and can improve proteinuria. Atrasentan is a selective pharmacologic ETA blocker that preferentially inhibits ETA activation. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ETA blockade by atrasentan in ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in murine adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We found that ETA expression was unaltered during the course of adriamycin nephropathy. Whether initiated prior to injury in a prevention protocol (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or after injury onset in a therapeutic protocol (7 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg three times a week, i.p.), atrasentan did not significantly affect the initiation and progression of adriamycin-induced albuminuria (as measured by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios). Indices of glomerular damage were also not improved in atrasentan-treated groups, in either the prevention or therapeutic protocols. Atrasentan also failed to improve kidney function as determined by serum creatinine, histologic damage, and mRNA expression of numerous fibrosis-related genes such as collagen-I and TGF-β1. Therefore, we conclude that selective blockade of ETA by atrasentan has no effect on preventing or ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy.

  12. Potential effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade in adipose tissue and bone.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Hironori; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dysregulation of adipocytokine functions seen in abdominal obesity may be involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Angiotensinogen, the precursor of angiotensin (Ang) II, is produced primarily in the liver, and also in adipose tissue, where it is up-regulated during the development of obesity and involved in blood pressure regulation and adipose tissue growth. Blockade of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) attenuates weight gain and adiposity by enhanced energy expenditure, and the favorable metabolic effects of telmisartan have been related to its Ang II receptor blockade and action as a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. PPARγ plays an important role in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and ligands for PPARγ can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce triglyceride levels. Similarly, bone metabolism is closely regulated by hormones and cytokines, which have effects on both bone resorption and deposition. It is known that the receptors of Ang II are expressed in culture osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and Ang II is postulated to be able to act upon the cells involved in bone metabolism. In in vitro system, Ang II induced the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts responsible for bone resorption. Importantly, it was demonstrated by the sub-analysis of a recent clinical study that the fracture risk was significantly reduced by the usage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. To treat the subgroups of hypertensive patients with osteoporosis RAS can be considered a novel target.

  13. Endothelin A-receptor blockade in experimental diabetes improves glucose balance and gastrointestinal function.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, Bruno; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Boden, Penelope Jane; Biecker, Erwin; Tsui, Janice; Dashwood, Michael; Reichen, Jürg; Shaw, Sidney George

    2002-08-01

    Secondary complications of diabetes mellitus often involve gastrointestinal dysfunction. In the experimental Goto Kakizaki rat, a model of Type II diabetes, hyperglycaemia and reduced glucose clearance is associated with elevated plasma endothelin (ET)-1 levels and selective decreases in nitric oxide synthase in circular muscle, longitudinal muscle and neuronal elements of the gastrointestinal tract. Functionally, this is accompanied by decreased nitrergic relaxatory responses of jejunal longitudinal muscle to tetrodotoxin-sensitive electrical field stimulation. Long-term treatment with a selective ET A-type receptor antagonist, markedly reduced hyperglycaemia and restored plasma glucose clearance rates towards normal. This was associated with a restoration of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-sensitive relaxatory responses of jejunal longitudinal muscle to electrical field stimulation. The results indicate that beneficial effects of ETA receptor blockade on gastrointestinal function may result from an improvement in insulin sensitivity with concomitant reduction of the severity of hyperglycaemia. ETA receptor blockade may represent a new therapeutic principle for improving glucose tolerance in Type II diabetes and could be beneficial in alleviating or preventing hyperglycaemia-related secondary complications in this condition.

  14. Effects of semax against the background of dopaminergic receptor blockade with haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Sebentsova, E A; Levitskaya, N G; Andreeva, L A; Alfeeva, L Yu; Kamenskii, A A; Myasoedov, N F

    2006-02-01

    We studied the neurotropic effects of ACTH(4-10) analog semax against the background of dopaminergic receptors blockade with haloperidol. Intranasal administration of semax (0.05, 0.2, and 0.6 mg/kg) produced virtually no effect on disturbances of orientation and exploratory reactions and motor activity caused by intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mg/kg haloperidol. By contrast, preliminary administration of 0.05 mg/kg semax prevented haloperidol-induced disturbances in active avoidance conditioning.

  15. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  16. Selective endothelin B receptor blockade does not influence BNP-induced natriuresis in man.

    PubMed

    van der Zander, K; Houben, A J H M; Webb, D J; Udo, E; Kietselaer, B; Hofstra, L; De Mey, J G R; de Leeuw, P W

    2006-03-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) both exhibit natriuretic activity within the human kidney. Furthermore, they both act partly through activation of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway. Since ET-1 may cause vasodilation and natriuresis via stimulation of the ET-B receptor, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether renal ET-B receptors participate in the renal actions of BNP. In this placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused BNP (4 pmol/kg/min) or placebo (i.v.) for 1 h, with or without co-infusion of the ET-B receptor antagonist BQ-788 (50 nmol/min) for 15 min on 4 separate days, in 10 healthy subjects (mean age 54+/-6 years.). During infusion, we measured effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using PAH/inulin clearance. Cardiac output was measured before and after infusion, using echocardiography. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were monitored as well. Urine and plasma samples were taken every hour to measure diuresis, natriuresis, cyclic 3',5' guanosine monophosphate, and ET-1 levels. BNP with or without ET-B receptor blockade increased natriuresis and diuresis. In addition, BNP alone increased GFR and filtered load, without changing ERPF. BQ-788 infusion did not affect renal hemodynamics or natriuresis. Neither BNP nor BQ-788 altered cardiac output, blood pressure, and heart rate. In conclusion, the present study shows that selective ET-B receptor blockade has no effect on the BNP-induced natriuresis and glomerular filtration rate.

  17. Angiotensin II receptor blockade limits glomerular injury in rats with reduced renal mass.

    PubMed Central

    Lafayette, R A; Mayer, G; Park, S K; Meyer, T W

    1992-01-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (AII) blockade were compared with the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in rats with reduced nephron number. Rats were subjected to five-sixths renal ablation and divided into four groups with similar values for blood pressure and serum creatinine after 2 wk. Group 1 then served as untreated controls, while group 2 received the AII receptor antagonist MK954 (which has previously been designated DuP753), group 3 received the converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, and group 4 received a combination of reserpine, hydralazine, and hydrochlorothiazide. Micropuncture and morphologic studies were performed 10 wk later. Converting enzyme inhibition, AII receptor blockade, and the combination regimen were equally effective in reversing systemic hypertension (time-averaged systolic blood pressure: group 1, 185 +/- 5 mmHg; group 2, 125 +/- 2 mmHg; group 3, 127 +/- 2 mmHg; group 4, 117 +/- 4 mmHg). Micropuncture studies showed that glomerular transcapillary pressure was reduced significantly by converting enzyme inhibition and by AII blockade but not by the combination regimen (delta P: group 1, 49 +/- 1 mmHg; group 2, 42 +/- 1 mmHg; group 3, 40 +/- 2 mmHg, group 4, 47 +/- 1 mmHg). Reduction of systemic blood pressure was associated with the development of markedly less proteinuria and segmental glomerular sclerosis in rats receiving enalapril and MK954 but not in rats receiving the combination regimen (prevalence of glomerular sclerotic lesions: group 1, 41 +/- 4%; group 2, 9 +/- 1%; group 3, 9 +/- 1%; group 4, 33 +/- 6%). These results indicate that the effects of converting enzyme inhibition on remnant glomerular function and structure depend on reduction in AII activity and are not attributable simply to normalization of systemic blood pressure. PMID:1522231

  18. Enhancement of Adipocyte Browning by Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Tsukuda, Kana; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Kanno, Harumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Higaki, Akinori; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Min, Li-Juan; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named ‘beige’ or ‘brite’ adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R). However, the functional roles of angiotensin II receptor subtypes in WAT browning have not been defined. Therefore, we examined whether deletion of angiotensin II receptor subtypes (AT1aR and AT2R) may affect white-to-beige fat conversion in vivo. AT1a receptor knockout (AT1aKO) mice exhibited increased appearance of multilocular lipid droplets and upregulation of thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. AT2 receptor-deleted mice did not show miniaturization of lipid droplets or alteration of thermogenic gene expression levels in iWAT. An in vitro experiment using adipose tissue-derived stem cells showed that deletion of the AT1a receptor resulted in suppression of adipocyte differentiation, with reduction in expression of thermogenic genes. These results indicate that deletion of the AT1a receptor might have some effects on the process of browning of WAT and that blockade of the AT1 receptor could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27992452

  19. Cat carotid body chemoreceptor responses before and after nicotine receptor blockade with alpha-bungarotoxin.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, E; Lahiri, S

    1987-01-01

    The nature of nicotine receptors in the carotid body was studied in anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats. Chemoreceptor discharge in single or few-fiber preparations of the carotid sinus nerve was measured during isocapnic hypoxia, hyperoxic hypercapnia and in response to nicotine injections before and after administration of alpha-bungarotoxin (10 cats) and after alpha-bungarotoxin plus mecamylamine (7 cats) which binds to neuromuscular-type nicotine cholinergic receptors. alpha-Bungarotoxin caused a slight enhancement of the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia without affecting the chemoreceptor stimulation by nicotine. Mecamylamine (1-5 mg, i.v.), a ganglionic-type nicotinic receptor blocker, had no further effect on the response to hypoxia while it completely abolished the chemoreceptor stimulation by nicotine. Thus the nicotinic receptors in the cat carotid body which elicit excitation of chemosensory fibers appear to be of the ganglionic-type. Blockade of neuromuscular and ganglionic types of nicotinic receptors in the carotid body by alpha-bungarotoxin and mecamylamine does not attenuate the chemosensory responses to either hypoxia or hypercapnia. These nicotinic receptors therefore, do not appear to play an essential role in hypoxic or hypercapnic chemoreception in the cat carotid body.

  20. A systematic investigation of the differential roles for ventral tegmentum serotonin 1- and 2-type receptors on food intake in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Wayne E; Clissold, Kara A; Lin, Peagan; Cain, Amanda E; Ciesinski, Alexa F; Hopkins, Thomas R; Ilesanmi, Adeolu O; Kelly, Erin A; Pierce-Messick, Zachary; Powell, Daniel S; Rosner, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) pathways are known to influence feeding and other ingestive behaviors. Although the ventral tegmentum is important for promoting the seeking and consumption of food and drugs of abuse, the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes in this region on food intake have yet to be comprehensively examined. In these experiments, food restricted rats were given 2-h access to rat chow; separate groups of non-restricted animals had similar access to a sweetened fat diet. Feeding and locomotor activity were monitored following ventral tegmentum stimulation or blockade of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, or 5-HT2C receptors. 5-HT1A receptor stimulation transiently inhibited rearing behavior and chow intake in food-restricted rats, and had a biphasic effect on non-restricted rats offered the palatable diet. 5-HT1B receptor agonism transiently inhibited feeding in restricted animals, but did not affect intake of non-restricted rats. In contrast, 5-HT1B receptor antagonism decreased palatable feeding. Although stimulation of ventral tegmental 5-HT2B receptors with BW723C86 did not affect hunger-driven food intake, it significantly affected palatable feeding, with a trend for an increasing intake at 2.0µg/side but not at 5.0µg/side. Antagonism of the same receptor modestly but significantly inhibited feeding of the palatable diet at 5.0µg/side ketanserin. Neither stimulation nor blockade of 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors caused prolonged effects on intake or locomotion. These data suggest that serotonin's effects on feeding within the ventral tegmentum depend upon the specific receptor targeted, as well as whether intake is motivated by food restriction or the palatable nature of the offered diet.

  1. Serotonin receptors involved in antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hdroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression since the serendipitous discovery of antidepressant drugs in the 1950s. However, despite the generalised use of serotonin-enhancing drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), the exact neurobiological mechanisms involved in the therapeutic action of these drugs are poorly understood. Better knowledge of these mechanisms may help to identify new therapeutic targets and to overcome the two main limitations of current treatments: reduced efficacy and slowness of action. Here I review the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the involvement of different 5-HT receptors in the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. Presynaptic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) autoreceptors play a major detrimental role in antidepressant treatments, as their activation by the excess of the active (extracellular) 5-HT fraction produced by serotonin transporter (SERT) blockade reduces presynaptic serotonergic function. Conversely, stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in corticolimbic networks appears beneficial for the antidepressant action. The 5-HT(2) receptor family is also involved as 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor blockade improves the antidepressant action of SSRIs, and recent data suggest that 5-HT(2B) receptor activation enhances serotonergic activity. Less is known from the rest of postsynaptic 5-HT receptors. However, 5-HT(3) receptor blockade augments the 5-HT increase evoked by SERT inhibition, and 5-HT(4) receptor activation may have antidepressant effects on its own. Finally, blockade of 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors appears also to augment the antidepressant effects of SERT inhibition.

  2. Angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor blockade different affects postishemic kidney injury in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Miloradović, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Jovović, Đurđica; Karanović, Danijela; Vajić, Una Jovana; Marković-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Mihailović-Stanojević, Nevena; Milanović, Jelica Grujić

    2016-12-01

    Many studies demonstrated that angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade accelerates renal recovery in post-ischaemic kidney but there are many controversies related to its net effect on kidney structure and function. During the past years, our research group was trying to define the pathophysiological significance of the renin-angiotensin system on post-ischemic acute renal failure (ARF) development in normotensive Wistar as well as hypertensive rats (SHR). This review mostly summarizes our experience in that field. Our previous studies in normotensive rats revealed that AT1R blockade, except slightly renal vascular resistance improvement, had no other obvious beneficial effects, and therefore implies angiotensin 2 (Ang-2) overexpression as non-dominant on kidney reperfusion injuries development. Similarly it was observed in Wistar rats with induced mild (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg b.w.) nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. Expectably, in strong induced (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg b.w.) NO deficiency associated with ARF, massive tubular injuries indicate harmful effects of AT1R blockade, implying strongly disturbed glomerular filtration and suggesting special precaution related to AT1R blockers usage. Opposite to previous, by our opinion, AT1R antagonism promises new advance in treatment of essentially hypertensive subjects who develop ARF. Increased glomerular filtration, diminished oxidative stress, and most importantly improved tubular structure in postishemic SHR treated with AT1R blocker losartan, implicate Ang-2 over production as potently agent in the kidney ischemic injury, partly trough generation of reactive oxygen species. These data contribute understanding the pathogenesis of this devastating illness in hypertensive surroundings.

  3. Ventral Midbrain NMDA Receptor Blockade: From Enhanced Reward and Dopamine Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Giovanni; Cossette, Marie-Pierre; Shizgal, Peter; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate stimulates ventral midbrain (VM) N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to initiate dopamine (DA) burst firing activity, a mode of discharge associated with enhanced DA release and reward. Blockade of VM NMDAR, however, enhances brain stimulation reward (BSR), the results can be explained by a reduction in the inhibitory drive on DA neurons that is also under the control of glutamate. In this study, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in anesthetized animals to determine whether this enhancement is associated with a change in phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens. Rats were implanted with a stimulation electrode in the dorsal-raphe (DR) and bilateral cannulae above the VM and trained to self-administer trains of electrical stimulation. The curve-shift method was used to evaluate the effect of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDAR antagonist, (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid (PPPA), on reward. These animals were then anesthetized and DA release was measured during delivery of electrical stimulation before and after VM microinjection of the vehicle followed by PPPA. As expected, phasic DA release and operant responding depended similarly on the frequency of rewarding electrical stimulation. As anticipated, PPPA produced a significant reward enhancement. Unexpectedly, PPPA produced a decrease in the magnitude of DA transients at all tested frequencies. To test whether this decrease resulted from excessive activation of DA neurons, we injected apomorphine 20 min after PPPA microinjection. At a dose (100 μg s.c.) sufficient to reduce DA firing under control conditions, apomorphine restored electrical stimulation-induced DA transients. These findings show that combined electrical stimulation and VM NMDARs blockade induce DA inactivation, an effect that indirectly demonstrates that VM NMDARs blockade enhances reward by potentiating stimulation-induced excitation in the mesoaccumbens DA pathway. PMID:27616984

  4. Telmisartan ameliorates glutamate-induced neurotoxicity: roles of AT1 receptor blockade and PPARγ activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Pang, Tao; Hafko, Roman; Benicky, Julius; Sanchez-Lemus, Enrique; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Sartans (Angiotensin II AT1 Receptor Blockers, ARBs) are powerful neuroprotective agents in vivo and protect against IL-1β neurotoxicity in vitro. The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of sartan neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity, a common cause of neuronal injury and apoptosis. The results show that sartans are neuroprotective, significantly reducing glutamate-induced neuronal injury and apoptosis in cultured rat primary cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). Telmisartan was the most potent sartan studied, with an order of potency telmisartan > candesartan > losartan > valsartan. Mechanisms involved reduction of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 activation, protection of the survival PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and prevention of glutamate-induced ERK1/2 activation. NMDA receptor stimulation was essential for glutamate-induced cell injury and apoptosis. Participation of AT1A receptor was supported by glutamate-induced upregulation of AT1A gene expression and AT1 receptor binding. Conversely, AT1B or AT2 receptor played no role. Glutamate-induced neuronal injury and the neuroprotective effect of telmisartan were decreased, but not abolished, in CGCs obtained from AT1A knock-out mice. This indicates that although AT1 receptors are necessary for glutamate to exert its full neurotoxic potential, part of the neuroprotective effect of telmisartan is independent of AT1 receptor blockade. PPARγ activation was also involved in the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan, as telmisartan enhanced PPARγ nuclear translocation, and the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 partially reversed the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan. The present results substantiate the therapeutic use of sartans, in particular telmisartan, in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain disorders where glutamate neurotoxicity plays a significant role. PMID:24316465

  5. Pharmacological Blockade of 5-HT7 Receptors as a Putative Fast Acting Antidepressant Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Faure, Céline; Lambás-Señas, Laura; Mansari, Mostafa El; Belblidia, Hassina; Gondard, Elise; Etiévant, Adeline; Scarna, Hélène; Didier, Anne; Berod, Anne; Blier, Pierre; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2011-01-01

    Current antidepressants still display unsatisfactory efficacy and a delayed onset of therapeutic action. Here we show that the pharmacological blockade of serotonin 7 (5-HT7) receptors produced a faster antidepressant-like response than the commonly prescribed antidepressant fluoxetine. In the rat, the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 counteracted the anxiogenic-like effect of fluoxetine in the open field and exerted an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test. In vivo, 5-HT7 receptors negatively regulate the firing activity of dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons and become desensitized after long-term administration of fluoxetine. In contrast with fluoxetine, a 1-week treatment with SB-269970 did not alter 5-HT firing activity but desensitized cell body 5-HT autoreceptors, enhanced the hippocampal cell proliferation, and counteracted the depressive-like behavior in olfactory bulbectomized rats. Finally, unlike fluoxetine, early-life administration of SB-269970, did not induce anxious/depressive-like behaviors in adulthood. Together, these findings indicate that the 5-HT7 receptor antagonists may represent a new class of antidepressants with faster therapeutic action. PMID:21326194

  6. Adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure alters lateral anterior hypothalamic serotonin-2A receptors in aggressive male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Schwartzer, Jared J; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2009-05-16

    Chronic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment during adolescence facilitates offensive aggression in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Serotonin (5-HT) modulates aggressive behavior and has been shown to be altered after chronic treatment with AAS. Furthermore, 5-HT type 2 receptors have been implicated in the control of aggression. For example, treatment with 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists suppress the generation of the offensive aggressive phenotype. However, it is unclear whether these receptors are sensitive to adolescent AAS exposure. The current study assessed whether treatment with AAS throughout adolescence influenced the immunohistochemical localization of 5-HT(2A) in areas of the hamster brain implicated in the control of aggression. Hamsters were administered AAS (5.0 mg/kg) each day throughout adolescence, scored for offensive aggression, and then examined for differences in 5-HT(2A)-immunoreactivity (5-HT(2A)-ir). When compared with non-aggressive oil-treated controls, aggressive AAS-treated hamsters showed significant increases in 5-HT(2A)-ir fibers in the lateral portion of the anterior hypothalamus (LAH). Further analysis revealed that AAS treatment also produced a significant increase in the number of cells expressing 5-HT(2A)-ir in the LAH. Together, these results support a role for altered 5-HT(2A) expression and further implicate the LAH as a central brain region important in the control of adolescent AAS-induced offensive aggression.

  7. Enhanced brain stem 5HT₂A receptor function under neonatal hypoxic insult: role of glucose, oxygen, and epinephrine resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Anju, T R; Korah, P K; Jayanarayanan, S; Paulose, C S

    2011-08-01

    Molecular processes regulating brain stem serotonergic receptors play an important role in the control of respiration. We evaluated 5-HT(2A) receptor alterations in the brain stem of neonatal rats exposed to hypoxic insult and the effect of glucose, oxygen, and epinephrine resuscitation in ameliorating these alterations. Hypoxic stress increased the total 5-HT and 5-HT(2A) receptor number along with an up regulation of 5-HT Transporter and 5-HT(2A) receptor gene in the brain stem of neonates. These serotonergic alterations were reversed by glucose supplementation alone and along with oxygen to hypoxic neonates. The enhanced brain stem 5-HT(2A) receptors act as a modulator of ventilatory response to hypoxia, which can in turn result in pulmonary vasoconstriction and cognitive dysfunction. The adverse effects of 100% oxygenation and epinephrine administration to hypoxic neonates were also reported. This has immense clinical significance in neonatal care.

  8. Angiotensin receptor blockade mediated amelioration of mucopolysaccharidosis type I cardiac and craniofacial pathology

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Beau R.; McElmurry, Ronald T.; Rudser, Kyle D.; DeFeo, Anthony P.; Muradian, Michael; Petryk, Anna; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Blazar, Bruce R.; Tolar, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS IH) is a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by inactivating mutations to the alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) gene. Treatment focuses on IDUA enzyme replacement and currently employed methods can be non-uniform in their efficacy particularly for the cardiac and craniofacial pathology. Therefore, we undertook efforts to better define the pathological cascade accounting for treatment refractory manifestations and demonstrate a role for the renin angiotensin system (RAS) using the IDUA−/− mouse model. Perturbation of the RAS in the aorta was more profound in male animals suggesting a causative role in the observed gender dimorphism and angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) resulted in improved cardiac function. Further, we show the ability of losartan to prevent shortening of the snout, a common craniofacial anomaly in IDUA−/− mice. These data show a key role for the RAS in MPS associated pathology and support the inclusion of losartan as an augmentation to current therapies. PMID:27743312

  9. Effects of acute and chronic beta-receptor blockade on ventricular repolarisation in man.

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, N; Olsson, S B

    1981-01-01

    The right ventricular repolarisation phase was studied electrophysiologically after an injection of 15 mg metoprolol in 16 healthy volunteers. Eight of them were restudied after chronic treatment with 400 mg metoprolol daily for five weeks. The assessment of the repolarisation time included ventricular effective refractory periods, monophasic action potential duration, and the QT interval measured during atrial stimulation at different driving frequencies. The acute administration of 15 mg metoprolol intravenously had no detectable effect on the repolarisation phase, while chronic treatment caused a significant increase of the ventricular effective refractory periods, monophasic action potential duration, and the QT interval during atrial stimulation. Thus the study confirmed the contrasting effect of acute and chronic beta-receptor blockade on the ventricular repolarisation time in man. PMID:7259913

  10. Atrophy of submandibular gland by the duct ligation and a blockade of SP receptor in rats.

    PubMed

    Hishida, Sumiyo; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Honda, Takashi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru; Hibi, Hideharu; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    To clarify the mechanisms underlying the submandibular gland atrophies associated with ptyalolithiasis, morphological changes were examined in the rat submandibular gland following either surgical intervention of the duct or functional blockade at substance P receptors (SPRs). Progressive acinar atrophy was observed after duct ligation or avulsion of periductal tissues. This suggested that damage to periductal tissue involving nerve fibers might contribute to ligation-associated acinar atrophy. Immunohistochemically labeled-substance P positive nerve fibers (SPFs) coursed in parallel with the main duct and were distributed around the interlobular, striated, granular and intercalated duct, and glandular acini. Strong SPR immunoreactivity was observed in the duct. Injection into the submandibular gland of a SPR antagonist induced marked acinar atrophy. The results revealed that disturbance of SPFs and SPRs might be involved in the atrophy of the submandibular gland associated with ptyalolithiasis.

  11. Atrophy of submandibular gland by the duct ligation and a blockade of SP receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hishida, Sumiyo; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Honda, Takashi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru; Hibi, Hideharu; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the mechanisms underlying the submandibular gland atrophies associated with ptyalolithiasis, morphological changes were examined in the rat submandibular gland following either surgical intervention of the duct or functional blockade at substance P receptors (SPRs). Progressive acinar atrophy was observed after duct ligation or avulsion of periductal tissues. This suggested that damage to periductal tissue involving nerve fibers might contribute to ligation-associated acinar atrophy. Immunohistochemically labeled-substance P positive nerve fibers (SPFs) coursed in parallel with the main duct and were distributed around the interlobular, striated, granular and intercalated duct, and glandular acini. Strong SPR immunoreactivity was observed in the duct. Injection into the submandibular gland of a SPR antagonist induced marked acinar atrophy. The results revealed that disturbance of SPFs and SPRs might be involved in the atrophy of the submandibular gland associated with ptyalolithiasis. PMID:27303108

  12. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    SciTech Connect

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine, whereas (/sup 3/H)clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, (/sup 3/H) clonidine and (/sup 3/H)yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of (/sup 3/H)clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations.

  13. Down regulation of cerebellar serotonergic receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: Effect of pyridoxine and Aegle marmelose.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Pretty Mary; Paul, Jes; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-29

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cerebellar damage caused by diabetes, leading to deterioration in glucose homeostasis causing metabolic disorders. The present study was carried out to find the effects of Aegle marmelose leaf extract and insulin alone and in combination with pyridoxine on the cerebellar 5-HT through 5-HT(2A) receptor subtype, gene expression studies on the status of antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and immunohistochemical studies in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 5-HT and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding parameters, B(max) and K(d), showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the cerebellum of diabetic rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of SOD, GPx, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT in cerebellum showed a significant down regulation (p<0.001) in diabetic rats compared to control. Pyridoxine treated alone and in combination with insulin, A. marmelose to diabetic rats reversed the B(max), K(d) of 5-HT, 5-HT(2A) and the gene expression of SOD, GPx, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT in cerebellum to near control. The gene expression of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Also, the Rotarod test confirms the motor dysfunction and recovery by treatment. These data suggest the antioxidant and neuroprotective role of pyridoxine and A. marmelose through the up regulation of 5-HT through 5-HT(2A) receptor in diabetic rats. Our results suggest that pyridoxine treated alone and in combination with insulin and A. marmelose has a role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and release, normalizing diabetic related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration affecting the motor ability of an individual by serotonergic receptors through 5-HT(2A) function. This has clinical significance in the management of diabetes.

  14. The non-competitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) tubers.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Goulart, Camila; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; McCollum, Isabelle; Gardner, Dale R

    2015-12-15

    Water hemlocks (Cicuta spp.) are acutely toxic members of the Umbellierae family; the toxicity is due to the presence of C17-polyacetylenes such as cicutoxin. There is only limited evidence of noncompetitive antagonism by C17-polyacetylenes at GABAA receptors. In this work with WSS-1 cells, we documented the noncompetitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) and modulated the actions of the extract with a pretreatment of 10 μM midazolam.

  15. Anticancer immunotherapy by CTLA-4 blockade: obligatory contribution of IL-2 receptors and negative prognostic impact of soluble CD25

    PubMed Central

    Hannani, Dalil; Vétizou, Marie; Enot, David; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Chaput, Nathalie; Klatzmann, David; Desbois, Melanie; Jacquelot, Nicolas; Vimond, Nadège; Chouaib, Salem; Mateus, Christine; Allison, James P; Ribas, Antoni; Wolchok, Jedd D; Yuan, Jianda; Wong, Philip; Postow, Michael; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Mackiewicz, Jacek; Schadendorff, Dirk; Jaeger, Dirk; Korman, Alan J; Bahjat, Keith; Maio, Michele; Calabro, Luana; Teng, Michele WL; Smyth, Mark J; Eggermont, Alexander; Robert, Caroline; Kroemer, Guido; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4)-blocking antibody ipilimumab induces immune-mediated long-term control of metastatic melanoma in a fraction of patients. Although ipilimumab undoubtedly exerts its therapeutic effects via immunostimulation, thus far clinically useful, immunologically relevant biomarkers that predict treatment efficiency have been elusive. Here, we show that neutralization of IL-2 or blocking the α and β subunits of the IL-2 receptor (CD25 and CD122, respectively) abolished the antitumor effects and the accompanying improvement of the ratio of intratumoral T effector versus regulatory cells (Tregs), which were otherwise induced by CTLA-4 blockade in preclinical mouse models. CTLA-4 blockade led to the reduction of a suppressive CD4+ T cell subset expressing Lag3, ICOS, IL-10 and Egr2 with a concomitant rise in IL-2-producing effector cells that lost FoxP3 expression and accumulated in regressing tumors. While recombinant IL-2 improved the therapeutic efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade, the decoy IL-2 receptor α (IL-2Rα, sCD25) inhibited the anticancer effects of CTLA-4 blockade. In 262 metastatic melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab, baseline serum concentrations of sCD25 represented an independent indicator of overall survival, with high levels predicting resistance to therapy. Altogether, these results unravel a role for IL-2 and IL-2 receptors in the anticancer activity of CTLA-4 blockade. Importantly, our study provides the first immunologically relevant biomarker, namely elevated serum sCD25, that predicts resistance to CTLA-4 blockade in patients with melanoma. PMID:25582080

  16. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise. PMID:25605289

  17. Histamine H3 receptor blockade improves cardiac function in canine anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Chrusch, C; Sharma, S; Unruh, H; Bautista, E; Duke, K; Becker, A; Kepron, W; Mink, S N

    1999-10-01

    In anaphylactic shock (AS), the relative effects of the autacoids including histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes on causing cardiovascular collapse and the extent to which receptor blocking agents and pathway inhibitors may prevent this collapse are not clear. In a ragweed model of anaphylaxis, we examined whether pretreatment with H1, H2, H3 receptor blockers, and cyclooxygenase and leukotriene pathway inhibitors was useful in preventing the depression in left ventricular (LV) contractility known to occur in this model. The dose of allergen was varied to produce similar degrees of shock between treatments. The animals were studied under pentobarbital anesthesia in which the treatment studies were approximately 3 wk apart. LV volumes were measured by sonomicrometric techniques. During challenge, mean arterial blood pressure (Pa), cardiac output (Q), and LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) decreased approximately 50% compared with preshock values in all treatments. Histamine H3 receptor blockade was associated with higher heart rates (HR) and higher stroke work (SW) (p < 0.05) as compared with the other treatment studies. We conclude that histamine H3 activation by inhibiting adrenergic neural norepinephrine release contributes to cardiovascular collapse in AS.

  18. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise.

  19. Effect of cholecystokinin-2 receptor blockade on rat stomach ECL cells. A histochemical, electron-microscopic and chemical study.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Zhao, C M; Norlén, P; Björkqvist, M; Ding, X Q; Kitano, M; Håkanson, R

    2000-01-01

    The ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa of rat stomach produce histamine and chromogranin A-derived peptides such as pancreastatin. The cells respond to gastrin via cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2) receptors. A CCK2 receptor blockade was induced by treatment (for up to 8 weeks) with two receptor antagonists, YM022 and YF476. Changes in ECL-cell morphology were examined by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, while changes in ECL cell-related biochemical parameters were monitored by measuring serum pancreastatin and oxyntic mucosal pancreastatin, and histamine concentrations, and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity. The CCK2 receptor blockade reduced the ECL-cell density only marginally, if at all, but transformed the ECL cells from slender, elongated cells with prominent projections to small, spherical cells without projections. The Golgi complex and the rough endoplasmic reticulum were diminished. Secretory vesicles were greatly reduced in volume density in the trans Golgi area. Circulating pancreastatin concentration and oxyntic mucosal HDC activity were lowered within a few hours. Oxyntic mucosal histamine and pancreastatin concentrations were reduced only gradually. The CCK2 receptor blockade was found to prevent the effects of omeprazole-evoked hypergastrinaemia on the ECL-cell activity and density. In conclusion, gastrin, acting on CCK2 receptors, is needed to maintain the shape, size and activity of the ECL cells, but not for maintaining the ECL-cell population.

  20. Inhibition of drinking in water-deprived rats by combined central angiotensin II and cholinergic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, W E; Ganten, U; Phillips, M I; Schmid, P G; Schelling, P; Ganten, D

    1978-01-01

    The effect of blockade of central angiotensin II (AII) receptors and cholinergic receptors on thirst induced by water deprivation was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats and rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI). Neither central AII nor cholinergic blockade alone affected drinking. Antagonism of both receptors simultaneously, however, significantly inhibited water intake of both Sprague-Dawley and DI rats. This inhibitory effect was not observed in water-deprived, nephrectomized rats. The combined antagonism on water intake was specific, since milk intake in hungry rats was not affected by simultaneous AII and cholinergic blockade. Isorenin concentrations in brain tissue were at control levels in water-deprived, nephrectomized, and non-nephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats but were increased in water-deprived DI rats. The results suggest that angiotensin and cholinergic receptors in the brain have a physiological role in thirst. Thirst is maintained when either receptor is intact, but reduced when both receptors are inhibited by antagonists. They are independently capable of maintaining thirst.

  1. Age-dependent effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2a-receptor polymorphism (His452Tyr) on human memory.

    PubMed

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina; Aerni, Amanda; Coluccia, Daniel; Garcia, Esmeralda; Wollmer, Marc A; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Monsch, Andreas U; Stähelin, Hannes B; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2005-05-31

    A polymorphism (His452Tyr) of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2a receptor is associated with episodic memory in healthy young humans. Because 5-HT2a-receptor density decreases with increasing age, we tested whether the 5-HT2a receptor genotype effect on memory is influenced by age. We investigated the association of the His452Tyr genotype with memory performance in 622 healthy study participants aged from 18 to 90 years. In young to middle-aged participants, age significantly influenced genotype effects on episodic memory: the His452Tyr genotype exerted a significant influence on memory only in young participants. In the group of elderly cognitively healthy participants, the His452Tyr genotype did not affect memory performance. We conclude that age strongly modulates the effect of the 5-HT2a receptor polymorphism at residue 452 on episodic memory.

  2. Normotensive sodium loading in normal man: regulation of renin secretion during beta-receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Mølstrøm, Simon; Larsen, Nils H; Simonsen, Jane A; Washington, Remon; Bie, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Saline administration may change renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity and sodium excretion at constant mean arterial pressure (MAP). We hypothesized that such responses are elicited mainly by renal sympathetic nerve activity by beta1-receptors (beta1-RSNA), and tested the hypothesis by studying RAAS and renal excretion during slow saline loading at constant plasma sodium concentration (Na+ loading; 12 micromol Na+.kg(-1).min(-1) for 4 h). Normal subjects were studied on low-sodium intake with and without beta1-adrenergic blockade by metoprolol. Metoprolol per se reduced RAAS activity as expected. Na+ loading decreased plasma renin concentration (PRC) by one-third, plasma ANG II by one-half, and plasma aldosterone by two-thirds (all P < 0.05); surprisingly, these changes were found without, as well as during, acute metoprolol administration. Concomitantly, sodium excretion increased indistinguishably with and without metoprolol (16 +/- 2 to 71 +/- 14 micromol/min; 13 +/- 2 to 55 +/- 13 micromol/min, respectively). Na+ loading did not increase plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, glomerular filtration rate (GFR by 51Cr-EDTA), MAP, or cardiac output (CO by impedance cardiography), but increased central venous pressure (CVP) by approximately 2.0 mmHg (P < 0.05). During Na+ loading, sodium excretion increased with CVP at an average slope of 7 micromol.min(-1).mmHg(-1). Concomitantly, plasma vasopressin decreased by 30-40% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, beta1-adrenoceptor blockade affects neither the acute saline-mediated deactivation of RAAS nor the associated natriuretic response, and the RAAS response to modest saline loading seems independent of changes in MAP, CO, GFR, beta1-mediated effects of norepinephrine, and ANP. Unexpectedly, the results do not allow assessment of the relative importance of RAAS-dependent and -independent regulation of renal sodium excretion. The results are compatible with the notion that at constant arterial pressure, a volume

  3. Blockade of neuronal dopamine D2 receptor attenuates morphine tolerance in mice spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wen-Ling; Xiong, Feng; Yan, Bing; Cao, Zheng-Yu; Liu, Wen-Tao; Liu, Ji-Hua; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance induced by morphine remains a major unresolved problem and significantly limits its clinical use. Recent evidences have indicated that dopamine D2 receptor (D2DR) is likely to be involved in morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance. However, its exact effect and molecular mechanism remain unknown. In this study we examined the effect of D2DR on morphine antinociceptive tolerance in mice spinal cord. Chronic morphine treatment significantly increased levels of D2DR in mice spinal dorsal horn. And the immunoreactivity of D2DR was newly expressed in neurons rather than astrocytes or microglia both in vivo and in vitro. Blockade of D2DR with its antagonist (sulpiride and L-741,626, i.t.) attenuated morphine antinociceptive tolerance without affecting basal pain perception. Sulpiride (i.t.) also down-regulated the expression of phosphorylation of NR1, PKC, MAPKs and suppressed the activation of astrocytes and microglia induced by chronic morphine administration. Particularly, D2DR was found to interact with μ opioid receptor (MOR) in neurons, and chronic morphine treatment enhanced the MOR/D2DR interactions. Sulpiride (i.t.) could disrupt the MOR/D2DR interactions and attenuate morphine tolerance, indicating that neuronal D2DR in the spinal cord may be involved in morphine tolerance possibly by interacting with MOR. These results may present new opportunities for the treatment and management of morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance which often observed in clinic. PMID:28004735

  4. Co-receptor and co-stimulation blockade for mixed chimerism and tolerance without myelosuppressive conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Graca, Luis; Daley, Stephen; Fairchild, Paul J; Cobbold, Stephen P; Waldmann, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Background A major challenge in the application of marrow transplantation as a route to immunological tolerance of a transplanted organ is to achieve hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment with minimal myelosuppressive treatments. Results We here describe a combined antibody protocol which can achieve long-term engraftment with clinically relevant doses of MHC-mismatched bone marrow, without the need for myelosuppressive drugs. Although not universally applicable in all strains, we achieved reliable engraftment in permissive strains with a two-stage strategy: involving first, treatment with anti-CD8 and anti-CD4 in advance of transplantation; and second, treatment with antibodies targeting CD4, CD8 and CD40L (CD154) at the time of marrow transplantation. Long-term mixed chimerism through co-receptor and co-stimulation blockade facilitated tolerance to donor-type skin grafts, without any evidence of donor-antigen driven regulatory T cells. Conclusion We conclude that antibodies targeting co-receptor and co-stimulatory molecules synergise to enable mixed hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance, showing that neither cytoreductive conditioning nor 'megadoses' of donor bone marrow are required for donor HSC to engraft in permissive strains. PMID:16638128

  5. Angiotensin receptor blockade attenuates cigarette smoke-induced lung injury and rescues lung architecture in mice.

    PubMed

    Podowski, Megan; Calvi, Carla; Metzger, Shana; Misono, Kaori; Poonyagariyagorn, Hataya; Lopez-Mercado, Armando; Ku, Therese; Lauer, Thomas; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon; Berger, Alan; Cheadle, Christopher; Tuder, Rubin; Dietz, Harry C; Mitzner, Wayne; Wise, Robert; Neptune, Enid

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent smoking-related disease for which no disease-altering therapies currently exist. As dysregulated TGF-β signaling associates with lung pathology in patients with COPD and in animal models of lung injury induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), we postulated that inhibiting TGF-β signaling would protect against CS-induced lung injury. We first confirmed that TGF-β signaling was induced in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to CS as well as in COPD patient samples. Importantly, key pathological features of smoking-associated lung disease in patients, e.g., alveolar injury with overt emphysema and airway epithelial hyperplasia with fibrosis, accompanied CS-induced alveolar cell apoptosis caused by enhanced TGF-β signaling in CS-exposed mice. Systemic administration of a TGF-β-specific neutralizing antibody normalized TGF-β signaling and alveolar cell death, conferring improved lung architecture and lung mechanics in CS-exposed mice. Use of losartan, an angiotensin receptor type 1 blocker used widely in the clinic and known to antagonize TGF-β signaling, also improved oxidative stress, inflammation, metalloprotease activation and elastin remodeling. These data support our hypothesis that inhibition of TGF-β signaling through angiotensin receptor blockade can attenuate CS-induced lung injury in an established murine model. More importantly, our findings provide a preclinical platform for the development of other TGF-β-targeted therapies for patients with COPD.

  6. The Effect of Opioid Receptor Blockade on the Neural Processing of Thermal Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Schoell, Eszter D.; Bingel, Ulrike; Eippert, Falk; Yacubian, Juliana; Christiansen, Kerrin; Andresen, Hilke; May, Arne; Buechel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system represents one of the principal systems in the modulation of pain. This has been demonstrated in studies of placebo analgesia and stress-induced analgesia, where anti-nociceptive activity triggered by pain itself or by cognitive states is blocked by opioid antagonists. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of opioid receptor blockade on the physiological processing of painful thermal stimulation in the absence of cognitive manipulation. We therefore measured BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) signal responses and intensity ratings to non-painful and painful thermal stimuli in a double-blind, cross-over design using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. On the behavioral level, we observed an increase in intensity ratings under naloxone due mainly to a difference in the non-painful stimuli. On the neural level, painful thermal stimulation was associated with a negative BOLD signal within the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, and this deactivation was abolished by naloxone. PMID:20811582

  7. Blockade of glucocorticoid receptors improves cutaneous wound healing in stressed mice.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Taís Fontoura; de Castro Pires, Taiza; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2016-02-01

    Stress is an important condition of modern life. The successful wound healing requires the execution of three major overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, and stress can disturb this process. Chronic stress impairs wound healing through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and the glucocorticoids (GCs) hormones have been shown to delay wound closure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a GC receptor antagonist (RU486) treatment on cutaneous healing in chronically stressed mice. Male mice were submitted to rotational stress, whereas control animals were not subjected to stress. Stressed and control animals were treated with RU486. A full-thickness excisional lesion was generated, and seven days later, lesions were recovered. The RU486 treatment improves wound healing since contraction takes place earlier in RU486-treated in comparison to non-treated mice, and the RU486 treatment also improves the angiogenesis in Stress+RU486 mice when compared to stressed animals. The Stress+RU486 group showed a decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration and in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression; meanwhile, there was an increase in myofibroblasts quantity. In conclusion, blockade of GC receptors with RU486 partially ameliorates stress-impaired wound healing, suggesting that stress inhibits healing through more than one functional pathway.

  8. Vasotocin receptor blockade disrupts maternal care of offspring in a viviparous snake, Sistrurus miliarius.

    PubMed

    Lind, Craig M; Birky, Nikolette K; Porth, Anita M; Farrell, Terence M

    2017-02-15

    Parental care is a complex social behavior that is widespread among vertebrates. The neuroendocrine regulation of parent-offspring social behavior has been well-described in mammals, and to a lesser extent, in birds and fish. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that mediate the expression of care behaviors in squamate reptiles. In mammalian model species and humans, posterior pituitary hormones of the oxytocin and vasopressin families mediate parental care behaviors. To test the hypothesis that the regulatory role of posterior pituitary neuropeptides is conserved in a viviparous squamate reptile, we pharmacologically blocked the vasotocin receptor in post-parturient pigmy rattlesnakes, Sistrurus miliarius, and monitored the spatial relationship between mothers and offspring relative to controls. Mothers in the control group demonstrated spatial aggregation with offspring, with mothers having greater post-parturient energy stores aggregating more closely with their offspring. Blockade of vasotocin receptors eliminated evidence of spatial aggregation between mothers and offspring and eliminated the relationship between maternal energetic status and spatial aggregation. Our results are the first to implicate posterior pituitary neuropeptides in the regulation of maternal behavior in a squamate reptile and are consistent with the hypothesis that the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying social behaviors are broadly conserved among vertebrates.

  9. Vasotocin receptor blockade disrupts maternal care of offspring in a viviparous snake, Sistrurus miliarius

    PubMed Central

    Birky, Nikolette K.; Porth, Anita M.; Farrell, Terence M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parental care is a complex social behavior that is widespread among vertebrates. The neuroendocrine regulation of parent-offspring social behavior has been well-described in mammals, and to a lesser extent, in birds and fish. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that mediate the expression of care behaviors in squamate reptiles. In mammalian model species and humans, posterior pituitary hormones of the oxytocin and vasopressin families mediate parental care behaviors. To test the hypothesis that the regulatory role of posterior pituitary neuropeptides is conserved in a viviparous squamate reptile, we pharmacologically blocked the vasotocin receptor in post-parturient pigmy rattlesnakes, Sistrurus miliarius, and monitored the spatial relationship between mothers and offspring relative to controls. Mothers in the control group demonstrated spatial aggregation with offspring, with mothers having greater post-parturient energy stores aggregating more closely with their offspring. Blockade of vasotocin receptors eliminated evidence of spatial aggregation between mothers and offspring and eliminated the relationship between maternal energetic status and spatial aggregation. Our results are the first to implicate posterior pituitary neuropeptides in the regulation of maternal behavior in a squamate reptile and are consistent with the hypothesis that the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying social behaviors are broadly conserved among vertebrates. PMID:28069591

  10. Role of dopamine receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blockade in the antiapomorphine action of neuroleptics

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Langel, Yu.L.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors analyze the role of dopamine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocking components in the antistereotypic action of neuroleptics with different chemical structure. To determine dopamine-blocking activity in vitro, binding of /sup 3/H-spiperone with membranes of the rat striatum was measured. To study the blocking action of the substances on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, binding of /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate with brain membranes was chosen.

  11. Interleukin-1 Receptor Blockade Rescues Myocarditis-Associated End-Stage Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Giulio; Foppoli, Marco; Cabrini, Luca; Dinarello, Charles A.; Tresoldi, Moreno; Dagna, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Support measures currently represent the mainstay of treatment for fulminant myocarditis, while effective and safe anti-inflammatory therapies remain an unmet clinical need. However, clinical and experimental evidence indicates that inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) is effective against both myocardial inflammation and contractile dysfunction. We thus evaluated treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra in a case of heart failure secondary to fulminant myocarditis. A 65-year-old man with T cell lymphoma developed fulminant myocarditis presenting with severe biventricular failure and cardiogenic shock requiring admittance to the intensive care unit and mechanical circulatory and respiratory support. Specifically, acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock were initially treated with non-invasive ventilation and mechanical circulatory support with an intra-aortic balloon pump. Nevertheless, cardiac function deteriorated further, and there were no signs of improvement. Treatment with anakinra, the recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist, was started at a standard subcutaneous dose of 100 mg/day. We observed a dramatic clinical improvement within 24 h of initiating anakinra. Prompt, progressive amelioration of cardiac function allowed weaning from mechanical circulatory and respiratory support within 72 h of anakinra administration. Recent studies point at inhibition of IL-1 activity as an attractive treatment option for both myocardial inflammation and contractile dysfunction. Furthermore, IL-1 receptor blockade with anakinra is characterized by an extremely rapid onset of action and remarkable safety and may thus be suitable for the treatment of patients critically ill with myocarditis. PMID:28232838

  12. Improvement of skin wound healing in diabetic mice by kinin B2 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Desposito, Dorinne; Chollet, Catherine; Taveau, Christopher; Descamps, Vincent; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Roussel, Ronan; Bouby, Nadine; Waeckel, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Impaired skin wound healing is a major medical problem in diabetic subjects. Kinins exert a number of vascular and other actions limiting organ damage in ischaemia or diabetes, but their role in skin injury is unknown. We investigated, through pharmacological manipulation of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R and B2R respectively), the role of kinins in wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Using two mouse models of diabetes (streptozotocin-induced and db/db mice) and non-diabetic mice, we assessed the effect of kinin receptor activation or inhibition by subtype-selective pharmacological agonists (B1R and B2R) and antagonist (B2R) on healing of experimental skin wounds. We also studied effects of agonists and antagonist on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. Levels of Bdkrb1 (encoding B1R) and Bdkrb2 (encoding B2R) mRNAs increased 1-2-fold in healthy and wounded diabetic skin compared with in non-diabetic skin. Diabetes delayed wound healing. The B1R agonist had no effect on wound healing. In contrast, the B2R agonist impaired wound repair in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, inducing skin disorganization and epidermis thickening. In vitro, B2R activation unbalanced fibroblast/keratinocyte proliferation and increased keratinocyte migration. These effects were abolished by co-administration of B2R antagonist. Interestingly, in the two mouse models of diabetes, the B2R antagonist administered alone normalized wound healing. This effect was associated with the induction of Ccl2 (encoding monocyte chemoattractant protein 1)/Tnf (encoding tumour necrosis factor α) mRNAs. Thus stimulation of kinin B2 receptor impairs skin wound healing in mice. B2R activation occurs in the diabetic skin and delays wound healing. B2R blockade improves skin wound healing in diabetic mice and is a potential therapeutic approach to diabetic ulcers.

  13. Assessment of dopamine receptor blockade by neuroleptic drugs in the living human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Coyle, J.; Snyder, S.; Dannals, R.; LaFrance, N.; Bice, A.; Pearlson, G.; Links, J.; Paulos, M.

    1985-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) makes it possible to attempt to relate directly the antipsychotic effect of neuroleptic drugs and their blocking effect on dopamine receptors (D2) in vivo. The authors have examined the ability of haloperidol (HAL) and molindone (MOL) to block the binding of C-11 n-methylspiperone (NMSP) in 6 normal subjects. A dose of 0.05 mg/kg of HAL resulted in a 68% drop in the slope of the caudate/cerebellum (Ca/Cb) vs. time. This slope is related to the rate of specific binding of NMSP to the receptor. A dose response was seen with both drugs. With increasing doses of HAL from .05 to 0.082 mg/kg, CA/Cb vs. time slope fell from .235 to .156/min. (N=4), progressively. Similarly with increasing doses of MOL of .16-.44 mg/kg slopes decreased from .0335 to .0155/min. (N=4). Similar degrees of post injection Ca/Cb ratio were produced with quantities of MOL and HAL administered in the oral dose ratio of doses 3-5:1 times greater than HAL. This is also the dose ratio at which we found similar dopamine receptor blockade by PET in vivo. A question that arises is why the in vitro affinity of HAL for D2 is 30 times greater than that of MOL in the human brain. The results raise the possibility that MOL metabolites are not only active in blocking D2 but indeed may possibly be more potent than MOL itself. It also helps confirm the site of action of MOL and its in vivo metabolites.

  14. Serotonin 2a Receptor and Serotonin 1a Receptor Interact Within the Medial Prefrontal Cortex During Recognition Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morici, Juan F.; Ciccia, Lucia; Malleret, Gaël; Gingrich, Jay A.; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V.

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory, can be defined as the memory for unique events. The serotonergic system one of the main neuromodulatory systems in the brain appears to play a role in it. The serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) one of the principal post-synaptic receptors for 5-HT in the brain, is involved in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders associated with memory deficits. Recognition memory can be defined as the ability to recognize if a particular event or item was previously encountered and is thus considered, under certain conditions, a form of episodic memory. As human data suggest that a constitutively decrease of 5-HT2A signaling might affect episodic memory performance we decided to compare the performance of mice with disrupted 5-HT2aR signaling (htr2a−/−) with wild type (htr2a+/+) littermates in different recognition memory and working memory tasks that differed in the level of proactive interference. We found that ablation of 5-HT2aR signaling throughout development produces a deficit in tasks that cannot be solved by single item strategy suggesting that 5-HT2aR signaling is involved in interference resolution. We also found that in the absence of 5-HT2aR signaling serotonin has a deleterious effect on recognition memory retrieval through the activation of 5-HT1aR in the medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:26779016

  15. Blockade of hypocretin receptor-1 preferentially prevents cocaine seeking: comparison with natural reward seeking

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Weiss, Friedbert

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt) peptides participate in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes and are recruited by drugs of abuse. To advance our understanding of the potential of the Orx/Hcrt receptor-1 (Hcrt-r1) as a treatment target for cocaine addiction, the effect of SB334867, a specific Hcrt-r1 antagonist, on reinstatement elicited by cocaine-associated stimuli vs. stimuli associated with a highly palatable conventional reinforcer (sweetened condensed milk [SCM]) was tested. Two separate groups of male Wistar rats were trained to associate a discriminative stimulus (S+) with the response-contingent availability of cocaine (0.25 mg/0.1 ml/infusion) or SCM (2/1 [v/v]) and subjected to reinstatement tests following extinction, during which the reinforcers and S+ were withheld, of cocaine or SCM-reinforced behavior. Following extinction, presentation of the cocaine or SCM S+ produced comparable recovery of responding. Hcrt-r1 blockade by SB334867 (1–10 mg/kg, IP) dose-dependently and selectively reversed conditioned reinstatement induced by cocaine-related stimuli, without interfering with reward seeking produced by the same stimulus when conditioned to SCM. The findings implicate an important role for Hcrt-r1 in appetitive behavior controlled by reward-related stimuli with selectivity for cocaine seeking and identify Hcrt-r1 as a potential treatment target for cocaine relapse prevention. PMID:24407199

  16. Blockade of Central GLP-1 Receptors Deteriorates the Improvement of Diabetes after Ileal Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weijie; Xu, Qianqian; Xiao, Yiding; Zhou, Jiaolin; Zhang, Weimin; Lin, Guole; Gong, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mechanism of improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus induced by ileal transposition (IT) is undefined. Our aim was to investigate the possible role of central glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) after IT. Methods: Ninety male diabetic rats were randomly divided into the IT, sham IT (S-IT) and control group. The food intake, glucose metabolism and GLP-1 level were measured. Subsequently, we administered GLP-1 antagonist via lateral brain ventricle cannula to block central GLP-1 receptor, and verified whether the food intake, glucose metabolism changed. And the activated pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in different groups were compared after sacrifice. Results: IT induced significant diabetic improvement with decreased maximum food intake and higher postprandial GLP-1 level. The GLP-1 level in cerebrospinal fluid increased in correlation with the plasma GLP-1 level. When the central GLP-1 receptor antagonist was given to the IT group rats, the improvement of the glucose level declined. The glucose level surged (169.9 ± 14.2) % during the oral glucose tolerance test, the range was larger than that before central blockade ((67.1 ± 14.2) %, P < 0.001). Moreover, the POMC neuron number in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus were reduced (12.7 ± 6.1 at a magnification of 100×). The relative content level of POMC-derived peptides in the pituitary was lower (0.1 ± 0.05). Conclusions: The central GLP-1 might play an important role in the remission of diabetes after IT. POMC neurons in the hypothalamus may be activated by the enhanced level of GLP-1 after IT. PMID:27994501

  17. Antipsychotic drugs reverse the disruption in prefrontal cortex function produced by NMDA receptor blockade with phencyclidine

    PubMed Central

    Kargieman, Lucila; Santana, Noemí; Mengod, Guadalupe; Celada, Pau; Artigas, Francesc

    2007-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists are extensively used as schizophrenia models because of their ability to evoke positive and negative symptoms as well as cognitive deficits similar to those of the illness. Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) abnormalities. These deficits are of particular interest because an early improvement in cognitive performance predicts a better long-term clinical outcome. Here, we examined the effect of the noncompetitive NMDA-R antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) on PFC function to understand the cellular and network elements involved in its schizomimetic actions. PCP induces a marked disruption of the activity of the PFC in the rat, increasing and decreasing the activity of 45% and 33% of the pyramidal neurons recorded, respectively (22% of the neurons were unaffected). Concurrently, PCP markedly reduced cortical synchrony in the delta frequency range (0.3–4 Hz) as assessed by recording local field potentials. The subsequent administration of the antipsychotic drugs haloperidol and clozapine reversed PCP effects on pyramidal cell firing and cortical synchronization. PCP increased c-fos expression in PFC pyramidal neurons, an effect prevented by the administration of clozapine. PCP also enhanced c-fos expression in the centromedial and mediodorsal (but not reticular) nuclei of the thalamus, suggesting the participation of enhanced thalamocortical excitatory inputs. These results shed light on the involvement of PFC in the schizomimetic action of NMDA-R antagonists and show that antipsychotic drugs may partly exert their therapeutic effect by normalizing a disrupted PFC activity, an effect that may add to subcortical dopamine receptor blockade. PMID:17785415

  18. Effects of angiotensin II (AT1) receptor blockade on cardiac vagal control in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Vaile, J C; Chowdhary, S; Osman, F; Ross, H F; Fletcher, J; Littler, W A; Coote, J H; Townend, J N

    2001-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the autonomic effects of angiotensin II (AT(1)) receptor blocker therapy in heart failure. In a randomized double-blind cross-over study, we compared the effects of candesartan and placebo on baroreflex sensitivity and on heart rate variability at rest, during stress and during 24 h monitoring. Acute effects were assessed 4 h after oral candesartan (8 mg) and chronic effects after 4 weeks of treatment (dose titrated to 16 mg daily). The study group comprised 21 patients with heart failure [mean (S.E.M.) ejection fraction 33% (1%)], in the absence of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy. We found that acute candesartan was not different from placebo in its effects on blood pressure or mean RR interval. Chronic candesartan significantly reduced blood pressure [placebo, 137 (3)/82 (3) mmHg; candesartan, 121 (4)/75 (2) mmHg; P<0.001; values are mean (S.E.M.)], but had no effect on mean RR interval [placebo, 857 (25) ms; candesartan, 857 (21) ms]. Compared with placebo there were no significant effects of acute or chronic candesartan on heart rate variability in the time domain and no consistent effects in the frequency domain. Baroreflex sensitivity assessed by the phenylephrine bolus method was significantly increased after chronic candesartan [placebo, 3.5 (0.5) ms/mmHg; candesartan, 4.8 (0.7) ms/mmHg; P<0.05], although there were no changes in cross-spectral baroreflex sensitivity. Thus, in contrast with previous results with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockade in heart failure did not increase heart rate variability, and there was no consistent effect on baroreflex sensitivity.

  19. Normotensive sodium loading in conscious dogs: regulation of renin secretion during beta-receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Bie, Peter; Mølstrøm, Simon; Wamberg, Søren

    2009-02-01

    Renin secretion is regulated in part by renal nerves operating through beta1-receptors of the renal juxtaglomerular cells. Slow sodium loading may decrease plasma renin concentration (PRC) and cause natriuresis at constant mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We hypothesized that in this setting, renin secretion and renin-dependent sodium excretion are controlled by via the renal nerves and therefore are eliminated or reduced by blocking the action of norepinephrine on the juxtaglomerular cells with the beta1-receptor antagonist metoprolol. This was tested in conscious dogs by infusion of NaCl (20 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) for 180 min, NaLoad) during regular or low-sodium diet (0.03 mmol.kg(-1).day(-1), LowNa) with and without metoprolol (2 mg/kg plus 0.9 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)). Vasopressin V2 receptors were blocked by Otsuka compound OPC31260 to facilitate clearance measurements. Body fluid volume was maintained by servocontrolled fluid infusion. Metoprolol per se did not affect MAP, heart rate, or sodium excretion significantly, but reduced PRC and ANG II by 30-40%, increased plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and tripled potassium excretion. LowNa per se increased PRC (+53%), ANG II (+93%), and aldosterone (+660%), and shifted the vasopressin function curve to the left. NaLoad elevated plasma [Na+] by 4.5% and vasopressin by threefold, but MAP and plasma ANP remained unchanged. NaLoad decreased PRC by approximately 30%, ANG II by approximately 40%, and aldosterone by approximately 60%, regardless of diet and metoprolol. The natriuretic response to NaLoad was augmented during metoprolol regardless of diet. In conclusion, PRC depended on dietary sodium and beta1-adrenergic control as expected; however, the acute sodium-driven decrease in PRC at constant MAP and GFR was unaffected by beta1-receptor blockade demonstrating that renin may be regulated without changes in MAP, GFR, or beta1-mediated effects of norepinephrine. Low

  20. Do serotonin(1-7) receptors modulate short and long-term memory?

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2007-05-01

    Evidence from invertebrates to human studies indicates that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system modulates short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). This work is primarily focused on analyzing the contribution of 5-HT, cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors as well as protein synthesis to STM and LTM of an autoshaping learning task. It was observed that the inhibition of hippocampal protein synthesis or new mRNA did not produce a significant effect on autoshaping STM performance but it did impair LTM. Both non-contingent protein inhibition and 5-HT depletion showed no effects. It was basically the non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist cyproheptadine, which facilitated STM. However, the blockade of glutamatergic and cholinergic transmission impaired STM. In contrast, the selective 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist SB-224289 facilitated both STM and LTM. Selective receptor antagonists for the 5-HT(1A) (WAY100635), 5-HT(1D) (GR127935), 5-HT(2A) (MDL100907), 5-HT(2C/2B) (SB-200646), 5-HT(3) (ondansetron) or 5-HT(4) (GR125487), 5-HT(6) (Ro 04-6790, SB-399885 and SB-35713) or 5-HT(7) (SB-269970) did not impact STM. Nevertheless, WAY100635, MDL100907, SB-200646, GR125487, Ro 04-6790, SB-399885 or SB-357134 facilitated LTM. Notably, some of these changes shown to be independent of food-intake. Concomitantly, these data indicate that '5-HT tone via 5-HT(1B) receptors' might function in a serial manner from STM to LTM, whereas working in parallel using 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B/2C), 5-HT(4), or 5-HT(6) receptors.

  1. Allergic sensitization modifies the pulmonary expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Vargas, Mario H; Ruiz, Víctor; Carbajal, Verónica; Campos-Bedolla, Patricia; Mercadillo-Herrera, Paulina; Arreola-Ramírez, José Luis; Segura-Medina, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    There is mounting evidence that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plays a role in asthma. However, scarce information exists about the pulmonary expression of 5-HT receptors and its modification after allergic sensitization. In the present work, we explored the expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-ht5a, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors in lungs from control and sensitized guinea pigs through qPCR and Western blot. In control animals, mRNA from all receptors was detectable in lung homogenates, especially from 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors. Sensitized animals had decreased mRNA expression of 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors and increased that of 5-HT7 receptor. In contrast, they had increased protein expression of 5-HT2A receptor in bronchial epithelium and of 5-HT4 receptor in lung parenchyma. The degree of airway response to the allergic challenge was inversely correlated with mRNA expression of the 5-HT1A receptor. In summary, our results showed that major 5-HT receptor subtypes are constitutively expressed in the guinea pig lung, and that allergic sensitization modifies the expression of 5-HT2A, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors.

  2. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  3. Combined, but not individual, blockade of ASIC3, P2X, and EP4 receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-12-01

    In healthy humans, tests of the hypothesis that lactic acid, PGE2, or ATP plays a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex proved controversial. The findings in humans resembled ours in decerebrate rats that individual blockade of the receptors to lactic acid, PGE2, and ATP had only small effects on the exercise pressor reflex provided that the muscles were freely perfused. This similarity between humans and rats prompted us to test the hypothesis that in rats with freely perfused muscles combined receptor blockade is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex. We first compared the reflex before and after injecting either PPADS (10 mg/kg), a P2X receptor antagonist, APETx2 (100 μg/kg), an activating acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC) channel antagonist, or L161982 (2 μg/kg), an EP4 receptor antagonist, into the arterial supply of the hindlimb of decerebrated rats. We then examined the effects of combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the exercise pressor reflex using the same doses, intra-arterial route, and time course of antagonist injections as those used for individual blockade. We found that neither PPADS (n = 5), APETx2 (n = 6), nor L161982 (n = 6) attenuated the reflex. In contrast, combined blockade of these receptors (n = 7) attenuated the peak (↓27%, P < 0.019) and integrated (↓48%, P < 0.004) pressor components of the reflex. Combined blockade injected intravenously had no effect on the reflex. We conclude that combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the endings of thin fiber muscle afferents is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimbs.

  4. ETA receptor blockade with atrasentan prevents hypertension with the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor ABT-869 in telemetry-instrumented rats.

    PubMed

    Banfor, Patricia N; Franklin, Pamela A; Segreti, Jason A; Widomski, Deborah L; Davidsen, Steven K; Albert, Daniel H; Cox, Bryan F; Fryer, Ryan M; Gintant, Gary A

    2009-02-01

    ABT-869 is a novel multitargeted inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) with potent antiangiogenic properties that slow tumor progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor blockade has been shown to produce hypertension. Atrasentan is a potent and selective endothelin (ETA) receptor antagonist that lowers blood pressure and affects tumor growth. To assess the utility of ETA receptor blockade in controlling hypertension with RTK inhibition, we evaluated the ability of atrasentan to block hypertension with ABT-869 in conscious, telemetry-instrumented rats. Changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using mean values and the area under the curve (AUC). Atrasentan (0.5, 1.5, and 5.0 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 5 days) elicited dose-dependent decreases in MAP-AUC (-16.7 +/- 1.3, -20.94 +/- 3.68, and -30.12 +/- 3.57 mm Hg x day, respectively) compared with vehicle. ABT-869 (1, 3, 10, 30 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 5 days) increased MAP compared with vehicle (MAP-AUC values of -5.52 +/- 3.75, 12.7 +/- 8.4, 37.5 +/- 4.4, and 63.8 +/- 3.3 mm Hg x day, respectively). Pretreatment with atrasentan (5 mg/kg for 5 days) prevented and abolished the hypertensive effects of ABT-869. Thus, ETA receptor blockade effectively alleviated hypertension with RTK inhibition and may serve a dual therapeutic role by preventing hypertension and slowing tumor progression.

  5. Obesity and gastrointestinal hormones-dual effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade and a partial agonist of PPAR-γ.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Hironori; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2011-03-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, which is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is now clear that gut hormones play a role in the regulation of body weight and represent therapeutic targets for the future treatment of obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that dysregulation of adipocytokine functions seen in abdominal obesity may be involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Angiotensinogen, the precursor of angiotensin (Ang) II, is produced primarily in the liver, but also in adipose tissue, where it is up-regulated during the development of obesity and involved in blood pressure regulation and adipose tissue growth. Importantly, blockade of the RAS attenuates weight gain and adiposity by enhanced energy expenditure. The favorable metabolic effects of telmisartan have been related to its Ang II receptor blockade and action as a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. PPARγ plays an important role in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and ligands for PPARγ can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce triglyceride levels. We designed a comparative study of telmisartan and losartan in ApoE-deficient mice. Treatment with telmisartan or losartan significantly reduced the development of lipid-rich plaque. However, treatment with telmisartan significantly improved endothelial dysfunction and inhibited lipid accumulation in the liver. These favorable characteristics of telmisartan might be due to its action as a partial agonist of PPAR-γ, beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect, through Ang II blockade, which may be called "metabosartan".

  6. Activation, internalization, and recycling of the serotonin 2A receptor by dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Raote, Ishier; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Miledi, Ricardo; Panicker, Mitradas M.

    2006-01-01

    Serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, and their functional interactions, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various CNS disorders. Here, we use recombinant serotonin (5-HT) 2A (5-HT2A) receptors to further investigate direct interactions between dopamine and 5-HT receptors. Previous studies in Xenopus oocytes showed that dopamine, although not the cognate ligand for the 5-HT2A receptor, acts as a partial-efficacy agonist. At micromolar concentrations, dopamine also acts as a partial-efficacy agonist on 5-HT2A receptors in HEK293 cells. Like 5-HT, dopamine also induces receptor-internalization in these cells, although at significantly higher concentrations than 5-HT. Interestingly, if the receptors are first sensitized or “primed” by subthreshold concentrations of 5-HT, then dopamine-induced internalization occurs at concentrations ≈10-fold lower than when dopamine is used alone. Furthermore, unlike 5-HT-mediated internalization, dopamine-mediated receptor internalization, alone, or after sensitization by 5-HT, does not depend on PKC. Dopamine-internalized receptors recycle to the surface at rates similar to those of 5-HT-internalized receptors. Our results suggest a previously uncharacterized role for dopamine in the direct activation and internalization of 5-HT2A receptors that may have clinical relevance to the function of serotonergic systems in anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia and also to the treatment of these disorders. PMID:17005723

  7. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR BLOCKADE IN EXPERIMENTAL NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Margarita; Solís, Nancy; Quintero, Pablo; Barrera, Francisco; Cabrera, Daniel; Santiago, Pamela Rojasde; Arab, Juan Pablo; Padilla, Oslando; Roa, Juan Carlos; Moshage, Han; Wree, Alexander; Inzaugarat, Eugenia; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Fardella, Carlos E.; Baudrand, Rene; Riquelme, Arnoldo; Arrese, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic options to treat Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are limited. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation could play a role in hepatic fibrogenesis and its modulation could be beneficial for NASH. Aim To investigate whether eplerenone, a specific MR antagonist, ameliorates liver damage in experimental NASH. Methods C57bl6 mice were fed a choline-deficient-amino-acid–defined (CDAA) diet for 22 weeks with or without eplerenone supplementation. Serum levels of aminotransferases and aldosterone were measured and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis scored histologically. Hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and hepatic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory pro-fibrotic, oxidative stress-associated genes and of MR were also assessed. Results CDAA diet effectively induced fibrotic NASH, and increased the hepatic expression of pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and oxidative stress-associated genes. Hepatic MR mRNA levels significantly correlated with the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes and were significantly increased in hepatic stellate cells obtained from CDAA-fed animals. Eplerenone administration was associated to a reduction in histological steatosis and attenuation of liver fibrosis development, which was associated to a significant decrease in the expression of collagen-α1, collagen type III, alpha 1 and Matrix metalloproteinase-2. Conclusion The expression of MR correlates with inflammation and fibrosis development in experimental NASH. Specific MR blockade with eplerenone has hepatic anti-steatotic and anti-fibrotic effects. These data identifies eplerenone as a potential novel therapy for NASH. Considering its safety and FDA-approved status, human studies are warranted PMID:25646700

  8. Amelioration strategies fail to prevent tobacco smoke effects on neurodifferentiation: Nicotinic receptor blockade, antioxidants, methyl donors.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-07-03

    Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke extract (TSE) affects neurodifferentiation. In undifferentiated cells, TSE impaired DNA synthesis and cell numbers to a much greater extent than nicotine alone; TSE also impaired cell viability to a small extent. In differentiating cells, TSE enhanced cell growth at the expense of cell numbers and promoted emergence of the dopaminergic phenotype. Nicotinic receptor blockade with mecamylamine was ineffective in preventing the adverse effects of TSE and actually enhanced the effect of TSE on the dopamine phenotype. A mixture of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, N-acetyl-l-cysteine) provided partial protection against cell loss but also promoted loss of the cholinergic phenotype in response to TSE. Notably, the antioxidants themselves altered neurodifferentiation, reducing cell numbers and promoting the cholinergic phenotype at the expense of the dopaminergic phenotype, an effect that was most prominent for N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Treatment with methyl donors (vitamin B12, folic acid, choline) had no protectant effect and actually enhanced the cell loss evoked by TSE; they did have a minor, synergistic interaction with antioxidants protecting against TSE effects on growth. Thus, components of tobacco smoke perturb neurodifferentiation through mechanisms that cannot be attributed to the individual effects of nicotine, oxidative stress or interference with one-carbon metabolism. Consequently, attempted amelioration strategies may be partially effective at best, or, as seen here, can actually aggravate injury by interfering with normal developmental signals and/or by sensitizing cells to TSE effects on neurodifferentiation.

  9. Interleukin-6 receptor alpha blockade improves skin lesions in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Birner, Peter; Heider, Susanne; Petzelbauer, Peter; Wolf, Peter; Kornauth, Christoph; Kuroll, Madeleine; Merkel, Olaf; Steiner, Günter; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu; Rose-John, Stefan; Soleiman, Afschin; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) and immunocomplexes, commonly affecting kidneys, skin, heart, lung or even the brain. We have shown that JunB(Δep) mice develop a SLE phenotype linked to increased epidermal Interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. Blocking of IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6Rα) is considered as therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SLE. JunB(Δep) and wild-type mice were treated for short (5 weeks) or long term (21 weeks) with the IL-6Rα-blocking antibody MR16-1. Skin and kidney of mice were investigated by histology and immunofluorescence, and in addition, kidneys were analysed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R), antihistone and antinucleosome antibodies levels were measured and associated with disease parameters. Treatment with MR16-1 resulted in significant improvement of SLE-like skin lesions in JunB(Δep) mice, compared to untreated mice. The sIL-6R amount upon long-term treatment with MR16-1 was significantly higher in JunB(Δep) versus untreated JunB(Δep) (P = 0.034) or wild-type mice (P = 0.034). MR16-1 treatment over these time spans did not significantly improve kidney pathology of immunoglobulin deposits causing impaired function. Significantly higher antihistone (P = 0.028) and antinucleosome antibody levels (P = 0.028) were measured in MR16-1-treated JunB(Δep) mice after treatment compared to levels before therapy. In conclusion, blockade of IL-6Rα improves skin lesions in a murine SLE model, but does not have a beneficial effect on autoimmune-mediated kidney pathology. Inhibition of IL-6R signalling might be helpful in lupus cases with predominant skin involvement, but combinatorial treatment might be required to restrain autoantibodies.

  10. Lysergic acid diethylamide-induced Fos expression in rat brain: role of serotonin-2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Gresch, P J; Strickland, L V; Sanders-Bush, E

    2002-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) produces altered mood and hallucinations in humans and binds with high affinity to serotonin-2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors. Although LSD interacts with other receptors, the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors is thought to mediate the hallucinogenic properties of LSD. The goal of this study was to identify the brain sites activated by LSD and to determine the influence of 5-HT(2A) receptors in this activation. Rats were pretreated with the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist MDL 100907 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min prior to LSD (500 microg/kg, i.p.) administration and killed 3 h later. Brain tissue was examined for Fos protein expression by immunohistochemistry. LSD administration produced a five- to eight-fold increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of amygdala. However, in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens no increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity was observed. Pretreatment with MDL 100907 completely blocked LSD-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, but only partially blocked LSD-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in amygdala. Double-labeled immunohistochemistry revealed that LSD did not induce Fos-like immunoreactivity in cortical cells expressing 5-HT(2A) receptors, suggesting an indirect activation of cortical neurons. These results indicate that the LSD activation of medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex is mediated by 5-HT(2A) receptors, whereas in amygdala 5-HT(2A) receptor activation is a component of the response. These findings support the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and perhaps the amygdala, are important regions involved in the production of hallucinations.

  11. Add-on angiotensin II receptor blockade lowers urinary transforming growth factor-beta levels.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Siva, Senthuran; Dunn, Stephen R; Sharma, Kumar

    2002-03-01

    Progression of renal failure, despite renoprotection with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with proteinuric nephropathies, may be caused by persistent renal production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) through the angiotensin II subtype 1 (AT1) receptors. We tested the hypothesis that AT1-receptor blocker therapy added to a background of chronic maximal ACE inhibitor therapy will result in a reduction in urinary TGF-beta1 levels in such patients. Sixteen patients completed a two-period, crossover, randomized, controlled trial, details of which have been previously reported. All patients were administered lisinopril, 40 mg/d, with either losartan, 50 mg/d, or placebo. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using a 24-hour ambulatory BP monitor. Overnight specimens of urine were analyzed for urine TGF-beta1, protein, and creatinine concentrations. Mean age of the study population was 53 +/- 9 (SD) years; body mass index, 38 +/- 5.7 kg/m2; seated BP, 156 +/- 18/88 +/- 12 mm Hg; and urine protein excretion, 3.6 +/- 0.71 g/g of creatinine. Twelve patients had diabetic nephropathy, and the remainder had chronic glomerulonephritis. At baseline, urinary TGF-beta1 levels were significantly increased in the study population compared with healthy controls (13.2 +/- 1.2 versus 1.7 +/- 1.1 ng/g creatinine; P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between baseline urine protein excretion and urinary TGF-beta1 level (r2 = 0.53; P = 0.001), as well as systolic BP and urinary TGF-beta1 level (r2 = 0.57; P < 0.001). After 4 weeks of add-on losartan therapy, there was a 38% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16% to 55%) decline in urinary TGF-beta1 levels (13.3 [95% CI, 11.4 to 15.5] to 8.2 pg/mg creatinine [95% CI, 6.2 to 10.7]). The reduction in urinary TGF-beta1 levels occurred independent of changes in mean urinary protein excretion or BP. Thus, proteinuric patients with renal failure, despite maximal ACE inhibition, had increased urinary levels of

  12. Blockade of lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPAR1/3 ameliorates lung fibrosis induced by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Lu; Xue, Jian-Xin; Li, Xin; Liu, De-Song; Ge, Yan; Ni, Pei-Yan; Deng, Lin; Lu, You; Jiang, Wei

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and its receptors LPAR1/3 transcripts were elevated during the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis. {yields} Lung fibrosis was obviously alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. {yields} VPC12249 administration effectively inhibited radiation-induced fibroblast accumulation in vivo, and suppressed LPA-induced fibroblast proliferation in vitro. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling regulated TGF{beta}1 and CTGF expressions in radiation-challenged lungs, but only influenced CTGF expression in cultured fibroblasts. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling induced fibroblast proliferation through a CTGF-dependent pathway, rather than through TGF{beta}1 activation. -- Abstract: Lung fibrosis is a common and serious complication of radiation therapy for lung cancer, for which there are no efficient treatments. Emerging evidence indicates that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors (LPARs) are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Here, we reported that thoracic radiation with 16 Gy in mice induced development of radiation lung fibrosis (RLF) accompanied by obvious increases in LPA release and LPAR1 and LPAR3 (LPAR1/3) transcripts. RLF was significantly alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. VPC12249 administration effectively prolonged animal survival, restored lung structure, inhibited fibroblast accumulation and reduced collagen deposition. Moreover, profibrotic cytokines in radiation-challenged lungs obviously decreased following administration of VPC12249, including transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In vitro, LPA induced both fibroblast proliferation and CTGF expression in a dose-dependent manner, and both were suppressed by blockade of LPAR1/3. The pro-proliferative activity of LPA on fibroblasts was inhibited by siRNA directed against CTGF. Together, our data suggest that the LPA-LPAR1

  13. Local GABA receptor blockade reveals hindlimb responses in the SI forelimb-stump representation of neonatally amputated rats.

    PubMed

    Pluto, Charles P; Lane, Richard D; Rhoades, Robert W

    2004-07-01

    In adult rats that sustained forelimb amputation on the day of birth, there are numerous multi-unit recording sites in the forelimb-stump representation of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) that also respond to cutaneous stimulation of the hindlimb when cortical receptors for GABA are blocked. These normally suppressed hindlimb inputs originate in the SI hindlimb representation and synapse in the dysgranular cortex before exciting SI forelimb-stump neurons. In our previous studies, GABA (A + B) receptor blockade was achieved by topically applying a bicuculline methiodide/saclofen solution (BMI/SAC) to the cortical surface. This treatment blocks receptors throughout SI and does not allow determination of where along the above circuit the GABA-mediated suppression of hindlimb information occurs. In this study, focal injections of BMI/SAC were delivered to three distinct cortical regions that are involved in the hindlimb-to-forelimb-stump pathway. Blocking GABA receptors in the SI hindlimb representation and in the dysgranular cortex was largely ineffective in revealing hindlimb inputs ( approximately 10% of hindlimb inputs were revealed in both cases). In contrast, when the blockade was targeted at forelimb-stump recording sites, >80% of hindlimb inputs were revealed. Thus GABAergic interneurons within the forelimb-stump representation suppress the expression of reorganized hindlimb inputs to the region. A circuit model incorporating these and previous observations is presented and discussed.

  14. Impaired off-line consolidation of motor memories after combined blockade of cholinergic receptors during REM sleep-rich sleep.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Björn; Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been considered important for the consolidation of memories, particularly of procedural skills. REM sleep, in contrast to slow-wave sleep (SWS), is hallmarked by the high, wake-like activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which promotes certain synaptic plastic processes underlying the formation of memories. Here, we show in healthy young men that off-line consolidation of a motor skill during a period of late sleep with high amounts of REM sleep depends essentially on high cholinergic activity. After a 3-h sleep period during the early night to satisfy the need for SWS, subjects learned a procedural finger sequence tapping task and a declarative word-pair learning task. After learning, they received either placebo or a combination of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (4 microg/kg bodyweight, intravenously) and the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (5 mg, orally), and then slept for another 3 h, ie, the late nocturnal sleep period, which is dominated by REM sleep. Retrieval was tested the following evening. Combined cholinergic receptor blockade significantly impaired motor skill consolidation, whereas word-pair memory remained unaffected. Additional data show that the impairing effect of cholinergic receptor blockade is specific to sleep-dependent consolidation of motor skill and does not occur during a wake-retention interval. Taken together, these results identify high cholinergic activity during late, REM sleep-rich sleep as an essential factor promoting sleep-dependent consolidation of motor skills.

  15. An mRNA expression analysis of stimulation and blockade of 5-HT7 receptors during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Georgina; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia; Meneses, Alfredo

    2006-04-25

    Despite the compelling support for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors participation in learning and memory in mammal species, the molecular basis had been largely absent from any discussion of its mechanistic underpinnings. Here, we report that reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that there was a higher level of expression of the investigated 5-HT receptor mRNAs in autoshaping-trained relative to untrained groups. Actually, pharmacological naïve untrained and autoshaping-trained rats showed significant differences, the latter groups expressing, in decreasing order, 5-HT1A < 5-HT6 < 5-HT4 < or = 5-HT7 receptors mRNA in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. In order to determine more precisely mRNA expression and memory consolidation, we combined selective 5-HT7 receptors stimulation or blockade in the same animals, and brain areas individually analyzed. 5-HT7 receptors were strongly expressed in all the three brain areas of vehicle-trained rats relative to untrained group. The potential selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 enhanced memory consolidation, attenuated mRNA receptors expression, and the facilitatory memory effect was reversed by SB-269970. Finally, pharmacological stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors reversed scopolamine- or dizocilpine-induced amnesia and receptor down-regulation.

  16. 5-HT1B receptor-mediated contractions in human temporal artery: evidence from selective antagonists and 5-HT receptor mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Verheggen, R; Hundeshagen, A G; Brown, A M; Schindler, M; Kaumann, A J

    1998-01-01

    In the human temporal artery both 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2A receptors mediate the contractile effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and we have suggested that the 5-HT1-like receptors resemble more closely recombinant 5-HT1B than 5-HT1D receptors. To investigate further which subtype is involved, we investigated the blockade of 5-HT-induced contractions by the 5-HT1B-selective antagonist SB-224289 (2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1′-methyl-5-{2-methyl-4′[(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl) biphenyl-4-yl] carbonyl} furo[2,3-f]indole-3-spiro-4′-piperidine oxalate) and the 5-HT1D-selective antagonist BRL-15572 (1-phenyl-3[4-3-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] phenylpropan-2-ol). We also used RT-PCR to search for the mRNA of 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and other 5-HT receptors.The contractile effects of 5-HT in temporal artery rings were partially antagonized by SB-224289 (20, 200 nM) (apparent KB=1 nM) and ketanserin (1 μM) but not by BRL-15572 (500 nM).Sumatriptan evoked contractions (EC50, 170 nM) that were resistant to blockade by BRL-15572 (500 nM) but antagonized by SB-224289 (20, 200 nM).The potency of 5-HT (EC50) was estimated to be 94 nM for the ketanserin-sensitive receptor and 34 nM for the SB-224289-sensitive receptor. The fraction of maximal 5-HT response mediated through SB-224289-sensitive receptors was 0.20–0.67, the remainder being mediated through ketanserin-sensitive receptors.We detected arterial receptor mRNA for the following receptors (incidence): 5-HT1B (8/8), 5-HT1D (2/8), 5-HT1F (0/4), 5-HT2A (0/8), 5-HT2B (0/8), 5-HT2C (0/8), 5-HT4 (4/8) and 5-HT7 (4/8).We conclude that the ketanserin-resistant fraction of the 5-HT effects and the effects of sumatriptan are mediated by 5-HT1B receptors. The lack of antagonism by BRL-15572 rules out 5-HT1D receptors as mediators of the contractile effects of 5-HT and sumatriptan. PMID:9723944

  17. [Pulmonary hemodynamics following experimental myocardial ischemia after the blockade of adrenergic receptors].

    PubMed

    Evlakhov, V I; Poiasov, I Z

    2015-01-01

    In acute experiments in anesthetized rabbits the changes of the pulmonary hemodynamics following 60 s myocardial ischemia in the region of the descendent left coronary artery were studied in control animals and after the blockade of α-adrenoreceptors by phentolamine or β-adrenoreceptors by propranolol. Following myocardial ischemia in control animals the pulmonary artery pressure and flow decreased, the pulmonary vascular resistance did not change, the left atrial pressure elevated; the cardiac output decreased more than pulmonary artery flow. Following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of β-adrenoreceptors the pulmonary artery pressure decreased more than in control animals, the pulmonary artery flow was decreased in the same level as in the last case. The pulmonary vascular resistance was diminished, the left atrial pressure increased; the pulmonary artery flow and cardiac output decreased in the same level. Following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of β-adrenoreceptors the pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance decreased more than after the blockade of α-adrenoreceptors, the left atrial pressure did not change. In both cases the pulmonary artery flow decreased in the same level and its changes were correlated with venous return shifts. The differences of the pulmonary artery changes following myocardial ischemia after the blockade of α- and β-adrenoreceptors are caused not only the different pulmonary vascular resistance changes, but also the left atrial pressure.

  18. Effects of calorie restriction and IGF-1 receptor blockade on the progression of 22Rv1 prostate cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Galet, Colette; Gray, Ashley; Said, Jonathan W; Castor, Brandon; Wan, Junxiang; Beltran, Pedro J; Calzone, Franck J; Elashoff, David; Cohen, Pinchas; Aronson, William J

    2013-07-03

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits prostate cancer progression, partially through modulation of the IGF axis. IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) blockade reduces prostate cancer xenograft growth. We hypothesized that combining calorie restriction with IGF-1R blockade would have an additive effect on prostate cancer growth. Severe combined immunodeficient mice were subcutaneously injected with 22Rv1 cells and randomized to: (1) Ad libitum feeding/intraperitoneal saline (Ad-lib); (2) Ad-lib/20 mg/kg twice weekly, intraperitoneal ganitumab [anti-IGF-1R antibody (Ad-lib/Ab)]; (3) 40% calorie restriction/intraperitoneal saline (CR); (4) CR/ intraperitoneal ganitumab, (CR/Ab). CR and ganitumab treatment were initiated one week after tumor injection. Euthanasia occurred 19 days post treatment. Results showed that CR alone decreased final tumor weight, plasma insulin and IGF-1 levels, and increased apoptosis. Ganitumab therapy alone reduced tumor growth but had no effect on final tumor weight. The combination therapy (CR/Ab) further decreased final tumor weight and proliferation, increased apoptosis in comparison to the Ad-lib group, and lowered plasma insulin levels relative to the Ad-lib and Ad-lib/Ab groups. Tumor AKT activation directly correlated with plasma IGF-1 levels. In conclusion, whereas ganitumab therapy modestly affected 22Rv1 tumor growth, combining IGF-1R blockade with calorie restriction resulted in a significant decrease in final tumor weight and improved metabolic profile.

  19. Early chronic blockade of NR2B subunits and transient activation of NMDA receptors modulate LTP in mouse auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuting; Zang, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2006-02-16

    In the auditory cortex, the properties of NMDA receptors depend primarily on the ratio of NR2A and NR2B subunits. NR2B subunit expression is high at the beginning of critical period and lower in adulthood. Because NMDA receptors are crucial in triggering long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression, developmental or experience-dependent modification of NMDAR subunit composition is likely to influence synaptic plasticity. To examine how NMDA subunit change during postnatal development affect the adult synaptic plasticity, we employed chronic ifenprodil blockade of NR2B subunits and analyzed evoked field potentials in adult C57BL/6 mice auditory cortex (AC). We found that chronic loss of NR2B activity led to a decline in LTP magnitude in the AC of adult mice. Adding NMDA to the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in blocked mice had the opposite effect, producing LTP magnitudes at or exceeding those found in treated or untreated animals. These results suggest that, even in adulthood when NR2B expression is downregulated, these receptor subunits play an important role in experience-dependent plasticity of mouse auditory cortex. Blockade from P60 did not result in any decrease of LTP amplitude, suggesting that chronic block in postnatal period may permanently affect cortical circuits so that they cannot produce significant LTP in adulthood.

  20. Localized β-adrenergic receptor blockade does not affect sweating during exercise.

    PubMed

    Buono, Michael J; Tabor, Brian; White, Ailish

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of a locally administered nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist on sweat gland function during exercise. Systemically administered propranolol has been reported to increase, decrease, or not alter sweat production during exercise. To eliminate the confounding systemic effects associated with orally administered propranolol, we used iontophoresis to deliver it to the eccrine sweat glands within a localized area on one forearm prior to exercise. This allowed for determination of the direct effect of β-adrenergic receptor blockade on sweating during exercise. Subjects (n = 14) reported to the laboratory (23 ± 1°C, 35 ± 3% relative humidity) after having refrained from exercise for ≥12 h. Propranolol (1% solution) was administered to a 5-cm(2) area of the flexor surface of one forearm via iontophoresis (1.5 mA) for 5 min. A saline solution was administered to the opposing arm via iontophoresis. Each subject then exercised on a motor-driven treadmill at 75% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate for 20 min, while sweat rate was measured simultaneously in both forearms. Immediately after cessation of exercise, the number of active sweat glands was measured by application of iodine-impregnated paper to each forearm. The sweat rate for the control and propranolol-treated forearm was 0.62 ± 41 and 0.60 ± 0.44 (SD) mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), respectively (P = 0.86). The density of active sweat glands for the control and propranolol-treated forearm was 130 ± 6 and 134 ± 5 (SD) glands/cm(2), respectively, (P = 0.33). End-exercise skin temperature was 32.9 ± 0.2 and 33.1 ± 0.3°C for the control and propranolol-treated forearm, respectively (P = 0.51). Results of the current study show that when propranolol is administered locally, thus eliminating the potential confounding systemic effects of the drug, it does not directly affect sweating during the initial stages of high-intensity exercise in young, healthy

  1. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  2. Effect of chronic blockade of angiotensin II-receptor subtypes on aortic compliance in rats with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ceiler, D L; Nelissen-Vrancken, H J; De Mey, J G; Smits, J F

    1998-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate changes in aortic geometry and compliance after long-term blockade of angiotensin receptors type 1 (AT1) and AT2 receptors under basal conditions and after myocardial infarction (MI). Sham-operated (sham) or MI rats received either no treatment, AT1 antagonist GR138950C (GR; 2 mg/kg/day i.v.), or AT2 antagonist PD123319 (PD; 3 mg/kg/day s.c.). After 3 weeks, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was measured. Thoracic aorta diastolic diameter (D[dia]), compliance coefficient (CC), and distensibility coefficient (DC) were determined noninvasively in anesthetized rats by using ultrasound and wall tracking. After the rats were killed, histologic measurements were made on aortic cross sections. In sham rats, MAP was reduced by GR treatment (76 +/- 6 vs. 106 +/- 5 mm Hg), but not by PD. D(dia) was reduced in both GR-treated (1.74 +/- 0.08 vs. 2.09 +/- 0.05 mm) and PD-treated (1.83 +/- 0.05 vs. 2.09 +/- 0.05 mm) sham rats. CC and DC were not modified by either treatment. Although media cross-sectional area was not affected by either GR or PD treatment in sham rats, media thickness and media/lumen ratio were increased in both cases. Induction of MI had no effect on aortic structure, geometry, or mechanics; however, treatment with either GR or PD improved DC versus untreated MI rats. We conclude that AT1 and AT2 receptors are involved in angiotensin II-mediated effects on aortic geometry and mechanics under both basal conditions and after MI. Whereas blockade of AT1 receptors most likely influences vascular properties through a depressor mechanism, AT2 receptors induce pressure-independent remodeling.

  3. Selective blockade of 5-HT7 receptors facilitates attentional set-shifting in stressed and control rats.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical data demonstrate that the selective blockade of 5-HT7 receptors produces antidepressant-like behavioural effects. Although the involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in cognitive processes has been previously suggested, little is known about their role in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent processes that may be impaired in stress-related states. According to our previous study, repeated restraint stress induces the long-lasting cognitive impairment in a rat model of PFC-dependent attentional set-shifting task (ASST). Therefore, the first aim of the present experiments was to examine the impact of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970, on ASST performance of stressed and control rats. Since the selective blockade of 5-HT7 receptors has been previously demonstrated to enhance the behavioural effects of antidepressants, the second goal was to examine the impact of the joint administration of inactive doses of SB-269970 and escitalopram in the ASST. SB-269970 (0.3 and 1mg/kg) given to stressed rats 30min before testing reversed the restraint-induced impairment of the extra-dimensional (ED) set-shifting ability. Additionally, SB-269970 (1mg/kg) also improved ED performance of the unstressed control group. Moreover, SB-269970, given at an inactive dose, enhanced the pro-cognitive efficacy of escitalopram. In conclusion, these results highlight the possibility that 5-HT7 receptor antagonism may represent a useful pharmacological approach in the treatment of frontal-like cognitive disturbances in stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  4. Early BAFF receptor blockade mitigates murine Sjögren's syndrome: Concomitant targeting of CXCL13 and the BAFF receptor prevents salivary hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    Klimatcheva, Ekaterina; Howell, Alan; Fereidouni, Farzad; Levenson, Richard; Rothstein, Thomas L.; Kramer, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a debilitating autoimmune disease. Patients with SS may develop xerostomia. This process is progressive, and there are no therapeutics that target disease etiology. We hypothesized BAFF receptor (BAFFR) blockade would mitigate SS disease development, and neutralization of CXCL13 and BAFF signaling would be more efficacious than BAFFR blockade alone. We treated NOD/ShiLtJ SS mice with soluble BAFF receptor (BAFFR-Fc) or anti-CXCL13/BAFFR-Fc in combination, prior to the development of clinical disease. Our results show treatment with BAFFR-Fc reduced peripheral B cells numbers and decreased sialadenitis. In addition, this treatment reduced total serum immunoglobulin as well as IgG and IgM specific anti-nuclear autoantibodies. NOD/ShiLtJ mice treated with BAFFR-Fc and anti-CXCL13 antibody were protected from salivary deficits. Results from this study suggest blockade of CXCL13 and BAFFR together may be an effective therapeutic strategy in preventing salivary hypofunction and reducing autoantibody titers and sialadenitis in patients with SS. PMID:26826598

  5. Early BAFF receptor blockade mitigates murine Sjögren's syndrome: Concomitant targeting of CXCL13 and the BAFF receptor prevents salivary hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arjun; Kiripolsky, Jeremy; Klimatcheva, Ekaterina; Howell, Alan; Fereidouni, Farzad; Levenson, Richard; Rothstein, Thomas L; Kramer, Jill M

    2016-03-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a debilitating autoimmune disease. Patients with SS may develop xerostomia. This process is progressive, and there are no therapeutics that target disease etiology. We hypothesized BAFF receptor (BAFFR) blockade would mitigate SS disease development, and neutralization of CXCL13 and BAFF signaling would be more efficacious than BAFFR blockade alone. We treated NOD/ShiLtJ SS mice with soluble BAFF receptor (BAFFR-Fc) or anti-CXCL13/BAFFR-Fc in combination, prior to the development of clinical disease. Our results show treatment with BAFFR-Fc reduced peripheral B cell numbers and decreased sialadenitis. In addition, this treatment reduced total serum immunoglobulin as well as IgG and IgM specific anti-nuclear autoantibodies. NOD/ShiLtJ mice treated with BAFFR-Fc and anti-CXCL13 antibody were protected from salivary deficits. Results from this study suggest blockade of CXCL13 and BAFFR together may be an effective therapeutic strategy in preventing salivary hypofunction and reducing autoantibody titers and sialadenitis in patients with SS.

  6. Blockade of porcine carotid vascular response to sumatriptan by GR 127935, a selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, P.; Heiligers, J. P.; Villalón, C. M.; Saxena, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. It has previously been shown that the antimigraine drug, sumatriptan, a putative 5-HT1D receptor agonist, decreases porcine common carotid and arteriovenous anastomotic blood flows, but slightly increases the arteriolar (capillary) blood flow to the skin and ears. Interestingly, such responses, being mediated by 5-HT1-like receptors, are resistant to blockade by metergoline, which, in addition to displaying a very high affinity for (and occasionally intrinsic efficacy at) the 5-HT1D receptor subtypes, blocks (with lower potency than methiothepin) some 5-HT1D receptor-mediated vascular responses. These findings raise doubts whether sumatriptan-sensitive 5-HT1-like receptors mediating changes in the distribution of porcine carotid blood flow are identical to cloned 5-HT1D receptors. With the recent advent of the potent and selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, GR127935, we have examined in the present study whether the carotid vascular effects of sumatriptan in the pig are amenable to blockade by GR127935. 2. In animals pretreated with saline, sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) reduced the total carotid and arteriovenous anastomotic blood flows in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, sumatriptan increased blood flow to the skin, ears and fat, although the total capillary fraction was not significantly affected. 3. While GR127935 pretreatment (0.25 and 0.5 mg kg-1) itself slightly reduced the total carotid and arteriovenous anastomotic blood flows, carotid vasoconstrictor responses to sumatriptan were either partly (0.25 mg kg-1) or completely (0.5 mg kg-1) blocked by the compound. In GR127935 pretreated animals, the sumatriptan-induced increases in blood flow to the skin, ears and fat were also attenuated. 4. Taken together, the results suggest that arteriovenous anastomotic constriction and, possibly, arteriolar dilatation in the skin, ears and fat by sumatriptan are mediated by 5-HT1D receptors. Therefore, vascular 5-HT1-like receptors in the

  7. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB1R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A2AR blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A2ARs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB1Rs was assessed by using the CB1R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB1R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A2ARs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB1R drugs is desired.

  8. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade Prevents Rotenone-Induced Motor Impairment in a Rat Model of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fathalla, Ahmed M.; Soliman, Amira M.; Ali, Mohamed H.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological studies implicate the blockade of adenosine receptorsas an effective strategy for reducing Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms. The objective of this study is to elucidate the possible protective effects of ZM241385 and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine, two selective A2A and A1 receptor antagonists, on a rotenone rat model of PD. Rats were split into four groups: vehicle control (1 ml/kg/48 h), rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/48 h, s.c.), ZM241385 (3.3 mg/kg/day, i.p) and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (5 mg/kg/day, i.p). After that, animals were subjected to behavioral (stride length and grid walking) and biochemical (measuring concentration of dopamine levels using high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC). In the rotenone group, rats displayed a reduced motor activity and disturbed movement coordination in the behavioral tests and a decreased dopamine concentration as foundby HPLC. The effect of rotenone was partially prevented in the ZM241385 group, but not with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine administration. The administration of ZM241385 improved motor function and movement coordination (partial increase of stride length and partial decrease in the number of foot slips) and an increase in dopamine concentration in the rotenone-injected rats. However, the 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and rotenone groups were not significantly different. These results indicate that selective A2A receptor blockade by ZM241385, but not A1 receptor blockadeby 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, may treat PD motor symptoms. This reinforces the potential use of A2A receptor antagonists as a treatment strategy for PD patients. PMID:26973484

  9. Blockade of 5-Ht3 receptors in the septal area increases Fos expression in selected brain areas.

    PubMed

    Urzedo-Rodrigues, Lilia S; Ferreira, Hilda S; Santana, Rejane Conceição; Luz, Carla Patrícia; Perrone, Camila F; Fregoneze, Josmara B

    2014-04-01

    Serotonin is widely distributed throughout the brain and is involved in a multiplicity of visceral, cognitive and behavioral responses. It has been previously shown that injections of different doses of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, into the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band complex (MS/vDB) induce a hypertensive response in rats. On the other hand, administration of m-CPBG, a 5-HT3 agonist, into the MS/vDB inhibits the increase of blood pressure during restraint stress. However, it is unclear which neuronal circuitry is involved in these responses. The present study investigated Fos immunoreactive nuclei (Fos-IR) in different brain areas following the blockade of 5-HT3 receptors located in the MS/vDB in sham and in sinoaortic denervated (SAD) rats. Ondansetron injection into the MS/vDB increases Fos-IR in different brain areas including the limbic system (central amygdala and ventral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis), hypothalamus (medial parvocellular parts of the paraventricular nucleus, anterodorsal preoptic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus), mesencephalon (ventrolateral periaqueductal gray region) and rhombencephalon (lateral parabrachial nucleus) in sham rats. Barodenervation results in higher Fos expression at the parvocellular and magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the central nucleus of amygdala, the locus coeruleus, the medial part of the nucleus of the solitary tract, the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the caudal ventrolateral medulla following 5-HT3receptor blockade in the MS/vDB. Based on the present results and previous data showing a hypertensive response to ondansetron injected into the MS/vDB, it is reasonable to suggest that 5-HT3receptors in the MS/vDB exert an inhibitory drive that may oscillate as a functional regulatory part of the complex central neuronal network participating in the control of blood pressure.

  10. CB1 cannabinoid receptor-mediated anandamide signalling reduces the defensive behaviour evoked through GABAA receptor blockade in the dorsomedial division of the ventromedial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2017-02-01

    The effects of cannabinoids in brain areas expressing cannabinoid receptors, such as hypothalamic nuclei, are not yet well known. Several studies have demonstrated the role of hypothalamic nuclei in the organisation of behavioural responses induced through innate fear and panic attacks. Panic-prone states are experimentally induced in laboratory animals through a reduction in the GABAergic activity. The aim of the present study was to examine panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour evoked by GABAA receptor blockade with bicuculline (BIC) in the dorsomedial division of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHdm). We also aimed to characterise the involvement of endocannabinoids and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the modulation of elaborated defence behavioural responses organised with the VMHdm. The guide-cannula was stereotaxicaly implanted in VMHdm and the animals were treated with anandamide (AEA) at different doses, and the effective dose was used after the pre-treatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, followed by GABAA receptor blockade in VMHdm. The results showed that the intra-hypothalamic administration of AEA at an intermediate dose (5 pmol) attenuated defence responses induced through the intra-VMHdm microinjection of bicuculline (40 ng). This effect, however, was inhibited when applied central microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 in the VMHdm. Moreover, AM251 potentiates de non-oriented escape induced by bicuculline, effect blocked by pre-treatment with the TRPV1 channel antagonist 6-I-CPS. These results indicate that AEA modulates the pro-aversive effects of intra-VMHdm-bicuculline treatment, recruiting CB1 cannabinoid receptors and the TRPV1 channel is involved in the AM251-related potentiation of bicuculline effects on non-oriented escape behaviour.

  11. Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on α oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Jäncke, Lutz; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2013-06-19

    Visual illusions and hallucinations are hallmarks of serotonergic hallucinogen-induced altered states of consciousness. Although the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin activates multiple serotonin (5-HT) receptors, recent evidence suggests that activation of 5-HT2A receptors may lead to the formation of visual hallucinations by increasing cortical excitability and altering visual-evoked cortical responses. To address this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of psilocybin (215 μg/kg vs placebo) on both α oscillations that regulate cortical excitability and early visual-evoked P1 and N170 potentials in healthy human subjects. To further disentangle the specific contributions of 5-HT2A receptors, subjects were additionally pretreated with the preferential 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (50 mg vs placebo). We found that psilocybin strongly decreased prestimulus parieto-occipital α power values, thus precluding a subsequent stimulus-induced α power decrease. Furthermore, psilocybin strongly decreased N170 potentials associated with the appearance of visual perceptual alterations, including visual hallucinations. All of these effects were blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin, indicating that activation of 5-HT2A receptors by psilocybin profoundly modulates the neurophysiological and phenomenological indices of visual processing. Specifically, activation of 5-HT2A receptors may induce a processing mode in which stimulus-driven cortical excitation is overwhelmed by spontaneous neuronal excitation through the modulation of α oscillations. Furthermore, the observed reduction of N170 visual-evoked potentials may be a key mechanism underlying 5-HT2A receptor-mediated visual hallucinations. This change in N170 potentials may be important not only for psilocybin-induced states but also for understanding acute hallucinatory states seen in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

  12. Role of adiponectin in the metabolic effects of cannabinoid type 1 receptor blockade in mice with diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Godlewski, Grzegorz; Earley, Brian J.; Zhou, Liang; Jourdan, Tony; Szanda, Gergö; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George

    2013-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin promotes fatty acid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity and thus plays a key role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Chronic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor blockade also increases lipid oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity in obese individuals or animals, resulting in reduced cardiometabolic risk. Chronic CB1 blockade reverses the obesity-related decline in serum adiponectin levels, which has been proposed to account for the metabolic effects of CB1 antagonists. Here, we investigated the metabolic actions of the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese adiponectin knockout (Adipo−/−) mice and their wild-type littermate controls (Adipo+/+). HFD-induced obesity and its hormonal/metabolic consequences were indistinguishable in the two strains. Daily treatment of obese mice with rimonabant for 7 days resulted in significant and comparable reductions in body weight, serum leptin, free fatty acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in the two strains. Rimonabant treatment improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity to the same extent in Adipo+/+ and Adipo−/− mice, whereas it reversed the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular damage only in the former. The adiponectin-dependent, antisteatotic effect of rimonabant was mediated by reduced uptake and increased β-oxidation of fatty acids in the liver. We conclude that reversal of the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by chronic CB1 blockade, but not the parallel reduction in adiposity and improved glycemic control, is mediated by adiponectin. PMID:24381003

  13. Blockade of the growth hormone (GH) receptor unmasks rapid GH-releasing peptide-6-mediated tissue-specific insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Muller, A F; Janssen, J A; Hofland, L J; Lamberts, S W; Bidlingmaier, M; Strasburger, C J; van der Lely, A J

    2001-02-01

    The roles of GH and its receptor (GHR) in metabolic control are not yet fully understood. We studied the roles of GH and the GHR using the GHR antagonist pegvisomant for metabolic control of healthy nonobese men in fasting and nonfasting conditions. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of pegvisomant on GHRH and GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6)-induced GH secretion before and after 3 days of fasting and under nonfasting conditions (n = 5). Under the condition of GHR blockade by pegvisomant in the nonfasting state, GHRP-6 (1 microg/kg) caused a increase in serum insulin (10.3 +/- 2.1 vs. 81.3 +/- 25.4 mU/L; P < 0.001) and glucose (4.2 +/- 0.3 vs. 6.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/L; P < 0.05) concentrations. In this group, a rapid decrease in serum free fatty acids levels was also observed. These changes were not observed under GHR blockade during fasting or in the absence of pegvisomant. We conclude that although these results were obtained from an acute study, and long-term administration of pegvisomant could render different results, blockade of the GHR in the nonfasting state induces tissue-specific changes in insulin sensitivity, resulting in an increase in glucose and insulin levels (indicating insulin resistance of liver/muscle), but probably also in an increase in lipogenesis (indicating normal insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue). These GHRP-6-mediated changes indicate that low GH bioactivity on the tissue level can induce changes in metabolic control, which are characterized by an increase in fat mass and a decrease in lean body mass. As a mechanism of these GHRP-6-mediated metabolic changes in the nonfasting state, direct nonpituitary-mediated GHRP-6 effects on the gastroentero-hepatic axis seem probable.

  14. Effects of Adrenergic Receptor Activation and Blockade on the Systolic Preejection Period, Heart Rate, and Arterial Pressure in Man

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Willard S.; Schoenfeld, Clyde D.; Weissler, Arnold M.

    1967-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that alterations in the duration of the systolic preejection period can be used to estimate adrenergic influences on the human left ventricle. The preejection period was determined from high speed, simultaneous recordings of the phonocardiogram, carotid pulse tracing, and electrocardiogram. The preejection period was shortened by isoproterenol, epinephrine, and moderate doses of norepinephrine—all of which activate beta adrenergic receptors—and by cedilanid-D. It was unaltered by changes in heart rate induced by atropine and right atrial electrical pacing. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade by propranolol abolished the shortening effects of the three catecholamines but did not inhibit that due to cedilanid-D. Vasoconstriction, both alpha adrenergic (epinephrine and norepinephrine after propranolol) and nonadrenergic (angiotensin), prolonged the preejection period. Most of the shortening of the preejection period by beta adrenergic receptor activating agents and cedilanid-D and all of the prolongation accompanying pharmacologic vasoconstriction occurred after the onset of the first heart sound, thereby excluding changes in electrical-mechanical delay as a major factor in the observed preejection period responses. Shortening of the preejection period by beta adrenergic activity induced with isoproterenol was dose-related. Increasing doses of propranolol produced parallel shifts to the right in the isoproterenol dose-response curve. In 37 normal resting subjects intravenous propranolol (10 mg) prolonged the preejection period an average of 10 (SE ± 1) msec. In six patients with psychogenic sinus tachycardia and a patient with a pheochromocytoma the presence of excessive beta adrenergic influences on the left ventricle was demonstrated by the finding of an initially short preejection period which responded with an abnormally great prolongation to beta adrenergic receptor blockade. Images PMID:4294053

  15. Full central neurokinin-1 receptor blockade is required for efficacy in depression: evidence from orvepitant clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Emiliangelo; Bettica, Paolo; Alexander, Robert; Archer, Graeme; Carpenter, David; Evoniuk, Gary; Gomeni, Roberto; Lawson, Erica; Lopez, Monica; Millns, Helen; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Trist, David; Trower, Michael; Zamuner, Stefano; Krishnan, Ranga; Fava, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Full, persistent blockade of central neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors may be a potential antidepressant mechanism. The selective NK1 antagonist orvepitant (GW823296) was used to test this hypothesis. A preliminary positron emission tomography study in eight male volunteers drove dose selection for two randomized six week studies in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Displacement of central [(11)C]GR205171 binding indicated that oral orvepitant doses of 30-60 mg/day provided >99% receptor occupancy for ≥24 h. Studies 733 and 833 randomized patients with MDD and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D)≥22 to double-blind treatment with orvepitant 30 mg/day, orvepitant 60 mg/day or placebo (1:1:1). Primary outcome measure was change from baseline in 17-item HAM-D total score at Week 6 analyzed using mixed models repeated measures. Study 733 (n=328) demonstrated efficacy on the primary endpoint (estimated drug-placebo differences of 30 mg: -2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-4.50 to -0.31) p=0.0245; 60 mg: -2.86, 95% CI (-4.97 to -0.75) p=0.0082). Study 833 (n=345) did not show significance (estimated drug-placebo differences of 30 mg: -1.67, 95% CI (-3.73 to 0.39) p=0.1122; 60 mg: -0.76, 95% CI (-2.85 to 1.32) p=0.4713). The results support the hypothesis that full, long lasting blockade of central NK1 receptors may be an efficacious mechanism for the treatment of MDD.

  16. Disruption of type 5 adenylyl cyclase prevents β-adrenergic receptor cardiomyopathy: a novel approach to β-adrenergic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Vatner, Stephen F; Vatner, Dorothy E

    2014-11-15

    β-Adrenergic receptor (β-AR) blockade is widely used to treat heart failure, since the adverse effects of chronic β-AR stimulation are central to the pathogenesis of this disease state. Transgenic (Tg) mice, where β-AR signaling is chronically enhanced by overexpression of cardiac β₂-ARs, is a surrogate for this mechanism, since these mice develop cardiomyopathy as reflected by reduced left ventricular (LV) function, increased fibrosis, apoptosis, and myocyte hypertrophy. We hypothesized that disruption of type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5), which is in the β-AR signaling pathway in the heart, but exerts only a minor β-AR blocking effect, could prevent the cardiomyopathy in β₂-AR Tg mice without the negative effects of full β-AR blockade. Accordingly, we mated β₂-AR Tg mice with AC5 knockout (KO) mice. The β₂-AR Tg × AC5 KO bigenic mice prevented the cardiomyopathy as reflected by improved LV ejection fraction, reduced apoptosis, fibrosis, and myocyte size and preserved exercise capacity. The rescue was not simply due to a β-blocking effect of AC5 KO, since neither baseline LV function nor the response to isoproterenol was diminished substantially compared with the negative inotropic effects of β-blockade. However, AC5 disruption in β₂-AR Tg activates the antioxidant, manganese superoxide dismutase, an important mechanism protecting the heart from cardiomyopathy. These results indicate that disruption of AC5 prevents the cardiomyopathy induced by chronically enhanced β-AR signaling in mice with overexpressed β₂-AR, potentially by enhancing resistance to oxidative stress and apoptosis, suggesting a novel, alternative approach to β-AR blockade.

  17. P2Y12 receptor blockade synergizes strongly with nitric oxide and prostacyclin to inhibit platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Melissa V.; Knowles, Rebecca B. M.; Lundberg, Martina H.; Tucker, Arthur T.; Mohamed, Nura A.; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Armstrong, Paul C. J.; Mitchell, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In vivo platelet function is a product of intrinsic platelet reactivity, modifiable by dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), and the extrinsic inhibitory endothelial mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2), that are powerfully potentiated by P2Y12 receptor blockade. This implies that for individual patients endothelial mediator production is an important determinant of DAPT effectiveness. Here, we have investigated this idea using platelets taken from healthy volunteers treated with anti‐platelet drugs. Methods Three groups of male volunteers (n = 8) received either prasugrel (10 mg), aspirin (75 mg) or DAPT (prasugrel + aspirin) once daily for 7 days. Platelet reactivity in the presence of diethylammonium (Z)‐1‐(N,N‐diethylamino)diazen‐1‐ium‐1,2‐diolate (DEA/NONOate) and PGI2 was studied before and following treatment. Results Ex vivo, PGI2 and/or DEA/NONOate had little inhibitory effect on TRAP‐6‐induced platelet reactivity in control conditions. However, in the presence of DAPT, combination of DEA/NONOate + PGI2 reduced platelet aggregation (74 ± 3% to 19 ± 6%, P < 0.05). In vitro studies showed even partial (25%) P2Y12 receptor blockade produced a significant (67 ± 2% to 39 ± 10%, P < 0.05) inhibition when DEA/NONOate + PGI2 was present. Conclusions We have demonstrated that PGI2 and NO synergize with P2Y12 receptor antagonists to produce powerful platelet inhibition. Furthermore, even with submaximal P2Y12 blockade the presence of PGI2 and NO greatly enhances platelet inhibition. Our findings highlight the importance of endothelial mediator in vivo modulation of P2Y12 inhibition and introduces the concept of refining ex vivo platelet function testing by incorporating an assessment of endothelial function to predict thrombotic outcomes better and adjust therapy to prevent adverse outcomes in individual patients. PMID:26561399

  18. Postcontest blockade of dopamine receptors inhibits development of the winner effect in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Becker, Elizabeth A; Marler, Catherine A

    2015-04-01

    The winner effect is an accumulation of previous wins that increase future winning. A primary unanswered question about the winner effect is how do individuals integrate information about previous wins? Dopamine (DA) has been implicated because phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (pTH), the rate-limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis, is elevated following multiple winning experiences. Moreover, DA receptor blockers and agonists influence aggression when administered prior to male-male contests. In the current study, we administered D1- and D2-like DA receptor antagonists immediately after a contest and examined the development of the winner effect in the territorial California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. During a 3-contest training phase, resident males experienced winning contests, followed immediately by a peripheral injection of either a DA receptor antagonist or vehicle or a handling experience (without injection). The DA receptor antagonists used in this study did not influence locomotion. To assess the cumulative effects of previous winning, males were subjected to a final test contest with a more competitive intruder. The winner effect was significantly decreased by both D1- and D2-like receptor antagonists administered during training. During the test contest, attack behavior was significantly reduced by previous administration of both types of DA receptor antagonists compared with controls. D1-like receptor blockade also diminished chasing behavior, whereas D2-antagonist treated animals continued to pursue opponents. During training against a less competitive intruder, there was no difference in aggressive behaviors between experimental and controls males. Our data indicate that DA activity between contests is concomitant with the competitive advantage gained from multiple winning experiences.

  19. Activation but not blockade of GABAB receptors during early-life alters anxiety in adulthood in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Fabian F; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F

    2014-06-01

    Although the underlying pathophysiology of anxiety disorders is unknown it is clear that a combination of genetic and environmental factors in early life predispose to disease risk. Preclinical research increasingly suggests an important role for the GABAB receptor in modulating anxiety behaviour, with GABAB receptor deficient mice having increased anxiety behaviour. Previous studies have highlighted critical windows during development where adult anxiety behaviour is primed. However, little is known regarding the role played by the GABAB receptors in the developmental processes that underlie adult anxiety behaviour. To this end, we treated male BALB/c mouse pups with the either the selective GABAB receptor agonist, R-baclofen (2 mg/kg, s.c), the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 52432 (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) or vehicle from postnatal days (P) 14-28. The anxiety behaviour of these mice was then assessed in adulthood (P62 onwards) in a battery of behavioural tests comprising; the stress induced hyperthermia (SIH) test, defensive marble burying (DMB), elevated-plus maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST). Postnatal R-baclofen treatment resulted in increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM as shown by approach-avoidance and ethological measures. Other behavioural measures were not significantly altered. Interestingly, blockade of GABAB receptors with CGP52432 in early life caused no alterations in emotional behaviour. These data suggest that during early life GABAB receptor signalling can play a functional role in programing anxiety behaviour in adulthood. The underlying neurodevelopmental processes underlying these effects remain to be discovered.

  20. Doxepin and diphenhydramine increased non-rapid eye movement sleep through blockade of histamine H1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Takata, Yohko; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2015-02-01

    Histaminergic neurons have been reported to play an important role in the regulation of sleep-wake behavior through the histamine H1 receptor (R, H1R). First generation H1R antagonists, such as doxepin and diphenhydramine, produce drowsiness in humans, and are occasionally used to treat insomnia. However, if H1R antagonists function via physically blocking the H1R remains unclear. In the current study, we used H1R knockout (KO) mice to investigate if the sleep-promoting effects of doxepin and diphenhydramine are dependent on blockade of the H1R. When doxepin was administered, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in wild type (WT) mice increased for 4h, with an increase in the numbers of NREM sleep bouts of 256-512 s and 512-1024 s. These effects were not observed in the H1R KO mice. Furthermore, diphenhydramine increased NREM sleep for 6h in WT, and not in the H1R KO mice after the injection. These results indicate that both doxepin at 15 mg/kg and diphenhydramine at 10 mg/kg induce NREM sleep through blockade of H1R.

  1. D1, but not D2, receptor blockade within the infralimbic and medial orbitofrontal cortex impairs cocaine seeking in a region-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Caitlin V; Gutman, Andrea L; Worth, Wensday R; LaLumiere, Ryan T

    2016-08-31

    Evidence suggests that the infralimbic cortex (IL), a subregion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), suppresses cocaine-seeking behavior in a self-administration paradigm, whereas the more anterior vmPFC subregion, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), has received very little attention in this regard. Despite the established dopaminergic innervation of the vmPFC, whether dopamine receptor blockade in each subregion alters the reinstatement of cocaine seeking is unclear. To address this issue, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2 weeks of cocaine self-administration, followed by extinction training and reinstatement testing. Immediately prior to each reinstatement test, rats received microinjections of the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390, the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride or their respective vehicles. D1 receptor blockade in the IL reduced cued reinstatement but had no effect on cocaine prime and cue + cocaine-prime reinstatement, whereas D2 receptor blockade in the IL had no effect on reinstatement. For the mOFC, however, D1 receptor blockade reduced cocaine seeking in all reinstatement types, whereas blocking D2 receptors in the mOFC had no effect on any form of cocaine seeking. These findings suggest different roles for D1 receptors in the IL versus the mOFC in regulating cocaine-seeking behavior. Moreover, even as previous work indicates that IL inactivation does not affect reinstatement but, rather, induces cocaine seeking during extinction, the present findings suggest that dopamine receptor activation in the IL is necessary for cocaine seeking under some circumstances.

  2. Receptor for advanced glycation end product blockade enhances the chemotherapeutic effect of cisplatin in tongue squamous cell carcinoma by reducing autophagy and modulating the Wnt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ziming; Wang, Hongyu; Zhang, Liao; Mei, Xifan; Hu, Jing; Huang, Keqiang

    2017-02-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is one of the most severe types of cancer with poor outcomes. Cisplatin is used widely to treat cancer cells, but many patients develop acquired drug resistance. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed widely in TSCC and associated with drug-induced chemotherapy resistance. However, the effect of RAGE and cisplatin on Tca-8113 cells remains unknown. We assayed the combined use of RAGE blockade and cisplatin effect on Tca-8113 cells' viability by MTT and apoptosis rate of Tca-8113 cells on RAGE blockade+cisplatin treatment; cisplatin alone; or RAGE blockade alone by flow cytometry. We observed the expressions of autophagy-related proteins beclin1, LC3II, p62; Wnt signaling-related proteins β-catenin, GSK3β, WNT5A, ROR-2; and apoptosis-related protein cleaved caspase-3, bcl-2-associated X proteins using western blot. We determined WNT5A and beclin1 expression on Tca-8113 cells by immunofluorescence. We further observed autophagy vacuoles by monodansylcadaverine staining. We found that RAGE blockade and cisplatin significantly decreased cell viability and increased the cell apoptosis rate compared with cisplatin alone. Furthermore, RAGE blockade suppressed the canonical Wnt pathway proteins β-catenin and GSK-3β, but upregulated noncanonical WNT5A and receptor ROR-2. We show that RAGE blockade suppressed the levels of autophagy-related protein LC3II/I, beclin1, accelerated degradation of autophagy for the increasing p62 expression, and increased cell apoptosis for the increasing expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and bcl-2-associated X proteins. We observed the location of WNT5A and beclin1 expressions on cells by immunofluorescence and their trends were consistent with western blotting. Taken together, our findings suggested that RAGE blockade+cisplatin improved chemotherapeutic effects by reducing autophagy and regulating Wnt/β-catenin to suppress the progression of TSCC.

  3. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade differentially influences excitotoxic mechanisms at pre- and postsynaptic sites in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pintor, Annita; Frank, Claudio; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Grieco, Rosa; Popoli, Patrizia

    2004-07-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are being regarded as potential neuroprotective drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their effects need to be better studied. The aim of this work was to investigate further the mechanism of the neuroprotective action of A(2A) receptor antagonists in models of pre- and postsynaptic excitotoxicity. In microdialysis studies, the intrastriatal perfusion of the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385 (5 and 50 nM) significantly reduced, in an inversely dose-dependent way, the raise in glutamate outflow induced by 5 mM quinolinic acid (QA). In rat corticostriatal slices, ZM 241385 (30-100 nM) significantly reduced 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced paired-pulse inhibition (PPI; an index of neurotransmitter release), whereas it worsened the depression of field potential amplitude elicited by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 12.5 and 50 microM). The A(2A) antagonist SCH 58261 (30 nM) mimicked the effects of ZM 241385, whereas the A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) showed a protective influence toward 50 microM NMDA. In rat striatal neurons, 50 nM ZM 241385 did not affect the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) or the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) induced by 100 and 300 microM NMDA, respectively. The ability of ZM 241385 to prevent QA-induced glutamate outflow and 4-AP-induced effects confirms that A(2A) receptor antagonists have inhibitory effects on neurotransmitter release, whereas the results obtained toward NMDA-induced effects suggest that A(2A) receptor blockade does not reduce, or even amplifies, excitotoxic mechanisms due to direct NMDA receptor stimulation. This indicates that the neuroprotective potential of A(2A) antagonists may be evident mainly in models of neurodegeneration in which presynaptic mechanisms play a major role.

  4. Initial evidence that GLP-1 receptor blockade fails to suppress postprandial satiety or promote food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Melhorn, Susan J; Tyagi, Vidhi; Smeraglio, Anne; Roth, Christian L; Schur, Ellen A

    2014-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has incretin effects that are well-documented, but the independent role of GLP-1 action in human satiety perception is debated. We hypothesized that blockade of GLP-1 receptors would suppress postprandial satiety and increase voluntary food intake. After an overnight fast, eight normal weight participants (seven men, BMI 19-24.7 kg/m(2), age 19-29 year) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the GLP-1 antagonist Exendin-[9-39] (Ex-9) to determine if the satiating effects of a meal are dependent on GLP-1 signaling in humans. Following a fasting blood draw, iv infusion of Ex-9 (600-750 pmol/kg/min) or saline began. Thirty minutes later, subjects consumed a standardized breakfast followed 90 min later (at the predicted time of maximal endogenous circulating GLP-1) by an ad libitum buffet meal to objectively measure satiety. Infusions ended once the buffet meal was complete. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger and fullness and serial assessments of plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 concentrations were done throughout the experiment. Contrary to the hypothesis, during Ex-9 infusion subjects reported a greater decrease in hunger due to consumption of the breakfast (Ex-9 -62 ± 5; placebo -41 ± 9; P=0.01) than during placebo. There were no differences in ad libitum caloric intake between Ex-9 and placebo. Ex-9 increased glucose, insulin, and endogenous GLP-1, which may have counteracted any effects of Ex-9 infusion to block satiety signaling. Blockade of GLP-1 receptors failed to suppress subjective satiety following a standardized meal or increase voluntary food intake in healthy, normal-weight subjects.

  5. 5-HT2 receptors mediate functional modulation of GABAa receptors and inhibitory synaptic transmissions in human iPS-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haitao; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Su, Zhenghui; Wang, Lihui; Pan, Guangjin; Guo, Yiping; He, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Neural progenitors differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) hold potentials for treating neurological diseases. Serotonin has potent effects on neuronal functions through multiple receptors, underlying a variety of neural disorders. Glutamate and GABA receptors have been proven functional in neurons differentiated from iPS, however, little is known about 5-HT receptor-mediated modulation in such neuronal networks. In the present study, human iPS were differentiated into cells possessing featured physiological properties of cortical neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to examine the involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in functional modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission. We found that serotonin and DOI (a selective agonist of 5-HT2A/C receptor) reversibly reduced GABA-activated currents, and this 5-HT2A/C receptor mediated inhibition required G protein, PLC, PKC, and Ca2+ signaling. Serotonin increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), which could be mimicked by α-methylserotonin, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist. In contrast, DOI reduced both frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs. These findings suggested that in iPS-derived human neurons serotonin postsynaptically reduced GABAa receptor function through 5-HT2A/C receptors, but presynaptically other 5-HT2 receptors counteracted the action of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Functional expression of serotonin receptors in human iPS-derived neurons provides a pre-requisite for their normal behaviors after grafting. PMID:26837719

  6. Lithium attenuated the behavioral despair induced by acute neurogenic stress through blockade of opioid receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Khaloo, Pegah; Sadeghi, Banafshe; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Zolfagharie, Samira; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Stressful events lead to depression and they can be used as a model of depression in rodents. In this study we aimed to investigate whether lithium modifies the stressed-induced depression through blockade of opioid receptors in mice. We used foot shock stress as stressor and forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) to evaluation the behavioral responses in mice. We also used naltrexone hydrochloride (as opioid receptor antagonist), and morphine (as opioid receptor agonist). Our results displayed that foot-shock stress significantly increased the immobility time in TST and FST but it could not change the locomotor behavior in OFT. When we combined the low concentrations of lithium and naltrexone a significant reduction in immobility time was seen in the FST and TST in comparison with control foot-shock stressed group administered saline only. Despite the fact that our data showed low concentrations of lithium, when administered independently did not significantly affect the immobility time. Also our data indicated that concurrent administration of lithium and naltrexone had no effect on open field test. Further we demonstrated that simultaneous administration of morphine and lithium reverses the antidepressant like effect of active doses of lithium. Our data acclaimed that we lithium can augment stressed-induced depression and opioid pathways are involved in this action.

  7. Acute and chronic systemic CB1 cannabinoid receptor blockade improves blood pressure regulation and metabolic profile in hypertensive (mRen2)27 rats.

    PubMed

    Schaich, Chris L; Shaltout, Hossam A; Brosnihan, K Bridget; Howlett, Allyn C; Diz, Debra I

    2014-08-01

    We investigated acute and chronic effects of CB1 cannabinoid receptor blockade in renin-angiotensin system-dependent hypertension using rimonabant (SR141716A), an orally active antagonist with central and peripheral actions. In transgenic (mRen2)27 rats, a model of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension with increased body mass and insulin resistance, acute systemic blockade of CB1 receptors significantly reduced blood pressure within 90 min but had no effect in Sprague-Dawley rats. No changes in metabolic hormones occurred with the acute treatment. During chronic CB1 receptor blockade, (mRen2)27 rats received daily oral administration of SR141716A (10 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced within 24 h, and at Day 21 of treatment values were 173 mmHg in vehicle versus 149 mmHg in drug-treated rats (P < 0.01). This accompanied lower cumulative weight gain (22 vs. 42 g vehicle; P < 0.001), fat mass (2.0 vs. 2.9% of body weight; P < 0.05), and serum leptin (2.8 vs. 6.0 ng/mL; P < 0.05) and insulin (1.0 vs. 1.9 ng/mL; P < 0.01), following an initial transient decrease in food consumption. Conscious hemodynamic recordings indicate twofold increases occurred in spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (P < 0.05) and heart rate variability (P < 0.01), measures of cardiac vagal tone. The beneficial actions of CB1 receptor blockade in (mRen2)27 rats support the interpretation that an upregulated endocannabinoid system contributes to hypertension and impaired autonomic function in this angiotensin II-dependent model. We conclude that systemic CB1 receptor blockade may be an effective therapy for angiotensin II-dependent hypertension and associated metabolic syndrome.

  8. Blockade of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand death receptor DR5 prevents beta-amyloid neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Daniela; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Bonini, Sara Anna; Sarnico, Ilenia; Benarese, Marina; Pizzi, Marina; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta; Binetti, Giuliano; Spano, PierFranco; Facchetti, Fabio; Memo, Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    We originally suggested that inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) death pathway could be taken into consideration as a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, because the critical role of TRAIL in immune surveillance, the neutralization of TRAIL protein by an antibody to prevent its binding to death receptors is definitely a risky approach. Here, we demonstrated that the blockade of the TRAIL death receptor DR5 with a specific antibody completely prevented amyloid beta peptide (A beta) neurotoxicity in both neuronal cell line and primary cortical neurons. DR5 was demonstrated to be a key factor in TRAIL death pathway. In fact, whereas TRAIL expression was enhanced dose-dependently by concentrations of beta amyloid ranging from 10 nM to 1 microM, only the highest toxic dose of A beta (25 microM) induced the increased expression of DR5 and neuronal cell death. In addition, the increased expression of DR5 receptor after beta amyloid treatment was sustained by p53 transcriptional activity, as demonstrated by the data showing that the p53 inhibitor Pifithrin alpha prevented both beta amyloid-induced DR5 induction and cell death. These data suggest a sequential activation of p53 and DR5 upon beta amyloid exposure. Further insight into the key role of DR5 in AD was suggested by data showing a significant increase of DR5 receptor in cortical slices of AD brain. Thus, these findings may give intracellular TRAIL pathway a role in AD pathophysiology, making DR5 receptor a possible candidate as a pharmacological target.

  9. GRK2 blockade with βARKct is essential for cardiac β2-adrenergic receptor signaling towards increased contractility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background β1- and β2–adrenergic receptors (ARs) play distinct roles in the heart, e.g. β1AR is pro-contractile and pro-apoptotic but β2AR anti-apoptotic and only weakly pro-contractile. G protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-2 desensitizes and opposes βAR pro-contractile signaling by phosphorylating the receptor and inducing beta-arrestin (βarr) binding. We posited herein that GRK2 blockade might enhance the pro-contractile signaling of the β2AR subtype in the heart. We tested the effects of cardiac-targeted GRK2 inhibition in vivo exclusively on β2AR signaling under normal conditions and in heart failure (HF). Results We crossed β1AR knockout (B1KO) mice with cardiac-specific transgenic mice expressing the βARKct, a known GRK2 inhibitor, and studied the offspring under normal conditions and in post-myocardial infarction (MI). βARKct expression in vivo proved essential for β2AR-dependent contractile function, as β2AR stimulation with isoproterenol fails to increase contractility in either healthy or post-MI B1KO mice and it only does so in the presence of βARKct. The main underlying mechanism for this is blockade of the interaction of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4D with the cardiac β2AR, which is normally mediated by the actions of GRK2 and βarrs on the receptor. The molecular “brake” that PDE4D poses on β2AR signaling to contractility stimulation is thus “released”. Regarding the other beneficial functions of cardiac β2AR, βARKct increased overall survival of the post-MI B1KO mice progressing to HF, via a decrease in cardiac apoptosis and an increase in wound healing-associated inflammation early (at 24 hrs) post-MI. However, these effects disappear by 4 weeks post-MI, and, in their place, upregulation of the other major GRK in the heart, GRK5, is observed. Conclusions GRK2 inhibition in vivo with βARKct is absolutely essential for cardiac β2AR pro-contractile signaling and function. In addition, β2AR anti-apoptotic signaling in

  10. Measuring specific receptor binding of a PET radioligand in human brain without pharmacological blockade: The genomic plot.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Mattia; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Innis, Robert B; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2016-04-15

    PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i.e. a region devoid of any specific binding, is available. Many receptors are however widely expressed across the brain, and a true reference region is rarely available. In these cases, the nonspecific binding can be obtained after competitive pharmacological blockade, which is often contraindicated in humans. In this work we introduce the genomic plot for estimating the nondisplaceable fraction using baseline scans only. The genomic plot is a transformation of the Lassen graphical method in which the brain maps of mRNA transcripts of the target receptor obtained from the Allen brain atlas are used as a surrogate measure of the specific binding. Thus, the genomic plot allows the calculation of the specific and nondisplaceable components of radioligand uptake without the need of pharmacological blockade. We first assessed the statistical properties of the method with computer simulations. Then we sought ground-truth validation using human PET datasets of seven different neuroreceptor radioligands, where nonspecific fractions were either obtained separately using drug displacement or available from a true reference region. The population nondisplaceable fractions estimated by the genomic plot were very close to those measured by actual human blocking studies (mean relative difference between 2% and 7%). However, these estimates were valid only when mRNA expressions were predictive of protein levels (i

  11. Measuring specific receptor binding of a PET radioligand in human brain without pharmacological blockade: The genomic plot

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, Mattia; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Innis, Robert B.; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i.e. a region devoid of any specific binding, is available. Many receptors are however widely expressed across the brain, and a true reference region is rarely available. In these cases, the nonspecific binding can be obtained after competitive pharmacological blockade, which is often contraindicated in humans. In this work we introduce the genomic plot for estimating the nondisplaceable fraction using baseline scans only. The genomic plot is a transformation of the Lassen graphical method in which the brain maps of mRNA transcripts of the target receptor obtained from the Allen brain atlas are used as a surrogate measure of the specific binding. Thus, the genomic plot allows the calculation of the specific and nondisplaceable components of radioligand uptake without the need of pharmacological blockade. We first assessed the statistical properties of the method with computer simulations. Then we sought ground-truth validation using human PET datasets of seven different neuroreceptor radioligands, where nonspecific fractions were either obtained separately using drug displacement or available from a true reference region. The population nondisplaceable fractions estimated by the genomic plot were very close to those measured by actual human blocking studies (mean relative difference between 2% and 7%). However, these estimates were valid only when mRNA expressions were predictive of protein levels (i

  12. Effect of blockade of postsynaptic H1 or H2 receptors or activation of presynaptic H3 receptors on catecholamine-induced stimulation of ACTH and prolactin secretion.

    PubMed

    Willems, E; Knigge, U; Jorgensen, H; Kjaer, A; Warberg, J

    2000-06-01

    The effect of inhibition of the neuronal histaminergic system by blockade of postsynaptic H1 or H2 receptors or activation of presynaptic H3 autoreceptors on the ACTH and prolactin responses to the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine was investigated in conscious male rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulated ACTH and prolactin secretion. Prior intracerebroventricular infusion of the H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine, or the H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, had no effect on the ACTH response to epinephrine or norepinephrine, while these responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the H3 receptor agonist, imetit. The prolactin response to norepinephrine was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with mepyramine, cimetidine or imetit whereas the three histaminergic compounds had no effect on the prolactin response to epinephrine. The findings suggest that the histaminergic system exerts a mediating or permissive action on the norepinephrine-induced stimulation of prolactin secretion, whereas an intact histaminergic system may not be required for catecholamines to stimulate ACTH secretion. The inhibitory effect of imetit on catecholamine-induced release of ACTH may be due to an activation of H3 receptors located presynaptically on non-histaminergic neurons, e.g. aminergic neurons. The study further indicates an important role of histamine in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin secretion.

  13. A2B adenosine receptor blockade enhances macrophage-mediated bacterial phagocytosis and improves polymicrobial sepsis survival in mice.

    PubMed

    Belikoff, Bryan G; Hatfield, Stephen; Georgiev, Peter; Ohta, Akio; Lukashev, Dmitriy; Buras, Jon A; Remick, Daniel G; Sitkovsky, Michail

    2011-02-15

    Antimicrobial treatment strategies must improve to reduce the high mortality rates in septic patients. In noninfectious models of acute inflammation, activation of A2B adenosine receptors (A2BR) in extracellular adenosine-rich microenvironments causes immunosuppression. We examined A2BR in antibacterial responses in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Antagonism of A2BR significantly increased survival, enhanced bacterial phagocytosis, and decreased IL-6 and MIP-2 (a CXC chemokine) levels after CLP in outbred (ICR/CD-1) mice. During the CLP-induced septic response in A2BR knockout mice, hemodynamic parameters were improved compared with wild-type mice in addition to better survival and decreased plasma IL-6 levels. A2BR deficiency resulted in a dramatic 4-log reduction in peritoneal bacteria. The mechanism of these improvements was due to enhanced macrophage phagocytic activity without augmenting neutrophil phagocytosis of bacteria. Following ex vivo LPS stimulation, septic macrophages from A2BR knockout mice had increased IL-6 and TNF-α secretion compared with wild-type mice. A therapeutic intervention with A2BR blockade was studied by using a plasma biomarker to direct therapy to those mice predicted to die. Pharmacological blockade of A2BR even 32 h after the onset of sepsis increased survival by 65% in those mice predicted to die. Thus, even the late treatment with an A2BR antagonist significantly improved survival of mice (ICR/CD-1) that were otherwise determined to die according to plasma IL-6 levels. Our findings of enhanced bacterial clearance and host survival suggest that antagonism of A2BRs offers a therapeutic target to improve macrophage function in a late treatment protocol that improves sepsis survival.

  14. Nogo receptor blockade overcomes remyelination failure after white matter stroke and stimulates functional recovery in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Sozmen, Elif G.; Rosenzweig, Shira; Llorente, Irene L.; DiTullio, David J.; Machnicki, Michal; Vinters, Harry V.; Havton, Lief A.; Giger, Roman J.; Hinman, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    White matter stroke is a distinct stroke subtype, accounting for up to 25% of stroke and constituting the second leading cause of dementia. The biology of possible tissue repair after white matter stroke has not been determined. In a mouse stroke model, white matter ischemia causes focal damage and adjacent areas of axonal myelin disruption and gliosis. In these areas of only partial damage, local white matter progenitors respond to injury, as oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) proliferate. However, OPCs fail to mature into oligodendrocytes (OLs) even in regions of demyelination with intact axons and instead divert into an astrocytic fate. Local axonal sprouting occurs, producing an increase in unmyelinated fibers in the corpus callosum. The OPC maturation block after white matter stroke is in part mediated via Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) signaling. In both aged and young adult mice, stroke induces NgR1 ligands and down-regulates NgR1 inhibitors during the peak OPC maturation block. Nogo ligands are also induced adjacent to human white matter stroke in humans. A Nogo signaling blockade with an NgR1 antagonist administered after stroke reduces the OPC astrocytic transformation and improves poststroke oligodendrogenesis in mice. Notably, increased white matter repair in aged mice is translated into significant poststroke motor recovery, even when NgR1 blockade is provided during the chronic time points of injury. These data provide a perspective on the role of NgR1 ligand function in OPC fate in the context of a specific and common type of stroke and show that it is amenable to systemic intervention to promote recovery. PMID:27956620

  15. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor blockade on ependymoma stem cells in vitro and in orthotopic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Servidei, Tiziana; Meco, Daniela; Trivieri, Nadia; Patriarca, Valentina; Vellone, Valerio Gaetano; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Lamorte, Giuseppe; Pallini, Roberto; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Some lines of evidence suggest that tumors, including ependymoma, might arise from a subpopulation of cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), with self-renewal and tumor-initiation properties. Given the strict dependence of CSCs on epidermal growth factor (EGF) through EGF receptor (EGFR), we investigated the effects of EGFR inhibitors in ependymoma-stem cells (SCs) in vitro and in orthotopic mouse models. We established two ependymoma-SC lines from two recurrent pediatric ependymoma. Both lines expressed markers of radial glia--the candidate SCs of ependymoma--and showed renewal ability, multipotency, and tumorigenicity after orthotopic implantation, despite markedly different expression of CD133 (94 vs. 6%). High phosphorylated-EGFR/EGFR ratio was detected, which decreased after differentiation. EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib and AEE788) reduced clonogenicity, proliferation and survival of ependymoma-SC lines dose-dependently, and blocked EGF-induced activation of EGFR, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Overall, AEE788 was more effective than gefitinib. EGFR blockade as well as differentiation strongly reduced CD133 expression. However, ex vivo treatment with AEE788 did not impair orthotopic tumor engraftment, whereas ex vivo differentiation did, suggesting that CD133 does not absolutely segregate for tumorigenicity in ependymoma-SCs. Orally administered AEE788 prolonged survival of mice bearing ependymoma-SC-driven orthotopic xenografts from 56 to 63 days, close to statistical significance (log-rank p=0.06). Our study describes for the first time EGFR signaling in ependymoma-SCs and the effects of EGFR blockade in complementary in vitro and in vivo systems. The experimental models we developed can be used to further investigate the activity of EGFR inhibitors or other antineoplastic agents in this tumor.

  16. The blockade of transient receptor potential ankirin 1 (TRPA1) signalling mediates antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Juliana Cavalcante; Noroes, Maíra Macedo; Rachetti, Vanessa de Paula Soares; Soares, Bruno Lobão; Preti, Delia; Nassini, Romina; Materazzi, Serena; Marone, Ilaria Maddalena; Minocci, Daiana; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Gavioli, Elaine Cristina; André, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) are involved in many biological processes, including nociception and hyperalgesia. Whereas the involvement of TRPV1 in psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression has been reported, little is known regarding the role of TRPA1 in these conditions. Experimental Approach We investigated the role of TRPA1 in mice models of depression [forced swimming test (FST)] and anxiety [elevated plus maze (EPM) test]. Key Results Administration of the TRPA1 antagonist (HC030031, 30 nmol in 2 μL, i.c.v.) reduced immobility time in the FST. Similar results were obtained after oral administration of HC030031 (30–300 mg·kg−1). The reduction in immobility time in FST induced by HC030031 (100 mg·kg−1) was completely prevented by pretreatment with TRPA1 agonist, cinnamaldehyde (50 mg·kg−1, p.o.), which per se was inactive. In the EPM test, pretreatment with cinnamaldehyde (50 mg·kg−1, p.o.), which per se did not affect behaviour response, prevented the anxiolytic-like effect (increased open arm exploration) evoked by TRPA1 blockade (HC030031, 100 mg·kg−1, p.o.). Treatment with either cinnamaldehyde or HC030031 did not affect spontaneous ambulation. Furthermore, TRPA1-deficient mice showed anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like phenotypes in the FST and EPM test respectively. Conclusion and Implications The present findings indicate that genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of TRPA1 produces inhibitory activity in mouse models of anxiety and depression. These results imply that TRPA1 exerts tonic control, promoting anxiety and depression, and that TRPA1 antagonism has potential as an innovative strategy for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:24846744

  17. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  18. Angiotensin type 1 receptor resistance to blockade in the opossum proximal tubule cell due to variations in the binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Nistala, Ravi; Andresen, Bradley T; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Meuth, Alex; Sinak, Catherine; Mandavia, Chirag; Thekkumkara, Thomas; Speth, Robert C; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R

    2013-04-15

    Blockade of the angiotensin (ANG) II receptor type 1 (AT(1)R) with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is widely used in the treatment of hypertension. However, ARBs are variably effective in reducing blood pressure, likely due, in part, to polymorphisms in the ARB binding pocket of the AT(1)R. Therefore, we need a better understanding of variations/polymorphisms that alter binding of ARBs in heterogeneous patient populations. The opossum proximal tubule cell (OKP) line is commonly used in research to evaluate renal sodium handling and therefore blood pressure. Investigating this issue, we found natural sequence variations in the opossum AT(1)R paralleling those observed in the human AT(1)R. Therefore, we posited that these sequence variations may explain ARB resistance. We demonstrate that OKP cells express AT(1)R mRNA, bind (125)I-labeled ANG II, and exhibit ANG II-induced phosphorylation of Jak2. However, Jak2 phosphorylation is not inhibited by five different ARBs commonly used to treat hypertension. Additionally, nonradioactive ANG II competes (125)I-ANG II efficiently, whereas a 10-fold molar excess of olmesartan and the ANG II receptor type 2 blocker PD-123319 is unable to block (125)I-ANG II binding. In contrast, ANG II binding to OKP cells stably expressing rat AT(1A)Rs, which have a conserved AT(1)R-binding pocket with human AT(1)R, is efficiently inhibited by olmesartan. A novel observation was that resistance to ARB binding to opossum AT(1)Rs correlates with variations from the human receptor at positions 108, 163, 192, and 198 within the ARB-binding pocket. These observations highlight the potential utility of evaluating AT(1)R polymorphisms within the ARB-binding pocket in various hypertensive populations.

  19. Muscarinic, but not nicotinic, acetylcholine receptor blockade in the ventral tegmental area attenuates cue-induced sucrose-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Addy, Nii A.; Nunes, Eric J.; Wickham, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is known to play a role in cue-mediated reward-seeking for natural rewards and drugs of abuse. Specifically, cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been shown to regulate cue-induced drug-seeking. However, the potential role of these VTA receptors in regulating cue-induced reward seeking for natural rewards is unknown. Here, we examined whether blockade of VTA acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) would alter cue-induced sucrose seeking in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects underwent 10 days of sucrose self-administration training (fixed ratio 1 schedule) followed by 7 days of forced abstinence. On withdrawal day 7, rats received bilateral VTA infusion of vehicle, the muscarinic AChR antagonist scopolamine (2.4 or 24 μg/side), the nicotinic AChR antagonist mecamylamine (3 or 30 μg/side), or the NMDAR antagonist AP-5 (0.1 or 1 μg/side) immediately prior to examination of cue-induced sucrose-seeking. Scopolamine infusion led to robust attenuation, but did not completely block, sucrose-seeking behavior. In contrast, VTA administration of mecamylamine or AP-5 did not alter cue-induced sucrose-seeking. Together, the data suggest that VTA muscarinic AChRs, but not nicotinic AChRs nor NMDARs, facilitate the ability of food-associated cues to drive seeking behavior for a food reward. PMID:26026787

  20. TNF-alpha blockade by a dimeric TNF type I receptor molecule selectively inhibits adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Colagiovanni, D B; Suniga, M A; Frazier, J L; Edwards, C K; Fleshner, M; McCay, J A; White, K L; Shopp, G M

    2000-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a mediator of severe inflammatory processes, including rheumatoid arthritis. Suppression of TNF with a soluble type I or type II receptor molecule (TNF-RI or TNF-RII) has the potential to decrease cytokine levels and modulate inflammatory diseases in humans. However, it has recently been reported that treatment of mice with a TNF-RI:Fc immunoadhesin protein augmented Gram positive infections and subsequent mortality. To determine if TNF-alpha blockade with soluble TNF-alpha receptors might alter immune system function, assays were assessed in rodents treated with a dimeric form of the p55 TNF-RI, Tumor Necrosis Factor-binding protein (TNFbp). Administration of TNFbp resulted in suppression of primary and secondary IgG antibody responses and cell-mediated immune function. No treatment-related differences were detected in immune-enhancing assays or non-specific immune function parameters. Bacterial host resistance assays with Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli showed an increase in tissue colony counts only with L. monocytogenes challenged animals following TNFbp administration. These results suggest that TNFbp has the capacity to inhibit adaptive immune function in experimental animal models. Studies suggest that while reducing TNF-alpha is important in controlling cytokine-dependent disease states, maintenance of a threshold level may be critical for normal immune function.

  1. Dual Endothelin Receptor Blockade Abrogates Right Ventricular Remodeling and Biventricular Fibrosis in Isolated Elevated Right Ventricular Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Eva Amalie; Sun, Mei; Honjo, Osami; Hjortdal, Vibeke E.; Redington, Andrew N.; Friedberg, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension is usually fatal due to right ventricular failure and is frequently associated with co-existing left ventricular dysfunction. Endothelin-1 is a powerful pro-fibrotic mediator and vasoconstrictor that is elevated in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Endothelin receptor blockers are commonly used as pulmonary vasodilators, however their effect on biventricular injury, remodeling and function, despite elevated isolated right ventricular afterload is unknown. Methods Elevated right ventricular afterload was induced by progressive pulmonary artery banding. Seven rabbits underwent pulmonary artery banding without macitentan; 13 received pulmonary artery banding + macitentan; and 5 did not undergo inflation of the pulmonary artery band (sham-operated controls). Results: Right and left ventricular collagen content was increased with pulmonary artery banding compared to sham-operated controls and ameliorated by macitentan. Right ventricular fibrosis signaling (connective tissue growth factor and endothelin-1 protein levels); extra-cellular matrix remodeling (matrix-metalloproteinases 2 and 9), apoptosis and apoptosis-related peptides (caspases 3 and 8) were increased with pulmonary artery banding compared with sham-operated controls and decreased with macitentan. Conclusion Isolated right ventricular afterload causes biventricular fibrosis, right ventricular apoptosis and extra cellular matrix remodeling, mediated by up-regulation of endothelin-1 and connective tissue growth factor signaling. These pathological changes are ameliorated by dual endothelin receptor blockade despite persistent elevated right ventricular afterload. PMID:26765263

  2. Monoclonal antibody that inhibits infection of HeLa and rhabdomyosarcoma cells by selected enteroviruses through receptor blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, R.L.; Field, A.K.; Schleif, W.A.; Long, W.L.; Colonno, R.J.; Mapoles, J.E.; Emini, E. A.

    1986-02-01

    BALB/c mice were immunized with HeLa cells, and their spleen cells were fused with myeloma cells to produce hybridomas. Initial screening of culture fluids from 800 fusion products in a cell protection assay against coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) and the CB3-RD virus variant yielded five presumptive monoclonal antibodies with three specificities: (i) protection against CB3 on HeLa, (ii) protection against CB3-RD on rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, and (iii) protection against both viruses on the respective cells. Only one of the monoclonal antibodies (with dual specificity) survived two subclonings and was studied in detail. The antibody was determined to have an immunoglobulin G2a isotype and protected cells by blockade of cellular receptors, since attachment of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled CB3 was inhibited by greater than 90%. The monoclonal antibody protected HeLa cells against infection by CB1, CB3, CB5, echovirus 6, and coxsackievirus A21 and RD cells against CB1-RD, CB3-RD, and CB5-Rd virus variants. The monoclonal antibody did not protect either cell type against 16 other immunotypes of picornaviruses. The monoclonal antibody produced only positive fluorescence on those cells which were protected against infection, and /sup 125/I-labeled antibody confirmed the specific binding to HeLa and RD cells. The results suggest that this monoclonal antibody possesses some of the receptor specificity of the group B coxsackieviruses.

  3. In vivo blockade of thalamic GABA(B) receptors increases excitatory amino-acid levels.

    PubMed

    Nyitrai, G; Emri, Z; Crunelli, V; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, A; Juhász, G

    1996-12-30

    The effect of intrathalamic application of GABA(B) receptor antagonists on the basal excitatory amino-acid levels was studied using microdialysis probes implanted in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and in the ventrobasal complex. In both nuclei, continuous perfusion of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl-(diethoxymethyl)-phosphinic acid (CGP 35348) produced an increase in the extracellular concentration of aspartate and (to a lesser extent) glutamate, but no change was observed in the level of taurine, the main amino acid involved in the regulation of brain osmolarity processes. In contrast, 3-amino-2-hydroxy-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-propanesulphonic acid (2-hydroxy-saclofen), another GABA(B) receptor antagonist, failed to affect the extracellular concentration of aspartate, glutamate and taurine. Thus, the basal level of excitatory amino acids in the thalamus in vivo is under the control of CGP 35348-sensitive GABA(B) receptors.

  4. Opioid receptor blockade and warmth-liking: effects on interpersonal trust and frontal asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Desirée; Stemmler, Gerhard; Burgdorf, Christin; Wacker, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The emotion 'warmth-liking' (WL) associated with feelings of affection and acceptance is regularly activated in social contexts. WL has been suggested to be more closely related to the consummatory phase of post-goal attainment positive affect than to pre-goal attainment positive affect/approach motivation and to be partly mediated by brain opioids. To validate these assumptions we employed film/imagery to induce either a neutral emotional state or WL in female participants after intake of either placebo or the opioid antagonist naltrexone. Dependent variables were emotion self-report, interpersonal trust (TRUST, i.e. a behavioral indicator of WL) and frontal asymmetry (i.e. an electroencephalogram (EEG) indicator of approach motivation/behavioral activation). We found that participants reported more WL in the placebo/WL group than in the placebo/neutral group and both naltrexone groups. In addition, TRUST increased in the WL group after placebo, but not after naltrexone, and this pattern was reversed in the neutral control groups. Consequently, opioid blockade suppressed or even reversed the effects of the WL induction on the levels of self-report and behavior, respectively. In addition, we observed reduced relative left-frontal asymmetry in the WL (vs neutral) group, consistent with reduced approach motivation. Overall, these results suggest opioidergic influences on WL and TRUST and reduced approach motivation/behavioral activation for the positive emotion WL.

  5. 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A/2C receptors of nucleus raphe magnus and gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis pars α reticular nuclei modulate the unconditioned fear-induced antinociception evoked by electrical stimulation of deep layers of the superior colliculus and dorsal periaqueductal grey matter.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; da Silva Soares, Raimundo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2017-01-01

    The electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral columns of the periaquedutal grey matter (dlPAG) or deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC) evokes defensive behaviours followed by an antinociceptive response. Monoaminergic brainstem reticular nuclei are suggested to comprise the endogenous pain modulatory system. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role played by 5-HT2 subfamily of serotonergic receptors of the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis pars α reticular nuclei (Gi/PGiα) in the elaboration of instinctive fear-induced antinociception elicited by electrical stimulation of dlPAG or of dlSC. The nociceptive thresholds were measured by the tail-flick test in Wistar rats. The 5-HT2A/2C-serotonergic receptors antagonist ritanserin was microinjected at different concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 5.0μg/0.2μL) either in Gi/PGiα or in NRM. The blockade of 5-HT2 receptors in both Gi/PGiα and NRM decreased the innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by electrical stimulation of the dlSC or the dlPAG. These findings indicate that serotonin is involved in the hypo-algesia induced by unconditioned fear-induced behavioural responses and the 5-HT2A/2C-serotonergic receptor subfamily in neurons situated in the Gi/PGiα complex and NRM are critically recruited in pain modulation during the panic-like emotional behaviour.

  6. The effect of blockade of dopamine receptors on the inhibition of episodic luteinizing hormone release during electrical stimulation of the arcuate nucleus in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Gallo, R V

    1978-04-01

    This study examined the possible involvement of dopamine (DA) in mediating the inhibition of episodic LH release that occurs during electrical stimulation of the arcuate nucleus (ARH) in ovariectomized rats. Animals were treated before stimulation with pimozide (1.26--2.0 mg/kg) or d-butaclamol (1 mg/kg), blockers of DA receptors, or l-butaclamol. Apomorphine, which inhibits episodic LH release by activating DA receptors, was given near the end of the experiment to determine if these receptors were blocked. ARH stimulation suppressed pulsatile LH release in six rats when DA receptors were not blocked by pimozide (as well as two in which blockade was not tested). A transient increase occurred in one other animal. When DA receptors were blocked by pimozide, stimulation of the ARH inhibited episodic LH release in nine rats, suggesting that DA may have no role in mediating this inhibition. However, because increased LH release occurred in five additional animals, as well as in one with partial receptor blockade, the possibility remains that DA may perhaps have a minor role in this inhibitory response. Although ARH stimulation increased LH release after DA receptor blockade by d-butaclamol, this effect could not be ascribed to the DA antagonist property of this agent, because elevated blood LH levels also occurred during stimulation in rats treated with l-butaclamol, in which DA receptors were not blocked. d- and l-butaclamol may possess a non-stereospecific action on a non-dopaminergic event, thus reversing the response to ARH stimulation. Finally, whether DA receptors were blocked or not by pimozide, d-, or l-butaclamol, activation of the ventromedial hypothalamic and periventricular nucleus regions suppressed episodic LH release, but did not increase LH secretion. This suggests that the region through which stimulation can inhibit, but not increase, LH release may extend in the hypothalamus to these two areas.

  7. Effects of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 on learning consolidation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2001-01-08

    The 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro-04-6790 or 8-OH-DPAT injection improved learning consolidation on an autoshaping task, while mCPP, scopolamine and dizocilpine decreased the performance. The effect induced by scopolamine, but not that induced by mCPP, was reversed completely by Ro-04-6790, while dizocilpine effect was antagonized partially. Nevertheless, ritanserin or WAY 100635, but not Ro 04-6790, antagonized the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effects on learning consolidation. As WAY 100635 did not modify the Ro 04-6790 facilitatory effect, hence 5-HT(1A), and/or 5-HT(7), but not 5-HT(6), receptors might mediate the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effect on learning consolidation. Since, the Ro 04-6790 facilitatory effect was unaffected by 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A)/(2B)/(2C), 5-HT(3) or 5-HT(4) receptor blockade, thereby, the facilitatory effect induced by Ro 04-6790 involved specifically 5-HT(6) receptors. Indeed, the present data provide further support to the notion that, 5-HT(6) receptors play a significant part in the learning consolidation under normal and dysfunctional memory conditions.

  8. Selective blockade of the endothelin subtype A receptor decreases early atherosclerosis in hamsters fed cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Kowala, M. C.; Rose, P. M.; Stein, P. D.; Goller, N.; Recce, R.; Beyer, S.; Valentine, M.; Barton, D.; Durham, S. K.

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that endothelin and its receptors may be involved in atherogenesis. To test this hypothesis, cholesterol-fed hamsters were treated with a selective endothelin subtype A (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS-182874. Characterization of hamster atherosclerotic plaques indicated that they contained a fibrous cap of smooth muscle cells, large macrophage-foam cells, and epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein. Messenger RNA for both ETA and ETB receptors was detected in aortic endothelial cells, in medial smooth muscle cells, and in macrophage-foam cells and smooth muscle cells of the fibro-fatty plaques. BMS-182874 inhibited the endothelin-1-induced pressor response whereas the depressor effect was unaltered, suggesting that vascular ETA receptors were selectively blocked in vivo. In hyperlipidemic hamsters, BMS-182874 decreased the area of the fatty streak by reducing the number and size of macrophage-foam cells. The results indicated that ETA receptors and thus endothelin promoted the early inflammatory phase of atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7717449

  9. Novel insights into the potential involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in endocrine dysregulation in stress-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Terrón, José A

    2014-01-01

    A hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a common feature of stress-related disorders, and the brain serotonin (5-HT) system plays a major role in HPA axis modulation. Glucocorticoids and stress profoundly affect the 5-HT system so it is possible that alterations of endocrine 5-HT mechanisms may underlie HPA axis overdrive in stress-related diseases. Available evidence suggests a role of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A/2C and 5-HT7 receptors in HPA system activation, and pharmacological blockade of 5-HT7 receptors produces a fast-acting antidepressant-like action and shortens the onset of antidepressant-like effects of various classes of antidepressants. The mechanisms involved in this effect have not been elucidated, but recent findings suggest a role of 5-HT7 receptors in the development of HPA axis overdrive as a result of chronic stress. Remarkably, clinical findings have shown an association between corticosteroid-producing adenomas and expression of ectopic 5-HT7 receptors in corticosteroid-producing adrenocortical cells. These observations might therefore reveal an endocrine mechanism for the antidepressant-like action of 5-HT7 receptor blockers, possibly through normalization of HPA axis function. If such a preliminary hypothesis is confirmed, the potential therapeutic usefulness of 5-HT7 receptor antagonists could extend beyond depression to include other diseases, the pathophysiology of which has been associated with chronic stress and HPA axis dysregulation.

  10. Combined blockade of angiotensin II and prorenin receptors ameliorates podocytic apoptosis induced by IgA-activated mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joseph C K; Chan, Loretta Y Y; Saleem, M A; Mathieson, P W; Tang, Sydney C W; Lai, Kar Neng

    2015-07-01

    Glomerulo-podocytic communication plays an important role in the podocytic injury in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). In this study, we examine the role of podocytic angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT1R) and prorenin receptor (PRR) in podocytic apoptosis in IgAN. Polymeric IgA (pIgA) was isolated from patients with IgAN and healthy controls. Conditioned media were prepared from growth arrested human mesangial cells (HMC) incubated with pIgA from patients with IgAN (IgA-HMC media) or healthy controls (Ctl-HMC media). A human podocyte cell line was used as a model to examine the regulation of the expression of AT1R, PRR, TNF-α and CTGF by IgA-HMC media. Podocytic nephrin expression, annexin V binding and caspase 3 activity were used as the functional readout of podocytic apoptosis. IgA-HMC media had no effect on AngII release by podocytes. IgA-HMC media significantly up-regulated the expression of AT1R and PRR, down-regulated nephrin expression and induced apoptosis in podocytes. Mono-blockade of AT1R, PRR, TNF-α or CTGF partially reduced podocytic apoptosis. IgA-HMC media activated NFκB, notch1 and HEY1 expression by podocytes and dual blockade of AT1R with PRR, or anti-TNF-α with anti-CTGF, effectively rescued the podocytic apoptosis induced by IgA-HMC media. Our data suggests that pIgA-activated HMC up-regulates the expression of AT1R and PRR expression by podocytes and the associated activation of NFκB and notch signalling pathways play an essential role in the podocytic apoptosis induced by glomerulo-podocytic communication in IgAN. Simultaneously targeting the AT1R and PRR could be a potential therapeutic option to reduce the podocytic injury in IgAN.

  11. NR2B receptor blockade inhibits pain-related sensitization of amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guangchen; Horváth, Csilla; Neugebauer, Volker

    2009-04-28

    Pain-related sensitization and synaptic plasticity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) depend on the endogenous activation of NMDA receptors and phosphorylation of the NR1 subunit through a PKA-dependent mechanism. Functional NMDA receptors are heteromeric assemblies of NR1 with NR2A-D or NR3A, B subunits. NMDA receptors composed of NR1 and NR2B subunits have been implicated in neuroplasticity and are present in the CeA. Here we used a selective NR2B antagonist (Ro-256981) to determine the contribution of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors to pain-related sensitization of CeA neurons. Extracellular single-unit recordings were made from CeA neurons in anesthetized adult male rats before and during the development of an acute arthritis. Arthritis was induced in one knee joint by intraarticular injections of kaolin and carrageenan. Brief (15 s) mechanical stimuli of innocuous (100-500 g/30 mm2) and noxious (1000-2000 g/30 mm2) intensity were applied to the knee and other parts of the body. In agreement with our previous studies, all CeA neurons developed increased background and evoked activity after arthritis induction. Ro-256981 (1, 10 and 100 muM; 15 min each) was administered into the CeA by microdialysis 5-6 h postinduction of arthritis. Ro-256981 concentration-dependently decreased evoked responses, but not background activity. This pattern of effect is different from that of an NMDA receptor antagonist (AP5) in our previous studies. AP5 (100 microM - 5 mM) inhibited background activity and evoked responses. The differential effects of AP5 and Ro-256981 may suggest that NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit are important but not sole contributors to pain-related changes of CeA neurons.

  12. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Type A Receptor in Human and Rat Radiation Proctitis: Preclinical Therapeutic Approach With Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Jullien, Nicolash; Blirando, Karl; Milliat, Fabien; Benderitter, Marc; Francois, Agnes

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Rectum radiation damage and fibrosis are often associated with radiation therapy of pelvic tumors. The endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in several fibrotic diseases but never studied in the context of gastrointestinal radiation damage. This study assessed modifications in ET type 1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ET{sub A}), and ET type B receptor (ET{sub B}) localization and/or expression in irradiated human rectal tissue and in a rat model of delayed colorectal injury. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of long-term ET receptor blockade. Methods and Materials: Routine histological studies of sections of healthy and radiation-injured human rectum tissue were done; the sections were also immunostained for ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} receptors. The rat model involved the delivery of 27 Gy in a single dose to the colons and rectums of the animals. The ET-1/ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} expression and ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} localization were studied at 10 weeks postexposure. The abilities of bosentan and atrasentan to protect against delayed rectal injury were also investigated. Results: The immunolocalization of ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} in healthy human rectums was similar to that in rat rectums. However, strong ET{sub A} immunostaining was seen in the presence of human radiation proctitis, and increased ET{sub A} mRNA levels were seen in the rat following colorectal irradiation. Immunostaining for ET{sub A} was also strongly positive in rats in areas of radiation-induced mucosal ulceration, atypia, and fibroproliferation. However, neither bosentan nor atrasentan prevented radiation damage to the rectum when given long term. The only effect seen for atrasentan was an increased number of sclerotic vessel sections in injured tissues. Conclusions: As the result of the overexpression of ET{sub A}, radiation exposure deregulates the endothelin system through an 'ET{sub A} profile' in the human and rodent rectum. However, therapeutic interventions involving mixed or

  13. Systemic Blockade of D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Nissim, Helen A.; Barad, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear in animals is the explicit model of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Based on previous data indicating that fear extinction in rats is blocked by quinpirole, an agonist of dopamine D2 receptors, we hypothesized…

  14. Blockade of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors protects hippocampal neurons against global ischemia-induced death

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Kyung-Min; Yokota, Hidenori; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Castillo, Pablo E.; Zukin, R. Suzanne; Bennett, Michael V. L.

    2005-01-01

    Transient global or forebrain ischemia induced experimentally in animals can cause selective, delayed neuronal death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. A striking feature is a delayed rise in intracellular free Zn2+ in CA1 neurons just before the onset of histologically detectable cell death. Here we show that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) at Schaffer collateral to CA1 synapses in postischemic hippocampus exhibit properties of Ca2+/Zn2+-permeable, Glu receptor 2 (GluR2)-lacking AMPARs before the rise in Zn2+ and cell death. At 42 h after ischemia, AMPA excitatory postsynaptic currents exhibited pronounced inward rectification and marked sensitivity to 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine (Naspm), a selective channel blocker of GluR2-lacking AMPARs. In control hippocampus, AMPA excitatory postsynaptic currents were electrically linear and relatively insensitive to Naspm. Naspm injected intrahippocampally at 9-40 h after insult greatly reduced the late rise in intracellular free Zn2+ in postischemic CA1 neurons and afforded partial protection against ischemia-induced cell death. These results implicate GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors in the ischemia-induced rise in free Zn2+ and death of CA1 neurons, although a direct action at the time of the rise in Zn2+ is unproven. This receptor subtype appears to be an important therapeutic target for intervention in ischemia-induced neuronal death in humans. PMID:16093311

  15. Targeting β3-Adrenergic Receptors in the Heart: Selective Agonism and β-Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Cannavo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Cardiac diseases, such as heart failure, remain leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with myocardial infarction as the most common etiology. HF is characterized by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) dysregulation that is primarily due to the upregulation of G protein–coupled receptor kinases that leads to overdesensitization of β1 and β2ARs, and this clinically manifests as a loss of inotropic reserve. Interestingly, the “minor” βAR isoform, the β3AR, found in the heart, lacks G protein–coupled receptor kinases recognition sites, and is not subject to desensitization, and as a consequence of this, in human failing myocardium, the levels of this receptor remain unchanged or are even increased. In different preclinical studies, it has been shown that β3ARs can activate different signaling pathways that can protect the heart. The clinical relevance of this is also supported by the effects of β-blockers which are well known for their proangiogenic and cardioprotective effects, and data are emerging showing that these are mediated, at least in part, by enhancement of β3AR activity. In this regard, targeting of β3ARs could represent a novel potential strategy to improve cardiac metabolism, function, and remodeling. PMID:28170359

  16. Intra-Articular Blockade of P2X7 Receptor Reduces the Articular Hyperalgesia and Inflammation in the Knee Joint Synovitis Especially in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera

    2017-02-01

    Synovitis is a key factor in joint disease pathophysiology, which affects a greater proportion of women than men. P2X7 receptor activation contributes to arthritis, but whether it plays a role in articular inflammatory pain in a sex-dependent manner is unknown. We investigated whether the P2X7 receptor blockade in the knee joint of male and female rats reduces the articular hyperalgesia and inflammation induced by a carrageenan knee joint synovitis model. Articular hyperalgesia was quantified using the rat knee joint incapacitation test and the knee joint inflammation, characterized by the concentration of cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, and by neutrophil migration, was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by myeloperoxidase enzyme activity measurement, respectively. P2X7 receptor blockade by the articular coadministration of selective P2X7 receptor antagonist A740003 with carrageenan significantly reduced articular hyperalgesia, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations, and myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan injection into the knee joint of male and estrus female rats. However, a lower dose of P2X7 receptor antagonist was sufficient to significantly induce the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in estrus female but not in male rats. These results suggest that P2X7 receptor activation by endogenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate is essential to articular hyperalgesia and inflammation development in the knee joint of male and female rats. However, female rats are more responsive than male rats to the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects induced by P2X7 receptor blockade.

  17. Blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors in the striatum attenuates methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and reduces activation of the patch compartment.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kristen A; Logan, Mary Caroline; Fisher, Trevor J; Logue, Jordan B

    2017-02-05

    The behavioral effects of methamphetamine (METH) are mediated by the striatum, which is divided into the patch compartment, which mediates limbic and reward functions, and the matrix compartment, which mediates sensorimotor tasks. METH treatment results in repetitive behavior that is related to enhanced relative activation of the patch versus the matrix compartment. The patch, but not the matrix compartment contains a high density of μ opioid receptors, and localized blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors attenuates METH-induced patch-enhanced activity and repetitive behaviors. Numerous studies have examined patch-enhanced activity and the contribution of patch-associated μ opioid receptors to METH-induced repetitive behavior, but it is not known whether patch-enhanced activity occurs during METH-mediated reward, nor is it known if patch-based μ opioid receptors contribute to METH reward. The goals of this study were to determine if blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors alters METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), as well activation of the patch and matrix compartments following METH-mediated CPP. A biased conditioning paradigm was used to assess CPP, and conditioning occurred over an 8-d period. Animals were bilaterally infused in the striatum with the μ-specific antagonist CTAP or vehicle prior to conditioning. Animals were tested for preference 24h after the last day of conditioning, sacrificed and the brains processed for immunohistochemistry. Blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors reduced METH-induced CPP, and reduced patch-enhanced c-Fos expression in the striatum following METH-mediated CPP. These data indicate that patch-enhanced activity is associated with METH-mediated reward and patch-based μ opioid receptors contribute to this phenomenon.

  18. Interaction of psychoactive tryptamines with biogenic amine transporters and serotonin receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Blough, Bruce E.; Landavazo, Antonio; Decker, Ann M.; Partilla, John S.; Baumann, Michael H.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Synthetic hallucinogenic tryptamines, especially those originally described by Alexander Shulgin, continue to be abused in the United States. The range of subjective experiences produced by different tryptamines suggests that multiple neurochemical mechanisms are involved in their actions, in addition to the established role of agonist activity at serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptors. Objectives This study evaluated the interaction of a series of synthetic tryptamines with biogenic amine neurotransmitter transporters and with serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes implicated in psychedelic effects. Methods Neurotransmitter transporter activity was determined in rat brain synaptosomes. Receptor activity was determined using calcium mobilization and DiscoveRx PathHunter® assays in HEK293, Gα16-CHO, and CHOk1 cells transfected with human receptors. Results Twenty-one tryptamines were analyzed in transporter uptake and release assays, and 5-HT2A, serotonin 1A (5-HT1A), and 5-HT2A β-arrestin functional assays. Eight of the compounds were found to have 5-HT-releasing activity. Thirteen compounds were found to be 5-HT uptake inhibitors or were inactive. All tryptamines were 5-HT2A agonists with a range of potencies and efficacies, but only a few compounds were 5-HT1A agonists. Most tryptamines recruited β-arrestin through 5-HT2A activation. Conclusions All psychoactive tryptamines are 5-HT2A agonists, but 5-HT transporter (SERT) activity may contribute significantly to the pharmacology of certain compounds. The in vitro transporter data confirm structure-activity trends for releasers and uptake inhibitors whereby releasers tend to be structurally smaller compounds. Interestingly, two tertiary amines were found to be selective substrates at SERT, which dispels the notion that 5-HT-releasing activity is limited only to primary or secondary amines. PMID:24800892

  19. Blockade of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 promotes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Fei; Zhang, Hong; Qi, Chao; Gao, Mei-ling; Wang, Hong; Li, Xia-qing

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) provides the sensation of pain (nociception). However, it remains unknown whether TRPV1 is activated after peripheral nerve injury, or whether activation of TRPV1 affects neural regeneration. In the present study, we established rat models of unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, with or without pretreatment with AMG517 (300 mg/kg), a TRPV1 antagonist, injected subcutaneously into the ipsilateral paw 60 minutes before injury. At 1 and 2 weeks after injury, we performed immunofluorescence staining of the sciatic nerve at the center of injury, at 0.3 cm proximal and distal to the injury site, and in the dorsal root ganglia. Our results showed that Wallerian degeneration occurred distal to the injury site, and neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell regeneration occurred proximal to the injury. The number of regenerating myelinated and unmyelinated nerve clusters was greater in the AMG517-pretreated rats than in the vehicle-treated group, most notably 2 weeks after injury. TRPV1 expression in the injured sciatic nerve and ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia was markedly greater than on the contralateral side. Pretreatment with AMG517 blocked this effect. These data indicate that TRPV1 is activated or overexpressed after sciatic nerve crush injury, and that blockade of TRPV1 may accelerate regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve. PMID:26487864

  20. Effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on kidney ischemia/reperfusion; a gender-related difference

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Fatemeh; Taheri, Pegah; Azimipoor, Mahdis; Ramtin, Sina; Hashemianfar, Mostafa; Momeni- Ashjerdi, Ali; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may be related to activity of reninangiotensin system (RAS), which is gender-related. In this study, it was attempted to compare the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor type 1 (AT1R) blockade; losartan in I/R injury in male and female rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female Wistar rats were assigned as sham surgery, control I/R groups treated with vehicle, and case I/R groups treated with losartan (30 mg/kg). Vehicle and losartan were given 2 hours before bilateral kidney ischemia induced by clamping renal arteries for 45 minutes followed by 24 hours of renal reperfusion. Results: The I/R injury significantly increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), and kidney tissue damage score in both genders. However, losartan decreased these values in female rats significantly (P < 0.05). This was not observed in male rats. Conclusion: Losartan protects the kidney from I/R injury in female but not in male rats possibly because of gender-related difference of RAS. PMID:27689110

  1. Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors by tivozanib has potential anti-tumour effects on human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Momeny, Majid; Moghaddaskho, Farima; Gortany, Narges K.; Yousefi, Hassan; Sabourinejad, Zahra; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Mirshahvaladi, Shahab; Eyvani, Haniyeh; Barghi, Farinaz; Ahmadinia, Leila; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Dehpour, Ahmad R.; Amanpour, Saeid; Tavangar, Seyyed M.; Dardaei, Leila; Emami, Amir H.; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) remains one of the most fatal human malignancies due to its high angiogenic and infiltrative capacities. Even with optimal therapy including surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide, it is essentially incurable. GBM is among the most neovascularised neoplasms and its malignant progression associates with striking neovascularisation, evidenced by vasoproliferation and endothelial cell hyperplasia. Targeting the pro-angiogenic pathways is therefore a promising anti-glioma strategy. Here we show that tivozanib, a pan-inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, inhibited proliferation of GBM cells through a G2/M cell cycle arrest via inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) signalling pathway and down-modulation of Aurora kinases A and B, cyclin B1 and CDC25C. Moreover, tivozanib decreased adhesive potential of these cells through reduction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Tivozanib diminished GBM cell invasion through impairing the proteolytic cascade of cathepsin B/urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)/matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Combination of tivozanib with EGFR small molecule inhibitor gefitinib synergistically increased sensitivity to gefitinib. Altogether, these findings suggest that VEGFR blockade by tivozanib has potential anti-glioma effects in vitro. Further in vivo studies are warranted to explore the anti-tumour activity of tivozanib in combinatorial approaches in GBM. PMID:28287096

  2. Blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 activation inhibits mechanical hypersensitivity following abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Sharron; Nolan, Andrea Mary

    2007-08-01

    This study used the metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor subtype-selective antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) to characterise the contribution of mGlu5 receptor activity to pain and hypersensitivity in an animal model of post-surgical pain. Adult female Wistar rats (200-250g) were anaesthetised with isoflurane (2%) and underwent a midline laparotomy with gentle manipulation of the viscera, and the effects of pre- (30min) or post- (5h) operative treatment with MPEP (1, 3 or 10mgkg(-1); i.p.) or drug-vehicle on hindpaw withdrawal latency (in seconds) to thermal stimulation (Hargreave's Test) and response threshold (in grams) to mechanical stimulation (using a dynamic plantar aesthesiometer) were measured. Animals that underwent surgery displayed significant hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the hindpaws. Hypersensitivity was maximum at 6h post-surgery (44.5+/-2.4% decrease; p<0.01 vs. anaesthesia only controls) and persisted for 48h. Surgery had no effect on thermal withdrawal latency. Both pre-operative and post-operative administration of 10mgkg(-1)MPEP blocked mechanical hypersensitivity induced by surgery (p<0.01 vs. vehicle treatment). MPEP had no effect on acute nociceptive thresholds in naïve animals. These data suggest that activity at mGlu5 receptors contributes to development of pain and hypersensitivity following surgery.

  3. The blockade of GABAA receptors attenuates the inhibitory effect of orexin type 1 receptors antagonist on morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mahnaz; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2016-03-23

    The aim of present study was to investigate the involvement of orexin-A neuropeptide in naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome via modulating neurons bearing GABAA receptors. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a sensitive site for expression of the somatic aspects of morphine withdrawal. Intra-LC microinjection of GABAA receptor agonist attenuates morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Here we studied the influence of LC orexin type 1 receptors blockade by SB-334867 in presence of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-300 g, were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of increasing morphine doses (6, 16, 26, 36, 46, 56 and 66 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg) at set intervals of 24 h for 7 days. On 8th day, naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.) was injected and the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal were evaluated. Intra-LC microinjections (0.2 μl) of either bicuculline (15 μM) or SB-334867 (3 mM) or a combination of both chemicals were done immediately before naloxone injection. Intra-LC microinjection of bicuculline (15 μM) had no significant effect on morphine withdrawal signs, whereas intra-LC microinjection of SB-334867 considerably attenuated morphine withdrawal signs. However, the effect of SB-334867 in attenuating naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs was blocked in presence of bicuculline. This finding, for the first time, indicated that orexin-A may participate in expression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome partly through decreasing the activity of neurons bearing GABAA receptors.

  4. Neuronal localization of the 5-HT2 receptor family in the amygdaloid complex.

    PubMed

    Bombardi, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    The amygdaloid complex (or amygdala), a heterogeneous structure located in the medial portion of the temporal lobe, is composed of deep, superficial, and "remaining" nuclei. This structure is involved in the generation of emotional behavior, in the formation of emotional memories and in the modulation of the consolidation of explicit memories for emotionally arousing events. The serotoninergic fibers originating in the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei are critically involved in amygdalar functions. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) regulates amygdalar activity through the activation of the 5-HT2 receptor family, which includes three receptor subtypes: 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C. The distribution and the functional activity of the 5-HT2 receptor family has been studied more extensively than that of the 5-HT2A receptor subtypes, especially in the deep nuclei. In these nuclei, the 5-HT2A receptor is expressed on both pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons, and could play a critical role in the formation of emotional memories. However, the exact role of the 5-HT2A receptor subtypes, as well as that of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptor subtypes, in the modulation of the amygdalar microcircuits requires additional study. The present review reports data concerning the distribution and the functional roles of the 5-HT2 receptor family in the amygdala.

  5. Cardiovascular reactivity after blockade of angiotensin AT1 receptors in the experimental model of tilting test in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Bedette, D; Santos, R A S; Fontes, M A P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Studies have shown that the angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, accentuates the hypotensive response in the orthostatic stress test (tilt) performed in anaesthetized rats. The same effect was not reported with other AT1 antagonists. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the effects of AT1 receptor blockade on the cardiovascular response to tilt in a model developed for conscious rats. Experimental approach: Rats (n=5–7 per group) were instrumented for infusion of drugs and recording of cardiovascular parameters and, after recovery, placed in a plastic tube positioned over the tilt board. The tilt test was conducted by raising the head side of the tilt board from horizontal position to 75° head up position for 15 min. Key results: Compared with control group (NaCl 0.9%, 1 ml kg−1), oral treatment with 1 mg kg−1 per day of losartan or telmisartan did not alter the blood pressure response during tilt. With the 10 mg kg−1 dose, both antagonists altered the blood pressure response during tilt (mean maximum changes −11±3 mm Hg; P<0.01). A post-tilt hypotension was observed with both doses in losartan and telmisartan groups (−13±1 and −9±2 mm Hg, respectively; P<0.01). Conclusions and implications: The present results indicate that the effect of losartan on the cardiovascular reactivity to tilt shares a similar profile to that of other AT1 antagonists. Evidence discussed addresses the importance of using a conscious model for testing the influence of antihypertensive drugs on the cardiovascular reactivity to orthostatic challenges. PMID:18193073

  6. Selective blockade of drug-induced place preference conditioning by ACPC, a functional NDMA-receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Papp, Marius; Gruca, Piotr; Willner, Paul

    2002-11-01

    ACPC (1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid) is a partial agonist at the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor site on the NMDA receptor complex, and a functional NMDA antagonist. A series of experiments was conducted to assess the effects of ACPC in a biased place conditioning paradigm. As previously reported, ACPC itself did not support either appetitive or aversive place conditioning. However, co-administration of ACPC (200 mg/kg) blocked the acquisition of place preferences conditioned using a variety of psychoactive drugs (amphetamine, cocaine, nomifensine, diazepam, morphine, nicotine). No tolerance was seen to this effect following two weeks of chronic ACPC administration. Overall, ACPC did not affect the expression of place conditioning when administered immediately before the post-conditioning test. However, these effects appeared somewhat variable between drugs, and further analysis showed that ACPC did block the expression of preferences conditioned with some drugs (diazepam, morphine, nicotine), but not others (amphetamine, cocaine, nomifensine). The effects of ACPC could not be accounted for by state dependence, as ACPC blocked morphine and cocaine place preferences when administered during both the acquisition and the expression phase of conditioning. In contrast to the blockade by ACPC of drug-induced place preferences, ACPC had no effect on the acquisition of place preferences conditioned using a variety of natural non-drug reinforcers (food, sucrose, social interaction, novelty). ACPC also had no effect on the acquisition of drug-induced place aversions (naloxone, picrotoxin). Thus, ACPC selectively blocked appetitive conditioning by drug reinforcers, without affecting either appetitive conditioning by natural reinforcers or drug-induced aversions. As place preference conditioning has been demonstrated to have high predictive validity for detecting compounds with an abuse potential in humans, this selective action suggests that ACPC might have some

  7. Pitting type of pretibial edema in a patient with silent thyroiditis successfully treated by angiotensin ii receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Itsuro; Mori, Yoko; Baba, Asuka; Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 56 Final Diagnosis: Thyroiditis – silent Symptoms: Palpitations • pretibial pitting edema • short of breath • sweating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Endocrinology and Metabolic Objective: Unknown etiology Background: Hyper- or hypothyroidism sometimes causes pretibial myxedema characterized by non-pitting infiltration of a proteinaceous ground substance. However, in those patients, the “pitting” type of pretibial edema as a result of increased sodium and fluid retention or vascular hyper-permeability rarely occurs, except in cases complicated by heart failures due to severe cardiomyopathy or pulmonary hypertension. Case Report: A 56-year-old woman developed bilateral pretibial pitting edema, followed by occasional sweating, palpitations, and shortness of breath, which persisted for more than 2 months. The diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to silent thyroiditis was supported by elevated levels of free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), with a marked decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and the negative results for TSH receptor antibodies with typical findings of destructive thyrotoxicosis. Despite her “pitting” type of pretibial edema, a chest radio-graph demonstrated the absence of cardiomyopathy or congestive heart failure. Oral administration of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) was initiated for her systolic hypertension, with a relatively higher elevation of plasma renin activity compared to that of the aldosterone level. Although the symptoms characteristic to hyperthyroidism, such as increased sweating, palpitations and shortness of breath, slowly improved with a spontaneous resolution of the disease, ARB quickly resolved the pretibial pitting edema shortly after the administration.. Conclusions: In this case, increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system stimulated by thyroid hormone was likely responsible for the patient’s pitting type of edema. The pharmacological

  8. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  9. Hormonal responses to opioid receptor blockade: during rest and exercise in cold and hot environments.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David W; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2006-05-01

    Opioid receptors appear to modulate a variety of physiological and metabolic homeostatic responses to stressors such as exercise and thermally extreme environments. To more accurately determine the role of the naloxone (NAL) sensitive opioid receptor system during rest and exercise, subjects were subjected to concomitant environmental thermal stress. Fifteen untrained men rested or performed low intensity (60% VO2peak) or high intensity (80% VO2peak) exercise on a cycle ergometer for 60 min in an environmental chamber during cold (0 degrees C) hot (35 degrees C) air exposure while receiving an infusion of normal saline (SAL) or NAL (0.1 mg kg(-1)). Plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), immunoreactive beta-endorphin (IBE), cortisol and growth hormone were measured at baseline and every 15 min while in the chamber. Time to exhaustion was significantly reduced during high intensity exercise in the heat (P<0.0001). NAL significantly (P=0.0004) reduced the time to exhaustion (38.3+/-2.1 min) during high intensity exercise in the heat compared to SAL (49.4+/-2.1 min). ACTH and IBE increased during hot conditions and cold attenuated this response. Plasma concentrations of IBE, ACTH, and growth hormone increased significantly with NAL during high intensity exercise in the heat compared to SAL. Cold attenuated the response of ACTH, IBE and cortisol to NAL. NAL administration exaggerates plasma hormone concentration during high intensity exercise in the heat, but not cold. These results support a regulatory effect of the opioid receptor system on physiological responses during exercise in thermally stressful environments. Future research should be directed to more clearly defining the effect of environmental temperature on the mechanism of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal release during exercise and hot environmental temperatures.

  10. Aortic Remodeling Following Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice is Attenuated with AT1 Receptor Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Geng, Liang; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Cao, Jiu-Mei; Guo, Steven; Villamizar, Carlos; Kwartler, Callie S.; Ju, Xiaoxi; Brasier, Allan R.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although hypertension is the most common risk factor for thoracic aortic diseases, it is not understood how increased pressures on the ascending aorta lead to aortic aneurysms. We investigated the role of Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor activation in ascending aortic remodeling in response to increased biomechanical forces using a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) mouse model. Approach and Results Two weeks after TAC, the increased biomechanical pressures led to ascending aortic dilatation, aortic wall thickening and medial hypertrophy. Significant adventitial hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in TAC ascending aortas were accompanied by increased adventitial collagen, elevated inflammatory and proliferative markers, and increased cell density due to accumulation of myofibroblasts and macrophages. Treatment with losartan significantly blocked TAC induced vascular inflammation and macrophage accumulation. However, losartan only partially prevented TAC induced adventitial hyperplasia, collagen accumulation and ascending aortic dilatation. Increased Tgfb2 expression and phosphorylated-Smad2 staining in the medial layer of TAC ascending aortas was effectively blocked with losartan. In contrast, the increased Tgfb1 expression and adventitial phospho-Smad2 staining were only partially attenuated by losartan. In addition, losartan significantly blocked Erk activation and ROS production in the TAC ascending aorta. Conclusions Inhibition of the AT1 receptor using losartan significantly attenuated the vascular remodeling associated with TAC but did not completely block the increased TGF- β1 expression, adventitial Smad2 signaling and collagen accumulation. These results help to delineate the aortic TGF-β signaling that is dependent and independent of the AT1 receptor after TAC. PMID:23868934

  11. Intra-accumbal CB1 receptor blockade reduced extinction and reinstatement of morphine.

    PubMed

    Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar, Hossein; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-10-01

    The limbic dopaminergic reward system is the main target of morphine-like drugs which begins from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends its dopaminergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Cannabinoid receptors exist in afferent neurons from these areas to the NAc and can modulate glutamate synaptic transmission in the NAc. Cannabinoids can interact with the opiate system in reward-related behaviors; nevertheless these systems' interaction in extinction duration and reinstatement has not been shown. In the present study, the effects of bilateral intra-accumbal administration of AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist, on the duration of the extinction phase and reinstatement to morphine were investigated by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Forty eight adult male albino Wistar rats were used. Bilateral intra-accumbal administration of AM251 (15, 45 and 90μM/0.5μl DMSO per side) was performed. Subcutaneous administration of morphine (5mg/kg) in three consecutive days was used to induce CPP. The results showed that administration of the maximal dose of AM251 during the extinction period significantly reduces duration of extinction and reinstatement to morphine. Administration of the middle dose during the extinction period significantly attenuated reinstatement to morphine. A single microinjection of the middle dose just before the reinstatement phase significantly attenuated reinstatement to morphine only, while bilateral intra-accumbal administration of neither the lowest dose nor the vehicle (DMSO) had any effects. These results for the first time indicated that CB1 receptors within the NAc are involved in the maintenance of morphine rewarding properties, and morphine seeking behaviors in extinguished morphine-induced CPP rats.

  12. Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on the extinction of a passive avoidance reaction in mice with a depressive-like state.

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2010-01-01

    Learning and extinction of a conditioned passive avoidance reaction resulting from neuropharmacological actions on dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors were demonstrated to be specific in intact mice and in mice with a depressive-like state. Learning was degraded only after administration of the D(2) receptor antagonist sulpiride and was independent of the initial functional state of the mice. In intact mice, activation of D(2) receptors with quinpirole led to a deficit of extinction, consisting of a reduction in the ability to acquire new inhibitory learning in conditions associated with the disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with the "behavioral despair" reaction, characterized by delayed extinction, activation of D(1) receptors with SKF38393 normalized this process, while the D(2) agonist was ineffective. A positive effect consisting of accelerated extinction of the memory of fear of the dark ("dangerous") sector of the experimental chamber was also seen on blockade of both types of dopamine receptor.

  13. [Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on extinction of passive avoidance response in mice with depressive-like state].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2008-01-01

    Selectivity of training and extinction of passive avoidance response caused by pharmacological influences on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in intact mice and mice in depressive-like state was shown. Training was impaired only by administration of D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and did not depend on the initial functional condition of mice. In intact mice, activation of D2 receptors by quinpirole evoked deficiency of extinction, i.e., impairment of the capability of new inhibitory training under conditions of disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with reaction of "behavioral despair" characterized by a delay of extinction, activation of D1 receptors by SKF38393 normalized this process (as distinct from the inefficiency of D2 agonist). The positive effect of acceleration of fear memory extinction was revealed also under conditions of blockade of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

  14. Receptor interaction profiles of novel psychoactive tryptamines compared with classic hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    Rickli, Anna; Moning, Olivier D; Hoener, Marius C; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated interactions between the novel psychoactive tryptamines DiPT, 4-OH-DiPT, 4-OH-MET, 5-MeO-AMT, and 5-MeO-MiPT at monoamine receptors and transporters compared with the classic hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and mescaline. We investigated binding affinities at human monoamine receptors and determined functional serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Binding at and the inhibition of human monoamine uptake transporters and transporter-mediated monoamine release were also determined. All of the novel tryptamines interacted with 5-HT2A receptors and were partial or full 5-HT2A agonists. Binding affinity to the 5-HT2A receptor was lower for all of the tryptamines, including psilocin and DMT, compared with LSD and correlated with the reported psychoactive doses in humans. Several tryptamines, including psilocin, DMT, DiPT, 4-OH-DiPT, and 4-OH-MET, interacted with the serotonin transporter and partially the norepinephrine transporter, similar to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine but in contrast to LSD and mescaline. LSD but not the tryptamines interacted with adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors. In conclusion, the receptor interaction profiles of the tryptamines predict hallucinogenic effects that are similar to classic serotonergic hallucinogens but also MDMA-like psychoactive properties.

  15. Inhibition of angiogenesis by selective estrogen receptor modulators through blockade of cholesterol trafficking rather than estrogen receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joong Sup; Li, Ruo-Jing; Lv, Junfang; Head, Sarah A; Yang, Eun Ju; Liu, Jun O

    2015-06-28

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) including tamoxifen are known to inhibit angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism, which is independent of their action on the estrogen receptor (ER), has remained largely unknown. In the present study, we found that tamoxifen and other SERM inhibited cholesterol trafficking in endothelial cells, causing a hyper-accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes. Inhibition of cholesterol trafficking by tamoxifen was accompanied by abnormal subcellular distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and inhibition of the terminal glycosylation of the receptor. Tamoxifen also caused perinuclear positioning of lysosomes, which in turn trapped the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the perinuclear region of endothelial cells. Abnormal distribution of VEGFR2 and mTOR and inhibition of VEGFR2 and mTOR activities by tamoxifen were significantly reversed by addition of cholesterol-cyclodextrin complex to the culture media of endothelial cells. Moreover, high concentrations of tamoxifen inhibited endothelial and breast cancer cell proliferation in a cholesterol-dependent, but ER-independent, manner. Together, these results unraveled a previously unrecognized mechanism of angiogenesis inhibition by tamoxifen and other SERM, implicating cholesterol trafficking as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  16. Differential effects of dopamine and opioid receptor blockade on motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior and associated changes in brain, skin and muscle temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, E A

    2010-05-05

    Although pharmacological blockade of both dopamine (DA) and opiate receptors has an inhibiting effect on appetitive motivated behaviors, it is still unclear which physiological mechanisms affected by these treatments underlie the behavioral deficit. To clarify this issue, we examined how pharmacological blockade of either DA (SCH23390+eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg each) or opioid receptors (naloxone 1 mg/kg) affects motor activity and temperature fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin associated with motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior in rats. In drug-free conditions, presentation of a cup containing 5 ml of Coca-Cola induced locomotor activation and rapid NAcc temperature increases, which both transiently decreased during drinking, and phasically increased again after the cup was emptied. Muscle temperatures followed this pattern, but increases were weaker and more delayed than those in the NAcc. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, remained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during post-consumption behavioral activation. By itself, DA receptor blockade induced robust decrease in spontaneous locomotion, moderate increases in brain and muscle temperatures, and a relative increase in skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic activation coupled with adynamia. Following this treatment (approximately 180 min), motor activation to cup presentation and Coca-Cola consumption were absent, but rats showed NAcc and muscle temperature increases following cup presentation comparable to control. Therefore, DA receptor blockade does not affect significantly central and peripheral autonomic responses to appetitive stimuli, but eliminates their behavior-activating effects, thus disrupting appetitive behavior and blocking consumption. Naloxone alone slightly decreased brain and muscle temperatures and increased skin temperatures, pointing at the enhanced heat loss and possible minor inhibition of basal

  17. D2 receptor blockade by flunarizine and cinnarizine explains extrapyramidal side effects. A SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Brücke, T; Wöber, C; Podreka, I; Wöber-Bingöl, C; Asenbaum, S; Aull, S; Wenger, S; Ilieva, D; Harasko-van der Meer, C; Wessely, P

    1995-05-01

    Twenty-six patients under treatment with the calcium channel blockers flunarizine (Fz) or cinnarizine (Cz) were examined-with single-photon emission computed tomography using [123I]iodobenzamide as a ligand. The striatal dopamine D2 receptor-binding potential was determined and found to be reduced by 14 to 63% (39.5 +/- 15.0%; p < 0.0001) in patients compared with age-matched control values. This reduction was larger in 12 patients with extrapyramidal symptoms and was only slowly reversible after discontinuation of treatment. Patients treated for > 6 months had significantly larger reductions than patients treated for a shorter period. Parkinsonian symptoms were only seen in patients older than 50 years. Our findings prove a neuroleptic-like action of Fz and Cz, which seems to be the major reason for their extrapyramidal side effects. Older age and long-term treatment are predisposing factors for these effects.

  18. Selective endothelin receptor blockade in resistant hypertension: results of the DORADO trial.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Effective treatment of resistant hypertension still remains an unmet goal of antihypertensive drug treatment. The DORADO trial recently evaluated the efficacy and safety profile of the selective endothelin receptor blocker darusentan in almost 400 hypertensive patients treated with more than four antihypertensive drugs (including a diuretic) but without effective blood pressure control. The trial results show that > 50% of patients treated with the drug exhibit clinical blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg and well-controlled ambulatory blood pressure values. Darusentan, however, was associated with a high incidence of peripheral edema and fluid retention, a side effect that may reduce the safety profile of the drug and its tolerability. Although these data are promising, the drug requires further evaluation, with particularly regard to the long term.

  19. Blockade of dorsal hippocampal orexin-1 receptors impaired morphine-induced state-dependent learning.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Kadivar, Mehdi; Rastipisheh, Sareh

    2016-12-01

    Behavioral abnormalities associated with opiate addiction include memory and learning deficits, which are the result of some alterations in the neuromodulatory systems. Recently, orexin has shown to influence drug addiction neural circuitry, specifically in mediating reward-related perception and memory. To explore the possible interaction of orexinergic and opioidergic system on modulation of learning and memory, we have investigated the effects of intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) administration of orexin-1 receptor agonist and the competitive orexin-1 antagonist, SB-334867, on morphine-induced memory impairment by using step-down passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training injection of morphine (5mg/kg, i.p.) impaired memory, which was restored when 24h later the same dose of the drug was administered. Pre-test administration of orexin-1 (0.5, 5 and 50pmol, intra-CA1) had not a significant effect on the retention latency compared to the saline-treated animals, but it restored the memory impairment induced by pre-training morphine (5mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-test administration of SB-334867 (10, 20 and 40nmol, intra-CA1) by itself decreased the retention latencies of passive avoidance task. Co-administration of orexin-1 (0.5, 5 and 50pmol, intra-CA1) and morphine (1mg/kg, i.p.) on the test day induced morphine state-dependent memory. Conversely, pre-test injection of SB-334867 (10, 20 and 40nmol, intra-CA1) inhibited the orexin-1-induced potentiation of morphine state-dependent learning on the test day. It is concluded that dorsal hippocampal orexin-1 receptors may be involved, at least in part, in morphine state-dependent learning in mice.

  20. Glucocorticoid receptor blockade inhibits brain cell addition and aggressive signaling in electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Kent D; Jashari, Denisa; Pappas, Kristina M

    2011-08-01

    When animals are under stress, glucocorticoids commonly inhibit adult neurogenesis by acting through glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). However, in some cases, conditions that elevate glucocorticoids promote adult neurogenesis, and the role of glucocorticoid receptors in these circumstances is not well understood. We examined the involvement of GRs in social enhancement of brain cell addition and aggressive signaling in electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. In this species, long-term social interaction simultaneously elevates plasma cortisol, enhances brain cell addition and increases production of aggressive electrocommunication signals ("chirps"). We implanted isolated and paired fish with capsules containing nothing (controls) or the GR antagonist, RU486, recorded chirp production and locomotion for 7d, and measured the density of newborn cells in the periventricular zone. Compared to isolated controls, paired controls showed elevated chirping in two phases: much higher chirp rates in the first 5h and moderately higher nocturnal rates thereafter. Treating paired fish with RU486 reduced chirp rates in both phases to those of isolated fish, demonstrating that GR activation is crucial for socially induced chirping. Neither RU486 nor social interaction affected locomotion. RU486 treatment to paired fish had a partial effect on cell addition: paired RU486 fish had less cell addition than paired control fish but more than isolated fish. This suggests that cortisol activation of GRs contributes to social enhancement of cell addition but works in parallel with another GR-independent mechanism. RU486 also reduced cell addition in isolated fish, indicating that GRs participate in the regulation of cell addition even when cortisol levels are low.

  1. Pharmacogenomics of β-adrenergic receptor physiology and response to β-blockade.

    PubMed

    von Homeyer, Peter; Schwinn, Debra A

    2011-12-01

    Myocardial β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are important in altering heart rate, inotropic state, and myocardial relaxation (lusitropy). The β1AR and β2AR stimulation increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentration with the net result of myocyte contraction, whereas β3AR stimulation results in decreased inotropy. Downregulation of β1ARs in heart failure, as well as an increased β3AR activity and density, lead to decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and reduced inotropy. The βAR antagonists are commonly used in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure; however, perioperative use of βAR antagonists is controversial. Individual patient's response to beta-blocker therapy is an area of intensive research, and apart from pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and ethnic differences, genetic alterations have become more important in the last 20 years. The most common genetic variants in humans are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). There are 2 clinically relevant SNPs for the β1AR (Ser49Gly, Arg389Gly), 3 for the β2AR (Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile), and 1 for the β3AR (Trp64Arg). Although results are somewhat controversial, generally large datasets have the potential to show a relationship between βAR SNPs and outcomes such as development and progression of heart failure, coronary artery disease, vascular reactivity, hypertension, asthma, obesity, and diabetes. Although βAR SNPs may not directly cause disease, they appear to be risk factors for, and modifiers of, disease and the response to stress and drugs. In the perioperative setting, this has specifically been demonstrated for the Arg389Gly β1AR polymorphism with which patients with the Gly variant had a higher incidence of adverse perioperative events. Knowing that genetic variants play an important role, perioperative medicine will likely change from simple therapeutic intervention to a more personalized way of adrenergic receptor modulation.

  2. Due to interleukin-6 type cytokine redundancy only glycoprotein 130 receptor blockade efficiently inhibits myeloma growth

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Renate; Günther, Andreas; Klausz, Katja; Staudinger, Matthias; Peipp, Matthias; Penas, Eva Maria Murga; Rose-John, Stefan; Wijdenes, John; Gramatzki, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-6 has an important role in the pathophysiology of multiple myeloma where it supports the growth and survival of the malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. It belongs to a family of cytokines which use the glycoprotein 130 chain for signal transduction, such as oncostatin M or leukemia inhibitory factor. Targeting interleukin-6 in plasma cell diseases is currently evaluated in clinical trials with monoclonal antibodies. Here, efforts were made to elucidate the contribution of interleukin-6 and glycoprotein 130 signaling in malignant plasma cell growth in vivo. In the xenograft severe combined immune deficiency model employing our interleukin-6-dependent plasma cell line INA-6, the lack of human interleukin-6 induced autocrine interleukin-6 production and a proliferative response to other cytokines of the glycoprotein 130 family. Herein, mice were treated with monoclonal antibodies against human interleukin-6 (elsilimomab/B-E8), the interleukin-6 receptor (B-R6), and with an antibody blocking glycoprotein 130 (B-R3). While treatment of mice with interleukin-6 and interleukin-6 receptor antibodies resulted in a modest delay in tumor growth, the development of plasmacytomas was completely prevented with the anti-glycoprotein 130 antibody. Importantly, complete inhibition was also achieved using F(ab’)2-fragments of monoclonal antibody B-R3. Tumors harbor activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and in vitro, the antibody inhibited leukemia inhibitory factor stimulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation and cell growth, while being less effective against interleukin-6. In conclusion, the growth of INA-6 plasmacytomas in vivo under interleukin-6 withdrawal remains strictly dependent on glycoprotein 130, and other glycoprotein 130 cytokines may substitute for interleukin-6. Antibodies against glycoprotein 130 are able to overcome this redundancy and should be explored for a possible therapeutic window

  3. Effects of serotonin (5-HT)2 receptor ligands on depression-like behavior during nicotine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Magdalena; McCreary, Andrew C; Wydra, Karolina; Filip, Małgorzata

    2010-06-01

    A pronounced withdrawal syndrome including depressed mood prevents cigarette smoking cessation. We tested if blockade or activation of serotonin (5-HT)(2) receptors affected the time of immobility (as an indirect measure of depression-like behavior) in naïve animals and in those withdrawn from chronic nicotine in the forced swim test (FST). The antidepressant imipramine was used as a control. In the FST, the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100,907 (1-2 mg/kg, but not 0.5 mg/kg), the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242,084 (0.3-1 mg/kg, but not 0.1 mg/kg), the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists Ro 60-0175 (10 mg/kg, but not 3 mg/kg) and WAY 163,909 (1.5-10 mg/kg, but not 0.75 mg/kg) as well as imipramine (30 mg/kg, but not 15 mg/kg) decreased the immobility time while the non-selective 5-HT(2) receptor agonist DOI (0.1-1 mg/kg) was inactive in naïve rats. We found an increase in immobility time in rats that were withdrawn from nicotine exposure after 5 days of chronic nicotine treatment. This effect increased from day 1 until day 10 following withdrawal of nicotine, with maximal withdrawal effects on day 3. M100,907 (1 mg/kg), SB 242,084 (0.3 mg/kg), Ro 60-0175 (3 mg/kg), WAY 163,909 (0.75-1.5 mg/kg) and imipramine (15-30 mg/kg) shortened the immobility time in rats that had been removed from nicotine exposure for 3 days. Locomotor activity studies indicated that the effects of SB 242,084 might have been non-specific, as we noticed enhanced basal locomotion in naïve rats. This data set demonstrates that 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist and 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists exhibited effects similar to antidepressant drugs and abolished the depression-like effects in nicotine-withdrawn rats. These drugs should be considered as adjuncts to smoking cessation therapy, to ameliorate abstinence-induced depressive symptoms.

  4. Modulation of GABA release from the thalamic reticular nucleus by cocaine and caffeine: role of serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Goitia, Belén; Rivero-Echeto, María Celeste; Weisstaub, Noelia V; Gingrich, Jay A; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Bisagno, Verónica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Serotonin receptors are targets of drug therapies for a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Cocaine inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine, and noradrenaline, whereas caffeine blocks adenosine receptors and opens ryanodine receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum. We studied how 5-HT and adenosine affected spontaneous GABAergic transmission from thalamic reticular nucleus. We combined whole-cell patch clamp recordings of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) in ventrobasal thalamic neurons during local (puff) application of 5-HT in wild type (WT) or knockout mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A -/-). Inhibition of mIPSCs frequency by low (10 μM) and high (100 μM) 5-HT concentrations was observed in ventrobasal neurons from 5-HT2A -/- mice. In WT mice, only 100 μM 5-HT significantly reduced mIPSCs frequency. In 5-HT2A -/- mice, NAN-190, a specific 5-HT1A antagonist, prevented the 100 μM 5-HT inhibition while blocking H-currents that prolonged inhibition during post-puff periods. The inhibitory effects of 100 μM 5-HT were enhanced in cocaine binge-treated 5-HT2A -/- mice. Caffeine binge treatment did not affect 5-HT-mediated inhibition. Our findings suggest that both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors are present in pre-synaptic thalamic reticular nucleus terminals. Serotonergic-mediated inhibition of GABA release could underlie aberrant thalamocortical physiology described after repetitive consumption of cocaine. Our findings suggest that both 5-HT1A , 5-HT2A and A1 receptors are present in pre-synaptic TRN terminals. 5-HT1A and A1 receptors would down-regulate adenylate cyclase, whereas 5-HT1A would also increase the probability of the opening of G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (GIRK). Sustained opening of GIRK channels would hyperpolarize pre-synaptic terminals activating H-currents, resulting in less GABA release. 5-HT2A -would activate PLC and IP3 , increasing intracellular [Ca(2+) ] and

  5. EFFECT OF AT1 RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ON INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA-INDUCED ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Noah J.; Philippi, Nathan R.; Bird, Cynthia E.; Li, Yu-Long; Schultz, Harold D.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) raises arterial pressure, impairs vasodilator responsiveness, and increases circulating angiotensin II (Ang II); however, the role of Ang II in CIH-induced vascular dysfunction is unknown. Rats were exposed to CIH or room air (NORM), and a subset of these animals was treated with losartan (Los) during the exposure period. After 28 days, vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine or nitroprusside were measured in isolated gracilis arteries. Superoxide levels and Ang II receptor protein expression were measured in saphenous arteries. After 28 days, arterial pressure was increased and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was blunted in CIH vs. NORM, and this was prevented by Los. Responses to nitroprusside and superoxide levels did not differ between CIH and NORM. Expression of AT2R was decreased and the AT1R:AT2R ratio was increased in CIH vs. NORM, but this was unaffected by Los. These results indicate that the blood pressure elevation and endothelial dysfunction associated with CIH is dependent, at least in part, on RAS signaling. PMID:22728949

  6. The Impact of NMDA Receptor Blockade on Human Working Memory-Related Prefrontal Function and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Driesen, Naomi R; McCarthy, Gregory; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Bloch, Michael H; Calhoun, Vincent D; D'Souza, Deepak C; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; He, George; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Ramani, Ramachandran; Anticevic, Alan; Suckow, Raymond F; Morgan, Peter T; Krystal, John H

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical research suggests that N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDA-Rs) have a crucial role in working memory (WM). In this study, we investigated the role of NMDA-Rs in the brain activation and connectivity that subserve WM. Because of its importance in WM, the lateral prefrontal cortex, particularly the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and its connections, were the focus of analyses. Healthy participants (n=22) participated in a single functional magnetic resonance imaging session. They received saline and then the NMDA-R antagonist ketamine while performing a spatial WM task. Time-course analysis was used to compare lateral prefrontal activation during saline and ketamine administration. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was used to compare dorsolateral prefrontal connectivity during the two conditions and global-based connectivity was used to test for laterality in these effects. Ketamine reduced accuracy on the spatial WM task and brain activation during the encoding and early maintenance (EEM) period of task trials. Decrements in task-related activation during EEM were related to performance deficits. Ketamine reduced connectivity in the DPFC network bilaterally, and region-specific reductions in connectivity were related to performance. These results support the hypothesis that NMDA-Rs are critical for WM. The knowledge gained may be helpful in understanding disorders that might involve glutamatergic deficits such as schizophrenia and developing better treatments. PMID:23856634

  7. The impact of NMDA receptor blockade on human working memory-related prefrontal function and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Driesen, Naomi R; McCarthy, Gregory; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Bloch, Michael H; Calhoun, Vincent D; D'Souza, Deepak C; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; He, George; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Ramani, Ramachandran; Anticevic, Alan; Suckow, Raymond F; Morgan, Peter T; Krystal, John H

    2013-12-01

    Preclinical research suggests that N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDA-Rs) have a crucial role in working memory (WM). In this study, we investigated the role of NMDA-Rs in the brain activation and connectivity that subserve WM. Because of its importance in WM, the lateral prefrontal cortex, particularly the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and its connections, were the focus of analyses. Healthy participants (n=22) participated in a single functional magnetic resonance imaging session. They received saline and then the NMDA-R antagonist ketamine while performing a spatial WM task. Time-course analysis was used to compare lateral prefrontal activation during saline and ketamine administration. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was used to compare dorsolateral prefrontal connectivity during the two conditions and global-based connectivity was used to test for laterality in these effects. Ketamine reduced accuracy on the spatial WM task and brain activation during the encoding and early maintenance (EEM) period of task trials. Decrements in task-related activation during EEM were related to performance deficits. Ketamine reduced connectivity in the DPFC network bilaterally, and region-specific reductions in connectivity were related to performance. These results support the hypothesis that NMDA-Rs are critical for WM. The knowledge gained may be helpful in understanding disorders that might involve glutamatergic deficits such as schizophrenia and developing better treatments.

  8. Error correction in latent inhibition and its disruption by opioid receptor blockade with naloxone.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hiu T; Killcross, A S; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2013-11-01

    Latent inhibition refers to the retardation in the development of conditioned responding when a pre-exposed stimulus is used to signal an unconditioned stimulus. This effect is described by error-correction models as an attentional deficit and is commonly used as an animal model of schizophrenia. A series of experiments studied the role of error-correction mechanism in latent inhibition and its interaction with the endogenous opioid system. Systemic administration of the competitive opioid receptor antagonist naloxone before rats were pre-exposed to a target stimulus prevented latent inhibition of its subsequent fear conditioning; it was without effect on a non-pre-exposed stimulus and did not produce state-dependent learning (Experiments 1a and 1b). Naloxone did not reverse the latent inhibitory effect already accrued to a pre-exposed target. However, it did prevent the enhancement of latent inhibition by a long retention interval interpolated between its initial exposure and re-exposure (Experiment 2) or by a novel stimulus compounded with the pre-exposed target during re-exposure (Experiment 3). These results provide evidence that attentional loss in latent inhibition is instructed by an opioid-mediated error signal which diminishes with repeated stimulus exposures but recovers with the passage of time or reintroduction of novelty.

  9. Prorenin/Renin Receptor Blockade Promotes a Healthy Fat Distribution in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Paul; Blais, Carolane; Nguyen, Thi M.-D.; Schiller, Peter W.; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Lavoie, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Administration of the handle region peptide (HRP), a (pro)renin receptor blocker, decreases body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet-fed mice. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential mechanisms implicated in these observations. Methods Mice were given a normal or a HF/HC diet along with saline or HRP for 10 weeks. Results In HF/HC-fed mice, HRP increased the expression of several enzymes implicated in lipogenesis and lipolysis in subcutaneous fat (SCF) while the expression of the enzyme implicated in the last step of lipogenesis decreased in VAT. A reduction was also observed in circulating free fatty acids in these animals which was accompanied by normalized adipocyte size in VAT and increased adipocyte size in SCF. “Beiging“ is the evolution of a white adipose tissue toward a brown-like phenotype characterized by an increased mitochondrial density and small lipid droplets. HRP increased the expression of’ “beiging” markers in SCF of HF/HC diet-fed mice. Conclusions HRP treatment may favor healthy fat storage in SCF by activating a triglyceride/free fatty acid cycling and “beiging,” which could explain the body weight and fat mass reduction. PMID:27458124

  10. Chronic CRF1 receptor blockade reduces heroin intake escalation and dependence-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Park, Paula E; Schlosburg, Joel E; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schulteis, Gery; Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2015-03-01

    Opioids represent effective drugs for the relief of pain, yet chronic opioid use often leads to a state of increased sensitivity to pain that is exacerbated during withdrawal. A sensitization of pain-related negative affect has been hypothesized to closely interact with addiction mechanisms. Neuro-adaptive changes occur as a consequence of excessive opioid exposure, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE) brain stress systems. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the transition to dependence, we determined the effects of functional antagonism within these two systems on hyperalgesia-like behavior during heroin withdrawal utilizing models of both acute and chronic dependence. We found that passive or self-administered heroin produced a significant mechanical hypersensitivity. During acute opioid dependence, systemic administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist MPZP (20 mg/kg) alleviated withdrawal-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. In contrast, several functional adrenergic system antagonists (clonidine, prazosin, propranolol) failed to alter mechanical hypersensitivity in this state. We then determined the effects of chronic MPZP or clonidine treatment on extended access heroin self-administration and found that MPZP, but not clonidine, attenuated escalation of heroin intake, whereas both drugs alleviated chronic dependence-associated hyperalgesia. These findings suggest that an early potentiation of CRF signaling occurs following opioid exposure that begins to drive both opioid-induced hyperalgesia and eventually intake escalation.

  11. The serotonin 2C receptor potently modulates the head-twitch response in mice induced by a phenethylamine hallucinogen

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Clinton E.; Olaghere da Silva, Uade B.; Gresch, Paul J.; Watt, Erin E.; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Hallucinogenic serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor partial agonists, such as (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-phenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), induce a frontal cortex-dependent head-twitch response (HTR) in rodents, a behavioral proxy of a hallucinogenic response that is blocked by 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. In addition to 5-HT2A receptors, DOI and most other serotonin-like hallucinogens have high affinity and potency as partial agonists at 5-HT2C receptors. Objectives We tested for involvement of 5-HT2C receptors in the HTR induced by DOI. Results Comparison of 5-HT2C receptor knockout and wild-type littermates revealed an approximately 50% reduction in DOI-induced HTR in knockout mice. Also, pretreatment with either the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB206553 or SB242084 eradicated a twofold difference in DOI-induced HTR between the standard inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, and decreased the DOI-induced HTR by at least 50% in both strains. None of several measures of 5-HT2A receptors in frontal cortex explained the strain difference, including 5-HT2A receptor density, Gαq or Gαi/o protein levels, phospholipase C activity, or DOI-induced expression of Egr1 and Egr2. 5-HT2C receptor density in the brains of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J was also equivalent, suggesting that 5-HT2C receptor-mediated intracellular signaling or other physiological modulators of the HTR may explain the strain difference in response to DOI. Conclusions We conclude that the HTR to DOI in mice is strongly modulated by 5-HT2C receptor activity. This novel finding invites reassessment of hallucinogenic mechanisms involving 5-HT2 receptors. PMID:20165943

  12. Central serotonin(2B) receptor blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical dopamine outflow.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Di Marco, Barbara; Caraci, Filippo; Drago, Filippo; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) is currently considered as an interesting pharmacological target for improved treatment of drug addiction. In the present study, we assessed the effect of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and dopamine (DA) outflow in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsal striatum of freely moving rats. The peripheral administration of RS 127445 (0.16 mg/kg, i.p.) or LY 266097 (0.63 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced basal DA outflow in the NAc shell, but had no effect on cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced DA outflow in this brain region. Also, RS 127445 failed to modify both basal and cocaine-induced DA outflow in the NAc core and the dorsal striatum. Conversely, both 5-HT2BR antagonists reduced cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, RS 127445 as well as the DA-R antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced significantly the late-onset hyperlocomotion induced by the DA-R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5-HT2BR blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical DA outflow. This interaction takes place downstream to DA neurons and could involve an action at the level of dorsostriatal and/or NAc DA transmission, in keeping with the importance of these brain regions in the behavioural responses of cocaine. Overall, this study affords additional knowledge into the regulatory control exerted by the 5-HT2BR on ascending DA pathways, and provides additional support to the proposed role of 5-HT2BRs as a new pharmacological target in drug addiction.

  13. Interleukin-6, A Cytokine Critical to Mediation of Inflammation, Autoimmunity and Allograft Rejection: Therapeutic Implications of IL-6 Receptor Blockade.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Stanley C; Choi, Jua; Kim, Irene; Wu, Gordon; Toyoda, Mieko; Shin, Bonga; Vo, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The success of kidney transplants is limited by the lack of robust improvements in long-term survival. It is now recognized that alloimmune responses are responsible for the majority of allograft failures. Development of novel therapies to decrease allosensitization is critical. The lack of new drug development in kidney transplantation necessitated repurposing drugs initially developed in oncology and autoimmunity. Among these is tocilizumab (anti-IL-6 receptor [IL-6R]) which holds promise for modulating multiple immune pathways responsible for allograft injury and loss. Interleukin-6 is a cytokine critical to proinflammatory and immune regulatory cascades. Emerging data have identified important roles for IL-6 in innate immune responses and adaptive immunity. Excessive IL-6 production is associated with activation of T-helper 17 cell and inhibition of regulatory T cell with attendant inflammation. Plasmablast production of IL-6 is critical for initiation of T follicular helper cells and production of high-affinity IgG. Tocilizumab is the first-in-class drug developed to treat diseases mediated by IL-6. Data are emerging from animal and human studies indicating a critical role for IL-6 in mediation of cell-mediated rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and chronic allograft vasculopathy. This suggests that anti-IL-6/IL-6R blockade could be effective in modifying T- and B-cell responses to allografts. Initial data from our group suggest anti-IL-6R therapy is of value in desensitization and prevention and treatment of antibody-mediated rejection. In addition, human trials have shown benefits in treatment of graft versus host disease in matched or mismatched stem cell transplants. Here, we explore the biology of IL-6/IL-6R interactions and the evidence for an important role of IL-6 in mediating allograft rejection.

  14. Effects of continuous opioid receptor blockade on alcohol intake and up-regulation of opioid receptor subtype signalling in a genetic model of high alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Hyytiä, P; Ingman, K; Soini, S L; Laitinen, J T; Korpi, E R

    1999-10-01

    Effects of a continuous naloxone infusion via osmotic pumps on alcohol drinking and opioid receptor density and function in the high-drinking AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats were examined. AA rats were trained to drink 10% (v/v) ethanol in a 1-h limited access procedure and implanted with subcutaneous osmotic pumps delivering either saline, a low dose (0.3 mg/kg per hour), or a high dose (3.0 mg/kg per hour) of naloxone for 7 days. The pumps were then removed and alcohol, food and water intakes were measured for another 4 days. Compared with saline, both naloxone doses significantly suppressed 1-h alcohol intake during the 7-day infusion. The suppression was smaller than that by a bolus injection of the same daily dose 15 min before the session, although a complete blockade of morphine-induced antinociception was achieved even with the smaller naloxone infusion. Significant decreases were also seen in daily food and water intake during the first days, but they quickly returned to their previous baselines. After pump removal, rats of both naloxone-treated groups rapidly increased their alcohol drinking and reached the pretreatment baseline, while their food and water intakes significantly surpassed their baselines. Naloxone infusion at 3.0 mg/kg per hour for 7 days significantly decreased 24-h alcohol drinking without affecting alcohol preference. Twenty-four hours after pump removal, autoradiography with [3H]DAMGO, [3H]DPDPE and [3H]U-69,543 revealed an up-regulation of mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor binding sites in many brain areas of these animals. This receptor up-regulation was functional, because receptor coupling to G-protein activation was enhanced by agonist ligands, as revealed by [35S]GTPgammaS autoradiography. A good correlation existed between ligand binding densities and G-protein activation for mu- and kappa-receptors in control and naloxone-treated brain sections. Furthermore, morphine-induced analgesia in a hot-plate test showed a leftward shift in

  15. Beyond aggression: Androgen-receptor blockade modulates social interaction in wild meerkats.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Greene, Lydia K; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Fenkes, Miriam; Wisse, Jillian H; Drewe, Julian A; Manser, Marta B; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Drea, Christine M

    2016-02-01

    In male vertebrates, androgens are inextricably linked to reproduction, social dominance, and aggression, often at the cost of paternal investment or prosociality. Testosterone is invoked to explain rank-related reproductive differences, but its role within a status class, particularly among subordinates, is underappreciated. Recent evidence, especially for monogamous and cooperatively breeding species, suggests broader androgenic mediation of adult social interaction. We explored the actions of androgens in subordinate, male members of a cooperatively breeding species, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta). Although male meerkats show no rank-related testosterone differences, subordinate helpers rarely reproduce. We blocked androgen receptors, in the field, by treating subordinate males with the antiandrogen, flutamide. We monitored androgen concentrations (via baseline serum and time-sequential fecal sampling) and recorded behavior within their groups (via focal observation). Relative to controls, flutamide-treated animals initiated less and received more high-intensity aggression (biting, threatening, feeding competition), engaged in more prosocial behavior (social sniffing, grooming, huddling), and less frequently initiated play or assumed a 'dominant' role during play, revealing significant androgenic effects across a broad range of social behavior. By contrast, guarding or vigilance and measures of olfactory and vocal communication in subordinate males appeared unaffected by flutamide treatment. Thus, androgens in male meerkat helpers are aligned with the traditional trade-off between promoting reproductive and aggressive behavior at a cost to affiliation. Our findings, based on rare endocrine manipulation in wild mammals, show a more pervasive role for androgens in adult social behavior than is often recognized, with possible relevance for understanding tradeoffs in cooperative systems.

  16. Blockade of NMDA receptors in the dorsomedial striatum prevents action-outcome learning in instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Yin, Henry H; Knowlton, Barbara J; Balleine, Bernard W

    2005-07-01

    Although there is consensus that instrumental conditioning depends on the encoding of action-outcome associations, it is not known where this learning process is localized in the brain. Recent research suggests that the posterior dorsomedial striatum (pDMS) may be the critical locus of these associations. We tested this hypothesis by examining the contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the pDMS to action-outcome learning. Rats with bilateral cannulae in the pDMS were first trained to perform two actions (left and right lever presses), for sucrose solution. After the pre-training phase, they were given an infusion of the NMDA antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV, 1 mg/mL) or artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF) before a 30-min session in which pressing one lever delivered food pellets and pressing the other delivered fruit punch. Learning during this session was tested the next day by sating the animals on either the pellets or fruit punch before assessing their performance on the two levers in extinction. The ACSF group selectively reduced responding on the lever that, in training, had earned the now devalued outcome, whereas the APV group did not. Experiment 2 replicated the effect of APV during the critical training session but found no effect of APV given after acquisition and before test. Furthermore, Experiment 3 showed that the effect of APV on instrumental learning was restricted to the pDMS; infusion into the dorsolateral striatum did not prevent learning. These experiments provide the first direct evidence that, in instrumental conditioning, NMDARs in the dorsomedial striatum are involved in encoding action-outcome associations.

  17. Cortisol receptor blockade and seawater adaptation in the euryhaline teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, W.S.; Cozzi, R.R.F.; Pelis, R.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the role of cortisol in seawater osmoregulation in a euryhaline teleost, adult killifish were acclimated to brackish water (10???) and RU486 or vehicle was administered orally in peanut oil daily for five days at low (40 mg.kg-1) or high dose (200 mg.kg-1). Fish were transferred to 1.5 x seawater (45???) or to brackish water (control) and sampled at 24 h and 48 h after transfer, when Cl- secretion is upregulated. At 24 h, opercular membrane Cl- secretion rate, as Isc, was increased only in the high dose RU486 group. Stimulation of membranes by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and cAMP increased Isc in vehicle treated controls but those from RU486-treated animals were unchanged and membranes from brackish water animals showed a decrease in Isc. At 48 h, Isc increased and transepithelial resistance decreased in vehicle and RU486 groups, compared to brackish water controls. Plasma cortisol increased in all groups transferred to high salinity, compared to brackish water controls. RU486 treated animals had higher cortisol levels compared to vehicle controls. Vehicle treated controls had lower cortisol levels than untreated or RU486 treated animals, higher stimulation of Isc, and lower hematocrit at 24 h, beneficial effects attributed to increased caloric intake from the peanut oil vehicle. Chloride cell density was significantly increased in the high dose RU486 group at 48 hours, yet Isc was unchanged, suggesting a decrease in Cl- secretion per cell. Thus cortisol enhances NaCl secretion capacity in chloride cells, likely via glucocorticoid type receptors. ?? 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Glucose inhibition of epinephrine stimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by blockade of the alpha-receptor function.

    PubMed

    Kneer, N M; Bosch, A L; Clark, M G; Lardy, H A

    1974-11-01

    For isolated rat hepatocytes, glucagon, 3':5'-cyclic AMP, 3':5'-cyclic GMP, and epinephrine stimulate the rate of gluconeogenesis from substrates not involving pathways of mitochondrial metabolism. From estimation of the rates of glucose formation, fructose 6-phosphate phosphorylation, and lactate and pyruvate formation it is concluded that epinephrine and 3':5'-cyclic GMP stimulate gluconeogenesis from either galactose or fructose by influencing the rate of reactions involving fructose 6-phosphate in a manner similar to that already reported for glucagon and 3':5'-cyclic AMP. Each agent acts to inhibit flux through phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) and enhance flux through fructose diphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11), resulting in the re-direction of carbon from lactate and pyruvate formation to glucose synthesis. In addition to 3':5'-cyclic GMP, dibutyryl 3':5'-cyclic GMP, 8-bromo 3':5'-cyclic GMP, 8-benzyl-thio 3':5'-cyclic GMP and 8-(4-chlorophenyl)thio 3':5'-cyclic GMP stimulate glucose formation and inhibit lactate and pyruvate formation from galactose. Guanosine monophosphate and 2':3'-cyclic GMP are inactive. As the stimulatory effect of epinephrine is inhibited by phenoxybenzamine and not by propranolol, and is not simulated by isoproterenol, it is concluded that catecholamine activity is expressed through the alpha-receptor. Increased extracellular glucose concentration (>10 mM) decreases the stimulatory effect of epinephrine, 3':5'-cyclic GMP, and partially that of 3':5'-cyclic AMP but does not alter the efficacy of glucagon.

  19. The impact of angiotensin II receptor blockade and the DASH diet on markers of endogenous fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Erlinger, T P; Conlin, P R; Macko, R F; Bohannon, A D; Miller, E R; Moore, T J; Svetkey, L P; Appel, L J

    2002-06-01

    Hypertension is associated with impaired fibrinolysis. Both angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet effectively lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Some evidence suggests that treatment with ARBs could increase fibrinolysis, however, data is conflicting. The impact of the DASH diet on fibrinolytic parameters is not known. Fifty-five hypertensive participants (35 African-American, 20 white) were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of either a control diet or the DASH diet. The diets did not differ in sodium content (approximately 3 g/day). Within each diet, individuals were randomly assigned to receive losartan or placebo for 4 weeks in double-blind, cross-over fashion. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen, t-PA activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured at the end of a 2-week run-in period on the control diet and after each treatment period. The DASH diet did not affect markers of fibrinolysis. Losartan significantly lowered t-PA antigen levels (-1.8 ng/mL, P = 0.045), but had no effect on t-PA or PAI-1 activities. This effect was more pronounced in whites (-4.1 ng/mL (P = 0.003)) compared with African-Americans (-0.3 ng/mL (P = 0.7), P-interaction = 0.03). Results were not materially affected by adjustment for basline values or changes in blood pressure. This study demonstrates that losartan reduces t-PA antigen levels in white, but not African-American hypertensive individuals. In contrast, the DASH diet had no significant effect on markers of fibrinolysis in whites or African-Americans.

  20. Preferential blockade of dioxin-induced activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by Antrodia camphorata.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Mai; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Okamura, Maro; Tagawa, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Shotaro; Saito, Yukinori; Takahashi, Shuhei; Yao, Jian; Nishimura, Daisuke; Sugi, Masahito; Matsunaga, Masaji; Kitamura, Masanori

    2009-09-01

    Halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widely distributed pollutants in environments. These toxic substances activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and thereby cause a broad spectrum of pathological changes. Development of AhR inhibitors will be useful for prevention of diseases caused by AhR activation. Using the dioxin responsive element (DRE)-based sensing via secreted alkaline phosphatase (DRESSA), we examined effects of Antrodia camphorata, a mycerial extract, on the activation of AhR by halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We found that Antrodia camphorata markedly suppressed activation of AhR triggered by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In contrast, activation of AhR by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene) was inhibited only modestly by this mycelium. Similarly, Antrodia camphorata only mildly attenuated activation of AhR by cigarette smoke that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Consistent with these results, Northern blot analysis revealed that DRE-driven exogenous and endogenous gene expression triggered by TCDD was abolished by Antrodia camphorata, whereas it did not substantially affect DRE-induced transcription triggered by benzo[a]pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene or cigarette smoke. We also found that the inhibitory effect of Antrodia camphorata on TCDD-induced AhR activation was ascribed to neither down-regulation of AhR, down-regulation of the AhR nuclear translocator, nor up-regulation of the AhR repressor. These results suggest that Antrodia camphorata preferentially inhibits AhR activation and DRE-dependent gene expression triggered by dioxin.

  1. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevents Western diet-induced diastolic dysfunction in female mice.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Brian; Habibi, Javad; DeMarco, Vincent G; Jia, Guanghong; Domeier, Timothy L; Lambert, Michelle D; Aroor, Annayya R; Nistala, Ravi; Bender, Shawn B; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Ma, Lixin; Manrique, Camila; Sowers, James R

    2015-05-01

    Overnutrition/obesity predisposes individuals, particularly women, to diastolic dysfunction (DD), an independent predictor of future cardiovascular disease. We examined whether low-dose spironolactone (Sp) prevents DD associated with consumption of a Western Diet (WD) high in fat, fructose, and sucrose. Female C57BL6J mice were fed a WD with or without Sp (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)). After 4 mo on the WD, mice exhibited increased body weight and visceral fat, but similar blood pressures, compared with control diet-fed mice. Sp prevented the development of WD-induced DD, as indicated by decreased isovolumic relaxation time and an improvement in myocardial performance (receptor antagonism enhanced M2 macrophage polarization and ameliorated oxidant stress and fibrosis. This work supports a novel blood pressure-independent effect of MR antagonism as a strategy to prevent diet-induced DD in women. Mineralocorticoid antagonism; low-dose spironolactone; aldosterone;high-fat diet; high-fructose diet; oxidative stress

  2. Blockade of interleukin-6 receptor suppresses the proliferation of H460 lung cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hee; Cho, Hee-Jung; Cho, Soo-Min; Jo, Kyul; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Na-Hyun; Amidon, Gordon L; Kim, Jin-Suk; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2012-07-01

    IL-6/6R signaling is closely associated with tumor growth and poor prognosis. Although there is evidence that interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R)-mediated signaling promotes the growth and malignancy of cancer, the role of IL-6R in cancer stem cells (CSCs) is poorly defined. This study investigated the role of IL-6R in the proliferation of CSCs. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from the H460 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line and identified as CSCs using confocal microscopy, RT-PCR and WST-1 assay. The H460 spheres demonstrated the typical characteristics of CSCs, including CD133 expression, upregulation of Nanog, self-renewal, and drug resistance to methotrexate (MTX) and fluorouracil (5-FU). The release of IL-6R and its ligand, IL-6, were quantitatively determined and compared between CSCs and non-CSCs. The concentration of soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) was remarkably high in CSCs compared to that in non-CSCs. Furthermore, significant upregulation of the IL-6R gene was also observed in the CSCs. The growth of CSCs was significantly inhibited by transfection with IL-6R small-interfering RNA (siRNA), as well as with the IL-6R monoclonal antibody (mAb). In addition, blocking both IL-6R and IL-6 using siRNA or mAbs intensified the inhibition of CSC proliferation. These findings indicate that IL-6R is present in CSCs and has an important role in the proliferation of CSCs in the H460 lung cancer cell line. Therefore, we suggest that IL-6R is both a viable target for the development of CSC-directed lung cancer therapeutics and a potential CSC marker in NSCLC.

  3. Targeted leptin receptor blockade: role of ventral tegmental area and nucleus of the solitary tract leptin receptors in body weight homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Matheny, M; Strehler, K Y E; King, M; Tümer, N; Scarpace, P J

    2014-07-01

    The present investigation examined whether leptin stimulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has a role in body weight homeostasis independent of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To this end, recombinant adeno-associated viral techniques were employed to target leptin overexpression or overexpression of a dominant negative leptin mutant (leptin antagonist). Leptin antagonist overexpression in MBH or VTA increased food intake and body weight to similar extents over 14 days in rats. Simultaneous overexpression of leptin in VTA with antagonist in MBH resulted in food intake and body weight gain that were less than with control treatment but greater than with leptin alone in VTA. Notably, leptin overexpression in VTA increased P-STAT3 in MBH along with VTA, and leptin antagonist overexpression in the VTA partially attenuated P-STAT3 levels in MBH. Interestingly, leptin antagonist overexpression elevated body weight gain, but leptin overexpression in the NTS failed to modulate either food intake or body weight despite increased P-STAT3. These data suggest that leptin function in the VTA participates in the chronic regulation of food consumption and body weight in response to stimulation or blockade of VTA leptin receptors. Moreover, one component of VTA-leptin action appears to be independent of the MBH, and another component appears to be related to leptin receptor-mediated P-STAT3 activation in the MBH. Finally, leptin receptors in the NTS are necessary for normal energy homeostasis, but mostly they appear to have a permissive role. Direct leptin activation of NTS slightly increases UCP1 levels, but has little effect on food consumption or body weight.

  4. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Fahuan; Cao, Xuejiao; Zhai, Zhifang; Gang Huang; Du, Xiang; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian; Zhao, Jinghong; Hou, Weiping

    2014-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. - Highlights: • The P2X7R expression was markedly upregulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. • P2X7R blockade significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury. • P2X7R blockade reduced activities of NLRP3 inflammasome components in renal tissue. • P2X7R blockade

  5. Role of 5-HT6 receptors in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2001-09-01

    Mice lacking the 5-HT(6) receptor presented neither gross anatomical or behavioral abnormalities nor obvious changes in microscopic brain morphology, and their performance in rotarod, open field and novel object testing paradigms revealed no differences compared with wild-type animals. Nevertheless, an association between the 5-HT(6) receptor polymorphism C267T and Alzheimer's disease has been reported. Interestingly, the 5-HT(6) antisense oligonucleotide decreased 5-HT(6) gene expression and enhanced spatial learning acquisition in the water maze. Similarly, injection of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro-04-6790 improved learning consolidation in an autoshaping task, while mCPP, scopolamine and dizocilpine decreased performance. The effect induced by scopolamine or dizocilpine, but not that induced by mCPP, was completely or partially reversed by Ro-04-6790. Ro-04-6790 did not modify the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effects on learning consolidation. Since Ro-04-6790 facilitatory effect was unaffected by 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A/2B/2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4) or 5-HT(7) receptor blockade, the facilitatory effect induced by Ro-04-6790 involved specifically 5-HT6 receptors. Similarly, the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-271046 improved retention in the water maze and produced a significant performance improvement in aged rats in an operant-delayed alternation task. A series of Ro-04-6790 analogues that penetrate the brain and specifically bind to 5-HT(6) receptors reversed scopolamine-induced retention deficit in a passive avoidance learning test. Collectively, these data provide further support to the notion that 5-HT systems, via 5-HT(6) receptors, also play a significant role in memory formation under normal and dysfunctional memory conditions.

  6. Blockade of Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Receptor Corrects Post-prandial Hypoglycemia After Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Marzieh; Gastaldelli, Amalia; D'Alessio, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Post-prandial glycemia excursions increase after gastric bypass surgery; this effect is even greater among individuals with recurrent hypoglycemia (blood glucose levels <50 mg/dL). These patients also have increased post-prandial levels of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). We performed a clinical trial to determine the role of GLP1 in post-prandial glycemia in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome after gastric bypass. Methods Nine patients with recurrent hypoglycemia after gastric bypass (H-GB), 7 asymptomatic individuals with previous gastric bypass (A-GB), and 8 non-diabetic subjects who did not receive surgery (controls) were studied with a mixed-meal tolerance test (350 kcal) using a dual glucose tracer method on 2 days. On 1 day they received continuous infusion of GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) antagonist, exendin-(9–39) (Ex-9), and on the other day, a saline control. Glucose kinetics and islet and gut hormone responses were measured before and after the meal. Results Infusion of Ex9 corrected hypoglycemia in all H-GB individuals. The reduction of post-prandial insulin secretion by Ex9 was greater in the H-GB group than other groups (H-GB, 50%±8%; A-GB, 13%±10%; and controls, 14%±10%) (P<.05). Meal-derived glucose (RaOral) was significantly greater among subjects who had undergone gastric bypass than controls, and in H-GB patients compared with A-GB subjects. Ex9 shortened the time to peak RaOral in all groups without any significant effect on the overall glucose flux. Post-prandial glucagon levels were higher among patients who had undergone gastric bypass than controls, and increased with Ex9 administration. Conclusions Hypoglycemia following gastric bypass can be corrected by administration of a GLP1R antagonist, which might be used to treat this disorder. These findings are consistent with reports that increased GLP1 activity contributes to hypoglycemia following gastric bypass. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT

  7. Long-term effects of amygdala GABA receptor blockade on specific subpopulations of hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Berretta, Sabina; Lange, Nicholas; Bhattacharyya, Sujoy; Sebro, Ronnie; Garces, Jessica; Benes, Francine M

    2004-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the amygdala modulates hippocampal functions. To test the hypothesis that this modulation may involve long-lasting effects on interneuronal networks in the hippocampus, changes in the expression of neurochemical markers specific for different interneuronal subpopulations were assessed in adult rats 96 h following acute infusion of low doses of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin into the amygdala. The numerical density (Nd) of somata showing immunoreactivity (IR) for parvalbumin (PVB) was decreased in dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA4-2 region, while that of calretinin (CR)-IR was decreased in DG and CA2. The Nd of calbindin D28k (CB)-IR somata was decreased in CA3-2. The densities of axon terminals arising from PVB-IR and cholecystokinin (CCK)-IR basket neurons were also altered, with those of CCK-IR terminals increased across all sectors, while PVB-IR terminals were decreased only in the CA region. Increases in CCK-IR terminals were paralleled by increases of terminals with IR for the 65-kD isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65). Mixed-effects statistical models, adapted specifically for these analyses, indicated that perturbations of amygdalar inputs to the hippocampus significantly alter the drive that hippocampal PVB-, CR-, and CB-IR neurons within the dentate gyrus/CA4 region exercise on CCK-IR terminals within the same region as well as in CA3-1. These results suggest that amygdalar modulation of specific neuronal subpopulations may induce lasting and far-reaching changes in the hippocampus during normal functioning, as well as in diseases involving a disruption of amygdalar activity. In particular, changes in specific interneuronal markers within selective hippocampal sectors detected in the present results are strikingly similar to those reported in this region in schizophrenia. These similarities suggest that, in this disease, a disruption of GABAergic transmission within the amygdala may play a significant role in

  8. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) gene expression, synthesis, and effect of specific IL-1 receptor blockade in rabbit immune complex colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Cominelli, F; Nast, C C; Clark, B D; Schindler, R; Lierena, R; Eysselein, V E; Thompson, R C; Dinarello, C A

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) may be a key mediator of inflammation and tissue damage in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In rabbits with immune complex-induced colitis, IL-1 alpha and beta mRNA levels were detectable at 4 h, peaked at 12 but were absent at 96 h after the induction of colitis. Colonic IL-1 tissue levels were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. IL-1 alpha was significantly elevated at 4 h (9.4 +/- 1.5 ng/g colon), progressively increased at 48 h (31 +/- 5.8 ng/g) and then decreased by 96 h (11.5 +/- 3.4 ng/g). IL-1 beta levels were 2.0 +/- 0.5 ng/g colon at 4 h, 5.0 +/- 1.6 ng/g at 48 h and undetectable by 96 h. By comparison, colonic levels of PGE2 and LTB4 were unchanged during the first 12 h and did not become elevated until 24 h. IL-1 alpha levels were highly correlated with inflammation (r = 0.885, P less than 0.0001), edema (r = 0.789, P less than 0.0001) and necrosis (r = 0.752, P less than 0.0005). Treatment with a specific IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra) before and during the first 33 h after the administration of immune complexes markedly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration index (from 3.2 +/- 0.4 to 1.4 +/- 0.3, P less than 0.02), edema (from 2.2 +/- 0.4 to 0.6 +/- 0.3, P less than 0.01) and necrosis (from 43 +/- 10% to 6.6 +/- 3.2%, P less than 0.03) compared to vehicle-matched colitis animals. These studies demonstrate that (a) IL-1 gene expression and synthesis occur early in the course of immune complex-induced colitis; (b) are significantly elevated for 12 h before the appearance of PGE2 and LTB4; (c) tissue levels of IL-1 correlate with the degree of tissue inflammation and; (d) specific blockade of IL-1 receptors reduces the inflammatory responses associated with experimental colitis. Images PMID:2168444

  9. The effect of dopamine receptor blockade in the rodent nucleus accumbens on local field potential oscillations and motor activity in response to ketamine.

    PubMed

    Matulewicz, Pawel; Kasicki, Stefan; Hunt, Mark Jeremy

    2010-12-17

    Altered functioning of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in the psychotomimetic actions of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We have shown previously that NMDAR antagonists enhance the power of high-frequency oscillations (HFO) in the NAc in a dose-dependent manner, as well as increase locomotor activity. Systemic administration of NMDAR antagonists is known to increase the release of dopamine in the NAc and dopamine antagonists can reduce ketamine-induced hyperactivity. In this study, we examined the effect of 0.5 μl intra-NAc infusion of 3.2 μg SCH23390 (D1 antagonist), 10 μg raclopride (D2 antagonist) and saline on ketamine-induced changes in motor and oscillatory activity. We found that local blockade of D1 receptors attenuated ketamine-induced increases in motor activity and blockade of D2 receptors produced a much weaker effect, with respect to saline-infused control groups. In contrast, none of the antagonists, infused separately or together, significantly modified the power or dominant frequency of ketamine-induced increases in HFO, but changes in delta and theta frequency bands were observed. Together, these findings suggest, that, in contrast to delta and theta frequency bands, the generation of ketamine enhanced-HFO in the NAc is not causally related to locomotor activation and occurs largely independently of local changes in dopamine receptor activation.

  10. Reduction of the Morphine Maintenance by Blockade of the NMDA Receptors during Extinction Period in Conditioned Place Preference Paradigm of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Siahposht-Khachaki, Ali; Fatahi, Zahra; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens is a component of drug-induced reward mechanism. In addition, NMDA receptors play a major role in brain reward system and activation of these receptors can change firing pattern of dopamine neurons. Blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission reduces the expression of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine. Therefore, in this study, by using an NMDA receptor antagonist, DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid sodium salt (AP5), the role of NMDA receptors on the maintenance and reinstatement of morphine-CPP was investigated. Methods: Forty-three adult male albino Wistar rats were used in this study. After subcutaneous administration of effective dose of morphine (5 mg/kg) during CPP paradigm, the animals received intracerebroventricular doses of AP5(1, 5, and 25 mM/5μL saline) during extinction period (free morphine stage). Conditioning score was recorded during extinction period and reinstatement phase. Besides, another group of the animals received a single dose administration of AP5(5 mM) just before the administration of ineffective dose of morphine (1 mg/kg) in reinstatement phase. Results: The results revealed that two doses of this antagonist (5 and 25 mM) significantly shortened the extinction period of morphine-CPP but did not reduce reinstatement induced by priming dose of morphine. Moreover, the single dose administration of AP5(5 mM) just before prime-morphine injection decreased reinstatement of morphine-CPP. Conclusion: These findings indicate that blockade of NMDA receptors during extinction period reduces maintenance but not reinstatement of morphine. In addition, blocking these receptors in reinstatement phase decreases reinstatement to extinguished morphine. PMID:27872695

  11. Role of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors in the facilitatory response induced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Terrón, J A

    2001-06-01

    The present study further explored the mechanisms involved in the facilitatory effect induced by (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on learning consolidation. For this purpose, we analyzed in parallel the effects of LY215840 and ritanserin, two 5-HT(2) receptor antagonists with high affinity for the 5-HT(7) receptor, and WAY100635, a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on the facilitatory effect induced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation. We also determined whether LY215840 and/or ritanserin could be beneficial in restoring a deficient learning condition. Using the model of autoshaping task, post-training injection of LY215840 or WAY100635 had no effect on learning consolidation. However, both drugs abolished the enhancing effect of 8-OH-DPAT, with LY215840 being slightly more effective than WAY100635 in this respect. Ritanserin produced an increase in performance by itself and also abolished the effect of 8-OH-DPAT. Remarkably, selective blockade of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors with MDL100907 and SB200646, respectively, failed to alter the 8-OH-DPAT effect. LY215840 and ritanserin, at the doses that inhibited the 8-OH-DPAT-induced response, reversed the learning deficits induced by scopolamine and dizocilpine. The present results suggest that the enhancing effect produced by 8-OH-DPAT on learning consolidation involves activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors and an additional mechanism, probably related to the 5-HT(7) receptor. Blockade of 5-HT(2) receptors, and perhaps of 5-HT(7) receptors as well, may provide some benefit in reversing learning deficits associated with decreased cholinergic and/or glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  12. Mitochondrial activation chemicals synergize with surface receptor PD-1 blockade for T cell-dependent antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Chamoto, Kenji; Chowdhury, Partha S.; Kumar, Alok; Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Honjo, Tasuku

    2017-01-01

    Although immunotherapy by PD-1 blockade has dramatically improved the survival rate of cancer patients, further improvement in efficacy is required to reduce the fraction of less sensitive patients. In mouse models of PD-1 blockade therapy, we found that tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) carry increased mitochondrial mass and more reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that ROS generation by ROS precursors or indirectly by mitochondrial uncouplers synergized the tumoricidal activity of PD-1 blockade by expansion of effector/memory CTLs in DLNs and within the tumor. These CTLs carry not only the activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but also an increment of their downstream transcription factors such as PPAR-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and T-bet. Furthermore, direct activators of mTOR, AMPK, or PGC-1α also synergized the PD-1 blockade therapy whereas none of above-mentioned chemicals alone had any effects on tumor growth. These findings will pave a way to developing novel combinatorial therapies with PD-1 blockade. PMID:28096382

  13. Mitochondrial activation chemicals synergize with surface receptor PD-1 blockade for T cell-dependent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Chamoto, Kenji; Chowdhury, Partha S; Kumar, Alok; Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Honjo, Tasuku

    2017-01-31

    Although immunotherapy by PD-1 blockade has dramatically improved the survival rate of cancer patients, further improvement in efficacy is required to reduce the fraction of less sensitive patients. In mouse models of PD-1 blockade therapy, we found that tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) carry increased mitochondrial mass and more reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that ROS generation by ROS precursors or indirectly by mitochondrial uncouplers synergized the tumoricidal activity of PD-1 blockade by expansion of effector/memory CTLs in DLNs and within the tumor. These CTLs carry not only the activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but also an increment of their downstream transcription factors such as PPAR-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and T-bet. Furthermore, direct activators of mTOR, AMPK, or PGC-1α also synergized the PD-1 blockade therapy whereas none of above-mentioned chemicals alone had any effects on tumor growth. These findings will pave a way to developing novel combinatorial therapies with PD-1 blockade.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Combined AT1 Receptor/Neprilysin Inhibition (ARNI) Versus AT1 Receptor Blockade Alone in the Diabetic Eye

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Tuhina; Roksnoer, Lodi C. W.; Zhu, Ping; Verma, Amrisha; Li, Yiming; Batenburg, Wendy W.; de Vries, René; Danser, A. H. Jan; Li, Qiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Yet RAS blockers have only limited beneficial effects on progression of DR in clinical trials. The natriuretic peptide system offsets RAS, so that enhancing the activity of this system on top of RAS blockade might be beneficial. Neprilysin has an important role in the degradation of natriuretic peptides. Therefore, we hypothesize that dual angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition (ARNI) may outperform angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in protection against DR. We tested this hypothesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic transgenic (mRen2)27 rats. Methods Adult male diabetic (mRen2)27 rats were followed for 5 or 12 weeks. Treatment with vehicle, irbesartan (ARB), or ARB combined with the neprilysin inhibitor thiorphan (irbesartan+thiorphan [ARNI]) occurred during the final 3 weeks. Retinal cell death, gliosis, and capillary loss were evaluated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses were performed to quantify the retinal level of inflammatory cell markers. Results Both ARB- and ARNI-treated groups showed similarly reduced retinal apoptotic cell death, gliosis, and capillary loss compared to the vehicle-treated group in the 5-week study. Treatment with ARNI reduced the expression of inflammatory markers more than ARB treatment in the 5-week study. In the 12-week study, ARNI treatment showed significantly more reduction in apoptotic cell death (51% vs. 25% reduction), and capillary loss (68% vs. 43% reduction) than ARB treatment. Conclusions Treatment with ARNI provides better protection against DR in diabetic (mRen2)27 transgenic rats, compared to ARB alone. This approach may be a promising treatment option for patients with DR. PMID:27951594

  15. Cholinergic receptor blockade by scopolamine and mecamylamine exacerbates global cerebral ischemia induced memory dysfunction in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Ray, R S; Rai, S; Katyal, A

    2014-12-01

    Global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCI/R) injury encompasses complex pathophysiological sequalae, inducing loss of hippocampal neurons and behavioural deficits. Progressive neuronal death and memory dysfunctions culminate from several different mechanisms like oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and cholinergic hypofunction. Experimental evidences point to the beneficial effects of cholinomimetic agents such as rivastigmine and galantamine in improving memory outcomes following GCI/R injury. However, the direct implications of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor blockade during global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury have not been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the relative involvement of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in spatial/associative memory functions and neuronal damage during global cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. The outcomes of present study support the idea that preservation of both muscarinic and nicotinic receptor functions is essential to alleviate hippocampal neuronal death in CA1 region following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  16. The role of serotonin receptor subtypes in treating depression: a review of animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Gregory V.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective in treating depression. Given the existence of different families and subtypes of 5-HT receptors, multiple 5-HT receptors may be involved in the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of SSRIs. Objective Behavioral pharmacology studies investigating the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in producing or blocking the effects of SSRIs were reviewed. Results Few animal behavior tests were available to support the original development of SSRIs. Since their development, a number of behavioral tests and models of depression have been developed that are sensitive to the effects of SSRIs, as well as to other types of antidepressant treatments. The rationale for the development and use of these tests is reviewed. Behavioral effects similar to those of SSRIs (antidepressant-like) have been produced by agonists at 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, and 5-HT6 receptors. Also, antagonists at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5- HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors have been reported to produce antidepressant-like responses. Although it seems paradoxical that both agonists and antagonists at particular 5-HT receptors can produce antidepressant-like effects, they probably involve diverse neurochemical mechanisms. The behavioral effects of SSRIs and other antidepressants may also be augmented when 5-HT receptor agonists or antagonists are given in combination. Conclusions The involvement of 5-HT receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs is complex and involves the orchestration of stimulation and blockade at different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Individual 5-HT receptors provide opportunities for the development of a newer generation of antidepressants that may be more beneficial and effective than SSRIs. PMID:21107537

  17. Selective blockade and recovery of cell surface alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. Studies with the irreversible antagonist benextramine

    SciTech Connect

    McKernan, R.M.; Strickland, W.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors are present on human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells, both on the cell surface and in a sequestered compartment. In the current study we show that benextramine, a hydrophilic irreversible antagonist, can be used to investigate alpha 2-adrenergic receptor compartmentation in these cells. In membranes prepared from HEL cells, benextramine competed for all alpha 2-adrenergic receptors ( (/sup 3/H)yohimbine sites). In intact cells, at 4 degrees, benextramine exhibited a biphasic competition curve for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, with EC50 values of approximately 10 microM and greater than 1 mM for the high and low affinity components, respectively. We propose that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptors preferentially blocked by benextramine are those on the surface of the cell, whereas those with low affinity are sequestered receptors because: 1) only epinephrine-accessible sites are removed by prior treatment of cells with benextramine, 2) a preparation enriched with surface membranes is also enriched in receptors with a high affinity for benextramine; and 3) after blockade of cell surface receptors (54 +/- 6% of total sites, n = 7) by benextramine, the ability of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonists epinephrine and UK-14,304 to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation is lost. The latter result implies that only cell surface and not sequestered receptors are functionally coupled to adenylate cyclase. The return of receptors from the sequestered compartment to the cell surface and the recovery of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor function were measured after HEL cells were treated with benextramine (50 microM for 1 hr at 4 degrees). The recovery of receptor binding (t1/2 = 25 min) was somewhat slower than the recovery of function (t1/2 approximately 8 min).

  18. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor activation and blockade on dopamine and noradrenaline levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2016-01-26

    The noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems are associated with the motor system and have anatomical and functional connections that have not yet been studied. The present study aimed to examine the specific role of D1 receptors (D1Rs) on noradrenergic and dopaminergic responses in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were assigned to eight groups to receive systemic injection of a D1R agonist (SKF-38393) at 0, 1, 5 or 10mg/kg or injection of a D1R antagonist (SCH-23390) at 0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1mg/kg. Dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Injection of SKF-38393 alone at 1, 5 and 10mg/kg did not alter DA levels in the midbrain, cerebral cortex or pons, while it significantly increased these levels in the striatum (at 1 and 10mg/kg), hippocampus (at 1mg/kg) and cerebellum (at 1 and 5mg/kg). Administration of SKF-38393 at 1, 5, and 10mg/kg decreased the NA levels in the midbrain, pons, hippocampus (except at 1mg/kg) and cortex (except at 5mg/kg), whereas the opposite effect was observed in the striatum. SCH-23390 decreased the DA levels in the cortex (at 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg) and pons (at 0.5mg/kg). In contrast, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg SCH-23390 increased the DA levels in the cerebellum, whereas no differences from the control levels were observed for the DA levels in the striatum, midbrain and hippocampus. SCH-23390 at 0.5 and 1mg/kg increased the NA levels in the striatum. In contrast, the midbrain, hippocampus, cortex, pons and cerebellum did not exhibit altered NA levels. Our results demonstrate that the activation of D1Rs modulates the response of the noradrenergic system in nearly all of the investigated brain structures; thus, the blockade of D1Rs attenuates the effects induced by D1R activation.

  19. Contribution of a helix 5 locus to selectivity of hallucinogenic and nonhallucinogenic ligands for the human 5-hydroxytryptamine2A and 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors: direct and indirect effects on ligand affinity mediated by the s