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Sample records for 5-ht2c receptor antagonism

  1. SB 242084, a selective and brain penetrant 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kennett, G A; Wood, M D; Bright, F; Trail, B; Riley, G; Holland, V; Avenell, K Y; Stean, T; Upton, N; Bromidge, S; Forbes, I T; Brown, A M; Middlemiss, D N; Blackburn, T P

    1997-01-01

    SB 242084 has a high affinity (pKi 9.0) for the cloned human 5-HT2C receptor and 100- and 158-fold selectivity over the closely related cloned human 5-HT2B and 5-HT2A subtypes respectively. SB 242084 had over 100-fold selectivity over a range of other 5-HT, dopamine and adrenergic receptors. In studies of 5-HT-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis using SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing the cloned human 5-HT2C receptor, SB 242084 acted as an antagonist with a pKb of 9.3, which closely resembled its corresponding receptor binding affinity. SB 242084 potently inhibited m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP, 7 mgkg i.p. 20 min pre-test)-induced hypolocomotion in rats, a model of in vivo central 5-HT2C receptor function, with an ID50 of 0.11 mg/kg i.p., and 2.0 mg/kg p.o. SB 242084 (0.1-1 mg/kg i.p.) exhibited an anxiolytic-like profile in the rat social interaction test, increasing time spent in social interaction, but having no effect on locomotion. SB 242084 (0.1-1 mg/kg i.p.) also markedly increased punished responding in a rat Geller-Seifter conflict test of anxiety, but had no consistent effect on unpunished responding. A large acute dose of SB 242084 (30 mg/kg p.o.) had no effect on seizure susceptibility in the rat maximal electroshock seizure threshold test. Also, while SB 242084 (2 and 6 mg/kg p.o. 1 hr pre-test) antagonized the hypophagic response to mCPP, neither acute nor subchronic administration of the drug, for 5 days at 2 or 6 mg/kg p.o. twice daily, affected food intake or weight gain. The results suggest that SB 242084 is the first reported selective potent and brain penetrant 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and has anxiolytic-like activity, but does not possess either proconvulsant or hyperphagic properties which are characteristic of mutant mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. PMID:9225286

  2. Compulsive behavior in the 5-HT2C receptor knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Chou-Green, Jennifer M; Holscher, Todd D; Dallman, Mary F; Akana, Susan F

    2003-04-01

    The efficacy of serotonergic pharmacotherapy indicates that serotonin (5-HT) plays a role in the treatment, if not the etiology, of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). While some clinical evidence implicates 5-HT(2C) receptors in this disorder, a definitive function has yet to be validated. We hypothesized that 5-HT(2C) receptor knockout (KO) mice may display compulsive-like behavior. This paper describes characterization of several distinct, highly organized behaviors in mice lacking functional 5-HT(2C) receptors, which supports a compulsive-like syndrome.Compulsive-like behavior was assessed in male 5-HT(2C) receptor KO and wildtype (WT) mice. Chewing of non-nutritive clay, chewing patterns on plastic-mesh screens, and the frequency of head dipping were measured. 5-HT(2C) receptor KO mice chewed more clay, produced a distinct pattern of "neat" chewing of plastic screens and exhibited reduced habituation of head dipping activity compared to WT mice. We conclude that the 5-HT(2C) receptor null mutant mouse provides a promising model of compulsive behavior and a means to further explore the role of 5-HT in OCD. PMID:12782219

  3. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Tetrasubstituted Pyridines as Potent 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of pyrido[3,4-d]azepines that are potent and selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists is disclosed. Compound 7 (PF-04781340) is identified as a suitable lead owing to good 5-HT2C potency, selectivity over 5-HT2B agonism, and in vitro ADME properties commensurate with an orally available and CNS penetrant profile. The synthesis of a novel bicyclic tetrasubstituted pyridine core template is outlined, including rationale to account for the unexpected formation of aminopyridine 13 resulting from an ammonia cascade cyclization. PMID:25815155

  4. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists for Addictive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) has long been associated with the control of a variety of motivated behaviors, including feeding. Much of the evidence linking 5-HT and feeding behavior was obtained from studies of the effects of the 5-HT releaser (dex)fenfluramine in laboratory animals and humans. Recently, the selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. This review examines evidence to support the use of selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists as treatments for conditions beyond obesity, including substance abuse (particularly nicotine, psychostimulant, and alcohol dependence), obsessive compulsive, and excessive gambling disorder. Following a brief survey of the early literature supporting a role for 5-HT in modulating food and drug reinforcement, we propose that intrinsic differences between SSRI and serotonin releasers may have underestimated the value of serotonin-based pharmacotherapeutics to treat clinical forms of addictive behavior beyond obesity. We then highlight the critical involvement of the 5-HT2C receptor in mediating the effect of (dex)fenfluramine on feeding and body weight gain and the evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists reduce measures of drug reward and impulsivity. A recent report of lorcaserin efficacy in a smoking cessation trial further strengthens the idea that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may have potential as a treatment for addiction. This review was prepared as a contribution to the proceedings of the 11th International Society for Serotonin Research Meeting held in Hermanus, South Africa, July 9-12, 2014. PMID:25870913

  5. Serotonin 5-ht2c receptor agonists: potential for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Keith J

    2005-10-01

    Obesity continues to be a burgeoning health problem worldwide. Before their removal from the market, fenfluramine and the more active enantiomer dexfenfluramine were considered to be among the most effective of weight loss agents. Much of the weight loss produced by fenfluramine was attributed to the direct activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptors in the central nervous system via the desmethyl-metabolite of fenfluramine, norfenfluramine. Norfenfluramine, however, is non-selective, activating additional serotonin receptors, such as 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B), which likely mediated the heart valve hypertrophy seen in many patients. Development of highly selective 5-HT(2C) agonists may recapitulate the clinical anti-obesity properties observed with fenfluramine while avoiding the significant cardiovascular and pulmonary side effects. PMID:16249524

  6. Selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists: Design and synthesis of pyridazine-fused azepines.

    PubMed

    Green, Martin P; McMurray, Gordon; Storer, R Ian

    2016-08-15

    Heterocycle-fused azepines are discussed as potent 5-HT2C receptor agonists with excellent selectivity over 5-HT2B agonism. Synthesis and structure activity relationships are outlined for a series of bicyclic pyridazino[3,4-d]azepines. By comparison with earlier published work, in vitro assays predict a high probability for achieving CNS penetration for a potent and selective compound 15a, a pre-requisite to achieve in vivo efficacy. PMID:27381086

  7. New therapeutic opportunities for 5-HT2C receptor ligands in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The 5-HT2C receptor (R) displays a widespread distribution in the CNS and is involved in the action of 5-HT in all brain areas. Knowledge of its functional role in the CNS pathophysiology has been impaired for many years due to the lack of drugs capable of discriminating among 5-HT2R subtypes, and to a lesser extent to the 5-HT1B, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7Rs. The situation has changed since the mid-90s due to the increased availability of new and selective synthesized compounds, the creation of 5-HT2C knock out mice, and the progress made in molecular biology. Many pharmacological classes of drugs including antipsychotics, antidepressants and anxiolytics display affinities toward 5-HT2CRs and new 5-HT2C ligands have been developed for various neuropsychiatric disorders. The 5-HT2CR is presumed to mediate tonic/constitutive and phasic controls on the activity of different central neurobiological networks. Preclinical data illustrate this complexity to a point that pharmaceutical companies developed either agonists or antagonists for the same disease. In order to better comprehend this complexity, this review will briefly describe the molecular pharmacology of 5-HT2CRs, as well as their cellular impacts in general, before addressing its central distribution in the mammalian brain. Thereafter, we review the preclinical efficacy of 5-HT2C ligands in numerous behavioral tests modeling human diseases, highlighting the multiple and competing actions of the 5-HT2CRs in neurobiological networks and monoaminergic systems. Notably, we will focus this evidence in the context of the physiopathology of psychiatric and neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and epilepsy. PMID:26617215

  8. Convergence of melatonin and serotonin (5-HT) signaling at MT2/5-HT2C receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Maud; Gbahou, Florence; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Daulat, Avais M; Benleulmi-Chaachoua, Abla; Luka, Marine; Chen, Patty; Kalbasi Anaraki, Dina; Baroncini, Marc; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J; Prevot, Vincent; Delagrange, Philippe; Jockers, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Inasmuch as the neurohormone melatonin is synthetically derived from serotonin (5-HT), a close interrelationship between both has long been suspected. The present study reveals a hitherto unrecognized cross-talk mediated via physical association of melatonin MT2 and 5-HT2C receptors into functional heteromers. This is of particular interest in light of the "synergistic" melatonin agonist/5-HT2C antagonist profile of the novel antidepressant agomelatine. A suite of co-immunoprecipitation, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, and pharmacological techniques was exploited to demonstrate formation of functional MT2 and 5-HT2C receptor heteromers both in transfected cells and in human cortex and hippocampus. MT2/5-HT2C heteromers amplified the 5-HT-mediated Gq/phospholipase C response and triggered melatonin-induced unidirectional transactivation of the 5-HT2C protomer of MT2/5-HT2C heteromers. Pharmacological studies revealed distinct functional properties for agomelatine, which shows "biased signaling." These observations demonstrate the existence of functionally unique MT2/5-HT2C heteromers and suggest that the antidepressant agomelatine has a distinctive profile at these sites potentially involved in its therapeutic effects on major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Finally, MT2/5-HT2C heteromers provide a new strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25770211

  9. Native serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are expressed as homodimers on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Herrick-Davis, Katharine; Grinde, Ellinor; Lindsley, Tara; Teitler, Milt; Mancia, Filippo; Cowan, Ann; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E

    2015-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a prominent class of plasma membrane proteins that regulate physiologic responses to a wide variety of stimuli and therapeutic agents. Although GPCR oligomerization has been studied extensively in recombinant cells, it remains uncertain whether native receptors expressed in their natural cellular environment are monomers, dimers, or oligomers. The goal of this study was to determine the monomer/oligomer status of a native GPCR endogenously expressed in its natural cellular environment. Native 5-HT2C receptors in choroid plexus epithelial cells were evaluated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with photon counting histogram (PCH). An anti-5-HT2C fragment antigen binding protein was used to label native 5-HT2C receptors. A known monomeric receptor (CD-86) served as a control for decoding the oligomer status of native 5-HT2C receptors by molecular brightness analysis. FCS with PCH revealed molecular brightness values for native 5-HT2C receptors equivalent to the molecular brightness of a homodimer. 5-HT2C receptors displayed a diffusion coefficient of 5 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s and were expressed at 32 receptors/μm(2) on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells. The functional significance and signaling capabilities of the homodimer were investigated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells using agonists that bind in a wash-resistant manner to one or both protomers of the homodimer. Whereas agonist binding to one protomer resulted in G protein activation, maximal stimulation required occupancy of both protomers. This study is the first to demonstrate the homodimeric structure of 5-HT2C receptors endogenously expressed in their native cellular environment, and identifies the homodimer as a functional signaling unit. PMID:25609374

  10. Native Serotonin 5-HT2C Receptors Are Expressed as Homodimers on the Apical Surface of Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grinde, Ellinor; Lindsley, Tara; Teitler, Milt; Mancia, Filippo; Cowan, Ann; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a prominent class of plasma membrane proteins that regulate physiologic responses to a wide variety of stimuli and therapeutic agents. Although GPCR oligomerization has been studied extensively in recombinant cells, it remains uncertain whether native receptors expressed in their natural cellular environment are monomers, dimers, or oligomers. The goal of this study was to determine the monomer/oligomer status of a native GPCR endogenously expressed in its natural cellular environment. Native 5-HT2C receptors in choroid plexus epithelial cells were evaluated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with photon counting histogram (PCH). An anti–5-HT2C fragment antigen binding protein was used to label native 5-HT2C receptors. A known monomeric receptor (CD-86) served as a control for decoding the oligomer status of native 5-HT2C receptors by molecular brightness analysis. FCS with PCH revealed molecular brightness values for native 5-HT2C receptors equivalent to the molecular brightness of a homodimer. 5-HT2C receptors displayed a diffusion coefficient of 5 × 10−9 cm2/s and were expressed at 32 receptors/μm2 on the apical surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells. The functional significance and signaling capabilities of the homodimer were investigated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells using agonists that bind in a wash-resistant manner to one or both protomers of the homodimer. Whereas agonist binding to one protomer resulted in G protein activation, maximal stimulation required occupancy of both protomers. This study is the first to demonstrate the homodimeric structure of 5-HT2C receptors endogenously expressed in their native cellular environment, and identifies the homodimer as a functional signaling unit. PMID:25609374

  11. Sound-induced seizures in serotonin 5-HT2c receptor mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Brennan, T J; Seeley, W W; Kilgard, M; Schreiner, C E; Tecott, L H

    1997-08-01

    The epilepsies are a heterogeneous collection of seizure disorders with a lifetime expectancy risk rate of 2-4%. A convergence of evidence indicates that heritable factors contribute significantly to seizure susceptibility. Genetically epilepsy-prone rodent strains have been frequently used to examine the effect of genetic factors on seizure susceptibility. The most extensively studied of these have been strains that are susceptible to sound-induced convulsions (audiogenic seizures, or AGSs). Early observations of the AGS phenomenon were made in the laboratory of Dr. Ivan Pavlov; in the course of appetite-conditioning experiments in mice, the loud bell used to signal food presentation unexpectedly produced seizures in some animals. In 1947, DBA/2 (D2) mice were found to exhibit a genetic susceptibility to AGSs stimulated by a doorbell mounted in an iron tub. Since this discovery, AGSs have been among the most intensively studied phenotypes in behavioural genetics. Although several genetic loci confer susceptibility to AGSs, the corresponding genes have not been cloned. We report that null mutant mice lacking serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are extremely susceptible to AGSs. The onset of susceptibility is between two and three months of age, with complete penetrance in adult animals. AGS-induced immediate early gene expression indicates that AGSs are subcortical phenomena in auditory circuits. This AGS syndrome is the first produced by a known genetic defect; it provides a robust model for the examination of serotoninergic mechanisms in epilepsy. PMID:9241279

  12. Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Canton, H; Barrett, R J; Sanders-Bush, E

    1998-11-01

    Extensive behavioral and biochemical evidence suggests an agonist role at the 5-HT2A receptor, and perhaps the 5-HT2C receptor, in the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. However the published in vitro pharmacological properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an hallucinogenic tryptamine analog, are not consistent with this hypothesis. We, therefore, undertook an extensive investigation into the properties of DMT at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. In fibroblasts transfected with the 5-HT2A receptor or the 5-HT2C receptor, DMT activated the major intracellular signaling pathway (phosphoinositide hydrolysis) to an extent comparable to that produced by serotonin. Because drug efficacy changes with receptor density and cellular microenvironment, we also examined the properties of DMT in native preparations using a behavioral and biochemical approach. Rats were trained to discriminate an antagonist ketanserin from an agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) in a two-lever choice paradigm. Pharmacological studies showed that responding on the DOI and ketanserin lever reflected agonist and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors, and hence, was a suitable model for evaluating the in vivo functional properties of DMT. Like other 5-HT2A receptor agonists, DMT substituted fully for DOI. Intact choroid plexus was used to evaluate the agonist properties at endogenous 5-HT2C receptors; DMT was a partial agonist at 5-HT2C receptors in this native preparation. Thus, we conclude that DMT behaves as an agonist at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2A receptors. One difference was evident in that the 5-HT2C, but not the 5-HT2A, receptor showed a profound desensitization to DMT over time. This difference is interesting in light of the recent report that the hallucinogenic activity of DMT does not tolerate in humans and suggests the 5-HT2C receptor plays a less prominent role in the action of DMT. PMID:9768567

  13. Effect of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors on temporal discrimination by mice.

    PubMed

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Sindhunata, Ivan S; Scheffers, Kees; Flynn, Aaron D; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2016-08-01

    Timing deficits are observed in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonergic hallucinogens can also alter the subjective experience of time. Characterizing the mechanism through which the serotonergic system regulates timing will increase our understanding of the linkage between serotonin (5-HT) and schizophrenia, and will provide insight into the mechanism of action of hallucinogens. We investigated whether interval timing in mice is altered by hallucinogens and other 5-HT2 receptor ligands. C57BL/6J mice were trained to perform a discrete-trials temporal discrimination task. In the discrete-trials task, mice were presented with two levers after a variable interval. Responding on lever A was reinforced if the interval was <6.5 s, and responding on lever B was reinforced if the interval was >6.5 s. A 2-parameter logistic function was fitted to the proportional choice for lever B (%B responding), yielding estimates of the indifference point (T50) and the Weber fraction (a measure of timing precision). The 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 increased T50, whereas the 5-HT2C antagonist SB-242,084 reduced T50. The results indicate that 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors have countervailing effects on the speed of the internal pacemaker. The hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 3 mg/kg IP), a 5-HT2 agonist, flattened the response curve at long stimulus intervals and shifted it to the right, causing both T50 and the Weber fraction to increase. The effect of DOI was antagonized by M100907 (0.03 mg/kg SC) but was unaffected by SB-242,084 (0.1 mg/kg SC). Similar to DOI, the selective 5-HT2A agonist 25CN-NBOH (6 mg/kg SC) reduced %B responding at long stimulus intervals, and increased T50 and the Weber fraction. These results demonstrate that hallucinogens alter temporal perception in mice, effects that are mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. It appears that 5-HT regulates temporal perception, suggesting that altered serotonergic signaling may contribute to the timing deficits

  14. 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade and 5-HT(2C) receptor activation interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos protein expression in the caudate-putamen.

    PubMed

    Pockros, Lara A; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Conway, Sineadh M; Ullman, Teresa E; Zwick, Kimberly R; Neisewander, Janet L

    2012-12-01

    Both the 5-HT(2A) receptor (R) antagonist M100907 and the 5-HT(2C) R agonist MK212 attenuate cocaine-induced dopamine release and hyperlocomotion. This study examined whether these drugs interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We first determined from dose-effect functions a low dose of both M100907 and MK212 that failed to alter cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) hyperlocomotion. Subsequently, we examined whether these subthreshold doses given together would attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion, consistent with a 5-HT(2A)/5-HT(2C) R interaction. Separate groups of rats received two sequential drug injections 5 min apart immediately before a 1-h locomotion test as follows: (1) saline + saline, (2) saline + cocaine, (3) 0.025 mg/kg M100907 + cocaine, (4) 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine, or (5) cocktail combination of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine. Brains were extracted for Fos immunohistochemistry 90 min after the second injection. We next examined the effects of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212, alone and in combination, on spontaneous locomotor activity. While neither drug given alone produced any effects, the M100907/MK212 cocktail attenuated cocaine hyperlocomotion as well as cocaine-induced Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen (CPu), but had no effect on spontaneous locomotion. The findings suggest that 5-HT(2A) Rs and 5-HT(2C) Rs interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the CPu, and that the CPu is a potential locus of the interactive effects between these 5-HT(2) R subtypes on behavior. Further research investigating combined 5-HT(2A) R antagonism and 5-HT(2C) R agonism as a treatment for cocaine dependence is warranted. PMID:22886755

  15. Modulation of dopamine transmission by 5HT2C and 5HT3 receptors: a role in the antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Weizmann, Yifat; Kinor, Noa; Gispan-Herman, Iris; Yadid, Gal

    2006-02-01

    Dopaminergic mesolimbic and mesocortical systems are fundamental in hedonia and motivation. Therefore their regulation should be central in understanding depression treatment. This review highlights the dopaminergic activity in relation to depressive behavior and suggests two putative receptors as potential targets for research and development of future antidepressants. In this article we review data that describe the role of serotonin in regulating dopamine release, via 5HT2C and 5HT3 receptors. This action of serotonin appears to be linked to depressive-like behavior and to onset of behavioral effects of antidepressants in an animal model of depression. We suggest that drugs or strategies that decrease 5HT2C and increase 5HT3 receptor-mediated dopamine release in the limbic areas of the brain may provide a fast onset of therapeutic effect. Clinical and basic research data supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:16475958

  16. Effects of RO 60 0175, a 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist, in three animal models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kennett, G; Lightowler, S; Trail, B; Bright, F; Bromidge, S

    2000-01-10

    There is some controversy as to whether 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists are anxiogenic or anxiolytic. The effects of the novel 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist, (S)-2-chloro-5-fluoro-indol-1-yl)-1-methyl ethylamine fumarate (RO 60 0175), in three models of anxiety were therefore tested. RO 60 0175 was found to induce hypolocomotion in rats at doses greater than 0.5 mg/kg s.c., an effect reversed by the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, SB-242084. RO 60 0175 did not elicit anxiolytic-like responses in the social interaction test under high light unfamiliar conditions, but suppressed both time spent in social interaction and locomotion at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg s.c., suggesting a sedative response. In the Vogel conflict test, RO 60 0175 had no significant action on the number of shocks taken. In the Geller-Seifter test, RO 60 0175 (0.3 and 1 mg/kg s.c.) simultaneously reduced both unpunished and punished lever pressing, a profile consistent with sedation. Finally, RO 60 0175 was tested in a rat social interaction test under low light familiar conditions optimal for the detection of anxiogenic-like responses. At 1 and 3 mg/kg s.c., RO 60 0175 reduced both time spent in social interaction and concurrent locomotion, a profile more consistent with sedation than anxiogenesis. In conclusion, RO 60 0175 induced sedative-like responses via 5-HT(2C) receptor activation, but was neither anxiolytic, nor clearly anxiogenic at the doses tested. PMID:10650160

  17. Decreased Incentive Motivation Following Knockout or Acute Blockade of the Serotonin Transporter: Role of the 5-HT2C Receptor.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caleb J; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Acute pharmacological elevation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) activity decreases operant responding for primary reinforcers, suggesting that 5-HT reduces incentive motivation. The mechanism by which 5-HT alters incentive motivation is unknown, but parallel evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists also reduce responding for primary reinforcers implicates this receptor as a potential candidate. These experiments examined whether chronic and acute disruptions of serotonin transporter (SERT) activity altered incentive motivation, and whether the 5-HT2C receptor mediated the effects of elevated 5-HT on behavior. To assess incentive motivation, we measured responding for three different reinforcers: a primary reinforcer (saccharin), a conditioned reinforcer (CRf), and an unconditioned sensory reinforcer (USRf). In the chronic condition, responding was compared between SERT knockout (SERT-KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. In the acute condition, responding was examined in wild-type mice following treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg citalopram, or its vehicle. The ability of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242084 to prevent the effects of SERT-KO and citalopram on responding was subsequently examined. Both SERT-KO and citalopram reduced responding for saccharin, a CRf, and a USRf. Treatment with SB 242084 enhanced responding for a CRf and a USRf in SERT-KO mice and blocked the effects of citalopram on CRf and USRf responding. However, SB 242084 was unable to prevent the effects of SERT-KO or citalopram on responding for saccharin. These results support a powerful inhibitory function for 5-HT in the control of incentive motivation, and indicate that the 5-HT2C receptor mediates these effects of 5-HT in a reinforcer-dependent manner. PMID:27125304

  18. Genotype-Dependent Difference in 5-HT2C Receptor-Induced Hypolocomotion: Comparison with 5-HT2A Receptor Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bazovkina, Darya V.; Kondaurova, Elena M.; Naumenko, Vladimir S.; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In the present study behavioral effects of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor were investigated in different mouse strains. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK-212 applied intraperitoneally induced significant dose-dependent reduction of distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac mice. This effect was receptor-specific because it was inhibited by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221. To study the role of genotype in 5-HT2C receptor-induced hypolocomotion, locomotor activity of seven inbred mouse strains was measured after MK-212 acute treatment. We found that the 5-HT2C receptor stimulation by MK-212 decreased distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac, C57Bl/6, C3H/He, and ICR mice, whereas it failed to affect locomotor activity in DBA/2J, Asn, and Balb/c mice. We also compared the interstrain differences in functional response to 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors activation measured by the quantification of receptor-mediated head-twitches. These experiments revealed significant positive correlation between 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors functional responses for all investigated mouse strains. Moreover, we found that 5-HT2A receptor activation with DOI did not change locomotor activity in CBA/Lac mice. Taken together, our data indicate the implication of 5-HT2C receptors in regulation of locomotor activity and suggest the shared mechanism for functional responses mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors. PMID:26380122

  19. Genotype-Dependent Difference in 5-HT2C Receptor-Induced Hypolocomotion: Comparison with 5-HT2A Receptor Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Bazovkina, Darya V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In the present study behavioral effects of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor were investigated in different mouse strains. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK-212 applied intraperitoneally induced significant dose-dependent reduction of distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac mice. This effect was receptor-specific because it was inhibited by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221. To study the role of genotype in 5-HT2C receptor-induced hypolocomotion, locomotor activity of seven inbred mouse strains was measured after MK-212 acute treatment. We found that the 5-HT2C receptor stimulation by MK-212 decreased distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac, C57Bl/6, C3H/He, and ICR mice, whereas it failed to affect locomotor activity in DBA/2J, Asn, and Balb/c mice. We also compared the interstrain differences in functional response to 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors activation measured by the quantification of receptor-mediated head-twitches. These experiments revealed significant positive correlation between 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors functional responses for all investigated mouse strains. Moreover, we found that 5-HT2A receptor activation with DOI did not change locomotor activity in CBA/Lac mice. Taken together, our data indicate the implication of 5-HT2C receptors in regulation of locomotor activity and suggest the shared mechanism for functional responses mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors. PMID:26380122

  20. Nucleus accumbens shell excitability is decreased by methamphetamine self-administration and increased by 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonism and agonism

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Steven M.; Clark, Mary J.; Traynor, John R.; Hu, Xiu-Ti; Napier, T. Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine profoundly increases brain monoamines and is a widely abused psychostimulant. The effects of methamphetamine self-administration on neuron function are not known for the nucleus accumbens, a brain region involved in addictive behaviors, including drug-seeking. One therapeutic target showing preclinical promise at attenuating psychostimulant-seeking is 5-HT2C receptors; however, the effects of 5-HT2C receptor ligands on neuronal physiology are unclear. 5-HT2C receptor agonism decreases psychostimulant-mediated behaviors, and the putative 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist, SB 206553, attenuates methamphetamine-seeking in rats. To ascertain the effects of methamphetamine, and 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonism and agonism, on neuronal function in the nucleus accumbens, we evaluated methamphetamine, SB 206553, and the 5-HT2C receptor agonist and Ro 60-0175, on neuronal excitability within the accumbens shell subregion using whole-cell current-clamp recordings in forebrain slices ex vivo. We reveal that methamphetamine self-administration decreased generation of evoked action potentials. In contrast, SB 206553 and Ro 60-0175 increased evoked spiking, effects that were prevented by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, SB 242084. We also assessed signaling mechanisms engaged by 5-HT2C receptors, and determined that accumbal 5-HT2C receptors stimulated Gq, but not Gi/o. These findings demonstrate that methamphetamine-induced decreases in excitability of neurons within the nucleus accumbens shell were abrogated by both 5-HT2C inverse agonism and agonism, and this effect likely involved activation of Gq–mediated signaling pathways. PMID:25229719

  1. RNA editing of the human serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor delays agonist-stimulated calcium release.

    PubMed

    Price, R D; Sanders-Bush, E

    2000-10-01

    RNA encoding the human 5-HT(2C) receptor undergoes adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing events at five positions in the putative second intracellular loop, with a corresponding reduction in receptor/G-protein coupling. Agonist-stimulated calcium release was examined in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts stably expressing the nonedited human INI (hINI) or the edited hVSV or hVGV variants. We hypothesized that different receptor isoforms would show altered dynamics of agonist-induced calcium release. The three isoforms showed a rightward shift in agonist concentration-response curves for eliciting calcium release (EC(50) values: hINI, 2.2 nM; hVSV, 15 nM; hVGV, 49 nM). Additionally, the hVGV receptor showed a blunted and delayed [Ca(2+)](i) peak compared with the hINI or hVSV receptor isoforms. These distinctions in agonist-induced [Ca(2+)](i) release imply that edited 5-HT(2C) receptors may produce distinct physiological responses within the central nervous system. PMID:10999958

  2. Role of 5-HT2C Receptors in Effects of Monoamine Releasers on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Clayton T.; Banks, Matthew L.; Blough, Bruce E.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Many monoamine releasers are abused by humans and produce abuse-related facilitation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. Facilitation of ICSS in rats can be limited by monoamine releaser-induced serotonin (5-HT) release, but receptors that mediate 5-HT effects of monoamine releasers are unknown. Objectives Investigate whether 5-HT2C receptor activation is necessary for rate-decreasing effects produced in an ICSS procedure in rats by the 5-HT-selective monoamine releaser fenfluramine and the non-selective releasers napthylisopropylamine (PAL-287) and (+)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ((+)-MDMA). Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle were trained to lever press for brain stimulation under a “frequency-rate” ICSS procedure. Effectiveness of the 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242,084 was evaluated to block rate-decreasing effects produced by (1) the 5-HT2C agonist Ro 60-0175, (2) the 5-HT-selective releaser fenfluramine, and (3) the mixed-action dopamine (DA)/norepinephrine (NE)/5-HT releasers PAL-287 (1.0-5.6 mg/kg), and (+)-MDMA (1.0-3.2 mg/kg). For comparison, effectiveness of SB 242,084 to alter rate-decreasing effects of the kappa opioid receptor agonist U69,593 and rate-increasing effects of the DA>5-HT releaser amphetamine were also examined. Results SB 242,084 pretreatment blocked rate-decreasing effects of Ro 60-0175 and fenfluramine, but not the rate-decreasing effects of U69,593 or the rate-increasing effects of amphetamine. SB 242,084 blunted the rate-decreasing effects and enhanced expression of rate-increasing effects of PAL-287 and (+)-MDMA. Conclusions These data suggest that 5-HT2C receptor activation contributes to rate-decreasing effects that are produced by selective and mixed-action 5-HT releasers in rats and that may oppose and limit the expression of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by these compounds. PMID:26041338

  3. Stimulation of medial prefrontal cortex serotonin 2C (5-HT(2C)) receptors attenuates cocaine-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Pentkowski, Nathan S; Duke, Felicia D; Weber, Suzanne M; Pockros, Lara A; Teer, Andrew P; Hamilton, Elizabeth C; Thiel, Kenneth J; Neisewander, Janet L

    2010-09-01

    Serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) agonists administered systemically attenuate both cocaine-primed and cue-elicited reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. To further elucidate the function of these receptors in addiction-like processes, this study examined the effects of microinfusing the 5-HT(2C)R agonist MK212 (0, 10, 30, 100 ng/side/0.2 microl) into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on cocaine self-administration and reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg, i.v.) paired with light and tone cues. Once responding stabilized, rats received MK212 microinfusions before tests for maintenance of cocaine self-administration. Next, extinction training to reduce cocaine-seeking behavior, defined as responses performed without cocaine reinforcement available, occurred until low extinction baselines were achieved. Rats then received MK212 microinfusions before tests for reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by cocaine-priming injections (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or response-contingent presentations of the cocaine-associated cues; operant responses during cocaine-primed reinstatement tests produced no consequences. MK212 microinfusions into the prelimbic and infralimbic, but not anterior cingulate, regions of the mPFC dose-dependently attenuated both cocaine-primed and cue-elicited reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior, but did not reliably affect cocaine self-administration. A subsequent experiment showed that the effects of MK212 (100 ng/side/0.2 microl) on reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior were blocked by co-administration of the 5-HT(2C)R antagonist SB242084 (200 ng/side/0.2 microl). MK212 administered alone into the mPFC as a drug prime produced no discernable effects on cocaine-seeking behavior. These findings suggest that stimulation of 5-HT(2C)Rs in the mPFC attenuates the incentive motivational effects

  4. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Qin; Pang, Gang; Tao, Xinrong; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry. Central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of dependence on and the expression of withdrawal from morphine. Serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) agonists suppress psychostimulant nicotine or cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and drug-seeking behavior; however, the impact of 5-HT(2C)R agonists on behaviors relevant to opioid abuse and dependence has not been reported. In the present study, the effects of 5-HT(2C)R activation on the behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were examined in mice underwent repeated exposure to morphine. Male mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to develop behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT(2C)R agonist, prevented the induction and expression, but not the development, of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. Pretreatment of lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), ameliorated the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. SB 242084, a selective 5-HT(2C)R antagonist, prevented the lorcaserin-mediated suppression of behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Chronic morphine treatment was associated with an increase in the expression of 5-HT(2C)R protein in the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus and nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that 5-HT(2C)R can modulate behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, and the activation of 5-HT(2C)R may represent a new avenue for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:26432939

  5. We Need 2C but Not 2B: Developing Serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianjun; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2016-01-01

    The serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) receptor has been identified as a potential drug target for the treatment of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, such as obesity, substance abuse, and schizophrenia. In this Viewpoint article, recent progress in developing selective 5-HT2C agonists for use in treating these disorders is summarized, including the work of our group. Challenges in this field and the possible future directions are described. Homology modeling as a method to predict the binding modes of 5-HT2C ligands to the receptor is also discussed. Compared to known ligands, the improved pharmacological profiles of the 2-phenylcyclopropylmethylamine-based 5-HT2C agonists make them preferred candidates for further studies. PMID:26507582

  6. Human Serotonin 5-HT2C G Protein-Coupled Receptor Homology Model from the β2 Adrenoceptor Structure: Ligand Docking and Mutagenesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    RDOVA-SINTJAGO, TANIA CÓ; VILLA, NANCY; CANAL, CLINTON; BOOTH, RAYMOND

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5HT2C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is proposed as novel pharmacotherapy for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast, activation of the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B GPCRs is associated with untoward hallucinogenic and cardiopulmonary effects, respectively. There is no crystal structure available to guide design of 5-HT2C receptor-specific ligands. For this reason, a homology model of the 5-HT2C receptor was built based on the crystal structure of the human β2 adrenoceptor GPCR to delineate molecular determinants of ligand–receptor interactions for drug design purposes. Computational and experimental studies were carried out to validate the model. Binding of N(CH3)2-PAT [(1R, 3S)-(−)-trans-1-phenyl-3-N,N-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene], a novel 5-HT2C agonist/5-HT2A/2B inverse agonist, and its secondary [NH(CH3)-PAT] and primary (NH2-PAT) amine analogs were studied at the 5-HT2C wild type (WT) and D3.32A, S3.36A, and Y7.43A 5-HT2C point-mutated receptors. Reference ligands included the tertiary amines lisuride and mesulergine and the primary amine 5-HT. Modeling results indicated that 5-HT2C residues D3.32, S3.36, and Y7.43 play a role in ligand binding. Experimental ligand binding results with WT and point-mutated receptors confirmed the impact of D3.32, S3.36, and Y7.43 on ligand affinity. PMID:24244046

  7. A-to-I editing of the 5HT2C receptor and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Katheleen; Du, Yunzhi

    2006-03-01

    Site-specific deamination of five adenosine residues in the pre-mRNA of the serotonin 2C receptor, 5HT2CR, alters the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein. Such RNA editing can produce 32 mRNA variants, encoding 24 protein isoforms that vary in biochemical and pharmacological properties. Because serotonin functions in the regulation of mood and behaviour, modulation of serotonin signalling by RNA editing may be relevant to such psychiatric disorders as anxiety and depression. Several recent human studies have reported changes in 5HT2CR editing in schizophrenia, major depression or suicide, but results are variable and not conclusive. Rodent studies have begun to examine effects of drug treatments and stress. Understanding the importance of 5HT2CR editing in mood and behaviour will be assisted by experiments designed to analyse multiple strains of mice, in different behavioural tests, with optimal evaluation of the time course of molecular changes. PMID:16769676

  8. Lorcaserin, a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist, decreases alcohol intake in female alcohol preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty C; Levin, Edward D

    2014-10-01

    Serotonergic systems in the brain have been found to be important in the addiction to alcohol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel 5-HT2c receptor agonist, lorcaserin for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult female rats were allowed to drink water or alcohol (12%, v/v) using a standard two-bottle choice procedure. Once stable baselines were established, the acute (0, 0.3125, 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg, s.c.), and chronic (0, 0.625 mg/kg, sc for 10 days) effects of lorcaserin on alcohol intake and preference were assessed at different time points. In a separate experiment, the effects of lorcaserin on locomotor activity were determined. Our results show that both 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake at 2, 4 and 6 h. after the drug administration. The chronic administration of 0.625 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake up to 6h every day after the injection and there was no sign of diminished efficacy of the drug during 10-day treatment. To determine the effects of lorcaserin on sucrose intake, rats were put on a two-bottle choice of water vs a solution of 7% sucrose. The high dose of lorcaserin (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced sucrose intake only for up to 2 h. When tested for locomotor activity, lorcaserin injected 20 min before testing significantly reduced locomotor activity at all doses. However, when it was injected 5.5h before the start of the 1-h session, neither dose had a significant effect on locomotor activity. These results show the efficacy of lorcaserin in reducing alcohol intake without a significant effect on water intake and locomotion suggesting the involvement of 5-HT2c receptors in alcohol seeking behavior. Further research is warranted to determine the possible efficacy of lorcaserin or similar drugs as treatments for the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:25109272

  9. Ethanol induced adaptations in 5-HT2c receptor signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: implications for anxiety during ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A; Dorrier, Cayce E; Lopez, Alberto J; Kash, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    One of the hallmarks of alcohol dependence is the presence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence, which manifests as physical craving for alcohol accompanied by subjective feelings of anxiety. Using a model of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor in mice, we investigated the role of serotonin2c receptor (5HT2c-R) signaling in the BNST as a neural substrate underlying ethanol-induced anxiety during withdrawal. Mice were subjected to a 5-day CIE regimen of 16 h of ethanol vapor exposure followed by an 8 h "withdrawal" period between exposures. After the 5th and final exposure, mice were withdrawn for 24 h or 1 week before experiments began. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the social approach, light dark, and open field tests with mice showing deficits in social, but not general anxiety-like behavior that was alleviated by pretreatment with the 5HT2c-R antagonist SB 242,084 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 h and 1 week post-CIE. Using immunohistochemistry and whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology, we also found that CIE increased FOS-IR and enhanced neuronal excitability in the ventral BNST (vBNST) 24 h into withdrawal in a 5HT2c-R dependent manner. This enhanced excitability persisted for 1 week post-CIE. We also found that mCPP, a 5HT2c/b agonist, induced a more robust depolarization in cells of the vBNST in CIE mice, confirming that 5HT2c-R signaling is upregulated in the vBNST following CIE. Taken together, these results suggest that CIE upregulates 5HT2c-R signaling in the vBNST, leading to increased excitability. This enhanced excitability of the vBNST may drive increased anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal. PMID:25229718

  10. Stimulation of 5-HT2C Receptors Improves Cognitive Deficits Induced by Human Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Loss of Function Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Del'Guidice, Thomas; Lemay, Francis; Lemasson, Morgane; Levasseur-Moreau, Jean; Manta, Stella; Etievant, Adeline; Escoffier, Guy; Doré, François Y; Roman, François S; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin synthesis enzyme Tph2 have been identified in mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder, major depression, autism, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Deficits in cognitive flexibility and perseverative behaviors are shared common symptoms in these disorders. However, little is known about the impact of Tph2 gene variants on cognition. Mice expressing a human TPH2 variant (Tph2-KI) were used to investigate cognitive consequences of TPH2 loss of function and pharmacological treatments. We applied a recently developed behavioral assay, the automated H-maze, to study cognitive functions in Tph2-KI mice. This assay involves the consecutive discovery of three different rules: a delayed alternation task, a non-alternation task, and a delayed reversal task. Possible contribution of locomotion, reward, and sensory perception were also investigated. The expression of loss-of-function mutant Tph2 in mice was associated with impairments in reversal learning and cognitive flexibility, accompanied by perseverative behaviors similar to those observed in human clinical studies. Pharmacological restoration of 5-HT synthesis with 5-hydroxytryptophan or treatment with the 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP809.101 reduced cognitive deficits in Tph2-KI mice and abolished perseveration. In contrast, treatment with the psychostimulant methylphenidate exacerbated cognitive deficits in mutant mice. Results from this study suggest a contribution of TPH2 in the regulation of cognition. Furthermore, identification of a role for a 5-HT2 receptor agonist as a cognition-enhancing agent in mutant mice suggests a potential avenue to explore for the personalized treatment of cognitive symptoms in humans with reduced 5-HT synthesis and TPH2 polymorphisms. PMID:24196946

  11. Variation within the serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor system aligns with vulnerability to cocaine cue reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, N C; Liu, S; Maili, L; Swinford, S E; Lane, S D; Fox, R G; Hamon, S C; Nielsen, D A; Cunningham, K A; Moeller, F G

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine dependence remains a challenging public health problem with relapse cited as a major determinant in its chronicity and severity. Environmental contexts and stimuli become reliably associated with its use leading to durable conditioned responses (‘cue reactivity') that can predict relapse as well as treatment success. Individual variation in the magnitude and influence of cue reactivity over behavior in humans and animals suggest that cue-reactive individuals may be at greater risk for the progression to addiction and/or relapse. In the present translational study, we investigated the contribution of variation in the serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) system in individual differences in cocaine cue reactivity in humans and rodents. We found that cocaine-dependent subjects carrying a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the HTR2C gene that encodes for the conversion of cysteine to serine at codon 23 (Ser23 variant) exhibited significantly higher attentional bias to cocaine cues in the cocaine-word Stroop task than those carrying the Cys23 variant. In a model of individual differences in cocaine cue reactivity in rats, we identified that high cocaine cue reactivity measured as appetitive approach behavior (lever presses reinforced by the discrete cue complex) correlated with lower 5-HT2CR protein expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and blunted sensitivity to the suppressive effects of the selective 5-HT2CR agonist WAY163909. Our translational findings suggest that the functional status of the 5-HT2CR system is a mechanistic factor in the generation of vulnerability to cocaine-associated cues, an observation that opens new avenues for future development of biomarker and therapeutic approaches to suppress relapse in cocaine dependence. PMID:24618688

  12. Lorcaserin, A 5-HT2C Receptor Agonist, Reduces Body Weight by Decreasing Energy Intake without Influencing Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Redman, Leanne M.; Zhang, Jinkun; Sanchez, Matilde; Anderson, Christen M.; Smith, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lorcaserin, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2C receptor agonist, reduces body weight. It is unclear whether weight loss is due to reduced energy intake (EI) or also to enhanced energy expenditure (EE). Objective: This study tested the effect of lorcaserin on EI and EE. Design, Participants, and Intervention: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 (39 women) overweight and obese (body mass index, 27–45 kg/m2) adults were randomized to placebo (n = 28) or 10 mg twice daily lorcaserin (n = 29) for 56 d. Weight maintenance was imposed during d 1–7. Beginning on d 8, participants followed a diet and exercise plan targeting a 600 kcal/d deficit. Outcomes: At baseline and after 7 and 56 d of treatment, we measured body weight, body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, heart rate, EI at lunch and dinner, subjective appetite ratings, and 24-h EE and 24-h-respiratory quotient (RQ), measured by indirect calorimetry in a respiratory chamber. Results: After 7 d of weight maintenance, EI was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced with lorcaserin but not placebo (mean ± sem for lorcaserin, −286 ± 86 kcal; placebo, −147 ± 89 kcal). After 56 d, lorcaserin resulted in significantly larger reductions in body weight (lorcaserin, −3.8 ± 0.4 kg; placebo, −2.2 ± 0.5 kg; P < 0.01), EI (lorcaserin, −470 ± 87 kcal; placebo, −205 ± 91 kcal; P < .05), and appetite ratings than in placebo. Changes in 24-h EE and 24-h RQ did not differ between groups, even after 24-h EE was adjusted for body weight and composition. Compared with placebo, lorcaserin had no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure or heart rate after 56 d. Conclusions: Lorcaserin reduces body weight through reduced EI, not altered EE or RQ. PMID:21190985

  13. Role of serotonin 5-HT2C and histamine H1 receptors in antipsychotic-induced diabetes: A pharmacoepidemiological-pharmacodynamic study in VigiBase.

    PubMed

    Montastruc, François; Palmaro, Aurore; Bagheri, Haleh; Schmitt, Laurent; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacodynamic mechanisms of diabetes induced by antipsychotic drugs remain unclear, while numerous receptors have been suspected to be involved in the genesis of this Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR). We investigated potential relationships between antipsychotics׳ receptor occupancy (serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, histamine H1, muscarinic M3, adrenergic α1, α2 or dopaminergic D2 D3 occupancies) and reports of diabetes using VigiBase(®), the World Health Organization (WHO) global Individual Case Safety Report (ICSR) database. All ADR reports from 15 first and second generation antipsychotic drugs recorded in VigiBase(®) were extracted. Logistic regression models, completed by disproportionality analysis, were used to determine the associations between antipsychotics׳ receptor occupancy and ICSRs of diabetes on VigiBase(®). During the study period, 94,460 ICSRs involved at least one of the 15 antipsychotics of interest. Diabetes was reported in 1799 (1.9%) patients. Clozapine was the most frequently suspected drug (n=953; 53.0%). A significant and positive association was found between histamine H1, muscarinic M3 and serotonin 5-HT2C, 5-HT2A receptor occupancies and reports of diabetes. A multivariable stepwise regression model showed that only serotonin 5-HT2c (AOR=2.13, CI 95% 1.72-2.64) and histamine H1 (AOR=1.91, CI 95% 1.38-2.64) predicted the risk for diabetes mellitus (p<0.001). Using an original pharmacoepidemiology-pharmacodynamic (PE-PD) approach, our study supports that antipsychotic drugs blocking simultaneously histamine H1 and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are more frequently associated with diabetes reports in VigiBase(®) than other antipsychotics. These findings should encourage investigation of histamine H1 and serotonin 5-HT2C properties for predicting the risk of glycemic effects in candidate antipsychotics. PMID:26256010

  14. 5-HT2C Receptor Desensitization Moderates Anxiety in 5-HTT Deficient Mice: From Behavioral to Cellular Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Cédric BP; Martin, Vincent S.; Trigo, José M.; Chevarin, Caroline; Maldonado, Rafael; Fink, Latham H.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Hamon, Michel; Lanfumey, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Background: Desensitization and blockade of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CR) have long been thought to be central in the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. However, besides behavioral pharmacology studies, there is little in vivo data documenting antidepressant-induced 5-HT2CR desensitization in specific brain areas. Methods: Mice lacking the 5-HT reuptake carrier (5-HTT-/-) were used to model the consequences of chronic 5-HT reuptake inhibition with antidepressant drugs. The effect of this mutation on 5-HT2CR was evaluated at the behavioral (social interaction, novelty-suppressed feeding, and 5-HT2CR–induced hypolocomotion tests), the neurochemical, and the cellular (RT-qPCR, mRNA editing, and c-fos–induced expression) levels. Results: Although 5-HTT-/- mice had an anxiogenic profile in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, they displayed less 5-HT2CR–mediated anxiety in response to the agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine in the social interaction test. In addition, 5-HT2CR–mediated inhibition of a stress-induced increase in 5-HT turnover, measured in various brain areas, was markedly reduced in 5-HTT-/- mutants. These indices of tolerance to 5-HT2CR stimulation were associated neither with altered levels of 5-HT2CR protein and mRNA nor with changes in pre-mRNA editing in the frontal cortex. However, basal c-fos mRNA production in cells expressing 5-HT2CR was higher in 5-HTT-/- mutants, suggesting an altered basal activity of these cells following sustained 5-HT reuptake carrier inactivation. Furthermore, the increased c-fos mRNA expression in 5-HT2CR–like immune-positive cortical cells observed in wild-type mice treated acutely with the 5-HT2CR agonist RO-60,0175 was absent in 5-HTT-/- mutants. Conclusions: Such blunted responsiveness of the 5-HT2CR system, observed at the cell signaling level, probably contributes to the moderation of the anxiety phenotype in 5-HTT-/- mice. PMID:25522398

  15. Functional selectivity of hallucinogenic phenethylamine and phenylisopropylamine derivatives at human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed

    Moya, Pablo R; Berg, Kelly A; Gutiérrez-Hernandez, Manuel A; Sáez-Briones, Patricio; Reyes-Parada, Miguel; Cassels, Bruce K; Clarke, William P

    2007-06-01

    2,5-Dimethoxy-4-substituted phenylisopropylamines and phenethylamines are 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)(2A/2C) agonists. The former are partial to full agonists, whereas the latter are partial to weak agonists. However, most data come from studies analyzing phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated responses, although additional effectors [e.g., phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))] are associated with these receptors. We compared two homologous series of phenylisopropylamines and phenethylamines measuring both PLA(2) and PLC responses in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing human 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2C) receptors. In addition, we assayed both groups of compounds as head shake inducers in rats. At the 5-HT(2C) receptor, most compounds were partial agonists for both pathways. Relative efficacy of some phenylisopropylamines was higher for both responses compared with their phenethylamine counterparts, whereas for others, no differences were found. At the 5-HT(2A) receptor, most compounds behaved as partial agonists, but unlike findings at 5-HT(2C) receptors, all phenylisopropylamines were more efficacious than their phenethylamine counterparts. 2,5-Dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine activated only the PLC pathway at both receptor subtypes, 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine was selective for PLC at the 5-HT(2C) receptor, and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-nitrophenethylamine was PLA(2)-specific at the 5-HT(2A) receptor. For both receptors, the rank order of efficacy of compounds differed depending upon which response was measured. The phenylisopropylamines were strong head shake inducers, whereas their phenethylamine congeners were not, in agreement with in vitro results and the involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the head shake response. Our results support the concept of functional selectivity and indicate that subtle changes in ligand structure can result in significant differences in the cellular signaling profile. PMID:17337633

  16. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-independent expression of hypothalamic NOR1, a novel modulator of food intake and energy balance, in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao; Ohba, Yukie; Sumii, Makiko; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2009-08-21

    NOR1, Nur77 and Nurr1 are orphan nuclear receptors and members of the NR4A subfamily. Here, we report that the expression of hypothalamic NOR1 was remarkably decreased in mildly obese {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice and obese db/db mice with the leptin receptor mutation, compared with age-matched wild-type mice, whereas there were no genotypic differences in the expression of hypothalamic Nur77 or Nurr1 in these animals. The injection of NOR1 siRNA oligonucleotide into the third cerebral ventricle significantly suppressed food intake and body weight in mice. On the other hand, the decreases in hypothalamic NOR1 expression were not found in non-obese 5-HT2C receptor-deficient mice. Moreover, systemic administration of m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a 5-HT2C/1B receptor agonist, had no effect on hypothalamic NOR1 expression, while suppressing food intake in {beta}-endorphin-deficient mice. These findings suggest that 5-HT2C receptor-independent proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides regulate the expression of hypothalamic NOR1, which is a novel modulator of feeding behavior and energy balance.

  17. Rat exposure in mice with neuropathic pain induces fear and antinociception that is not reversed by 5-HT2C receptor activation in the dorsal periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Furuya-da-Cunha, Elke Mayumi; Souza, Rimenez Rodrigues de; Canto-de-Souza, Azair

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that serotonin 5-HT2C receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) mediate both anxiety and antinociception in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze. The present study examined the effects of intra-dPAG infusion of the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist (MK-212) in the defensive reactions and antinociception in mice with neurophatic pain confronted by a predator. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, and predator confrontation was performed using the rat exposure test (RET). Our results demonstrated that both sham-operated and CCI mice exhibited intense defensive reactions when confronted by rats. However, rat-exposed CCI mice showed reduced pain reactivity in comparison to CCI mice exposed to a toy rat. Intra-dPAG infusion of MK-212 prior to predator exposure did not significantly alter defensive or antinociceptive responses. To our knowledge, our results represent the first evidence of RET-induced antinociception in mice. Moreover, the results of the present study suggest that 5-HT2C receptor activation in the dPAG is not critically involved in the control of predator-evoked fearful or antinociceptive responses. PMID:27059332

  18. 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptor blockade prevents tau protein hyperphosphorylation and corrects the defect in hippocampal synaptic plasticity caused by a combination of environmental stressors in mice.

    PubMed

    Busceti, Carla Letizia; Di Pietro, Paola; Riozzi, Barbara; Traficante, Anna; Biagioni, Francesca; Nisticò, Robert; Fornai, Francesco; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Bruno, Valeria

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to multimodal sensory stressors is an everyday occurrence and sometimes becomes very intense, such as during rave parties or other recreational events. A growing body of evidence suggests that strong environmental stressors might cause neuronal dysfunction on their own in addition to their synergistic action with illicit drugs. Mice were exposed to a combination of physical and sensory stressors that are reminiscent of those encountered in a rave party. However, this is not a model of rave because it lacks the rewarding properties of rave. A 14-h exposure to environmental stressors caused an impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory, and an enhanced phosphorylation of tau protein in the CA1 and CA3 regions. These effects were transient and critically depended on the activation of 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, which are highly expressed in the CA1 region. Acute systemic injection of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist, RS-102,221 (2 mg/kg, i.p., 2 min prior the onset of stress), prevented tau hyperphosphorylation and also corrected the defects in hippocampal LTP and spatial memory. These findings suggest that passive exposure to a combination of physical and sensory stressors causes a reversible hippocampal dysfunction, which might compromise mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and spatial memory for a few days. Drugs that block 5-HT2C receptors might protect the hippocampus against the detrimental effect of environmental stressors. PMID:26145279

  19. Regulation of Oligomeric Organization of the Serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) Receptor Observed by Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Richard J.; Pediani, John D.; Godin, Antoine G.; Milligan, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    The questions of whether G protein-coupled receptors exist as monomers, dimers, and/or oligomers and if these species interconvert in a ligand-dependent manner are among the most contentious current issues in biology. When employing spatial intensity distribution analysis to laser scanning confocal microscope images of cells stably expressing either a plasma membrane-associated form of monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or a tandem version of this fluorophore, the eGFP tandem was identified as a dimer. Similar studies on cells stably expressing an eGFP-tagged form of the epidermal growth factor receptor demonstrated that, although largely a monomer in the basal state, this receptor rapidly became predominantly dimeric upon the addition of its ligand epidermal growth factor. In cells induced to express an eGFP-tagged form of the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor, global analysis of construct quantal brightness was consistent with the predominant form of the receptor being dimeric. However, detailed spatial intensity distribution analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple forms ranging from monomers to higher-order oligomers. Furthermore, treatment with chemically distinct 5-HT2C receptor antagonists resulted in a time-dependent change in the quaternary organization to one in which there was a preponderance of receptor monomers. This antagonist-mediated effect was reversible, because washout of the ligand resulted in the regeneration of many of the oligomeric forms of the receptor. PMID:25825490

  20. Expression of hippocampal serotonin receptors 5-HT2C and 5-HT5A in a rat model of diet-induced obesity supplemented with tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Esparza, Sarahi; Berumen, Laura C; Padilla, Karla; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2015-05-01

    Food intake regulation is a complex mechanism that involves endogenous substances and central nervous system structures like hypothalamus or even hippocampus. The neurotransmitter serotonin is distinguished as food intake mediator; within its multiples receptors, the 5-HT2C type is characterized by its inhibitory appetite action but there is no information about 5-HT5A receptors involvement in obesity disease. It is also unknown if there are any changes in the receptors expression in rats hippocampus with induced obesity during development through a high energy diet (HED) supplemented with tryptophan (W). To appreciate the receptors expression pattern in the hippocampus, obesity was induced to young Sprague Dawley rats through a HED and supplemented with W. Immunocytochemical and western blot techniques were used to study the receptor distribution and quantify the protein expression. The rats with HED diet developed obesity until week 13 of treatment. The 5-HT2C receptor expression decreased in CA1, CA2, CA3 and DG of HED group; and also in CA2, CA3 and DG for HEDW group. The 5-HT5A receptor expression only decreased in DG for HED group. Variations of the two serotonin receptors subtypes support their potential role in obesity. PMID:25720309

  1. The 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces cocaine self-administration, reinstatement of cocaine-seeking and cocaine induced locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Lewis, Colin; Li, Zhaoxia; Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Lorcaserin (Lorqess, Belviq(®)) is a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist that has received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists are also efficacious in decreasing multiple aspects of cocaine motivation and reward in preclinical models. This would suggest that lorcaserin is a clinically available therapeutic with the potential to treat cocaine addiction. Here we report the effects of lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg-1.0 mg/kg) on multiple aspects of cocaine-related behaviours in rats. We find that lorcaserin dose-dependently decreases cocaine self-administration on progressive and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Lorcaserin also reduces reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour in response to priming injections of cocaine and/or reintroduction of cocaine-associated cues. Finally, lorcaserin dose-dependently decreases cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Our results, when considered in concert with similar emergent findings in non-human primates, strongly support continued research into the potential of lorcaserin as a clinical treatment for cocaine addiction. PMID:26427596

  2. Role for serotonin2A (5-HT2A) and 2C (5-HT2C) receptors in experimental absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Venzi, Marcello; David, François; Bellet, Joachim; Cavaccini, Anna; Bombardi, Cristiano; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Absence seizures (ASs) are the hallmark of childhood/juvenile absence epilepsy. Monotherapy with first-line anti-absence drugs only controls ASs in 50% of patients, indicating the need for novel therapeutic targets. Since serotonin family-2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) are known to modulate neuronal activity in the cortico-thalamo-cortical loop, the main network involved in AS generation, we investigated the effect of selective 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR ligands on ASs in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a well established polygenic rat model of these non-convulsive seizures. GAERS rats were implanted with fronto-parietal EEG electrodes under general anesthesia, and their ASs were later recorded under freely moving conditions before and after intraperitoneal administration of various 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR ligands. The 5-HT2A agonist TCB-2 dose-dependently decreased the total time spent in ASs, an effect that was blocked by the selective 5-HT2A antagonist MDL11,939. Both MDL11,939 and another selective 5-HT2A antagonist (M100,907) increased the length of individual seizures when injected alone. The 5-HT2C agonists lorcaserin and CP-809,101 dose-dependently suppressed ASs, an effect blocked by the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242984. In summary, 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2CRs negatively control the expression of experimental ASs, indicating that selective agonists at these 5-HT2R subtypes might be potential novel anti-absence drugs. PMID:27085605

  3. (1R, 3S)-(−)-Trans-PAT: A novel full-efficacy serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor inverse agonist/antagonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Raymond G.; Fang, Lijuan; Huang, Yingsu; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sivendran, Sashikala

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors signal primarily through Gαq to activate phospholipase C (PLC) and formation of inositol phosphates (IP) and diacylglycerol. The human 5-HT2C receptor, expressed exclusively in the central nervous system, is involved in several physiological and psychological processes. Development of 5-HT2C agonists that do not also activate 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors is challenging because transmembrane domain identity is about 75% among 5-HT2 subtypes. This paper reports 5-HT2 receptor affinity and function of (1R,3S)-(−)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT), a small molecule that produces anorexia and weight-loss after peripheral administration to mice. (−)-Trans-PAT is a stereoselective full-efficacy agonist at human 5-HT2C receptors, plus, it is a 5-HT2A/5-HT2B inverse agonist and competitive antagonist. The Ki of (−)-trans-PAT at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors is 410, 1200, and 37 nM, respectively. Functional studies measured activation of PLC/[3H]-IP formation in clonal cells expressing human 5-HT2 receptors. At 5-HT2C receptors, (−)-trans-PAT is an agonist (EC50 = 20 nM) comparable to serotonin in potency and efficacy. At 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, (−)-trans-PAT is an inverse agonist (IC50 = 490 and 1,000 nM, respectively) and competitive antagonist (KB = 460 and 1400 nM, respectively) of serotonin. Experimental results are interpreted in light of molecular modeling studies indicating the (−)-trans-PAT protonated amine can form an ionic bond with D3.32 of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, but, not with 5-HT2B receptors. In addition to probing 5-HT2 receptor structure and function, (−)-trans-PAT is a novel lead regarding 5-HT2C agonist/5-HT2A inverse agonist drug development for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19397907

  4. Stimulation of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) Receptors Attenuates Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pentkowski, Nathan S; Duke, Felicia D; Weber, Suzanne M; Pockros, Lara A; Teer, Andrew P; Hamilton, Elizabeth C; Thiel, Kenneth J; Neisewander, Janet L

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonists administered systemically attenuate both cocaine-primed and cue-elicited reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. To further elucidate the function of these receptors in addiction-like processes, this study examined the effects of microinfusing the 5-HT2CR agonist MK212 (0, 10, 30, 100 ng/side/0.2 μl) into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on cocaine self-administration and reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg, i.v.) paired with light and tone cues. Once responding stabilized, rats received MK212 microinfusions before tests for maintenance of cocaine self-administration. Next, extinction training to reduce cocaine-seeking behavior, defined as responses performed without cocaine reinforcement available, occurred until low extinction baselines were achieved. Rats then received MK212 microinfusions before tests for reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by cocaine-priming injections (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or response-contingent presentations of the cocaine-associated cues; operant responses during cocaine-primed reinstatement tests produced no consequences. MK212 microinfusions into the prelimbic and infralimbic, but not anterior cingulate, regions of the mPFC dose-dependently attenuated both cocaine-primed and cue-elicited reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior, but did not reliably affect cocaine self-administration. A subsequent experiment showed that the effects of MK212 (100 ng/side/0.2 μl) on reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior were blocked by co-administration of the 5-HT2CR antagonist SB242084 (200 ng/side/0.2 μl). MK212 administered alone into the mPFC as a drug prime produced no discernable effects on cocaine-seeking behavior. These findings suggest that stimulation of 5-HT2CRs in the mPFC attenuates the incentive motivational

  5. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Stocker, Claire J; Wargent, Edward T; Cripps, Roselle L; Garfield, Alastair S; Jovanovic, Zorica; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Yeo, Giles S H; Cawthorne, Michael A; Arch, Jonathan R S; Heisler, Lora K; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-04-01

    Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus ofin uterogrowth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist. PMID:26769798

  6. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Stocker, Claire J.; Wargent, Edward T.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Garfield, Alastair S.; Jovanovic, Zorica; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Cawthorne, Michael A.; Arch, Jonathan R. S.; Heisler, Lora K.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus of in utero growth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist. PMID:26769798

  7. Aromatic interactions impact ligand binding and function at serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors: receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics results validated by experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova-Sintjago, Tania; Villa, Nancy; Fang, Lijuan; Booth, Raymond G.

    2014-02-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family consists of types 2A, 2B, and 2C that share ∼75% transmembrane (TM) sequence identity. Agonists for 5-HT2C receptors are under development for psychoses; whereas, at 5-HT2A receptors, antipsychotic effects are associated with antagonists - in fact, 5-HT2A agonists can cause hallucinations and 5-HT2B agonists cause cardiotoxicity. It is known that 5-HT2A TM6 residues W6.48, F6.51, and F6.52 impact ligand binding and function; however, ligand interactions with these residues at the 5-HT2C receptor have not been reported. To predict and validate molecular determinants for 5-HT2C-specific activation, results from receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies were compared with experimental results for ligand binding and function at wild type and W6.48A, F6.51A, and F6.52A point-mutated 5-HT2C receptors.

  8. Molecular interactions of agonist and inverse agonist ligands at serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors: computational ligand docking and molecular dynamics studies validated by experimental mutagenesis results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova-Sintjago, Tania C.; Liu, Yue; Booth, Raymond G.

    2015-02-01

    To understand molecular determinants for ligand activation of the serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), a drug target for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders, a 5-HT2C homology model was built according to an adrenergic β2 GPCR (β2AR) structure and validated using a 5-HT2B GPCR crystal structure. The models were equilibrated in a simulated phosphatidyl choline membrane for ligand docking and molecular dynamics studies. Ligands included (2S, 4R)-(-)-trans-4-(3'-bromo- and trifluoro-phenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-amine (3'-Br-PAT and 3'-CF3-PAT), a 5-HT2C agonist and inverse agonist, respectively. Distinct interactions of 3'-Br-PAT and 3'-CF3-PAT at the wild-type (WT) 5-HT2C receptor model were observed and experimental 5-HT2C receptor mutagenesis studies were undertaken to validate the modelling results. For example, the inverse agonist 3'-CF3-PAT docked deeper in the WT 5-HT2C binding pocket and altered the orientation of transmembrane helices (TM) 6 in comparison to the agonist 3'-Br-PAT, suggesting that changes in TM orientation that result from ligand binding impact function. For both PATs, mutation of 5-HT2C residues S3.36, T3.37, and F5.47 to alanine resulted in significantly decreased affinity, as predicted from modelling results. It was concluded that upon PAT binding, 5-HT2C residues T3.37 and F5.47 in TMs 3 and 5, respectively, engage in inter-helical interactions with TMs 4 and 6, respectively. The movement of TMs 5 and 6 upon agonist and inverse agonist ligand binding observed in the 5-HT2C receptor modelling studies was similar to movements reported for the activation and deactivation of the β2AR, suggesting common mechanisms among aminergic neurotransmitter GPCRs.

  9. Oligomer size of the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor revealed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with photon counting histogram analysis: evidence for homodimers without monomers or tetramers.

    PubMed

    Herrick-Davis, Katharine; Grinde, Ellinor; Lindsley, Tara; Cowan, Ann; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E

    2012-07-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and photon counting histogram (PCH) are techniques with single molecule sensitivity that are well suited for examining the biophysical properties of protein complexes in living cells. In the present study, FCS and PCH were applied to determine the diffusion coefficient and oligomeric size of G-protein-coupled receptors. FCS was used to record fluctuations in fluorescence intensity arising from fluorescence-tagged 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT(2C)) receptors diffusing within the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells and rat hippocampal neurons. Autocorrelation analysis yielded diffusion coefficients ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 μm(2)/s for fluorescence-tagged receptors. Because the molecular brightness of a fluorescent protein is directly proportional to the number of fluorescent proteins traveling together within a protein complex, it can be used to determine the oligomeric size of the protein complex. FCS and PCH analysis of fluorescence-tagged 5-HT(2C) receptors provided molecular brightness values that were twice that of GFP and YFP monomeric controls, similar to a dimeric GFP control, and unaltered by 5-HT. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation of the N- and C-terminal halves of YFP attached to 5-HT(2C) receptors was observed in endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi and plasma membranes with a brightness equal to monomeric YFP. When GFP-tagged 5-HT(2C) receptors were co-expressed with a large excess of untagged, non-fluorescent 5-HT(2C) receptors, the molecular brightness was reduced by half. PCH analysis of the FCS data were best described by a one-component dimer model without monomers or tetramers. Therefore, it is concluded that 5-HT(2C) receptors freely diffusing within the plasma membrane are dimeric. PMID:22593582

  10. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian; Pang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Xu, Shengchun; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W; Zhang, Gongliang

    2015-10-21

    Abuse and dependence to heroin has evolved into a global epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to heroin can induce long-lasting behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) suppresses psychostimulant-induced drug-seeking and behavioral sensitization. The present study examined the effect of a selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin on behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. Male mice received heroin (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of heroin (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to examine the expression of behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin administered during the development, withdrawal or expression stage suppressed heroin-induced behavioral sensitization on day 9. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of heroin over a 4.5-day period. Lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an α2-adrenoceptor agonist) suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT2CRs suppresses behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in heroin-treated mice. Thus, pharmacological activation of 5-HT2CRs may represent a new avenue for the treatment of heroin addiction. PMID:26375926

  11. 759C/T Variants of the Serotonin (5-HT2C) Receptor Gene and Weight Gain in Children and Adolescents in Long-Term Risperidone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    del Castillo, Nicole; Zimmerman M, Bridget; Tyler, Billie; Ellingrod, Vicki L; Calarge, Chadi

    2014-01-01

    Background Great inter-individual variability exists in the susceptibility to gain weight during antipsychotic treatment. Thus, we examined whether the −759C/T variants in the promoter region of the 5HT2C receptor gene were differentially associated with weight gain in children and adolescents in long-term risperidone treatment. Methods Medically healthy 7 to 17 year-olds, treated with risperidone for ≥ six months, were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests, and treatment history were obtained upon enrollment and from medical records. The effect of the genotype on the trajectory of age-sex-adjusted weight and body mass index (BMI) z scores before and after the onset of risperidone treatment was investigated. Results In 124 subjects (90% males, mean age: 11.8 years) treated with risperidone for a mean of 2.8 years, weight and BMI z scores significantly increased after starting risperidone. This change was similar across the two genotype groups as were changes in several cardiometabolic variables. Conclusion In contrast to other reports, the T allele failed to confer protection against excessive weight gain or cardiometabolic abnormalities in this group of children and adolescents chronically treated with risperidone. PMID:24772381

  12. Serotonin (5-HT) 2C Receptor (5-HT2CR) Protein Expression is Enriched in Synaptosomal and Postsynaptic Compartments of Rat Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Noelle C.; Lanfranco, Maria Fe; Bubar, Marcy J.; Seitz, Patricia K.; Stutz, Sonja J.; McGinnis, Andrew G.; Watson, Cheryl S.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    The action of serotonin (5-HT) at the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) in cerebral cortex is emerging as a candidate modulator of neural processes that mediate core phenotypic facets of several psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, our understanding of the neurobiology of the cortical 5-HT2CR protein complex is currently limited. The goal of the present study was to explore the subcellular localization of the 5-HT2CR in synaptosomes and the postsynaptic density, an electron-dense thickening specialized for postsynaptic signaling and neuronal plasticity. Utilizing multiples tissues (brain, peripheral tissues), protein fractions (synaptosomal, postsynaptic density), and controls (peptide neutralization, 5-HT2CR stable-expressing cells), we established the selectivity of two commercially available 5-HT2CR antibodies and employed the antibodies in Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies of PFC and motor cortex, two regions implicated in cognitive, emotional and motor dysfunction. For the first time, we demonstrated the expression of the 5-HT2CR in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions from both PFC and motor cortex. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed the presence of PSD-95 within the 5-HT2CR protein complex expressed in PFC and motor cortex. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that the 5-HT2CR is localized within the postsynaptic thickening of synapses and is therefore positioned to directly modulate synaptic plasticity in cortical neurons. PMID:20345755

  13. Functional Status of the Serotonin 5-HT2C Receptor (5-HT2CR) Drives Interlocked Phenotypes that Precipitate Relapse-Like Behaviors in Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Noelle C; Stutz, Sonja J; Fox, Robert G; Sears, Robert M; Emeson, Ronald B; DiLeone, Ralph J; O'Neil, Richard T; Fink, Latham H; Li, Dingge; Green, Thomas A; Gerard Moeller, F; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Relapse vulnerability in cocaine dependence is rooted in genetic and environmental determinants, and propelled by both impulsivity and the responsivity to cocaine-linked cues (‘cue reactivity'). The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is uniquely poised to serve as a strategic nexus to mechanistically control these behaviors. The 5-HT2CR functional capacity is regulated by a number of factors including availability of active membrane receptor pools, the composition of the 5-HT2CR macromolecular protein complex, and editing of the 5-HT2CR pre-mRNA. The one-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task was used to identify impulsive action phenotypes in an outbred rat population before cocaine self-administration and assessment of cue reactivity in the form of lever presses reinforced by the cocaine-associated discrete cue complex during forced abstinence. The 1-CSRT task reliably and reproducibly identified high impulsive (HI) and low impulsive (LI) action phenotypes; HI action predicted high cue reactivity. Lower cortical 5-HT2CR membrane protein levels concomitant with higher levels of 5-HT2CR:postsynaptic density 95 complex distinguished HI rats from LI rats. The frequency of edited 5-HT2CR mRNA variants was elevated with the prediction that the protein population in HI rats favors those isoforms linked to reduced signaling capacity. Genetic loss of the mPFC 5-HT2CR induced aggregate impulsive action/cue reactivity, suggesting that depressed cortical 5-HT2CR tone confers vulnerability to these interlocked behaviors. Thus, impulsive action and cue reactivity appear to neuromechanistically overlap in rodents, with the 5-HT2CR functional status acting as a neural rheostat to regulate, in part, the intersection between these vulnerability behaviors. PMID:23939424

  14. Peptide Inhibitors Disrupt the Serotonin 5-HT2C Receptor Interaction with Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog to Allosterically Modulate Cellular Signaling and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Noelle C.; Gilbertson, Scott R.; Bubar, Marcy J.; Agarkov, Anton; Stutz, Sonja J.; Jeng, Yowjiun; Bremer, Nicole M.; Smith, Thressa D.; Fox, Robert G.; Swinford, Sarah E.; Seitz, Patricia K.; Charendoff, Marc N.; Craft, John W.; Laezza, Fernanda M.; Watson, Cheryl S.; Briggs, James M.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling through the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) is essential in normal physiology, whereas aberrant 5-HT2CR function is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple neural disorders. The 5-HT2CR interacts with specific protein partners, but the impact of such interactions on 5-HT2CR function is poorly understood. Here, we report convergent cellular and behavioral data that the interaction between the 5-HT2CR and protein phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) serves as a regulatory mechanism to control 5-HT2CR-mediated biology but not that of the closely homologous 5-HT2AR. A peptide derived from the third intracellular loop of the human 5-HT2CR [3L4F (third loop, fourth fragment)] disrupted the association, allosterically augmented 5-HT2CR-mediated signaling in live cells, and acted as a positive allosteric modulator in rats in vivo. We identified the critical residues within an 8 aa fragment of the 3L4F peptide that maintained efficacy (within the picomolar range) in live cells similar to that of the 3L4F peptide. Last, molecular modeling identified key structural features and potential interaction sites of the active 3L4F peptides against PTEN. These compelling data demonstrate the specificity and importance of this protein assembly in cellular events and behaviors mediated by 5-HT2CR signaling and provide a chemical guidepost to the future development of drug-like peptide or small-molecule inhibitors as neuroprobes to study 5-HT2CR allostery and therapeutics for 5-HT2CR-mediated disorders. PMID:23345234

  15. Food intake inhibition in rainbow trout induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Mancebo, María J; Soengas, José L; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    In rainbow trout, the food intake inhibition induced by serotonin occurs through 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors, though the mechanisms involved are still unknown. Therefore, we assessed if a direct stimulation of 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A serotonin receptors (resulting in decreased food intake in rainbow trout), affects gene expression of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake, such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP). In a first set of experiments, the injection of the 5-HT2C receptor agonists MK212 (60 μg kg(-1) icv) and WAY 161503 (1 mg kg(-1) ip), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg kg(-1) ip and 30 μg kg(-1) icv) induced food intake inhibition. In a second set of experiments, we observed that the injection of MK212 or WAY 161503 (1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased hypothalamic POMC mRNA abundance. CART mRNA abundance in hypothalamus was enhanced by treatment with MK212 and unaffected by WAY 161503. The administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not induce any significant variation in the hypothalamic POMC or CART mRNA levels. CRF mRNA abundance was only affected by MK212 that increased hypothalamic values. Finally, hypothalamic AgRP mRNA abundance was only evaluated with the agonist 5-HT2C MK212 resulting in no significant effects. The results show that the reduction in food intake mediated by 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in hypothalamic POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance. PMID:26832922

  16. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of dual ligands for melatonin (MT1/MT2) and serotonin 5-HT2C receptor subtypes (II).

    PubMed

    Ettaoussi, Mohamed; Pérès, Basile; Errazani, Aïcha; Boutin, Jean A; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Delagrange, Philippe; Melnyk, Patricia; Berthelot, Pascal; Yous, Saïd

    2015-01-27

    In this paper we report the investigation of C-3 and β-acetamide positions of agomelatine analogues. Concomitant insertion of a hydroxymethyl in the β-acetamide position and aliphatic groups in C-3 position produced a positive effect on both melatonin (MT1, MT2) and serotonin (5-HT2C) binding affinities. In particular, the allyl 6b and ethyl 15a represented the more interesting compounds of this series. Furthermore, the introduction of methyl cycloalkyl groups (compounds 11a, 12a) exhibited no change in both MT2 and 5-HT2C binding affinities while a decrease of MT1 binding affinity occurred leading to an MT2 selectivity. Finally, the acetamide modulation has led to methyl thiourea 11h, with a weak MT2 selectivity. PMID:25528336

  17. Characterization of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin on efficacy and safety measures in a rat model of diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Guy A; Desnoyer, Jill; Van Niekerk, Annalise; Silenieks, Leo B; Lau, Winnie; Thevarkunnel, Sandy; Izhakova, Julia; DeLannoy, Ines AM; Fletcher, Paul J; DeLay, Josepha; Dobson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin (Belviq®) has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of obesity. The present study is a back translational investigation into the effect of 28-day lorcaserin treatment in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model using male, Sprague–Dawley rats. An assessment of drug effect on efficacy and multiple safety endpoints including cardiac function was undertaken. Lorcaserin (1–2 mg/kg SC b.i.d.) significantly reduced percentage body weight gain compared to vehicle-treated controls (VEH: 10.6 ± 0.4%; LOR 1: 7.6 ± 1.2%; LOR 2: 5.4 ± 0.6%). Measurement of body composition using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) imaging indicated this change was due to the selective reduction in body fat mass. Modest effects on food intake were recorded. At the completion of the treatment phase, echocardiography revealed no evidence for valvulopathy, that is, no aortic or mitral valve regurgitation. The pharmacokinetics of the present treatment regimen was determined over a 7-day treatment period; plasma Cmin and Cmax were in the range 13–160 ng/mL (1 mg/kg b.i.d.) and 34–264 ng/mL (2 mg/kg b.i.d.) with no evidence for drug accumulation. In sum, these studies show an effect of lorcaserin in the DIO model, that in the context of the primary endpoint measure of % body weight change was similar to that reported clinically (i.e., 3.0–5.2% vs. 3.2%). The present studies highlight the translational value of obesity models such as DIO, and suggest that assuming consideration is paid to nonspecific drug effects such as malaise, the DIO model has reasonable forward translational value to help predict clinical outcomes of a new chemical entity. PMID:25692009

  18. Characterization of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin on efficacy and safety measures in a rat model of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Desnoyer, Jill; Van Niekerk, Annalise; Silenieks, Leo B; Lau, Winnie; Thevarkunnel, Sandy; Izhakova, Julia; DeLannoy, Ines Am; Fletcher, Paul J; DeLay, Josepha; Dobson, Howard

    2015-02-01

    The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin (Belviq®) has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of obesity. The present study is a back translational investigation into the effect of 28-day lorcaserin treatment in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model using male, Sprague-Dawley rats. An assessment of drug effect on efficacy and multiple safety endpoints including cardiac function was undertaken. Lorcaserin (1-2 mg/kg SC b.i.d.) significantly reduced percentage body weight gain compared to vehicle-treated controls (VEH: 10.6 ± 0.4%; LOR 1: 7.6 ± 1.2%; LOR 2: 5.4 ± 0.6%). Measurement of body composition using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) imaging indicated this change was due to the selective reduction in body fat mass. Modest effects on food intake were recorded. At the completion of the treatment phase, echocardiography revealed no evidence for valvulopathy, that is, no aortic or mitral valve regurgitation. The pharmacokinetics of the present treatment regimen was determined over a 7-day treatment period; plasma C min and C max were in the range 13-160 ng/mL (1 mg/kg b.i.d.) and 34-264 ng/mL (2 mg/kg b.i.d.) with no evidence for drug accumulation. In sum, these studies show an effect of lorcaserin in the DIO model, that in the context of the primary endpoint measure of % body weight change was similar to that reported clinically (i.e., 3.0-5.2% vs. 3.2%). The present studies highlight the translational value of obesity models such as DIO, and suggest that assuming consideration is paid to nonspecific drug effects such as malaise, the DIO model has reasonable forward translational value to help predict clinical outcomes of a new chemical entity. PMID:25692009

  19. A novel aminotetralin-type serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptor-specific agonist and 5-HT2A competitive antagonist/5-HT2B inverse agonist with preclinical efficacy for psychoses.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Morgan, Drake; Felsing, Daniel; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Booth, Raymond G

    2014-05-01

    Development of 5-HT2C agonists for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychoses, substance abuse, and obesity, has been fraught with difficulties, because the vast majority of reported 5-HT2C selective agonists also activate 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2B receptors, potentially causing hallucinations and/or cardiac valvulopathy. Herein is described a novel, potent, and efficacious human 5-HT2C receptor agonist, (-)-trans-(2S,4R)-4-(3'[meta]-bromophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine (-)-MBP), that is a competitive antagonist and inverse agonist at human 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, respectively. (-)-MBP has efficacy comparable to the prototypical second-generation antipsychotic drug clozapine in three C57Bl/6 mouse models of drug-induced psychoses: the head-twitch response elicited by [2,5]-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine; hyperlocomotion induced by MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (dizocilpine maleate)]; and hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine. (-)-MBP, however, does not alter locomotion when administered alone, distinguishing it from clozapine, which suppresses locomotion. Finally, consumption of highly palatable food by mice was not increased by (-)-MBP at a dose that produced at least 50% maximal efficacy in the psychoses models. Compared with (-)-MBP, the enantiomer (+)-MBP was much less active across in vitro affinity and functional assays using mouse and human receptors and also translated in vivo with comparably lower potency and efficacy. Results indicate a 5-HT2C receptor-specific agonist, such as (-)-MBP, may be pharmacotherapeutic for psychoses, without liability for obesity, hallucinations, heart disease, sedation, or motoric disorders. PMID:24563531

  20. A Novel Aminotetralin-Type Serotonin (5-HT) 2C Receptor-Specific Agonist and 5-HT2A Competitive Antagonist/5-HT2B Inverse Agonist with Preclinical Efficacy for Psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Drake; Felsing, Daniel; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Rowland, Neil E.; Robertson, Kimberly L.; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Booth, Raymond G.

    2014-01-01

    Development of 5-HT2C agonists for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychoses, substance abuse, and obesity, has been fraught with difficulties, because the vast majority of reported 5-HT2C selective agonists also activate 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2B receptors, potentially causing hallucinations and/or cardiac valvulopathy. Herein is described a novel, potent, and efficacious human 5-HT2C receptor agonist, (−)-trans-(2S,4R)-4-(3′[meta]-bromophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine (−)-MBP), that is a competitive antagonist and inverse agonist at human 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, respectively. (−)-MBP has efficacy comparable to the prototypical second-generation antipsychotic drug clozapine in three C57Bl/6 mouse models of drug-induced psychoses: the head-twitch response elicited by [2,5]-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine; hyperlocomotion induced by MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (dizocilpine maleate)]; and hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine. (−)-MBP, however, does not alter locomotion when administered alone, distinguishing it from clozapine, which suppresses locomotion. Finally, consumption of highly palatable food by mice was not increased by (−)-MBP at a dose that produced at least 50% maximal efficacy in the psychoses models. Compared with (−)-MBP, the enantiomer (+)-MBP was much less active across in vitro affinity and functional assays using mouse and human receptors and also translated in vivo with comparably lower potency and efficacy. Results indicate a 5-HT2C receptor-specific agonist, such as (−)-MBP, may be pharmacotherapeutic for psychoses, without liability for obesity, hallucinations, heart disease, sedation, or motoric disorders. PMID:24563531

  1. 5-HT2A receptor blockade and 5-HT2C receptor activation interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos protein expression in the caudate-putamen

    PubMed Central

    Pockros, Lara A.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Conway, Sineadh M.; Ullman, Teresa E.; Zwick, Kimberly R.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Both the 5-HT2A receptor (R) antagonist M100907 and the 5-HT2CR agonist MK212 attenuate cocaine-induced dopamine release and hyperlocomotion. This study examined whether these drugs interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We first determined from dose-effect functions a low dose of both M100907 and MK212 that failed to alter cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) hyperlocomotion. Subsequently we examined whether these subthreshold doses given together would attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion, consistent with a 5-HT2A/5-HT2CR interaction. Separate groups of rats received two sequential drug injections 5 min apart immediately before a 1-h locomotion test as follows: 1) saline + saline, 2) saline + cocaine, 3) 0.025 mg/kg M100907 + cocaine, 4) 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine, or 5) cocktail combination of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine. Brains were extracted for Fos immunohistochemistry 90 min after the second injection. We next examined the effects of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212, alone and in combination, on spontaneous locomotor activity. While neither drug given alone produced any effects, the M100907/MK212 cocktail attenuated cocaine hyperlocomotion as well as cocaine-induced Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen (CPu), but had no effect on spontaneous locomotion. The findings suggest that 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2CRs interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the CPu, and that the CPu is a potential locus of the interactive effects between these 5-HT2R subtypes on behavior. Further research investigating combined 5-HT2AR antagonism and 5-HT2CR agonism as a treatment for cocaine dependence is warranted. PMID:22886755

  2. The Role of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and mGlu2 Receptors in the Behavioral Effects of Tryptamine Hallucinogens N,N-Dimethyltryptamine and N,N-Diisopropyltryptamine in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carbonaro, Theresa M.; Eshleman, Amy J.; Forster, Michael J.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.; Gatch, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors are thought to be the primary pharmacological mechanisms for serotonin-mediated hallucinogenic drugs, but recently there has been interest in metabotropic glutamate (mGluR2) receptors as contributors to the mechanism of hallucinogens. Objective: The present study assesses the role of these 5-HT and glutamate receptors as molecular targets for two tryptamine hallucinogens, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DiPT). Methods: Drug discrimination, head twitch and radioligand binding assays were used. A 5-HT2AR inverse agonist (MDL100907), 5-HT2CR antagonist (SB242084) and mGluR2/3 agonist (LY379268) were tested for their ability to attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT and DiPT; an mGluR2/3 antagonist (LY341495) was tested for potentiation. MDL100907 was used to attenuate head twitches induced by DMT and DiPT. Radioligand binding studies and inosital-1-phosphate (IP-1) accumulation were performed at the 5-HT2CR for DiPT. Results: MDL100907 fully blocked the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT, but only partially blocked DiPT. SB242084 partially attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of DiPT, but produced minimal attenuation of DMT’s effects. LY379268 produced potent, but only partial blockade of the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT. LY341495 facilitated DMT- and DiPT-like effects. Both compounds elicited head twitches (DiPT>DMT) which were blocked by MDL1000907. DiPT was a low potency full agonist at 5-HT2CR in vitro. Conclusions: The 5-HT2AR likely plays a major role in mediating the effects of both compounds. 5-HT2C and mGluR2 receptors likely modulate the discriminative stimulus effects of both compounds to some degree. PMID:24985890

  3. Agonist actions of dihydroergotamine at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors and their possible relevance to antimigraine efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Schaerlinger, B; Hickel, P; Etienne, N; Guesnier, L; Maroteaux, L

    2003-01-01

    The pharmaceutical compound, dihydroergotamine (DHE) is dispensed to prevent and reduce the occurrence of migraine attacks. Although still controversial, the prophylactic effect of this drug is believed to be caused through blockade and/or activation of numerous receptors including serotonin (5-HT) receptors of the 5-HT2 subtype. To elucidate if 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) may be involved in DHE prophylactic effect, we performed investigations aimed to determine the respective pharmacological profile of DHE and of its major metabolite 8′-hydroxy-DHE (8′-OH-DHE) at the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2CRs by binding, inositol triphosphate (IP3) or cyclic GMP (cGMP) coupling studies in transfected fibroblasts. DHE and 8′-OH-DHE are competitive compounds at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2CRs. 8′-OH-DHE interaction at (5-HT2BRs) was best fitted by a biphasic competition curve and displayed the highest affinity with a Ki of 5 nM. These two compounds acted as agonists for both receptors in respect to cGMP production with pEC50 of 8.32±0.09 for 8′-OH-DHE at 5-HT2B and 7.83±0.06 at 5-HT2CRs. Knowing that the antimigraine prophylactic effect of DHE is only observed after long-term treatment, we chronically exposed the recombinant cells to DHE and 8′-OH-DHE. The number of 5-HT2BR-binding sites was always more affected than 5-HT2CRs. At 5-HT2BRs, 8′-OH-DHE was more effective than DHE, with an uncoupling that persisted for more than 40 h for IP3 or cGMP. By contrast, the 5-HT2CR coupling was reversible after either treatment. Chronic exposure to 8′-OH-DHE caused a persistent agonist-mediated desensitisation of 5-HT2B, but not 5-HT2CRs. This may be of relevance to therapeutic actions of the compound. PMID:12970106

  4. Effects of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP809101 in the amygdala on reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior and anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Pockros-Burgess, Lara A; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Neisewander, Janet L

    2014-11-01

    Serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonists attenuate reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. These receptors are found throughout the limbic system, including the basolateral amygdala (BlA), which is involved in forming associations between emotional stimuli and environmental cues, and the central amygdala (CeA), which is implicated in the expression of conditioned responding to emotional stimuli. This study investigated whether 5-HT2CRs in the amygdala are involved in cue and cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg, i.v.) which that was paired with light and tone cues, and then subsequently they underwent daily extinction training. Rats then received bilateral microinfusions of the 5-HT2CR agonist CP809101 (0.01-1.0 μg/0.2 μl/side) into either the BlA or CeA prior to tests for cue or cocaine-primed (10 mg/kg, i.p.) reinstatement. Rats were also tested for CP809101 effects on anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Surprisingly, intra-BlA CP809101 had no effect on cue reinstatement, though it did increase anxiety-like behavior on the EPM. Intra-CeA infusions of CP809101 attenuated cocaine-primed reinstatement, an effect that was prevented with concurrent administration of the 5-HT2CR antagonist SB242084 (0.1 μg/0.2 μl/side). CP809101 had no effect on cue reinstatement or anxiety-like behavior on the EPM. These findings suggest that 5-HT2CRs in the BlA modulate anxiety, whereas those in the CeA modulate incentive motivational effects induced by cocaine priming injections. PMID:24984080

  5. Incubation of cocaine cue reactivity associates with neuroadaptations in the cortical serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) system.

    PubMed

    Swinford-Jackson, S E; Anastasio, N C; Fox, R G; Stutz, S J; Cunningham, K A

    2016-06-01

    Intensification of craving elicited by drug-associated cues during abstinence occurs over time in human cocaine users while elevation of cue reactivity ("incubation") is observed in rats exposed to extended forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation in rodents has been linked to time-dependent neuronal plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We tested the hypothesis that incubation of cue reactivity during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is accompanied by lower potency and/or efficacy of the selective serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C​ receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity and a shift in the subcellular localization profile of the mPFC 5-HT2CR protein. We observed incubation of cue reactivity (measured as lever presses reinforced by the discrete cue complex) between Day 1 and Day 30 of forced abstinence from cocaine relative to sucrose self-administration. Pharmacological and biochemical analyses revealed that the potency of the selective 5-HT2CR agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity, the expression of synaptosomal 5-HT2CR protein in the mPFC, and the membrane to cytoplasmic expression of the 5-HT2CR in mPFC were lower on Day 30 vs. Day 1 of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation of cue reactivity assessed during forced abstinence from sucrose self-administration did not associate with 5-HT2CR protein expression in the mPFC. Collectively, these outcomes are the first indication that neuroadaptations in the 5-HT2CR system may contribute to incubation of cocaine cue reactivity. PMID:26926963

  6. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) but not serotonin receptor (5-HT2C Cys23Ser) variant is associated with bipolar I disorder in Kurdish population from Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Sahar; Khazaie, Habibolah; Rahimi, Ziba; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Zargooshi, Newsha; Rahimi, Zohreh

    2015-03-17

    The role of 5-HTTLPR and 5-HT2C Cys23Ser polymorphisms in the psychopathology of mood disorders and suicide behavior is controversial. The aim of present study was to investigate the association between 5-HTTLPR and 5-HT2C Cys23Ser variants and susceptibility to bipolar I disorder (BID). The 5-HT2C genotypes were studied in 152 patients with BID and 173 gender- and age-matched healthy individuals with Kurds ethnic background from Western Iran using PCR and PCR-RFLP methods. In recessive model (SS vs. LL+LS) the SS genotype was associated with 1.79-fold increased risk of BID (p=0.018). Also, the presence of S allele increased the risk of adult-onset BID by 1.76-fold (p=0.027). No association was detected between 5-HTTLPR genotypes and alleles with suicide attempt. The frequency of 5-HT2C Ser allele in patients and controls were 12.3 and 12.5%, respectively. Mutant allele of HT2C Ser had higher frequency in female (14.7%) than male (10.5%, p=0.27) patients. The frequency of HT2C Ser allele in patients with a family history of BID tended to be higher (15.7%) than those without a family history of the disease (11.8%). The frequency of HT2C Ser allele in suicide attempter women was higher (16.7%) than those without a suicide attempt (14.3%). Our findings demonstrate 5-HTTLPR polymorphism might be a risk factor for BID and adult-onset BID in Kurds population. However, we found the lack of an association between 5-HT2C Cys/Ser variants and the risk of BID. PMID:25596490

  7. 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA modulation by antidepressant treatment in the chronic mild stress model of depression: sex differences exposed.

    PubMed

    Pitychoutis, P M; Dalla, C; Sideris, A C; Tsonis, P A; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z

    2012-05-17

    It is well established that women experience major depression at roughly twice the rate of men. Interestingly, accumulating clinical and experimental evidence shows that the responsiveness of males and females to antidepressant pharmacotherapy, and particularly to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), is sex-differentiated. Herein, we investigated whether exposure of male and female rats to the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression, as well as treatment with the TCA clomipramine may affect serotonergic receptors' (5-HTRs) mRNA expression in a sex-dependent manner. Male and female rats were subjected to CMS for 4 weeks and during the next 4 weeks they concurrently received clomipramine treatment (10 mg/ml/kg). CMS and clomipramine's effects on 5-HT(1A)R, 5-HT(2A)R, and 5-HT(2C)R mRNA expression were assessed by in situ hybridization histochemistry in selected subfields of the hippocampus and in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), two regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. CMS and clomipramine treatment induced sex-differentiated effects on rats' hedonic status and enhanced 5-HT(1A)R mRNA expression in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampal region of male rats. Additionally, CMS attenuated 5-HT(1A)R mRNA expression in the OFC of male rats and clomipramine reversed this effect. Moreover, 5-HT(2A)R mRNA levels in the OFC were enhanced in females but decreased in males, while clomipramine reversed this effect only in females. CMS increased 5-HT2CR mRNA expression in the CA4 region of both sexes and this effect was attenuated by clomipramine. Present data exposed that both CMS and clomipramine treatment may induce sex-differentiated and region-distinctive effects on 5-HTRs mRNA expression and further implicate the serotonergic system in the manifestation of sexually dimorphic neurobehavioral responses to stress. PMID:22441040

  8. Selective 5-HT2C agonists as potential antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Leysen, D C

    1999-02-01

    The antidepressants currently used need improvement, especially in terms of efficacy, relapse rate and onset of action. In this review the clinical and experimental data which support the rationale for 5-HT2C agonists in the treatment of depression are listed. Next, the results obtained with the non-selective 5-HT2C agonists on the market and in clinical development are described. Finally, the preclinical data on the more selective 5-HT2C agonists are summarized. These recent preclinical results reveal a greater potency and effect size compared to fluoxetine, good tolerability and no evidence of tolerance development. Selective 5-HT2C agonists might become innovative drugs for the treatment of depression, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), some forms of aggression and eating disorders. PMID:16160946

  9. Endogenous 5-HT2C Receptors Phosphorylate the cAMP Response Element Binding Protein via Protein Kinase C-Promoted Activation of Extracellular-Regulated Kinases-1/2 in Hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lauffer, Lisa; Glas, Evi; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CR) activate Gq proteins and are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). 5-HT2CR regulate emotion, feeding, reward, or cognition and may serve as promising drug targets to treat psychiatric disorders or obesity. Owing to technical difficulties in isolating cells from the CNS and the lack of suitable cell lines endogenously expressing 5-HT2CR, our knowledge about this receptor subtype in native environments is rather limited. The hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 cell line was recently established and resembles appetite-regulating hypothalamic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where 5-HT2CR have been detected in vivo. Therefore, we tested mHypoA-2/10 cells for endogenous 5-HT2CR expression. Serotonin or the 5-HT2CR preferential agonist WAY-161,503 initiated cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent gene transcription with EC50 values of 15.5 ± 9.8 and 1.1 ± 0.9 nM, respectively. Both responses were blocked by two unrelated 5-HT2CR-selective antagonists (SB-242,084, RS-102,221) but not by a 5-HT2AR (EMD-281,014) or 5-HT2BR (RS-127,455) antagonists. By single-cell calcium imaging, we found that serotonin and WAY-161,503 induced robust calcium transients, which were also blunted by both 5-HT2CR antagonists. Additionally we revealed, first, that 5-HT2CR induced CRE activation via protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated engagement of extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 and, second, that intrinsic activity of WAY-161,503 was in the range of 0.3-0.5 compared with serotonin, defining the frequently used 5-HT2CR agonist as a partial agonist of endogenous 5-HT2CR. In conclusion, we have shown that hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 cells endogenously express 5-HT2CR and thus are the first cell line in which to analyze 5-HT2CR pharmacology, signaling, and regulation in its natural environment. PMID:27189964

  10. Application of an Integrated GPCR SAR-Modeling Platform To Explain the Activation Selectivity of Human 5-HT2C over 5-HT2B.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Alexander; Storer, R Ian; McMurray, Gordon; James, Tim; Morao, Inaki; Aldeghi, Matteo; Bodkin, Mike J; Biggin, Philip C

    2016-05-20

    Agonism of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor has been associated with the treatment of a number of diseases including obesity, psychiatric disorders, sexual health, and urology. However, the development of effective 5-HT2C agonists has been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2B receptor, agonism of which is associated with irreversible cardiac valvulopathy. Understanding how to design selective agonists requires exploration of the structural features governing the functional uniqueness of the target receptor relative to related off targets. X-ray crystallography, the major experimental source of structural information, is a slow and challenging process for integral membrane proteins, and so is currently not feasible for every GPCR or GPCR-ligand complex. Therefore, the integration of existing ligand SAR data with GPCR modeling can be a practical alternative to provide this essential structural insight. To demonstrate this, we integrated SAR data from 39 azepine series 5-HT2C agonists, comprising both selective and unselective examples, with our hierarchical GPCR modeling protocol (HGMP). Through this work we have been able to demonstrate how relatively small differences in the amino acid sequences of GPCRs can lead to significant differences in secondary structure and function, as supported by experimental data. In particular, this study suggests that conformational differences in the tilt of TM7 between 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C, which result from differences in interhelical interactions, may be the major source of selectivity in G-protein activation between these two receptors. Our approach also demonstrates how the use of GPCR models in conjunction with SAR data can be used to explain activity cliffs. PMID:26900768

  11. Imaging Evaluation of 5HT2C Agonists, [11C]WAY-163909 and [11C]Vabicaserin, Formed by Pictet–Spengler Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin subtype 2C (5HT2C) receptor is an emerging and promising drug target to treat several disorders of the human central nervous system. In this current report, two potent and selective 5HT2C full agonists, WAY-163909 (2) and vabicaserin (3), were radiolabeled with carbon-11 via Pictet–Spengler cyclization with [11C]formaldehyde and used in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Reaction conditions were optimized to exclude the major source of isotope dilution caused by the previously unknown breakdown of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) to formaldehyde at high temperature under mildly acid conditions. In vivo PET imaging was utilized to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and distribution of the carbon-11 labeled 5HT2C agonists. Both radiolabeled molecules exhibit high blood–brain barrier (BBB) penetration and nonspecific binding, which was unaltered by preadministration of the unlabeled agonist. Our work demonstrates that Pictet–Spengler cyclization can be used to label drugs with carbon-11 to study their pharmacokinetics and for evaluation as PET radiotracers. PMID:24491146

  12. Lorcaserin (APD356), a selective 5-HT(2C) agonist, reduces body weight in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R; Prosser, Warren A; Donahue, David J; Morgan, Michael E; Anderson, Christen M; Shanahan, William R

    2009-03-01

    Lorcaserin (APD356) is a potent, selective 5-HT(2C) agonist with ~15-fold and 100-fold selectivity vs. 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors, respectively. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of lorcaserin for weight reduction in obese patients during a 12-week period. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study enrolled 469 men and women between ages 18 and 65 and with BMI 30-45 kg/m(2). Patients received placebo, lorcaserin 10 mg q.d., lorcaserin 15 mg q.d., or lorcaserin 10 mg b.i.d. for 12 weeks, and were counseled to maintain their usual diet and activity. The primary end point was change in weight from baseline to day 85 by completer analysis. Safety analyses included echocardiograms at Screening and day 85/study exit. Lorcaserin was associated with progressive weight loss of 1.8 kg, 2.6 kg, and 3.6 kg at 10 mg q.d., 15 mg q.d., and 10 mg b.i.d., respectively, compared to placebo weight loss of 0.3 kg (P < 0.001 for each group). Similar results were seen by intent-to-treat last observation-carried forward (ITT-LOCF) analysis. The proportions of completers achieving > or =5% of initial body weight were 12.8, 19.5, 31.2, and 2.3% in the 10 mg q.d., 15 mg q.d., 10 mg b.i.d., and placebo groups, respectively. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were transient headache, nausea, and dizziness. Echocardiograms showed no apparent drug-related effects on heart valves or pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Lorcaserin was well tolerated and efficacious for weight reduction in this 12-week study. Longer-term trials employing behavior modification will be needed to more fully assess its safety and efficacy. PMID:19057523

  13. A Novel Translational Assay of Response Inhibition and Impulsivity: Effects of Prefrontal Cortex Lesions, Drugs Used in ADHD, and Serotonin 2C Receptor Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Humby, Trevor; Eddy, Jessica B; Good, Mark A; Reichelt, Amy C; Wilkinson, Lawrence S

    2013-01-01

    Animal models are making an increasing contribution to our understanding of the psychology and brain mechanisms underlying behavioral inhibition and impulsivity. The aim here was to develop, for the first time, a mouse analog of the stop-signal reaction time task with high translational validity in order to be able to exploit this species in genetic and molecular investigations of impulsive behaviors. Cohorts of mice were trained to nose-poke to presentations of visual stimuli. Control of responding was manipulated by altering the onset of an auditory ‘stop-signal' during the go response. The anticipated systematic changes in action cancellation were observed as stopping was made more difficult by placing the stop-signal closer to the execution of the action. Excitotoxic lesions of medial prefrontal cortex resulted in impaired stopping, while the clinically effective drugs methylphenidate and atomoxetine enhanced stopping abilities. The specific 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084 also led to enhanced response control in this task. We conclude that stop-signal reaction time task performance can be successfully modeled in mice and is sensitive to prefrontal cortex dysfunction and drug treatments in a qualitatively similar manner to humans and previous rat models. Additionally, using this model we show novel and highly discrete effects of 5-HT2C receptor antagonism that suggest manipulation of 5-HT2C receptor function may be of use in correcting maladaptive impulsive behaviors and provide further evidence for dissociable contributions of serotonergic transmission to response control. PMID:23657439

  14. Social Behavioral Deficits Coincide with the Onset of Seizure Susceptibility in Mice Lacking Serotonin Receptor 2c.

    PubMed

    Séjourné, Julien; Llaneza, Danielle; Kuti, Orsolya J; Page, Damon T

    2015-01-01

    The development of social behavior is strongly influenced by the serotonin system. Serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR) is particularly interesting in this context considering that pharmacological modulation of 5-HT2cR activity alters social interaction in adult rodents. However, the role of 5-HT2cR in the development of social behavior is unexplored. Here we address this using Htr2c knockout mice, which lack 5-HT2cR. We found that these animals exhibit social behavior deficits as adults but not as juveniles. Moreover, we found that the age of onset of these deficits displays similar timing as the onset of susceptibility to spontaneous death and audiogenic-seizures, consistent with the hypothesis that imbalanced excitation and inhibition (E/I) may contribute to social behavioral deficits. Given that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features social behavioral deficits and is often co-morbid with epilepsy, and given that 5-HT2cR physically interacts with Pten, we tested whether a second site mutation in the ASD risk gene Pten can modify these phenotypes. The age of spontaneous death is accelerated in mice double mutant for Pten and Htr2c relative to single mutants. We hypothesized that pharmacological antagonism of 5-HT2cR activity in adult animals, which does not cause seizures, might modify social behavioral deficits in Pten haploinsufficient mice. SB 242084, a 5-HT2cR selective antagonist, can reverse the social behavior deficits observed in Pten haploinsufficient mice. Together, these results elucidate a role of 5-HT2cR in the modulation of social behavior and seizure susceptibility in the context of normal development and Pten haploinsufficiency. PMID:26308619

  15. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, Karsten; Xu, Yong; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Kovach, Amanda; Tham, Fook S.; Cutler, Sean R.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-11-11

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands.

  16. Prediction of Efficacy of Vabicaserin, a 5-HT2C Agonist, for the Treatment of Schizophrenia Using a Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J; Ogden, A; Comery, T A; Spiros, A; Roberts, P; Geerts, H

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative systems pharmacology model that combines in vitro/preclinical neurophysiology data, human imaging data, and patient disease information was used to blindly predict steady-state clinical efficacy of vabicaserin, a 5-HT2C full agonist, in monotherapy and, subsequently, to assess adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia. The model predicted a concentration-dependent improvement of positive and negative syndrome scales (PANSS) in schizophrenia monotherapy with vabicaserin. At the exposures of 100 and 200 mg b.i.d., the predicted improvements on PANSS in virtual patient trials were 5.12 (2.20, 8.56) and 6.37 (2.27, 10.40) (mean (95% confidence interval)), respectively, which are comparable to the observed phase IIa results. At the current clinical exposure limit of vabicaserin, the model predicted an ~9-point PANSS improvement in monotherapy, and <4-point PANSS improvement adjunctive with various antipsychotics, suggesting limited clinical benefit of vabicaserin in schizophrenia treatment. In conclusion, the updated quantitative systems pharmacology model of PANSS informed the clinical development decision of vabicaserin in schizophrenia. PMID:24759548

  17. Agonism and Antagonism at the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Vestergaard, Kirsten; Schäffer, Lauge; Blagoev, Blagoy; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Kiselyov, Vladislav V.; De Meyts, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B’29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR antagonist, exhibited partial agonistic effects in the 1–10 nM range, showing altogether a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Intriguingly, the agonistic effects of S961 were seen only on mitogenic endpoints (3H-thymidine incorporation), and not on metabolic endpoints (14C-glucose incorporation in adipocytes and muscle cells). The agonistic effects of S961 were observed in 3 independent cell lines, with complete concordance between mitogenicity (3H-thymidine incorporation) and phosphorylation of the IR and Akt. Together with the B29-B’29 crosslinked dimer, S961 is a rare example of a mixed agonist/antagonist for the human IR. A plausible mechanistic explanation based on the bivalent crosslinking model of IR activation is proposed. PMID:23300584

  18. Photo-antagonism of the GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin; Iqbal, Favaad; Pandurangan, Arun P; Hannan, Saad; Huckvale, Rosemary; Topf, Maya; Baker, James R; Smart, Trevor G

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor trafficking is fundamentally important for synaptic transmission and neural network activity. GABAA receptors and inhibitory synapses are vital components of brain function, yet much of our knowledge regarding receptor mobility and function at inhibitory synapses is derived indirectly from using recombinant receptors, antibody-tagged native receptors and pharmacological treatments. Here we describe the use of a set of research tools that can irreversibly bind to and affect the function of recombinant and neuronal GABAA receptors following ultraviolet photoactivation. These compounds are based on the competitive antagonist gabazine and incorporate a variety of photoactive groups. By using site-directed mutagenesis and ligand-docking studies, they reveal new areas of the GABA binding site at the interface between receptor β and α subunits. These compounds enable the selected inactivation of native GABAA receptor populations providing new insight into the function of inhibitory synapses and extrasynaptic receptors in controlling neuronal excitation. PMID:25072879

  19. ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM BY THE ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDE FENITROTHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Androgen receptor antagonism by the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion. Tamura, H., Maness, S.C., Reischmann, K. Dorman, D.C., Gray, L.E., and Gaido, K.W. (2000). Toxicol. Sci.

    Organophosphate insecticides represent one of the most widely used classes of pesticide...

  20. Serotonin-2C Receptor Agonists Decrease Potassium-Stimulated GABA Release In the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, James M; Booth, Raymond G; Peris, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2C receptor has shown promise in vivo as a pharmacotherapeutic target for alcoholism. For example, recently, a novel 4-phenyl-2-N,N-dimethylaminotetralin (PAT) drug candidate, that demonstrates 5-HT2C receptor agonist activity together with 5-HT2A/2B receptor inverse agonist activity, was shown to reduce operant responding for ethanol after peripheral administration to rats. Previous studies have shown that the 5-HT2C receptor is found throughout the mesoaccumbens pathway and that 5-HT2C receptor agonism causes activation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neurons. It is unknown what effect 5-HT2C receptor modulation has on GABA release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc). To this end, microdialysis coupled to capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence was used to quantify extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations in the NAcc under basal and after potassium stimulation conditions, in response to PAT analogs and other 5-HT2C receptor modulators administered by reverse dialysis to rats. 5-HT2C receptor agonists specifically attenuated stimulated GABA release in the NAcc while 5-HT2C antagonists or inverse agonists had no effect. Agents with activity at 5-HT2A receptors had no effect on GABA release. Thus, in contrast to results reported for the VTA, current results suggest 5-HT2C receptor agonists decrease stimulated GABA release in the NAcc, and provide a possible mechanism of action for 5HT2C-mediated negative modulation of ethanol self-administration. PMID:25382408

  1. Noncompetitive, Voltage-Dependent NMDA Receptor Antagonism by Hydrophobic Anions

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, Andrew J.; Chisari, Mariangela; Yu, Andrew; Shu, Hong-Jin; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists are dissociative anesthetics, drugs of abuse, and are of therapeutic interest in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric disease. Many well-known NMDAR antagonists are positively charged, voltage-dependent channel blockers. We recently showed that the hydrophobic anion dipicrylamine (DPA) negatively regulates GABAA receptor function by a mechanism indistinguishable from that of sulfated neurosteroids. Because sulfated neurosteroids also modulate NMDARs, here we examined the effects of DPA on NMDAR function. In rat hippocampal neurons DPA inhibited currents gated by 300 µM NMDA with an IC50 of 2.3 µM. Neither onset nor offset of antagonism exhibited dependence on channel activation but exhibited a noncompetitive profile. DPA antagonism was independent of NMDAR subunit composition and was similar at extrasynaptic and total receptor populations. Surprisingly, similar to cationic channel blockers but unlike sulfated neurosteroids, DPA antagonism was voltage dependent. Onset and offset of DPA antagonism were nearly 10-fold faster than DPA-induced increases in membrane capacitance, suggesting that membrane interactions do not directly explain antagonism. Furthermore, voltage dependence did not derive from association of DPA with a site on NMDARs directly accessible to the outer membrane leaflet, assessed by DPA translocation experiments. Consistent with the expected lack of channel block, DPA antagonism did not interact with permeant ions. Therefore, we speculate that voltage dependence may arise from interactions of DPA with the inherent voltage dependence of channel gating. Overall, we conclude that DPA noncompetitively inhibits NMDA-induced current by a novel voltage-dependent mechanism and represents a new class of anionic NMDAR antagonists. PMID:23144238

  2. Serotonin activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via serotonin 2C receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Lora K; Pronchuk, Nina; Nonogaki, Katsunori; Zhou, Ligang; Raber, Jacob; Tung, Loraine; Yeo, Giles S H; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Colmers, William F; Elmquist, Joel K; Tecott, Laurence H

    2007-06-27

    The dynamic interplay between serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] neurotransmission and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been extensively studied over the past 30 years, but the underlying mechanism of this interaction has not been defined. A possibility receiving little attention is that 5-HT regulates upstream corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling systems via activation of serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT(2C)Rs) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). Through complementary approaches in wild-type rodents and 5-HT(2C)R-deficient mice, we determined that 5-HT(2C)Rs are necessary for 5-HT-induced HPA axis activation. We used laser-capture PVH microdissection followed by microarray analysis to compare the expression of 13 5-HTRs. Only 5-HT(2C)R and 5-HT(1D)R transcripts were consistently identified as present in the PVH, and of these, the 5-HT(2C)R was expressed at a substantially higher level. The abundant expression of 5-HT(2C)Rs in the PVH was confirmed with in situ hybridization histochemistry. Dual-neurohistochemical labeling revealed that approximately one-half of PVH CRH-containing neurons coexpressed 5-HT(2C)R mRNA. We observed that PVH CRH neurons consistently depolarized in the presence of a high-affinity 5-HT(2C)R agonist, an effect blocked by a 5-HT(2C)R antagonist. Supporting the importance of 5-HT(2C)Rs in CRH neuronal activity, genetic inactivation of 5-HT(2C)Rs produced a downregulation of CRH mRNA and blunted CRH and corticosterone release after 5-HT compound administration. These findings thus provide a mechanistic explanation for the longstanding observation of HPA axis stimulation in response to 5-HT and thereby give insight into the neural circuitry mediating the complex neuroendocrine responses to stress. PMID:17596444

  3. Prostaglandins and prostaglandin receptor antagonism in migraine.

    PubMed

    Antonova, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Human models of headache may contribute to understanding of prostaglandins' role in migraine pathogenesis. The current thesis investigated the migraine triggering effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in migraine patients without aura, the efficacy of a novel EP4 receptor antagonist, BGC20-1531, in prevention of PGE2-induced headache and the ability of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) to trigger headache without any vasodilatation in healthy volunteers. All studies were designed as double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over experiments, where PGE2/PGF2α or saline were infused over 20-25 min. In the study with EP4 receptor antagonist healthy volunteers were pre-treated with two different doses of BGC20-1531 or placebo followed by PGE2 infusion over 25 min. The headache data were collected during the whole study day, whereas the possible vascular changes were measured during the in-hospital phase of 1.5 h. The infusion of PGE2 caused the immediate migraine-like attacks and vasodilatation of the middle cerebral artery in migraine patients without aura. The highly specific and potent EP4 receptor antagonist, BGC20-1531, was not able to attenuate PGE2-induced headache and vasodilatation of both intra- and extra-cerebral arteries. The intravenous infusion of PGF2α did not induce headache or statistically significant vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries in healthy volunteers. Novel data on PGE2-provoked immediate migraine-like attacks suggest that PGE2 may be one of the important final products in the pathogenesis of migraine. The lack of efficacy of EP4 receptor antagonist suggests that a single receptor blockade is not sufficient to block PGE2 responses, hence EP2 receptor should be investigated as a potential drug target for the treatment of migraine. The absence of headache during the PGF2α infusion demonstrates that vasodilating properties are necessary for the induction of headache and migraine. PMID:23673269

  4. Combined Angiotensin Receptor Antagonism and Neprilysin Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hubers, Scott A; Brown, Nancy J

    2016-03-15

    Heart failure affects ≈5.7 million people in the United States alone. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists have improved mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, but mortality remains high. In July 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first of a new class of drugs for the treatment of heart failure: Valsartan/sacubitril (formerly known as LCZ696 and currently marketed by Novartis as Entresto) combines the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug sacubitril in a 1:1 ratio in a sodium supramolecular complex. Sacubitril is converted by esterases to LBQ657, which inhibits neprilysin, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of the natriuretic peptides and many other vasoactive peptides. Thus, this combined angiotensin receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitor addresses 2 of the pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure: activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and decreased sensitivity to natriuretic peptides. In the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, valsartan/sacubitril significantly reduced mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, as well as blood pressure, compared with enalapril in patients with heart failure, reduced ejection fraction, and an elevated circulating level of brain natriuretic peptide or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of valsartan/sacubitril in the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and hypertension. We review here the mechanisms of action of valsartan/sacubitril, the pharmacological properties of the drug, and its efficacy and safety in the treatment of heart failure and hypertension. PMID:26976916

  5. Receptor antagonism/agonism can be uncoupled from pharmacoperone activity.

    PubMed

    Janovick, Jo Ann; Spicer, Timothy P; Smith, Emery; Bannister, Thomas D; Kenakin, Terry; Scampavia, Louis; Conn, P Michael

    2016-10-15

    Pharmacoperones rescue misrouted mutants of the vasopressin receptor type 2 (V2R) and enable them to traffic to the correct biological locus where they function. Previously, a library of nearly 645,000 structures was interrogated with a high throughput screen; pharmacoperones were identified for V2R mutants with a view toward correcting the underlying mutational defects in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In the present study, an orthologous assay was used to evaluate hits from the earlier study. We found no consistent relation between antagonism or agonism and pharmacoperone activity. Active pharmacoperones were identified which had minimal antagonistic activity. This increases the therapeutic reach of these drugs, since virtually all pharmacoperone drugs reported to date were selected from peptidomimetic antagonists. Such mixed-activity drugs have a complex pharmacology limiting their therapeutic utility and requiring their removal prior to stimulation of the receptor with agonist. PMID:27389877

  6. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonism and its role in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Trung; Nakahama, Taisuke; Nguyen, Chi Hung; Tran, Trang Thu; Le, Van Son; Chu, Hoang Ha; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common autoimmune disease, affecting approximately 1% of the population worldwide, its pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Tobacco smoke, an environmental risk factor for RA, contains several ligands of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), also known as dioxin receptor. Ahr plays critical roles in the immune system. We previously demonstrated that Ahr in helper T-cells contributes to development of collagen-induced arthritis, a mouse model of RA. Other studies have shown that cigarette smoke condensate and pure Ahr ligands exacerbate RA by altering bone metabolism and inducing proinflammatory responses in fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Consistent with these findings, several Ahr antagonists such as α-naphthoflavone, resveratrol, and GNF351 reverse the effect of Ahr ligands in RA pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of Ahr function in the immune system and the potential clinical benefits of Ahr antagonism in treating RA. PMID:27186143

  7. Structural Basis for Simvastatin Competitive Antagonism of Complement Receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maria Risager; Bajic, Goran; Zhang, Xianwei; Laustsen, Anne Kjær; Koldsø, Heidi; Skeby, Katrine Kirkeby; Schiøtt, Birgit; Andersen, Gregers R; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2016-08-12

    The complement system is an important part of the innate immune response to infection but may also cause severe complications during inflammation. Small molecule antagonists to complement receptor 3 (CR3) have been widely sought, but a structural basis for their mode of action is not available. We report here on the structure of the human CR3 ligand-binding I domain in complex with simvastatin. Simvastatin targets the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of the open, ligand-binding conformation of the CR3 I domain by direct contact with the chelated Mg(2+) ion. Simvastatin antagonizes I domain binding to the complement fragments iC3b and C3d but not to intercellular adhesion molecule-1. By virtue of the I domain's wide distribution in binding kinetics to ligands, it was possible to identify ligand binding kinetics as discriminator for simvastatin antagonism. In static cellular experiments, 15-25 μm simvastatin reduced adhesion by K562 cells expressing recombinant CR3 and by primary human monocytes, with an endogenous expression of this receptor. Application of force to adhering monocytes potentiated the effects of simvastatin where only a 50-100 nm concentration of the drug reduced the adhesion by 20-40% compared with untreated cells. The ability of simvastatin to target CR3 in its ligand binding-activated conformation is a novel mechanism to explain the known anti-inflammatory effects of this compound, in particular because this CR3 conformation is found in pro-inflammatory environments. Our report points to new designs of CR3 antagonists and opens new perspectives and identifies druggable receptors from characterization of the ligand binding kinetics in the presence of antagonists. PMID:27339893

  8. Antagonism of sigma-1 receptors blocks compulsive-like eating.

    PubMed

    Cottone, Pietro; Wang, Xiaofan; Park, Jin Won; Valenza, Marta; Blasio, Angelo; Kwak, Jina; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Hayashi, Teruo; Sabino, Valentina

    2012-11-01

    Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by episodes of rapid and excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time which occur compulsively despite negative consequences. This study was aimed at determining whether antagonism of Sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) blocked compulsive-like binge eating. We trained male wistar rats to obtain a sugary, highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1 h a day under fixed ratio 1 operant conditioning. Following intake stabilization, we evaluated the effects of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on food responding. Using a light/dark conflict test, we also tested whether BD-1063 could block the time spent and the food eaten in an aversive, open compartment, where the palatable diet was offered. Furthermore, we measured Sig-1R mRNA and protein expression in several brain areas of the two groups, 24 h after the last binge session. Palatable rats rapidly developed binge-like eating, escalating the 1 h intake by four times, and doubling the eating rate and the regularity of food responding, compared to Chow rats. BD-1063 dose-dependently reduced binge-like eating and the regularity of food responding, and blocked the increased eating rate in Palatable rats. In the light/dark conflict test, BD-1063 antagonized the increased time spent in the aversive compartment and the increased intake of the palatable diet, without affecting motor activity. Finally, Palatable rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and a two-fold increase in Sig-1R protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex compared to control Chow rats. These findings suggest that the Sig-1R system may contribute to the neurobiological adaptations driving compulsive-like eating, opening new avenues of investigation towards pharmacologically treating binge eating disorder. PMID:22713906

  9. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonism reverts docetaxel resistance in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Jan; Puhr, Martin; Buijs, Jeroen T; van der Horst, Geertje; Hemmer, Daniëlle M; Marijt, Koen A; Hwang, Ming S; Masood, Motasim; Grimm, Stefan; Storm, Gert; Metselaar, Josbert M; Meijer, Onno C; Culig, Zoran; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to docetaxel is a major clinical problem in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Although glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used in combination with docetaxel, it is unclear to what extent GCs and their receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), contribute to the chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we aim to elucidate the role of the GR in docetaxel-resistant PCa in order to improve the current PCa therapies. GR expression was analyzed in a tissue microarray of primary PCa specimens from chemonaive and docetaxel-treated patients, and in cultured PCa cell lines with an acquired docetaxel resistance (PC3-DR, DU145-DR, and 22Rv1-DR). We found a robust overexpression of the GR in primary PCa from docetaxel-treated patients and enhanced GR levels in cultured docetaxel-resistant human PCa cells, indicating a key role of the GR in docetaxel resistance. The capability of the GR antagonists (RU-486 and cyproterone acetate) to revert docetaxel resistance was investigated and revealed significant resensitization of docetaxel-resistant PCa cells for docetaxel treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in which a complete restoration of docetaxel sensitivity was achieved in both androgen receptor (AR)-negative and AR-positive cell lines. Mechanistically, we demonstrated down-regulation of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 upon GR antagonism, thereby defining potential treatment targets. In conclusion, we describe the involvement of the GR in the acquisition of docetaxel resistance in human PCa. Therapeutic targeting of the GR effectively resensitizes docetaxel-resistant PCa cells. These findings warrant further investigation of the clinical utility of the GR antagonists in the management of patients with advanced and docetaxel-resistant PCa. PMID:26483423

  10. Ghrelin's Orexigenic Effect Is Modulated via a Serotonin 2C Receptor Interaction.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Harriët; De Francesco, Pablo N; Kandil, Dalia; Theeuwes, Wessel F; McCarthy, Triona; van Oeffelen, Wesley E P A; Perelló, Mario; Giblin, Linda; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-07-15

    Understanding the intricate pathways that modulate appetite and subsequent food intake is of particular importance considering the rise in the incidence of obesity across the globe. The serotonergic system, specifically the 5-HT2C receptor, has been shown to be of critical importance in the regulation of appetite and satiety. The GHS-R1a receptor is another key receptor that is well-known for its role in the homeostatic control of food intake and energy balance. We recently showed compelling evidence for an interaction between the GHS-R1a receptor and the 5-HT2C receptor in an in vitro cell line system heterologously expressing both receptors. Here, we investigated this interaction further. First, we show that the GHS-R1a/5-HT2C dimer-induced attenuation of calcium signaling is not due to coupling to GαS, as no increase in cAMP signaling is observed. Next, flow cytometry fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fcFRET) is used to further demonstrate the direct interaction between the GHS-R1a receptor and 5-HT2C receptor. In addition, we demonstrate colocalized expression of the 5-HT2C and GHS-R1a receptor in cultured primary hypothalamic and hippocampal rat neurons, supporting the biological relevance of a physiological interaction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when 5-HT2C receptor signaling is blocked ghrelin's orexigenic effect is potentiated in vivo. In contrast, the specific 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin, recently approved for the treatment of obesity, attenuates ghrelin-induced food intake. This underscores the biological significance of our in vitro findings of 5-HT2C receptor-mediated attenuation of GHS-R1a receptor activity. Together, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that the GHS-R1a/5-HT2C receptor interaction translates into a biologically significant modulation of ghrelin's orexigenic effect. This data highlights the potential development of a combined GHS-R1a and 5-HT2C receptor treatment strategy in weight management. PMID:25727097

  11. How stress and fluoxetine modulate serotonin 2C receptor pre-mRNA editing.

    PubMed

    Englander, Michael T; Dulawa, Stephanie C; Bhansali, Punita; Schmauss, Claudia

    2005-01-19

    In two inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and 129Sv, the majority of forebrain neocortical pre-mRNA encoding the serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) receptor is altered by adenosine-to-inosine editing. As a result, >60% of all mRNAs encode receptors with reduced constitutive and agonist-stimulated activity. However, in the BALB/c strain, a genetically distinct inbred strain with lower forebrain serotonin levels, spontaneously elevated anxiety, and increased stress reactivity, the majority of 5-HT2C mRNA is nonedited and encodes receptors with the highest constitutive activity and the highest agonist affinity and potency. Neither acute stress (the forced swim test) nor chronic treatment with the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine elicit significant changes in 5-HT2C pre-mRNA editing in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, exposure of BALB/c mice to acute stress and chronic treatment of nonstressed BALB/c mice with fluoxetine elicit significant, site-specific increases in 5-HT2C pre-mRNA editing that increase the pool of mRNA encoding receptors with reduced function. These changes in 5-HT2C pre-mRNA editing resemble those detected previously in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depression. However, when chronic fluoxetine treatment is combined with stress exposure of BALB/c mice, these changes in 5-HT2C pre-mRNA editing are no longer detected. These findings illustrate that 5-HT2C pre-mRNA editing responses to stress and chronic fluoxetine are modulated by the genetic background, as well as the behavioral state of the animal. They suggest further that the changes in 5-HT2C pre-mRNA editing found in major depression reflect a previously unrecognized molecular response to stress that can be prevented by chronic antidepressant treatment. PMID:15659601

  12. Serotonin 2B Receptor Antagonism Prevents Heritable Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Schroer, Alison K.; Chen, Peter; Ryzhova, Larisa M.; Gladson, Santhi; Shay, Sheila; Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Merryman, W. David

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic anorexigens are the primary pharmacologic risk factor associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and the resulting PAH is clinically indistinguishable from the heritable form of disease, associated with BMPR2 mutations. Both BMPR2 mutation and agonists to the serotonin receptor HTR2B have been shown to cause activation of SRC tyrosine kinase; conversely, antagonists to HTR2B inhibit SRC trafficking and downstream function. To test the hypothesis that a HTR2B antagonist can prevent BMRP2 mutation induced PAH by restricting aberrant SRC trafficking and downstream activity, we exposed BMPR2 mutant mice, which spontaneously develop PAH, to a HTR2B antagonist, SB204741, to block the SRC activation caused by BMPR2 mutation. SB204741 prevented the development of PAH in BMPR2 mutant mice, reduced recruitment of inflammatory cells to their lungs, and reduced muscularization of their blood vessels. By atomic force microscopy, we determined that BMPR2 mutant mice normally had a doubling of vessel stiffness, which was substantially normalized by HTR2B inhibition. SB204741 reduced SRC phosphorylation and downstream activity in BMPR2 mutant mice. Gene expression arrays indicate that the primary changes were in cytoskeletal and muscle contractility genes. These results were confirmed by gel contraction assays showing that HTR2B inhibition nearly normalizes the 400% increase in gel contraction normally seen in BMPR2 mutant smooth muscle cells. Heritable PAH results from increased SRC activation, cellular contraction, and vascular resistance, but antagonism of HTR2B prevents SRC phosphorylation, downstream activity, and PAH in BMPR2 mutant mice. PMID:26863209

  13. Kaempferol inhibits cancer cell growth by antagonizing estrogen-related receptor α and γ activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Gao, Minghui; Wang, Junjian

    2013-11-01

    Kaempferol is a dietary flavonoid that can function as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Estrogen-related receptors alpha and gamma (ERRα and ERRγ) are orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in mitochondrial biogenesis and cancer development. We have shown that kaempferol can functionally antagonize the activities of ERRs based on both response element reporter systems and target gene analysis. Kaempferol modulation of mitochondrial function and suppression cancer cell growth has been confirmed. These findings suggest that kaempferol may exert their anti-cancer activities through antagonizing ERRs activities. PMID:23852933

  14. Serotonin2C receptors and drug addiction: focus on cocaine.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Céline; Filip, Malgorzata; Przegaliński, Edmund; McCreary, Andrew C; Spampinato, Umberto

    2013-10-01

    This review provides an overview of the role of central serotonin2C (5-HT2C) receptors in drug addiction, specifically focusing on their impact on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine, one of the most worldwide abused drug. First, we described the neurochemical and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the interaction between 5-HT2C receptors and the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic network, in keeping with the key role of this system in drug abuse and dependence. Thereafter, we focused on the role of 5-HT2C receptors in the effects of cocaine in various preclinical behavioral models used in drug addiction research, such as locomotor hyperactivity, locomotor sensitization, drug discrimination, and self-administration, to end with an overview of the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the interactions between 5-HT2C receptors, mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and cocaine. On their whole, the presented data provide compelling preclinical evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may have efficacy in the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence, thereby underlying the need for additional clinical studies to ascertain whether preclinical data translate to the human. PMID:23748692

  15. Functional effects of the muscarinic receptor agonist, xanomeline, at 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J; Brough, S; Coldwell, M C; Gager, T; Ho, M; Hunter, A J; Jerman, J; Middlemiss, D N; Riley, G J; Brown, A M

    1998-01-01

    Xanomeline [3(3-hexyloxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridine] has been reported to act as a functionally selective muscarinic partial agonist with potential use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study examined the functional activity of xanomeline at 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors in native tissue and/or human cloned receptors.Xanomeline had affinity for muscarinic receptors in rat cortical membranes where the ratio of the displacement affinity of [3H]-Quinuclidinyl benzilate vs that of [3H]-Oxotremorine-M was 16, indicative of partial agonist activity. Radioligand binding studies on human cloned receptors confirmed that xanomeline had substantial affinity for M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 receptors and also for 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Carbachol and xanomeline stimulated basal [35S]-GTPγS binding in rat cortical membranes with micromolar affinity. The response to carbachol was attenuated by himbacine and pirenzepine with pA2 of 8.2, 6.9 respectively consistent with the response being mediated, predominantly, via M2 and M4 receptors. Xanomeline-induced stimulation of [35S]-GTPγS binding was inhibited by himbacine with an apparent pKb of 6.3, was not attenuated by pirenzepine up to 3 μM and was inhibited by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635 with an apparent pKb of 9.4. These data suggest the agonist effect of xanomeline in this tissue is, in part, via 5-HT1A receptors. Similar studies on human cloned receptors confirmed that xanomeline is an agonist at human cloned 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors.In studies using the fluorescent cytoplasmic Ca2+ indicator FLUO-3AM, xanomeline induced an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in SH-SY5Y cells expressing recombinant human 5-HT2C receptors. Atropine antagonized this response, consistent with mediation via endogenously-expressed muscarinic receptors. In the presence of atropine, xanomeline antagonized 5-HT-induced cytoplasmic changes in Ca2+ concentration in cells expressing h5

  16. ENDOTHELIN-A RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM IN EMBRYO CULTURE: WINDOW OF SENSITIVITY AND TIMING OF DEFECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    BRANNEN, K.C., J.M. ROGERS, and E.S. HUNTER, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Endothelin-A receptor antagonism in embryo culture: w...

  17. Selective endothelin A receptor antagonism with sitaxentan reduces neointimal lesion size in a mouse model of intraluminal injury

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, Karolina M; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Miller, Eileen; Ivy, Jessica R; McShane, John F; Lim, Win Gel; Webb, David J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonism reduces neointimal lesion formation in animal models. This investigation addressed the hypothesis that the selective ETA receptor antagonist sitaxentan would be more effective than mixed ETA/B receptor antagonism at inhibiting neointimal proliferation in a mouse model of intraluminal injury. Experimental Approach Antagonism of ETA receptors by sitaxentan (1–100 nM) was assessed in femoral arteries isolated from adult, male C57Bl6 mice using isometric wire myography. Neointimal lesion development was induced by intraluminal injury in mice receiving sitaxentan (ETA antagonist; 15 mg·kg−1·day−1), A192621 (ETB antagonist; 30 mg·kg−1·day−1), the combination of both antagonists or vehicle. Treatment began 1 week before, and continued for 28 days after, surgery. Femoral arteries were then harvested for analysis of lesion size and composition. Key Results Sitaxentan produced a selective, concentration-dependent parallel rightward shift of ET-1-mediated contraction in isolated femoral arteries. Sitaxentan reduced neointimal lesion size, whereas ETB and combined ETA/B receptor antagonism did not. Macrophage and α-smooth muscle actin content were unaltered by ET receptor antagonism but sitaxentan reduced the amount of collagen in lesions. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that ETA receptor antagonism would be more effective than combined ETA/ETB receptor antagonism at reducing neointimal lesion formation. PMID:25598351

  18. Sedative-Hypnotic and Receptor Binding Studies of Fermented Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Joung, Hye-Young; Kang, Young Mi; Lee, Bae-Jin; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the sedative-hypnotic activity of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched fermented marine organisms (FMO), including sea tangle (FST) and oyster (FO) by Lactobacillus brevis BJ20 (L. brevis BJ20). FST and FO were tested for their binding activity of the GABAA-benzodiazepine and 5-HT2C receptors, which are well-known molecular targets for sleep aids. We also measured the sleep latency and sleep duration during pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice after oral administration of FST and FO. In GABAA and 5-HT2C receptor binding assays, FST displayed an effective concentration-dependent binding affinity to GABAA receptor, similar to the binding affinity to 5-HT2C receptor. FO exhibited higher affinity to 5-HT2C receptor, compared with the GABAA receptor. The oral administration of FST and FO produced a dose-dependent decrease in sleep latency and increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced hypnosis. The data demonstrate that FST and FO possess sedative-hypnotic activity possibly by modulating GABAA and 5-HT2C receptors. We propose that FST and FO might be effective agents for treatment of insomnia. PMID:26336589

  19. Sedative-Hypnotic and Receptor Binding Studies of Fermented Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Hye-Young; Kang, Young Mi; Lee, Bae-Jin; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the sedative-hypnotic activity of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched fermented marine organisms (FMO), including sea tangle (FST) and oyster (FO) by Lactobacillus brevis BJ20 (L. brevis BJ20). FST and FO were tested for their binding activity of the GABAA-benzodiazepine and 5-HT2C receptors, which are well-known molecular targets for sleep aids. We also measured the sleep latency and sleep duration during pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice after oral administration of FST and FO. In GABAA and 5-HT2C receptor binding assays, FST displayed an effective concentration-dependent binding affinity to GABAA receptor, similar to the binding affinity to 5-HT2C receptor. FO exhibited higher affinity to 5-HT2C receptor, compared with the GABAA receptor. The oral administration of FST and FO produced a dose-dependent decrease in sleep latency and increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced hypnosis. The data demonstrate that FST and FO possess sedative-hypnotic activity possibly by modulating GABAA and 5-HT2C receptors. We propose that FST and FO might be effective agents for treatment of insomnia. PMID:26336589

  20. Serotonin-2C and -2A Receptor Co-expression on Cells in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nocjar, Christine; Alex, Katherine D; Sonneborn, Alex; Abbas, Atheir I; Roth, Bryan L; Pehek, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Neural function within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulates normal cognition, attention and impulse control, implicating neuroregulatory abnormalities within this region in mental dysfunction related to schizophrenia, depression and drug abuse. Both serotonin -2A (5-HT2A) and -2C (5-HT2C) receptors are known to be important in neuropsychiatric drug action and are distributed throughout the mPFC. However, their interactive role in serotonergic cortical regulation is poorly understood. While the main signal transduction mechanism for both receptors is stimulation of phosphoinositide production, they can have opposite effects downstream. 5-HT2A versus 5-HT2C receptor activation oppositely regulates behavior and can oppositely affect neurochemical release within the mPFC. These distinct receptor effects could be caused by their differential cellular distribution within the cortex and/or other areas. It is known that both receptors are located on GABAergic and pyramidal cells within the mPFC, but it is not clear whether they are expressed on the same or different cells. The present work employed immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy to examine this in layers V-VI of the prelimbic mPFC. The majority of GABA cells in the deep prelimbic mPFC expressed 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactivity. Furthermore, most cells expressing 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactivity notably co-expressed 5-HT2A receptors. However, 27% of 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactive cells were not GABAergic, indicating that a population of prelimbic pyramidal projection cells could express the 5-HT2C receptor. Indeed, some cells with 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptor co-labeling had a pyramidal shape and were expressed in the typical layered fashion of pyramidal cells. This indirectly demonstrates that 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors may be commonly co-expressed on GABAergic cells within the deep layers of the prelimbic mPFC and perhaps co-localized on a small population of local pyramidal projection cells. Thus a

  1. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 antagonism in learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Simonyi, Agnes; Schachtman, Todd R.; Christoffersen, Gert R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The role of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5 receptor) in learning and memory and other behaviors are reviewed by examining the influence of selective antagonists and genetic knockout on performance. This receptor is involved in spatial learning, contextual fear conditioning, inhibitory avoidance, fear potentiated startle, and conditioned taste aversion. However, mGlu5 receptor antagonists have proven to be ineffective in other learning tasks, such as the delayed-match-to-position test and a three-hole spatial learning task. Locomotion is often decreased by mGlu5 receptor antagonists; and other behaviors such as social interaction and consummatory responses can also be affected. In mGlu5 receptor knockout mice, performance in contextual fear conditioning and spatial water maze tasks is impaired. Although the available evidence is suggestive of an important contribution of mGlu5 receptors to cognitive functions, further studies are needed, particularly those with in vivo evaluation of the role of mGlu5 receptors in selective brain regions in different stages of memory formation. PMID:20363219

  2. Peripheral endothelin A receptor antagonism attenuates carcinoma-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brian L; Pickering, Victoria; Liu, Stanley; Quang, Phuong; Dolan, John; Connelly, S Thaddeus; Jordan, Richard C K

    2007-05-01

    In this study we investigated the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and its peripheral receptor (ET-A) in carcinoma-induced pain in a mouse cancer pain model. Tumors were induced in the hind paw of female mice by local injection of cells derived from a human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Significant pain, as indicated by reduction in withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimulation, began at four days after SCC inoculation and lasted to 28 days, the last day of measurement. Intra-tumor expression of both ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 protein were significantly upregulated compared to normal tissue, and local administration of the ET-A receptor selective antagonist, BQ-123 (100 microM) significantly elevated withdrawal thresholds, indicating the induction of an antinociceptive effect. These findings support the suggestion that ET-1 and ET-A receptors contribute to the severity of carcinoma-induced soft tissue cancer pain. PMID:16807013

  3. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Forman, Mark S.; Harrell, Charles M.; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J.; Fox, Steven V.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Garson, Susan L.; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J.; Herring, W. Joseph; Renger, John J.; Winrow, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  4. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man.

    PubMed

    Gotter, Anthony L; Forman, Mark S; Harrell, Charles M; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J; Fox, Steven V; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J; Herring, W Joseph; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  5. Exploring new scaffolds for angiotensin II receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Kritsi, Eftichia; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Potamitis, Constantinos; Karageorgos, Vlasios; Detsi, Anastasia; Magafa, Vasilliki; Liapakis, George; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis

    2016-09-15

    Nowadays, AT1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists (ARBs) constitute the one of the most prevalent classes of antihypertensive drugs that modulate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Their main uses include also treatment of diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure. Towards this direction, our study has been focused on the discovery of novel agents bearing different scaffolds which may evolve as a new class of AT1 receptor antagonists. To fulfill this aim, a combination of computational approaches and biological assays were implemented. Particularly, a pharmacophore model was established and served as a 3D search query to screen the ChEMBL15 database. The reliability and accuracy of virtual screening results were improved by using molecular docking studies. In total, 4 compounds with completely diverse chemical scaffolds from potential ARBs, were picked and tested for their binding affinity to AT1 receptor. Results revealed high nanomolar to micromolar affinity (IC50) for all the compounds. Especially, compound 4 exhibited a binding affinity of 199nM. Molecular dynamics simulations were utilized in an effort to provide a molecular basis of their binding to AT1R in accordance to their biological activities. PMID:27480029

  6. MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM CONFERS CARDIOPROTECTION IN HEART FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Seawell, Michael R.; Darazi, Fahed Al; Farah, Victor; Ramanathan, Kodangudi B.; Newman, Kevin P.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms and signs constituting the congestive heart failure (CHF) syndrome have their pathophysiologic origins rooted in a salt-avid renal state mediated by effector hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and adrenergic nervous systems. Controlled clinical trials, conducted over the past decade in patients having minimally to markedly severe symptomatic heart failure, have demonstrated the efficacy of a pharmacologic regimen that interferes with these hormones, including aldosterone receptor binding with either spironolactone or eplerenone. Potential pathophysiologic mechanisms which have not hitherto been considered involved for the salutary responses and cardioprotection provided by these mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are reviewed herein. In particular, we focus on the less well-recognized impact of catecholamines and aldosterone on mono- and divalent cation dyshomeostasis which leads to hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, ionized hypocalcemia with secondary hyperparathyroidism and hypozincemia. Attendant adverse cardiac consequences include a delay in myocardial repolarization with increased propensity for supra- and ventricular arrhythmias and compromised antioxidant defenses with increased susceptibility to nonischemic cardiomyocyte necrosis. PMID:23114591

  7. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  8. Serotonin 2C receptor antagonists induce fast-onset antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Opal, M D; Klenotich, S C; Morais, M; Bessa, J; Winkle, J; Doukas, D; Kay, L J; Sousa, N; Dulawa, S M

    2014-10-01

    Current antidepressants must be administered for several weeks to produce therapeutic effects. We show that selective serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) antagonists exert antidepressant actions with a faster-onset (5 days) than that of current antidepressants (14 days) in mice. Subchronic (5 days) treatment with 5-HT2C antagonists induced antidepressant behavioral effects in the chronic forced swim test (cFST), chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm and olfactory bulbectomy paradigm. This treatment regimen also induced classical markers of antidepressant action: activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). None of these effects were induced by subchronic treatment with citalopram, a prototypical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Local infusion of 5-HT2C antagonists into the ventral tegmental area was sufficient to induce BDNF in the mPFC, and dopamine D1 receptor antagonist treatment blocked the antidepressant behavioral effects of 5-HT2C antagonists. 5-HT2C antagonists also activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in the mPFC, effects recently linked to rapid antidepressant action. Furthermore, 5-HT2C antagonists reversed CMS-induced atrophy of mPFC pyramidal neurons. Subchronic SSRI treatment, which does not induce antidepressant behavioral effects, also activated mTOR and eEF2 and reversed CMS-induced neuronal atrophy, indicating that these effects are not sufficient for antidepressant onset. Our findings reveal that 5-HT2C antagonists are putative fast-onset antidepressants, which act through enhancement of mesocortical dopaminergic signaling. PMID:24166413

  9. in Silico investigation of the structural requirements for the AMPA receptor antagonism by quinoxaline derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Faizul; Abugrain, Ismaiel Mohamed; Sanalla, Mohamed Hussin; Elnaas, Radwan Fatahalla; Rajab, Ibrahim Abdassalam Ibn

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate receptors have been implicated in various neurological disorders and their antagonism offers a suitable approach for the treatment of such disorders. The field of drug design and discovery aims to find best medicines to prevent, treat and cure diseases quickly and efficiently. In this regard, computational tools have helped medicinal chemists modify and optimize molecules to potent drug candidates with better pharmacokinetic profiles, and guiding biologists and pharmacologists to explore new disease genes as well as novel drug targets. In the present study, to understand the structural requirements for AMPA receptor antagonism, molecular docking study was performed on 41 structurally diverse antagonists based on quinoxaline nucleus. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking simulations using AutoDock 4.2 program. The results obtained signify that the molecular docking approach is reliable and produces a good correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.6) between experimental and docking predicted AMPA receptor antagonistic activity. The aromatic moiety of quinoxaline core has been proved to be vital for hydrophobic contacts exhibiting - interactions in docked conformations. However, polar moieties such as carboxylic group and 1,2,4-triazole moieties were noted to be sites for hydrophilic interactions in terms of hydrogen bonding with the receptor. These analyses can be exploited to design and develop novel AMPA receptor antagonists for the treatment of different neurological disorders. PMID:24250113

  10. Antagonism of human formyl peptide receptor 1 with natural compounds and their synthetic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Quinn, Mark T

    2016-08-01

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) regulates a wide variety of neutrophil functional responses and plays an important role in inflammation and the pathogenesis of various diseases. To date, a variety of natural and synthetic molecules have been identified as FPR1 ligands. Here, we review current knowledge on natural products and natural product-inspired small molecules reported to antagonize and/or inhibit the FPR1-mediated responses. Based on this literature, additional screening of selected commercially available natural compounds for their ability to inhibit fMLF-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in human neutrophils and FPR1 transfected HL-60 cells, and pharmacophore modeling, natural products with potential as FPR1 antagonists are considered and discussed in this review. The identification and characterization of natural products that antagonize FPR1 activity may have potential for the development of novel therapeutics to limit or alter the outcome of inflammatory processes. PMID:26382576

  11. Mechanism of Androgen Receptor Antagonism by Bicalutamide in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Osguthorpe, D.J.; Hagler, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in a regulating gene expression in a variety of tissues, including the prostate. In the latter role it is one of the primary targets in the development of new chemotherapeutics for treatment of prostate cancer, as well as being the target of the most widely prescribed current drug, bicalutamide (Bcu), for this disease. In view of it’s importance, and the absence of a crystal structure for any antagonist-AR complex, we have carried out a series of molecular dynamics based simulations of the AR-Bcu complex and quantum mechanical (QM) calculations of Bcu, to elucidate the structural basis for antagonism of this key target. The structures which emerge show that bicalutamide antagonizes AR by accessing an additional binding pocket (B-site) adjacent to the hormone binding site (HBS), induced by displacing helix 12. This distorts the coactivator binding site and results in the inactivation of transcription. An alternative equienergetic conformational state of bicalutamide was found to bind in an expanded hormone pocket without materially perturbing either helix 12 or the coactivator binding site. Thus both the structural basis of antagonism and the mechanism underlying agonist properties displayed by bicalutamide in different environments may be rationalized in terms of these structures. In addition the antagonist structure and especially the induced second site (B-site) provides a structural framework for the design of novel antiandrogens. PMID:21466228

  12. Reverse Translation of Clinical Electrophysiological Biomarkers in Behaving Rodents under Acute and Chronic NMDA Receptor Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elyse M; Timi, Patricia; Hong, L Elliot; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) stands out as a highly translational tool for psychiatric research, yet rodent and human EEG are not typically obtained in the same way. In this study we developed a tool to record skull EEG in awake-behaving rats in a similar manner to how human EEG are obtained and then used this technique to test whether acute NMDA receptor antagonism alters rodent EEG signals in a similar manner as in humans. Acute MK-801 treatment elevated gamma power and reduced beta band power, which closely mirrored EEG data from healthy volunteers receiving acute ketamine. To explore the mechanisms behind these oscillatory changes, we examined the effects of GABA-A receptor blockade, finding that picrotoxin (PTX) recapitulated the decrease in sound-evoked beta oscillations observed with acute MK-801, but did not produce changes in gamma band power. Chronic treatment with either PTX or MK-801 did not affect frequency-specific oscillatory activity when tested 24 h after the last drug injection, but decreased total broadband oscillatory power. Overall, this study validated a novel platform for recording rodent EEG and demonstrated similar oscillatory changes after acute NMDA receptor antagonism in both humans and rodents, suggesting that skull EEG may be a powerful tool for further translational studies. PMID:25176166

  13. Ivermectin Antagonizes Ethanol Inhibition in Purinergic P2X4 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Maya; Perkins, Daya; Trudell, James R.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-gated purinergic P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) are expressed in the central nervous system and are sensitive to ethanol at intoxicating concentrations. P2XRs are trimeric; each subunit consists of two transmembrane (TM) α-helical segments, a large extracellular domain, and intracellular amino and carboxyl terminals. Recent work indicates that position 336 (Met336) in the TM2 segment is critical for ethanol modulation of P2X4Rs. The anthelmintic medication ivermectin (IVM) positively modulates P2X4Rs and is believed to act in the same region as ethanol. The present study tested the hypothesis that IVM can antagonize ethanol action. We investigated IVM and ethanol effects in wild-type and mutant P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes by using a two-electrode voltage clamp. IVM antagonized ethanol-induced inhibition of P2X4Rs in a concentration-dependent manner. The size and charge of substitutions at position 336 affected P2X4R sensitivity to both ethanol and IVM. The first molecular model of the rat P2X4R, built onto the X-ray crystal structure of zebrafish P2X4R, revealed a pocket formed by Asp331, Met336, Trp46, and Trp50 that may play a role in the actions of ethanol and IVM. These findings provide the first evidence for IVM antagonism of ethanol effects in P2X4Rs and suggest that the antagonism results from the ability of IVM to interfere with ethanol action on the putative pocket at or near position 336. Taken with the building evidence supporting a role for P2X4Rs in ethanol intake, the present findings suggest that the newly identified alcohol pocket is a potential site for development of medication for alcohol use disorders. PMID:20543096

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-nitroindole derivatives as 5-HT2A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Faisal; Viswanath, Ambily Nath Indu; Pae, Ae Nim; Rhim, Hyewhon; Park, Woo-Kyu; Choo, Hea-Young Park

    2015-03-15

    A novel series of 4-nitroindole sulfonamides containing a methyleneamino-N,N-dimethylformamidine were prepared. The binding of these compounds to 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C was evaluated, and most of the compounds showed IC50 values of less than 1μM, and exhibited high selectivity for the 5-HT2C receptor. However, little selectivity was observed in the functional assay for 5-HT6 receptors. The computational modeling studies further validated the biological results and also demonstrated a reasonable correlation between the activity of compounds and the mode of superimposition with specified pharmacophoric features. PMID:25684421

  15. Orexin-1 receptor blockade dysregulates REM sleep in the presence of orexin-2 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Dugovic, Christine; Shelton, Jonathan E; Yun, Sujin; Bonaventure, Pascal; Shireman, Brock T; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the prominent role of orexins in the maintenance of wakefulness via activation of orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors, various dual OX1/2R antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans. While selective blockade of OX2R seems to be sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, the beneficial effect of additional inhibition of OX1R remains controversial. The relative contribution of OX1R and OX2R to the sleep effects induced by a dual OX1/2R antagonist was further investigated in the rat, and specifically on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep since a deficiency of the orexin system is associated with narcolepsy/cataplexy based on clinical and pre-clinical data. As expected, the dual OX1/2R antagonist SB-649868 was effective in promoting non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep following oral dosing (10 and 30 mg/kg) at the onset of the dark phase. However, a disruption of REM sleep was evidenced by a more pronounced reduction in the onset of REM as compared to NREM sleep, a marked enhancement of the REM/total sleep ratio, and the occurrence of a few episodes of direct wake to REM sleep transitions (REM intrusion). When administered subcutaneously, the OX2R antagonist JNJ-10397049 (10 mg/kg) increased NREM duration whereas the OX1R antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg) did not alter sleep. REM sleep was not affected either by OX2R or OX1R blockade alone, but administration of the OX1R antagonist in combination with the OX2R antagonist induced a significant reduction in REM sleep latency and an increase in REM sleep duration at the expense of the time spent in NREM sleep. These results indicate that additional blockade of OX1R to OX2R antagonism elicits a dysregulation of REM sleep by shifting the balance in favor of REM sleep at the expense of NREM sleep that may increase the risk of adverse events. Translation of this hypothesis remains to be tested in the clinic. PMID:24592208

  16. Orexin-1 receptor blockade dysregulates REM sleep in the presence of orexin-2 receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Dugovic, Christine; Shelton, Jonathan E.; Yun, Sujin; Bonaventure, Pascal; Shireman, Brock T.; Lovenberg, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the prominent role of orexins in the maintenance of wakefulness via activation of orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors, various dual OX1/2R antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans. While selective blockade of OX2R seems to be sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, the beneficial effect of additional inhibition of OX1R remains controversial. The relative contribution of OX1R and OX2R to the sleep effects induced by a dual OX1/2R antagonist was further investigated in the rat, and specifically on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep since a deficiency of the orexin system is associated with narcolepsy/cataplexy based on clinical and pre-clinical data. As expected, the dual OX1/2R antagonist SB-649868 was effective in promoting non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep following oral dosing (10 and 30 mg/kg) at the onset of the dark phase. However, a disruption of REM sleep was evidenced by a more pronounced reduction in the onset of REM as compared to NREM sleep, a marked enhancement of the REM/total sleep ratio, and the occurrence of a few episodes of direct wake to REM sleep transitions (REM intrusion). When administered subcutaneously, the OX2R antagonist JNJ-10397049 (10 mg/kg) increased NREM duration whereas the OX1R antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg) did not alter sleep. REM sleep was not affected either by OX2R or OX1R blockade alone, but administration of the OX1R antagonist in combination with the OX2R antagonist induced a significant reduction in REM sleep latency and an increase in REM sleep duration at the expense of the time spent in NREM sleep. These results indicate that additional blockade of OX1R to OX2R antagonism elicits a dysregulation of REM sleep by shifting the balance in favor of REM sleep at the expense of NREM sleep that may increase the risk of adverse events. Translation of this hypothesis remains to be tested in the clinic. PMID:24592208

  17. Histamine H4 receptor antagonism reduces hapten-induced scratching behaviour but not inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, Kristine; Wendorff, Stephanie; Sander, Kerstin; Stark, Holger; Gutzmer, Ralf; Werfel, Thomas; Kietzmann, Manfred; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the histamine H(4) receptor antagonist JNJ 7777120 (1-[(5-chloro-1H-indol-2-yl)carbonyl]-4-methylpiperazine) were tested in two models of allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis was induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, which differ in their Th1-Th2 profile in that way that 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene is a classical contact allergen with a pronounced Th1-mediated inflammation, while the respiratory chemical allergen toluene-2,4-diisocyanate induces a Th2-dominated inflammation. JNJ 7777120 (15 mg/kg) administered 2 h and 30 min before and 1 h after challenge did not reduce the hapten-induced ear swelling determined 24 h after challenge. This was confirmed by histological evaluation of the ear skin. A repeated administration of the haptens to the rostral part of the back of sensitized animals resulted in a frequent scratching behaviour. An administration of JNJ 7777120 (15 mg/kg) 30 min before challenge reduced this hapten-induced scratching significantly. The H(1) receptor antagonist cetirizine also reduced the scratching bouts in sensitized mice. A combination of H(1) and H(4) receptor antagonists resulted in the strongest inhibition of scratching behaviour associated with allergic dermatitis. These results indicate that H(4) receptor antagonism fails to reduce the allergic inflammatory response but strongly inhibits allergen-induced itch. Thus, a combination of H(4) and H(1) receptor antagonism might be a new strategy to treat pruritus related to allergic diseases like atopic dermatitis. PMID:18647342

  18. Phosphoinositide system-linked serotonin receptor subtypes and their pharmacological properties and clinical correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, S C; Davis, J M; Pandey, G N

    1995-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission represents a complex mechanism involving pre- and post-synaptic events and distinct 5-HT receptor subtypes. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors have been classified into several categories, and they are termed as 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 type receptors. 5-HT1 receptors have been further subdivided into 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E and 5-HT1F. 5-HT2 receptors have been divided into 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors. All 5-HT2 receptor subtypes are linked to the multifunctional phosphoinositide (PI) signalling system. 5-HT3 receptors are considered ion-gated receptors and are also linked to the PI signalling system by an unknown mechanism. The 5-HT2A receptor subtype is the most widely studied of the 5-HT receptors in psychiatric disorders (for example, suicide, depression and schizophrenia) as well as in relation to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. The roles of 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors in psychiatric disorders are less clear. These 5-HT receptors also play an important role in alcoholism. It has been shown that 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 antagonists cause attenuation of alcohol intake in animals and humans. However, the exact mechanisms are unknown. The recent cloning of the cDNAs for 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors provides the opportunity to explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for the alterations in these receptors during illness as well as pharmacotherapy. This review article will focus on the current research into the pharmacological properties, molecular biology, and clinical correlates of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:7786883

  19. Neuromedin B receptor antagonism inhibits migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Jeong, Joo-Won; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Joon; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2016-09-01

    Neuromedin B (NMB) acts as an autocrine growth factor and a pro-angiogenic factor. Its receptor, NMB receptor (NMB-R), is overexpressed in solid tumors. In the present study, we showed that an NMB-R antagonist, PD168368, suppresses migration and invasion of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. In addition, PD168368 reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells by E-cadherin upregulation and vimentin downregulation. Moreover, we found that PD168368 potently inhibits in vivo metastasis of breast cancer. Taken together, these findings suggest that NMB-R antagonism may be an alternative approach to prevent breast cancer metastasis, and targeting NMB-R may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment. PMID:27571778

  20. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif. PMID:27190515

  1. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif. PMID:27190515

  2. Pair Bond Formation is Impaired by VPAC Receptor Antagonism in the Socially Monogamous Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Marcy A.; Goodson, James L.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of recent data demonstrate that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and VPAC receptors (which bind VIP, and to a lesser extent, pituitary adenylatecyclase activating peptide) are important for numerous social behaviors in songbirds, including grouping and aggression, although VIP relates to these behaviors in a site-specific manner. In order to determine the global effects of central VPAC receptor activation on social behavior, we here infused a VPAC receptor antagonist or vehicle twice daily into the lateral ventricle of colony-housed male and female zebra finches and quantified a wide range of behaviors. Aggressive behaviors were not altered by ventricular infusions, consistent with known opposing, site-specific relationships of VIP innervation to aggression. Courtship and self-maintenance behaviors were likewise not altered. However, VPAC antagonism produced significant deficits in pair bonding. Antagonist subjects took longer to form a pair bond and were paired for significantly fewer observation sessions relative to control subjects (median 1.5 of 6 observation sessions for antagonist subjects versus 4 for control subjects). Antagonist subjects were also significantly less likely to be paired in the final observation session. Based on the known distribution of VPAC receptors in finches and other vertebrates, we propose that VPAC receptors may mediate pair bonding via a variety of brain areas that are known to be important for the establishment of partner preferences in voles, including the lateral septum, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. PMID:25014003

  3. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT(2A/2C), 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted. PMID:26241351

  4. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted. PMID:26241351

  5. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive

    PubMed Central

    Huart, Antoine; Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Neau, Eric; Delage, Christine; Calise, Denis; Ribes, David; Schanstra, Joost P.; Bascands, Jean-Loup

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra) with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a) in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However, bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors. PMID:25698969

  6. Frondoside A inhibits breast cancer metastasis and antagonizes prostaglandin E receptors EP4 and EP2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinrong; Kundu, Namita; Collin, Peter D; Goloubeva, Olga; Fulton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Frondoside A, derived from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa has demonstrable anticancer activity in several models, however, the ability of Frondoside A to affect tumor metastasis has not been reported. Using a syngeneic murine model of metastatic breast cancer, we now show that Frondoside A has potent antimetastatic activity. Frondoside A given i.p. to mice bearing mammary gland implanted mammary tumors, inhibits spontaneous tumor metastasis to the lungs. The elevated Cyclooxygenase -2 activity in many malignancies promotes tumor growth and metastasis by producing high levels of PGE2 which acts on the prostaglandin E receptors, chiefly EP4 and EP2. We examined the ability of Frondoside A to modulate the functions of these EP receptors. We now show that Frondoside A antagonizes the prostaglandin E receptors EP2 and EP4. 3H-PGE2 binding to recombinant EP2 or EP4-expressing cells was inhibited by Frondoside A at low μM concentrations. Likewise, EP4 or EP2-linked activation of intracellular cAMP as well as EP4-mediated ERK1/2 activation were also inhibited by Frondoside A. Consistent with the antimetastatic activity observed in vivo, migration of tumor cells in vitro in response to EP4 or EP2 agonists was also inhibited by Frondoside A. These studies identify a new function for an agent with known antitumor activity, and show that the antimetastatic activity may be due in part to a novel mechanism of action. These studies add to the growing body of evidence that Frondoside A may be a promising new agent with potential to treat cancer and may also represent a potential new modality to antagonize EP4. PMID:21761157

  7. Frondoside A inhibits breast cancer metastasis and antagonizes prostaglandin E receptors EP4 and EP2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinrong; Kundu, Namita; Collin, Peter D; Goloubeva, Olga; Fulton, Amy M

    2012-04-01

    Frondoside A, derived from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa has demonstrable anticancer activity in several models, however, the ability of Frondoside A to affect tumor metastasis has not been reported. Using a syngeneic murine model of metastatic breast cancer, we now show that Frondoside A has potent antimetastatic activity. Frondoside A given i.p. to mice bearing mammary gland-implanted mammary tumors, inhibits spontaneous tumor metastasis to the lungs. The elevated Cyclooxygenase-2 activity in many malignancies promotes tumor growth and metastasis by producing high levels of PGE(2) which acts on the prostaglandin E receptors, chiefly EP4 and EP2. We examined the ability of Frondoside A to modulate the functions of these EP receptors. We now show that Frondoside A antagonizes the prostaglandin E receptors EP2 and EP4. (3)H-PGE(2) binding to recombinant EP2 or EP4-expressing cells was inhibited by Frondoside A at low μM concentrations. Likewise, EP4 or EP2-linked activation of intracellular cAMP as well as EP4-mediated ERK1/2 activation were also inhibited by Frondoside A. Consistent with the antimetastatic activity observed in vivo, migration of tumor cells in vitro in response to EP4 or EP2 agonists was also inhibited by Frondoside A. These studies identify a new function for an agent with known antitumor activity, and show that the antimetastatic activity may be due in part to a novel mechanism of action. These studies add to the growing body of evidence that Frondoside A may be a promising new agent with potential to treat cancer and may also represent a potential new modality to antagonize EP4. PMID:21761157

  8. Structural insight into antibody-mediated antagonism of the Glucagon-like peptide-1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hennen, Stephanie; Kodra, János T.; Soroka, Vladyslav; Krogh, Berit O.; Wu, Xiaoai; Kaastrup, Peter; Ørskov, Cathrine; Rønn, Sif G.; Schluckebier, Gerd; Barbateskovic, Silvia; Gandhi, Prafull S.; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a member of the class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and a well-established target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) of GLP-1R is important for GLP-1 binding and the crystal structure of the GLP-1/ECD complex was reported previously. The first structure of a class B GPCR transmembrane (TM) domain was solved recently, but the full length receptor structure is still not well understood. Here we describe the molecular details of antibody-mediated antagonism of the GLP-1R using both in vitro pharmacology and x-ray crystallography. We showed that the antibody Fab fragment (Fab 3F52) blocked the GLP-1 binding site of the ECD directly and thereby acts as a competitive antagonist of native GLP-1. Interestingly, Fab 3F52 also blocked a short peptide agonist believed to engage primarily the transmembrane and extracellular loop region of GLP-1R, whereas functionality of an allosteric small-molecule agonist was not inhibited. This study has implications for the structural understanding of the GLP-1R and related class B GPCRs, which is important for the development of new and improved therapeutics targeting these receptors. PMID:27196125

  9. Structural insight into antibody-mediated antagonism of the Glucagon-like peptide-1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Hennen, Stephanie; Kodra, János T; Soroka, Vladyslav; Krogh, Berit O; Wu, Xiaoai; Kaastrup, Peter; Ørskov, Cathrine; Rønn, Sif G; Schluckebier, Gerd; Barbateskovic, Silvia; Gandhi, Prafull S; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a member of the class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and a well-established target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) of GLP-1R is important for GLP-1 binding and the crystal structure of the GLP-1/ECD complex was reported previously. The first structure of a class B GPCR transmembrane (TM) domain was solved recently, but the full length receptor structure is still not well understood. Here we describe the molecular details of antibody-mediated antagonism of the GLP-1R using both in vitro pharmacology and x-ray crystallography. We showed that the antibody Fab fragment (Fab 3F52) blocked the GLP-1 binding site of the ECD directly and thereby acts as a competitive antagonist of native GLP-1. Interestingly, Fab 3F52 also blocked a short peptide agonist believed to engage primarily the transmembrane and extracellular loop region of GLP-1R, whereas functionality of an allosteric small-molecule agonist was not inhibited. This study has implications for the structural understanding of the GLP-1R and related class B GPCRs, which is important for the development of new and improved therapeutics targeting these receptors. PMID:27196125

  10. Genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism between estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E; Tarulli, Gerard; Zarnke, Allison L; Bourgo, Ryan J; Laine, Muriel; Chang, Ya-Fang; Ma, Shihong; Dembo, Anna G; Raj, Ganesh V; Hickey, Theresa E; Tilley, Wayne D; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2016-06-01

    The functional role of progesterone receptor (PR) and its impact on estrogen signaling in breast cancer remain controversial. In primary ER(+) (estrogen receptor-positive)/PR(+) human tumors, we report that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin act as genomic agonists by regulating the expression of common target genes in similar directions, but at different levels. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is also a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action. However, in the presence of both hormones, progestin behaves as a phenotypic estrogen antagonist. PR remodels nucleosomes to noncompetitively redirect ER genomic binding to distal enhancers enriched for BRCA1 binding motifs and sites that link PR and ER/PR complexes. When both hormones are present, progestin modulates estrogen action, such that responsive transcriptomes, cellular processes, and ER/PR recruitment to genomic sites correlate with those observed with PR alone, but not ER alone. Despite this overall correlation, the transcriptome patterns modulated by dual treatment are sufficiently different from individual treatments, such that antagonism of oncogenic processes is both predicted and observed. Combination therapies using the selective PR modulator/antagonist (SPRM) CDB4124 in combination with tamoxifen elicited 70% cytotoxic tumor regression of T47D tumor xenografts, whereas individual therapies inhibited tumor growth without net regression. Our findings demonstrate that PR redirects ER chromatin binding to antagonize estrogen signaling and that SPRMs can potentiate responses to antiestrogens, suggesting that cotargeting of ER and PR in ER(+)/PR(+) breast cancers should be explored. PMID:27386569

  11. Antagonism of the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor is cardioprotective against right ventricular pressure overload

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Bryan M.; Pavliv, Leo; de Caestecker, Mark; Hemnes, Anna R.; Carrier, Erica J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Right ventricular (RV) failure is the primary cause of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in other forms of pulmonary hypertension. There are no approved therapies directed at preserving RV function. F-series and E-series isoprostanes are increased in heart failure and PAH, correlate to the severity of disease, and can signal through the thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor, with effects from vasoconstriction to fibrosis. The goal of these studies was to determine whether blockade of the TP receptor with the antagonist CPI211 was beneficial therapeutically in PAH-induced RV dysfunction. Mice with RV dysfunction due to pressure overload by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) were given vehicle or CPI211. Two weeks after PAB, CPI211-treated mice were protected from fibrosis with pressure overload. Gene expression arrays and immunoblotting, quantitative histology and morphometry, and flow cytometric analysis were used to determine the mechanism of CPI211 protection. TP receptor inhibition caused a near normalization of fibrotic area, prevented cellular hypertrophy while allowing increased RV mass, increased expression of antifibrotic thrombospondin-4, and blocked induction of the profibrotic transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway. A thromboxane synthase inhibitor or low-dose aspirin failed to replicate these results, which suggests that a ligand other than thromboxane mediates fibrosis through the TP receptor after pressure overload. This study suggests that TP receptor antagonism may improve RV adaptation in situations of pressure overload by decreasing fibrosis and TGF-β signaling. PMID:27252848

  12. Antagonism of the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor is cardioprotective against right ventricular pressure overload.

    PubMed

    West, James D; Voss, Bryan M; Pavliv, Leo; de Caestecker, Mark; Hemnes, Anna R; Carrier, Erica J

    2016-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure is the primary cause of death in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in other forms of pulmonary hypertension. There are no approved therapies directed at preserving RV function. F-series and E-series isoprostanes are increased in heart failure and PAH, correlate to the severity of disease, and can signal through the thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor, with effects from vasoconstriction to fibrosis. The goal of these studies was to determine whether blockade of the TP receptor with the antagonist CPI211 was beneficial therapeutically in PAH-induced RV dysfunction. Mice with RV dysfunction due to pressure overload by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) were given vehicle or CPI211. Two weeks after PAB, CPI211-treated mice were protected from fibrosis with pressure overload. Gene expression arrays and immunoblotting, quantitative histology and morphometry, and flow cytometric analysis were used to determine the mechanism of CPI211 protection. TP receptor inhibition caused a near normalization of fibrotic area, prevented cellular hypertrophy while allowing increased RV mass, increased expression of antifibrotic thrombospondin-4, and blocked induction of the profibrotic transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway. A thromboxane synthase inhibitor or low-dose aspirin failed to replicate these results, which suggests that a ligand other than thromboxane mediates fibrosis through the TP receptor after pressure overload. This study suggests that TP receptor antagonism may improve RV adaptation in situations of pressure overload by decreasing fibrosis and TGF-β signaling. PMID:27252848

  13. PSD-95 is Essential for Hallucinogen and Atypical Antipsychotic Drug Actions at Serotonin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Atheir I.; Yadav, Prem N.; Yao, Wei-Dong; Arbuckle, Margaret I.; Grant, Seth G.; Caron, Marc G.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    Here we report that PSD-95, a postsynaptic density scaffolding protein classically conceptualized as being essential for the regulation of ionotropic glutamatergic signaling at the post-synaptic membrane, plays an unanticipated and essential role in mediating the actions of hallucinogens and atypical antipsychotic drugs at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C serotonergic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We show that PSD-95 is crucial for normal 5-HT2A and 5- HT2C expression in vivo, and that PSD-95 maintains normal receptor expression by promoting apical dendritic targeting and stabilizing receptor turnover in vivo. Significantly, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C-mediated downstream signaling is impaired in PSD-95null mice, and the 5-HT2A-mediated head twitch response is abnormal. Furthermore, the ability of 5-HT2A inverse agonists to normalize behavioral changes induced by glutamate receptor antagonists is abolished in the absence of PSD-95 in vivo. These results demonstrate that PSD-95, in addition to the well known role it plays in scaffolding macromolecular glutamatergic signaling complexes, profoundly modulates metabotropic 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor function. PMID:19494135

  14. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism attenuates neuronal activity triggered by stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking.

    PubMed

    Schank, J R; Nelson, B S; Damadzic, R; Tapocik, J D; Yao, M; King, C E; Rowe, K E; Cheng, K; Rice, K C; Heilig, M

    2015-12-01

    Substance P (SP) and its cognate neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) are involved in alcohol-related behaviors. We have previously reported that NK1R antagonism attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking and suppresses escalated alcohol self-administration, but does not affect primary reinforcement or cue-induced reinstatement. Here, we administered an NK1R antagonist or vehicle prior to footshock-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, and mapped the resulting neuronal activation using Fos immunohistochemistry. As expected, vehicle treated animals exposed to footshock showed induction of Fos immunoreactivity in several regions of the brain stress circuitry, including the amygdala (AMG), nucleus accumbens (NAC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). NK1R antagonism selectively suppressed the stress-induced increase in Fos in the DR and NAC shell. In the DR, Fos-induction by stress largely overlapped with tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH), indicating activation of serotonergic neurons. Of NAC shell neurons activated during stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, about 30% co-expressed dynorphin (DYN), while 70% co-expressed enkephalin (ENK). Few (<1%) activated NAC shell neurons coexpressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which labels the cholinergic interneurons of this region. Infusion of the NK1R antagonist L822429 into the NAC shell blocked stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. In contrast, L822429 infusion into the DR had no effect, suggesting that the influence of NK1R signaling on neuronal activity in the DR is indirect. Taken together, our results outline a potential pathway through which endogenous NK1R activation mediates stress-induced alcohol seeking. PMID:26188146

  15. Genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism between estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E.; Tarulli, Gerard; Zarnke, Allison L.; Bourgo, Ryan J.; Laine, Muriel; Chang, Ya-Fang; Ma, Shihong; Dembo, Anna G.; Raj, Ganesh V.; Hickey, Theresa E.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of progesterone receptor (PR) and its impact on estrogen signaling in breast cancer remain controversial. In primary ER+ (estrogen receptor–positive)/PR+ human tumors, we report that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin act as genomic agonists by regulating the expression of common target genes in similar directions, but at different levels. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is also a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action. However, in the presence of both hormones, progestin behaves as a phenotypic estrogen antagonist. PR remodels nucleosomes to noncompetitively redirect ER genomic binding to distal enhancers enriched for BRCA1 binding motifs and sites that link PR and ER/PR complexes. When both hormones are present, progestin modulates estrogen action, such that responsive transcriptomes, cellular processes, and ER/PR recruitment to genomic sites correlate with those observed with PR alone, but not ER alone. Despite this overall correlation, the transcriptome patterns modulated by dual treatment are sufficiently different from individual treatments, such that antagonism of oncogenic processes is both predicted and observed. Combination therapies using the selective PR modulator/antagonist (SPRM) CDB4124 in combination with tamoxifen elicited 70% cytotoxic tumor regression of T47D tumor xenografts, whereas individual therapies inhibited tumor growth without net regression. Our findings demonstrate that PR redirects ER chromatin binding to antagonize estrogen signaling and that SPRMs can potentiate responses to antiestrogens, suggesting that cotargeting of ER and PR in ER+/PR+ breast cancers should be explored. PMID:27386569

  16. Antagonism of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors by FTY720 inhibits angiogenesis and tumor vascularization.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Kenneth; Littlewood-Evans, Amanda; Schnell, Christian; O'Reilly, Terence; Wyder, Lorenza; Sanchez, Teresa; Probst, Beatrice; Butler, Jeannene; Wood, Alexander; Liau, Gene; Billy, Eric; Theuer, Andreas; Hla, Timothy; Wood, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    FTY720, a potent immunomodulator, becomes phosphorylated in vivo (FTY-P) and interacts with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. Recent studies showed that FTY-P affects vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability, an important aspect of angiogenesis. We show here that FTY720 has antiangiogenic activity, potently abrogating VEGF- and S1P-induced angiogenesis in vivo in growth factor implant and corneal models. FTY720 administration tended to inhibit primary and significantly inhibited metastatic tumor growth in a mouse model of melanoma growth. In combination with a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584, FTY720 showed some additional benefit. FTY720 markedly inhibited tumor-associated angiogenesis, and this was accompanied by decreased tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. In transfected HEK293 cells, FTY-P internalized S1P1 receptors, inhibited their recycling to the cell surface, and desensitized S1P receptor function. Both FTY720 and FTY-P apparently failed to impede VEGF-produced increases in mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), and unlike its activity in causing S1PR internalization, FTY-P did not result in a decrease of surface VEGFR2 levels in HUVEC cells. Pretreatment with FTY720 or FTY-P prevented S1P-induced Ca2+ mobilization and migration in vascular endothelial cells. These data show that functional antagonism of vascular S1P receptors by FTY720 potently inhibits angiogenesis; therefore, this may provide a novel therapeutic approach for pathologic conditions with dysregulated angiogenesis. PMID:16397235

  17. Antagonizing the parathyroid calcium receptor stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion and bone formation in osteopenic rats.

    PubMed

    Gowen, M; Stroup, G B; Dodds, R A; James, I E; Votta, B J; Smith, B R; Bhatnagar, P K; Lago, A M; Callahan, J F; DelMar, E G; Miller, M A; Nemeth, E F; Fox, J

    2000-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a "calcilytic") of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17beta-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:10841518

  18. Antagonizing the parathyroid calcium receptor stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion and bone formation in osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Maxine; Stroup, George B.; Dodds, Robert A.; James, Ian E.; Votta, Bart J.; Smith, Brian R.; Bhatnagar, Pradip K.; Lago, Amparo M.; Callahan, James F.; DelMar, Eric G.; Miller, Michael A.; Nemeth, Edward F.; Fox, John

    2000-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a “calcilytic”) of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17β-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:10841518

  19. Hypocretin Receptor 2 Antagonism Dose-Dependently Reduces Escalated Heroin Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Barbier, Estelle; Misra, Kaushik K; Contet, Candice; Schlosburg, Joel E; Grigoriadis, Dimitri; Williams, John P; Karlsson, Camilla; Pitcairn, Caleb; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system has been associated with both positive and negative drug reinforcement, implicating HCRT receptor 1 (HCRT-R1) signaling in drug-related behaviors for all major drug classes, including opioids. However, to date there are limited studies investigating the role of HCRT receptor 2 (HCRT-R2) signaling in compulsive-like drug seeking. Escalation of drug intake with extended access has been suggested to model the transition from controlled drug use to compulsive-like drug seeking/taking. The current study examined the effects of a HCRT-R2 antagonist, NBI-80713, on heroin self-administration in rats allowed short- (1 h; ShA) or long- (12 h; LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Results indicate that systemically administered NBI-80713 dose-dependently decreased heroin self-administration in LgA, but not in ShA, animals. Quantitative PCR analyses showed an increase in Hcrtr2 mRNA levels in the central amygdala, a stress-related brain region, of LgA rats. These observations suggest a functional role for HCRT-R2 signaling in compulsive-like heroin self-administration associated with extended access and indicate HCRT-R2 antagonism as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of heroin dependence. PMID:25367502

  20. Felbamate antagonizes isoniazid- and FG 7142-induced reduction of GABAA receptor function in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Serra, M; Ghiani, C A; Spano, S; Biggio, G

    1994-11-24

    Injection of the antiepileptic drug, felbamate (2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate), into mice reduced in a dose-dependent manner (150-300 mg/kg i.p.) the isoniazid (200 mg/kg s.c.)-induced increase in ex vivo binding of t-[35S]butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) to cerebral cortical and hippocampal membranes. The same doses of felbamate reduced significantly the number of mice exhibiting isoniazid-induced seizures. A dose of felbamate (50 mg/kg) ineffective in isoniazid-treated mice completely antagonized the increase of [35S]TBPS binding elicited by FG 7142 (N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide), a benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist. The above effects of felbamate resembled those of diazepam. Accordingly, the combination of ineffective doses of felbamate (50 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) elicited a marked decrease of [35S]TBPS binding. The results indicate that facilitation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor function may play a role in the anticonvulsant action of felbamate. PMID:7875235

  1. Alteration in 5-HT₂C, NMDA receptor and IP3 in cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: restorative role of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Amee; Anju, T R; Abraham, Pretty Mary; Paulose, C S

    2015-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri is effective in stress management, brain function and a balanced mood. 5-HT2C receptors have been implicated in stress whereas NMDA receptors and mGlu5 play crucial role in memory and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of B. monnieri extract in ameliorating pilocarpine induced temporal lobe epilepsy through regulation of 5-HT2C and NMDA receptors in cerebral cortex. Our studies confirmed an increased 5-HT2C receptor function during epilepsy thereby facilitating IP3 release. We also observed an decreased NMDA receptor function with an elevated mGlu5 and GLAST gene expression in epileptic condition indicating the possibility for glutamate mediated excitotoxicity. These alterations lead to impaired behavioural functions as indicated by the Elevated Plus maze test. Carbamazepine and B. monnieri treatments to epileptic rats reversed the alterations in 5-HT2C, NMDA receptor functions and IP3 content thereby effectively managing the neurotransmitter balance in the cerebral cortex. PMID:25503823

  2. Cyclic, nonequilibrium models of glucocorticoid antagonism: role of activation, nuclear binding and receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Munck, A; Holbrook, N J

    1988-10-01

    Quantitative models that have been proposed to date to explain mechanisms of glucocorticoid antagonism have generally been of the equilibrium type, involving hypothetical allosteric equilibria between active and inactive states of the receptor or the steroid-receptor complex. We describe here the agonist-antagonist relationships predicted by a nonequilibrium cyclic model that we have recently devised to account for the kinetic behavior of glucocorticoid-receptor complexes in intact rat thymus cells. This model simulates quantitatively most kinetic and steady state results that have been obtained so far. It postulates the existence of only well-established receptor species, and its kinetic parameters can in principle be determined by receptor measurements with intact cells. To calculate the steady state agonist-antagonist properties it is assumed that biological activity is proportional to the total amount of nuclear-bound complex, whether formed by agonist or antagonist. The agonist activity of a steroid is determined by the steady state ratio of nuclear-bound to total complexes it forms. This ratio varies from 0 for a pure antagonist to 1 for a pure agonist. It turns out to be independent of agonist and antagonist concentrations, and a function only of the rate constants for the reactions of the complexes formed by a steroid. Analysis of the dependence of the ratio on each rate constant shows quantitatively how each reaction in the cyclic model--activation of the nonactivated complex, nuclear binding of the activated complexes, and dissociation and recycling of activated and nuclear-bound complexes--affects antagonist properties. Steady state interactions of agonists with antagonists are found to be determined by equations that are identical to those for competition in simple equilibrium systems. Predicted dose-response relations agree qualitatively with experimentally observed relations. They are similar to those predicted by two-state allosteric models, although

  3. Antagonism of protease-activated receptor 2 protects against experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Rink-Jan; Cotterell, Adam J; Suen, Jacky; Liu, Ligong; Do, Anh T; Vesey, David A; Fairlie, David P

    2012-02-01

    Many trypsin-like serine proteases such as β-tryptase are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Inhibitors of individual proteases show limited efficacy in treating such conditions, but also probably disrupt digestive and defensive functions of proteases. Here, we investigate whether masking their common target, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), is an effective therapeutic strategy for treating acute and chronic experimental colitis in rats. A novel PAR2 antagonist (5-isoxazoyl-Cha-Ile-spiro[indene-1,4'-piperidine]; GB88) was evaluated for the blockade of intracellular calcium release in colonocytes and anti-inflammatory activity in acute (PAR2 agonist-induced) versus chronic [2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced] models of colitis in Wistar rats. Disease progression (disease activity index, weight loss, and mortality) and postmortem colonic histopathology (inflammation, bowel wall thickness, and myeloperoxidase) were measured. PAR2 and tryptase colocalization were investigated by using immunohistochemistry. GB88 was a more potent antagonist of PAR2 activation in colonocytes than another reported compound, N¹-3-methylbutyryl-N⁴-6-aminohexanoyl-piperazine (ENMD-1068) (IC₅₀ 8 μM versus 5 mM). Acute colonic inflammation induced in rats by the PAR2 agonist SLIGRL-NH₂ was inhibited by oral administration of GB88 (10 mg/kg) with markedly reduced edema, mucin depletion, PAR2 receptor internalization, and mastocytosis. Chronic TNBS-induced colitis in rats was ameliorated by GB88 (10 mg/kg/day p.o.), which reduced mortality and pathology (including colon obstruction, ulceration, wall thickness, and myeloperoxidase release) more effectively than the clinically used drug sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg/day p.o.). These disease-modifying properties for the PAR2 antagonist in both acute and chronic experimental colitis strongly support a pathogenic role for PAR2 and PAR2-activating proteases and therapeutic potential for

  4. Anthraquinone emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by antagonizing P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Jelassi, Bilel; Anchelin, Monique; Chamouton, Julie; Cayuela, María Luisa; Clarysse, Lucie; Li, Junying; Goré, Jacques; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Roger, Sébastien

    2013-07-01

    The adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-gated Ca(2+)-permeable channel P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is strongly upregulated in many tumors and cancer cells, and has an important role in cancer cell invasion associated with metastases. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is an anthraquinone derivative originally isolated from Rheum officinale Baill known for decades to possess anticancer properties. In this study, we examined the effects of emodin on P2X7R-dependent Ca(2+) signaling, extracellular matrix degradation, and in vitro and in vivo cancer cell invasiveness using highly aggressive human cancer cells. Inclusion of emodin at doses ≤10 µM in cell culture had no or very mild effect on the cell viability. ATP elicited increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were reduced by 35 and 60% by 1 and 10 µM emodin, respectively. Emodin specifically inhibited P2X7R-mediated currents with an IC50 of 3 µM and did not inhibit the currents mediated by the other human P2X receptors heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. ATP-induced increase in gelatinolytic activity, in cancer cell invasiveness in vitro and in cell morphology changes were prevented by 1 µM emodin. Furthermore, such ATP-evoked effects and inhibition by emodin were almost completely ablated in cancer cells transfected with P2X7R-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) but not with scrambled siRNA. Finally, the in vivo invasiveness of the P2X7R-positive MDA-MB-435s breast cancer cells, assessed using a zebrafish model of micrometastases, was suppressed by 40 and 50% by 1 and 10 µM emodin. Taken together, these results provide consistent evidence to indicate that emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by specifically antagonizing the P2X7R. PMID:23524196

  5. Serotonin2C receptors modulate dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens independently of dopamine release: behavioral, neurochemical and molecular studies with cocaine.

    PubMed

    Cathala, Adeline; Devroye, Céline; Maitre, Marlène; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Revest, Jean-Michel; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-05-01

    In keeping with its ability to control the mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) pathway, the serotonin2C receptor (5-HT2C R) plays a key role in mediating the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs of abuse. Studies assessing the influence of 5-HT2C R agonists on cocaine-induced responses have suggested that 5-HT2C Rs can modulate mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity independently of accumbal DA release, thereby controlling DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In the present study, we assessed this hypothesis by studying the influence of the 5-HT2C R agonist Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced behavioral, neurochemical and molecular responses. The i.p. administration of 1 mg/kg Ro 60-0175 inhibited hyperlocomotion induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.), had no effect on cocaine-induced DA outflow in the shell, and increased it in the core subregion of the NAc. Furthermore, Ro 60-0175 inhibited the late-onset locomotion induced by the subcutaneous administration of the DA-D2 R agonist quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg), as well as cocaine-induced increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in NAc subregions. Finally, Ro 60-0175 inhibited cocaine-induced phosphorylation of the DA and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at threonine residues in the NAc core, this effect being reversed by the selective 5-HT2C R antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that 5-HT2C Rs are capable of modulating mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level by specifically controlling DA signaling in the NAc core subregion. In keeping with the tight relationship between locomotor activity and NAc DA function, this interaction could participate in the inhibitory control of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. PMID:24661380

  6. Prenatal NMDA Receptor Antagonism Impaired Proliferation of Neuronal Progenitor, Leading to Fewer Glutamatergic Neurons in the Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Narusawa, Shiho; Aoyama, Yuki; Ikawa, Natsumi; Lu, Lingling; Nagai, Taku; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a glutamate receptor which has an important role on mammalian brain development. We have reported that prenatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP), a NMDA receptor antagonist, induces long-lasting behavioral deficits and neurochemical changes. However, the mechanism by which the prenatal antagonism of NMDA receptor affects neurodevelopment, resulting in behavioral deficits, has remained unclear. Here, we report that prenatal NMDA receptor antagonism impaired the proliferation of neuronal progenitors, leading to a decrease in the progenitor pool in the ventricular and the subventricular zone. Furthermore, using a PCR array focused on neurogenesis and neuronal stem cells, we evaluated changes in gene expression causing the impairment of neuronal progenitor proliferation and found aberrant gene expression, such as Notch2 and Ntn1, in prenatal PCP-treated mice. Consequently, the density of glutamatergic neurons in the prefrontal cortex was decreased, probably resulting in glutamatergic hypofunction. Prenatal PCP-treated mice displayed behavioral deficits in cognitive memory and sensorimotor gating until adulthood. These findings suggest that NMDA receptors regulate the proliferation and maturation of progenitor cells for glutamatergic neuron during neurodevelopment, probably via the regulation of gene expression. PMID:22257896

  7. Novel arylsulfonamide derivatives with 5-HT₆/5-HT₇ receptor antagonism targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Bucki, Adam; Pawłowski, Maciej; Mitka, Katarzyna; Jaśkowska, Jolanta; Kowalski, Piotr; Kazek, Grzegorz; Siwek, Agata; Wasik, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2014-06-12

    In order to target behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), we used molecular modeling-assisted design to obtain novel multifunctional arylsulfonamide derivatives that potently antagonize 5-HT(6/7/2A) and D2 receptors, without interacting with M1 receptors and hERG channels. In vitro studies confirmed their antagonism of 5-HT(7/2A) and D2 receptors and weak interactions with key antitargets (M1R and hERG) associated with side effects. Marked 5-HT6 receptor affinities were also observed, notably for 6-fluoro-3-(piperidin-4-yl)-1,2-benzoxazole derivatives connected by a 3-4 unit alkyl linker with mono- or bicyclic, lipophilic arylsulfonamide moieties. N-[4-[4-(6-Fluoro-1,2-benzoxazol-3-yl)piperidin-1-yl]butyl]benzothiophene-2-sulfonamide (72) was characterized in vitro on 14 targets and antitargets. It displayed dual blockade of 5-HT6 and D2 receptors and negligible interactions at hERG and M1 receptors. Unlike reference antipsychotics, 72 displayed marked antipsychotic and antidepressant activity in rats after oral administration, in the absence of cognitive or motor impairment. This profile is particularly attractive when targeting a fragile, elderly BPSD patient population. PMID:24805037

  8. Orexin Receptor Antagonism Improves Sleep and Reduces Seizures in Kcna1-null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Roundtree, Harrison M.; Simeone, Timothy A.; Johnson, Chaz; Matthews, Stephanie A.; Samson, Kaeli K.; Simeone, Kristina A.

    2016-01-01

    other epilepsy models. Citation: Roundtree HM, Simeone TA, Johnson C, Matthews SA, Samson KK, Simeone KA. Orexin receptor antagonism improves sleep and reduces seizures in Kcna1-null mice. SLEEP 2016;39(2):357–368. PMID:26446112

  9. Understanding the implications of dissolved organic carbon when assessing antagonism in vitro: An example with an estrogen receptor assay.

    PubMed

    Neale, Peta A; Escher, Beate I; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-09-01

    Both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity has been observed in water samples. Some studies have suggested that dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which can be co-extracted during sample enrichment, contributes to the apparent antagonistic effect. DOC has a high sorption capacity for the estrogen receptor (ER) agonist 17β-estradiol, which may reduce the available 17β-estradiol concentration in the antagonist testing mode and potentially lead to apparent antagonism. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of DOC when assessing antagonism in an ER reporter gene assay. The presence of DOC shifted the 17β-estradiol concentration-effect curve to higher concentrations, increasing the nominal EC50 value by up to 0.3 log units. However, this shift was within the usual variability associated with repeated measurements of concentration-effect curves. This shift was not due to DOC being an antagonist itself or interfering with fluorescence measurements, but was due to DOC reducing the bioavailability of 17β-estradiol. This was demonstrated by modelling the DOC sorption corrected 17β-estradiol concentration using experimental DOC-water partition coefficients (KDOC). While the shift in the 17β-estradiol concentration-effect curve was minor, sorption of 17β-estradiol to DOC can have an impact when assessing antagonism. At the EC50 agonist concentration, both modelled and experimental results showed that DOC at concentrations similar to that co-extracted in water samples caused suppression of the agonist at levels that would be classified as antagonism. The suppression was less pronounced at the EC80 agonist concentration, hence this is recommended when assessing antagonism of DOC rich samples, such as surface water and wastewater. PMID:25978675

  10. NMDA Receptor Agonism and Antagonism within the Amygdaloid Central Nucleus Suppresses Pain Affect: Differential Contribution of the Ventrolateral Periaqueductal Gray

    PubMed Central

    Spuz, Catherine A.; Tomaszycki, Michelle L.; Borszcz, George S.

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala contributes to the generation of pain affect and the amygdaloid central nucleus (CeA) receives nociceptive input that is mediated by glutamatergic neurotransmission. The present study compared the contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonism and antagonism in CeA to generation of the affective response of rats to an acute noxious stimulus. Vocalizations that occur following a brief tail shock (vocalization afterdischarges) are a validated rodent model of pain affect, and were preferentially suppressed, in a dose dependent manner, by bilateral injection into CeA of NMDA (.1 µg, .25 µg, .5 µg, or 1 µg/side), or the NMDA receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5, 1 µg, 2 µg, or 4 µg/side). Vocalizations that occur during tail shock were suppressed to a lesser degree, whereas, spinal motor reflexes (tail flick and hind limb movements) were unaffected by injection of NMDA or AP5 into CeA. Injection of NMDA, but not AP5, into CeA increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and unilateral injection of the µ-opiate receptor antagonist H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP, 0.25 µg) into vlPAG prevented the antinociception generated by injection of NMDA into CeA. These findings demonstrate that although NMDA receptor agonism and antagonism in CeA produce similar suppression of pain behaviors they do so via different neurobiological mechanisms. Perspective The amygdala contributes to production of the emotional dimension of pain. NMDA receptor agonism and antagonism within the central nucleus of the amygdala suppressed rats’ emotional response to acute painful stimulation. Understanding the neurobiology underlying emotional responses to pain will provide insights into new treatments for pain and its associated affective disorders. PMID:25261341

  11. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonism as a novel therapy for triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Skor, Maxwell N.; Wonder, Erin L.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Goyal, Anju; Hall, Ben A.; Cai, Yi; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10-20% of newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer. Finding effective targets for chemotherapy-resistant TNBC has proven difficult in part because of TNBC’s molecular heterogeneity. We have previously reported that, likely because of GR’s anti-apoptotic activity in ER-negative breast epithelial and cancer cells, high glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression/activity in early-stage TNBC significantly correlates with chemotherapy-resistance and increased recurrence. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with mifepristone, a (GR)-antagonist, would potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapy in GR+ TNBC by inhibiting GR’s anti-apoptotic signaling pathways and increasing the cytotoxic efficiency of chemotherapy. Experimental Design: TNBC cell apoptosis was examined in the context of physiological glucocorticoid concentrations, chemotherapy, and/or pharmacologic concentrations of mifepristone. We used high-throughput live microscopy with continuous recording to measure apoptotic cells stained with a fluorescent dye, and Western analysis to detect caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. The effect of mifepristone on GR-mediated gene expression was also measured. TNBC xenograft studies were performed in female severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and tumors were measured following treatment with vehicle, paclitaxel or mifepristone/paclitaxel. Results: We found that although mifepristone treatment alone had no significant effect on TNBC cell viability or clonogenicity in the absence of chemotherapy, the addition of mifepristone to dexamethasone/paclitaxel treatment significantly increased cytotoxicity and caspase-3/PARP cleavage. Mifepristone also antagonized GR-induced SGK1 and MKP1/DUSP1 gene expression, while significantly augmenting paclitaxel-induced GR+ MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor shrinkage in vivo. Conclusions: These results suggest that mifepristone pre-treatment could be a useful strategy for increasing tumor cell

  12. Farnesoid X receptor antagonizes JNK signaling pathway in liver carcinogenesis by activating SOD3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Chen, Wei-Dong; Li, Cunbao; Guo, Cong; Li, Yanyan; Qi, Hui; Shen, Hailing; Kong, Jing; Long, Xuecheng; Yuan, Frank; Wang, Xichun; Huang, Wendong

    2015-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key metabolic and homeostatic regulator in the liver. In the present work, we identify a novel role of FXR in antagonizing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in liver carcinogenesis by activating superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) transcription. Compared with wild-type mouse liver, FXR(-/-) mouse liver showed elevated JNK phosphorylation. JNK1 deletion suppressed the increase of diethylnitrosamine-induced tumor number in FXR(-/-) mice. These results suggest that JNK1 plays a key role in chemical-induced liver carcinogenesis in FXR(-/-) mice. We found that ligand-activated FXR was able to alleviate H₂O₂or tetradecanoylphorbol acetate-induced JNK phosphorylation in human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells or mouse primary hepatocytes. FXR ligand decreased H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in wild-type but not FXR(-/-) mouse hepatocytes. FXR knockdown abolished the inhibition of 3-[2-[2-chloro-4-[[3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-5-(1-methylethyl)-4-isoxazolyl]methoxy]phenyl]ethenyl]-Benzoic acid (GW4064) on JNK phosphorylation and ROS production induced by H₂O₂in HepG2 cells. The gene expression of SOD3, an antioxidant defense enzyme, was increased by FXR activation in vitro and in vivo. An FXR-responsive element, inverted repeat separated by 1 nucleotide in SOD3 promoter, was identified by a combination of transcriptional reporter assays, EMSAs, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, which indicated that SOD3 could be a direct FXR target gene. SOD3 knockdown abolished the inhibition of GW4064 on JNK phosphorylation induced by H₂O₂in HepG2 cells. In summary, FXR may regulate SOD3 expression to suppress ROS production, resulting in decreasing JNK activity. These results suggest that FXR, as a novel JNK suppressor, may be an attractive therapeutic target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:25496033

  13. Activation of serotonin(2C) receptors in the lateral habenular nucleus increases the expression of depression-related behaviors in the hemiparkinsonian rat.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling-Na; Zhang, Li; Li, Li-Bo; Sun, Yi-Na; Wang, Yong; Chen, Li; Guo, Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Qiao-Jun; Liu, Jian

    2015-06-01

    The roles of lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) glutamate neurons and serotonin2C (5-HT2C) receptors in depression are poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson's disease-associated depression. Here we assessed the importance of LHb glutamate neurons and 5-HT2C receptors for depressive-like behaviors in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra. The lesion induced depressive-like responses compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-LHb injection of potent, selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist Ro60-0175 decreased sucrose consumption and increased immobility time in sham-operated rats, indicating the induction of depressive-like responses, and intra-LHb injection of Ro60-0175 further increased the expression of depressive-like behaviors in the lesioned rats. Activation of LHb 5-HT2C receptors by the local administration of Ro60-0175 increased the firing rate of EAAC1 (a neuronal glutamate transporter)-positive neurons and percentage of the neurons with burst-firing pattern in the two groups of rats. Compared to sham-operated rats, the duration of Ro60-0175 action on the firing rate of EAAC1-positive neurons was markedly prolonged in the lesioned rats. Intra-LHb injection of Ro60-0175 decreased dopamine, 5-HT and noradrenaline levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, habenula, hippocampus and amygdala in sham-operated and the lesioned rats. The lesion did not change the percentage of EAAC1/5-HT2C receptor co-expressing neurons in the LHb. These findings indicate that activation of 5-HT2C receptors in the LHb increases firing activity of LHb glutamate neurons and then decreases monoamine levels in several brain regions, which increase the expression of depressive-like behaviors. Further, our results also suggest that the lesion leads to hyperfunctionality of 5-HT2C receptors on glutamate neurons of the LHb. PMID:25661701

  14. Involvement of serotonin 2C receptor RNA editing in accumbal neuropeptide Y expression and behavioural despair.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Miku; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    Serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT2 C Rs) are widely expressed in the central nervous system, and are associated with various neurological disorders. 5-HT2 C R mRNA undergoes adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing at five sites within its coding sequence, resulting in expression of 24 different isoforms. Several edited isoforms show reduced activity, suggesting that RNA editing modulates serotonergic systems in the brain with causative relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders. Transgenic mice solely expressing the non-edited 5-HT2 C R INI-isoform (INI) or the fully edited VGV-isoform exhibit various phenotypes including metabolic abnormalities, aggressive behaviour, anxiety-like behaviour, and depression-like behaviour. Here, we examined the behavioural phenotype and molecular changes of INI mice on a C57BL/6J background. INI mice showed an enhanced behavioural despair in the forced swimming test, elevated sensitivity to the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine, and significantly decreased serotonin in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and striatum. They also showed reduced expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA in the NAc. In addition, by stereotactic injection of adeno-associated virus encoding NPY into the NAc, we demonstrated that accumbal NPY overexpression relieved behavioural despair. Our results suggest that accumbal NPY expression may be regulated by 5-HT2 C R RNA editing, and its impairment may be linked to mood disorders. PMID:26950265

  15. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine.

    PubMed

    Virsolvy, Anne; Farah, Charlotte; Pertuit, Nolwenn; Kong, Lingyan; Lacampagne, Alain; Reboul, Cyril; Aimond, Franck; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na(+) current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca(2+) calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine. PMID:26655634

  16. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine

    PubMed Central

    Virsolvy, Anne; Farah, Charlotte; Pertuit, Nolwenn; Kong, Lingyan; Lacampagne, Alain; Reboul, Cyril; Aimond, Franck; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na+ current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na+-dependent Ca2+ overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca2+ calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine. PMID:26655634

  17. Sedation and histamine H1-receptor antagonism: studies in man with the enantiomers of chlorpheniramine and dimethindene.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, A. N.; Pascoe, P. A.; Turner, C.; Ganellin, C. R.; Greengrass, P. M.; Casy, A. F.; Mercer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of 10 mg (+)- and (-)-chlorpheniramine and 5 mg (+)- and (-)-dimethindene on daytime sleep latencies, digit symbol substitution and subjective assessments of mood and well-being were studied in 6 healthy young adult humans. Each subject also took 5 mg triprolidine hydrochloride as an active control and two placebos. 2. Daytime sleep latencies were reduced with triprolidine, (+)-chlorpheniramine and (-)-dimethindene, and subjects also reported that they felt more sleepy after (+)-chlorpheniramine and (-)-dimethindene. Performance on digit symbol substitution was impaired with (+)-chlorpheniramine. 3. Changes in measures with (-)-chlorpheniramine and (+)-dimethindene were not different from changes with placebo. 4. In the present study, changes in measures of drowsiness and performance were limited to the enantiomers with high affinity for the histamine H1-receptor. These findings strongly suggest that sedation can arise from H1-receptor antagonism alone, and provide further support for the belief that the histaminergic system is concerned with the regulation of alertness in man. PMID:1686208

  18. Mercaptoacetate blocks fatty acid-induced GLP-1 secretion in male rats by directly antagonizing GPR40 fatty acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Dinh, Thu T; Simasko, Steve M; Ritter, Sue

    2016-04-15

    Mercaptoacetate (MA) is an orexigenic agent reported to block fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Recently, however, we reported evidence from isolated nodose ganglion neurons that MA antagonizes the G protein-coupled long- and medium-chain FA receptor GPR40. GPR40 mediates FA-induced secretion of the satietogenic incretin peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), by enteroendocrine L cells, as well as FA-induced enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our results in cultured nodose neurons suggest that MA would also block GPR40 in enteroendocrine cells controlling GLP-1 secretion. If so, this would suggest an alternative mechanism by which MA increases food intake. We tested the hypothesis that MA blocks FA-induced GLP-1 secretion in vitro using cultured STC-1 cells (a murine enteroendocrine cell line) and in vivo in adult male rats. In vitro, MA blocked the increase in both cytosolic Ca(2+)and GLP-1 release stimulated by FAs and also reduced (but less effectively) the response of STC-1 cells to grifolic acid, a partial agonist of the GPR120 FA receptor. In vivo, MA reduced GLP-1 secretion following olive oil gavage while also increasing glucose and decreasing insulin levels. The carnitine palmatoyltransferase 1 antagonist etomoxir did not alter these responses. Results indicate that MA's actions, including its orexigenic effect, are mediated by GPR40 (and possibly GPR120) receptor antagonism and not by blockade of fat oxidation, as previously believed. Analysis of MA's interaction with GPR40 may facilitate understanding of the multiple functions of this receptor and the manner in which FAs participate in the control of hunger and satiety. PMID:26791830

  19. New functional activity of aripiprazole revealed: Robust antagonism of D2 dopamine receptor-stimulated Gβγ signaling.

    PubMed

    Brust, Tarsis F; Hayes, Michael P; Roman, David L; Watts, Val J

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is generally considered to be a primary target in the treatment of schizophrenia. First generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. haloperidol) are antagonists of the DRD2, while second generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. olanzapine) antagonize DRD2 and 5HT2A receptors. Notably, both these classes of drugs may cause side effects associated with D2 receptor antagonism (e.g. hyperprolactemia and extrapyramidal symptoms). The novel, "third generation" antipsychotic drug, aripiprazole is also used to treat schizophrenia, with the remarkable advantage that its tendency to cause extrapyramidal symptoms is minimal. Aripiprazole is considered a partial agonist of the DRD2, but it also has partial agonist/antagonist activity for other GPCRs. Further, aripiprazole has been reported to have a unique activity profile in functional assays with the DRD2. In the present study the molecular pharmacology of aripiprazole was further examined in HEK cell models stably expressing the DRD2 and specific isoforms of adenylyl cyclase to assess functional responses of Gα and Gβγ subunits. Additional studies examined the activity of aripiprazole in DRD2-mediated heterologous sensitization of adenylyl cyclase and cell-based dynamic mass redistribution (DMR). Aripiprazole displayed a unique functional profile for modulation of G proteins, being a partial agonist for Gαi/o and a robust antagonist for Gβγ signaling. Additionally, aripiprazole was a weak partial agonist for both heterologous sensitization and dynamic mass redistribution. PMID:25449598

  20. Behavioural evidence of agonist-like effect of isoteoline at 5-HT1B serotonergic receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D; Zhelyazkov, Delcho K

    2003-01-01

    Isoteoline is a compound of aporphine structure derived from the alkaloid glaucine. Previous studies with isoteoline have shown antagonistic activity at 5-HT(2C) serotonergic receptors. We have investigated whether isoteoline interacts with 5-HT(1B) receptors. An isolation-induced social behavioural deficit test in mice was used as a model of stimulation of these receptors. The deficit in the behaviour of isolated mice in this experimental procedure was reported to be sensitive to 5-HT(1B)-receptor stimulation, since agonists at these receptors are capable of reversing it. In our study, we used N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) (2 mg kg(-1)) as a reference agonist at these receptor sites. TFMPP completely restored the normal behaviour of the isolated mice. Its effect was prevented by propranolol (4 mg kg(-1)), a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist with a high affinity for 5-HT(1B) receptors, which was inactive by itself. When isoteoline was given before TFMPP, it did not prevent the effect of the latter. Given alone at doses of 0.25, 1, 4 or 8 mg kg(-1), isoteoline showed an effect of its own to normalize the behaviour of isolated mice. The effect of isoteoline (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was antagonized by pretreatment with propranolol, indicating that it was mediated through stimulation of 5-HT(1B) receptors. Repeated treatment with isoteoline (1 mg kg(-1), 2 x 3 days, i.p.) produced tolerance to its effect and significantly attenuated the effect of TFMPP, when animals were tested 16 h after the last injection. In conclusion, the results provided functional evidence of agonist-like activity of isoteoline at the 5-HT(1B) receptors. PMID:12625876

  1. NK1 receptor activation in rat rostral ventrolateral medulla selectively attenuates somato-sympathetic reflex while antagonism attenuates sympathetic chemoreflex.

    PubMed

    Makeham, John M; Goodchild, Ann K; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2005-06-01

    The effects of activation and blockade of the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on arterial blood pressure (ABP), splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (sSNA), phrenic nerve activity, the somato-sympathetic reflex, baroreflex, and chemoreflex were studied in urethane-anesthetized and artificially ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral microinjection of either the stable substance P analog (pGlu5, MePhe8, Sar9)SP(5-11) (DiMe-SP) or the highly selective NK1 agonist [Sar9, Met (O(2))11]SP into the RVLM resulted in an increase in ABP, sSNA, and heart rate and an abolition of phrenic nerve activity. The effects of [Sar9, Met (O(2))11]SP were blocked by the selective nonpeptide NK1 receptor antagonist WIN 51708. NK1 receptor activation also dramatically attenuated the somato-sympathetic reflex elicited by tibial nerve stimulation, while leaving the baroreflex and chemoreflex unaffected. This effect was again blocked by WIN 51708. NK1 receptor antagonism in the RVLM, with WIN 51708 significantly attenuated the sympathoexcitatory response to hypoxia but had no effect on baseline respiratory function. Our findings suggest that substance P and the NK1 receptor play a significant role in the cardiorespiratory reflexes integrated within the RVLM. PMID:15731401

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Nonsteroidal Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Antagonists: Molecular Basis of FXR Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huang; Si, Pei; Wang, Lei; Xu, Yong; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Jin; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Weihua; Chen, Lili; Li, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism. Recently, several studies on the molecular basis of FXR antagonism have been reported. However, none of these studies employs an FXR antagonist with nonsteroidal scaffold. On the basis of our previously reported FXR antagonist with a trisubstituted isoxazole scaffold, a novel nonsteroidal FXR ligand was designed and used as a lead for structural modification. In total, 39 new trisubstituted isoxazole derivatives were designed and synthesized, which led to pharmacological profiles ranging from agonist to antagonist toward FXR. Notably, compound 5s (4'-[(3-{[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-(2-thienyl)isoxazol-4-yl]methoxy}-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid), containing a thienyl-substituted isoxazole ring, displayed the best antagonistic activity against FXR with good cellular potency (IC50 =12.2 ± 0.2 μM). Eventually, this compound was used as a probe in a molecular dynamics simulation assay. Our results allowed us to propose an essential molecular basis for FXR antagonism, which is consistent with a previously reported antagonistic mechanism; furthermore, E467 on H12 was found to be a hot-spot residue and may be important for the future design of nonsteroidal antagonists of FXR. PMID:25982493

  3. GABAA receptor antagonism at the hypoglossal motor nucleus increases genioglossus muscle activity in NREM but not REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Janna L; Sood, Sandeep; Liu, Hattie; Park, Eileen; Nolan, Philip; Horner, Richard L

    2003-04-15

    The pharyngeal muscles, such as the genioglossus (GG) muscle of the tongue, are important for effective lung ventilation since they maintain an open airspace. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, however, recruits powerful neural mechanisms that can abolish GG activity, even during strong reflex respiratory stimulation by elevated CO2. In vitro studies have demonstrated the presence of GABAA receptors on hypoglossal motoneurons, and these and other data have led to the speculation that GABAA mechanisms may contribute to the suppression of hypoglossal motor outflow to the GG muscle in REM sleep. We have developed an animal model that allows us to chronically manipulate neurotransmission at the hypoglossal motor nucleus using microdialysis across natural sleep-wake states in rats. The present study tests the hypothesis that microdialysis perfusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into the hypoglossal motor nucleus will prevent the suppression of GG muscle activity in REM sleep during both room-air and CO2-stimulated breathing. Ten rats were implanted with electroencephalogram and neck muscle electrodes to record sleep-wake states, and GG and diaphragm electrodes for respiratory muscle recording. Microdialysis probes were implanted into the hypoglossal motor nucleus for perfusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) or 100 microM bicuculline during room-air and CO2-stimulated breathing (7 % inspired CO2). GABAA receptor antagonism at the hypoglossal motor nucleus increased respiratory-related GG activity during both room-air (P = 0.01) and CO2-stimulated breathing (P = 0.007), indicating a background inhibitory GABA tone. However, the effects of bicuculline on GG activity depended on the prevailing sleep-wake state (P < 0.005), with bicuculline increasing GG activity in non-REM (NREM) sleep and wakefulness both in room air and hypercapnia (P < 0.01), but GG activity was effectively abolished in those REM periods without phasic twitches in the GG muscle

  4. Thromboxane-A(2)/prostaglandin-H(2) receptors Characterization and antagonism.

    PubMed

    Morinelli, T A; Halushka, P V

    1991-01-01

    Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator whose synthesis is increased in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. TXA(2) receptor antagonists have been used to (a) establish a pathophysiologic role for TXA(2) in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, (b) subtype platelet and vascular receptors, (c) elucidate structural characteristics of the receptor, and (d) aid in its purification. However, much still remains to be learned about the structure and function of TXA(2) receptors. PMID:21239318

  5. Antagonism of Lateral Amygdala Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors Facilitates Fear Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala…

  6. Synergism between a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) antagonist and 5-HT2CR agonist suggests new pharmacotherapeutics for cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kathryn A; Anastasio, Noelle C; Fox, Robert G; Stutz, Sonja J; Bubar, Marcy J; Swinford, Sarah E; Watson, Cheryl S; Gilbertson, Scott R; Rice, Kenner C; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Moeller, F Gerard

    2013-01-16

    Relapse to cocaine dependence, even after extended abstinence, involves a number of liability factors including impulsivity (predisposition toward rapid, unplanned reactions to stimuli without regard to negative consequences) and cue reactivity (sensitivity to cues associated with cocaine-taking which can promote cocaine-seeking). These factors have been mechanistically linked to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling through the 5-HT(2A) receptor (5-HT(2A)R) and 5-HT(2C)R; either a selective 5-HT(2A)R antagonist or a 5-HT(2C)R agonist suppresses impulsivity and cocaine-seeking in preclinical models. We conducted proof-of-concept analyses to evaluate whether a combination of 5-HT(2A)R antagonist plus 5-HT(2C)R agonist would have synergistic effects over these liability factors for relapse as measured in a 1-choice serial reaction time task and cocaine self-administration/reinstatement assay. Combined administration of a dose of the selective 5-HT(2A)R antagonist M100907 plus the 5-HT(2C)R agonist WAY163909, each ineffective alone, synergistically suppressed cocaine-induced hyperactivity, inherent and cocaine-evoked impulsive action, as well as cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. The identification of synergism between a 5-HT(2A)R antagonist plus a 5-HT(2C)R agonist to attenuate these factors important in relapse indicates the promise of a bifunctional ligand as an anti-addiction pharmacotherapeutic, setting the stage to develop new ligands with improved efficacy, potency, selectivity, and in vivo profiles over the individual molecules. PMID:23336050

  7. Dual Allosteric Effect in Glycine/NMDA Receptor Antagonism: A Comparative QSAR Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manish; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative Hansch type QSAR study was conducted using multiple regression analysis on various sets of quinoxalines, quinoxalin-4-ones, quinazoline-2-carboxylates, 4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-ones, 2-carboxytetrahydroquinolines, phenyl-hydroxy-quinolones, nitroquinolones and 4-substituted-3-phenylquinolin-2(1H)-ones as selective glycine/NMDA site antagonists. Ten statistically validated equations were developed, which indicated the importance of CMR, Verloop’s sterimol L1 and ClogP parameters in contributing towards biological activity. Interestingly, normal and inverse parabolic relationships were found with CMR in different series, indicating a dual allosteric binding mode in glycine/NMDA antagonism. Equations reveal an optimum CMR of 10 ± 10% is required for good potency of antagonists. Other equations indicate the presence of anionic functionality at 4-position of quinoline/quinolone ring system is not absolutely required for effective binding. The observations are laterally validated and in accordance with previous studies.

  8. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP

  9. The G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor Gpbar1 (TGR5) suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cong; Su, Jia; Li, Zhijun; Xiao, Rui; Wen, Jianxun; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Xueting; Yu, Donna; Huang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here we show that TGR5 is a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway. We firstly show that TGR5 activation greatly inhibited proliferation and migration of human gastric cancer cells and strongly induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis. We then found that TGR5 activation antagonized STAT3 signaling pathway through suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3 and its transcription activity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-6. TGR5 overexpression with ligand treatment inhibited gene expression mediated by STAT3. It suggests that TGR5 antagonizes gastric cancer proliferation and migration at least in part by inhibiting STAT3 signaling. These findings identify TGR5 as a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for human gastric cancer. PMID:26417930

  10. Histamine H2 receptor antagonism by T-593: studies on cAMP generation in Hepa cells expressing histamine H2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, T; Ono, K; Watanabe, T; Inoie, M; Arai, H; Kimura, S; Kurokawa, K

    1999-07-01

    Histamine H2 receptor antagonism by T-593 was investigated in Hepa cells expressing canine histamine H2 receptors. T-593 inhibited generation of cAMP in Hepa cells stimulated by 10(-5) mol/l histamine with an IC50 value of 2.3 x 10(-6) mol/l, (S)-(-)-T-593, one of the enantiomers comprising racemic T-593, inhibited cAMP generation with an IC50 value of 6.1 x 10(-7) mol/l. On the other hand, the other enantiomer (R)-(+)-T-593 exhibited only a negligible effect. Incubation of the cell with (S)-(-)-T-593 for 60 min depressed the maximal response of the concentration-response curve of histamine with a nonparallel rightward shift. The slope of a Schild plot was 1.27. In contrast, (S)-(-)-T-593 caused a parallel rightward shift of the curve, with a Schild plot slope that did not significantly differ from unity, by treating the cells for 15 min. The H2 receptor-blocking action of (S)-(-)-T-593 remained almost unaffected after washing out the drug, whereas the effect of ranitidine was reversible after washing. These results suggest that T-593 possesses a time-dependent insurmountable antagonistic action against histamine H2 receptor. T-593 may interact with the histamine H2 receptor molecule in a slowly associable and dissociable manner. PMID:10352421

  11. NK1 receptor antagonism lowers occupancy requirement for antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs in the gerbil forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Wallace-Boone, Tanya L; Taber, Matthew T; Newton, Amy E; Pieschl, Rick L; Davis, Carl D; Molski, Thaddeus F; Newberry, Kimberly S; Parker, Michael F; Gillman, Kevin W; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E; Lodge, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    The known interactions between the serotonergic and neurokinin systems suggest that serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) efficacy may be improved by neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonism. In the current studies combination of a subeffective dose of an SSRI (0.3 mg/kg fluoxetine or 0.03 mg/kg citalopram) with a subeffective dose of an NK1R antagonist (0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721) produced efficacy in the gerbil forced swim test (FST). Serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy produced by 1 mg/kg fluoxetine (lowest efficacious dose) was 52 ± 5% and was reduced to 29 ± 4% at 0.3 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious in combination with 0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721; the corresponding NK1R occupancies were 79 ± 4% and 61 ± 4% for aprepitant and CP-122,721, respectively. For citalopram, SERT occupancy at the lowest efficacious dose (0.1 mg/kg) was 50 ± 4% and was reduced to 20 ± 5% at 0.03 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious when combined with aprepitant (0.3 mg/kg). Aprepitant (10 mg/kg) augmented the serotonin elevation produced by fluoxetine (1 or 10 mg/kg) in the gerbil prefrontal cortex; i.e. NK1R antagonism can modulate serotonin responses. A novel orally-available dual-acting NK1R antagonist/SERT inhibitor BMS-795176 is described; gerbil Ki = 1.4 and 1 nM at NK1R and SERT, respectively. BMS-795176 was efficacious in the gerbil FST; efficacy was observed with 35 ± 3% SERT occupancy and 73 ± 3% NK1R occupancy. The interaction between NK1R antagonism and SERT inhibition to lower the SERT occupancy required for antidepressant-like efficacy suggests that BMS-795176 has the potential to improve efficacy with a reduction in SSRI-associated side effects. PMID:23770339

  12. Type 2 Interleukin-4 Receptor Signaling in Neutrophils Antagonizes Their Expansion and Migration during Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Woytschak, Janine; Keller, Nadia; Krieg, Carsten; Impellizzieri, Daniela; Thompson, Robert W; Wynn, Thomas A; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Boyman, Onur

    2016-07-19

    Neutrophils are the first immune cells recruited to sites of inflammation and infection. However, patients with allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis show a paucity of skin neutrophils and are prone to bacterial skin infections, suggesting that allergic inflammation curtails neutrophil responses. Here we have shown that the type 2 cell signature cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) hampers neutrophil expansion and migration by antagonizing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and chemokine receptor-mediated signals. Cutaneous bacterial infection in mice was exacerbated by IL-4 signaling and improved with IL-4 inhibition, each outcome inversely correlating with neutrophil migration to skin. Likewise, systemic bacterial infection was worsened by heightened IL-4 activity, with IL-4 restricting G-CSF-induced neutrophil expansion and migration to tissues by affecting CXCR2-CXCR4 chemokine signaling in neutrophils. These effects were dependent on IL-4 acting through type 2 IL-4 receptors on neutrophils. Thus, targeting IL-4 might be beneficial in neutropenic conditions with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. PMID:27438770

  13. AT1 receptor antagonism before ischemia prevents the transition of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romo, Roxana; Benítez, Kenia; Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Pérez-Villalva, Rosalba; Gómez, Arturo; Aguilar-León, Diana; Rangel-Santiago, Jesús F; Huerta, Sara; Gamba, Gerardo; Uribe, Norma; Bobadilla, Norma A

    2016-02-01

    Despite clinical recovery of patients from an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI), progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is possible on long-term follow-up. However, mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Here, we determine whether activation of angiotensin-II type 1 receptors during AKI triggers maladaptive mechanisms that lead to CKD. Nine months after AKI, male Wistar rats develop CKD characterized by renal dysfunction, proteinuria, renal hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Renal injury was associated with increased oxidative stress, inflammation, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and activation of transforming growth factor β; the latter mainly found in epithelial cells. Although administration of losartan prior to the initial ischemic insult did not prevent or reduce AKI severity, it effectively prevented eventual CKD. Three days after AKI, renal dysfunction, tubular structural injury, and elevation of urinary biomarkers were present. While the losartan group had similar early renal injury, renal perfusion was completely restored as early as day 3 postischemia. Further, there was increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression and an early activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α, a transcription factor that regulates expression of many genes that help reduce renal injury. Thus, AT1 receptor antagonism prior to ischemia prevented AKI to CKD transition by improving early renal blood flow recovery, lesser inflammation, and increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α activity. PMID:26509589

  14. The role of CB1 receptors in sweet versus fat reinforcement: effect of CB1 receptor deletion, CB1 receptor antagonism (SR141716A) and CB1 receptor agonism (CP-55940).

    PubMed

    Ward, S J; Dykstra, L A

    2005-09-01

    It is well established that Cannabis sativa can increase appetite, particularly for sweet and palatable foods. In laboratory animals, cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonism decreases motivation for palatable foods, and most recently, the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, or rimonabant (Acomplia), was reported to produce weight loss in obese human subjects. Indeed, the endocannabinoid system plays a select role in the rewarding properties of palatable foods, and this is well characterized in laboratory animals with sweet sucrose solutions. In the present study, CB1 knockout mice (CB1 KO) and wild-type littermate mice (WT) were trained to respond for a complex sweet as well as a pure fat reinforcer under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, to determine whether motivation to consume different palatable foods is tonically regulated by CB1 receptors. To assess sweet reinforcement, several concentrations of the liquid nutritional drink, Ensure, were presented under the PR schedule. For fat reinforcement, several concentrations of corn oil (emulsified in 3% xanthan gum) were made available. Additionally, to compare the result of genetic invalidation of the CB1 receptor to antagonism of the CB1 receptor system, the effect of SR141716A (3.0 mg/kg) on responding for Ensure and corn oil were also assessed using the PR schedule. We also assessed the effect of the CB1 agonist CP-55940 (30 microg/kg) on responding for Ensure and corn oil. CB1 KOs took significantly longer to acquire operant responding maintained by Ensure, and responding for Ensure under the PR schedule was significantly reduced in CB1 KOs as well as in WTs pretreated with SR141716A, as compared to WT controls. Additionally, pretreatment with the CB1 agonist CP-55940 increased responding for Ensure. In contrast, responding for corn oil during acquisition and under the PR schedule was not significantly different in CB1 KOs versus wild-type mice. However, SR141716A did reduce responding for corn oil in WTs, and CP

  15. NAAG fails to antagonize synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    Losi, G; Vicini, S; Neale, J

    2004-03-01

    The peptide transmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) selectively activates the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Several reports also suggest that this peptide acts as a partial agonist at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors but its putative antagonist effects have not been directly tested. To do this, we used whole cell recordings from cerebellar granule cells (CGC) in culture that allow the highest possible resolution of NMDA channel activation. When CGC were activated with equimolar concentrations of NMDA and NAAG, the peptide failed to alter the peak current elicited by NMDA. Very high concentrations of NAAG (100-200 microM) did not significantly reduce the current elicited by 10 microM NMDA or 0.1 microM glutamate, while 400 microM NAAG produced only a very small (less than 15%) reduction in these whole cell currents. Similarly, NAAG (400 microM) failed to significantly alter the average decay time constant or the peak amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs). We conclude that high concentrations of the peptide do not exert physiologically relevant antagonist actions on synaptic NMDA receptor activation following vesicular release of glutamate. As an agonist, purified NAAG was found to be at least 10,000-fold less potent than glutamate in increasing "background" current via NMDA receptors on CGC. Inasmuch as it is difficult to confirm that NAAG preparations are completely free from contamination with glutamate at the 0.01% level, the peptide itself appears unlikely to have a direct agonist activity at the NMDA receptor subtypes found in CGC. Recent reports indicate that enhancing the activity of endogenous NAAG may be an important therapeutic approach to excitotoxicity and chronic pain perception. These effects are likely mediated by group II mGluRs, not NMDA receptors. PMID:14975672

  16. NMDA receptor subunits and associated signaling molecules mediating antidepressant-related effects of NMDA-GluN2B antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Kiselycznyk, Carly; Jury, Nicholas; Halladay, Lindsay; Nakazawa, Kazu; Mishina, Masayoshi; Sprengel, Rolf; Grant, Seth G.N.; Svenningsson, Per; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drugs targeting the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) may be efficacious for treating mood disorders, as exemplified by the rapid antidepressant effects produced by single administration of the NMDAR antagonist ketamine. Though the precise mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-related effects of NMDAR antagonism remain unclear, recent studies implicate specific NMDAR subunits, including GluN2A and GluN2B, as well as the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit glutamate receptor interacting molecule, PSD-95. Here, integrating mutant and pharmacological in mice, we investigated the contribution of these subunits and molecules to antidepressant-related behaviors and the antidepressant-related effects of the GluN2B blocker, Ro 25-6981. We found that global deletion of GluA1 or PSD-95 reduced forced swim test (FST) immobility, mimicking the antidepressant-related effect produced by systemically administered Ro 25-6981 in C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, the FST antidepressant-like effects of systemic Ro 25-6981 were intact in mutants with global GluA1 deletion or GluN1 deletion in forebrain interneurons, but were absent in mutants constitutively lacking GluN2A or PSD-95. Next, we found that microinfusing Ro 25-6981 into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but not basolateral amygdala, of C57BL/6J mice was sufficient to produce an antidepressant-like effect. Together, these findings extend and refine current understanding of the mechanisms mediating antidepressant-like effects produced by NMDAR-GluN2B antagonists, and may inform the development of a novel class of medications for treating depression that target the GluN2B subtype of NMDAR. PMID:25800971

  17. Using prepulse inhibition to detect functional D3 receptor antagonism: effects of WC10 and WC44.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martin; Chang, Wei-Li; Durbin, John P; Park, Paula E; Luedtke, Robert R; Mach, Robert H; Swerdlow, Neal R

    2009-08-01

    Prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating that is impaired in schizophrenia. Treatment with mixed dopamine D2/D3 antagonists diminishes schizophrenia symptoms, and opposes dopamine agonist-induced PPI deficits in rats. There are reasons to believe that functional D3 receptor antagonists might offer more favorable therapeutic profiles compared to current antipsychotics. However, D3-related drug discovery is hampered by the absence of assays sensitive to D3-mediated (antipsychotic) properties in vivo. Here, we characterized two putative D3-active compounds - WC10 and WC44 - in a PPI-based screening assay, comparing the sensitivity of test compounds to oppose PPI deficits induced by the mixed D1/D2-like agonist apomorphine vs. the preferential D3 agonist pramipexole in rats. WC10, WC44 (0, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, each), and the preferential D2 antagonist L741,626 (0, 1 mg/kg) were studied, in combination with apomorphine (0, 0.5 mg/kg), or pramipexole (0, 1 mg/kg). L741,626 prevented apomorphine-, but not pramipexole-induced PPI deficits. WC10, but not WC44, prevented apomorphine-induced PPI deficits; both compounds opposed pramipexole-induced PPI deficits, suggesting functional D3 and D1/D2 antagonist profiles for WC10, and functional D3 receptor antagonism for WC44. This assay may be valuable for detecting predominantly D3 vs. D2 receptor-linked mechanisms of action in vivo. PMID:19426754

  18. Differential Modulation of Reinforcement Learning by D2 Dopamine and NMDA Glutamate Receptor Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Tilmann A.; Ullsperger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The firing pattern of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons is well known to reflect reward prediction errors (PEs), the difference between obtained and expected rewards. The PE is thought to be a crucial signal for instrumental learning, and interference with DA transmission impairs learning. Phasic increases of DA neuron firing during positive PEs are driven by activation of NMDA receptors, whereas phasic suppression of firing during negative PEs is likely mediated by inputs from the lateral habenula. We aimed to determine the contribution of DA D2-class and NMDA receptors to appetitively and aversively motivated reinforcement learning. Healthy human volunteers were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed an instrumental learning task under the influence of either the DA D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride (400 mg), the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine (20 mg), or placebo. Participants quickly learned to select (“approach”) rewarding and to reject (“avoid”) punishing options. Amisulpride impaired both approach and avoidance learning, while memantine mildly attenuated approach learning but had no effect on avoidance learning. These behavioral effects of the antagonists were paralleled by their modulation of striatal PEs. Amisulpride reduced both appetitive and aversive PEs, while memantine diminished appetitive, but not aversive PEs. These data suggest that striatal D2-class receptors contribute to both approach and avoidance learning by detecting both the phasic DA increases and decreases during appetitive and aversive PEs. NMDA receptors on the contrary appear to be required only for approach learning because phasic DA increases during positive PEs are NMDA dependent, whereas phasic decreases during negative PEs are not. PMID:25253860

  19. Differential modulation of reinforcement learning by D2 dopamine and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Jocham, Gerhard; Klein, Tilmann A; Ullsperger, Markus

    2014-09-24

    The firing pattern of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons is well known to reflect reward prediction errors (PEs), the difference between obtained and expected rewards. The PE is thought to be a crucial signal for instrumental learning, and interference with DA transmission impairs learning. Phasic increases of DA neuron firing during positive PEs are driven by activation of NMDA receptors, whereas phasic suppression of firing during negative PEs is likely mediated by inputs from the lateral habenula. We aimed to determine the contribution of DA D2-class and NMDA receptors to appetitively and aversively motivated reinforcement learning. Healthy human volunteers were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed an instrumental learning task under the influence of either the DA D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride (400 mg), the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine (20 mg), or placebo. Participants quickly learned to select ("approach") rewarding and to reject ("avoid") punishing options. Amisulpride impaired both approach and avoidance learning, while memantine mildly attenuated approach learning but had no effect on avoidance learning. These behavioral effects of the antagonists were paralleled by their modulation of striatal PEs. Amisulpride reduced both appetitive and aversive PEs, while memantine diminished appetitive, but not aversive PEs. These data suggest that striatal D2-class receptors contribute to both approach and avoidance learning by detecting both the phasic DA increases and decreases during appetitive and aversive PEs. NMDA receptors on the contrary appear to be required only for approach learning because phasic DA increases during positive PEs are NMDA dependent, whereas phasic decreases during negative PEs are not. PMID:25253860

  20. Angiotensin and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism attenuates cardiac oxidative stress in angiotensin II-infused rats.

    PubMed

    Minas, Jacqueline N; Thorwald, Max A; Conte, Debra; Vázquez-Medina, Jose-Pablo; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone contribute to hypertension, oxidative stress and cardiovascular damage, but the contributions of aldosterone during Ang II-dependent hypertension are not well defined because of the difficulty to assess each independently. To test the hypothesis that during Ang II infusion, oxidative and nitrosative damage is mediated through both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1), five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: (i) control; (ii) Ang II infused (80 ng/min × 28 days); (iii) Ang II + AT1 receptor blocker (ARB; 10 mg losartan/kg per day × 21 days); (iv) Ang II + mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist (Epl; 100 mg eplerenone/day × 21 days); and (v) Ang II + ARB + Epl (Combo; × 21 days). Both ARB and combination treatments completely alleviated the Ang II-induced hypertension, whereas eplerenone treatment only prolonged the onset of the hypertension. Eplerenone treatment exacerbated the Ang II-mediated increase in plasma and heart aldosterone 2.3- and 1.8-fold, respectively, while ARB treatment reduced both. Chronic MR blockade was sufficient to ameliorate the AT1-mediated increase in oxidative damage. All treatments normalized protein oxidation (nitrotyrosine) levels; however, only ARB and Combo treatments completely reduced lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal) to control levels. Collectively, these data suggest that receptor signalling, and not the elevated arterial blood pressure, is the principal culprit in the oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular damage in Ang II-dependent hypertension. PMID:26234762

  1. Differential contributions of serotonin receptors to the behavioral effects of indoleamine hallucinogens in mice.

    PubMed

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Koedood, Liselore; Powell, Susan B; Geyer, Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Psilocin (4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a hallucinogen that acts as an agonist at 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptors. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin, a hallucinogen that is currently being investigated clinically as a potential therapeutic agent. In the present investigation, we used a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches to identify the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes responsible for mediating the effects of psilocin on head twitch response (HTR) and the behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) in C57BL/6J mice. We also compared the effects of psilocin with those of the putative 5-HT(2C) receptor-selective agonist 1-methylpsilocin and the hallucinogen and non-selective serotonin receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT). Psilocin, 1-methylpsilocin, and 5-MeO-DMT induced the HTR, effects that were absent in mice lacking the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene. When tested in the BPM, psilocin decreased locomotor activity, holepoking, and time spent in the center of the chamber, effects that were blocked by the selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100635 but were not altered by the selective 5-HT(2C) antagonist SB 242,084 or by 5-HT(2A) receptor gene deletion. 5-MeO-DMT produced similar effects when tested in the BPM, and the action of 5-MeO-DMT was significantly attenuated by WAY-100635. Psilocin and 5-MeO-DMT also decreased the linearity of locomotor paths, effects that were mediated by 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(1A) receptors, respectively. In contrast to psilocin and 5-MeO-DMT, 1-methylpsilocin (0.6-9.6 mg/kg) was completely inactive in the BPM. These findings confirm that psilocin acts as an agonist at 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptors in mice, whereas the behavioral effects of 1-methylpsilocin indicate that this compound is acting at 5-HT(2A) sites but is inactive at the 5-HT(1A) receptor. The fact that 1-methylpsilocin displays greater pharmacological selectivity than psilocin indicates that 1-methylpsilocin

  2. Fibroblast and endothelial outgrowth from human Tenon's explants: inhibition of fibroblast growth by 5HT receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, P; Curren, B; Collum, L; Kilfeather, S

    1991-11-01

    Tenon's layer capsule is a major source of fibroplasia associated with post-traumatic wound healing in the external eye and failure of filtration surgery for glaucoma (trabeculectomy). We have investigated the cell types involved in outgrowth from human Tenon's layer explants in culture. Outgrowth from explants maintained in fetal bovine serum (5%) and fibroblast conditioned medium (25%) consisted of endothelial cells exhibiting factor VIII antibody staining and were located to sectioned capillary ends. In media supplemented with human serum (10%), fibroblast outgrowth was observed from the entire perimeter of explants. The mitogenic stimulus of human serum on fibroblasts, monitored by 3H-thymidine uptake, was dose-dependent and accompanied by a 200% increase in inositol phosphate production. 5HT induced a significant increase in fibroblast proliferation and 5HT receptor antagonism with methysergide (20 microM) reduced serum-induced mitogenesis by 30%. These findings support the role of fibroblasts in failure of filtration surgery for glaucoma and suggest a role for 5HT in serum-derived Tenon's fibroplasia. PMID:1811281

  3. Antagonism of histamine H4 receptors exacerbates clinical and pathological signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ballerini, C; Aldinucci, A; Luccarini, I; Galante, A; Manuelli, C; Blandina, P; Katebe, M; Chazot, P L; Masini, E; Passani, M B

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The histamine H4 receptor has a primary role in inflammatory functions, making it an attractive target for the treatment of asthma and refractory inflammation. These observations suggested a facilitating action on autoimmune diseases. Here we have assessed the role of H4 receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Experimental Approach We induced EAE with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35–55) in C57BL/6 female mice as a model of MS. The histamine H4 receptor antagonist 5-chloro-2-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)carbonyl]-1H-indole (JNJ7777120) was injected i.p. daily starting at day 10 post-immunization (D10 p.i.). Disease severity was monitored by clinical and histopathological evaluation of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, anti-MOG35–55 antibody production, assay of T-cell proliferation by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, mononucleate cell phenotype by flow cytometry, cytokine production by elisa assay and transcription factor quantification of mRNA expression. Key Results Treatment with JNJ7777120 exacerbated EAE, increased inflammation and demyelination in the spinal cord of EAE mice and increased IFN-γ expression in lymph nodes, whereas it suppressed IL-4 and IL-10, and augmented expression of the transcription factors Tbet, FOXP3 and IL-17 mRNA in lymphocytes. JNJ7777120 did not affect proliferation of anti-MOG35–55 T-cells, anti-MOG35–55 antibody production or mononucleate cell phenotype. Conclusions and Implications H4 receptor blockade was detrimental in EAE. Given the interest in the development of H4 receptor antagonists as anti-inflammatory compounds, it is important to understand the role of H4 receptors in immune diseases to anticipate clinical benefits and also predict possible detrimental effects. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http

  4. Discriminative stimulus properties of 1.25mg/kg clozapine in rats: Mediation by serotonin 5-HT2 and dopamine D4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Prus, Adam J; Wise, Laura E; Pehrson, Alan L; Philibin, Scott D; Bang-Andersen, Benny; Arnt, Jørn; Porter, Joseph H

    2016-10-01

    The atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine remains one of most effective treatments for schizophrenia, given a lack of extrapyramidal side effects, improvements in negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, and in symptoms in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The adverse effects of clozapine, including agranulocytosis, make finding a safe clozapine-like a drug a goal for drug developers. The drug discrimination paradigm is a model of interoceptive stimulus that has been used in an effort to screen experimental drugs for clozapine-like atypical antipsychotic effects. The present study was conducted to elucidate the receptor-mediated stimulus properties that form this clozapine discriminative cue by testing selective receptor ligands in rats trained to discriminate a 1.25mg/kg dose of clozapine from vehicle in a two choice drug discrimination task. Full substitution occurred with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist M100907 and the two preferential D4/5-HT2/α1 receptor antagonists Lu 37-114 ((S)-1-(3-(2-(4-(1H-indol-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)indolin-1-yl)ethan-1-one) and Lu 37-254 (1-(3-(4-(1H-indol-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one). Partial substitution occurred with the D4 receptor antagonist Lu 38-012 and the α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. Drugs selective for 5-HT2C, 5-HT6 muscarinic, histamine H1, and benzodiazepine receptors did not substitute for clozapine. The present findings suggest that 5-HT2A inverse agonism and D4 receptor antagonism mediate the discriminative stimulus properties of 1.25mg/kg clozapine in rats, and further confirm that clozapine produces a complex compound discriminative stimulus. PMID:27502027

  5. Grape powder attenuates the negative effects of GLP-1 receptor antagonism by exendin-3 (9-39) in a normoglycemic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Haufe, T C; Gilley, A D; Goodrich, K M; Ryan, C M; Smithson, A T; Hulver, M W; Liu, D; Neilson, A P

    2016-06-15

    Prediabetes is a condition affecting 35% of US adults and about 50% of US adults age 65+. Foods rich in polyphenols, including flavanols and other flavonoids, have been studied for their putative beneficial effects on many different health conditions including type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. Studies have shown that some flavanols increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion. GLP-1 is a feeding hormone that increases insulin secretion after carbohydrate consumption, and increased GLP-1 secretion may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects on glycemic control after flavanol consumption. The present study explored the effects of grape powder consumption on metrics of glycemic health in normoglycemic and prediabetic C57BL/6J mice; additionally, the mechanism of action of grape powder polyphenols was investigated. Grape powder significantly reduced (p < 0.01) blood glucose levels following oral glucose gavage after GLP-1 receptor antagonism by exendin-3 (9-39) compared to sugar-matched control, indicating that it was able to attenuate the hyperglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor antagonism. Grape powder was employed in acute (1.6 g grape powder per kg bodyweight) and long-term high fat diet (grape powder incorporated into treatment diets at 5% w/w) feeding studies in normoglycemic and prediabetic (diet-induced obesity) mice; grape powder did not impove glycemic control in these studies versus sugar-matched control. The mechanisms by which grape powder ameliorates the deleterious effects of GLP-1 receptor antagonism warrant further study. PMID:27189193

  6. Pharmacologically targeted NMDA receptor antagonism by NitroMemantine for cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hiroto; Xia, Peng; Cui, Jiankun; Talantova, Maria; Bodhinathan, Karthik; Li, Wenjun; Holland, Emily A.; Tong, Gary; Piña-Crespo, Juan; Zhang, Dongxian; Nakanishi, Nobuki; Larrick, James W.; McKercher, Scott R.; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Wang, Yuqiang; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke and vascular dementia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Neuroprotective therapies have been proposed but none have proven clinically tolerated and effective. While overstimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) is thought to contribute to cerebrovascular insults, the importance of NMDARs in physiological function has made this target, at least in the view of many in ‘Big Pharma,’ ‘undruggable’ for this indication. Here, we describe novel NitroMemantine drugs, comprising an adamantane moiety that binds in the NMDAR-associated ion channel that is used to target a nitro group to redox-mediated regulatory sites on the receptor. The NitroMemantines are both well tolerated and effective against cerebral infarction in rodent models via a dual allosteric mechanism of open-channel block and NO/redox modulation of the receptor. Targeted S-nitrosylation of NMDARs by NitroMemantine is potentiated by hypoxia and thereby directed at ischemic neurons. Allosteric approaches to tune NMDAR activity may hold therapeutic potential for cerebrovascular disorders. PMID:26477507

  7. Antagonism of Neuronal Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Subtype 1 Mitigates Amyloid β Neurotoxicity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianwu; Rose, Shannon; Montine, Kathleen; Keene, C. Dirk; Montine, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that regional brain eicosanoid signaling is important in initiation and progression of neurodegenerative conditions that have a neuroinflammatory pathologic component, such as AD. We hypothesized that PGE2 receptor subtype 1 (EP1) signaling (linked to intracellular Ca2+ release) regulates Aβ peptide neurotoxicity and tested this in two complementary in vitro models: a human neuroblastoma cell line (MC65) producing Aβ1-40 through conditional expression of the APP C-terminal portion, and murine primary cortical neuron cultures exposed to Aβ1-42. In MC65 cells, EP1 receptor antagonist SC-51089 reduced Aβ neurotoxicity ~50% without altering high molecular weight Aβ immunoreactive species formation. Inositol-3-phosphate receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate offered similar protection. SC-51089 largely protected the neuron cultures from synthetic Aβ1-42 neurotoxicity. Nimodipine, a Ca2+ channel blocker, was completely neuroprotective in both models. Based on these data, we conclude that suppressing neuronal EP1 signaling may represent a promising therapeutic approach to ameliorate Aβ peptide neurotoxicity. PMID:22718277

  8. Central V1b receptor antagonism in lactating rats: impairment of maternal care but not of maternal aggression.

    PubMed

    Bayerl, D S; Klampfl, S M; Bosch, O J

    2014-12-01

    Maternal behaviour in rodents is mediated by the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems, amongst others. The role of vasopressin, acting via the V1a receptor (V1aR), on maternal care and maternal aggression has recently been described. However, a potential involvement of the V1b receptor (V1bR) in maternal behaviour has only been demonstrated in knockout mice. The present study aimed to examine the effects of central pharmacological manipulation of the V1bR on maternal behaviour in lactating Wistar rats. On pregnancy day 18, female rats were implanted with a guide cannula targeting the lateral ventricle. After parturition, dams received an acute central infusion of a specific V1bR agonist (d[Leu4,Lys8]VP) or V1bR antagonist (SSR149415) once daily, followed by observations of maternal care [lactation day (LD) 1], maternal motivation in the pup retrieval test (LD 2), anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus-maze (LD 3) and maternal aggression in the maternal defence test followed by maternal care monitoring (LD 4). Our data demonstrate that, under nonstress conditions, the V1bR antagonist decreased the occurrence of both nursing and mother-pup interaction, whereas the V1bR agonist did not affect either parameter. Under stress conditions (i.e. after the maternal defence test), mother-pup interaction was decreased by infusion of the V1bR antagonist. During the maternal defence test, neither treatment affected aggressive or non-aggressive behaviour. Finally, neither treatment altered maternal motivation or anxiety. In conclusion, central V1bR antagonism modulates aspects of maternal care but not of maternal aggression or maternal motivation in lactating rats. These findings further extend our knowledge on the vasopressin system as a vital mediator of maternal behaviour. PMID:25283607

  9. Subgingival Plaque in Periodontal Health Antagonizes at Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Inhibits E-Selectin Expression on Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gümüş, Pinar; Nizam, Nejat; Buduneli, Nurcan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the subgingival microbial community to induce an inappropriate inflammatory response ultimately results in the destruction of bone and gingival tissue. In this study, subgingival plaque samples from both healthy and diseased sites in the same individual were obtained from adults with chronic periodontitis and screened for their ability to either activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4 and to antagonize TLR4-specific activation by agonist, Fusobacterium nucleatum LPS. Subgingival plaque from diseased sites strongly activated TLR4, whereas matched plaque samples obtained from healthy sites were significantly more variable, with some samples displaying strong TLR4 antagonism, while others were strong TLR4 agonists when combined with F. nucleatum LPS. Similar results were observed when TLR4 dependent E-selectin expression by endothelial cells was determined. These results are the first to demonstrate TLR4 antagonism from human plaque samples and demonstrate that healthy but not diseased sites display a wide variation in TLR4 agonist and antagonist behavior. The results have identified a novel characteristic of clinically healthy sites and warrant further study on the contribution of TLR4 antagonism in the progression of a healthy periodontal site to a diseased one. PMID:26483407

  10. Selective antagonism of the GABAA receptor by ciprofloxacin and biphenylacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Green, M A; Halliwell, R F

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ciprofloxacin and biphenylacetic acid (BPAA) synergistically inhibit γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors. In the present study, we have investigated the actions of these two drugs on other neuronal ligand-gated ion channels. Agonist-evoked depolarizations were recorded from rat vagus and optic nerves in vitro by use of an extracellular recording technique. GABA (50 μM)-evoked responses, in the vagus nerve in vitro, were inhibited by bicuculline (0.3–10 μM) and picrotoxin (0.3–10 μM), with IC50 values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.2 μM (1.1–1.4) and 3.6 μM (3.0–4.3), respectively, and were potentiated by sodium pentobarbitone (30 μM) and diazepam (1 μM) to (mean±s.e.mean) 168±18% and 117±4% of control, respectively. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 0.5 μM)-evoked responses were inhibited by MDL 72222 (1 μM) to 10±4% of control; DMPP (10 μM)-evoked responses were inhibited by hexamethonium (100 μM) to 12±5% of control, and αbMeATP (30 μM)-evoked responses were inhibited by PPADS (10 μM) to 21±5% of control. Together, these data are consistent with activation of GABAA, 5-HT3, nicotinic ACh and P2X receptors, respectively. Ciprofloxacin (10–3000 μM) inhibited GABAA-mediated responses in the vagus nerve with an IC50 (and 95% CI) of 202 μM (148–275). BPAA (1–1000 μM) had little or no effect on the GABAA-mediated response but concentration-dependently potentiated the effects of ciprofloxacin by up to 33,000 times. Responses mediated by 5-HT3, nicotinic ACh and P2X receptors in the vagus nerve and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in the optic nerve were little or unaffected by ciprofloxacin (100 μM), BPAA (100 μM) or the combination of these drugs (both at 100 μM). GABA (1 mM)-evoked responses in the optic nerve were inhibited by bicuculline with an IC50 of 3.6 μM (2.8–4.5), a value not significantly different from that determined in the vagus

  11. Selective antagonism of the GABA(A) receptor by ciprofloxacin and biphenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Green, M A; Halliwell, R F

    1997-10-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that ciprofloxacin and biphenylacetic acid (BPAA) synergistically inhibit y-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors. In the present study, we have investigated the actions of these two drugs on other neuronal ligand-gated ion channels. 2. Agonist-evoked depolarizations were recorded from rat vagus and optic nerves in vitro by use of an extracellular recording technique. 3. GABA (50 microM)-evoked responses, in the vagus nerve in vitro, were inhibited by bicuculline (0.3-10 microM) and picrotoxin (0.3-10 microM), with IC50 values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.2 microM (1.1-1.4) and 3.6 microM (3.0-4.3), respectively, and were potentiated by sodium pentobarbitone (30 microM) and diazepam (1 microM) to (mean+/-s.e.mean) 168+/-18% and 117+/-4% of control, respectively. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 0.5 microM)-evoked responses were inhibited by MDL 72222 (1 microM) to 10+/-4% of control; DMPP (10 microM)-evoked responses were inhibited by hexamethonium (100 microM) to 12+/-5% of control, and alphabetaMeATP (30 microM)-evoked responses were inhibited by PPADS (10 microM) to 21+/-5% of control. Together, these data are consistent with activation of GABA(A), 5-HT3, nicotinic ACh and P2X receptors, respectively. 4 Ciprofloxacin (10-3000 microM) inhibited GABA(A)-mediated responses in the vagus nerve with an IC50 (and 95% CI) of 202 microM (148-275). BPAA (1-1000 microM) had little or no effect on the GABA(A)-mediated response but concentration-dependently potentiated the effects of ciprofloxacin by up to 33,000 times. 5. Responses mediated by 5-HT3, nicotinic ACh and P2X receptors in the vagus nerve and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in the optic nerve were little or unaffected by ciprofloxacin (100 microM), BPAA (100 microM) or the combination of these drugs (both at 100 microM). 6. GABA (1 mM)-evoked responses in the optic nerve were inhibited by bicuculline with an IC50 of 3.6 microM (2.8-4.5), a value not significantly different

  12. Corticotropin releasing factor-1 receptor antagonism alters the biochemical, but not behavioral effects of repeated interleukin-1β administration

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Clare J.; Murphy-Crews, Aaron; Menasco, Daniel J.; Huckans, Marilyn S.; Loftis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the immune system via administration of cytokines is used for the treatment of chronic viral infections such as hepatitis C and for cancers resistant to radiotherapy. Cytokine-based treatments induce a range of “sickness” behaviors (e.g. depression, anxiety, pain, anorexia, and fatigue). Activation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis via the induction of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) may underlie these unwanted side effects. This study used repeated systemic injections of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to model the sickness behaviors and biochemical effects of immune system activation. We assessed the ability of CRF type I receptor (CRF1) antagonism to reduce biochemical and behavioral signs of sickness induced by IL-1β treatment. Forty Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups: 1) saline + vehicle; 2) saline + DMP904 (CRF1 antagonist); 3) IL-1β + vehicle; 4) IL-1β + DMP904. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of either DMP904 or vehicle and of IL-1β or saline for six days. Sickness behavior was evaluated using body weight assessments and forced swim testing (FST). Blood and brain samples were collected to measure cytokine, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phospho-p38 MAPK levels using multiplex techniques. There were significant reductions in body weights and FST immobility times associated with IL-1β administration. Rats administered IL-1β had significantly higher serum levels of IL-10, but not interferon-γ. Within the hippocampus, IL-1β reduced levels of p38 MAPK, but had no impact on levels of phospho-p38 MAPK except in the presence of DMP904. When administered alone, DMP904 had no significant effect on p38 MAPK or phospho-p38 MAPK in the hippocampus, but when given with IL-1β led to increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. IL-1β and DMP904 reduced levels of p38 MAPK within the hypothalamus, while co-administration of IL-1β and DMP904 abolished the effects of either drug

  13. Corticotropin releasing factor-1 receptor antagonism alters the biochemical, but not behavioral effects of repeated interleukin-1β administration.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Clare J; Murphy-Crews, Aaron; Menasco, Daniel J; Huckans, Marilyn S; Loftis, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the immune system via administration of cytokines is used for the treatment of chronic viral infections such as hepatitis C and for cancers resistant to radiotherapy. Cytokine-based treatments induce a range of "sickness" behaviors (e.g. depression, anxiety, pain, anorexia, and fatigue). Activation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis via the induction of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) may underlie these unwanted side effects. This study used repeated systemic injections of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to model the sickness behaviors and biochemical effects of immune system activation. We assessed the ability of CRF type I receptor (CRF(1)) antagonism to reduce biochemical and behavioral signs of sickness induced by IL-1β treatment. Forty Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups: 1) saline+vehicle; 2) saline+DMP904 (CRF(1) antagonist); 3) IL-1β+vehicle; 4) IL-1β+DMP904. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of either DMP904 or vehicle and of IL-1β or saline for six days. Sickness behavior was evaluated using body weight assessments and forced swim testing (FST). Blood and brain samples were collected to measure cytokine, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phospho-p38 MAPK levels using multiplex techniques. There were significant reductions in body weights and FST immobility times associated with IL-1β administration. Rats administered IL-1β had significantly higher serum levels of IL-10, but not interferon-γ. Within the hippocampus, IL-1β reduced levels of p38 MAPK, but had no impact on levels of phospho-p38 MAPK except in the presence of DMP904. When administered alone, DMP904 had no significant effect on p38 MAPK or phospho-p38 MAPK in the hippocampus, but when given with IL-1β led to increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. IL-1β and DMP904 reduced levels of p38 MAPK within the hypothalamus, while co-administration of IL-1β and DMP904 abolished the effects of either drug alone

  14. Inflammatory responses of airway smooth muscle cells and effects of endothelin receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Jürgen; Lin, Yingfeng; Konradi, Jürgen; Jungck, David; Behr, Juergen; Strauch, Justus; Stoelben, Erich; Koch, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Endothelin receptor antagonists (ETRAs), authorized for pulmonary hypertension, have failed to prove their utility in chronic lung diseases with corticosteroid-resistant airway inflammation when applied at late disease stages with emphysema/fibrosis. Earlier administration might prove effective by targeting the interaction between airway inflammation and tissue remodeling. We hypothesized that human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) participate in linking inflammation with remodeling and that associated genes become differentially suppressed by ambrisentan (A-receptor selective ETRA) and bosentan (nonselective/dual ETRA). Inflammatory responses of ex vivo-cultivated HASMCs to TNF-α were investigated by whole-genome microarray analyses. qRT-PCR and ELISA were used to test inflammatory and remodeling genes for sensitivity to bosentan and ambrisentan and to investigate differential sensitivities mechanistically. ETRA and corticosteroid effects were compared in HASMCs from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. TNF-α induced the expression of 18 cytokines/chemokines and five tissue remodeling genes involved in severe, corticosteroid-insensitive asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and/or pulmonary hypertension. Thirteen cytokines/chemokines, MMP13, and WISP1 were suppressed by ETRAs. Eight genes had differential sensitivity to bosentan and ambrisentan depending on the endothelin-B receptor impact on transcriptional regulation and mRNA stabilization. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 2 and 5, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and MMP13 had increased sensitivity to bosentan or bosentan/dexamethasone combination versus dexamethasone alone. Suppression of cytokine and remodeling gene expression by ETRAs was confirmed in TNF-α-activated human bronchial epithelial cells. HASMCs and human bronchial epithelial cells participate in the interaction of inflammation and tissue remodeling. This interaction is

  15. Growth hormone receptor antagonism suppresses tumour regrowth after radiotherapy in an endometrial cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Evans, Angharad; Jamieson, Stephen M F; Liu, Dong-Xu; Wilson, William R; Perry, Jo K

    2016-08-28

    Human GH expression is associated with poor survival outcomes for endometrial cancer patients, enhanced oncogenicity of endometrial cancer cells and reduced sensitivity to ionising radiation in vitro, suggesting that GH is a potential target for anticancer therapy. However, whether GH receptor inhibition sensitises to radiotherapy in vivo has not been tested. In the current study, we evaluated whether the GH receptor antagonist, pegvisomant (Pfizer), sensitises to radiotherapy in vivo in an endometrial tumour xenograft model. Subcutaneous administration of pegvisomant (20 or 100 mg/kg/day, s.c.) reduced serum IGF1 levels by 23% and 68%, respectively, compared to vehicle treated controls. RL95-2 xenografts grown in immunodeficient NIH-III mice were treated with vehicle or pegvisomant (100 mg/kg/day), with or without fractionated gamma radiation (10 × 2.5 Gy over 5 days). When combined with radiation, pegvisomant significantly increased the median time tumours took to reach 3× the pre-radiation treatment volume (49 days versus 72 days; p = 0.001). Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated that 100 mg/kg pegvisomant every second day was sufficient to abrogate MAP Kinase signalling throughout the tumour. In addition, treatment with pegvisomant increased hypoxic regions in irradiated tumours, as determined by immunohistochemical detection of pimonidazole adducts, and decreased the area of CD31 labelling in unirradiated tumours, suggesting an anti-vascular effect. Pegvisomant did not affect intratumoral staining for HIF1α, VEGF-A, CD11b, or phospho-EGFR. Our results suggest that blockade of the human GH receptor may improve the response of GH and/or IGF1-responsive endometrial tumours to radiation. PMID:27241667

  16. i-bodies, Human Single Domain Antibodies That Antagonize Chemokine Receptor CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Katherine; Dolezal, Olan; Cao, Benjamin; Nilsson, Susan K; See, Heng B; Pfleger, Kevin D G; Roche, Michael; Gorry, Paul R; Pow, Andrew; Viduka, Katerina; Lim, Kevin; Lu, Bernadine G C; Chang, Denison H C; Murray-Rust, Thomas; Kvansakul, Marc; Perugini, Matthew A; Dogovski, Con; Doerflinger, Marcel; Zhang, Yuan; Parisi, Kathy; Casey, Joanne L; Nuttall, Stewart D; Foley, Michael

    2016-06-10

    CXCR4 is a G protein-coupled receptor with excellent potential as a therapeutic target for a range of clinical conditions, including stem cell mobilization, cancer prognosis and treatment, fibrosis therapy, and HIV infection. We report here the development of a fully human single-domain antibody-like scaffold termed an "i-body," the engineering of which produces an i-body library possessing a long complementarity determining region binding loop, and the isolation and characterization of a panel of i-bodies with activity against human CXCR4. The CXCR4-specific i-bodies show antagonistic activity in a range of in vitro and in vivo assays, including inhibition of HIV infection, cell migration, and leukocyte recruitment but, importantly, not the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells. Epitope mapping of the three CXCR4 i-bodies AM3-114, AM4-272, and AM3-523 revealed binding deep in the binding pocket of the receptor. PMID:27036939

  17. Bradykinin B2, but not B1, receptor antagonism has a neuroprotective effect after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Görlach, C; Hortobágyi, T; Hortobágyi, S; Benyó, Z; Relton, J; Whalley, E T; Wahl, M

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the therapeutic effects of bradykinin antagonists on lesion volume and brain swelling induced by cold injury in the parietal cortex of rat and mouse, respectively. Cold lesion was induced by application of a precooled (-78 degrees C) copper cylinder (3 mm diameter) to the intact dura of rat and mouse for 6 and 30 sec, respectively. At 24 h after the injury, the brains were removed and lesion volume was determined by the triphenyltetrazolium chloride method in rats. In the mouse, brain swelling was expressed as percentage increase in weight of the injured hemisphere which is compared to the contralateral side. After a subcutaneous priming dose of 18 microg/kg, a 1-h pretreatment and 24-h posttreatment using osmotic minipumps (300 ng/kg x min) was applied. Hoe140, a bradykinin receptor 2 antagonist, revealed a 19% reduction of lesion volume (p < 0.05) in the rat and a 14% diminution of brain swelling (p < 0.05) in the mouse. In contrast, the bradykinin receptor 1 antagonist, B 9858, had no effect on lesion volume compared to sham treated rats. When B 9858 was given in combination with Hoe140, a significant reduction in lesion volume was seen which was equivalent to and not different from that seen with Hoe140 alone in the rat. We conclude that brain injury after cold lesion is partially mediated by bradykinin and can be successfully treated with B2 antagonists. PMID:11526989

  18. The role of CD4-Lck in T-cell receptor antagonism: evidence for negative signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Racioppi, L; Matarese, G; D'Oro, U; De Pascale, M; Masci, A M; Fontana, S; Zappacosta, S

    1996-01-01

    Small changes in the complex between a peptide and a molecule of the major histocompatibility complex generate ligands able to partially activate (partial agonist) or even inhibit (antagonist) T-cell functions. T-cell receptor engagement of antagonist complex results in a partial zeta chain phosphorylation without activation of the associated ZAP-70 kinase. Herein we show that, despite a strong inhibition of both inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and extracellular increasing antagonist concentrations increased the activity of the CD4-Lck kinase. Addition of anti-CD4 antibody to culture medium prevented inhibitory effects induced by antagonist ligand. We propose that CD4-Lck activation triggered by antagonist complexes may act in a dominant negative mode, thus overriding stimulatory signals coming from agonist ligand. These findings identify a new T-cell signaling profile that may explain the ability of some T-cell receptor variant ligands to inhibit specific biological activities or trigger alternative activation programs. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8816805

  19. alpha1-noradrenergic receptor antagonism blocks dependence-induced increases in responding for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brendan M; Rasmussen, Dennis D; Raskind, Murray A; Koob, George F

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that blockade of alpha1-adrenergic receptors may suppress the excessive ethanol consumption associated with acute withdrawal in ethanol-dependent rats. Following the acquisition and stabilization of operant ethanol self-administration in male Wistar rats, dependence was induced in half the animals by subjecting them to a 4-week intermittent vapor exposure period in which animals were exposed to ethanol vapor for 14h/day. Subsequent to dependence induction, the effect of alpha1-noradrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0mg/kg IP) was tested on operant responding for ethanol in vapor-exposed and control rats during acute withdrawal. In ethanol-dependent animals, prazosin significantly suppressed responding at the 1.5 and 2.0mg/kg doses, whereas only the 2.0mg/kg dose was effective in nondependent animals, identifying an increase in the sensitivity to prazosin in dependent animals. Conversely, at the lowest dose tested (0.25mg/kg), prazosin increased responding in nondependent animals, which is consistent with the effect of anxiolytics on ethanol self-administration in nondependent animals. None of the doses tested reliably affected concurrent water self-administration. These results suggest the involvement of the noradrenergic system in the excessive alcohol drinking seen during acute withdrawal in ethanol-dependent rats. PMID:18358987

  20. The Androgen Receptor Antagonizes Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Epidermal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Kai; Cottle, Denny L; Schweiger, Pawel J; Watt, Fiona M

    2015-01-01

    Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult mouse epidermis leads to expansion of the stem cell compartment and redirects keratinocytes in the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands (SGs) to differentiate along the hair follicle (HF) lineages. Here we demonstrate that during epidermal development and homeostasis there is reciprocal activation of the androgen receptor (AR) and β-catenin in cells of the HF bulb. AR activation reduced β-catenin-dependent transcription, blocked β-catenin-induced induction of HF growth, and prevented β-catenin-mediated conversion of SGs into HFs. Conversely, AR inhibition enhanced the effects of β-catenin activation, promoting HF proliferation and differentiation, culminating in the formation of benign HF tumors and a complete loss of SG identity. We conclude that AR signaling has a key role in epidermal stem cell fate selection by modulating responses to β-catenin in adult mouse skin. PMID:26121213

  1. Acute NMDA receptor antagonism disrupts synchronization of action potential firing in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Molina, Leonardo A; Skelin, Ivan; Gruber, Aaron J

    2014-01-01

    Antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) have psychotomimetic effects in humans and are used to model schizophrenia in animals. We used high-density electrophysiological recordings to assess the effects of acute systemic injection of an NMDAR antagonist (MK-801) on ensemble neural processing in the medial prefrontal cortex of freely moving rats. Although MK-801 increased neuron firing rates and the amplitude of gamma-frequency oscillations in field potentials, the synchronization of action potential firing decreased and spike trains became more Poisson-like. This disorganization of action potential firing following MK-801 administration is consistent with changes in simulated cortical networks as the functional connections among pyramidal neurons become less clustered. Such loss of functional heterogeneity of the cortical microcircuit may disrupt information processing dependent on spike timing or the activation of discrete cortical neural ensembles, and thereby contribute to hallucinations and other features of psychosis induced by NMDAR antagonists. PMID:24465743

  2. Differential antagonism of tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced seizures by agents acting at NMDA and GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Shakarjian, Michael P.; Velíšková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K.; Velíšek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a highly lethal neuroactive rodenticide responsible for many accidental and intentional poisonings in mainland China. Ease of synthesis, water solubility, potency, and difficulty to treat make TMDT a potential weapon for terrorist activity. We characterized TMDT-induced convulsions and mortality in male C57BL/6 mice. TMDT (ip) produced a continuum of twitches, clonic, and tonic-clonic seizures decreasing in onset latency and increasing in severity with increasing dose; 0.4 mg/kg was 100% lethal. The NMDA antagonist, ketamine (35 mg/kg) injected ip immediately after the first TMDT-induced seizure, did not change number of tonic-clonic seizures or lethality, but increased the number of clonic seizures. Doubling the ketamine dose decreased tonic-clonic seizures and eliminated lethality through a 60 min observation period. Treating mice with another NMDA antagonist, MK-801, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg ip, showed similar effects as low and high doses of ketamine, respectively, and prevented lethality, converting status epilepticus EEG activity to isolated interictal discharges. Treatment with these agents 15 min prior to TMDT administration did not increase their effectiveness. Post-treatment with the GABAA receptor allosteric enhancer diazepam (5 mg/kg) greatly reduced seizure manifestations and prevented lethality 60 min post-TMDT, but ictal events were evident in EEG recordings and, hours post-treatment, mice experienced status epilepticus and died. Thus, TMDT is a highly potent and lethal convulsant for which single-dose benzodiazepine treatment is inadequate in managing electrographic seizures or lethality. Repeated benzodiazepine dosing or combined application of benzodiazepines and NMDA receptor antagonists are more likely to be effective in treating TMDT poisoning. PMID:23022509

  3. Antagonism of mGlu receptors and potentiation of EPSCs at rat spinal motoneurones in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cao, C Q; Tse, H W; Jane, D E; Evans, R H; Headley, P M

    1997-03-01

    The patch-clamp technique has been used to record synaptic responses, elicited by electrical stimulation of dorsal roots, in 28 single motoneurones of in vitro spinal cord preparations from neonate (P5 to P8) rats. The effects of (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) (200 microM), a potent antagonist at L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (AP4)-sensitive receptors, and (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (500 microM), which is a less selective antagonist of mGluRs, were tested on EPSCs alone and as antagonists of AP4-induced depression of EPSCs. The EC50 for depression of EPSCs by AP4 (1.16 +/- 0.12 microM, n = 8) was increased to 18.9 +/- 0.7 microM (n = 6) by MPPG. MCPG (500 microM) had no significant effect on the depressant potency of AP4. Under control conditions, EPSCs had mean peak amplitudes of 983 pA +/- 64 SEM and mean charge transferred of 306 +/- 37 pC (n = 28). These values were increased significantly (p < 0.05) to 1168 +/- 68 pA and 363 +/- 39 pC by MPPG (n = 6), and 1150 +/- 54 pA and 358 +/- 33 pC (n = 6) by MCPG. There was no significant difference between the enhancement of the initial peak of the EPSCs (mean latency from stimulus artifact 5.9 +/- 0.3 ms) and later components, suggesting mGluRs to be present on primary afferent terminals presynaptic to motoneurones as well as in pathways via interneurones. These results are consistent with the presence of at least two types of presynaptic mGluR that modulate release of glutamate in segmental pathways convergent onto motoneurones. These receptors appear to be activated by interstitial glutamate tonically present in the present preparations. PMID:9175609

  4. Pharmacologic antagonism of thromboxane A2 receptors by trimetoquinol analogs in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.; Romstedt, K.J.; Doyle, K.; Harrold, M.W.; Gerhardt, M.A.; Miller, D.D.; Patil, P.N.; Feller, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Although (-)-(S)-trimetoquinol (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)- 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; TMQ) is recognized as a potent bronchodilator, (+)-(R)-TMQ is a selective antagonist of human platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) agonists. To confirm the pharmacological actions of TMQ analogs, the interaction of the drugs with TXA2 receptors was examined in human platelets and in a mouse sudden death model. The inhibitory potencies of TMQ analogs (pIC50 values) for displacement of (3H)SQ 29,548 binding to platelets showed excellent correlation with the respective pIC50 (-log IC50) values for U46619-induced aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and serotonin secretion (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) in human platelet-rich plasma and for whole blood aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01). In each system, the rank order of inhibitory potencies was rac-iodoTMQ greater than or equal to (+)-(R)-TMQ greater than rac-TMQ much greater than (-)-(S)-TMQ. Antithrombotic effects of TMQ analogs were evaluated in a mouse sudden death model. In vivo antithrombotic potencies of these compounds were consistent with the in vitro potencies as TXA2 receptor antagonists in platelet systems. Administration of rac-iodoTMQ, (+)-(R)-TMQ and rac-TMQ 15 min before the injection of U46619 (800 micrograms/kg, iv) protected mice against U46619-induced sudden death. On the other hand, (-)-(S)-TMQ did not protect animals against death. Protection of U46619-induced cardiopulmonary thrombosis by TMQ analogs was seen at doses of 3-100 mg/kg.

  5. CB1 receptor antagonism prevents long-term hyperexcitability after head injury by regulation of dynorphin-KOR system and mGluR5 in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Baotian; Wei, Naili; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Both endocannabinoids and dynorphin are feedback messengers in nervous system that act at the presynaptic nerve terminal to inhibit transmitter release. Many studies showed the cannabinoid-opioid cross-modulation in antinociception, hypothermia, sedation and reward. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of early application of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonism SR141716A after brain injury on dynorphin-κ opioid receptor (KOR) system and the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in a rat model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). Firstly, seizure latency induced by pentylenetetrazole was significantly prolonged 6 weeks after brain injury in group of SR141716A treatment. Then, PCR and western blot showed that SR141716A inhibited the long-term up-regulation of CB1 receptors in hippocampus. However, SR141716A resulted in long-term potentiation of dynorphin release and did not influence the up-regulation of KOR in hippocampus after brain injury. Furthermore, SR141716A reverse the overexpression of mGluR5 in the late stage of brain injury. We propose that during the induction of epileptogenesis after brain injury, early application of CB1 receptor antagonism could prevent long-term hyperexcitability by up-regulation of dynorphin-KOR system and prevention of mGluR5 induced epileptogenesis in hippocampus. PMID:27262683

  6. G2A is a proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor antagonized by lysophosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Naoka; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Okuno, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Takao

    2004-10-01

    G2A (from G2 accumulation) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that regulates the cell cycle, proliferation, oncogenesis, and immunity. G2A shares significant homology with three GPCRs including ovarian cancer GPCR (OGR1/GPR68), GPR4, and T cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8). Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) were reported as ligands for G2A and GPR4 and for OGR1 (SPC only), and a glycosphingolipid psychosine was reported as ligand for TDAG8. As OGR1 and GPR4 were reported as proton-sensing GPCRs (Ludwig, M. G., Vanek, M., Guerini, D., Gasser, J. A., Jones, C. E., Junker, U., Hofstetter, H., Wolf, R. M., and Seuwen, K. (2003) Nature 425, 93-98), we evaluated the proton-sensing function of G2A. Transient expression of G2A caused significant activation of the zif 268 promoter and inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation at pH 7.6, and lowering extracellular pH augmented the activation only in G2A-expressing cells. LPC inhibited the pH-dependent activation of G2A in a dose-dependent manner in these assays. Thus, G2A is another proton-sensing GPCR, and LPC functions as an antagonist, not as an agonist, and regulates the proton-dependent activation of G2A. PMID:15280385

  7. Antagonism of NMDA receptors as a potential treatment for Down syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Boada, R; Hutaff-Lee, C; Schrader, A; Weitzenkamp, D; Benke, T A; Goldson, E J; Costa, A C S

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor uncompetitive antagonist, memantine hydrochloride (memantine), has been shown to improve learning/memory and rescue one form of hippocampus synaptic plasticity dysfunction in the best-studied mouse model of DS available, the Ts65Dn mouse. Given the status of memantine as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) approved by the Food and Drug Administration, the preclinical evidence of potential efficacy in Ts65Dn mice, and the favorable safety profile of memantine, we designed a study to investigate whether the findings in the mouse model could be translated to individuals with DS. In this pilot, proof-of-principle study we hypothesized that memantine therapy would improve test scores of young adults with DS on measures of episodic and spatial memory, which are generally considered to be hippocampus dependent. Accordingly, in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we compared the effect of 16-week treatment with either memantine or placebo on cognitive and adaptive functions of 40 young adults with DS using a carefully selected set of neuropsychological outcome measures. Safety and tolerability were also monitored. Although no significant differences were observed between the memantine and placebo groups on the two primary outcome measures, we found a significant improvement in the memantine group in one of the secondary measures associated with the primary hypothesis. Only infrequent and mild adverse events were noted. PMID:22806212

  8. The Halicylindramides, Farnesoid X Receptor Antagonizing Depsipeptides from a Petrosia sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Dongyup; Kim, Hiyoung; Yang, Inho; Chin, Jungwook; Hwang, Hoosang; Won, Dong Hwan; Lee, Byoungchan; Nam, Sang-Jip; Ekins, Merrick; Choi, Hyukjae; Kang, Heonjoong

    2016-03-25

    Three new structurally related depsipeptides, halicylindramides F-H (1-3), and two known halicylindramides were isolated from a Petrosia sp. marine sponge collected off the shore of Youngdeok-Gun, East Sea, Republic of Korea. Their planar structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analyses including 1D and 2D NMR data as well as MS data. The absolute configurations of halicylindramides F-H (1-3) were determined by Marfey's method in combination with Edman degradation. The absolute configurations at C-4 of the dioxyindolyl alanine (Dioia) residues of halicylindramides G (2) and H (3) were determined as 4S and 4R, respectively, based on ECD spectroscopy. The C-2 configurations of Dioia in 2 and 3 were speculated to both be 2R based on the shared biogenesis of the halicylindramides. Halicylindramides F (1), A (4), and C (5) showed human farnesoid X receptor (hFXR) antagonistic activities, but did not bind directly to hFXR. PMID:26821210

  9. Reduction of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and morbidity in people with chronic kidney disease, but there are few evidence-based treatments for reducing cardiovascular events in these patients. The failure of novel drug candidates to delay progression to end-stage renal disease and limit or abrogate cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has led to increased interest in a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist-based treatment model to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Aldosterone concentrations and MR signalling are associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular injury and the incidence of sudden death, and MR blockade decreases the risk of cardiovascular events and sudden death in patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate. Since evidence from clinical trials shows that treatment with MR antagonists confers a morbidity and mortality advantage for patients with cardiovascular disorders, similar benefits might also accrue in patients with chronic kidney disease. Large prospective trials are urgently needed to answer this question. In this Review, I argue that despite differences in the pathophysiology and clinical features of cardiovascular disease in patients with and without chronic kidney disease, MR antagonists could provide cardiovascular benefit in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:26429402

  10. Antagonism of chemokine receptor CXCR3 inhibits osteosarcoma metastasis to lungs.

    PubMed

    Pradelli, Emmanuelle; Karimdjee-Soilihi, Babou; Michiels, Jean-François; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Millet, Marie-Ange; Vandenbos, Fanny; Sullivan, Timothy J; Collins, Tassie L; Johnson, Michael G; Medina, Julio C; Kleinerman, Eugenie S; Schmid-Alliana, Annie; Schmid-Antomarchi, Heidy

    2009-12-01

    Metastasis continues to be the leading cause of mortality for patients with cancer. Several years ago, it became clear that chemokines and their receptors could control the tumor progress. CXCR3 has now been identified in many cancers including osteosarcoma and CXCR3 ligands were expressed by lungs that are the primary sites to which this tumor metastasize. This study tested the hypothesis that disruption of the CXCR3/CXCR3 ligands complexes could lead to a decrease in lungs metastasis. The experimental design involved the use of the CXCR3 antagonist, AMG487 and 2 murine models of osteosarcoma lung metastases. After tail vein injection of osteosarcoma cells, mice that were systematically treated with AMG487 according to preventive or curative protocols had a significant reduction in metastatic disease. Treatment of osteosarcoma cells in vitro with AMG487 led to decreased migration, decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity, decreased proliferation/survival and increased caspase-independent death. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that CXCR3 and their ligands intervene in the initial dissemination of the osteosarcoma cells to the lungs and stimulate the growth and expansion of the metastatic foci in later stages. Moreover, these studies indicate that targeting CXCR3 may specifically inhibit tumor metastasis without adversely affecting antitumoral host response. PMID:19544560

  11. Antagonism of chemokine receptor CXCR3 inhibits osteosarcoma metastasis to lungs

    PubMed Central

    Pradelli, Emmanuelle; Karimdjee-Soilihi, Babou; Michiels, Jean-François; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Millet, Marie-Ange; Vandenbos, Fanny; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Collins, Tassie L.; Johnson, Michael G.; Medina, Julio C.; Kleinerman, Eugenie S.; Schmid-Alliana, Annie; Schmid-Antomarchi, Heidy

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis continues to be the leading cause of mortality for patients with cancer. Several years ago, it became clear that chemokines and their receptors could control the tumor progress. CXCR3 has now been identified in many cancers including osteosarcoma and CXCR3 ligands were expressed by lungs that are the primary sites to which this tumor metastasize. This study tested the hypothesis that disruption of the CXCR3/CXCR3 ligands complexes could lead to a decrease in lungs metastasis. The experimental design involved the use of the CXCR3 antagonist, AMG487 and 2 murine models of osteosarcoma lung metastases. After tail vein injection of osteosarcoma cells, mice that were systematically treated with AMG487 according to preventive or curative protocols had a significant reduction in metastatic disease. Treatment of osteosarcoma cells in vitro with AMG487 led to decreased migration, decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity, decreased proliferation/survival and increased caspase-independent death. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that CXCR3 and their ligands intervene in the initial dissemination of the osteosarcoma cells to the lungs and stimulate the growth and expansion of the metastatic foci in later stages. Moreover, these studies indicate that targeting CXCR3 may specifically inhibit tumor metastasis without adversely affecting antitumoral host response. PMID:19544560

  12. Plasma Pro‐Endothelin‐1 Peptide Concentrations Rise in Chronic Kidney Disease and Following Selective Endothelin A Receptor Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Dhaun, Neeraj; Yuzugulen, Jale; Kimmitt, Robert A.; Wood, Elizabeth G.; Chariyavilaskul, Pajaree; MacIntyre, Iain M.; Goddard, Jane; Webb, David J.; Corder, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background Endothelin 1 (ET‐1) contributes to chronic kidney disease (CKD) development and progression, and endothelin receptor antagonists are being investigated as a novel therapy for CKD. The proET‐1 peptides, endothelin‐like domain peptide (ELDP) and C‐terminal pro‐ET‐1 (CT‐proET‐1), are both potential biomarkers of CKD and response to therapy with endothelin antagonists. Methods and Results We assessed plasma and urine ELDP and plasma CT‐proET‐1 in CKD patients with minimal comorbidity. Next, in a randomized double‐blind crossover study of 27 subjects with proteinuric CKD, we examined the effects of 6 weeks of treatment with placebo, sitaxentan (endothelin A antagonist), and nifedipine on these peptides alongside the primary end points of proteinuria, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness. Plasma ELDP and CT‐proET‐1 increased with CKD stage (both P<0.0001), correlating inversely with estimated glomerular filtration rate (both P<0.0001). Following intervention, placebo and nifedipine did not affect plasma and urine ELDP or plasma CT‐proET‐1. Sitaxentan increased both plasma ELDP and CT‐proET‐1 (baseline versus week 6±SEM: ELDP, 11.8±0.5 versus 13.4±0.6 fmol/mL; CT‐proET‐1, 20.5±1.2 versus 23.3±1.5 fmol/mL; both P<0.0001). Plasma ET‐1 was unaffected by any treatment. Following sitaxentan, plasma ELDP and CT‐proET‐1 correlated negatively with 24‐hour urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions ELDP and CT‐proET‐1 increase in CKD and thus are potentially useful biomarkers of renal injury. Increases in response to endothelin A antagonism may reflect EDN1 upregulation, which may partly explain fluid retention with these agents. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.clinicalTrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT00810732 PMID:25801761

  13. The therapeutic promise of ATP antagonism at P2X3 receptors in respiratory and urological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Anthony P.; Undem, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    A sensory role for ATP was proposed long before general acceptance of its extracellular role. ATP activates and sensitizes signal transmission at multiple sites along the sensory axis, across multiple synapses. P2X and P2Y receptors mediate ATP modulation of sensory pathways and participate in dysregulation, where ATP action directly on primary afferent neurons (PANs), linking receptive field to CNS, has received much attention. Many PANs, especially C-fibers, are activated by ATP, via P2X3-containing trimers. P2X3 knock-out mice and knock-down in rats led to reduced nocifensive activity and visceral reflexes, suggesting that antagonism may offer benefit in sensory disorders. Recently, drug-like P2X3 antagonists, active in a many inflammatory and visceral pain models, have emerged. Significantly, these compounds have no overt CNS action and are inactive versus acute nociception. Selectively targeting ATP sensitization of PANs may lead to therapies that block inappropriate chronic signals at their source, decreasing drivers of peripheral and central wind-up, yet leaving defensive nociceptive and brain functions unperturbed. This article reviews this evidence, focusing on how ATP sensitization of PANs in visceral “hollow” organs primes them to chronic discomfort, irritation and pain (symptoms) as well as exacerbated autonomic reflexes (signs), and how the use of isolated organ-nerve preparations has revealed this mechanism. Urinary and airways systems share many features: dependence on continuous afferent traffic to brainstem centers to coordinate efferent autonomic outflow; loss of descending inhibitory influence in functional and sensory disorders; dependence on ATP in mediating sensory responses to diverse mechanical and chemical stimuli; a mechanistically overlapping array of existing medicines for pathological conditions. These similarities may also play out in terms of future treatment of signs and symptoms, in the potential for benefit of P2X3 antagonists

  14. The therapeutic promise of ATP antagonism at P2X3 receptors in respiratory and urological disorders.

    PubMed

    Ford, Anthony P; Undem, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    A sensory role for ATP was proposed long before general acceptance of its extracellular role. ATP activates and sensitizes signal transmission at multiple sites along the sensory axis, across multiple synapses. P2X and P2Y receptors mediate ATP modulation of sensory pathways and participate in dysregulation, where ATP action directly on primary afferent neurons (PANs), linking receptive field to CNS, has received much attention. Many PANs, especially C-fibers, are activated by ATP, via P2X3-containing trimers. P2X3 knock-out mice and knock-down in rats led to reduced nocifensive activity and visceral reflexes, suggesting that antagonism may offer benefit in sensory disorders. Recently, drug-like P2X3 antagonists, active in a many inflammatory and visceral pain models, have emerged. Significantly, these compounds have no overt CNS action and are inactive versus acute nociception. Selectively targeting ATP sensitization of PANs may lead to therapies that block inappropriate chronic signals at their source, decreasing drivers of peripheral and central wind-up, yet leaving defensive nociceptive and brain functions unperturbed. This article reviews this evidence, focusing on how ATP sensitization of PANs in visceral "hollow" organs primes them to chronic discomfort, irritation and pain (symptoms) as well as exacerbated autonomic reflexes (signs), and how the use of isolated organ-nerve preparations has revealed this mechanism. Urinary and airways systems share many features: dependence on continuous afferent traffic to brainstem centers to coordinate efferent autonomic outflow; loss of descending inhibitory influence in functional and sensory disorders; dependence on ATP in mediating sensory responses to diverse mechanical and chemical stimuli; a mechanistically overlapping array of existing medicines for pathological conditions. These similarities may also play out in terms of future treatment of signs and symptoms, in the potential for benefit of P2X3 antagonists

  15. The fast-off hypothesis revisited: A functional kinetic study of antipsychotic antagonism of the dopamine D2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Sahlholm, Kristoffer; Zeberg, Hugo; Nilsson, Johanna; Ögren, Sven Ove; Fuxe, Kjell; Århem, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Newer, "atypical" antipsychotics carry a lower risk of motor side-effects than older, "typical" compounds. It has been proposed that a ~100-fold faster dissociation from the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) distinguishes atypical from typical antipsychotics. Furthermore, differing antipsychotic D2R affinities have been suggested to reflect differences in dissociation rate constants (koff), while association rate constants (kon) were assumed to be similar. However, it was recently demonstrated that lipophilic accumulation of ligand in the cell interior and/or membrane can cause underestimation of koff, and as high-affinity D2R antagonists are frequently lipophilic, this may have been a confounding factor in previous studies. In the present work, a functional electrophysiology assay was used to measure the recovery of dopamine-mediated D2R responsivity from antipsychotic antagonism, using elevated concentrations of dopamine to prevent the potential bias of re-binding of lipophilic ligands. The variability of antipsychotic kon was also reexamined, capitalizing on the temporal resolution of the assay. kon was estimated from the experimental recordings using a simple mathematical model assumed to describe the binding process. The time course of recovery from haloperidol (typical antipsychotic) was only 6.4- to 2.5-fold slower than that of the atypical antipsychotics, amisulpride, clozapine, and quetiapine, while antipsychotic kons were found to vary more widely than previously suggested. Finally, affinities calculated using our kon and koff estimates correlated well with functional potency and with affinities reported from radioligand binding studies. In light of these findings, it appears unlikely that typical and atypical antipsychotics are primarily distinguished by their D2R binding kinetics. PMID:26811292

  16. Effects of bradykinin B2 receptor antagonism on the hypotensive effects of ACE inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, H; Joulin, Y; Safar, M; Benetos, A

    1994-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine the participation of endogenous bradykinin (BK) in the antihypertensive effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), perindoprilat, in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) on different salt diets. 2. Conscious SHRs receiving either a low or a high NaCl diet were used in order to evaluate the respective roles of angiotensin II suppression and bradykinin stimulation in the acute hypotensive effects of perindoprilat. Two different B2 receptor antagonists (B 4146 and Hoe 140) were used after bolus administration of 7 mg kg-1 of the ACEI, perindoprilat. In separate animals, Hoe 140 was administered before the injection of perindoprilat. In other experiments, the effects of Hoe 140 on the hypotensive effects of the calcium antagonist, nicardipine, were tested. 3. The different NaCl diets had no effect on baseline blood pressure. Hoe 140 injection before ACE inhibition did not modify blood pressure. Perindoprilat caused more marked hypotension in the low salt-fed rats than in the high salt animals (P < 0.01). Administration of Hoe 140 or B4146 after perindoprilat significantly reduced the antihypertensive effects of perindoprilat in the different groups, but this effect was more pronounced in high salt-fed rats. However, in SHRs receiving Hoe 140 before perindoprilat, the antihypertensive effect of perindoprilat was completely abolished in both high or low salt diet rats. In separate experiments we confirmed that Hoe 140 did not affect the hypotensive efficacy of the calcium antagonist, nicardipine. 4. Our study shows that inhibition of endogenous bradykinin degradation participates in the acute antihypertensive effects of perindoprilat in SHRs. The role of bradykinin is more pronounced following exposure to a high salt diet i.e., when the renin-angiotensin system is suppressed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858859

  17. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/intermediate levels of SERT occupancy, vortioxetine affected rapid eye movement (REM) sleep differently than paroxetine. Here we investigated clinically meaningful doses (80–90% SERT occupancy) of vortioxetine and paroxetine on sleep-EEG in rats to further elucidate the serotoninergic receptor mechanisms mediating this difference. Cortical EEG, electromyography (EMG), and locomotion were recorded telemetrically for 10 days, following an acute dose, from rats receiving vortioxetine-infused chow or paroxetine-infused water and respective controls. Sleep stages were manually scored into active wake, quiet wake, and non-REM or REM sleep. Acute paroxetine or vortioxetine delayed REM onset latency (ROL) and decreased REM episodes. After repeated administration, vortioxetine yielded normal sleep-wake rhythms while paroxetine continued to suppress REM. Paroxetine, unlike vortioxetine, increased transitions from non-REM to wake, suggesting fragmented sleep. Next, we investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptors in eliciting these differences. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron significantly reduced paroxetine’s acute effects on ROL, while the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A significantly increased vortioxetine’s acute effect on ROL. Overall, our data are consistent with the clinical findings that vortioxetine impacts REM sleep differently than paroxetine, and suggests a role for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism in mitigating these differences. PMID:26174134

  18. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-10-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/intermediate levels of SERT occupancy, vortioxetine affected rapid eye movement (REM) sleep differently than paroxetine. Here we investigated clinically meaningful doses (80-90% SERT occupancy) of vortioxetine and paroxetine on sleep-EEG in rats to further elucidate the serotoninergic receptor mechanisms mediating this difference. Cortical EEG, electromyography (EMG), and locomotion were recorded telemetrically for 10 days, following an acute dose, from rats receiving vortioxetine-infused chow or paroxetine-infused water and respective controls. Sleep stages were manually scored into active wake, quiet wake, and non-REM or REM sleep. Acute paroxetine or vortioxetine delayed REM onset latency (ROL) and decreased REM episodes. After repeated administration, vortioxetine yielded normal sleep-wake rhythms while paroxetine continued to suppress REM. Paroxetine, unlike vortioxetine, increased transitions from non-REM to wake, suggesting fragmented sleep. Next, we investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptors in eliciting these differences. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron significantly reduced paroxetine's acute effects on ROL, while the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A significantly increased vortioxetine's acute effect on ROL. Overall, our data are consistent with the clinical findings that vortioxetine impacts REM sleep differently than paroxetine, and suggests a role for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism in mitigating these differences. PMID:26174134

  19. Combined mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and interleukin-1 receptor antagonism after partial hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jian-Feng; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Han, Bing; Huang, Xu; Huang, Tao; Ren, Hao-Zhen; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in acute liver failure. METHODS: Chinese experimental miniature swine (15 ± 3 kg, 5-8 mo) were obtained from the Laboratory Animal Centre of the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School. Acute liver failure was induced via 85% hepatectomy, and animals were treated by MSC transplantation combined with IL-1Ra injection. Blood samples were collected for hepatic function analysis, and the living conditions and survival time were recorded. Liver injury was histologically analyzed. Hepatic cell regeneration and apoptosis were studied by Ki67 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. The levels of protein kinase B and nuclear factor-κB expression were analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: MSCs were infected with a lentivirus for expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) for subsequent identification; 97.3% of the MSCs were positive for GFP as assessed by flow cytometry. Additional flow cytometric analysis of cell surface marker expression demonstrated that > 90% of GFP-expressing MSCs were also positive for CD29, CD44, and CD90, indicating that most of these cells expressed typical markers of MSCs, and the population of MSCs was almost pure. Transplantation of MSCs in combination with 2 mg/kg IL-1Ra therapy significantly improved survival time compared to the acute liver failure model group (35.3 ± 6.7 d vs 17.3 ± 5.5 d, P < 0.05). Combined therapy also promoted improvement in serum inflammatory cytokines and biochemical conditions. The observed hepatic histopathologic score was significantly lower in the group with combined therapy than in the model group (3.50 ± 0.87 vs 8.17 ± 1.26, P < 0.01). In addition, liver cell apoptosis in the combined therapy group was significantly inhibited (18.1 ± 2.1% vs 70.8 ± 3.7%, P < 0.01), and hepatic cell regeneration

  20. Endothelin receptor antagonism: role in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension related to scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Kabunga, Peter; Coghlan, Gerry

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease, which is associated with a 1-year survival of about 50% without specific treatment. Pulmonary vascular remodelling, thrombosis and vasoconstriction are thought to be directly involved in increasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), which, left untreated, ultimately leads to right ventricular failure and death. A total of 10-12% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) develop PAH, which is a leading cause of mortality in these patients. Targeted treatment regimens involving oral therapies, in particular endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), such as bosentan, sitaxsentan (sitaxentan) and ambrisentan, are now being used and this approach has improved symptoms as well as survival. 1-Year survival has improved to about 80%, while 3-year survival in advanced SSc-PAH has improved from 44% to 65% since the introduction of ERAs. Subanalysis of BREATHE-1, a pilot study and the STRIDE-2X randomized controlled trials has reported improvements in time to clinical worsening, 6-minute walk distance (6mwd) and right heart haemodynamics in SSc-PAH patients given bosentan and sitaxsentan, respectively, compared with placebo. The ARIES studies have also demonstrated a delay in the time to clinical worsening and improvement in 6mwd in connective tissue associated-PAH patients given ambrisentan compared with placebo. Unfortunately, these drugs are expensive and also have the potential for adverse interactions with other PAH and supportive therapies. Mandatory monthly liver function tests are required for safe administration of bosentan, ambrisentan and sitaxsentan, while dose adjustment of warfarin and careful monitoring are required when sitaxsentan is initiated. Earlier diagnosis and treatment of PAH may further improve outcomes with current ERAs. WHO functional class (FC) has traditionally been used to determine which patients with PAH will start therapy. The EARLY study has reported significant reductions in PVR

  1. Antagonism of Metabotropic Glutamate 1 Receptors Attenuates Behavioral Effects of Cocaine and Methamphetamine in Squirrel Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Donna M.; Spealman, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Within the group I family of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), substantial evidence points to a role for mGluR5 mechanisms in cocaine's abuse-related behavioral effects, but less is understood about the contribution of mGluR1, which also belongs to the group I mGluR family. The selective mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 [(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano-[2,3-b]quinolin-7-yl)-(cis-4-methoxycyclohexyl)-methanone] was used to investigate the role of mGluR1 in the behavioral effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. In drug discrimination experiments, squirrel monkeys were trained to discriminate cocaine from saline by using a two-lever, food-reinforced operant procedure. JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg) pretreatments significantly attenuated cocaine's discriminative stimulus effects and the cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine or methamphetamine under a second-order schedule of intravenous drug injection, JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg) significantly reduced drug-reinforced responding, resulting in a downward displacement of dose-response functions. In reinstatement studies, intravenous priming with cocaine accompanied by restoration of a cocaine-paired stimulus reinstated extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior, which was significantly attenuated by JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg). Finally, in experiments involving food rather than drug self-administration, cocaine and methamphetamine increased the rate of responding, and the rate-increasing effects of both psychostimulants were significantly attenuated by JNJ16259685 (0.3 mg/kg). At the doses tested, JNJ16259685 did not significantly suppress food-reinforced behavior (drug discrimination or fixed-interval schedule of food delivery), but did significantly reduce species-typical locomotor activity in observational studies. To the extent that the psychostimulant-antagonist effects of JNJ16259685 are independent of motor function suppression, further research is warranted to

  2. Antagonism of metabotropic glutamate 1 receptors attenuates behavioral effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Achat-Mendes, Cindy; Platt, Donna M; Spealman, Roger D

    2012-10-01

    Within the group I family of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), substantial evidence points to a role for mGluR5 mechanisms in cocaine's abuse-related behavioral effects, but less is understood about the contribution of mGluR1, which also belongs to the group I mGluR family. The selective mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 [(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrano-[2,3-b]quinolin-7-yl)-(cis-4-methoxycyclohexyl)-methanone] was used to investigate the role of mGluR1 in the behavioral effects of cocaine and methamphetamine. In drug discrimination experiments, squirrel monkeys were trained to discriminate cocaine from saline by using a two-lever, food-reinforced operant procedure. JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg) pretreatments significantly attenuated cocaine's discriminative stimulus effects and the cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine or methamphetamine under a second-order schedule of intravenous drug injection, JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg) significantly reduced drug-reinforced responding, resulting in a downward displacement of dose-response functions. In reinstatement studies, intravenous priming with cocaine accompanied by restoration of a cocaine-paired stimulus reinstated extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior, which was significantly attenuated by JNJ16259685 (0.56 mg/kg). Finally, in experiments involving food rather than drug self-administration, cocaine and methamphetamine increased the rate of responding, and the rate-increasing effects of both psychostimulants were significantly attenuated by JNJ16259685 (0.3 mg/kg). At the doses tested, JNJ16259685 did not significantly suppress food-reinforced behavior (drug discrimination or fixed-interval schedule of food delivery), but did significantly reduce species-typical locomotor activity in observational studies. To the extent that the psychostimulant-antagonist effects of JNJ16259685 are independent of motor function suppression, further research is warranted to

  3. Preclinical evaluation of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonism for the treatment of obesity and depression.

    PubMed

    Gehlert, Donald R; Rasmussen, Kurt; Shaw, Janice; Li, Xia; Ardayfio, Paul; Craft, Libbey; Coskun, Tamer; Zhang, Hong Y; Chen, Yanyun; Witkin, Jeffrey M

    2009-05-01

    The mammalian neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone, interacts with two G protein-coupled receptors, melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCHR) 1 and MCHR2; however, only MCHR1 is expressed in rats and mice. In the present study, we evaluated MCHR1 antagonism in preclinical models believed to be predictive of antiobesity and antidepressant activity. Central activity of the selective MCHR1 antagonist, GW803430 [6-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-[3-methoxy-4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-3H-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one], was evaluated using ex vivo binding with autoradiography. Effective doses of GW803430 (1 and 3 mg/kg p.o.) were correlated with antiobesity activity in a 14-day study of diet-induced obese rats. GW803430 was evaluated subsequently for antidepressant-like effects in mice and rats. Acute and subchronic administration reduced immobility time in the mouse forced-swim test at doses of 3 (acute) and 3 and 10 (chronic) mg/kg p.o., an effect that was absent in MCHR1(-/-) mice. Combined subeffective doses of GW803430 (0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o.) and imipramine (5 mg/kg) produced a robust antidepressant-like response. The compound was also active in the tail suspension test at a dose of 10 mg/kg p.o. GW803430 (30 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced submissive behaviors at weeks 2 and 3, a model of submissive behavior that may predict antidepressant onset. GW803430 decreased marble burying in mice at doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg p.o., an assay that detects anxiolytic-like effects. Thus, GW803430 produces robust antiobesity and antidepressant-like effects in rats and mice at doses that compete for central MCHR1 in vivo. As such, MCHR1 should be considered as a promising target for future drug discovery efforts. PMID:19182070

  4. The Serotonin 2C Receptor Agonist Lorcaserin Attenuates Intracranial Self-Stimulation and Blocks the Reward-Enhancing Effects of Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Fiona D; Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    Lorcaserin, a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 2C receptor agonist, was recently approved for the treatment of obesity. We previously suggested that 5-HT2C receptor agonists affect reward processes and reduce the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Here, we determined whether lorcaserin (1) decreases responding for brain stimulation reward (BSR) and (2) prevents nicotine from enhancing the efficacy of BSR. Rats were trained on the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm to nosepoke for BSR of either the dorsal raphé nucleus or left medial forebrain bundle. In Experiment 1, lorcaserin (0.3-1.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the efficacy of BSR. This effect was blocked by prior administration of the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084. In Experiment 2, separate groups of rats received saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) for eight sessions prior to testing. Although thresholds were unaltered in saline-treated rats, nicotine reduced reward thresholds. An injection of lorcaserin (0.3 mg/kg) prior to nicotine prevented the reward-enhancing effect of nicotine across multiple test sessions. These results demonstrated that lorcaserin reduces the rewarding value of BSR and also prevents nicotine from facilitating ICSS. Hence, lorcaserin may be effective in treating psychiatric disorders, including obesity and nicotine addiction, by reducing the value of food or drug rewards. PMID:25781911

  5. The G-Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1 (TGR5) Inhibits Gastric Inflammation Through Antagonizing NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cong; Qi, Hui; Yu, Yingjie; Zhang, Qiqi; Su, Jia; Yu, Donna; Huang, Wendong; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well-known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here, we show that mice lacking TGR5 were much more susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute gastric inflammation than wild-type (WT) mice and TGR5 is a negative regulator of gastric inflammation through antagonizing NF-κB signaling pathway. We found that the treatment of TGR5 ligands 23(S)-mCDCA and GPBARA (3-(2-Chlorophenyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dimethylisoxazole-4-carboxamide) suppressed gene and protein expression mediated by NF-κB signaling. TGR5 overexpression with ligand treatment inhibited gene expression of interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), TNF-α, and chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) induced by LPS. Furthermore, we revealed that TGR5 activation antagonized NF-κB signaling pathway through suppressing its transcription activity, the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 translocation, which suggests that TGR5 antagonizes gastric inflammation at least in part by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. These findings identify TGR5 as a negative mediator of gastric inflammation that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for human gastric inflammation and cancer. PMID:26696888

  6. Establishment of the model of white blood cell membrane chromatography and screening of antagonizing TLR4 receptor component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiqin; He, Langchong

    2006-04-01

    A model of white blood cell membrane chromatography (WB-CMC) was established to screen active component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. The component can antagonize Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inhibit inflammatory reaction. In the model of WB-CMC, cell membrane stationary phase (CMSP) was prepared by immobilizing the rabbit white blood cell membrane (WBCM) onto the surface of silica carrier and taxinol was used as a model molecule. The active component which can act on WBCM and its receptor (such as TLR4) as an effective target in A. macrocephala was determined by using a replacement experiment. The anti-inflammatory effects of the active component were tested by using pharmacological methods in vivo. The results indicated that the retention characteristics of atractylenolide I as active component was similar to that of taxinol in the model of WB-CMC. And so, atractylenolide I acted on the WBCM and TLR4 and its anti-inflammatory activity was related with antagonizing TLR4. Therefore, the interaction between the active component and WBCM and its receptor can be simulated by the model of WB-CMC in vitro. This model can be used to screen active components and to study effective characteristics for acting on definite targets. PMID:16704122

  7. Behavioral Effects of γ-Hydroxybutyrate, Its Precursor γ-Butyrolactone, and GABAB Receptor Agonists: Time Course and Differential Antagonism by the GABAB Receptor Antagonist 3-Aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic Acid (CGP35348)

    PubMed Central

    Koek, Wouter; Mercer, Susan L.; Coop, Andrew; France, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is used therapeutically and recreationally. The mechanism by which GHB produces its therapeutic and recreational effects is not entirely clear, although GABAB receptors seem to play an important role. This role could be complex, because there are indications that different GABAB receptor mechanisms mediate the effects of GHB and the prototypical GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. To further explore possible differences in underlying GABAB receptor mechanisms, the present study examined the effects of GHB and baclofen on operant responding and their antagonism by the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348). Pigeons were trained to peck a key for access to food during response periods that started at different times after the beginning of the session. In these pigeons, GHB, its precursor γ-butyrolactone (GBL), and the GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid hydrochloride (SKF97541) decreased the rate of responding in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CGP35348 shifted the dose-response curve of each agonist to the right, but the magnitude of the shift differed among the agonists. Schild analysis yielded a pA2 value of CGP35348 to antagonize GHB and GBL [i.e., 3.9 (3.7–4.2)] that was different (P = 0.0011) from the pA2 value to antagonize baclofen and SKF97541 [i.e., 4.5 (4.4–4.7)]. This finding is further evidence that the GABAB receptor mechanisms mediating the effects of GHB and prototypical GABAB receptor agonists are not identical. A better understanding of the similarities and differences between these mechanisms, and their involvement in the therapeutic effects of GHB and baclofen, could lead to more effective medications with fewer adverse effects. PMID:19564487

  8. Toll like receptor 9 antagonism modulates spinal cord neuronal function and survival: Direct versus astrocyte-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Acioglu, Cigdem; Mirabelli, Ersilia; Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Ni, Li; Ratnayake, Ayomi; Heary, Robert F; Elkabes, Stella

    2016-08-01

    Toll like receptors (TLRs) are expressed by cells of the immune system and mediate the host innate immune responses to pathogens. However, increasing evidence indicates that they are important contributors to central nervous system (CNS) function in health and in pathological conditions involving sterile inflammation. In agreement with this idea, we have previously shown that intrathecal administration of a TLR9 antagonist, cytidine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide 2088 (CpG ODN 2088), ameliorates the outcomes of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although these earlier studies showed a marked effect of CpG ODN 2088 on inflammatory cells, the expression of TLR9 in spinal cord (SC) neurons and astrocytes suggested that the antagonist exerts additional effects through direct actions on these cells. The current study was undertaken to assess the direct effects of CpG ODN 2088 on SC neurons, astrocytes and astrocyte-neuron interactions, in vitro. We report, for the first time, that inhibition of TLR9 in cultured SC neurons alters their function and confers protection against kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxic death. Moreover, the TLR9 antagonist attenuated the KA-elicited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in neurons, in vitro. CpG ODN 2088 also reduced the transcript levels and release of chemokine (C-X-C) motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) by astrocytes and it diminished interleukin-6 (IL-6) release without affecting transcript levels in vitro. Conditioned medium (CM) of CpG ODN 2088-treated astroglial cultures decreased the viability of SC neurons compared to CM of vehicle-treated astrocytes. However, this toxicity was not observed when astrocytes were co-cultured with neurons. Although CpG ODN 2088 limited the survival-promoting effects of astroglia, it did not reduce neuronal viability compared to controls grown in the absence of astrocytes. We conclude that the TLR9 antagonist acts directly on both SC neurons and astrocytes

  9. New halogenated tris-(phenylalkyl)amines as h5-HT2B receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Nirav; Ahmed, Shahrear; Harding, Wayne W

    2016-07-15

    A series of compounds in which various halogen substituents were incorporated into a phenyl ring of a tris-(phenylalkyl)amine scaffold, was synthesized and evaluated for affinity to h5-HT2 receptors. In general, all compounds were found to have good affinity for the 5-HT2B receptor and were selective over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Compound 9i was the most selective compound in this study and is the highest affinity 5-HT2B receptor ligand bearing a tris-(phenylalkyl)amine scaffold to date. PMID:27261181

  10. Selective 5-Hydroxytrytamine 2C Receptor Agonists Derived from the Lead Compound Tranylcypromine – Identification of Drugs with Antidepressant-Like Action

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Jin; Jensen, Niels H.; Kurome, Toru; Kadari, Sudhakar; Manzano, Michael L.; Malberg, Jessica E.; Caldarone, Barbara; Roth, Bryan L.; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2009-01-01

    We report here the design, synthesis, and pharmacological properties of a series of compounds related to tranylcypromine (9), which itself was discovered as a lead compound in a high-throughput screening campaign. Starting from 9, which shows modest activity as a 5-HT2C agonist, a series of 1-aminomethyl-2-phenylcyclopropanes was investigated as 5-HT2C agonists through iterative structural modifications. Key pharmacophore feature of this new class of ligands is a 2-aminomethyl-trans-cyclopropyl side chain attached to a substituted benzene ring. Among the tested compounds, several were potent and efficacious 5-HT2C receptor agonists with selectivity over both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in functional assays. The most promising compound is 37 with 120- and 14-fold selectivity over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B, respectively (EC50 = 585, 65, and 4.8 nM at the 2A, 2B, and 2C subtypes, respectively). In animal studies, compound 37 (10–60 mg/kg) decreased immobility time in the mouse forced swim test. PMID:19284718

  11. Antagonism of Dopamine Receptor 2 Long Affects Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Signaling in a Cell Culture Model of Striatal Medium Spiny Projection Neurons.

    PubMed

    Bagher, Amina M; Laprairie, Robert B; Kelly, Melanie E M; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M

    2016-06-01

    Activation of dopamine receptor 2 long (D2L) switches the signaling of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) from Gαi to Gαs, a process thought to be mediated through CB1-D2L heteromerization. Given the clinical importance of D2 antagonists, the goal of this study was to determine if D2 antagonists could modulate CB1 signaling. Interactions between CB1 and D2L, Gαi, Gαs, and β-arrestin1 were studied using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer 2 (BRET(2)) in STHdh(Q7/Q7) cells. CB1-dependent extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, CREB phosphorylation, and CB1 internalization following cotreatment of CB1 agonist and D2 antagonist were quantified. Preassembled CB1-Gαi complexes were detected by BRET(2) Arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a selective CB1 agonist, caused a rapid and transient increase in BRET efficiency (BRETEff) between Gαi-Rluc and CB1-green fluorescent protein 2 (GFP(2)), and a Gαi-dependent increase in ERK phosphorylation. Physical interactions between CB1 and D2L were observed using BRET(2) Cotreatment of STHdh(Q7/Q7) cells with ACEA and haloperidol, a D2 antagonist, inhibited BRETEff signals between Gαi-Rluc and CB1-GFP(2) and reduced the EMax and pEC50 of ACEA-mediated Gαi-dependent ERK phosphorylation. ACEA and haloperidol cotreatments produced a delayed and sustained increase in BRETEff between Gαs-Rluc and CB1-GFP(2) and increased the EMax and pEC50 of ACEA-induced Gαs-dependent cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. In cells expressing CB1 and D2L treated with ACEA, binding of haloperidol to D2 receptors switched CB1 coupling from Gαi to Gαs In addition, haloperidol treatment reduced ACEA-induced β-arrestin1 recruitment to CB1 and CB1 internalization. D2 antagonists allosterically modulate cannabinoid-induced CB1 coupling, signaling, and β-arrestin1 recruitment through binding to CB1-D2L heteromers. These findings indicate that D2 antagonism, like D2 agonists, change agonist-mediated CB1 coupling and

  12. The FGFRL1 Receptor Is Shed from Cell Membranes, Binds Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), and Antagonizes FGF Signaling in Xenopus Embryos*

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Florian; Zhuang, Lei; Beyeler, Michael; Kälin, Roland E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Brändli, André W.; Trueb, Beat

    2010-01-01

    FGFRL1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor like 1) is the fifth and most recently discovered member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. With up to 50% amino acid similarity, its extracellular domain closely resembles that of the four conventional FGFRs. Its intracellular domain, however, lacks the split tyrosine kinase domain needed for FGF-mediated signal transduction. During embryogenesis of the mouse, FGFRL1 is essential for the development of parts of the skeleton, the diaphragm muscle, the heart, and the metanephric kidney. Since its discovery, it has been hypothesized that FGFRL1 might act as a decoy receptor for FGF ligands. Here we present several lines of evidence that support this notion. We demonstrate that the FGFRL1 ectodomain is shed from the cell membrane of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts and from HEK293 cells by an as yet unidentified protease, which cuts the receptor in the membrane-proximal region. As determined by ligand dot blot analysis, cell-based binding assays, and surface plasmon resonance analysis, the soluble FGFRL1 ectodomain as well as the membrane-bound receptor are capable of binding to some FGF ligands with high affinity, including FGF2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF8, FGF10, and FGF22. We furthermore show that ectopic expression of FGFRL1 in Xenopus embryos antagonizes FGFR signaling during early development. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that FGFRL1 is indeed a decoy receptor for FGFs. PMID:19920134

  13. The FGFRL1 receptor is shed from cell membranes, binds fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and antagonizes FGF signaling in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Florian; Zhuang, Lei; Beyeler, Michael; Kälin, Roland E; Mullis, Primus E; Brändli, André W; Trueb, Beat

    2010-01-15

    FGFRL1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor like 1) is the fifth and most recently discovered member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. With up to 50% amino acid similarity, its extracellular domain closely resembles that of the four conventional FGFRs. Its intracellular domain, however, lacks the split tyrosine kinase domain needed for FGF-mediated signal transduction. During embryogenesis of the mouse, FGFRL1 is essential for the development of parts of the skeleton, the diaphragm muscle, the heart, and the metanephric kidney. Since its discovery, it has been hypothesized that FGFRL1 might act as a decoy receptor for FGF ligands. Here we present several lines of evidence that support this notion. We demonstrate that the FGFRL1 ectodomain is shed from the cell membrane of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts and from HEK293 cells by an as yet unidentified protease, which cuts the receptor in the membrane-proximal region. As determined by ligand dot blot analysis, cell-based binding assays, and surface plasmon resonance analysis, the soluble FGFRL1 ectodomain as well as the membrane-bound receptor are capable of binding to some FGF ligands with high affinity, including FGF2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF8, FGF10, and FGF22. We furthermore show that ectopic expression of FGFRL1 in Xenopus embryos antagonizes FGFR signaling during early development. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that FGFRL1 is indeed a decoy receptor for FGFs. PMID:19920134

  14. Chronic Antagonism of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor Ameliorates Hypertension and End Organ Damage in a Rodent Model of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Crook, Martin F; Sharif-Rodriguez, Wanda; Zhu, Yonghua; Ruben, Zadok; Pan, Yi; Urosevic-Price, Olga; Wang, Li; Flattery, Amy M; Forrest, Gail; Szeto, Daphne; Zhao, Huawei; Roy, Sophie; Forrest, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of chronic mineralocorticoid receptor blockade with eplerenone on the development and progression of hypertension and end organ damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Eplerenone significantly attenuated the progressive rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (204 ± 3 vs. 179±3 mmHg, p < 0.05), reduced proteinuria (605.5 ± 29.6 vs. 479.7 ± 26.1 mg/24h, p < 0.05), improved injury scores of glomeruli, tubules, renal interstitium, and vasculature in Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet. These results demonstrate that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism provides target organ protection and attenuates the development of elevated blood pressure (BP) in a model of salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:21950654

  15. Effects of single or combined histamine H1-receptor and leukotriene CysLT1-receptor antagonism on nasal adenosine monophosphate challenge in persistent allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel K C; Jackson, Catherine M; Soutar, Patricia C; Fardon, Thomas C; Lipworth, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    Background The effects of single or combined histamine H1-receptor and leukotriene CysLT1-receptor antagonism on nasal adenosine monophosphate (AMP) challenge in allergic rhinitis are unknown. Objective We elected to study the effects of usual clinically recommended doses of fexofenadine (FEX), montelukast (ML) and FEX + ML combination, compared with placebo (PL), on nasal AMP challenge in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. Methods Twelve patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (all skin prick positive to house dust mite) were randomized in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive for 1 week either FEX 180 mg, ML 10 mg, FEX 180 mg +ML 10 mg combination, or PL, with nasal AMP challenge performed 12 h after dosing. There was a 1-week washout period between each randomized treatment. The primary outcome measure was the maximum percentage peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) fall from baseline over a 60-min period after nasal challenge with a single 400 mg ml−1 dose of AMP. The area under the 60-min time–response curve (AUC) and nasal symptoms were measured as secondary outcomes. Results There was significant attenuation (P < 0.05) of the mean maximum percentage PNIF fall from baseline after nasal AMP challenge vs. PL, 48; with FEX, 37; 95% confidence interval for difference 2, 20; ML, 35 (4, 22); and FEX + ML, 32 (7, 24). The AUC (%.min) was also significantly attenuated (P < 0.05) vs. PL, 1893; with FEX, 1306 (30, 1143); ML, 1246 (214, 1078); and FEX + ML, 1153 (251, 1227). There were no significant differences for FEX vs. ML vs. FEX + ML comparing either the maximum or AUC response. The total nasal symptom score (out of 12) was also significantly improved (P < 0.05) vs. PL, 3.3; with FEX, 2.1 (0.3, 2.0); ML, 2.0 (0.5, 1.9); and FEX + ML, 2.5 (0.1, 1.4). Conclusion FEX and ML as monotherapy significantly attenuated the response to nasal AMP challenge and improved nasal symptoms compared with PL, while combination therapy conferred no additional

  16. Prostamide F2α receptor antagonism combined with inhibition of FAAH may block the pro-inflammatory mediators formed following selective FAAH inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ligresti, Alessia; Martos, Jose; Wang, Jenny; Guida, Francesca; Allarà, Marco; Palmieri, Vittoria; Luongo, Livio; Woodward, David; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeProstamides are lipid mediators formed by COX-2-catalysed oxidation of the endocannabinoid anandamide and eliciting effects often opposed to those caused by anandamide. Prostamides may be formed when hydrolysis of anandamide by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is physiologically, pathologically or pharmacologically decreased. Thus, therapeutic benefits of FAAH inhibitors might be attenuated by concomitant production of prostamide F2α. This loss of benefit might be minimized by compounds designed to selectively antagonize prostamide receptors and also inhibiting FAAH. Experimental ApproachInhibition of FAAH by a series of selective antagonists of prostamide receptors, including AGN 204396, AGN 211335 and AGN 211336, was assessed using rat, mouse and human FAAH in vitro, together with affinity for human recombinant CB1 and CB2 receptors. Effects in vivo were measured in a model of formalin-induced inflammatory pain in mice. Key ResultsThe prostamide F2α receptor antagonists were active against mouse and rat FAAH in the low μM range and behaved as non-competitive and plasma membrane-permeant inhibitors. AGN 211335, the most potent inhibitor of rat FAAH (IC50 = 1.2 μM), raised exogenous anandamide levels in intact cells and also bound to cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Both AGN 211335 and AGN 211336 (0.25–1 mg·kg−1, i.p.) inhibited the formalin-induced nociceptive response in mice. Conclusions and ImplicationsSynthetic compounds with indirect agonist activity at cannabinoid receptors and antagonist activity at prostamide receptors can be developed. Such compounds could be used as alternatives to selective FAAH inhibitors to prevent the possibility of prostamide F2α-induced inflammation and pain. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24102214

  17. Ulipristal Acetate Antagonizes the Inhibitory Effect of Progesterone on Ciliary Beat Frequency and Upregulates Steroid Receptor Expression Levels in Human Fallopian Tubes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiangjing; Zhao, Weihong; Yan, Mingxing; Zhu, Qian; Qin, Guojuan; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a new selective progesterone receptor (PR) modulator used for emergency contraception. However, our understanding of its mechanisms of action on oviductal cilia is limited. The present study focused on the in vitro effects of UPA (0.1, 1, and 10 μmol/L) on the cilia and steroid receptors of human fallopian tubes. The ciliary beat frequency (CBF), the ultrastructure of cilia, and the levels of steroid receptors were measured. The effects of UPA on the progesterone-induced CBF reduction were also studied. Our results show that UPA dose dependently antagonizes the progesterone-induced CBF decrease, but it does not affect the CBF or the ultrastructure of the cilia. The UPA also upregulates the expression levels of the estrogen receptor α and the PR in the fallopian tubes. The results enable us to better understand the mechanisms by which UPA works as an emergency contraceptive and provides a scientific basis for its clinical application. PMID:26045548

  18. In vitro effects of glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism on human tendon derived cells.

    PubMed

    Dean, Benjamin John Floyd; Snelling, Sarah J B; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Carr, Andrew Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    It is known that extracellular glutamate concentrations are increased in tendinopathy but the effects of glutamate upon human tendon derived cells are unknown. The primary purpose was to investigate the effect of glutamate exposure on human tendon-derived cells in terms of viability, protein, and gene expression. The second purpose was to assess whether NMDAR antagonism would affect the response of tendon-derived cells to glutamate exposure. Human tendon-derived cells were obtained from supraspinatus tendon tissue obtained during rotator cuff repair (tendon tear derived cells) and from healthy hamstring tendon tissue (control cells). The in vitro impact of glutamate exposure and NMDAR antagonism (MK-801) was measured using the Alamar blue cell viability assay, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Glutamate reduced cell viability at 24 h in tendon tear derived cells but not in control cells at concentrations of 7.5 mM and above. Cell viability was significantly reduced after 72 h of 1.875 mM glutamate in both cell groups; this deleterious effect was attenuated by NMDAR antagonism with 10 µM MK-801. Both 24 and 72 h of 1.875 mM glutamate exposure reduced Type 1 alpha 1 collagen (COL1A1) and Type 3 alpha 1 collagen (COL3A1) gene expression, but increased Aggrecan gene expression. We propose that these effects of glutamate on tendon derived cells including reduced cell viability and altered matrix gene expression contribute to the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. PMID:26041147

  19. Vortioxetine dose-dependently reverses 5-HT depletion-induced deficits in spatial working and object recognition memory: a potential role for 5-HT1A receptor agonism and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Jensen, Jesper Bornø; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that the investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, reversed 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits while escitalopram and duloxetine did not. The present report studied the effects of vortioxetine and the potential impact of its 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist properties on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits. Recognition and spatial working memory were assessed in the object recognition (OR) and Y-maze spontaneous alternation (SA) tests, respectively. 5-HT depletion was induced in female Long-Evans rats using 4-cholro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl (PCPA) and receptor occupancies were determined by ex vivo autoradiography. Rats were acutely dosed with vortioxetine, ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or flesinoxan (5-HT1A receptor agonist). The effects of chronic vortioxetine administration on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits were also assessed. 5-HT depletion reliably impaired memory performance in both the tests. Vortioxetine reversed PCPA-induced memory deficits dose-dependently with a minimal effective dose (MED) ≤0.1mg/kg (∼80% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR) and ≤3.0mg/kg (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 receptor occupancy: ∼15%, 60%, 95%) in SA. Ondansetron exhibited a MED ≤3.0μg/kg (∼25% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR), but was inactive in the SA test. Flesinoxan had a MED ≤1.0mg/kg (∼25% 5-HT1A receptor occupancy; SA); only 1.0mg/kg ameliorated deficits in the NOR. Chronic p.o. vortioxetine administration significantly improved memory performance in OR and occupied 95%, 66%, and 9.5% of 5-HT3, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. Vortioxetine's effects on SA performance may involve 5-HT1A receptor agonism, but not 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, whereas the effects on OR performance may involve 5-HT3 receptor antagonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism. PMID:23916504

  20. Differential antagonism and tolerance/cross-tolerance among nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists: scheduled-controlled responding and hypothermia in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Fernando B; McMahon, Lance R

    2016-04-01

    The tobacco-dependence pharmacotherapies varenicline and cytisine act as partial α4β2 nAChR agonists. However, the extent to which α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate their in-vivo effects remains unclear. Nicotine, varenicline, cytisine, and epibatidine were studied in male C57BL/6J mice for their effects on rates of fixed ratio responding and rectal temperature alone and in combination with the nonselective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine and the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine. The effects of nicotine, varenicline, cytisine, epibatidine, and cocaine were assessed before and during chronic nicotine treatment. The rate-decreasing and hypothermic effects of nicotine, varenicline, cytisine, and epibatidine were antagonized by mecamylamine (1 mg/kg), but only the effects of nicotine and epibatidine were antagonized by dihydro-β-erythroidine (3.2 mg/kg). Chronic nicotine produced 4.7 and 5.1-fold rightward shifts in the nicotine dose-effect functions to decrease response rate and rectal temperature, respectively. Nicotine treatment decreased the potency of epibatidine to decrease response rate and rectal temperature 2.2 and 2.9-fold, respectively, and shifted the varenicline dose-effect functions 2.0 and 1.7-fold rightward, respectively. Cross-tolerance did not develop from nicotine to cytisine. These results suggest that the in-vivo pharmacology of tobacco cessation aids cannot be attributed to a single nAChR subtype; instead, multiple receptor subtypes differentially mediate their effects. PMID:26910582

  1. CRF receptor 1 antagonism and brain distribution of active components contribute to the ameliorative effect of rikkunshito on stress-induced anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Mogami, Sachiko; Sadakane, Chiharu; Nahata, Miwa; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Yamada, Chihiro; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Rikkunshito (RKT), a Kampo medicine, has been reported to show an ameliorative effect on sustained hypophagia after novelty stress exposure in aged mice through serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonism. We aimed to determine (1) whether the activation of anorexigenic neurons, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, is involved in the initiation of hypophagia induced by novelty stress in aged mice; (2) whether the ameliorative effect of RKT is associated with CRF and POMC neurons and downstream signal transduction; and (3) the plasma and brain distribution of the active components of RKT. The administration of RKT or 5-HT2CR, CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1), and melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists significantly restored the decreased food intake observed in aged male C57BL/6 mice in the early stage after novelty stress exposure. Seven components of RKT exhibited antagonistic activity against CRFR1. Hesperetin and isoliquiritigenin, which showed antagonistic effects against both CRFR1 and 5-HT2CR, were distributed in the plasma and brain of male Sprague-Dawley rats after a single oral administration of RKT. In conclusion, the ameliorative effect of RKT in this model is assumed to be at least partly due to brain-distributed active components possessing 5-HT2CR and CRFR1 antagonistic activities. PMID:27273195

  2. CRF receptor 1 antagonism and brain distribution of active components contribute to the ameliorative effect of rikkunshito on stress-induced anorexia.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Sachiko; Sadakane, Chiharu; Nahata, Miwa; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Yamada, Chihiro; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Rikkunshito (RKT), a Kampo medicine, has been reported to show an ameliorative effect on sustained hypophagia after novelty stress exposure in aged mice through serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) antagonism. We aimed to determine (1) whether the activation of anorexigenic neurons, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, is involved in the initiation of hypophagia induced by novelty stress in aged mice; (2) whether the ameliorative effect of RKT is associated with CRF and POMC neurons and downstream signal transduction; and (3) the plasma and brain distribution of the active components of RKT. The administration of RKT or 5-HT2CR, CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1), and melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists significantly restored the decreased food intake observed in aged male C57BL/6 mice in the early stage after novelty stress exposure. Seven components of RKT exhibited antagonistic activity against CRFR1. Hesperetin and isoliquiritigenin, which showed antagonistic effects against both CRFR1 and 5-HT2CR, were distributed in the plasma and brain of male Sprague-Dawley rats after a single oral administration of RKT. In conclusion, the ameliorative effect of RKT in this model is assumed to be at least partly due to brain-distributed active components possessing 5-HT2CR and CRFR1 antagonistic activities. PMID:27273195

  3. Dopamine D1 receptor antagonism in the prelimbic cortex blocks the reinstatement of heroin-seeking in an animal model of relapse.

    PubMed

    See, Ronald E

    2009-04-01

    In brain regions that have been implicated in the reinstatement of drug-seeking, the prelimbic cortex has emerged as a critical regulator of relapse behaviours. Here, the effects of prelimbic cortex dopamine (DA) D(1) receptor antagonism on drug-seeking produced by heroin-paired cues, or by a single priming dose of heroin are examined. Rats lever-pressed daily for i.v. heroin discretely paired with a conditioned stimulus during 3-h sessions for a period of 2 wk, followed by extinction and reinstatement of drug-seeking by previously heroin-paired cues (tone+light) or heroin-priming injections (0.25 mg/kg) in the absence of heroin reinforcement. Intracranial infusion of the DA D(1) receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (0.02-2.0 microg/side), into the prelimbic cortex potently and dose dependently attenuated heroin-seeking in response to either cue presentations or a priming dose of heroin. These results suggest that DA D1 receptors regulate prefrontal cortex pathways necessary for the reinstatement of heroin-seeking. PMID:19236732

  4. Stimulation of serotonin2C receptors elicits abnormal oral movements by acting on pathways other than the sensorimotor one in the rat basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, A; Kadiri, N; Navailles, S; Boujema, M Ben; Gonon, F; Moine, C Le; Gross, C; De Deurwaerdère, P

    2010-08-11

    Serotonin2C (5-HT(2C)) receptors act in the basal ganglia, a group of sub-cortical structures involved in motor behavior, where they are thought to modulate oral activity and participate in iatrogenic motor side-effects in Parkinson's disease and Schizophrenia. Whether abnormal movements initiated by 5-HT(2C) receptors are directly consequent to dysfunctions of the motor circuit is uncertain. In the present study, we combined behavioral, immunohistochemical and extracellular single-cell recordings approaches in rats to investigate the effect of the 5-HT(2C) agonist Ro-60-0175 respectively on orofacial dyskinesia, the expression of the marker of neuronal activity c-Fos in basal ganglia and the electrophysiological activity of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neuron connected to the orofacial motor cortex (OfMC) or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The results show that Ro-60-0175 (1 mg/kg) caused bouts of orofacial movements that were suppressed by the 5-HT(2C) antagonist SB-243213 (1 mg/kg). Ro-60-0175 (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg) dose-dependently enhanced Fos expression in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens. At the highest dose, it enhanced Fos expression in the subthalamic nucleus, the SNr and the entopeduncular nucleus but not in the external globus pallidus. However, the effect of Ro-60-0175 was mainly associated with associative/limbic regions of basal ganglia whereas subregions of basal ganglia corresponding to sensorimotor territories were devoid of Fos labeling. Ro-60-0175 (1-3 mg/kg) did not affect the electrophysiological activity of SNr neurons connected to the OfMC nor their excitatory-inhibitory-excitatory responses to the OfMC electrical stimulation. Conversely, Ro-60-0175 (1 mg/kg) enhanced the late excitatory response of SNr neurons evoked by the mPFC electrical stimulation. These results suggest that oral dyskinesia induced by 5-HT(2C) agonists are not restricted to aberrant signalling in the orofacial motor circuit and demonstrate discrete

  5. The effects of fast-off-D2 receptor antagonism on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and psychosis in parkinsonian macaques.

    PubMed

    Koprich, James B; Huot, Philippe; Fox, Susan H; Jarvie, Keith; Lang, Anthony E; Seeman, Philip; Brotchie, Jonathan M

    2013-06-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is compromised by motor side effects, such as dyskinesia and non-motor problems, including psychosis. Because of the marked reduction in brain dopamine in PD and the resultant dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity, it is impossible to use standard potent dopamine D2 receptor antagonists such as haloperidol to alleviate side effects without compromising the anti-parkinsonian benefits of L-DOPA. Haloperidol antagonizes D2 receptors with high affinity and slowly dissociates from D2 receptors (50% dissociation at 38min). We hypothesized that a rapidly dissociating D2 antagonist might allow some functional dopaminergic transmission and thus have a profile, with respect to reduction of dyskinesia and anti-parkinsonian effects, that was more useful therapeutically. The present study tested the principle of using a fast-off-D2 drug, CLR151 (50% dissociation at 23s) to modify L-DOPA actions in cynomolgus macaques with MPTP-parkinsonism. CLR151 (100mg/kg p.o.) reduced L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and activity in the parkinsonian macaque by 86% and 52% respectively during peak action. CLR151 (100mg/kg) also reduced psychosis-like behaviour (i.e. reduced apparent visual hallucinations by 78%). Nevertheless, this dose of CLR151 significantly reduced the duration of anti-parkinsonian action of L-DOPA, ON-time (by 90%), and increased parkinsonian disability (by 57%). These data suggest that fast-off-D2 dopamine receptor antagonists, with D2-off-rate values close to those for CLR151, are unlikely to be useful in the treatment of dyskinesia and psychosis in PD. However, fast-off-D2 drugs could provide benefit if new congeners would have an even faster dissociation rate. Such drugs are now becoming available. PMID:23306217

  6. Evaluation of saccharin intake and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences following opioid receptor antagonism in the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala or lateral hypothalamus in rats.

    PubMed

    Malkusz, Danielle C; Bernal, Sonia Y; Banakos, Theodore; Malkusz, Gina; Mohamed, Andrew; Vongwattanakit, Tracy; Bodnar, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    In prior studies, systemic opioid receptor antagonism with naltrexone (NTX) failed to block flavor preference conditioning by the sweet taste or post-oral actions of sugar despite reducing overall flavored saccharin intake. Further, NTX microinjections into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell or core failed to alter the expression of preferences conditioned by the sweet taste or post-oral actions of sugars. In contrast, fructose-conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) were reduced or eliminated by systemic or intracerebral administration of dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 antagonists in the NAc, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMY) or lateral hypothalamus (LH). The present study examined whether NTX microinjections into the mPFC, AMY or LH would alter expression of fructose-CFP and total flavored saccharin intake. Food-restricted rats with bilateral cannulae aimed at the mPFC, AMY or LH were trained to drink a fructose (8%)+saccharin (0.2%) solution mixed with one flavor (CS+, e.g., cherry) and a 0.2% saccharin solution mixed with another flavor (CS-, e.g., grape) during 10 one-bottle sessions. Two-bottle tests with the cherry and grape flavors in 0.2% saccharin solutions occurred 10min following total bilateral NTX doses of 0, 1, 25 and 50μg administered into the mPFC, AMY or LH. Rats preferred the CS+ over CS- flavor following vehicle and all NTX doses administered into either the mPFC or LH. CS+ intake was significantly greater than CS- intake following vehicle and the low NTX dose in the AMY; however, at the 25 and 50μg AMY NTX doses, CS+ intakes did not significantly exceed CS- intakes. Total flavored saccharin intake was significantly reduced by all three LH NTX doses (20-35%), by the 25 (14%) and 50 (22%)μg AMY NTX doses, but not by mPFC NTX. Thus, opioid antagonism in the AMY, but not the mPFC or LH attenuated, but did not block the expression of fructose-CFP, and LH and AMY, but not mPFC, NTX significantly reduced total saccharin intake. Therefore, whereas

  7. Allotopic antagonism of the non-peptide atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antagonist HS-142-1 on natriuretic peptide receptor NPR-A.

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Hugo; Labrecque, Jean; Deschênes, Julie; DeLéan, André

    2002-01-01

    The microbial polysaccharide HS-142-1 has been documented as an antagonist of natriuretic peptides. It inhibits activation and peptide binding to both guanylate receptors natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A and NPR-B, but has no effect on the non-cyclase receptor NPR-C. At first sight the effect of HS-142-1 on peptide binding appears to be surmountable, suggesting that it might be competitive despite its chemically divergent nature. We explored its mode of action on wild-type NPR-A (WT), on a disulphide-bridged constitutively active mutant (C423S) and on truncated mutants lacking either their cytoplasmic domain (DeltaKC) or both the cytoplasmic and the transmembrane domains (ECD). On the WT, HS-142-1 inhibited atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binding with a pK value of 6.51 +/- 0.07 (K(d)=0.31 microM). It displayed a similar effect on the C423S mutant (pK=6.31 +/- 0.11), indicating that its action might not be due to interference with receptor dimerization. HS-142-1 also inhibited ANP binding to DeltaKC with a pK of 7.05 +/- 0.05 (K(d)=0.089 microM), but it was inactive on ANP binding to ECD at a concentration of 10(-4) M, suggesting that the antagonism was not competitive at the peptide-binding site located on the ECD and that the transmembrane domain might be required. HS-142-1 also enhanced dissociation of NPR-A-bound (125)I-ANP in the presence of excess unlabelled ANP, implying an allotopic (allosteric) mode of action for the antagonist. PMID:11829760

  8. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  9. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  10. Prevention of 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptor RNA editing and alternate splicing in C57BL/6 mice activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and alters mood

    PubMed Central

    Bombail, Vincent; Qing, Wei; Chapman, Karen E; Holmes, Megan C

    2014-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine2C (5-HT)2C receptor is widely implicated in the aetiology of affective and eating disorders as well as regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Signalling through this receptor is regulated by A-to-I RNA editing, affecting three amino acids in the protein sequence, with unedited transcripts encoding a receptor (INI) that, in vitro, is hyperactive compared with edited isoforms. Targeted alteration (knock-in) of the Htr2c gene to generate ‘INI’ mice with no alternate splicing, solely expressing the full-length unedited isoform, did not produce an overt metabolic phenotype or altered anxiety behaviour, but did display reduced depressive-like and fear-associated behaviours. INI mice exhibited a hyperactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with increased nadir plasma corticosterone and corticotrophin-releasing hormone expression in the hypothalamus but responded normally to chronic stress and showed normal circadian activity and activity in a novel environment. The circadian patterns of 5-HT2C receptor mRNA and mbii52, a snoRNA known to regulate RNA editing and RNA splicing of 5-HT2C receptor pre-mRNA, were altered in INI mice compared with wild-type control mice. Moreover, levels of 5-HT1A receptor mRNA were increased in the hippocampus of INI mice. These gene expression changes may underpin the neuroendocrine and behavioural changes observed in INI mice. However, the phenotype of INI mice was not consistent with a globally hyperactive INI receptor encoded by the unedited transcript in the absence of alternate splicing. Hence, the in vivo outcome of RNA editing may be neuronal cell type specific. PMID:25257581

  11. Lack of renal tubular and hemodynamic effects of non-selective and delta-opioid receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Barrett, R J; Turpin, J A; McGuirk, B A; Kau, S T

    1985-01-01

    The renal pharmacological actions of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the selective delta (delta)-opioid receptor antagonist ICI 154,129 were examined in conscious dogs. Neither naloxone nor ICI 154,129 altered glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, blood pressure, heart rate, or renal excretion of water, Na+, K+, or Cl-. In addition, urine and plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations and hematocrit were unchanged, suggesting that neither agent produced physiologically significant alteration in plasma vasopressin levels. These data suggest that (a) naloxone and ICI 154,129 exert no renal pharmacological effects in dogs and (b) under resting physiological conditions, delta-opioid receptors, as well as other opioid receptor subtypes, probably are not involved in the tonic regulation of renal hemodynamics or tubular function. PMID:3983226

  12. Antagonism of κ opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens prevents the depressive-like behaviors following prolonged morphine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Zan, Gui-Ying; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Yao; Hang, Ai; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2015-09-15

    The association between morphine withdrawal and depressive-like symptoms is well documented, however, the role of dynorphin/κ opioid receptor system and the underlying neural substrates have not been fully understood. In the present study, we found that four weeks morphine abstinence after a chronic escalating morphine regimen significantly induced depressive-like behaviors in mice. Prodynorphin mRNA and protein levels were increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) after four weeks of morphine withdrawal. Local injection of κ opioid receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine (norBNI) in the NAc significantly blocked the expression of depressive-like behaviors without influencing general locomotor activity. Thus, the present study extends previous findings by showing that prolonged morphine withdrawal-induced depressive-like behaviors are regulated by dynorphin/κ opioid receptor system, and shed light on the κ opioid receptor antagonists as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of depressive-like behaviors induced by opiate withdrawal. PMID:26049060

  13. The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.B.; Lerch, T.F.; Cook, R.W.; Woodruff, T.K.; Jardetzky, T.S.

    2010-03-08

    TGF-{beta} ligands stimulate diverse cellular differentiation and growth responses by signaling through type I and II receptors. Ligand antagonists, such as follistatin, block signaling and are essential regulators of physiological responses. Here we report the structure of activin A, a TGF-{beta} ligand, bound to the high-affinity antagonist follistatin. Two follistatin molecules encircle activin, neutralizing the ligand by burying one-third of its residues and its receptor binding sites. Previous studies have suggested that type I receptor binding would not be blocked by follistatin, but the crystal structure reveals that the follistatin N-terminal domain has an unexpected fold that mimics a universal type I receptor motif and occupies this receptor binding site. The formation of follistatin:BMP:type I receptor complexes can be explained by the stoichiometric and geometric arrangement of the activin:follistatin complex. The mode of ligand binding by follistatin has important implications for its ability to neutralize homo- and heterodimeric ligands of this growth factor family.

  14. Flavonoids inhibit the platelet TxA2 signalling pathway and antagonize TxA2 receptors (TP) in platelets and smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, José A; Navarro-Nuñez, Leyre; Lozano, María L; Martínez, Constantino; Vicente, Vicente; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Rivera, José

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Flavonoids are largely recognized as potential inhibitors of platelet function, through nonspecific mechanisms such as antioxidant activity and/or inhibition of several enzymes and signalling proteins. In addition, we, and few others, have shown that certain antiaggregant flavonoids may behave as specific TXA2 receptor (TP) ligands in platelets. Whether flavonoids interact with TP isoforms in other cell types is not known, and direct evidence that flavonoid–TP interaction inhibits signalling downstream TP has not been shown. What this study adds This study first demonstrates that certain flavonoids behave as ligands for both TP isoforms, not only in platelets, but also in human myometrium and in TP-transfected HEK 293T cells. Differences in the effect of certain flavonoids in platelet signalling, induced by either U46619 or thrombin, suggest that abrogation of downstream TP signalling is related to their specific blockage of the TP, rather than to a nonspecific effect on tyrosine kinases or other signalling proteins. Aims Flavonoids may affect platelet function by several mechanisms, including antagonism of TxA2 receptors (TP). These TP are present in many tissues and modulate different signalling cascades. We explored whether flavonoids affect platelet TP signalling, and if they bind to TP expressed in other cell types. Methods Platelets were treated with flavonoids, or other selected inhibitors, and then stimulated with U46619. Similar assays were performed in aspirinized platelets activated with thrombin. Effects on calcium release were analysed by fluorometry and changes in whole protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of ERK 1/2 by Western blot analysis. The binding of flavonoids to TP in platelets, human myometrium and TPα- and TPβ-transfected HEK 293T cells was explored using binding assays and the TP antagonist 3H-SQ29548. Results Apigenin, genistein, luteolin and quercetin impaired U46619-induced calcium

  15. Role of IL-1 beta and 5-HT2 receptors in midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in potentiating defensive rage behavior in cat.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha; Zalcman, Steven S; Siegel, Allan

    2008-02-01

    Feline defensive rage, a form of aggressive behavior that occurs in response to a threat can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the medial hypothalamus or midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Our laboratory has recently begun a systematic examination of the role of cytokines in the regulation of rage and aggressive behavior. It was shown that the cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), differentially modulates defensive rage when microinjected into the medial hypothalamus and PAG by acting through separate neurotransmitter systems. The present study sought to determine whether a similar relationship exists with respect to interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta), whose receptor activation in the medial hypothalamus potentiates defensive rage. Thus, the present study identified the effects of administration of IL-1 beta into the PAG upon defensive rage elicited from the medial hypothalamus. Microinjections of IL-1 beta into the dorsal PAG significantly facilitated defensive rage behavior elicited from the medial hypothalamus in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, the facilitative effects of IL-1 beta were blocked by pre-treatment with anti-IL-1 beta receptor antibody, while IL-1 beta administration into the PAG had no effect upon predatory attack elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. The findings further demonstrated that IL-1 beta's effects were mediated through 5-HT(2) receptors since pretreatment with a 5-HT(2C) receptors antagonist blocked the facilitating effects of IL-1 beta. An extensive pattern of labeling of IL-1 beta and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the dorsal PAG supported these findings. The present study demonstrates that IL-beta in the dorsal PAG, similar to the medial hypothalamus, potentiates defensive rage behavior and is mediated through a 5-HT(2C) receptor mechanism. PMID:17890051

  16. NMDA receptor antagonism differentially reduces acquisition and expression of sucrose- and fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in BALB/c and SWR mice.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Tamar T; Huang, Donald; Lolier, Melanie; Warshaw, Deena; LaMagna, Sam; Natanova, Elona; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) are elicited by sucrose and fructose relative to saccharin in rats and inbred mice. Whereas dopamine, but not opioid receptor antagonists interfere with the acquisition (learning) and expression (maintenance) of sugar-CFP in rats, these antagonists differentially affect acquisition and expression of sucrose- and fructose-CFP in BALB/c and SWR inbred mice. Given that NMDA receptor antagonism with MK-801 blocks acquisition, but not expression of fructose-CFP in rats, the present study examined whether MK-801 altered the expression and acquisition of sucrose- and fructose-CFP in BALB/c and SWR mice. In expression experiments, food-restricted mice alternately consumed a flavored (CS+, e.g., cherry, 5 sessions) 16% sucrose or 8% fructose+0.2% saccharin solution and a differently-flavored (CS-, e.g., grape, 5 sessions) 0.2% saccharin solution. 2-Bottle CS choice tests occurred following vehicle or MK-801 at doses of 100 or 200μg/kg. MK-801 mildly reduced the magnitude of the expression of sucrose- and fructose-CFP in BALB/c mice, and blocked the expression of fructose-, but not sucrose-CFP at the high dose in SWR mice. In acquisition experiments, groups of BALB/c (0, 100μg/kg) and SWR (0, 100, 200μg/kg) mice were treated prior to acquisition training sessions that was followed by 2-bottle CS choice tests without injections. MK-801 (100μg/kg) eliminated acquisition of sucrose- and fructose-CFP in BALB/c, but not SWR mice. The 200μg/kg MK-801 dose eliminated acquisition of sucrose- and fructose-CFP in SWR mice. Thus, NMDA receptor signaling is essential for the learning of both forms of sugar-CFP in both strains with BALB/c mice more sensitive to MK-801 dose effects. PMID:27317846

  17. Antagonizing amyloid-β/calcium-sensing receptor signaling in human astrocytes and neurons: a key to halt Alzheimer's disease progression?

    PubMed Central

    Dal Prà, Ilaria; Chiarini, Anna; Armato, Ubaldo

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes’ roles in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) promotion are important, since they survive soluble or fibrillar amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) neurotoxic effects, undergo alterations of intracellular and intercellular Ca2+ signaling and gliotransmitters release via the Aβ/α7-nAChR (α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) signaling, and overproduce/oversecrete newly synthesized Aβ42 oligomers, NO, and VEGF-A via the Aβ/CaSR (calcium-sensing receptor) signaling. Recently, it was suggested that the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) inhibitor nitromemantine would block the synapse-destroying effects of Aβ/α7-nAChR signaling. Yet, this and the progressive extracellular accrual and spreading of Aβ42 oligomers would be stopped well upstream by NPS 2143, an allosteric CaSR antagonist (calcilytic). PMID:25883618

  18. Metabolite Profiling and a Transcriptional Activation Assay Provide Direct Evidence of Androgen Receptor Antagonism by Bisphenol A in Fish.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread environmental contamination by bisphenol A (BPA) has created the need to fully define its potential toxic mechanisms of action (MOA) to properly assess human health and ecological risks from exposure. Although long recognized as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, some ...

  19. Dorsal periaqueductal gray post-stimulation freezing is counteracted by neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism in the central nucleus of the amygdala in rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M C; Santos, J M; Brandão, M L

    2015-05-01

    injections into the CeA prevented the proaversive effects of electrical stimulation of the dPAG assessed in the EPM 24 h later. The present results suggest that neurokininergic modulation via NK1 receptors in the CeA but not BLA or MeA is involved in the processing of aversive information derived from dPAG stimulation. The long-lasting consequences of electrical stimulation of the dPAG may be prevented by NK1 receptor antagonism in the CeA. PMID:25883049

  20. Orexin/Hypocretin-1 Receptor Antagonism Selectively Reduces Cue-Induced Feeding in Sated Rats and Recruits Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Sindy; Mayer, Heather S.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2015-01-01

    The orexin/hypocretin system is important for reward-seeking behaviors, however less is known about its function in non-homeostatic feeding. Environmental influences, particularly cues for food can stimulate feeding in the absence of hunger and lead to maladaptive overeating behavior. The key components of the neural network that mediates this cue-induced overeating in sated rats include lateral hypothalamus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), yet the neuropharmacological mechanisms within this network remain unknown. The current study investigated a causal role for orexin in cue-driven feeding, and examined the neural substrates through which orexin mediates this effect. Systemic administration of the orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 had no effect on baseline eating, but significantly reduced cue-driven consumption in sated rats. Complementary neural analysis revealed that decreased cue-induced feeding under SB-334867 increased Fos expression in mPFC and paraventricular thalamus. These results demonstrate that OX1R signaling critically regulates cue-induced feeding, and suggest orexin is acting through prefrontal cortical and thalamic sites to drive eating in the absence of hunger. These findings inform our understanding of how food-associated cues override signals from the body to promote overeating, and indicate OX1R antagonism as a potential pharmacologic target for treatment of disordered eating in humans. PMID:26536818

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonism in Spinal Cord Cultures and in a Mouse Model of Motor Neuron Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    De Paola, Massimiliano; Mariani, Alessandro; Bigini, Paolo; Peviani, Marco; Ferrara, Giovanni; Molteni, Monica; Gemma, Sabrina; Veglianese, Pietro; Castellaneta, Valeria; Boldrin, Valentina; Rossetti, Carlo; Chiabrando, Chiara; Forloni, Gianluigi; Mennini, Tiziana; Fanelli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Sustained inflammatory reactions are common pathological events associated with neuron loss in neurodegenerative diseases. Reported evidence suggests that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a key player of neuroinflammation in several neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms by which TLR4 mediates neurotoxic signals remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of TLR4 in in vitro and in vivo settings of motor neuron degeneration. Using primary cultures from mouse spinal cords, we characterized both the proinflammatory and neurotoxic effects of TLR4 activation with lipopolysaccharide (activation of microglial cells, release of proinflammatory cytokines and motor neuron death) and the protective effects of a cyanobacteria-derived TLR4 antagonist (VB3323). With the use of TLR4-deficient cells, a critical role of the microglial component with functionally active TLR4 emerged in this setting. The in vivo experiments were carried out in a mouse model of spontaneous motor neuron degeneration, the wobbler mouse, where we preliminarily confirmed a protective effect of TLR4 antagonism. Compared with vehicle- and riluzole-treated mice, those chronically treated with VB3323 showed a decrease in microglial activation and morphological alterations of spinal cord neurons and a better performance in the paw abnormality and grip-strength tests. Taken together, our data add new understanding of the role of TLR4 in mediating neurotoxicity in the spinal cord and suggest that TLR4 antagonists could be considered in future studies as candidate protective agents for motor neurons in degenerative diseases. PMID:22562723

  2. Antagonism of scavenger receptor CD36 by 5A peptide prevents chronic kidney disease progression in mice independent of blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Carolina P; Bocharov, Alexander V; Baranova, Irina N; Vishnyakova, Tatyana G; Huang, Yuning G; Wilkins, Kenneth J; Hu, Xuzhen; Street, Jonathan M; Alvarez-Prats, Alejandro; Mullick, Adam E; Patterson, Amy P; Remaley, Alan T; Eggerman, Thomas L; Yuen, Peter S T; Star, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Scavenger receptor CD36 participates in lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways important for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Few pharmacological agents are available to slow the progression of CKD. However, apolipoprotein A-I-mimetic peptide 5A antagonizes CD36 in vitro. To test the efficacy of 5A, and to test the role of CD36 during CKD, we compared wild-type to CD36 knockout mice and wild-type mice treated with 5A, in a progressive CKD model that resembles human disease. Knockout and 5A-treated wild-type mice were protected from CKD progression without changes in blood pressure and had reductions in cardiovascular risk surrogate markers that are associated with CKD. Treatment with 5A did not further protect CD36 knockout mice from CKD progression, implicating CD36 as its main site of action. In a separate model of kidney fibrosis, 5A-treated wild-type mice had less macrophage infiltration and interstitial fibrosis. Peptide 5A exerted anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney and decreased renal expression of inflammasome genes. Thus, CD36 is a new therapeutic target for CKD and its associated cardiovascular risk factors. Peptide 5A may be a promising new agent to slow CKD progression. PMID:26994575

  3. The macrocyclic tetrapeptide [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 produces short-acting κ opioid receptor antagonism in the CNS after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Eans, Shainnel O; Ganno, Michelle L; Reilley, Kate J; Patkar, Kshitij A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cyclic peptides are resistant to proteolytic cleavage, therefore potentially exhibiting activity after systemic administration. We hypothesized that the macrocyclic κ opioid receptor (KOR)-selective antagonist [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 would demonstrate antagonist activity after systemic, that is, s.c. and oral (per os, p. o.), administration. Experimental Approach C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 s.c. or p.o. before administration of the KOR-selective agonist U50,488 and the determination of antinociception in the warm-water tail-withdrawal assay. The locomotor activity of mice treated with [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 was determined by rotorod testing. Additional mice demonstrating cocaine conditioned place preference and subsequent extinction were pretreated daily with vehicle or [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 and then exposed to repeated forced swim stress or a single additional session of cocaine place conditioning before redetermining place preference. Key Results Pretreatment with [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 administered s.c. or p.o. dose-dependently antagonized the antinociception induced by i.p. administration of U50,488 in mice tested in the warm-water tail-withdrawal assay for less than 12 and 6 h respectively. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 also produced limited (<25%), short-duration antinociception mediated through KOR agonism. Orally administered [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 dose-dependently antagonized centrally administered U50,488-induced antinociception, and prevented stress-, but not cocaine-induced, reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behaviour, consistent with its KOR antagonist activity, without affecting locomotor activity. Conclusions and Implications The macrocyclic tetrapeptide [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 is a short-duration KOR antagonist with weak KOR agonist activity that is active after oral administration and demonstrates blood–brain barrier permeability. These data validate the use of systemically active peptides such as [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 as potentially useful

  4. Reduction of hepatic and adipose tissue glucocorticoid receptor expression with antisense oligonucleotides improves hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetic rodents without causing systemic glucocorticoid antagonism.

    PubMed

    Watts, Lynnetta M; Manchem, Vara Prasad; Leedom, Thomas A; Rivard, Amber L; McKay, Robert A; Bao, Dingjiu; Neroladakis, Teri; Monia, Brett P; Bodenmiller, Diane M; Cao, Julia Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Hong Yan; Cox, Amy L; Jacobs, Steven J; Michael, M Dodson; Sloop, Kyle W; Bhanot, Sanjay

    2005-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) increase hepatic gluconeogenesis and play an important role in the regulation of hepatic glucose output. Whereas systemic GC inhibition can alleviate hyperglycemia in rodents and humans, it results in adrenal insufficiency and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we used optimized antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to cause selective reduction of the glucocorticoid receptor (GCCR) in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) and evaluated the resultant changes in glucose and lipid metabolism in several rodent models of diabetes. Treatment of ob/ob mice with GCCR ASOs for 4 weeks resulted in approximately 75 and approximately 40% reduction in GCCR mRNA expression in liver and WAT, respectively. This was accompanied by approximately 65% decrease in fed and approximately 30% decrease in fasted glucose levels, a 60% decrease in plasma insulin concentration, and approximately 20 and 35% decrease in plasma resistin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, respectively. Furthermore, GCCR ASO reduced hepatic glucose production and inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis in liver slices from basal and dexamethasone-treated animals. In db/db mice, a similar reduction in GCCR expression caused approximately 40% decrease in fed and fasted glucose levels and approximately 50% reduction in plasma triglycerides. In ZDF and high-fat diet-fed streptozotocin-treated (HFD-STZ) rats, GCCR ASO treatment caused approximately 60% reduction in GCCR expression in the liver and WAT, which was accompanied by a 40-70% decrease in fasted glucose levels and a robust reduction in plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. No change in circulating corticosterone levels was seen in any model after GCCR ASO treatment. To further demonstrate that GCCR ASO does not cause systemic GC antagonism, normal Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged with dexamethasone after treating with GCCR ASO. Dexamethasone increased the expression of GC

  5. Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism alters preference for ethanol and sucrose in a concentration-dependent manner in prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J R; Francomacaro, L M; Bohidar, A E; Young, K A; Pesarchick, B F; Buirkle, J M; McMahon, E K; O'Bryan, C M

    2016-03-01

    Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) activity has been implicated in reward for preferred foods and drugs; however, a recent study in our laboratory indicated that GHS-R1A antagonism reduces early (after only four exposures) preference for 20% ethanol, but not 10% sucrose in prairie voles, a genetically diverse high alcohol-consuming species. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these effects of GHS-R1A antagonism depend on the concentration of the rewarding solution being consumed. We first characterized preference for varying concentrations of ethanol and sucrose. Two bottle tests of each ethanol concentration versus water indicated that 10% and 20% ethanol are less preferred than 3% ethanol, and a follow-up direct comparison of 10% vs. 20% showed that 10% was preferred over 20%. Direct two-bottle comparisons of 2% vs. 5%, 2% vs. 10%, and 5% vs. 10% sucrose showed that 10% sucrose was most preferred, and 2% sucrose was least preferred. The effects of JMV 2959, a GHS-R1A antagonist, on preference for each concentration of ethanol and sucrose were then tested. In a between groups design prairie voles were given four two-hour drinking sessions in which animals had access to ethanol (3, 10, or 20%) versus water, or sucrose (2, 5, or 10%) versus water every other day. Saline habituation injections were given 30 min before the third drinking session. JMV 2959 (i.p.; 9 mg/kg), a GHS-R1A antagonist, or saline was administered 30 min before the fourth drinking session. JMV 2959 reduced preference for 20% ethanol and 2% sucrose, but had no significant effect on preference for the other ethanol and sucrose concentrations. These data identify constraints on the role of GHS-R1A in early preference for ethanol and sucrose, and the concentration-dependent effects suggest strong preference for a reward may limit the importance of GHS-R1A activity. PMID:26723269

  6. Affinity of Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea extracts on different cerebral receptors.

    PubMed

    Nencini, Cristina; Cavallo, Federica; Bruni, Giancarlo; Capasso, Anna; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Giorgi, Giorgio; Micheli, Lucia

    2006-05-24

    Iresine herbstii Hook. (Amaranthaceae) and Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerheim (Solanaceae) are used in the northern Peruvian Andes for magic-therapeutical purposes. The traditional healers use Iresine herbstii with the ritual aim to expel bad spirits from the body. Furthermore, Iresine herbstii was used in association with other plants, such as Trichocereus pachanoi Britt. et Rose, for divination, to diagnose diseases, and to take possession of another identity. Also, species of Brugmansia have been reported to be used during ritual practices for magical and curative purposes. Given the above evidence, the aim of the present study is to evaluate if the central effects of Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea could be associated with interaction with SNC receptors. Two Iresine herbstii extracts (methanolic and aqueous) and one Brugmansia arborea aqueous extract were tested for in vitro affinity on 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), D1, D2, alpha(1), and alpha(2) receptors by radioligand binding assays. The biological materials for binding assay (cerebral cortex) were taken from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The extracts affinity for receptors is definite as inhibition percentage of radioligand/receptor binding and measured as the radioactivity of remaining complex radioligand/receptor. The data obtained for Iresine extracts have shown a low affinity for the 5-HT(1A) receptor and no affinity for 5-HT(2A) receptor. Otherwise the methanolic extract showed affinity for 5-HT(2C) receptor (IC(50): 34.78 microg/ml) and for D1 receptor (IC(50): 19.63 microg/ml), instead the Iresine aqueous extract displayed a lower affinity for D1 (48.3% at the maximum concentration tested) and a higher value of affinity for D2 receptors (IC(50): 32.08 microg/ml). The Brugmansia aqueous extract displayed affinity for D1 receptors (IC(50): 17.68 microg/ml), D2 receptors (IC(50): 15.95 microg/ml) and weak affinity for the serotoninergic receptors. None of the three extracts showed relevant affinity

  7. T Cell Receptor (TCR) Antagonism without a Negative Signal: Evidence from T Cell Hybridomas Expressing Two Independent TCRs

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Sabine H.; Bolliger, Luca; Carbone, Francis R.; Palmer, Ed

    1999-01-01

    Antagonist peptides inhibit T cell responses by an unknown mechanism. By coexpressing two independent T cell receptors (TCRs) on a single T cell hybridoma, we addressed the question of whether antagonist ligands induce a dominant-negative signal that inhibits the function of a second, independent TCR. The two receptors, Vα2Vβ5 and Vα2Vβ10, restricted by H-2Kb and specific for the octameric peptides SIINFEKL and SSIEFARL, respectively, were coexpressed on the same cell. Agonist stimulation demonstrated that the two receptors behaved independently with regard to antigen-induced TCR downregulation and intracellular biochemical signaling. The exposure of one TCR (Vα2Vβ5) to antagonist peptides could not inhibit a second independent TCR (Vα2Vβ10) from responding to its antigen. Thus, our data clearly demonstrate that these antagonist ligands do not generate a dominant-negative signal which affects the responsiveness of the entire cell. In addition, a kinetic analysis showed that even 12 h after engagement with their cognate antigen and 10 h after reaching a steady-state of TCR internalization, T cells were fully inhibited by the addition of antagonist peptides. The window of susceptibility to antagonist ligands correlated exactly with the time required for the responding T cells to commit to interleukin 2 production. The data support a model where antagonist ligands can competitively inhibit antigenic peptides from productively engaging the TCR. This competitive inhibition is effective during the entire commitment period, where sustained TCR engagement is essential for full T cell activation. PMID:9892608

  8. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J.; Fuchs, Serge Y.; McDermott, Adrian B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decreased. Indeed, IFNAR1 was phosphorylated and ubiquitinated by IAV infection, which resulted in IFNAR1 elimination. The transiently overexpressed IFNAR1 displayed antiviral activity by inhibiting virus replication. Importantly, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV was proved to trigger the ubiquitination of IFNAR1, diminishing the levels of IFNAR1. Further, influenza A viral HA1 subunit, but not HA2 subunit, downregulated IFNAR1. However, viral HA-mediated degradation of IFNAR1 was not caused by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. IAV HA robustly reduced cellular sensitivity to type I IFNs, suppressing the activation of STAT1/STAT2 and induction of IFN-stimulated antiviral proteins. Taken together, our findings suggest that IAV HA causes IFNAR1 degradation, which in turn helps the virus escape the powerful innate immune system. Thus, the research elucidated an influenza viral mechanism for eluding the IFNAR signaling pathway, which could provide new insights into the interplay between influenza virus and host innate immunity. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and remains a major health concern. When triggered by influenza viral infection, host cells produce type I interferon (IFN) to block viral replication. Although IAV was shown to have diverse strategies to evade this powerful, IFN-mediated antiviral response, it is not well-defined if IAV manipulates the IFN receptor-mediated signaling

  9. Beneficial effects of kinin B1 receptor antagonism on plasma fatty acid alterations and obesity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sébastien; Dias, Jenny Pena; El Midaoui, Adil; Couture, Réjean

    2016-07-01

    Kinins are the endogenous ligands of the constitutive B2 receptor (B2R) and the inducible B1 receptor (B1R). Whereas B2R prevents insulin resistance, B1R is involved in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of B1R in type 2 diabetes associated with obesity remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of 1-week treatment with a selective B1R antagonist (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg per day, by gavage) on hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, leptinemia, body mass gain, and abnormal plasma fatty acids in obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Treatment with SSR240612 abolished the body mass gain and reduced polyphagia, polydipsia, and plasma fatty acid alterations in ZDF rats without affecting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. The present study suggests that the upregulated B1R plays a role in body mass gain and circulating fatty acid alterations in ZDF rats. However, mechanisms other than B1R induction would be implicated in glucose metabolism disorder in ZDF rats, based on the finding that SSR240612 did not reverse hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:27172260

  10. Clozapine, but not olanzapine disrupts conditioned avoidance response in rats by antagonizing 5-HT2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Sun, Tao; Mead, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the role of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the acute and repeated effect of clozapine and olanzapine in a rat conditioned avoidance response model (CAR), a validated model of antipsychotic activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that were previously treated with either phencyclidine (0.5-2.0 mg/kg, sc), amphetamine (1.25-5.0 mg/kg, sc), or saline and tested in a prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle study were used. They were first trained to acquire avoidance response to a white noise (CS1) and a pure tone (CS2) that differed in their ability to predict the occurrence of footshock. Those who acquired avoidance response were administered with clozapine (10.0 mg/kg, sc) or olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, sc) together with either saline or 1-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amphetamine (DOI, a selective 5-HT2A/2C agonist, 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg, sc), and their conditioned avoidance responses were tested for four consecutive days. After two drug-free retraining days, the long-term repeated effect was assessed in a challenge test during which all rats were injected with a low dose of clozapine (5 mg/kg, sc) or olanzapine (0.5 mg/kg). Results show that pretreatment of DOI dose-dependently reversed the acute disruptive effect of clozapine on both CS1 and CS2 avoidance responses, whereas it had little effect in reversing the acute effect of olanzapine. On the challenge test, pretreatment of DOI did not alter the clozapine-induced tolerance or the olanzapine-induced sensitization effect. These results confirmed our previous findings and suggest that clozapine, but not olanzapine acts on through 5-HT2A/2C receptors to achieve its acute avoidance disruptive effect and likely its therapeutic effects. The long-term clozapine tolerance and olanzapine sensitization effects appear to be mediated by non-5-HT2A/2C receptors. PMID:21986871

  11. Delayed antagonism of AMPA/kainate receptors reduces long-term functional deficits resulting from spinal cord trauma.

    PubMed

    Wrathall, J R; Teng, Y D; Marriott, R

    1997-06-01

    Excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors play a significant role in delayed neuronal death after ischemic and traumatic injury to the CNS. Focal microinjection experiments have demonstrated that 2,3-dihydro-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX), a highly selective and potent antagonist of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ionotropic EAA receptors, i.e., those preferring alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) or kainate, can reduce histopathology and functional deficits when administered at 15 min after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Similarly, intravenous infusion of NBQX, beginning at 15 min postinjury (p.i.), results in a significant amelioration of the functional deficits produced by experimental SCI. However, if antagonists of AMPA/kainate receptors were to be used therapeutically for patients with SCI, administration would likely be delayed for several hours after injury. We therefore examined the effects of NBQX administered at 4 h after SCI on functional deficits and histopathology in a standardized rat model of contusive SCI. An incomplete SCI was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats at T8 with a weight-drop device (10 g x 2.5 cm). NBQX (15 nmol), or vehicle alone, was microinjected into the injury site 4 h later. Recovery of hind limb reflexes, postural control, and locomotor function was determined by a battery of behavioral tests performed for 8 weeks. Spinal cord tissue was then fixed by perfusion and used for morphometric and immunocytochemical analyses. Previous studies with acute NBQX treatment showed significant functional improvement by 1 week; the effects of delayed NBQX treatment on functional deficits were not discernible until 3-4 weeks after SCI. Thereafter, significant reductions in hindlimb deficits were demonstrated in two independent studies. The nature and magnitude of the reductions in chronic deficits were similar to those observed previously when NBQX was administered acutely at 15 min after SCI. Morphometric

  12. Dysfunctional epileptic neuronal circuits and dysmorphic dendritic spines are mitigated by platelet-activating factor receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Musto, Alberto E; Rosencrans, Robert F; Walker, Chelsey P; Bhattacharjee, Surjyadipta; Raulji, Chittalsinh M; Belayev, Ludmila; Fang, Zhide; Gordon, William C; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy or limbic epilepsy lacks effective therapies due to a void in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that set in motion aberrant neuronal network formations during the course of limbic epileptogenesis (LE). Here we show in in vivo rodent models of LE that the phospholipid mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) increases in LE and that PAF receptor (PAF-r) ablation mitigates its progression. Synthetic PAF-r antagonists, when administered intraperitoneally in LE, re-establish hippocampal dendritic spine density and prevent formation of dysmorphic dendritic spines. Concomitantly, hippocampal interictal spikes, aberrant oscillations, and neuronal hyper-excitability, evaluated 15-16 weeks after LE using multi-array silicon probe electrodes implanted in the dorsal hippocampus, are reduced in PAF-r antagonist-treated mice. We suggest that over-activation of PAF-r signaling induces aberrant neuronal plasticity in LE and leads to chronic dysfunctional neuronal circuitry that mediates epilepsy. PMID:27444269

  13. Dysfunctional epileptic neuronal circuits and dysmorphic dendritic spines are mitigated by platelet-activating factor receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Musto, Alberto E.; Rosencrans, Robert F.; Walker, Chelsey P.; Bhattacharjee, Surjyadipta; Raulji, Chittalsinh M.; Belayev, Ludmila; Fang, Zhide; Gordon, William C.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy or limbic epilepsy lacks effective therapies due to a void in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that set in motion aberrant neuronal network formations during the course of limbic epileptogenesis (LE). Here we show in in vivo rodent models of LE that the phospholipid mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) increases in LE and that PAF receptor (PAF-r) ablation mitigates its progression. Synthetic PAF-r antagonists, when administered intraperitoneally in LE, re-establish hippocampal dendritic spine density and prevent formation of dysmorphic dendritic spines. Concomitantly, hippocampal interictal spikes, aberrant oscillations, and neuronal hyper-excitability, evaluated 15–16 weeks after LE using multi-array silicon probe electrodes implanted in the dorsal hippocampus, are reduced in PAF-r antagonist-treated mice. We suggest that over-activation of PAF-r signaling induces aberrant neuronal plasticity in LE and leads to chronic dysfunctional neuronal circuitry that mediates epilepsy. PMID:27444269

  14. Alterations in High-Frequency Neuronal Oscillations in a Cynomolgus Macaque Test of Sustained Attention Following NMDA Receptor Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Goonawardena, Anushka V; Heiss, Jaime; Glavis-Bloom, Courtney; Trube, Gerhard; Borroni, Edilio; Alberati, Daniela; Wallace, Tanya L

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that neuronal oscillations in the gamma frequency range (30-80 Hz) are disturbed in schizophrenic patients during cognitive processes and may represent an endophenotype of the disease. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been used experimentally to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms including cognitive deficits in animals and humans. Here we characterized neuronal oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Cynomolgus macaques fully trained to perform a continuous performance test (CPT) in the presence and absence of the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). Macaques (n=8) were trained to touch 'target' stimuli and ignore 'distractor' stimuli presented randomly on a touchscreen. Subsequently, all subjects were implanted with epidural EEG electrodes over frontal (FC) and parietal cortices (PC) and later tested under vehicle (saline, i.m.) or acute PCP (0.1-0.3 mg/kg, i.m.) conditions. Compared with vehicle treatment, PCP produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in CPT performance accuracy and increased reaction times. Furthermore, PCP elevated the amplitudes of 'low' (30-50 Hz) and 'high' (51-80 Hz) gamma oscillations in FC and PC around target presentations for all correct responses. The CPT accuracy was inversely correlated with the gamma band amplitude in the presence of PCP. Additionally, PCP delayed the N100 peak latency in FC, and prolonged and suppressed the cognitively relevant P300 component of mean ERPs in FC and PC, respectively. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced alteration in neuronal oscillations and ERPs may contribute to the observed cognitive deficits in macaques, and enhance our understanding of EEG recordings as a translatable biomarker. PMID:26354045

  15. Synergistic effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 and neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism in rodent models of somatic and visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Tyler, Karl; Pietra, Claudio; Bee, Lucy A; Dickenson, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Synergistic activity has been observed between serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) and tachykinergic neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-mediated responses. This study investigated the efficacy of a 5-HT3 antagonist, palonosetron, and a NK1 antagonist, netupitant, alone or in combination in rodent models of somatic and visceral colonic hypersensitivity. In a rat model of experimental neuropathic pain, somatic hypersensitivity was quantified by the number of ipsilateral paw withdrawals to a von Frey filament (6g). Electrophysiologic responses were recorded in the dorsal horn neurons after mechanical or thermal stimuli. Acute colonic hypersensitivity was induced experimentally in rats by infusing dilute acetic acid (0.6%) directly into the colon. Colonic sensitivity was assessed by a visceromotor behavioral response quantified as the number of abdominal contractions in response to graded isobaric pressures (0-60 mm Hg) of colorectal distension. Palonosetron or netupitant was administered alone or in combination via oral gavage. When dosed alone, both significantly reduced somatic sensitivity, decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation, and caused significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of colonic hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. The combined administration of palonosetron and netupitant at doses that were ineffective alone significantly reduced both somatic and visceral sensitivity and decreased the evoked response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to mechanical or thermal stimulation. In summary, the combination of palonosetron with a NK1 receptor antagonist showed synergistic analgesic activity in rodent models of somatic and visceral hypersensitivity, and may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach to treat pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:25077526

  16. Addition of Angiotensin Receptor Blockade or Mineralocorticoid Antagonism to Maximal Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Uzma F.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Raskin, Philip; Vega, Gloria L.

    2009-01-01

    Aldosterone promotes glomerular and tubular sclerosis independent of angiotensin II in animal models of diabetic nephropathy. Most human studies testing the renoprotective benefit of adding an angiotensin receptor blocker or a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist to a regimen based on inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) used relatively low doses of ACE inhibitors. Furthermore, these studies did not determine whether antiproteinuric effects were independent of BP lowering. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 81 patients with diabetes, hypertension, and albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥300 mg/g) who all received lisinopril (80 mg once daily). We randomly assigned the patients to placebo, losartan (100 mg daily), or spironolactone (25 mg daily) for 48 wk. We obtained blood and urine albumin, urea, creatinine, electrolytes, A1c, and ambulatory BP at baseline, 24, and 48 wk. Compared with placebo, the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio decreased by 34.0% (95% CI, −51.0%, −11.2%, P = 0.007) in the group assigned to spironolactone and by 16.8% (95% CI, −37.3%, +10.5%, P = 0.20) in the group assigned to losartan. Clinic and ambulatory BP, creatinine clearance, sodium and protein intake, and glycemic control did not differ between groups. Serum potassium level was significantly higher with the addition of either spironolactone or losartan. In conclusion, the addition of spironolactone, but not losartan, to a regimen including maximal ACE inhibition affords greater renoprotection in diabetic nephropathy despite a similar effect on BP. These results support the need to conduct a long-term, large-scale, renal failure outcomes trial. PMID:19926893

  17. H4 receptor antagonism exhibits anti-nociceptive effects in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models in rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Gin C; Chandran, Prasant; Salyers, Anita K; Pai, Madhavi; Zhu, Chang Z; Wensink, Erica J; Witte, David G; Miller, Thomas R; Mikusa, Joe P; Baker, Scott J; Wetter, Jill M; Marsh, Kennan C; Hancock, Arthur A; Cowart, Marlon D; Esbenshade, Timothy A; Brioni, Jorge D; Honore, Prisca

    2010-03-01

    The histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) is expressed primarily on cells involved in inflammation and immune responses. To determine the potential role of H(4)R in pain transmission, the effects of JNJ7777120, a potent and selective H(4) antagonist, were characterized in preclinical pain models. Administration of JNJ7777120 fully blocked neutrophil influx observed in a mouse zymosan-induced peritonitis model (ED(50)=17 mg/kg s.c., 95% CI=8.5-26) in a mast cell-dependent manner. JNJ7777120 potently reversed thermal hyperalgesia observed following intraplantar carrageenan injection of acute inflammatory pain (ED(50)=22 mg/kg i.p., 95% CI=10-35) in rats and significantly decreased the myeloperoxide activity in the carrageenan-injected paw. In contrast, no effects were produced by either H(1)R antagonist diphenhydramine, H(2)R antagonists ranitidine, or H(3)R antagonist ABT-239. JNJ7777120 also exhibited robust anti-nociceptive activity in persistent inflammatory (CFA) pain with an ED(50) of 29 mg/kg i.p. (95% CI=19-40) and effectively reversed monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritic joint pain. This compound also produced dose-dependent anti-allodynic effects in the spinal nerve ligation (ED(50)=60 mg/kg) and sciatic nerve constriction injury (ED(50)=88 mg/kg) models of chronic neuropathic pain, as well as in a skin-incision model of acute post-operative pain (ED(50)=68 mg/kg). In addition, the analgesic effects of JNJ7777120 were maintained following repeated administration and were evident at the doses that did not cause neurologic deficits in rotarod test. Our results demonstrate that selective blockade of H(4) receptors in vivo produces significant anti-nociception in animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:20004681

  18. Effects of CB1 receptor agonism and antagonism on behavioral fear and physiological stress responses in adult intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-replaced female rats.

    PubMed

    Simone, J J; Malivoire, B L; McCormick, C M

    2015-10-15

    There is growing interest in the development of cannabis-based therapies for the treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. There are a few studies, but none in females, of the effects of the highly selective cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) agonist, arachidonyl 2'-chlorethylamide (ACEA), on behavioral fear. In experiment 1 involving gonadally-intact females, ACEA (either 0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg) was without effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and the lower dose decreased anxiety in the open field test (OFT). AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM and decreased locomotor activity in the OFT. Twenty-four hours after fear conditioning, neither ACEA nor AM251 affected generalized fear or conditioned fear recall. AM251 and 0.1 mg/kg ACEA impaired, and 0.01 mg/kg ACEA enhanced, within-session fear extinction. AM251 increased plasma corticosterone concentrations after the fear extinction session, whereas ACEA was without effect. Based on evidence that estradiol may moderate the effects of CB1 receptor signaling in females, experiment 2 involved ovariectomized (OVX) rats provided with 10-μg 17β-Estradiol and compared with OVX rats without hormone replacement (oil vehicle). Irrespective of hormone treatment, AM251 increased anxiety in the EPM, whereas ACEA (0.01 mg/kg) was without effect. Neither hormone nor drug altered anxiety in the OFT, but estradiol increased and AM251 decreased distance traveled. After fear conditioning, AM251 decreased generalized fear. Neither hormone nor drug had any effect on recall or extinction of conditioned fear, however, ACEA and AM251 increased fear-induced plasma corticosterone concentrations. Further, when results with intact rats were compared with those from OVX rats, gonadal status did not moderate the effects of either AM251 or ACEA, although OVX displayed greater anxiety and fear than did intact rats. Thus, the effects of CB1 receptor antagonism and agonism in adult female rats do not depend on ovarian estradiol. PMID:26311003

  19. Differential antagonism of tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced seizures by agents acting at NMDA and GABA{sub A} receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Shakarjian, Michael P.; Velíšková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K.; Velíšek, Libor

    2012-11-15

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a highly lethal neuroactive rodenticide responsible for many accidental and intentional poisonings in mainland China. Ease of synthesis, water solubility, potency, and difficulty to treat make TMDT a potential weapon for terrorist activity. We characterized TMDT-induced convulsions and mortality in male C57BL/6 mice. TMDT (ip) produced a continuum of twitches, clonic, and tonic–clonic seizures decreasing in onset latency and increasing in severity with increasing dose; 0.4 mg/kg was 100% lethal. The NMDA antagonist, ketamine (35 mg/kg) injected ip immediately after the first TMDT-induced seizure, did not change number of tonic–clonic seizures or lethality, but increased the number of clonic seizures. Doubling the ketamine dose decreased tonic–clonic seizures and eliminated lethality through a 60 min observation period. Treating mice with another NMDA antagonist, MK-801, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg ip, showed similar effects as low and high doses of ketamine, respectively, and prevented lethality, converting status epilepticus EEG activity to isolated interictal discharges. Treatment with these agents 15 min prior to TMDT administration did not increase their effectiveness. Post-treatment with the GABA{sub A} receptor allosteric enhancer diazepam (5 mg/kg) greatly reduced seizure manifestations and prevented lethality 60 min post-TMDT, but ictal events were evident in EEG recordings and, hours post-treatment, mice experienced status epilepticus and died. Thus, TMDT is a highly potent and lethal convulsant for which single-dose benzodiazepine treatment is inadequate in managing electrographic seizures or lethality. Repeated benzodiazepine dosing or combined application of benzodiazepines and NMDA receptor antagonists is more likely to be effective in treating TMDT poisoning. -- Highlights: ► TMDT produces convulsions and lethality at low doses in mice. ► Diazepam pre- or post-treatments inhibit TMDT-induced convulsions and death

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibition prevents the impairing effects of hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonism on memory consolidation and extinction.

    PubMed

    Petry, Fernanda S; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Lichtenfels, Martina; Valiati, Fernanda E; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Parent, Marise B; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) regulate memory formation and extinction, and disturbances in GRPR signaling may contribute to cognitive impairment associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression involved in memory formation, and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) rescue memory deficits in several models. The present study determined whether inhibiting histone deacetylation would prevent memory impairments produced by GRPR blockade in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given an intrahippocampal infusion of saline (SAL) or the HDACi sodium butyrate (NaB) shortly before inhibitory avoidance (IA) training, followed by an infusion of either SAL or the selective GRPR antagonist RC-3095 immediately after training. In a second experiment, the infusions were administered before and after a retention test trial that served as extinction training. As expected, RC-3095 significantly impaired consolidation and extinction of IA memory. More importantly, pretraining administration of NaB, at a dose that had no effect when given alone, prevented the effects of RC-3095. In addition, the combination of NaB and RC-3095 increased hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These findings indicate that HDAC inhibition can protect against memory impairment caused by GRPR blockade. PMID:27025446

  1. Endothelin receptor antagonism prevents hypoxia-induced mortality and morbidity in a mouse model of sickle-cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Sabaa, Nathalie; de Franceschi, Lucia; Bonnin, Philippe; Castier, Yves; Malpeli, Giorgio; Debbabi, Haythem; Galaup, Ariane; Maier-Redelsperger, Micheline; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Scarpa, Aldo; Janin, Anne; Levy, Bernard; Girot, Robert; Beuzard, Yves; Leboeuf, Christophe; Henri, Annie; Germain, Stéphane; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis

    2008-01-01

    Patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) suffer from tissue damage and life-threatening complications caused by vasoocclusive crisis (VOC). Endothelin receptors (ETRs) are mediators of one of the most potent vasoconstrictor pathways in mammals, but the relationship between vasoconstriction and VOC is not well understood. We report here that pharmacological inhibition of ETRs prevented hypoxia-induced acute VOC and organ damage in a mouse model of SCD. An in vivo ultrasonographic study of renal hemodynamics showed a substantial increase in endothelin-mediated vascular resistance during hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced VOC. This increase was reversed by administration of the dual ETR antagonist (ETRA) bosentan, which had pleiotropic beneficial effects in vivo. It prevented renal and pulmonary microvascular congestion, systemic inflammation, dense rbc formation, and infiltration of activated neutrophils into tissues with subsequent nitrative stress. Bosentan also prevented death of sickle-cell mice exposed to a severe hypoxic challenge. These findings in mice suggest that ETRA could be a potential new therapy for SCD, as it may prevent acute VOC and limit organ damage in sickle-cell patients. PMID:18382768

  2. Antagonism of Secreted PCSK9 Increases Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression in HepG2 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Markey C.; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R.; Horton, Jay D.; Lagace, Thomas A.

    2009-07-10

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  3. Effect of Nelumbo nucifera Petal Extracts on Lipase, Adipogenesis, Adipolysis, and Central Receptors of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Mookambeswaran, Vijayalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    N. nucifera is one among the important medicinal plants assessed for its antiobesity action in various preclinical models. The present study was aimed at investigating the antiobesity effect of methanol and successive water extracts of petals of N. nucifera by studying its effect on adipogenesis, adipolysis, lipase, serotonin (5-HT2C), cannabinoid (CNR2), melanocyte concentrating hormone (MCHR1), and melanocortin (MC4R) receptors. Both methanol and successive water extracts of N. nucifera petals had an effect on inhibition of lipid storage in adipocytes and on increasing lipolysis. N. nucifera petal methanol extract exhibited the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on lipase activity with an IC50 value of 47 µg/mL. N. nucifera petal extracts showed evident agonist and antagonist activity towards 5-HT2C and CNR2 receptors, respectively, while it showed no effect towards MCHR1 and MC4R receptors. Overall, methanol extract of N. nucifera petals showed better activity than successive water extract. PMID:24348689

  4. Altered mnemonic functions and resistance to NMDA receptor antagonism by forebrain conditional knockout of glycine transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Philipp; Yee, Benjamin K.; Feldon, Joram; Iwasato, Takuji; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Grampp, Thomas; Prenosil, George; Benke, Dietmar; Möhler, Hanns; Boison, Detlev

    2009-01-01

    Converging evidence from pharmacological and molecular studies has led to the suggestion that inhibition of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) constitutes an effective means to boost N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by increasing the extra-cellular concentration of glycine in the vicinity of glutamatergic synapses. However, the precise extent and limitation of this approach to alter cognitive function, and therefore its potential as a treatment strategy against psychiatric conditions marked by cognitive impairments, remains to be fully examined. Here, we generated mutant mice lacking GlyT1 in the entire forebrain including neurons and glia. This conditional knockout system allows a more precise examination of GlyT1 down-regulation in the brain on behaviour and cognition. The mutation was highly effective in attenuating the motor-stimulating effect of acute NMDAR blockade by phencyclidine, although no appreciable elevation in NMDAR-mediated EPSC was observed in the hippocampus. Enhanced cognitive performance was observed in spatial working memory and object recognition memory while spatial reference memory and associative learning remained unaltered. These findings provide further credence for the potential cognitive enhancing effects of brain GlyT1 inhibition. At the same time, they indicated potential phenotypic differences when compared with other constitutive and conditional GlyT1 knockout lines, and highlighted the possibility of a functional divergence between the neuronal and glia subpopulations of GlyT1 in the regulation of learning and memory processes. The relevance of this distinction to the design of future GlyT1 blockers as therapeutic tools in the treatment of cognitive disorders remains to be further investigated. PMID:19332109

  5. Sexually dimorphic effects of NMDA receptor antagonism on brain-pituitary-gonad axis development in the platyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Katherine M.; Miller, Shelly A.; Sower, Stacia A.; Schreibman, Martin P.

    2002-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) is found in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of reproduction in several species of mammals and fishes. NMDAR is believed to affect reproductive development and function by regulating gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-producing cells. These pathways are likely to be sexually dimorphic, as are several other neurotransmitter systems involved in reproductive function. In this report, male and female platyfish received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 60 microg/g body wt. of the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Injections began at 6 weeks of age and continued thrice weekly until control animals reached puberty, as evidenced by anal fin maturation. The percent of pubescent animals was significantly affected by sex and treatment, with fewer MK-801-injected females in puberty than control females at each dose (P<0.001), and fewer pubescent females than males at 10, 20 and 40 microg/g (P<0.05). There were no MK-801-related effects in males. Histological analyses revealed typical immature gonads and pituitary glands in treated females, and typical mature morphology in control females and all males. Immunocytochemical distribution of the R1 subunit of the NMDAR within the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis was limited to GnRH-containing brain cells in all animals; however, NMDAR1 distribution was in an immature pattern in treated females and a mature pattern in all others. Neural concentrations of GnRH were unaffected by MK-801 treatment in both sexes. These data suggest that in the platyfish, NMDAR influence on reproductive development is sexually dimorphic and occurs at, or above, the level of GnRH-containing cells of the BPG axis.

  6. Chronic endothelin-A receptor antagonism is as protective as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition against cardiac dysfunction in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wölkart, G; Pang, X; Stessel, H; Kirchengast, M; Brunner, F

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Diabetes mellitus is associated with a specific cardiomyopathy. We compared the cardioprotective effects of an endothelin-A receptor blocker (ETA-RB) with those of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Experimental approach: Diabetic rats were left untreated or received either the ETA-RB atrasentan or the ACE-I ramipril (each 3 mg kg−1 per day) orally for 8 weeks. Isolated isovolumic heart function was studied during normoxia and in response to ischaemia-reperfusion. Cardiac fibrosis, tissue oxidative stress and tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were determined. Key results: Basal left ventricular systolic contractility was lower in diabetic compared to nondiabetic hearts and ETA-RB or ACE-I treatment significantly antagonised the decline. Following 15 min of no-flow ischaemia, reperfusion systolic function was depressed and left-ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was elevated in diabetic hearts. ETA-RB or ACE-I treatment significantly improved recovery of reperfusion systolic and diastolic function, without differences between groups. Hydroxyproline (an index of tissue fibrosis) and malondialdehyde (a measure of tissue oxidative stress) were elevated at the end of reperfusion in diabetic, compared to nondiabetic hearts. Either treatment reduced hydroxyproline and malondialdehyde to control level. Constitutive NOS activity was similar in nondiabetic and diabetic hearts and unaffected by ETA-RB or ACE-I treatment. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that in experimental type 1 diabetes ETA-RB is as effective as an ACE-I in ameliorating myocardial functions during normoxia and ischaemia-reperfusion. Combining the two treatments neither afforded additive effects, nor diminished any protection effect seen with either drug. PMID:17572700

  7. Cannabidiol Attenuates Sensorimotor Gating Disruption and Molecular Changes Induced by Chronic Antagonism of NMDA receptors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Issy, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Frederico R.; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Del Bel, Elaine A.; Guimarães, Francisco S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and clinical data suggest that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, induces antipsychotic-like effects. However, the antipsychotic properties of repeated CBD treatment have been poorly investigated. Behavioral changes induced by repeated treatment with glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists have been proposed as an animal model of schizophrenia-like signs. In the present study, we evaluated if repeated treatment with CBD would attenuate the behavioral and molecular modifications induced by chronic administration of one of these antagonists, MK-801. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice received daily i.p. injections of MK-801 (0.1, 0.5, or 1mg/kg) for 14, 21, or 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, animals were submitted to the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. After that, we investigated if repeated treatment with CBD (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) would attenuate the PPI impairment induced by chronic treatment with MK-801 (1mg/kg; 28 days). CBD treatment began on the 6th day after the start of MK-801 administration and continued until the end of the treatment. Immediately after the PPI, the mice brains were removed and processed to evaluate the molecular changes. We measured changes in FosB/ΔFosB and parvalbumin (PV) expression, a marker of neuronal activity and a calcium-binding protein expressed in a subclass of GABAergic interneurons, respectively. Changes in mRNA expression of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit gene (GRN1) were also evaluated. CBD effects were compared to those induced by the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Results: MK-801 administration at the dose of 1mg/kg for 28 days impaired PPI responses. Chronic treatment with CBD (30 and 60mg/kg) attenuated PPI impairment. MK-801 treatment increased FosB/ΔFosB expression and decreased PV expression in the medial prefrontal cortex. A decreased mRNA level of GRN1 in the hippocampus was also observed. All the molecular changes were

  8. Combined serotonin (5-HT)1A agonism, 5-HT(2A) and dopamine D₂ receptor antagonism reproduces atypical antipsychotic drug effects on phencyclidine-impaired novel object recognition in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-05-15

    Subchronic administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), produces prolonged impairment of novel object recognition (NOR), suggesting they constitute a hypoglutamate-based model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS). Acute administration of atypical, e.g. lurasidone, but not typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), e.g. haloperidol, are able to restore NOR following PCP (acute reversal model). Furthermore, atypical APDs, when co-administered with PCP, have been shown to prevent development of NOR deficits (prevention model). Most atypical, but not typical APDs, are more potent 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonists than dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists, and have been shown to enhance cortical and hippocampal efflux and to be direct or indirect 5-HT(1A) agonists in vivo. To further clarify the importance of these actions to the restoration of NOR by atypical APDs, sub-effective or non-effective doses of combinations of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist (tandospirone), the 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist (pimavanserin), or the D2 antagonist (haloperidol), as well as the combination of all three agents, were studied in the acute reversal and prevention PCP models of CIS. Only the combination of all three agents restored NOR and prevented the development of PCP-induced deficit. Thus, this triple combination of 5-HT(1A) agonism, 5-HT(2A) antagonism/inverse agonism, and D2 antagonism is able to mimic the ability of atypical APDs to prevent or ameliorate the PCP-induced NOR deficit, possibly by stimulating signaling cascades from D1 and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, modulated by D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. PMID:25448429

  9. N-Benzyl-5-methoxytryptamines as Potent Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Family Agonists and Comparison with a Series of Phenethylamine Analogues

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of N-benzylated-5-methoxytryptamine analogues was prepared and investigated, with special emphasis on substituents in the meta position of the benzyl group. A parallel series of several N-benzylated analogues of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I) also was included for comparison of the two major templates (i.e., tryptamine and phenethylamine). A broad affinity screen at serotonin receptors showed that most of the compounds had the highest affinity at the 5-HT2 family receptors. Substitution at the para position of the benzyl group resulted in reduced affinity, whereas substitution in either the ortho or the meta position enhanced affinity. In general, introduction of a large lipophilic group improved affinity, whereas functional activity often followed the opposite trend. Tests of the compounds for functional activity utilized intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Function was measured at the human 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors, as well as at the rat 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. There was no general correlation between affinity and function. Several of the tryptamine congeners were very potent functionally (EC50 values from 7.6 to 63 nM), but most were partial agonists. Tests in the mouse head twitch assay revealed that many of the compounds induced the head twitch and that there was a significant correlation between this behavior and functional potency at the rat 5-HT2A receptor. PMID:25547199

  10. Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptors Induce a Long-Lasting Facilitation of Spinal Reflexes Independent of Ionotropic Receptor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Barbara L.; Sawchuk, Michael; Machacek, David W.; Hochman, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Dorsal root-evoked stimulation of sensory afferents in the hemisected in vitro rat spinal cord produces reflex output, recorded on the ventral roots. Transient spinal 5-HT2C receptor activation induces a long-lasting facilitation of these reflexes (LLFR) by largely unknown mechanisms. Two Sprague-Dawley substrains were used to characterize network properties involved in this serotonin (5-HT) receptor-mediated reflex plasticity. Serotonin more easily produced LLFR in one substrain and a long-lasting depression of reflexes (LLDR) in the other. Interestingly, LLFR and LLDR were bidirectionally interconvertible using 5-HT2A/2C and 5-HT1A receptor agonists, respectively, regardless of substrain. LLFR was predominantly Aβ afferent fiber mediated, consistent with prominent 5-HT2C receptor expression in the Aβ fiber projection territories (deeper spinal laminae). Reflex facilitation involved an unmasking of polysynaptic pathways and an increased receptive field size. LLFR emerged even when reflexes were evoked three to five times/h, indicating an activity independent induction. Both the NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated components of the reflex could be facilitated, and facilitation was dependent on 5-HT receptor activation alone, not on coincident reflex activation in the presence of 5-HT. Selective blockade of GABAA and/or glycine receptors also did not prevent reflex amplification and so are not required for LLFR. Indeed, a more robust response was seen after blockade of spinal inhibition, indicating that inhibitory processes serve to limit reflex amplification. Overall we demonstrate that the serotonergic system has the capacity to induce long-lasting bidirectional changes in reflex strength in a manner that is nonassociative and independent of evoked activity or activation of ionotropic excitatory and inhibitory receptors. PMID:16033939

  11. A dual physiological character for sexual function: the role of serotonergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G

    2008-03-01

    Anatomically, sexual reflexes are mixed (somatic-autonomic) circuits, represented by emission (sympathetic centre and somatic afferents), expulsion (parasympathetic centre and somatic efferents) and erection (parasympathetic centre and somatic afferents). Physiologically, ejaculation has a dual autonomic mediation, consisting of two distinct and opposite autonomic centres (emission and expulsion), both with a positive contribution to the respective function. Experimentally, serotonin (5HT) has two distinct, opposite and positive effects on sexual function, with 5HT-(1A) agonists decreasing intravaginal ejaculatory latency and erection, and 5HT-(2C) agonists increasing both erection and ejaculatory latency. In this review I assume that 5HT modulates sexual reflexes, establishing a functional connection between the involved somatic and autonomic structures. The 5HT-(1A) receptors are assumed to make the connection between somatic pathways and sympathetic centres while the 5HT-(2C) receptors could establish the connection between somatic pathways and parasympathetic centres. Further studies will develop the cerebral sexual duality, explaining the implication of psychological factors in sexual function and the role of sexuality in psychosocial behaviour. PMID:17922864

  12. P2X7 Receptor Antagonism Attenuates the Intermittent Hypoxia-induced Spatial Deficits in a Murine Model of Sleep Apnea Via Inhibiting Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yan; Guo, Xue-Ling; Yuan, Xiao; Shang, Jin; Zhu, Die; Liu, Hui-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mechanism of the neural injury caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) that characterizes obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is not clearly known. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is responsible for the CIH-induced neural injury and the possible pathway it involves. Methods: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were used. For each exposure time point, eight mice divided in room air (RA) and IH group were assigned to the study of P2X7R expression. Whereas in the 21 days-Brilliant Blue G (BBG, a selective P2X7R antagonist) study, 48 mice were randomly divided into CIH group, BBG-treated CIH group, RA group and BBG-treated RA group. The hippocampus P2X7R expression was determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spatial learning was analyzed by Morris water maze. The nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL-β), IL-18, and IL-6 were measured by real-time PCR. The malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels were detected by colorimetric method. Cell damage was evaluated by Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and Terminal Transferase dUTP Nick-end Labeling method. Results: The P2X7R mRNA was elevated and sustained after 3-day IH exposure and the P2X7R protein was elevated and sustained after 7-day IH exposure. In the BBG study, the CIH mice showed severer neuronal cell damage and poorer performance in the behavior test. The increased NFκB and NOX2 expressions along with the inflammation injury and oxidative stress were also observed in the CIH group. BBG alleviated CIH-induced neural injury and consequent functional deficits. Conclusions: The P2X7R antagonism attenuates the CIH-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and spatial deficits, demonstrating that the P2X7R is an important therapeutic target in the cognition deficits accompanied

  13. Low Dose Nicotine and Antagonism of β2 Subunit Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Have Similar Effects on Affective Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Shawn M.; Brunzell, Darlene H.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine leads to both activation and desensitization (inactivation) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study tested the hypothesis that nicotine and a selective antagonist of β2*nAChRs would have similar effects on affective behavior. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were tested in a conditioned emotional response (CER) assay which evaluates the ability of an aversive stimulus to inhibit goal-directed behavior. Mice lever-pressed for a saccharin reinforcer according to a variable schedule of reinforcement during sessions in which two presentations of a compound light/tone conditioned stimulus (CS) co-terminated with a 0.1 or 0.3 mA, 0.5 s footshock unconditioned stimulus (US). During testing in the absence of the US, mice received doses of i.p. nicotine (0, 0.0032, 0.01, 0.032, 0.1 mg/kg) or a selective β2 subunit containing nAChR (β2*nAChR) antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg DHβE). There was a dose-dependent effect of nicotine revealing that only low doses (0.01, 0.032 mg/kg) increased CER suppression ratios (SR) in these mice. DHβE also dose-dependently increased SR at the 3 mg/kg dose. In ethological measures of fear−/anxiety-like behavior, these doses of nicotine and DHβE significantly reduced digging behavior in a marble burying task and 0.3 mg/kg DHβE promoted open-arm activity in the elevated plus maze. Doses of nicotine and DHβE that altered affective behavior had no effect on locomotor activity. Similar to previous reports with anxiolytic drugs, low dose nicotine and DHβE reversed SR in a CER assay, decreased digging in a marble burying assay and increased open arm activity in the elevated plus maze. This study provides evidence that inactivation of β2*nAChRs reduces fear-like and anxiety-like behavior in rodents and suggests that smokers may be motivated to smoke in part to desensitize their β2*nAChRs. These data further identify β2*nAChR antagonism as a potential therapeutic strategy for relief of

  14. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Gordon F; Smith, Haleigh R; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B

    2015-07-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT(2A) receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1b(f/f/p)) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT(2A), but not 5-HT(2C), receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT(2A) receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  15. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  16. The role of serotonin receptor subtypes in treating depression: a review of animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Gregory V.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective in treating depression. Given the existence of different families and subtypes of 5-HT receptors, multiple 5-HT receptors may be involved in the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of SSRIs. Objective Behavioral pharmacology studies investigating the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in producing or blocking the effects of SSRIs were reviewed. Results Few animal behavior tests were available to support the original development of SSRIs. Since their development, a number of behavioral tests and models of depression have been developed that are sensitive to the effects of SSRIs, as well as to other types of antidepressant treatments. The rationale for the development and use of these tests is reviewed. Behavioral effects similar to those of SSRIs (antidepressant-like) have been produced by agonists at 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, and 5-HT6 receptors. Also, antagonists at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5- HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors have been reported to produce antidepressant-like responses. Although it seems paradoxical that both agonists and antagonists at particular 5-HT receptors can produce antidepressant-like effects, they probably involve diverse neurochemical mechanisms. The behavioral effects of SSRIs and other antidepressants may also be augmented when 5-HT receptor agonists or antagonists are given in combination. Conclusions The involvement of 5-HT receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs is complex and involves the orchestration of stimulation and blockade at different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Individual 5-HT receptors provide opportunities for the development of a newer generation of antidepressants that may be more beneficial and effective than SSRIs. PMID:21107537

  17. Comparison of the metabolic effects of GIP receptor antagonism and PYY(3-36) receptor activation in high fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Irwin, N; Hunter, K; Flatt, P R

    2007-11-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) are secreted from the intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, following a meal. Both peptides are believed to play a key role in glucose homeostasis and energy expenditure. This study investigated the effects of daily administration of the stable and specific GIP-R antagonist, (Pro(3))GIP (25 nmol/kg) and the endogenous truncated form of PYY, PYY(3-36) (50 nmol/kg), in mice fed with a high fat diet. Daily i.p. injection of (Pro(3))GIP, PYY(3-36) or combined peptide administration over 24 days significantly (P<0.05-0.01) decreased body weight compared with saline-treated controls without change in food intake. Plasma glucose levels and glucose tolerance were significantly (P<0.05) lowered by (Pro(3))GIP treatment alone, and in combination with PYY(3-36). These changes were accompanied by a slight improvement of insulin sensitivity in all of the treatment groups. (Pro(3))GIP treatment significantly reduced plasma corticosterone (P<0.05), while combined administration with PYY(3-36) significantly lowered serum glucagon (P<0.05). No appreciable changes were observed in either circulating or glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in all treatment groups. (Pro(3))GIP-treated mice had significantly (P<0.01) lowered fasting glucose levels and an improved (P<0.05) glycemic response to feeding. These comparative data indicate that chemical ablation of GIP receptor action using (Pro(3))GIP provides an especially effective means of countering obesity and related abnormalities induced by consumption of high fat energy rich diet. PMID:17884253

  18. The effect of the sigma-1 receptor selective compound LS-1-137 on the DOI-induced head twitch response in mice.

    PubMed

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2016-09-01

    Several receptor mediated pathways have been shown to modulate the murine head twitch response (HTR). However, the role of sigma receptors in the murine (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced HTR has not been previously investigated. We examined the ability of LS-1-137, a novel sigma-1 vs. sigma-2 receptor selective phenylacetamide, to modulate the DOI-induced HTR in DBA/2J mice. We also assessed the in vivo efficacy of reference sigma-1 receptor antagonists and agonists PRE-084 and PPCC. The effect of the sigma-2 receptor selective antagonist RHM-1-86 was also examined. Rotarod analysis was performed to monitor motor coordination after LS-1-137 administration. Radioligand binding techniques were used to determine the affinity of LS-1-137 at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. LS-1-137 and the sigma-1 receptor antagonists haloperidol and BD 1047 were able to attenuate a DOI-induced HTR, indicating that LS-1-137 was acting in vivo as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist. LS-1-137 did not compromise rotarod performance within a dose range capable of attenuating the effects of DOI. Radioligand binding studies indicate that LS-1-137 exhibits low affinity binding at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Based upon the results from these and our previous studies, LS-1-137 is a neuroprotective agent that attenuates the murine DOI-induced HTR independent of activity at 5-HT2 receptor subtypes, D2-like dopamine receptors, sigma-2 receptors and NMDA receptors. LS-1-137 appears to act as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist to inhibit the DOI-induced HTR. Therefore, the DOI-induced HTR can be used to assess the in vivo efficacy of sigma-1 receptor selective compounds. PMID:27397487

  19. Differential expression of immediate early genes Zif268 and c-Fos in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex following spatial learning and glutamate receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Farina, Francesca R; Commins, Sean

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of NMDAR and AMPAR antagonism on the expression of Zif268 and c-Fos in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex during spatial memory encoding in rats trained in the Morris water maze. NMDAR inhibition impaired navigation and significantly attenuated expression of Zif268, but not c-Fos, in area CA1. AMPAR channel blockade had little effect on learning or IEG expression. Overall, Zif268 and c-Fos displayed markedly different patterns of hippocampal and prefrontal expression, with Zif268 being more closely linked to spatial learning. PMID:27071329

  20. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 exert opposite effects on the contractile response induced by serotonin in mouse colon: role of serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Forcén, R; Latorre, E; Pardo, J; Alcalde, A I; Murillo, M D; Grasa, L

    2016-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? The action of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 on the motor response to serotonin in mouse colon has not previously been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 modulate the serotonin-induced contractile response in mouse colon by modifying the expression of serotonin (5-HT) receptors. Alterations in 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors explain the increase of the response to serotonin in TLR2(-/-) mice. Alterations in 5-HT2C and 5-HT4 receptors explain the suppression of the response to serotonin in TLR4(-/-) mice. The microbiota, through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), may regulate gastrointestinal motility by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms. We evaluated the influence of TLR2 and TLR4 in spontaneous contractions and in the serotonin (5-HT)-induced motor response in mouse colon, and assessed the 5-HT receptors involved. Muscle contractility studies to evaluate the intestinal spontaneous motility and the response to 5-HT were performed in the colon from wild-type (WT), TLR2(-/-) , TLR4(-/-) and TLR2/4 double knockout (DKO) mice. The 5-HT receptor mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. The amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions of the colon were smaller in TLR4(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice with respect to WT mice. In WT, TLR2(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice, 100 μm 5-HT evoked a contractile response. The contractile response induced by 5-HT was significantly higher in TLR2(-/-) than in WT mice. In TLR4(-/-) mice, 5-HT did not evoke any contractile response. The mRNA expression of 5-HT2A was increased in TLR2(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice. The 5-HT2C and 5-HT4 mRNA expressions were increased in TLR4(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice. The 5-HT2C mRNA expression was diminished in TLR2(-/-) mice. The 5-HT3 mRNA expression was increased in TLR2(-/-) , TLR4(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice. The 5-HT7 mRNA expression was diminished in TLR2/4 DKO mice. In WT, TLR2(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice, 5-HT2

  1. Hallucinogen-like effects of 2-([2-(4-cyano-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl) ethylamino]methyl)phenol (25CN-NBOH), a novel N-benzylphenethylamine with 100-fold selectivity for 5-HT2A receptors, in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Bradley W.; Bailey, Jessica M.; Smith, Douglas; Hansen, Martin; Kristensen, Jesper L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale 2-([2-(4-cyano-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamino]methyl)phenol (25CN-NBOH) is structurally similar to N-benzyl substituted phenethylamine hallucinogens currently emerging as drugs of abuse. 25CN-NBOH exhibits dramatic selectivity for 5-HT2A receptors in vitro, but has not been behaviorally characterized. Objective 25CN-NBOH was compared to the traditional phenethylamine hallucinogen R(−)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) using mouse models of drug-elicited head twitch behavior and drug discrimination. Methods Drug-elicited head twitches were quantified for 10 min following administration of various doses of either DOI or 25CN-NBOH, with and without pretreatments of 0.01 mg/kg 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 or 3.0 mg/kg 5-HT2C antagonist RS102221. The capacity of 25CN-NBOH to attenuate DOI-elicited head twitch was also investigated. Mice were trained to discriminate DOI or M100907 from saline, and 25CN-NBOH was tested for generalization. Results 25CN-NBOH induced a head twitch response in the mouse that was lower in magnitude than that of DOI, blocked by M100907, but not altered by RS102221. DOI-elicited head twitch was dose-dependently attenuated by 25CN-NBOH pretreatment. 25CN-NBOH produced an intermediate degree of generalization (55%) for the DOI training dose, and these interoceptive effects were attenuated by M100907. Finally, 25CN-NBOH did not generalize to M100907 at any dose, but ketanserin fully substituted in these animals. Conclusions 25CN-NBOH was behaviorally active, but less effective than DOI in two mouse models of hallucinogenic effects. The effectiveness with which M100907 antagonized the behavioral actions of 25CN-NBOH strongly suggests that the 5-HT2A receptor is an important site of agonist action for this compound in vivo. PMID:25224567

  2. Effects of AT1 receptor antagonism on kainate-induced seizures and concomitant changes in hippocampal extracellular noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Loyens, Ellen; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-05-01

    In the management of epilepsy, AT1 receptor antagonists have been suggested as an additional treatment strategy. A hyperactive brain angiotensin (Ang) II system and upregulated AT1 receptors are implicated in the cerebrovascular alterations in a genetic form of hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension could also, in turn, be a risk factor for a seizure threshold decrease and development of epileptogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the effects of the selective AT1 receptor antagonist ZD7155 on kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) development and accompanying changes in the hippocampal extracellular (EC) neurotransmitter levels of noradrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their parent strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, since monoamines are well-known neurotransmitters involved in mechanisms of both epilepsy and hypertension. Status epilepticus was evoked in freely moving rats by a repetitive intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of KA in subconvulsant doses. In the treatment group, ZD7155 (5mg/kg i.p.) was coadministered with the first KA injection. Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibited higher susceptibility to SE than WKY rats, but the AT1 receptor antagonist did not alter the development of SE in SHRs or in WKY rats. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated significant KA-induced increases of the hippocampal NAD and DA levels in SHRs and of NAD, 5-HT, and DA in WKY rats. Although SHRs developed more severe seizures while receiving a lower dose of KA compared to WKY rats, AT1 receptor antagonism completely prevented all KA-induced increases of hippocampal monoamine levels in both rat strains without affecting seizure development per se. These results suggest a lack of direct relationship between KA-induced seizure susceptibility and adaptive changes of hippocampal NAD, 5-HT, and DA levels in the effects of ZD7155 in WKY rats and SHRs. PMID:25922088

  3. A Suppressive Antagonism Evidences Progesterone and Estrogen Receptor Pathway Interaction with Concomitant Regulation of Hand2, Bmp2 and ERK during Early Decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Mestre-Citrinovitz, Ana C.; Kleff, Veronika; Vallejo, Griselda

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor participate in growth and differentiation of the different rat decidual regions. Steroid hormone receptor antagonists were used to study steroid regulation of decidualization. Here we describe a suppressive interaction between progesterone receptor (onapristone) and estrogen receptor (ICI182780) antagonists and their relation to a rescue phenomenon with concomitant regulation of Hand2, Bmp2 and p-ERK1/2 during the early decidualization steps. Phenotypes of decidua development produced by antagonist treatments were characterized by morphology, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and expression of signaling molecules. We found that suppression of progesterone receptor activity by onapristone treatment resulted in resorption of the implantation sites with concomitant decrease in progesterone and estrogen receptors, PCNA, KI67 antigen, DESMIN, CCND3, CX43, Prl8a2, and signaling players such as transcription factor Hand2, Bmp2 mRNAs and p-ERK1/2. Moreover, FGF-2 and Vegfa increased as a consequence of onapristone treatment. Implantation sites from antagonist of estrogen receptor treated rats developed all decidual regions, but showed an anomalous blood vessel formation at the mesometrial part of the decidua. The deleterious effect of onapristone was partially counteracted by the impairment of estrogen receptor activity with rescue of expression levels of hormone steroid receptors, proliferation and differentiation markers, and the induction of a probably compensatory increase in signaling molecules Hand2, Bmp2 and ERK1/2 activation compared to oil treated controls. This novel drug interaction during decidualization could be applied to pathological endometrial cell proliferation processes to improve therapies using steroid hormone receptor targets. PMID:25897495

  4. Activation of Melatonin Receptors Reduces Relapse-Like Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis. We examined potential antirelapse effect of the novel antidepressant drug agomelatine. Given that agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist we also tested the effects of melatonin itself and the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. All drugs reduced relapse-like drinking. Agomelatine and melatonin administered at the end of the light phase led to very similar changes on all measures of the post-abstinence drinking behavior, suggesting that effects of agomelatine on relapse-like behavior are mostly driven by its melatonergic activity. Both drugs caused a clear phase advance in the diurnal drinking pattern when compared with the control vehicle-treated group and a reduced frequency of approaches to alcohol bottles. Melatonin given at the onset of the light phase had no effect on the circadian phase and very small effects on alcohol consumption. We conclude that targeting the melatonergic system in alcohol-dependent individuals can induce a circadian phase advance, which may restore normal sleep architecture and reduce relapse behavior. PMID:25994077

  5. Uncoupling of 5-HT1A receptors in the brain by estrogens: regional variations in antagonism by ICI 182,780.

    PubMed

    Mize, A L; Young, L J; Alper, R H

    2003-04-01

    Previously we have shown that 17beta-estradiol (in vivo and in vitro) rapidly decreases the function of serotonin(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptors, allowing us to hypothesize that 17beta-estradiol accomplished this via activation of a membrane estrogen receptor. Hippocampus and frontal cortex obtained from ovariectomized rats were incubated with 17beta-estradiol or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-estradiol in the presence or absence of the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780. Membranes were prepared to measure R(+)8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding (a measure of 5-HT(1A) receptor coupling and function). In both hippocampus and frontal cortex, 17beta-estradiol and BSA-estradiol (50 nM) decreased R(+)8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding. ICI 182,780 blocked the effect of both the estrogens in hippocampus, but only the effect of 17beta-estradiol in frontal cortex. Due to the inability of ICI 182,780 to block the effects of BSA-estradiol in frontal cortex, similar experiments were performed using the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen as the agonist. Tamoxifen (100 nM and 1 microM) decreased R(+)8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding. ICI 182,780 (1 microM) blocked the ability of tamoxifen to decrease 5-HT(1A) receptor coupling in the hippocampus, but not in the frontal cortex. Taken together, these data support the existence of a pharmacologically distinct ER in hippocampus vs. frontal cortex that might be responsible for rapid uncoupling of 5-HT(1A) receptors. PMID:12668044

  6. Antagonism of Bradykinin B2 Receptor Prevents Inflammatory Responses in Human Endothelial Cells by Quenching the NF-kB Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    Terzuoli, Erika; Meini, Stefania; Cucchi, Paola; Catalani, Claudio; Cialdai, Cecilia; Maggi, Carlo Alberto; Giachetti, Antonio; Ziche, Marina; Donnini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Bradykinin (BK) induces angiogenesis by promoting vessel permeability, growth and remodeling. This study aimed to demonstrate that the B2R antagonist, fasitibant, inhibits the BK pro-angiogenic effects. Methodology We assesed the ability of fasibitant to antagonize the BK stimulation of cultured human cells (HUVEC) and circulating pro-angiogenic cells (PACs), in producing cell permeability (paracellular flux), migration and pseocapillary formation. The latter parameter was studied in vitro (matrigel assay) and in vivo in mice (matrigel plug) and in rat model of experimental osteoarthritis (OA). We also evaluated NF-κB activation in cultured cells by measuring its nuclear translocation and its downstream effectors such as the proangiogenic ciclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Principal findings HUVEC, exposed to BK (1–10 µM), showed increased permeability, disassembly of adherens and tight-junction, increased cell migration, and pseudocapillaries formation. We observed a significant increase of vessel density in the matrigel assay in mice and in rats OA model. Importantly, B2R stimulation elicited, both in HUVEC and PACs, NF-κB activation, leading to COX-2 overexpression, enhanced prostaglandin E-2 production. and VEGF output. The BK/NF-κB axis, and the ensuing amplification of inflammatory/angiogenic responses were fully prevented by fasitibant as well as by IKK VII, an NF-κB. Inhibitor. Conclusion This work illustrates the role of the endothelium in the inflammation provoked by the BK/NF-κB axis. It also demonstates that B2R blockade by the antaogonist fasibitant, abolishes both the initial stimulus and its amplification, strongly attenuating the propagation of inflammation. PMID:24392129

  7. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca2+ release, and activation of protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems. PMID:25202235

  8. Antagonism of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Results in Decreased Contractile Response of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein to Tall Fescue Alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  9. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  10. Generation and characterization of rendomab-B1, a monoclonal antibody displaying potent and specific antagonism of the human endothelin B receptor

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Bertrand; Wijkhuisen, Anne; Borrull, Aurélie; Deshayes, Frédérique; Priam, Fabienne; Lamourette, Patricia; Ducancel, Frédéric; Boquet, Didier; Couraud, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin B receptor (ETBR) is a G protein-coupled receptor able to bind equally to the three identified human endothelin peptides. It is expressed primarily on vascular endothelial cells and involved in various physiological processes including vascular tone homeostasis, enteric nervous system development, melanogenesis and angiogenesis. Furthermore, overactivation or overexpression of ETBR have been associated with the development of various diseases such as cardiovascular disorders and cancers. Therefore, ETBR appears to be relevant target for the therapy or diagnosis of highly prevalent human diseases. In this study, we report the in vitro characterization of rendomab-B1, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) obtained by genetic immunization, which selectively recognizes the native form of human ETBR (hETBR). Rendomab-B1 is the first-reported mAb that behaves as a potent antagonist of hETBR. It recognizes an original extracellular conformational epitope on the receptor, distinct from the endothelin-1 (ET-1) binding site. Rendomab-B1 not only blocks ET-1-induced calcium signaling pathway and triggers rapid receptor internalization on recombinant hETBR-expressing cells, but also exerts pharmacological activities on human vascular endothelial cells, reducing both cell viability and ET-1-induced hETBR synthesis. In addition, binding experiments using rendomab-B1 on different melanoma cell lines reveal the structural and functional heterogeneity of hETBR expressed at the surface of these cancer cells, strongly suggesting the existence of tumor-specific receptors. Collectively, our results underscore the value of rendomab-B1 for research, therapeutic and diagnostic applications dealing with hETBR. PMID:23221682

  11. Behavioral and neurochemical pharmacology of six psychoactive substituted phenethylamines: Mouse locomotion, rat drug discrimination and in vitro receptor and transporter binding and function

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, Amy J.; Forster, Michael J.; Wolfrum, Katherine M.; Johnson, Robert A.; Janowsky, Aaron; Gatch, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Psychoactive substituted phenethylamines 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chlorophenethylamine (2C-C); 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine (2C-D); 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine (2C-E); 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine (2C-I); 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-2) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine (DOC) are used recreationally and may have deleterious side effects. Objectives This study compares behavioral effects and mechanisms of action of these substituted phenethylamines with those of hallucinogens and a stimulant. Methods The effects of these compounds on mouse locomotor activity and in rats trained to discriminate dimethyltryptamine, (−)DOM, (+)LSD, (±)MDMA and (S+)methamphetamine were assessed. Binding and functional activity of the phenethylamines at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C receptors and monoamine transporters were assessed using cells heterologously expressing these proteins. Results The phenethylamines depressed mouse locomotor activity, although 2C-D and 2C-E stimulated activity at low doses. The phenethylamines except 2C-T-2 fully substituted for at least one hallucinogenic training compound but none fully substituted for (+)-methamphetamine. At 5-HT1A receptors, only 2C-T-2 and 2C-I were partial-to-full very low potency agonists. In 5-HT2A arachidonic acid release assays, the phenethylamines were partial to full agonists except 2C-I which was an antagonist. All compounds were full agonists at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor inositol phosphate assays. Only 2C-I had moderate affinity for, and very low potency at, the serotonin transporter. Conclusions The discriminative stimulus effects of 2C-C, 2C-D, 2C-E, 2C-I and DOC were similar to those of several hallucinogens but not methamphetamine. Additionally, the substituted phenethylamines were full agonists at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, but for 2C-T-2, this was not sufficient to produce hallucinogenlike discriminative stimulus effects. Additionally, the 5-HT2A inositol phosphate pathway may

  12. Decorin Antagonizes the Angiogenic Network

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Thomas; Painter, Hannah; Buraschi, Simone; Owens, Rick T.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V.

    2012-01-01

    Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, inhibits tumor growth by antagonizing multiple receptor tyrosine kinases including EGFR and Met. Here, we investigated decorin during normoxic angiogenic signaling. An angiogenic PCR array revealed a profound decorin-evoked transcriptional inhibition of pro-angiogenic genes, such as HIF1A. Decorin evoked a reduction of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in MDA-231 breast carcinoma cells expressing constitutively-active HIF-1α. Suppression of Met with decorin or siRNA evoked a similar reduction of VEGFA by attenuating downstream β-catenin signaling. These data establish a noncanonical role for β-catenin in regulating VEGFA expression. We found that exogenous decorin induced expression of thrombospondin-1 and TIMP3, two powerful angiostatic agents. In contrast, decorin suppressed both the expression and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 and MMP-2, two pro-angiogenic proteases. Our data establish a novel duality for decorin as a suppressor of tumor angiogenesis under normoxia by simultaneously down-regulating potent pro-angiogenic factors and inducing endogenous anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:22194599

  13. Serotoninergic and dopaminergic modulation of cortico-striatal circuit in executive and attention deficits induced by NMDA receptor hypofunction in the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    PubMed Central

    Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto W.

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions are an emerging propriety of neuronal processing in circuits encompassing frontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical brain regions such as basal ganglia and thalamus. Glutamate serves as the major neurotrasmitter in these circuits where glutamate receptors of NMDA type play key role. Serotonin and dopamine afferents are in position to modulate intrinsic glutamate neurotransmission along these circuits and in turn to optimize circuit performance for specific aspects of executive control over behavior. In this review, we focus on the 5-choice serial reaction time task which is able to provide various measures of attention and executive control over performance in rodents and the ability of prefrontocortical and striatal serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C as well as dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors to modulate different aspects of executive and attention disturbances induced by NMDA receptor hypofunction in the prefrontal cortex. These behavioral studies are integrated with findings from microdialysis studies. These studies illustrate the control of attention selectivity by serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and dopamine D1- but not D2-like receptors and a distinct contribution of these cortical and striatal serotonin and dopamine receptors to the control of different aspects of executive control over performance such as impulsivity and compulsivity. An association between NMDA antagonist-induced increase in glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex and attention is suggested. Collectively, this review highlights the functional interaction of serotonin and dopamine with NMDA dependent glutamate neurotransmission in the cortico-striatal circuitry for specific cognitive demands and may shed some light on how dysregulation of neuronal processing in these circuits may be implicated in specific neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24966814

  14. Investigations into pharmacological antagonism of general anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Little, H J; Clark, A; Watson, W P

    2000-01-01

    The effects of convulsant drugs, and of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), were examined on the general anaesthetic actions of ketamine, ethanol, pentobarbitone and propofol in mice. The aim was to investigate the possibility of selective antagonism, which, if seen, would provide information about the mechanism of the anaesthesia.The general anaesthetic effects of ketamine were unaffected by bicuculline; antagonism was seen with 4-aminopyridine and significant potentiation with 300 mg kg−1 NMDLA (N-methyl-DL-aspartate). The calcium agonist, Bay K 8644, potentiated the anaesthesia produced by ketamine and antagonism of such anaesthesia was seen with TRH.A small, but significant, antagonism of the general anaesthesia produced by ethanol was seen with bicuculline, and a small, significant, potentiation with 4-aminopyridine. There was an antagonist effect of TRH, but no effect of NMDLA.Potentiation of the anaesthetic effects of pentobarbitone was seen with NMDLA and with 4-aminopyridine and the lower dose of bicuculline (2.7 mg kg−1) also caused potentiation. There was no significant change in the ED50 value for pentobarbitone anaesthesia with TRH.Bicuculline did not alter the anaesthetic actions of propofol, while potentiation was seen with NMDLA and 4-aminopyridine. TRH had no significant effect on propofol anaesthetic, but Bay K 8644 at 1 mg kg−1 significantly potentiated the anaesthesia.These results suggest that potentiation of GABAA transmission or inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated transmission do not appear to play a major role in the production of general anaesthesia by the agents used. PMID:10780983

  15. Benzodiazepine antagonism by aminophylline.

    PubMed

    Høegholm, A; Steptoe, P; Fogh, B; Caldara, A; Pedersen, C

    1989-02-01

    A double-blind, randomised study was performed to investigate whether aminophylline could reverse the sedative effect of benzodiazepine and if it could shorten the observation time necessary after benzodiazepine sedation. Forty patients undergoing minor abdominal, urogenital or lower extremity surgery were given benzodiazepine to maintain a state of deep sedation after spinal or epidural analgesia was achieved. Postoperatively, the patients received either aminophylline, 110 mg, or physiological saline intravenously. The aminophylline-treated patients showed a significantly more rapid reversal of sedation, but after 30 min there was no difference between the two groups. It is concluded that aminophylline antagonizes the sedative effect of benzodiazepine, but in routine benzodiazepine sedation, aminophylline will not shorten the necessary observation period after sedation. PMID:2564243

  16. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Antagonizes the Transcription, Expression, and Vascular Signaling of Guanylyl Cyclase/Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A: Role of δEF1

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Anagha; Kumar, Prerna; Garg, Renu; Lindsey, Sarah H.; Katakam, Prasad V.G.; Bloodworth, Meaghan; Pandey, Kailash N.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) in transcriptional regulation and function of guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene (Npr1) and whether a cross-talk exists between these two hormonal systems in target cells. After treatments of primary cultured rat thoracic aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (RTASMCs) and mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) with TGF-β1, the Npr1 promoter construct embodying delta-crystallin enhancer binding factor 1 (δEF1) site showed 85% reduction in luciferase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. TGF-β1 also significantly attenuated luciferase activity of Npr1 promoter by 62% and decreased the ANP-mediated relaxation of mouse denuded aortic rings ex vivo. Treatment of cells with TGF-β1, stimulated the protein levels of δEF1 by 2.4- to 2.8-fold and also significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of Smad 2/3; however, markedly reduced Npr1 mRNA and receptor protein levels. Overexpression of δEF1 showed a reduction in Npr1 promoter activity by 75% while the deletion or site-directed mutagenesis of δEF1 sites in Npr1 promoter, eliminated the TGF-β1-mediated repression of Npr1 transcription. TGF-β1 significantly increased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen type 1 alpha 2 in RTASMCs, which were markedly attenuated by ANP in NPRA overexpressing cells. Together, the present results suggest that an antagonistic cascade exists between TGF-β1/Smad/δEF1 pathways and Npr1 expression and receptor signaling relevant to renal and vascular remodeling, which might be critical in the regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular homeostasis. PMID:26934489

  17. Targeted overexpression of the human urotensin receptor transgene in smooth muscle cells: effect of UT antagonism in ApoE knockout mice fed with Western diet.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Bousette, Nicolas; Al-Ramli, Wisam; You, Zhipeng; Behm, David J; Ohlstein, Eliot H; Harrison, Stephen M; Douglas, Stephen A; Giaid, Adel

    2009-06-01

    Urotensin II (UII) and its receptor UT are upregulated in the pathological setting of various cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. However, their exact role in atherosclerosis remains to be determined. In the present study we used four strains of mice; wild-type (WT), UT(+) (a transgenic strain expressing human UT driven by the alpha-smooth muscle-specific, SM22, promoter), ApoE knockout (ko), and UT(+)/ApoE ko. All animals were fed high fat diet for 12 weeks. Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase in aortic UT expression in UT(+) relative to WT mice (P<0.05). Aortas of ApoE ko mice expressed comparable UT protein level to that of UT(+). Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of strong expression of UT and UII proteins in the atheroma of UT(+), ApoE ko and UT(+)/ApoE ko mice, particularly in foam cells. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly increased in ApoE ko and in UT(+)/ApoE ko but not in UT(+) mice when compared to WT mice (P<0.0001). Analysis of aortas showed a significant increase in atherosclerotic lesion in the UT(+), ApoE ko and UT(+)/ApoE ko compared to WT mice (P<0.05). Oral administration of the UT receptor antagonist SB-657510A (30 microg/Kg/day gavage) for 10 weeks in a group of ApoE ko mice fed on high fat diet resulted in a significant reduction of lesion (P<0.001). SB-657510A also significantly reduced ACAT-1 protein expression in the atherosclerotic lesion of ApoE ko mice (P<0.05). The present findings demonstrate an important role for UT in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The use of UT receptor antagonists may provide a beneficial tool in the management of this debilitating disease process. PMID:19111831

  18. Antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor attenuates akathisia-like behavior induced with MP-10 or aripiprazole in a novel non-human primate model.

    PubMed

    Bleickardt, Carina J; Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Jones, Nicholas T; Hunter, John C; Hodgson, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Akathisia is a subset of the larger antipsychotic side effect profile known as extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS). It is associated with antipsychotic treatment and is characterized as a feeling of inner restlessness that results in a compulsion to move. There are currently no primate models available to assess drug-induced akathisia; the present research was designed to address this shortcoming. We developed a novel rating scale based on both the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) and the Hillside Akathisia Scale (HAS) to measure the objective, observable incidence of antipsychotic-induced akathisia-like behavior in Cebus apella non-human primates (NHPs). To induce akathisia, we administered the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole (1 mg/kg) or the selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor MP-10 (1-3 mg/kg). Treatment with both compounds produced significantly greater akathisia scores on the rating scale than vehicle treatment. Characteristic behaviors observed included vocalizations, stereotypies, teeth grinding, restless limb movements, and hyperlocomotion. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists have previously been shown to be effective in blocking antipsychotic-induced EPS in primates. The selective A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 412348 (10-30 mg/kg), effectively reduced or reversed akathisia-like behavior induced by both aripiprazole and MP-10. This work represents the first NHP measurement scale of akathisia and demonstrates that NHPs are responsive to akathisia-inducing agents. As such, it provides a useful tool for the preclinical assessment of putative antipsychotics. In addition, these results provide further evidence of the utility of A2A receptor antagonists for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders. PMID:24211858

  19. Antagonism of Corticotrophin-Releasing Factor Type 1 Receptors Attenuates Caloric Intake of Free Feeding Subordinate Female Rhesus Monkeys in a Rich Dietary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Moore, C J; Johnson, Z P; Higgins, M; Toufexis, D; Wilson, M E

    2015-01-01

    Social subordination in macaque females is a known chronic stressor and previous studies have shown that socially subordinate female rhesus monkeys consume fewer kilocalories than dominant animals when a typical laboratory chow diet is available. However, in a rich dietary environment that provides access to chow in combination with a more palatable diet (i.e. high in fat and refined sugar), subordinate animals consume significantly more daily kilocalories than dominant conspecifics. Substantial literature is available supporting the role of stress hormone signals in shaping dietary preferences and promoting the consumption of palatable, energy-dense foods. The present study was conducted using stable groups of adult female rhesus monkeys to test the hypothesis that pharmacological treatment with a brain penetrable corticotrophin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist would attenuate the stress-induced consumption of a palatable diet among subordinate animals in a rich dietary environment but would be without effect in dominant females. The results show that administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced daily caloric intake of both available diets among subordinate females compared to dominant females. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the attenuation in caloric intake in response to Antalarmin (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was significantly predicted by the frequency of submissive and aggressive behaviour emitted by females, independent of social status. Taken together, the findings support the involvement of activation of CRF1 receptors in the stress-induced consumption of excess calories in a rich dietary environment and also support the growing literature concerning the importance of CRF for sustaining emotional feeding. PMID:25674637

  20. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Overeating beyond individuals’ homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. Objective The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF1) blockade by a CFR1 selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive-ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. Results The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Conclusions Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating

  1. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Klotz, J L; Aiken, G E; Johnson, J M; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacologic profiling of serotonin (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline, 5HT, 5HT2A, and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT receptor activity of tall fescue alkaloids is affected by grazing endophyte-free (EF), wild-type [Kentucky-31 (KY31)], novel endophyte AR542-infected (MAXQ), or novel endophyte AR584-infected (AR584) tall fescue, contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing these different fescue-endophyte combinations were evaluated in presence or absence of antagonists for 5HT2A (ketanserin) or 5HT7 (SB-269970) receptors. Biopsies were conducted over 2 yr on 35 mixed-breed steers (361.5 ± 6.3 kg) grazing EF (n = 12), KY31 (n = 12), MAXQ (n = 6), or AR584 (n = 5) pasture treatments (3 ha) between 84 and 98 d (Yr 1) or 108 to 124 d (Yr 2). Segments (2 to 3 cm) of vein were surgically biopsied, sliced into 2- to 3-mm cross-sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O2/5% CO2; pH = 7.4; 37°C). Veins were exposed to increasing concentrations of 5HT, ergovaline, and ergovaline + 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin or + 1 × 10(-6) M SB-269970 in Yr 1. In Yr 2, ergotamine and ergocornine were evaluated in presence or absence of 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin. Contractile response data were normalized to a reference addition of 1 × 10(-4) M norepinephrine. In Yr 1, contractile response to 5HT and ergovaline were least (P < 0.05) in KY31 pastures and the presence of ketanserin greatly reduced (P < 0.05) the response to ergovaline in all pastures. However, presence of SB-269970 did not (P = 0.91) alter contractile response to ergovaline. In Yr 2, there was no difference in contractile response to ergotamine (P = 0.13) or ergocornine (P = 0.99) across pasture treatments, but ketanserin reduced (P < 0.05) the contractile response to

  2. Extensive Rigid Analogue Design Maps the Binding Conformation of Potent N-Benzylphenethylamine 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Agonist Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Based on the structure of the superpotent 5-HT2A agonist 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, which consists of a ring-substituted phenethylamine skeleton modified with an N-benzyl group, we designed and synthesized a small library of constrained analogues to identify the optimal arrangement of the pharmacophoric elements of the ligand. Structures consisted of diversely substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines, piperidines, and one benzazepine. Based on the structure of (S,S)-9b, which showed the highest affinity of the series, we propose an optimal binding conformation. (S,S)-9b also displayed 124-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2A over the 5-HT2C receptor, making it the most selective 5-HT2A receptor agonist ligand currently known. PMID:23336049

  3. Corticotropin releasing factor type-1 receptor antagonism in the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis disrupts contextually conditioned fear, but not unconditioned fear to a predator odor.

    PubMed

    Asok, Arun; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2016-08-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) plays a critical role in fear and anxiety. The BNST is important for contextual fear learning, but the mechanisms regulating this function remain unclear. One candidate mechanism is corticotropin-releasing-factor (CRF) acting at CRF type 1 receptors (CRFr1s). Yet, there has been little progress in elucidating if CRFr1s in the BNST are involved in different types of fear (conditioned and/or unconditioned). Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of antalarmin, a potent CRFr1 receptor antagonist, injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) and into the dorsolateral BNST (LBNST) during single trial contextual fear conditioning or exposure to the predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT). Neither ICV nor LBNST antalarmin disrupted unconditioned freezing to TMT. In contrast, ICV and LBNST antalarmin disrupted the retention of contextual fear when tested 24h later. Neither ICV nor LBNST antalarmin affected baseline or post-shock freezing-indicating antalarmin does not interfere with the early phases of contextual fear acquisition. Antalarmin did not (1) permanently affect the ability to learn and express contextual fear, (2) change responsivity to footshocks, or (3) affect the ability to freeze. Our findings highlight an important role for CRFr1s within the LBNST during contextually conditioned fear, but not unconditioned predator odor fear. PMID:27153520

  4. Argon blocks the expression of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine through antagonism at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and mu-opioid receptor in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    David, H N; Dhilly, M; Degoulet, M; Poisnel, G; Meckler, C; Vallée, N; Blatteau, J-É; Risso, J-J; Lemaire, M; Debruyne, D; Abraini, J H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the noble gas argon on the expression of locomotor sensitization to amphetamine and amphetamine-induced changes in dopamine release and mu-opioid neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. We found (1) argon blocked the increase in carrier-mediated dopamine release induced by amphetamine in brain slices, but, in contrast, potentiated the decrease in KCl-evoked dopamine release induced by amphetamine, thereby suggesting that argon inhibited the vesicular monoamine transporter-2; (2) argon blocked the expression of locomotor and mu-opioid neurotransmission sensitization induced by repeated amphetamine administration in a short-term model of sensitization in rats; (3) argon decreased the maximal number of binding sites and increased the dissociation constant of mu-receptors in membrane preparations, thereby indicating that argon is a mu-receptor antagonist; (4) argon blocked the expression of locomotor sensitization and context-dependent locomotor activity induced by repeated administration of amphetamine in a long-term model of sensitization. Taken together, these data indicate that argon could be of potential interest for treating drug addiction and dependence. PMID:26151922

  5. AOP description: ER antagonism leading to reproductive dysfunction (in fish)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between antagonism of estrogen receptor in females and the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity in repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoint considered in the OECD 229 Fish Short Term ...

  6. Haptenic oligosaccharides in antigenic variants of mycobacterial C-mycosides antagonize lipid receptor activity for mycobacteriophage D4 by masking a methylated rhamnose.

    PubMed Central

    Dhariwal, K R; Liav, A; Vatter, A E; Dhariwal, G; Goren, M B

    1986-01-01

    The simple apolar C-mycosides, i.e., structurally well-defined hydrophobic glycopeptidolipids of several Mycobacterium species (see diagram below), were earlier shown to behave as receptors for adsorption of mycobacteriophage D4. This phage is usually virulent for Mycobacterium smegmatis. More complex, polar C-mycosides with additional carbohydrate substituents attached solely to the deoxytalose have recently been described. They are the highly specific serotyping antigens discovered by W. B. Schaefer--lipids which characterize members of the Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) complex. Both kinds are depicted in the structure below: (Formula: see text) where X equals H (for simple, apolar C-mycosides) and X equals small oligosaccharides (for antigenic forms; more complex, polar C-mycosides). The present investigations showed that the purified polar antigenic lipids exhibit considerably less adsorptive activity for D4 than do the apolar C-mycosides. Thus, the haptenic oligosaccharides are believed to shield the site in the molecule that the phage recognizes, and the blocking is reinforced by the specific antibodies that the antigens elicit. Although the MAIS serovars usually also produce the phage-reactive apolar C-mycosides, they are not permissive hosts for D4, nor do whole cells adsorb the phage. We suggest that in these species the apolar forms are probably "covered" at the cell surface by the antigenic lipids. Therefore, these antigenic mycosides may play a putative role in virulence of the MAIS members by protecting these mycobacteria from their own potential pathogen. The results of chemical transformations at specific sites of the mycoside core coupled with studies of simple synthetic lipid glycosides indicated that the principal phage receptor activity resides in the terminal methylated rhamnose (see diagram). It is this sugar which is evidently masked by the (seemingly remote) haptenic oligosaccharides

  7. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor antagonism enhances proliferation and migration of engrafted neural progenitor cells in a model of viral-induced demyelination.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Caroline A; Grist, Jonathan J; Rosen, Hugh; Sears-Kraxberger, Ilse; Steward, Oswald; Lane, Thomas E

    2015-10-01

    The oral drug FTY720 affects sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling on targeted cells that bear the S1P receptors S1P1, S1P3, S1P4, and S1P5. We examined the effect of FTY720 treatment on the biology of mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) after transplantation in a viral model of demyelination. Intracerebral infection with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in an acute encephalomyelitis, followed by demyelination similar in pathology to the human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. We have previously reported that intraspinal transplantation of mouse NPCs into JHMV-infected animals resulted in selective colonization of demyelinated lesions, preferential differentiation into oligodendroglia accompanied by axonal preservation, and increased remyelination. Cultured NPCs expressed transcripts for S1P receptors S1P1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, and S1P5. FTY720 treatment of cultured NPCs resulted in increased mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and migration after exposure to the chemokine CXCL12. Administration of FTY720 to JHMV-infected mice resulted in enhanced migration and increased proliferation of transplanted NPCs after spinal cord engraftment. FTY720 treatment did not improve clinical disease, diminish neuroinflammation or the severity of demyelination, nor increase remyelination. These findings argue that FTY720 treatment selectively increases NPC proliferation and migration but does not either improve clinical outcome or enhance remyelination after transplantation into animals in which immune-mediated demyelination is initiated by the viral infection of the central nervous system. PMID:26435414

  8. Human cytomegalovirus Fcγ binding proteins gp34 and gp68 antagonize Fcγ receptors I, II and III.

    PubMed

    Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Trilling, Mirko; Hunold, Katja; Fiedler, Manuela; Le, Vu Thuy Khanh; Reinhard, Henrike; Ehrhardt, Katrin; Mercé-Maldonado, Eva; Aliyev, Enver; Zimmermann, Albert; Johnson, David C; Hengel, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes lifelong infection with recurrent episodes of virus production and shedding despite the presence of adaptive immunological memory responses including HCMV immune immunoglobulin G (IgG). Very little is known how HCMV evades from humoral and cellular IgG-dependent immune responses, the latter being executed by cells expressing surface receptors for the Fc domain of IgG (FcγRs). Remarkably, HCMV expresses the RL11-encoded gp34 and UL119-118-encoded gp68 type I transmembrane glycoproteins which bind Fcγ with nanomolar affinity. Using a newly developed FcγR activation assay, we tested if the HCMV-encoded Fcγ binding proteins (HCMV FcγRs) interfere with individual host FcγRs. In absence of gp34 or/and gp68, HCMV elicited a much stronger activation of FcγRIIIA/CD16, FcγRIIA/CD32A and FcγRI/CD64 by polyclonal HCMV-immune IgG as compared to wildtype HCMV. gp34 and gp68 co-expression culminates in the late phase of HCMV replication coinciding with the emergence of surface HCMV antigens triggering FcγRIII/CD16 responses by polyclonal HCMV-immune IgG. The gp34- and gp68-dependent inhibition of HCMV immune IgG was fully reproduced when testing the activation of primary human NK cells. Their broad antagonistic function towards FcγRIIIA, FcγRIIA and FcγRI activation was also recapitulated in a gain-of-function approach based on humanized monoclonal antibodies (trastuzumab, rituximab) and isotypes of different IgG subclasses. Surface immune-precipitation showed that both HCMV-encoded Fcγ binding proteins have the capacity to bind trastuzumab antibody-HER2 antigen complexes demonstrating simultaneous linkage of immune IgG with antigen and the HCMV inhibitors on the plasma membrane. Our studies reveal a novel strategy by which viral FcγRs can compete for immune complexes against various Fc receptors on immune cells, dampening their activation and antiviral immunity. PMID:24830376

  9. Neurokinin-1 receptor expression and antagonism by the NK-1R antagonist maropitant in canine melanoma cell lines and primary tumour tissues.

    PubMed

    Borrego, J F; Huelsmeyer, M K; Pinkerton, M E; Muszynski, J L; Miller, S A K; Kurzman, I D; Vail, D M

    2016-06-01

    We interrogated the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)/substance P (SP) pathway in canine melanoma tumour tissues and cell lines. NK-1R messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were observed in the majority of tumour tissues. Immunohistochemical assessment of archived tissue sections revealed NK-1R immunoreactivity in 11 of 15 tumours, which may have diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic utility. However, we were unable to identify a preclinical in vitro cell line or in vivo xenograft model that recapitulates NK-1R mRNA and protein expression documented in primary tumours. While maropitant inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in cell lines, in the absence of documented NK-1R expression, this may represent off-target effects. Furthermore, maropitant failed to suppress tumour growth in a canine mouse xenograft model derived from a cell line expressing mRNA but not protein. While NK-1R represents a novel target, in the absence of preclinical models, in-species clinical trials will be necessary to investigate the therapeutic potential for antagonists such as maropitant. PMID:24751104

  10. Prostate stem cell antigen is an endogenous lynx1-like prototoxin that antagonizes alpha7 containing nicotinic receptors and prevents programmed cell death of parasympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Martin; Keefe, Julie; Wert, David; Tekinay, Ayse Begum; Hulce, Jonathan J.; Ibanez-Tallon, Ines; Nishi, Rae

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrate α–bungarotoxin-like molecules of the Ly-6 super family have been implicated as balancers of activity and survival in the adult nervous system. To determine whether a member of this family could be involved in the development of the avian ciliary ganglion, we identified 6 Gallus genes by their homology in structure to mouse lynx1 and lynx2. One of these genes, an ortholog of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), is barely detectable at embryonic day 8, prior to neuronal cell loss in the ciliary ganglion, but increases over 100-fold as the number of neurons begins to decline between E9 and E14. PSCA is highly expressed in chicken and mouse telencephalon and peripheral ganglia and correlates with expression of α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs). Misexpressing PSCA prior to cell death in the ciliary ganglion blocks α7-nAChR activation by nicotine and rescues the choroid subpopulation from dying. Thus, PSCA, a molecule previously identified as a marker of prostate cancer, is a member of the Ly-6 neurotoxin-like family in the nervous system, and is likely to play a role as a modulator of α7 signaling induced cell death during development. PMID:19940180

  11. Antiosteoclastogenesis activity of a CO2 laser antagonizing receptor activator for nuclear factor kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation of murine macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Liang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-03-01

    Macrophage cells are the important effector cells in the immune reaction which are indispensable for osteoclastogenesis; their heterogeneity and plasticity renders macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. In recent years, there have been very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteoclastogenesis. In this study, RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with RANKL to regulate osteoclastogenesis. We used a CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of osteoclastogenic. We also evaluated cell viability, cell death and cathepsin K expression. The CO2 laser inhibited a receptor activator of the NF-ĸB ligand (RANKL)-induced formation of osteoclasts during the osteoclast differentiation process. It was also found that irradiation for two times reduced RANKL-enhanced TRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CO2 laser-treatment diminished the expression and secretion of cathepsin K elevated by RANKL and was concurrent with the inhibition of TRAF6 induction and NF-ĸB activation. The current report demonstrates that CO2 laser abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by retarding osteoclast differentiation. The CO2 laser can modulate every cell through dose-dependent in vitro RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, such as the proliferation and fusion of preosteoclasts and the maturation of osteoclasts. Therefore, the current results serve as an improved explanation of the cellular roles of macrophage cell populations in osteoclastogenesis as well as in alveolar bone remodeling by CO2 laser-treatment.

  12. The brominated flame retardants TBP-AE and TBP-DBPE antagonize the chicken androgen receptor and act as potential endocrine disrupters in chicken LMH cells.

    PubMed

    Asnake, Solomon; Pradhan, Ajay; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2015-12-01

    Increased exposure of birds to endocrine disrupting compounds has resulted in developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. We have recently identified the flame retardants, allyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-AE), 2-3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE) and the TBP-DBPE metabolite 2-bromoallyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-BAE) as antagonists to both the human androgen receptor (AR) and the zebrafish AR. In the present study, we aimed at determining whether these compounds also interact with the chicken AR. In silico modeling studies showed that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE were able to dock into to the chicken AR ligand-binding pocket. In vitro transfection assays revealed that all three brominated compounds acted as chicken AR antagonists, inhibiting testosterone induced AR activation. In addition, qRT-PCR studies confirmed that they act as AR antagonists and demonstrated that they also alter gene expression patterns of apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, drug metabolizing and amino acid transporter genes. These studies, using chicken LMH cells, suggest that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE are potential endocrine disrupters in chicken. PMID:26318274

  13. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor Subtypes and their Modulators with Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Pithadia, Anand B.; Jain, Sunita M.

    2009-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has become one of the most investigated and complex biogenic amines. The main receptors and their subtypes, e.g., 5-HTI (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HTID, 5-HTIE and 5-HT1F), 5-HT2 (5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C), 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5 (5-HT5A, 5-HT5B), 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 have been identified. Specific drugs which are capable of either selectively stimulating or inhibiting these receptor subtypes are being designed. This has generated therapeutic potentials of 5-HT receptor modulators in a variety of disease conditions. Conditions where 5-HT receptor modulators have established their use with distinct efficacy and advantages include migraine, anxiety, psychosis, obesity and cancer therapy-induced vomiting by cytotoxic drugs and radiation. Discovery of 5-HT, its biosynthesis, metabolism, physiological role and the potential of 5-HT receptor modulators in various nervous, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tract disorders, bone growth and micturition have been discussed in this article. Keywords 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors; Modulators; Biogenic amines PMID:22505971

  14. Altered mnemonic functions and resistance to N-METHYL-d-Aspartate receptor antagonism by forebrain conditional knockout of glycine transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Yee, B K; Feldon, J; Iwasato, T; Itohara, S; Grampp, T; Prenosil, G; Benke, D; Möhler, H; Boison, D

    2009-06-30

    Converging evidence from pharmacological and molecular studies has led to the suggestion that inhibition of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) constitutes an effective means to boost N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by increasing the extra-cellular concentration of glycine in the vicinity of glutamatergic synapses. However, the precise extent and limitation of this approach to alter cognitive function, and therefore its potential as a treatment strategy against psychiatric conditions marked by cognitive impairments, remain to be fully examined. Here, we generated mutant mice lacking GlyT1 in the entire forebrain including neurons and glia. This conditional knockout system allows a more precise examination of GlyT1 downregulation in the brain on behavior and cognition. The mutation was highly effective in attenuating the motor-stimulating effect of acute NMDAR blockade by phencyclidine, although no appreciable elevation in NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSC) was observed in the hippocampus. Enhanced cognitive performance was observed in spatial working memory and object recognition memory while spatial reference memory and associative learning remained unaltered. These findings provide further credence for the potential cognitive enhancing effects of brain GlyT1 inhibition. At the same time, they indicated potential phenotypic differences when compared with other constitutive and conditional GlyT1 knockout lines, and highlighted the possibility of a functional divergence between the neuronal and glia subpopulations of GlyT1 in the regulation of learning and memory processes. The relevance of this distinction to the design of future GlyT1 blockers as therapeutic tools in the treatment of cognitive disorders remains to be further investigated. PMID:19332109

  15. Local N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonism in the Prefrontal Cortex Attenuates Spatial Cognitive Deficits Induced by Gonadectomy in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Locklear, Mallory N.; Bhamidipaty, Surya; Kritzer, Mary F.

    2015-01-01

    Gonadectomy in adult male rats significantly impairs spatial working memory, behavioral flexibility and other functions associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, intracortical drug challenge with the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) was combined with Barnes maze testing, gonadectomy and hormone replacement (17β estradiol, testosterone propionate) to explore the contributions of NMDAR-mediated activity within the PFC to hormone effects on spatial cognition in adult male rats. Previous studies have shown that Barnes maze testing reveals significant estrogen-dependent, gonadectomy-induced deficits in spatial working memory and androgen-sensitive, gonadectomy-induced deficits in spatial search strategy. Here we found that bilateral infusion of APV into the medial prefrontal cortex prior to testing significantly improved both sets of behaviors in gonadectomized rats and significantly worsened performance measures in gonadally intact controls. In hormone-replaced cohorts, we further found that behaviors that are normally similar to controls were significantly disrupted by APV, and those that are normally similar to gonadectomized rats were rescued by intracortical APV infusion. There were, however, no residual effects of APV on retention testing conducted 24 hours later. Together these findings suggest that hormone regulation of NMDAR-mediated activity specifically within the PFC may be fundamental to the effects of gonadal steroids on spatial cognition in males. Our findings further identify NMDAR antagonists as potentially novel, non-steroidal means of attenuating the cognitive deficits that can accompany gonadal hormone decline in human males in aging, clinical cases of hypogonadalism and in certain neurologic and psychiatric illnesses. Accordingly, it may be important to obtain in males the kind of

  16. Hindbrain estrogen receptor-beta antagonism normalizes reproductive and counter-regulatory hormone secretion in hypoglycemic steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Briski, Karen P; Shrestha, Prem K

    2016-09-01

    Hindbrain dorsal vagal complex A2 noradrenergic signaling represses the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to energy deficiency. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia augments A2 neuron adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) expression, coincident with LH surge suppression. We hypothesized that ERβ is critical for hypoglycemia-associated patterns of LH secretion and norepinephrine (NE) activity in key reproduction-relevant forebrain structures. The neural mechanisms responsible for tight coupling of systemic energy balance and procreation remain unclear; here, we investigated whether ERβ-dependent hindbrain signals also control glucose counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Gonadal steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats were pretreated by caudal fourth ventricular administration of the ERβ antagonist 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]phenol (PHTPP) or vehicle before insulin injection at LH surge onset. Western blot analysis of laser-microdissected A2 neurons revealed hypoglycemic intensification of AMPK activity and dopamine-β-hydroxylase protein expression; the latter response was attenuated by PHTPP pretreatment. PHTPP regularized LH release, but not preoptic GnRH-I precursor protein expression in insulin-injected rats, and reversed hypoglycemic stimulation of glucagon and corticosterone secretion. Hypoglycemia caused PHTPP-reversible changes in NE and prepro-kisspeptin protein content in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARH), but not anteroventral periventricular nucleus. Results provide novel evidence for ERβ-dependent caudal hindbrain regulation of LH and counter-regulatory hormone secretion during hypoglycemia. Observed inhibition of LH likely involves mechanisms at the axon terminal that impede GnRH neurotransmission. Data also show that caudal hindbrain ERβ exerts site-specific control of NE activity in forebrain projection sites during

  17. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonism Attenuates Growth Factor Expression, Proliferation, and Migration in Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, Tejas S.; Hughes, Jarod M.; Kusnadi, Ann; John, Kaarthik; Zhu, Bokai; Murray, Iain A.; Gowda, Krishne; Peters, Jeffrey M.; Amin, Shantu G.

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease with high morbidity and mortality. Within the inflammatory milieu, resident fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in the synovial tissue undergo hyperplasia, which leads to joint destruction. Epidemiologic studies and our previous research suggest that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway plays an instrumental role in the inflammatory and destructive RA phenotype. In addition, our recent studies implicate the AHR in the regulation of the expression of several growth factors in established tumor cell lines. Thus, under inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized that the AHR is involved in the constitutive and inducible expression of several growth factors, FLS proliferation and migration, along with protease-dependent invasion in FLS from patients with RA (RA-FLS). Treatment with the AHR antagonist GNF351 inhibits cytokine-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), epiregulin, amphiregulin, and basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA through an AHR-dependent mechanism in both RA-FLS and FLS. Secretion of VEGF-A and epiregulin from RA-FLS was also inhibited upon GNF351 treatment. RA-FLS cell migration, along with cytokine-induced RA-FLS cell proliferation, was significantly attenuated by GNF351 exposure. Treatment of RA-FLS with GNF351 mitigated cytokine-mediated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 mRNA and diminished the RA-FLS invasive phenotype. These findings indicate that inhibition of AHR activity may be a viable therapeutic target in amelioration of disease progression in RA by attenuating growth factor release; FLS proliferation, migration, and invasion; and inflammatory activity. PMID:24309559

  18. Analysis of thyroid hormone receptor {beta}A mRNA expression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles as a means to detect agonism and antagonism of thyroid hormone action

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, Robert . E-mail: r.opitz@igb-berlin.de; Lutz, Ilka; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Kloas, Werner

    2006-04-01

    Amphibian metamorphosis represents a unique biological model to study thyroid hormone (TH) action in vivo. In this study, we examined the utility of thyroid hormone receptors {alpha} (TR{alpha}) and {beta}A (TR{beta}A) mRNA expression patterns in Xenopus laevis tadpoles as molecular markers indicating modulation of TH action. During spontaneous metamorphosis, only moderate changes were evident for TR{alpha} gene expression whereas a marked up-regulation of TR{beta}A mRNA occurred in hind limbs (prometamorphosis), head (late prometamorphosis), and tail tissue (metamorphic climax). Treatment of premetamorphic tadpoles with 1 nM 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) caused a rapid induction of TR{beta}A mRNA in head and tail tissue within 6 to 12 h which was maintained for at least 72 h after initiation of T3 treatment. Developmental stage had a strong influence on the responsiveness of tadpole tissues to induce TR{beta}A mRNA during 24 h treatment with thyroxine (0, 1, 5, 10 nM T4) or T3 (0, 1, 5, 10 nM). Premetamorphic tadpoles were highly sensitive in their response to T4 and T3 treatments, whereas sensitivity to TH was decreased in early prometamorphic tadpoles and strongly diminished in late prometamorphic tadpoles. To examine the utility of TR{beta}A gene expression analysis for detection of agonistic and antagonistic effects on T3 action, mRNA expression was assessed in premetamorphic tadpoles after 48 h of treatment with the synthetic agonist GC-1 (0, 10, 50, 250 nM), the synthetic antagonist NH-3 (0, 40, 200, 1000 nM), and binary combinations of NH-3 (0, 40, 200, 1000 nM) and T3 (1 nM). All tested concentrations of GC-1 as well as the highest concentration of NH-3 caused an up-regulation of TR{beta}A expression. Co-treatment with NH-3 and T3 revealed strong antagonistic effects by NH-3 on T3-induced TR{beta}A mRNA up-regulation. Results of this study suggest that TR{beta}A mRNA expression analysis could serve as a sensitive molecular testing approach to study effects

  19. Molecular and behavioral pharmacology of two novel orally-active 5HT2 modulators: potential utility as antipsychotic medications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Drake; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Kuipers, Allison; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Robertson, Kimberly L.; Rowland, Neil E.; Booth, Raymond G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Desired serotonin 5HT2 receptor pharmacology for treatment of psychoses is 5HT2A antagonism and/or 5HT2C agonism. No selective 5HT2A antagonist has been approved for psychosis and the only approved 5HT2C agonist (for obesity) also activates 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptors, which can lead to clinical complications. Studies herein tested the hypothesis that a dual-function 5HT2A antagonist/5HT2C agonist that does not activate 5HT2B receptors would be suitable for development as an antipsychotic drug, without liability for weight gain. Methods The novel compounds (+)- and (−)-trans-4-(4′-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-2-aminotetralin (p-Cl-PAT) were synthesized, characterized in vitro for affinity and functional activity at human 5HT2 receptors, and administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (gavage) routes to mice in behavioral paradigms that assessed antipsychotic efficacy and effects on feeding behavior. Results (+)- and (−)-p-Cl-PAT activated 5HT2C receptors, with (+)-p-Cl-PAT being 12-times more potent, consistent with its higher affinity across 5HT2 receptors. Neither p-Cl-PAT enantiomer activated 5HT2A or 5HT2B receptors at concentrations up to 300-times greater than their respective affinity (Ki), and (+)-p-Cl-PAT was shown to be a 5HT2A competitive antagonist. When administered i.p. or orally, (+)- and (−)-p-Cl-PAT attenuated the head-twitch response (HTR) in mice elicited by the 5HT2 agonist (−)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and reduced intake of a highly palatable food in non-food-deprived mice, with (+)-p-Cl-PAT being more potent across behavioral assays. Conclusions The novel in vitro pharmacology of (+)-p-Cl-PAT (5HT2A antagonism/5HT2C agonism without activation of 5HT2B) translated in vivo to an orally-active drug candidate with preclinical efficacy to treat psychoses without liability for weight gain. PMID:23665356

  20. Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor Dimers: A New Pharmacological Target1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Abizaid, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a), the target of the ghrelin peptide, is widely distributed throughout the brain, and, while studies have often reported very low or absent levels of central ghrelin, it is now known that GHSR1a, even in the absence of a natural ligand, has physiological roles. Not only do these roles originate from the receptor’s constitutive activity, but recent data indicate that GHSR1a dimerizes with a wide array of other receptors. These include the dopamine 1 receptor (D1R), the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R), the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R), the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2C), and possibly the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1). Within these dimers, signaling of the protomers involved are modified through facilitation, inhibition, and even modification of signaling pathways resulting in physiological consequences not seen in the absence of these dimers. While in some cases the ghrelin peptide is not required for these modifications to occur, in others, the presence is necessary for these changes to take effect. These heterodimers demonstrate the broad array of roles and complexity of the ghrelin system. By better understanding how these dimers work, it is hoped that improved treatments for a variety of disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, addiction, obesity, diabetes, and more, can be devised. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge surrounding GHSR heterodimers, and how we can apply this knowledge to various pharmacological treatments. PMID:26464979

  1. Theophylline antagonizes diazepam-induced psychomotor impairment.

    PubMed

    Henauer, S A; Hollister, L E; Gillespie, H K; Moore, F

    1983-01-01

    Eight healthy men received an oral dose of 0.25 mg/kg diazepam followed 40 min later by an intravenous infusion of 100 ml physiological sodium chloride solution, with or without 4.4 mg/kg theophylline. Psychomotor function was assessed after each blood sampling up to 5 h post-infusion. Thirty min after diazepam psychomotor performance measured by Card Sorting test and Digit Symbol Substitution test was impaired and subjects felt sleepy and could think less clearly (two factors of the Clyde Mood Scale). Theophylline antagonized the diazepam-induced impairment statistically significantly for up to 5 h and subjects felt less tense and less apprehensive (State Anxiety Inventory). Since pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam seemed not to be different after theophylline, interaction at receptor level can be assumed. PMID:6662173

  2. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori . E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.

  3. Endocytosis as a Biological Response in Receptor Pharmacology: Evaluation by Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Varela, María J.; de la Rocha, Arlet M. Acanda; Fernandez-Troyano, Juan C.; Barreiro, R. Belén; Lopez-Gimenez, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    The activation of G-protein coupled receptors by agonist compounds results in diverse biological responses in cells, such as the endocytosis process consisting in the translocation of receptors from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm within internalizing vesicles or endosomes. In order to functionally evaluate endocytosis events resulted from pharmacological responses, we have developed an image analysis method –the Q-Endosomes algorithm– that specifically discriminates the fluorescent signal originated at endosomes from that one observed at the plasma membrane in images obtained from living cells by fluorescence microscopy. Mu opioid (MOP) receptor tagged at the carboxy-terminus with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and permanently expressed in HEK293 cells was used as experimental model to validate this methodology. Time-course experiments performed with several agonists resulted in different sigmoid curves depending on the drug used to initiate MOP receptor endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis resulting from the simultaneous activation of co-expressed MOP and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors by morphine plus serotonin was significantly different, in kinetics as well as in maximal response parameters, from the one caused by DAMGO, sufentanyl or methadone. Therefore, this analytical tool permits the pharmacological characterization of receptor endocytosis in living cells with functional and temporal resolution. PMID:25849355

  4. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced bladder hyperactivity via the 5-HT2A receptor in partial bladder outlet obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takumi; Kasahara, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Ikegaki, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the effects of partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the function and gene expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes in rat bladder. Isometric contractions of the isolated bladders from sham-operated control and BOO rats were examined. The contractile responses to 5-HT were significantly increased in BOO rat bladder strips, while the responses to KCl, carbachol, or phenylephrine were not different from the control. The 5-HT-induced hypercontraction in BOO rat bladder strips was inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist. The contractile responses to 5-HT in bladder strips were not affected by urothelium removal from the intact bladder. The gene expression of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the bladders was analyzed by RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of the 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(4), and 5-HT(7) receptors was detected in both the control and BOO rat bladders. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed there was a significant increase of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA in the BOO rat bladder compared with the control bladder. On the other hand, the gene expression of the 5-HT(4) receptor was not changed in the BOO rat bladder. These results suggest that the increased contractile responses to 5-HT in BOO rat bladder may be partly caused by 5-HT(2A) receptor upregulation in the detrusor smooth muscles. PMID:23344575

  5. Different serotonin receptor agonists have distinct effects on sound-evoked responses in inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M

    2006-11-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin has a complex set of effects on the auditory responses of neurons within the inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain auditory nucleus that integrates a wide range of inputs from auditory and nonauditory sources. To determine whether activation of different types of serotonin receptors is a source of the variability in serotonergic effects, four selective agonists of serotonin receptors in the serotonin (5-HT) 1 and 5-HT2 families were iontophoretically applied to IC neurons, which were monitored for changes in their responses to auditory stimuli. Different agonists had different effects on neural responses. The 5-HT1A agonist had mixed facilitatory and depressive effects, whereas 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C agonists were both largely facilitatory. Different agonists changed threshold and frequency tuning in ways that reflected their effects on spike count. When pairs of agonists were applied sequentially to the same neurons, selective agonists sometimes affected neurons in ways that were similar to serotonin, but not to other selective agonists tested. Different agonists also differentially affected groups of neurons classified by the shapes of their frequency-tuning curves, with serotonin and the 5-HT1 receptors affecting proportionally more non-V-type neurons relative to the other agonists tested. In all, evidence suggests that the diversity of serotonin receptor subtypes in the IC is likely to account for at least some of the variability of the effects of serotonin and that receptor subtypes fulfill specialized roles in auditory processing. PMID:16870843

  6. In vivo modulation of vagal-identified dorsal medullary neurones by activation of different 5-Hydroxytryptamine2 receptors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sévoz-Couche, Caroline; Spyer, K Michael; Jordan, David

    2000-01-01

    In in vivo experiments, DOI (a 5-HT2 receptor agonist), MK-212 (a 5-HT2C receptor agonist), and BW-723C86 (a 5-HT2B receptor agonist) were applied by ionophoresis to neurones in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) receiving vagal afferent input. The majority of the putative ‘monosynaptically' vagal activated cells were inhibited by both MK-212 (4/6) and DOI (2/4), but unaffected by BW-723C86 (12/14). In contrast, ‘polysynaptically' activated NTS cells were excited by both BW-723C86 (13/19) and DOI (9/10). Inactive ‘intermediate' cells were inhibited by BW-723C86 (9/12), MK-212 (5/6) and DOI (3/4), whilst active cells of this group were excited by BW-723C86 (7/13) and DOI (5/5). The selective 5-HT2B receptor antagonist LY-202715 significantly reduced the excitatory actions of BW-723C86 on ‘intermediate' and ‘polysynaptic' cells (13/13), but not the inhibitory effects observed on inactive Group 2 cells (n=5) whereas the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS-102221 reversed the inhibitory effects of MK-212 and DOI on ‘monosynaptic and ‘intermediate' neurones. Cardio-pulmonary afferent stimulation inhibited two of four putative ‘monosynaptically' activated calls and all four inactive intermediate cells. These were also inhibited by DOI and MK-212. In contrast, cardio-pulmonary afferents excited all five active intermediate cells and all six putative ‘polysynaptically' activated NTS cells, while all were also previously excited by BW-723C86 and/or DOI. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that neurones in the NTS are affected differently by 5-HT2 receptor ligands, in regard of their vagal postsynaptic location, the type of cardio-pulmonary afferent they receive and the different 5-HT2 receptors activated. PMID:11090119

  7. Substituted methcathinones differ in transporter and receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, Amy J; Wolfrum, Katherine M; Hatfield, Meagan G; Johnson, Robert A; Murphy, Kevin V; Janowsky, Aaron

    2013-06-15

    The use of synthetic methcathinones, components of "bath salts," is a world-wide health concern. These compounds, structurally similar to methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cause tachycardia, hallucinations and psychosis. We hypothesized that these potentially neurotoxic and abused compounds display differences in their transporter and receptor interactions as compared to amphetamine counterparts. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone and naphyrone had high affinity for radioligand binding sites on recombinant human dopamine (hDAT), serotonin (hSERT) and norepinephrine (hNET) transporters, potently inhibited [³H]neurotransmitter uptake, and, like cocaine, did not induce transporter-mediated release. Butylone was a lower affinity uptake inhibitor. In contrast, 4-fluoromethcathinone, mephedrone and methylone had higher inhibitory potency at uptake compared to binding and generally induced release of preloaded [³H]neurotransmitter from hDAT, hSERT and hNET (highest potency at hNET), and thus are transporter substrates, similar to METH and MDMA. At hNET, 4-fluoromethcathinone was a more efficacious releaser than METH. These substituted methcathinones had low uptake inhibitory potency and low efficacy at inducing release via human vesicular monoamine transporters (hVMAT2). These compounds were low potency (1) h5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonists, (2) h5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists, (3) weak h5-HT(2C) receptor antagonists. This is the first report on aspects of substituted methcathinone efficacies at serotonin (5-HT) receptors and in superfusion release assays. Additionally, the drugs had no affinity for dopamine receptors, and high-nanomolar to mid-micromolar affinity for hSigma1 receptors. Thus, direct interactions with hVMAT2 and serotonin, dopamine, and hSigma1 receptors may not explain psychoactive effects. The primary mechanisms of action may be as inhibitors or substrates of DAT, SERT and NET. PMID:23583454

  8. Substituted methcathinones differ in transporter and receptor interactions

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, Amy J; Wolfrum, Katherine M; Hatfield, Meagan G; Johnson, Robert A; Murphy, Kevin V; Janowsky, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The use of synthetic methcathinones, components of “bath salts,” is a world-wide health concern. These compounds, structurally similar to methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cause tachycardia, hallucinations and psychosis. We hypothesized that these potentially neurotoxic and abused compounds display differences in their transporter and receptor interactions as compared to amphetamine counterparts. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone and naphyrone had high affinity for radioligand binding sites on recombinant human dopamine (hDAT), serotonin (hSERT) and norepinephrine (hNET) transporters, potently inhibited [3H]neurotransmitter uptake, and, like cocaine, did not induce transporter-mediated release. Butylone was a lower affinity uptake inhibitor. In contrast, 4-fluoromethcathinone, mephedrone and methylone had higher inhibitory potency at uptake compared to binding and generally induced release of preloaded [3H]neurotransmitter from hDAT, hSERT and hNET (highest potency at hNET), and thus are transporter substrates, similar to METH and MDMA. At hNET, 4-fluoromethcathinone was a more efficacious releaser than METH. These substituted methcathinones had low uptake inhibitory potency and low efficacy at inducing release via human vesicular monoamine transporters (hVMAT2). These compounds were low potency 1) h5-HT1A receptor partial agonists, 2) h5-HT2A receptor antagonists, 3) weak h5-HT2C receptor antagonists. This is the first report on aspects of substituted methcathinone efficacies at serotonin (5-HT) receptors and in superfusion release assays. Additionally, the drugs had no affinity for dopamine receptors, and high- mid-micromolar affinity for hSigma1 receptors. Thus, direct interactions with hVMAT2 and serotonin, dopamine, and hSigma1 receptors may not explain psychoactive effects. The primary mechanisms of action may be as inhibitors or substrates of DAT, SERT and NET. PMID:23583454

  9. Anxiolytic-like actions of BW 723C86 in the rat Vogel conflict test are 5-HT2B receptor mediated.

    PubMed

    Kennett, G A; Trail, B; Bright, F

    1998-12-01

    The 5-HT2B receptor agonist, BW 723C86 (10, 30(mg/kg i.p. 30 min pre-test), increased the number of punishments accepted in a rat Vogel drinking conflict paradigm over 3 min, as did the benzodiazepine anxiolytics, chlordiazepoxide (2.5-10 mg/kg p.o. 1 h pre-test) and alprazolam (0.2-5 mg/kg p.o. 1 h pre-test), but not the 5-HT2C/2B receptor agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP, 0.3-3 mg/kg i.p) or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, buspirone (5-20 mg/kg p.o. 1 h pre-test). The effect of BW 723C86 was unlikely to be secondary to enhanced thirst, as BW 723C86 did not increase the time that rats with free access to water spent drinking, nor did it reduce sensitivity to shock in the apparatus. The anti-punishment effect of BW 723C86 was opposed by prior treatment with the 5-HT2/2B receptor antagonist, SB-206553 (10 and 20 mg/kg p.o. 1 h pre-test), and the selective 5-HT2B receptor antagonist, SB-215505 (1 and 3 mg/kg p.o. 1 h pre-test), but not by the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, SB-242084 (5 mg/kg p.o.), or the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY 100635 (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg s.c. 30 min pre-test). Thus, the anti-punishment action of BW 723C86 is likely to be 5-HT2B receptor mediated. This is consistent with previous reports that BW 723C86 exhibited anxiolytic-like properties in both the social interaction and Geller-Seifter conflict tests. PMID:9886683

  10. Norovirus mechanisms of immune antagonism.

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexa N; Karst, Stephanie M

    2016-02-01

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks globally. Several lines of evidence indicate that noroviruses can antagonize or evade host immune responses, including the absence of long-lasting immunity elicited during a primary norovirus exposure and the ability of noroviruses to establish prolonged infections that are associated with protracted viral shedding. Specific norovirus proteins possessing immune antagonist activity have been described in recent years although mechanistic insight in most cases is limited. In this review, we discuss these emerging strategies used by noroviruses to subvert the immune response, including the actions of two nonstructural proteins (p48 and p22) to impair cellular protein trafficking and secretory pathways; the ability of the VF1 protein to inhibit cytokine induction; and the ability of the minor structural protein VP2 to regulate antigen presentation. We also discuss the current state of the understanding of host and viral factors regulating the establishment of persistent norovirus infections along the gastrointestinal tract. A more detailed understanding of immune antagonism by pathogenic viruses will inform prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:26673810

  11. A Strategy for Antagonizing Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    G Chen; L Swem; D Swem; D Stauff; C OLoughlin; P Jeffrey; B Bassler; F Hughson

    2011-12-31

    Quorum-sensing bacteria communicate via small molecules called autoinducers to coordinate collective behaviors. Because quorum sensing controls virulence factor expression in many clinically relevant pathogens, membrane-permeable quorum sensing antagonists that prevent population-wide expression of virulence genes offer a potential route to novel antibacterial therapeutics. Here, we report a strategy for inhibiting quorum-sensing receptors of the widespread LuxR family. Structure-function studies with natural and synthetic ligands demonstrate that the dimeric LuxR-type transcription factor CviR from Chromobacterium violaceum is potently antagonized by molecules that bind in place of the native acylated homoserine lactone autoinducer, provided that they stabilize a closed conformation. In such conformations, each of the two DNA-binding domains interacts with the ligand-binding domain of the opposing monomer. Consequently, the DNA-binding helices are held apart by {approx}60 {angstrom}, twice the {approx}30 {angstrom} separation required for operator binding. This approach may represent a general strategy for the inhibition of multidomain proteins.

  12. Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Interactions with Dopamine Function: Implications for Therapeutics in Cocaine Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine exhibits prominent abuse liability, and chronic abuse can result in cocaine use disorder with significant morbidity. Major advances have been made in delineating neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine abuse; however, effective medications to treat cocaine use disorder remain to be discovered. The present review will focus on the role of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission in the neuropharmacology of cocaine and related abused stimulants. Extensive research suggests that the primary contribution of 5-HT to cocaine addiction is a consequence of interactions with dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The literature on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of cocaine is well developed, so the focus of the review will be on cocaine with inferences made about other monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers based on mechanistic considerations. 5-HT receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain, and several different 5-HT receptor subtypes have been implicated in mediating the effects of endogenous 5-HT on DA. However, the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in particular have been implicated as likely candidates for mediating the influence of 5-HT in cocaine abuse as well as to traits (e.g., impulsivity) that contribute to the development of cocaine use disorder and relapse in humans. Lastly, new approaches are proposed to guide targeted development of serotonergic ligands for the treatment of cocaine use disorder. PMID:25505168

  13. Chemokine antagonism in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Charles, Edgar D; Dustin, Lynn B

    2011-01-01

    Immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) fail to clear the virus in most individuals. Why patients who are less likely to clear HCV infection have high plasma levels of CXCL10 (also known as IP-10), a chemokine that directs T cells to sites of infection, has long been unclear. In this issue of the JCI, Casrouge and colleagues shed light on this paradox by showing that CXCL10 in the plasma of many HCV patients is enzymatically processed to produce a CXCL10 receptor antagonist. These findings introduce a role for chemokine antagonism during HCV infection and unveil new avenues for improved HCV diagnosis and therapy. PMID:21183783

  14. 5-HT3 receptors as important mediators of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. The first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been very effective in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis in the first 24 h postchemotherapy (acute emesis), but have not been as effective against delayed emesis (24-120 h postchemotherapy). Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a FDA approved antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters: dopamine at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonin at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for chemotherapy-induced emesis and nausea, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25838122

  15. Distribution of cells responsive to 5-HT6 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Alastair S.; Burke, Luke K.; Shaw, Jill; Evans, Mark L.; Heisler, Lora K.

    2014-01-01

    The central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is well established as an important regulator of appetite and continues to remain a focus of obesity research. While much emphasis has focussed on the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) in 5-HT's anorectic effect, pharmacological manipulation of the 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) also reduces appetite and body weight and may be amenable to obesity treatment. However, the neurological circuits that underlie 5-HT6R-induced hypophagia remain to be identified. Using c-fos immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) as a marker of neuronal activation, here we mapped the neuroanatomical targets activated by an anorectic dose of the 5-HT6R antagonist SB-399885 throughout the brain. Furthermore, we quantified SB-399855 activated cells within brain appetitive nuclei, the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Our results reveal that 5-HT6R antagonist-induced hypophagia is associated with significantly increased neuronal activation in two nuclei with an established role in the central control of appetite, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the NTS. In contrast, no changes in FOS-IR were observed between treatment groups within other hypothalamic nuclei or DRN. The data presented here provide a first insight into the neural circuitry underlying 5-HT6R antagonist-induced appetite suppression and highlight the PVH and NTS in the coordination of 5-HT6R hypophagia. PMID:24566060

  16. Irreversible H2-antagonism of the four isomeric butyl analogues of mifentidine.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, H M; Donetti, A; Kramer, K; Bietti, G; Cereda, E; Dubini, D; Mondini, M; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1990-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that bidentate hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the interaction of imidazolylphenylformamidines with the H2-receptor. The present study, in which the degree of pseudo-irreversible H2-antagonism of the four isomeric butyl substituted mifentidine analogues was determined on the spontaneously beating right atrium of the male guinea-pig, lends further support to this hypothesis. In solution the EE/EZ ratio is different for the four isomeric butylated mifentidine analogues. The rank order of the percentage of E,E conformation, which favors a bidentate interaction, of the formamidine moiety parallels the rank order of pseudo-irreversible H2-antagonism. PMID:1973582

  17. 5-HT2 receptor affinity, docking studies and pharmacological evaluation of a series of 1,3-disubstituted thiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bielenica, Anna; Kędzierska, Ewa; Koliński, Michał; Kmiecik, Sebastian; Koliński, Andrzej; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Severino, Beatrice; Magli, Elisa; Corvino, Angela; Rossi, Ilaria; Massarelli, Paola; Kozioł, Anna E; Sawczenko, Aleksandra; Struga, Marta

    2016-06-30

    A series of 10 thiourea derivatives have been synthesized by the reaction of aromatic amine with a substituted aryl (compounds 1-3, 6-8) and alkylphenyl (4, 5, 9, 10) isothiocyanates. Their in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties were studied. Among the evaluated compounds, two displayed very high affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor (1-0.043 nM and 5-0.6 nM), being selective over the 5-HT2C receptor. Derivatives 3, 5, 9, 10 by 70-89% diminished L-5-HTP-induced head twitch episodes. Compounds 1 and 5 as the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists produced a dose-dependent decrease in the number of DOI-elicited HTR. Compounds 1-5 strongly reduced amphetamine-evoked hyperactivity in rodents. In another test, 1 and 2 caused hyperthermia in mice, whereas 9 and 10 led to hypothermia. Antinociceptive and anticonvulsant properties of selected derivatives were demonstrated. Molecular docking studies using a homology model of 5-HT2A revealed a significant role of hydrogen bonds between both thiourea NH groups and Asp155/Tyr370 residues, as well as π-π interaction with Phe339. PMID:27061981

  18. Neuraxial opioid-induced itch and its pharmacological antagonism.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Given its profound analgesic nature, neuraxial opioids are frequently used for pain management. Unfortunately, the high incident rate of itch/pruritus after spinal administration of opioid analgesics reported in postoperative and obstetric patients greatly diminishes patient satisfaction and thus the value of the analgesics. Many endeavors to solve the mystery behind neuraxial opioid-induced itch had not been successful, as the pharmacological antagonism other than the blockade of mu opioid receptors remains elusive. Nevertheless, as the characteristics of all opioid receptor subtypes have become more understood, more studies have shed light on the potential effective treatments. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying neuraxial opioid-induced itch and compares pharmacological evidence in nonhuman primates with clinical findings across diverse drugs. Both nonhuman primate and human studies corroborate that mixed mu/kappa opioid partial agonists seem to be the most effective drugs in ameliorating neuraxial opioid-induced itch while retaining neuraxial opioid-induced analgesia. PMID:25861787

  19. Neuraxial Opioid-Induced Itch and Its Pharmacological Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Given its profound analgesic nature, neuraxial opioids are frequently used for pain management. Unfortunately, the high incident rate of itch/pruritus after spinal administration of opioid analgesics reported in postoperative and obstetric patients greatly diminishes patient satisfaction and thus the value of the analgesics. Many endeavors to solve the mystery behind neuraxial opioid-induced itch had not been successful, as the pharmacological antagonism other than the blockade of mu opioid receptors remains elusive. Nevertheless, as the characteristics of all opioid receptor subtypes have become more understood, more studies have shed light on the potential effective treatments. This review discusses the mechanisms underlying neuraxial opioid-induced itch and compares pharmacological evidence in nonhuman primates with clinical findings across diverse drugs. Both nonhuman primate and human studies corroborate that mixed mu/kappa opioid partial agonists seem to be the most effective drugs in ameliorating neuraxial opioid-induced itch while retaining neuraxial opioid-induced analgesia. PMID:25861787

  20. Dopamine-Induced Stress Signaling in COS-7 Cells Transfected With Selectively Vulnerable Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes is Partially Mediated Via the i3 Loop and Antagonized By Blueberry Extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscarinic receptors (MAChRs) are intimately involved in various aspects of both neuronal and vascular functioning, and there is selective oxidative stress sensitivity (OSS) among MAChR subtypes, with M1, M2, and M4 showing > OSS as evidenced by the inability of the cell to extrude or sequester Ca2+...

  1. Life Beyond Kinases: Structure-based Discovery of Sorafenib as Nanomolar Antagonist of 5-HT Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xingyu; Huang, Xi-Ping; Chen, Gang; Whaley, Ryan; Peng, Shiming; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Simon X.; Wang, Shaohui; Roth, Bryan L.; Huang, Niu

    2012-01-01

    Of great interest in recent years has been computationally predicting the novel polypharmacology of drug molecules. Here, we applied an “induced-fit” protocol to improve the homology models of 5-HT2A receptor, and we assessed the quality of these models in retrospective virtual screening. Subsequently, we computationally screened the FDA approved drug molecules against the best induced-fit 5-HT2A models, and chose six top scoring hits for experimental assays. Surprisingly, one well-known kinase inhibitor, sorafenib has shown unexpected promiscuous 5-HTRs binding affinities, Ki = 1959, 56 and 417 nM against 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C, respectively. Our preliminary SAR exploration supports the predicted binding mode, and further suggests sorafenib to be a novel lead compound for 5HTR ligand discovery. Although it has been well known that sorafenib produces anticancer effects through targeting multiple kinases, carefully designed experimental studies are desirable to fully understand whether its “off-target” 5-HTR binding activities contribute to its therapeutic efficacy or otherwise undesirable side effects. PMID:22694093

  2. Lack of antagonism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin's (TCDDs) induction of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) by the putative selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator 6-alkyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (6-MCDF) in the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1c1c7.

    PubMed

    Fretland, Adrian J; Safe, Stephen; Hankinson, Oliver

    2004-11-20

    Regulation of gene expression by the aryl hydrocarbon (AHR) receptor is a much-studied pathway of molecular toxicology. Activation of AHR by the xenobiotic ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is hypothesized as the mechanism by which TCDD exerts its toxic and carcinogenic effects. Paradoxically, some studies have shown that TCDD acts as an antiestrogen. This has led to the hypothesis that so-called selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulators (SAhRMs), AHR ligands that retain the antiestrogenic effects but lack the transcriptional effects of TCDD associated with toxicity, may be utilized as cancer chemotherapeutics in conjunction with other antiestrogenic compounds such as tamoxifen. The present study attempts to further define the molecular mechanism of action of the putative SAhRMs, 6-alkyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (6-MCDF), and diindolylmethane (DIM), focusing particularly on the former. We tested 6-MCDF and DIM for the recruitment of AHR and RNA polymerase II (pol II) to the regulatory region of the AHR responsive gene, cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), using the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay in the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1c1c7 (Hepa-1). We also tested the level of CYP1A1 induction in Hepa-1 cells using quantitative real-time PCR. We show no difference in the recruitment of AHR or pol II to the regulatory region of CYP1A1 in response to TCDD, 6-MCDF, or co-treatment with both TCDD and 6-MCDF. Our results also show no antagonism of CYP1A1 induction with co-treatment of Hepa-1 cells with TCDD and 6-MCDF. These data suggest that 6-MCDF exhibits agonist activity with respect to induction of CYP1A1 in the Hepa-1 cell line. PMID:15535986

  3. Direct and Indirect 5-HT receptor agonists produce gender-specific effects on locomotor and vertical activity in C57 BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Brookshire, Bethany R.; Jones, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems have extensive and complex interactions. However, the effects of specific 5-HT receptor agonists on traditionally DA-related behaviors remain unclear. Our goal in these studies was to characterize the effects of 5-HT receptor agonists on measures of locomotor activity and vertical rearing. The SSRIs fluoxetine and citalopram produced significant decreases in locomotor activity and vertical rearing at the highest doses used with females significant more sensitive to citalopram. The 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT and the 5-HT2C agonist MK 212 significantly decreased activity in both male and female mice, with females more sensitive to 8-OH-DPAT. In contrast, the 5-HT1B agonist RU 24969 and the 5-HT2A agonist DOI both increased activity, with DOI exhibiting differential effects with regard to sex. Finally, the 5-HT3 agonist SR 57227 produced significant locomotor increases only in female mice at the lowest dose. The results of these experiments define locomotor profiles of several 5-HT agonists in male and female C57BL/6J mice, providing a foundation for further explorations of 5-HT receptor effects on activity. PMID:19698737

  4. In Vivo Phenotypic Screening for Treating Chronic Neuropathic Pain: Modification of C2-Arylethynyl Group of Conformationally Constrained A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    (N)-Methanocarba adenosine 5′-methyluronamides containing 2-arylethynyl groups were synthesized as A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists and screened in vivo (po) for reduction of neuropathic pain. A small N6-methyl group maintained binding affinity, with human > mouse A3AR and MW < 500 and other favorable physicochemical properties. Emax (maximal efficacy in a mouse chronic constriction injury pain model) of previously characterized A3AR agonist, 2-(3,4-difluorophenylethynyl)-N6-(3-chlorobenzyl) derivative 6a, MRS5698, was surpassed. More efficacious analogues (in vivo) contained the following C2-arylethynyl groups: pyrazin-2-yl 23 (binding Ki, hA3AR, nM 1.8), fur-2-yl 27 (0.6), thien-2-yl 32 (0.6) and its 5-chloro 33, MRS5980 (0.7) and 5-bromo 34 (0.4) equivalents, and physiologically unstable ferrocene 36, MRS5979 (2.7). 33 and 36 displayed particularly long in vivo duration (>3 h). Selected analogues were docked to an A3AR homology model to explore the environment of receptor-bound C2 and N6 groups. Various analogues bound with μM affinity at off-target biogenic amine (M2, 5HT2A, β3, 5HT2B, 5HT2C, and α2C) or other receptors. Thus, we have expanded the structural range of orally active A3AR agonists for chronic pain treatment. PMID:25422861

  5. Limited PCB antagonism of TCDD-induced malformations in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, R.E.; Harris, M.W.; Diliberto, J.J.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    Mice used to model induction of cleft palate and kidney malformations in offspring following maternal treatment with TCDD, were dosed on gestation day with hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) and/or with tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to investigate the potential protective effects of HCB against TCDD-induced teratogenicity. At the doses used in the study, there was no effect of either compound on number of live or dead offspring. Fetal body weight was slightly decreased in all groups dosed with = or > 250 mg HCB/kg. HCB did not induce cleft palate at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, but did induce increases in hydronephrosis and hydroureter at 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Combinations of HCB and TCDD decreased the incidence of cleft palate induced by TCDD alone, but only at doses of 15 microgram TCDD/kg combined with 125-500 mg HCB/kg. The window for antagonism of hydronephrosis (incidence and severity) appeared narrower (15 microgram TCDD/kg + 500 mg HCB/kg). HCB induced increases (3 fold) in EROD activity at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg, suggesting that the limited antagonism of TCDD teratogenicity by HCB would be consistent with control by Ah receptor. (Copyright (c) 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

  6. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  7. Serotonin and dopamine receptors in motivational and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Negative symptoms (e.g., decreased spontaneity, social withdrawal, blunt affect) and disturbances of cognitive function (e.g., several types of memory, attention, processing speed, executive function, fluency) provide a major determinant of long-term outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, motivation deficits, a type of negative symptoms, have been attracting interest as (1) a moderator of cognitive performance in schizophrenia and related disorders, and (2) a modulating factor of cognitive enhancers/remediation. These considerations suggest the need to clarify neurobiological substrates regulating motivation. Genetic studies indicate a role for the monoamine systems in motivation and key cognitive domains. For example, polymorphism of genes encoding catecholamine-O-methyltransferase, an enzyme catabolizing dopamine (DA), affects performance on tests of working memory and executive function in a phenotype (schizophrenia vs. healthy controls)-dependent fashion. On the other hand, motivation to maximize rewards has been shown to be influenced by other genes encoding DA-related substrates, such as DARPP-32 and DA-D2 receptors. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors may also play a significant role in cognitive and motivational disabilities in psychoses and mood disorders. For example, mutant mice over-expressing D2 receptors in the striatum, an animal model of schizophrenia, exhibit both decreased willingness to work for reward and up-regulation of 5-HT2C receptors. Taken together, genetic predisposition related to 5-HT receptors may mediate the diversity of incentive motivation that is impaired in patients receiving biological and/or psychosocial treatments. Thus, research into genetic and neurobiological measures of motivation, in association with 5-HT receptors, is likely to facilitate intervention into patients seeking better social consequences. PMID:25538549

  8. Serotonin receptors are selectively expressed in the avian germ cells and early embryos.

    PubMed

    Stępińska, Urszula; Kuwana, Takashi; Olszańska, Bożenna

    2015-06-01

    The expression of nine serotonin (5-HT) receptor transcripts was studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in germ cells, cleavage and gastrulation stages of Japanese quail, and qPCR for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in oocytes and embryos. We show the presence/absence of nine serotonin transcripts known in birds for receptors 5-HT1A, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7A in avian germ cells and early embryos. The absence of 5-HT3 and 5-HT5A in primordial germ cells and of 5-HT3 and 5-HT7A in sperm is characteristic. All transcripts appeared in oocytes at all stages (except for 5-HT3 and 5-HT5A transcripts) and all were present in cleaving embryos and at gastrulation, except for 5-HT3, which was permanently observed as late as in stage 4. Interestingly, 5-HT3 and 5-HT5A receptors accumulated in 3-mm and F1 oocytes but were degraded at ovulation and started to be re-transcribed in cleavage stage II embryos and beyond. The selective appearance of 5-HT receptors in germ cells and early embryos supports the hypothesis that serotonin may act as a signalling molecule at early stages of germ line and embryo differentiation via individual receptors present during different stages, when specialized communication systems are not yet developed. PMID:24521994

  9. Multiple receptor subtypes mediate the effects of serotonin on rat subfornical organ neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scrogin, K. E.; Johnson, A. K.; Schmid, H. A.

    1998-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) receives significant serotonergic innervation. However, few reports have examined the functional effects of serotonin on SFO neurons. This study characterized the effects of serotonin on spontaneously firing SFO neurons in the rat brain slice. Of 31 neurons tested, 80% responded to serotonin (1-100 microM) with either an increase (n = 15) or decrease (n = 10) in spontaneous activity. Responses to serotonin were dose dependent and persisted after synaptic blockade. Excitatory responses could also be mimicked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 1-10 microM) and could be blocked by the 5-HT2A/2C-receptor antagonist LY-53,857 (10 microM). LY-53,857 unmasked inhibitory responses to serotonin in 56% of serotonin-excited cells tested. Serotonin-inhibited cells were also inhibited by the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1-10 microM; n = 7). The data indicate that SFO neurons are responsive to serotonin via postsynaptic activation of multiple receptor subtypes. The results suggest that excitatory responses to serotonin are mediated by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors and that inhibitory responses may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, similar percentages of serotonin-excited and -inhibited cells were also sensitive to ANG II. As such the functional relationship between serotonin and ANG II in the SFO remains unclear.

  10. The orphan receptor hepatic nuclear factor 4 functions as a transcriptional activator for tissue-specific and hypoxia-specific erythropoietin gene expression and is antagonized by EAR3/COUP-TF1.

    PubMed Central

    Galson, D L; Tsuchiya, T; Tendler, D S; Huang, L E; Ren, Y; Ogura, T; Bunn, H F

    1995-01-01

    The erythropoietin (Epo) gene is regulated by hypoxia-inducible cis-acting elements in the promoter and in a 3' enhancer, both of which contain consensus hexanucleotide hormone receptor response elements which are important for function. A group of 11 orphan nuclear receptors, transcribed and translated in vitro, were screened by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Of these, hepatic nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4), TR2-11, ROR alpha 1, and EAR3/COUP-TF1 bound specifically to the response elements in the Epo promoter and enhancer and, except for ROR alpha 1, formed DNA-protein complexes that had mobilities similar to those observed in nuclear extracts of the Epo-producing cell line Hep3B. Moreover, both anti-HNF-4 and anti-COUP antibodies were able to supershift complexes in Hep3B nuclear extracts. Like Epo, HNF-4 is expressed in kidney, liver, and Hep3B cells but not in HeLa cells. Transfection of a plasmid expressing HNF-4 into HeLa cells enabled an eightfold increase in the hypoxic induction of a luciferase reporter construct which contains the minimal Epo enhancer and Epo promoter, provided that the nuclear hormone receptor consensus DNA elements in both the promoter and the enhancer were intact. The augmentation by HNF-4 in HeLa cells could be abrogated by cotransfection with HNF-4 delta C, which retains the DNA binding domain of HNF-4 but lacks the C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, the hypoxia-induced expression of the endogenous Epo gene was significantly inhibited in Hep3B cells stably transfected with HNF-4 delta C. On the other hand, cotransfection of EAR3/COUP-TF1 and the Epo reporter either with HNF-4 into HeLa cells or alone into Hep3B cells suppressed the hypoxia induction of the Epo reporter. These electrophoretic mobility shift assay and functional experiments indicate that HNF-4 plays a critical positive role in the tissue-specific and hypoxia-inducible expression of the Epo gene, whereas the COUP family has a negative modulatory role. PMID

  11. Melatonin receptor and KATP channel modulation in experimental vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prabhat; Gupta, Surbhi; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-04-01

    Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are stated as important risk factors of vascular dementia (VaD) and other cognitive disorders. In the central nervous system, melatonin (MT1/MT2) as well as serotonin subtype 2C (5-HT2C) receptors is pharmacologically associated with various neurological disorders. Brain mitochondrial potassium channels have been reported for their role in neuroprotection. This study has been structured to investigate the role of agomelatine, a melatonergic MT1/MT2 agonist and nicorandil, a selective ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener in renal artery ligation (two-kidney-one-clip: 2K1C) hypertension induced endothelial dysfunction, brain damage and VaD. 2K1C-renovascular hypertension has increased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), impaired memory (elevated plus maze and Morris water maze), endothelial function, reduced serum nitrite/nitrate and increased brain damage (TTC staining of brain sections). Furthermore, 2K1C animals have shown high levels of oxidative stress in serum (increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species-TBARS with decreased levels of glutathione-GSH, superoxide dismutase-SOD and catalase-CAT), in the aorta (increased aortic superoxide anion) and in the brain (increased TBARS with decreased GSH, SOD and CAT). 2K1C has also induced a significant increase in brain inflammation (myeloperoxidase-MPO levels), acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and calcium levels. Impairment in mitochondrial complexes like NADH dehydrogenase (complex-I), succinate dehydrogenase (complex-II) and cytochrome oxidase (complex-IV) was also noted in 2K1C animals. Administration of agomelatine, nicorandil and donepezil significantly attenuated 2K1C-hypertension induced impairments in memory, endothelial function, nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and brain damage. Therefore, modulators of MT1/MT2 receptors and KATP channels may be considered as potential agents for the management of renovascular

  12. 5-HT2B antagonism arrests non-canonical TGF-β1-induced valvular myofibroblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Ryzhova, Larisa M.; Setola, Vincent; Merryman, W. David

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induces myofibroblast activation of quiescent aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs), a differentiation process implicated in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). The ubiquity of TGF-β1 signaling makes it difficult to target in a tissue specific manner; however, the serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2B) is highly localized to cardiopulmonary tissues and agonism of this receptor displays pro-fibrotic effects in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that antagonism of 5-HT2B opposes TGF-β1-induced pathologic differentiation of AVICs and may offer a druggable target to prevent CAVD. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the interaction of 5-HT2B antagonism with canonical and non-canonical TGF-β1 pathways to inhibit TGF-β1-induced activation of isolated porcine AVICs in vitro. Here we show that AVIC activation and subsequent calcific nodule formation is completely mitigated by 5-HT2B antagonism. Interestingly, 5-HT2B antagonism does not inhibit canonical TGF-β1 signaling as identified by Smad3 phosphorylation and activation of a partial plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter (PAI-1, a transcriptional target of Smad3), but prevents non-canonical p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It was initially suspected that 5-HT2B antagonism prevents Src tyrosine kinase phosphorylation; however, we found that this is not the case and time-lapse microscopy indicates that 5-HT2B antagonism prevents non-canonical TGF-β1 signaling by physically arresting Src tyrosine kinase. This study demonstrates the necessity of non-canonical TGF-β1 signaling in leading to pathologic AVIC differentiation. Moreover, we believe that the results of this study suggest 5-HT2B antagonism as a novel therapeutic approach for CAVD that merits further investigation. PMID:22940605

  13. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes the vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated MAPKs and downstream effectors AP-1 and CREB in mouse mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Satyabha; Pandey, Kailash N.

    2012-01-01

    Along with its natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilatory properties, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) exhibit an inhibitory effect on cell growth and proliferation. However, the signaling pathways mediating this inhibition are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ANP-NPRA system on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the downstream proliferative transcription factors involving activating protein-1 (AP-1) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in agonist-stimulated mouse mesangial cells (MMCs). We found that ANP inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated phosphorylation of MAPKs (Erk1, Erk2, JNK, and p38), to a greater extent in NPRA-transfected cells (50–60%) relative to vector-transfected cells (25–30%). The analyses of the phosphorylated transcription factors revealed that ANP inhibited VEGF-stimulated activation of CREB, and the AP-1 subunits (c-jun and c-fos). Gel shift assays demonstrated that ANP inhibited VEGF-stimulated AP-1 and CREB DNA-binding ability by 67 % and 62 %, respectively. The addition of the protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor, KT-5823, restored the VEGF-stimulated activation of MAPKs, AP-1, and CREB, demonstrating the integral role of cGMP/PKG signaling in NPRA-mediated effects. Our results delineate the under lying mechanisms through which ANP-NPRA system exerts an inhibitory effect on MAPKs and down-stream effector molecules, AP-1 and CREB, critical for cell growth and proliferation. PMID:22610792

  14. Combined Inhibition of Complement and CD14 Attenuates Bacteria-Induced Inflammation in Human Whole Blood More Efficiently Than Antagonizing the Toll-like Receptor 4–MD2 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsen, Alice; Nymo, Stig; Landsem, Anne; Christiansen, Dorte; Ryan, Liv; Husebye, Harald; Lau, Corinna; Pischke, Søren E.; Lambris, John D.; Espevik, Terje; Mollnes, Tom E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Single inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)–MD2 complex failed in treatment of sepsis. CD14 is a coreceptor for several TLRs, including TLR4 and TLR2. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single TLR4-MD2 inhibition by using eritoran, compared with the effect of CD14 inhibition alone and combined with the C3 complement inhibitor compstatin (Cp40), on the bacteria-induced inflammatory response in human whole blood. Methods. Cytokines were measured by multiplex technology, and leukocyte activation markers CD11b and CD35 were measured by flow cytometry. Results. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced inflammatory markers were efficiently abolished by both anti-CD14 and eritoran. Anti-CD14 was significantly more effective than eritoran in inhibiting LPS-binding to HEK-293E cells transfected with CD14 and Escherichia coli–induced upregulation of monocyte activation markers (P < .01). Combining Cp40 with anti-CD14 was significantly more effective than combining Cp40 with eritoran in reducing E. coli–induced interleukin 6 (P < .05) and monocyte activation markers induced by both E. coli (P < .001) and Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01). Combining CP40 with anti-CD14 was more efficient than eritoran alone for 18 of 20 bacteria-induced inflammatory responses (mean P < .0001). Conclusions. Whole bacteria–induced inflammation was inhibited more efficiently by anti-CD14 than by eritoran, particularly when combined with complement inhibition. Combined CD14 and complement inhibition may prove a promising treatment strategy for bacterial sepsis. PMID:26977050

  15. Triple threat treatment: Exploiting the dependence receptor properties of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 against melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Gelb, Tara; Hathaway, Hannah A; Wroblewski, Jarda T

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma cells that express metabotropic glutamate 1 (mGlu1) receptors depend on glutamate for their survival and proliferation. The dependence receptor properties of mGlu1 allow us to propose and justify three promising approaches for melanoma treatment: glutamate depletion, mGlu1 receptor antagonism, and targeting of mGlu1 receptor signaling.

  16. Association of Polymorphisms within the Serotonin Receptor Genes 5-HTR1A, 5-HTR1B, 5-HTR2A and 5-HTR2C and Migraine Susceptibility in a Turkish Population

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Yavuz; Coşkun, Salih; Cengiz, Beyhan; Özdemir, Hasan H.; Uzar, Ertuğrul; Çim, Abdullah; Camkurt, M. Akif; Aluclu, M. Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Objective Migraine, a highly prevelant headache disorder, is regarded as a polygenic multifactorial disease. Serotonin (5-HT) and their respective receptors have been implicated in the patogenesis. Methods We investigated the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphisms and their association with migraine in Turkish patients. The rs6295, rs1300060, rs1228814, rs6311, rs6313, rs6314, rs6318, rs3813929 (−759C/T) and rs518147 polymorphisms were analyzed in 135 patients with migraine and 139 healthy subjects, using a BioMark 96.96 dynamic array system. Results We found no difference in the frequency of the analyzed eight out of nine polymorpisms between migraine and control groups. However, a significant association was found between the rs3813929 polymorphism in the promoter region of 5-HTR2C gene and migraine. Also, the allele of rs3813929 was more common in the migraine group. Conclusion This result suggests that the 5-HTR2C rs3813929 polymorphism can be a genetic risk factor for migraine in a Turkish population. PMID:27489378

  17. [Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2013-01-01

    that serotonin facilitates prefrontal inhibition and insufficient serotonergic activity may increase aggression levels. Gabaminergic activity reduce subcortical reactivity, and thus reduced gabaminergic activity may increase aggression. In addition, agonism of 5-HT2A receptor may increase impulsivity levels, while 5-HT2C receptor agonism may decrease it. An imbalance between these receptors with increased serotonergic activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and decreased 5-HT2C receptor sensitivity may increase the possibility of aggression. Fluoxetine may reserve this pattern by increasing presynaptic availability, decreasing 5-HT2A binding and enhancing signal at 5-HT2C receptors. Similarly, atypical antipsychotics, which in parallel with the D2 antagonism have a prominent 5-HT2A receptor antagonism, manifest significant antiaggressive properties. In addition mood stabilizers, affecting glutamatergic/gabaminergic balance, serve to the reduction of impulsive aggression, while lithium manifests positive effect on both suicidality and impulsive aggression. PMID:24200542

  18. Evaluation of the antagonism of nicotine by mecamylamine and pempidine in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Antagonists have been crucial in the characterization of nicotine's pharmacology. Initial evidence for the existence of central nicotinic receptors was based on the fact that nicotine produced a number of behavioral effects that were antagonized by ganglionic blockers that crossed the blood-brain barrier, such as mecamylamine and pempidine. These compounds are thought to be noncompetitive antagonists due to the fact that they do not compete for agonist binding to brain homogenate in vitro. However, pharmacological evidence in support of noncompetitive antagonism is lacking. Dose-response curves for nicotine were determined in the presence of various doses of pempidine for depression of spontaneous activity and antinociception in mice. Pempidine was found to shift the dose response curves for these effects of nicotine in a manner consistent with noncompetitive antagonism. A number of mecamylamine analogs were investigated for antagonism of these central effects of nicotine as well. These studies revealed that the N-, 2-, and 3-methyls were crucial for optimal efficacy and potency and suggests that these compounds possess a specific mechanism of action, possibly involving a receptor. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationships for the mecamylamine analogs were found to be different than that previously reported for the agonists, suggesting that they do not act at the same site. The binding of ({sup 3} H)-L-nicotine and ({sup 3}H)-pempidine was studied in vitro to mouse brain homogentate and in situ to rat brain slices. The in situ binding of ({sup 3}H)-L-nicotine to rat brain slices was quantitated autoradiographically to discrete brain areas in the presence and absence of 1, 10 and 100 {mu}M nicotine and pempidine. Pempidine did not effectively displace ({sup 3}H)-L-nicotine binding.

  19. Stress antagonizes morphine-induced analgesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Shannon, L.; Heybach, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to restraint stress resulted in antagonism of the analgesic effect of administered morphine in adult male rats. This antagonism of morphine-induced analgesia by restraint stress was not affected by adrenalectomy one day prior to testing, suggesting that stress-induced secretion of corticosteroids is not critical to this antagonism. In addition, parenteral administration of exogenous adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) mimicked the effect of stress in antagonizing morphine's analgesic efficacy. The hypothesis that ACTH is an endogenous opiate antagonist involved in modulating pain sensitivity is supported.

  20. Reconceptualizing synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Jeremy J; Townsend, Colin R; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2015-01-01

    The potential for complex synergistic or antagonistic interactions between multiple stressors presents one of the largest uncertainties when predicting ecological change but, despite common use of the terms in the scientific literature, a consensus on their operational definition is still lacking. The identification of synergism or antagonism is generally straightforward when stressors operate in the same direction, but if individual stressor effects oppose each other, the definition of synergism is paradoxical because what is synergistic to one stressor's effect direction is antagonistic to the others. In their highly cited meta-analysis, Crain et al. (Ecology Letters, 11, 2008: 1304) assumed in situations with opposing individual effects that synergy only occurs when the cumulative effect is more negative than the additive sum of the opposing individual effects. We argue against this and propose a new systematic classification based on an additive effects model that combines the magnitude and response direction of the cumulative effect and the interaction effect. A new class of “mitigating synergism” is identified, where cumulative effects are reversed and enhanced. We applied our directional classification to the dataset compiled by Crain et al. (Ecology Letters, 11, 2008: 1304) to determine the prevalence of synergistic, antagonistic, and additive interactions. Compared to their original analysis, we report differences in the representation of interaction classes by interaction type and we document examples of mitigating synergism, highlighting the importance of incorporating individual stressor effect directions in the determination of synergisms and antagonisms. This is particularly pertinent given a general bias in ecology toward investigating and reporting adverse multiple stressor effects (double negative). We emphasize the need for reconsideration by the ecological community of the interpretation of synergism and antagonism in situations where

  1. Effects of the 5-HT2B receptor agonist, BW 723C86, on three rat models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kennett, G A; Bright, F; Trail, B; Baxter, G S; Blackburn, T P

    1996-04-01

    1. BW 723C86 (3 and 10 mg kg-1, s.c. 30 min pretest), a 5-HT2B receptor agonist, increased total interaction, but not locomotion in a rat social interaction test, a profile consistent with anxiolysis. 2. The effect of BW 723C86 in the social interaction test is likely to be 5-HT2B receptor-mediated as it was prevented by pretreatment with the 5-HT2C/2B receptor antagonist, SB 200646A, (1 and 2 mg kg-1, p.o., 1 h pretest) which did not affect basal levels of social interaction at the doses used. 3. An anxiolytic-like action was also observed in the rat Geller-Seifter conflict test, where BW 723C86 (0.5-50 mg kg-1, s.c. 30 min pretest) modestly, but significantly increased punished, but not unpublished responding. 4. In a rat 5 min elevated x-maze test, BW 723C86 (1-10 mg kg-1, s.c.) had no significant effect. 5. The maximal anxiolytic-like effect of BW 723C86 approached that of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic, chloradiazepoxide (5 mg kg-1, s.c. 30 min pretest) in the social interaction test, but was markedly less in the Geller-Siefter test. The effect of BW 723C86 was also clearly less than chlordiazepoxide in the elevated x-maze procedure where it had no significant effect. 6. In conclusion, BW 723C86 exerted an appreciable anxiolytic-like profile in a rat social interaction test, but had a weaker effect in the Geller-Siefter and was ineffective in the elevated x-maze test used. These effects are likely to be 5-HT2B receptor-mediated. PMID:8730737

  2. Taking two to tango: a role for ghrelin receptor heterodimerization in stress and reward

    PubMed Central

    Schellekens, Harriët; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The gut hormone, ghrelin, is the only known peripherally derived orexigenic signal. It activates its centrally expressed receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a), to stimulate food intake. The ghrelin signaling system has recently been suggested to play a key role at the interface of homeostatic control of appetite and the hedonic aspects of food intake, as a critical role for ghrelin in dopaminergic mesolimbic circuits involved in reward signaling has emerged. Moreover, enhanced plasma ghrelin levels are associated with conditions of physiological stress, which may underline the drive to eat calorie-dense “comfort-foods” and signifies a role for ghrelin in stress-induced food reward behaviors. These complex and diverse functionalities of the ghrelinergic system are not yet fully elucidated and likely involve crosstalk with additional signaling systems. Interestingly, accumulating data over the last few years has shown the GHS-R1a receptor to dimerize with several additional G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in appetite signaling and reward, including the GHS-R1b receptor, the melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3), dopamine receptors (D1 and D2), and more recently, the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2C). GHS-R1a dimerization was shown to affect downstream signaling and receptor trafficking suggesting a potential novel mechanism for fine-tuning GHS-R1a receptor mediated activity. This review summarizes ghrelin's role in food reward and stress and outlines the GHS-R1a dimer pairs identified to date. In addition, the downstream signaling and potential functional consequences of dimerization of the GHS-R1a receptor in appetite and stress-induced food reward behavior are discussed. The existence of multiple GHS-R1a heterodimers has important consequences for future pharmacotherapies as it significantly increases the pharmacological diversity of the GHS-R1a receptor and has the potential to enhance specificity of novel ghrelin-targeted drugs. PMID

  3. DRUG ANTAGONISM BETWEEN LINCOMYCIN AND ERYTHROMYCIN.

    PubMed

    GRIFFITH, L J; OSTRANDER, W E; MULLINS, C G; BESWICK, D E

    1965-02-12

    An antagonistic action can be demonstrated between lincomycin, a new antibiotic, and erythromycin, when the two drugs are allowed to diffuse into the same area of an agar plate seeded with a strain of Staphylococcus which is resistant to erythromycin but sensitive to lincomycin. The increase in the minimum inhibitory concentrations of lincomycin in the presence of erythromycin may be significant in clinical application. The antagonism does not depend on a reaction between the two antibiotics, but appears to be the result of an altered metabolism stimulated by erythromycin on erythromycin-resistant staphylococci. PMID:14242023

  4. Antagonism by theophylline of respiratory inhibition induced by adenosine.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, F L; Millhorn, D E; Kiley, J P

    1985-11-01

    The effects on respiration of an analogue of adenosine, L-2-N6-(phenylisopropyl)adenosine (PIA), and of the methylxanthine, theophylline, were determined in 19 vagotomized glomectomized cats whose end-tidal PCO2 was kept constant by means of a servo-controlled ventilator. Integrated phrenic nerve activity was used to represent respiratory output. Our results show that PIA, whether given systemically or into the third cerebral ventricle, depressed respiration. Systemically administered theophylline stimulated respiration. Theophylline given intravenously, or into the third ventricle not only reversed the depressive effects of previously administered PIA but caused further increases of respiration above the control level. Prior systemic administration of theophylline blocked both respiratory and hypotensive effects of subsequently administered PIA. Effects of either agent on medullary extracellular fluid pH did not explain the results. We conclude that the adenosine analogue PIA, acts to inhibit neurons in the brain that are involved in the control of respiration and that its effects are blocked by theophylline. We suggest that adenosine acts as a tonic modulator of respiration and that theophylline stimulates breathing by competitive antagonism of adenosine at neuronal receptor sites. PMID:4066573

  5. Activation of 5-HT2 receptors enhances the release of acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sunila G; Gudelsky, Gary A

    2004-09-15

    The role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release was examined in the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus using in vivo microdialysis. The 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist +/-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) -2- aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the extracellular concentration of ACh in both brain regions, and this response was attenuated in rats treated with the 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) antagonist LY-53,857 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Treatment with LY-53,857 alone did not significantly alter ACh release in either brain region The 5-HT(2C) agonist 6-chloro-2-(1-piperazinyl)-pyrazine) (MK-212) (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly enhanced the release of ACh in both the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, whereas the 5-HT2 agonist mescaline (10 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a 2-fold increase in ACh release only in the prefrontal cortex. Intracortical, but not intrahippocampal, infusion of DOI (100 microM) significantly enhanced the release of ACh, and intracortical infusion of LY-53,857 (100 microM) significantly attenuated this response. These results suggest that the release of ACh in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is influenced by 5-HT2 receptor mechanisms. The increase in release of ACh induced by DOI in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus, appears to be due to 5-HT2 receptor mechanisms localized within this brain region. Furthermore, it appears that the prefrontal cortex is more sensitive than the dorsal hippocampus to the stimulatory effect of 5-HT2 agonists on ACh release. PMID:15266551

  6. Trazodone induced galactorrhea: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Filiz Civil; Uysal, Emel Korkmaz; Ozkorumak, Evrim; Tiryaki, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Trazodone is a heterocyclic antidepressant that exerts its effect via the inhibition of selective serotonin reuptake and the antagonism of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Antidepressant-induced galactorrhea and increases in prolactin levels have rarely been reported. Trazodone can potentiate the serotonergic activity of citalopram. To our knowledge, no cases of galactorrhea associated with use of trazodone have been reported to date. This report describes a unique case of the development of galactorrhea following the addition of trazodone (100 mg/day, 2 weeks) to the treatment of a patient who was receiving citalopram (40 mg/day, 6 weeks) therapy for a diagnosis of depressive disorder, which improved upon the discontinuation of trazodone. PMID:25920951

  7. Effects of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on central muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Richards, M H

    1991-04-01

    The affinities of cyproheptadine, pizotifen and (+/-)-quinuclidinyl xanthane-9-carboxylate hemioxylate (QNX) were determined at muscarinic autoreceptors and postsynaptic (IP1 formation) receptors in rat hippocampal slices. The affinity values for QNX were 8.2 and 8.5 respectively. Cyproheptadine and pizotifen were less potent than QNX. Pizotifen was slightly (2-fold) less active at antagonizing IP1 formation than blocking the autoreceptors whereas cyproheptadine was equally active at antagonizing the two hippocampal muscarinic receptors. PMID:1868883

  8. Environmental and Pharmacological Modulation of Amphetamine-Induced 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rippberger, Henrike; van Gaalen, Marcel M.; Schwarting, Rainer K.W.; WÖhr, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Rats emit high-frequency 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in appetitive situations like social interactions. Drugs of abuse are probably the most potent non-social elicitors of 50-kHz USV, possibly reflecting their euphorigenic properties. Psychostimulants induce the strongest elevation in 50-kHz USV emission, particularly amphetamine (AMPH), either when applied systemically or locally into the nucleus accumbens (Nacc). Emission of AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV depends on test context, such as the presence of conspecifics, and can be manipulated pharmacologically by targeting major neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT), but also protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. Several D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, as well as typical and atypical antipsychotics block the AMPH-induced elevation in 50-kHz USV. Inhibiting D1 and D2 receptors in the Nacc abolishes AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV, indicating a key role for this brain area. NA neurotransmission also regulates AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV emission given that α1 receptor antagonists and α2 receptor agonists exert attenuating effects. Supporting the involvement of the 5-HT system, AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV are attenuated by 5-HT2C receptor activation, whereas 5-HT2C receptor antagonism leads to the opposite effect. Finally, treatment with lithium, tamoxifen, and myricitrin was all found to result in a complete abolishment of the AMPH-induced increase in 50-kHz USV, suggesting the involvement of PKC signaling. Neurotransmitter systems involved in AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV emission only partially overlap with other AMPH-induced behaviors like hyperlocomotion. The validity of AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV as a preclinical model for neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed, particularly with relevance to altered drive and mood seen in bipolar disorder. PMID:26411764

  9. Activin C Antagonizes Activin A in Vitro and Overexpression Leads to Pathologies in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Elspeth; Jetly, Niti; O'Bryan, Moira K.; Meachem, Sarah; Srinivasan, Deepa; Behuria, Supreeti; Sanchez-Partida, L. Gabriel; Woodruff, Teresa; Hedwards, Shelley; Wang, Hong; McDougall, Helen; Casey, Victoria; Niranjan, Birunthi; Patella, Shane; Risbridger, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Activin A is a potent growth and differentiation factor whose synthesis and bioactivity are tightly regulated. Both follistatin binding and inhibin subunit heterodimerization block access to the activin receptor and/or receptor activation. We postulated that the activin-βC subunit provides another mechanism regulating activin bioactivity. To test our hypothesis, we examined the biological effects of activin C and produced mice that overexpress activin-βC. Activin C reduced activin A bioactivity in vitro; in LNCaP cells, activin C abrogated both activin A-induced Smad signaling and growth inhibition, and in LβT2 cells, activin C antagonized activin A-mediated activity of an follicle-stimulating hormone-β promoter. Transgenic mice that overexpress activin-βC exhibited disease in testis, liver, and prostate. Male infertility was caused by both reduced sperm production and impaired sperm motility. The livers of the transgenic mice were enlarged because of an imbalance between hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Transgenic prostates showed evidence of hypertrophy and epithelial cell hyperplasia. Additionally, there was decreased evidence of nuclear Smad-2 localization in the testis, liver, and prostate, indicating that overexpression of activin-βC antagonized Smad signaling in vivo. Underlying the significance of these findings, human testis, liver, and prostate cancers expressed increased activin-βC immunoreactivity. This study provides evidence that activin-βC is an antagonist of activin A and supplies an impetus to examine its role in development and disease. PMID:19095948

  10. Structural basis for dsRNA recognition and interferon antagonism by Ebola VP35

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Daisy W.; Prins, Kathleen C.; Borek, Dominika M.; Farahbakhsh, Mina; Tufariello, JoAnn M.; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Nix, Jay C.; Helgeson, Luke A.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Honzatko, Richard B.; Basler, Christopher F.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2010-03-12

    Ebola viral protein 35 (VP35), encoded by the highly pathogenic Ebola virus, facilitates host immune evasion by antagonizing antiviral signaling pathways, including those initiated by RIG-I-like receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the Ebola VP35 interferon inhibitory domain (IID) bound to short double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which together with in vivo results reveals how VP35-dsRNA interactions contribute to immune evasion. Conserved basic residues in VP35 IID recognize the dsRNA backbone, whereas the dsRNA blunt ends are 'end-capped' by a pocket of hydrophobic residues that mimic RIG-I-like receptor recognition of blunt-end dsRNA. Residues critical for RNA binding are also important for interferon inhibition in vivo but not for viral polymerase cofactor function of VP35. These results suggest that simultaneous recognition of dsRNA backbone and blunt ends provides a mechanism by which Ebola VP35 antagonizes host dsRNA sensors and immune responses.

  11. Antagonism of kappa opioid mediated effects in the rat by cyclo(Leu-Gly)

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, H.N.; Ramarao, P. )

    1989-01-01

    The effect of cyclo(Leu-Gly) on U-50,488H- induced pharmacological actions was determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of U-50,488H to rats produced analgesia (tail-flick) and increased urinary output. Cyclo (Leu-Gly) antagonized the analgesic response to U-50,488H. A dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.) of U-50,488H increased the spontaneous urinary output which was anatagonized by cyclo (Leu-Gly). To determine whether cyclo (Leu-Gly) was acting as a kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, the effect of cyclo (Leu-Gly) on the binding of ({sup 3}H) ethylketocyclazoncine (EKC) to membranes of rat cerebral cortex and spinal cord was determined. The IC{sub 50} values of cyclo(Leu-Gly) in displacing ({sup 3}H)EKC from its binding sites in cortex and spinal cord were 1.44 and 0.40 mM, respectively. Chronic administration of U-50,488H for 4 days induced tolerance to its analgesic effect. The latter was not affected by cyclo(Leu-Gly) given once a day for 4 days. It is concluded that cyclo(Leu-Gly) antagonizes acute actions of U-50,488H and that such effects of cyclo(Leu-Gly) are not mediated via a direct action on kappa-opioid receptors.

  12. Morphine-theophylline interaction: antagonism or facilitation?

    PubMed Central

    Brailowsky, S.; Guerrero-Muñoz, F.; Luján, M.; Shkurovich, M.

    1981-01-01

    1 Morphine-theophylline interactions were investigated in both acute and narcotic-dependent preparations, in vitro and in vivo, using four different experimental models: LD50 doses of morphine and naloxone in the mouse; naloxone-induced contractions in the electrically-stimulated and opiate-dependent isolated ileum of the guinea-pig; naloxone-induced jumps in the mouse; an calcium uptake in synaptosomal preparations. 2 The LD50 of morphine was significantly increased by theophylline. 3 The lethal effect of theophylline was potentiated by pretreatment of the animals with naloxone. 4 Theophylline displayed protective effects in the inhibitory response to morphine and antagonism to the withdrawal response induced by naloxone in the electrically-stimulated isolated ileum of the guinea-pig. 5 The number of jumps induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent mice was significantly diminished by theophylline. 6 The inhibitory effect of morphine on the synaptosomal uptake of calcium was decreased by theophylline. 7 The effects of both morphine and theophylline on the cyclic nucleotides and the possible role of calcium in these actions are discussed. PMID:7272590

  13. Revisiting IL-6 antagonism in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Thomas; Manfroi, Benoit; Huard, Bertrand

    2016-09-01

    IL-6, a cytokine with broad functions in inflammation and immunity, has been extensively studied for its role on normal antibody-producing plasma cells. In addition, IL-6 is recognized as a proliferative factor for multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant plasma cell tumor developing in the bone marrow. Blocking IL-6 signaling was thus developed into a therapeutic approach for MM already early after its discovery, in 1991. Unfortunately, the first clinical trials did not demonstrate a clear benefit, but despite this apparent failure hopes on IL-6 antagonism are still high and trials ongoing. The cellular source of IL-6 has long been a matter of debate. IL-6 was first recognized as an autocrine factor produced by the malignant plasma cells themselves, but later reports clearly showed that IL-6 was a paracrine factor, produced by the microenvironment, mostly by cells from the myeloid lineage. Recently, we have confirmed that IL-6 originates from myeloid lineage cells, mainly from myeloid precursors. We have also demonstrated that IL-6 amplifies the pool of myeloid cells producing a second key factor for MM, a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL). These findings form a new rationale for IL-6 inhibition in MM and for new ways to use IL-6 blocking in the clinics. PMID:27497026

  14. Myostatin/activin pathway antagonism: molecular basis and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Han, H Q; Zhou, Xiaolan; Mitch, William E; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2013-10-01

    Muscle wasting is associated with a wide range of catabolic diseases. This debilitating loss of muscle mass and functional capacity reduces the quality of life and increases the risks of morbidity and mortality. Major progress has been made in understanding the biochemical mechanisms and signaling pathways regulating muscle protein balance under normal conditions and the enhanced protein loss in atrophying muscles. It is now clear that activation of myostatin/activin signaling is critical in triggering the accelerated muscle catabolism that causes muscle loss in multiple disease states. Binding of myostatin and activin to the ActRIIB receptor complex on muscle cell membrane leads to activation of Smad2/3-mediated transcription, which in turn stimulates FoxO-dependent transcription and enhanced muscle protein breakdown via ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. In addition, Smad activation inhibits muscle protein synthesis by suppressing Akt signaling. Pharmacological blockade of the myostatin/activin-ActRIIB pathway has been shown to prevent or reverse the loss of muscle mass and strength in various disease models including cancer cachexia and renal failure. Moreover, it can markedly prolong the lifespan of animals with cancer-associated muscle loss. Furthermore, inhibiting myostatin/activin actions also improves insulin sensitivity, reduces excessive adiposity, attenuates systemic inflammation, and accelerates bone fracture healing in disease models. Based on these exciting advances, the potential therapeutic benefits of myostatin/activin antagonism are now being tested in multiple clinical settings. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting. PMID:23721881

  15. Neuropeptide Y antagonism reduces reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in humans.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Dan P; Saad, Adham R; Bennett, Lee Ann T; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Johnson, John M

    2004-09-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence of a non-noradrenergic contributor to reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in humans but did not identify the transmitter responsible. To test whether neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a role, in two series of experiments we slowly reduced whole body skin temperature (TSK) from 34.5 to 31.7 degrees C. In protocol 1, Ringer solution and the NPY receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 alone were delivered intradermally via microdialysis. In protocol 2, yohimbine plus propranolol (Yoh + Pro), Yoh + Pro in combination with BIBP-3226, and Ringer solution were delivered to antagonize locally the vasomotor effects of NPY and norepinephrine. Blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was monitored at the finger (Finapres). In protocol 1, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) fell by 45%, to 55.1 +/- 5.6% of baseline at control sites (P < 0.05). At BIBP-3226-treated sites, CVC fell by 34.1% to 65.9 +/- 5.0% (P < 0.05; P < 0.05 between sites). In protocol 2, during body cooling, CVC at control sites fell by 32.6%, to 67.4 +/- 4.3% of baseline; at sites treated with Yoh + Pro, CVC fell by 18.7%, to 81.3 +/- 4.4% of baseline (P < 0.05 vs. baseline; P < 0.05 vs. control) and did not fall significantly at sites treated with BIBP-3226 + Yoh + Pro (P > 0.05; P < 0.05 vs. other sites). After cooling, exogenous norepinephrine induced vasoconstriction at control sites (P < 0.05) but not at sites treated with Yoh + Pro + BIBP-3226 (P > 0.05). These results indicate that NPY participates in sympathetically mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction in humans during whole body cooling. PMID:15165988

  16. Novel 4-Substituted-N,N-dimethyltetrahydronaphthalen-2-amines: Synthesis, Affinity, and In Silico Docking Studies at Serotonin 5-HT2-type and Histamine H1 G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sakhuja, Rajeev; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Córdova-Sintjago, Tania; Travers, Sean; Vincek, Adam S.; Kim, Myong Sang; Abboud, Khalil A.; Fang, Lijuan; Sun, Zhuming; Canal, Clinton E.; Booth, Raymond G.

    2015-01-01

    Syntheses were undertaken of derivatives of (2S, 4R)-(−)-trans-4-phenyl-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine (4-phenyl-2-dimethylaminotetralin, PAT), a stereospecific agonist at the serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), with inverse agonist activity at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B GPCRs. Molecular changes were made at the PAT C(4)-position, while preserving N, N-dimethyl substitution at the 2-position as well as trans-stereochemistry, structural features previously shown to be optimal for 5-HT2 binding. Affinities of analogs were determined at recombinant human 5-HT2 GPCRs in comparison to the phylogenetically closely-related histamine H1 GPCR, and in silico ligand docking studies were conducted at receptor molecular models to help interpret pharmacological results and guide future ligand design. In most cases, C(4)-substituted PAT analogs exhibited the same stereoselectivity ([−]-trans > [+]-trans) as the parent PAT across 5-HT2 and H1 GPCRs, albeit, with variable receptor selectivity. 4-(4′-substituted)-PAT analogs, however, demonstrated reversed stereoselectivity ([2S, 4R]-[+]-trans > [2S, 4R]-[−]-trans), with absolute configuration confirmed by single X-ray crystallographic data for the 4-(4′-Cl)-PAT analog. Pharmacological affinity results and computational results herein support further PAT drug development studies and provide a basis for predicting and interpreting translational results, including, for (+)-trans-4-(4′-Cl)-PAT and (−)-trans-4-(3′-Br)-PAT that were previously shown to be more potent and efficacious than their corresponding enantiomers in rodent models of psychoses, psychostimulant-induced behaviors, and compulsive feeding (‘binge-eating’). PMID:25703249

  17. In vitro antagonism between cisplatin and vinca alkaloids.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kanamaru, H.; Hashimura, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Konishi, J.; Kuze, F.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the combination of cisplatin and other cytotoxic agents were studied in vitro. When A549 lung cancer cells were treated simultaneously with cisplatin and other cytotoxic agents, cisplatin additively increased the cytotoxic effects of etoposide, mitomycin C, adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, but antagonised those of vincristine, vindesine, vinblastine and podophyllotoxin. The antagonism between cisplatin and vincristine was also observed with HT29 colon cancer cells. NC65 renal carcinoma cells and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells when these cells were simultaneously exposed to both agents. When A549 cells were exposed to cisplatin and vincristine sequentially, the antagonism between them was evident when cells were pretreated with cisplatin but not when treated in the opposite sequence. Therefore, when combination chemotherapy including cisplatin and vinca alkaloids is given, possible antagonism between them should be considered, especially in determining the schedule of drug administration. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2757923

  18. CXCR₄antagonism as a therapeutic approach to prevent acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, A; Gershenovich, M; Ivanova, Y; MacFarland, R T; Fricker, S P; Ledbetter, S

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether antagonism of the CXCR₄receptor ameliorates the loss of renal function following ischemia-reperfusion. CXCR₄is ubiquitously expressed on leukocytes, known mediators of renal injury, and on bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Plerixafor (AMD3100, Mozobil) is a small-molecule CXCR₄antagonist that mobilizes HSCs into the peripheral blood and also modulates the immune response in in vivo rodent models of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment with plerixafor before and after ischemic clamping ameliorated kidney injury in a rat model of bilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were significantly reduced 24 h after reperfusion, as were tissue injury and cell death. Plerixafor prevented the renal increase in the proinflammatory chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL5 and the cytokine IL-6. Flow cytometry of kidney homogenates confirmed the presence of significantly fewer leukocytes with plerixafor treatment; additionally, myeloperoxidase activity was reduced. AMD3465, a monocyclam analog of plerixafor, was similarly renoprotective. Four weeks postreperfusion, long-term effects included diminished fibrosis, inflammation, and ongoing renal injury. The mechanism by which CXCR₄inhibition ameliorates AKI is due to modulation of leukocyte infiltration and expression of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines, rather than a HSC-mediated effect. The data suggest that CXCR₄antagonism with plerixafor may be a potential option to prevent AKI. PMID:25080523

  19. FXR antagonism of NSAIDs contributes to drug-induced liver injury identified by systems pharmacology approach

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weiqiang; Cheng, Feixiong; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Deng, Xiaokang; Xu, Zhongyu; Zou, Shien; Shen, Xu; Tang, Yun; Huang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are worldwide used drugs for analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. However, NSAIDs often cause several serious liver injuries, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), and the molecular mechanisms of DILI have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we developed a systems pharmacology approach to explore the mechanism-of-action of NSAIDs. We found that the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) antagonism of NSAIDs is a potential molecular mechanism of DILI through systematic network analysis and in vitro assays. Specially, the quantitative real-time PCR assay reveals that indomethacin and ibuprofen regulate FXR downstream target gene expression in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the western blot shows that FXR antagonism by indomethacin induces the phosphorylation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), promotes the activation of caspase9, and finally causes DILI. In summary, our systems pharmacology approach provided novel insights into molecular mechanisms of DILI for NSAIDs, which may propel the ways toward the design of novel anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapeutics. PMID:25631039

  20. Characterization of prejunctional 5-HT1 receptors that mediate the inhibition of pressor effects elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat

    PubMed Central

    Morán, A; Fernández, M M; Velasco, C; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    1998-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) on pressor responses induced in vivo by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord of pithed rats. All animals had been pretreated with atropine. Sympathetic stimulation (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Hz) resulted in frequency-dependent increases in blood pressure. Intravenous infusion of 5-CT at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg kg−1 min−1 reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The inhibitory effect of 5-CT was significantly more pronounced at lower frequencies of stimulation. In the present study we characterized the pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating the above inhibitory effect of 5-CT.The inhibition induced by 0.01 μg kg−1 min−1 of 5-CT on sympathetically-induced pressor responses was partially blocked after i.v. treatment with methiothepin (10  μg kg−1), WAY-100,635 (100 μg kg−1) or GR127935T (250 μg kg−1), but was not affected by cyanopindolol (100 μg kg−1).The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and the selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists sumatriptan and L-694,247 inhibited the pressor response, whereas the 5-HT1B receptor agonists CGS-12066B and CP-93,129 and the 5-HT2C receptor agonist m-CPP did not modify the pressor symapthetic responses.The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100,635 (100 μg kg−1) blocked the inhibition induced by 8-OH-DPAT and the selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist GR127935T (250 μg kg−1) abolished the inhibition induced either by L-694,247 or sumatriptan.None of the 5-HT receptor agonists used in our experiments modified the pressor responses induced by exogenous noradrenaline (NA).These results suggest that the presynaptic inhibitory action of 5-CT on the electrically-induced pressor response is mediated by both r-5-HT1D and 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:9559906

  1. Single-molecule analyses of fully functional fluorescent protein-tagged follitropin receptor reveal homodimerization and specific heterodimerization with lutropin receptor.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E; Herrick-Davis, Katharine; Barroso, Margarida; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Lindau-Shepard, Barbara; Thomas, Richard M; Dias, James A

    2015-04-01

    We have previously shown that the carboxyl terminus (cT) of human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, follitropin) receptor (FSHR) is clipped before insertion into the plasma membrane. Surprisingly, several different constructs of FSHR fluorescent fusion proteins (FSHR-FPs) failed to traffic to the plasma membrane. Subsequently, we discovered that substituting the extreme cT of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor (LHR) to create an FSHR-LHRcT chimera has no effect on FSHR functionality. Therefore, we used this approach to create an FSHR-LHRcT-FP fusion. We found this chimeric FSHR-LHRcT-FP was expressed in HEK293 cells at levels similar to reported values for FSHR in human granulosa cells, bound FSH with high affinity, and transduced FSH binding to produce cAMP. Quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis of FSHR-LHRcT-YFP/FSHR-LHRcT-mCherry pairs revealed an average FRET efficiency of 12.9 ± 5.7. Advanced methods in single-molecule analyses were applied in order to ascertain the oligomerization state of the FSHR-LHRcT. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy coupled with photon-counting histogram analyses demonstrated that the FSHR-LHRcT-FP fusion protein exists as a freely diffusing homodimer in the plasma membrane. A central question is whether LHR could oligomerize with FSHR, because both receptors are coexpressed in differentiated granulosa cells. Indeed, FRET analysis revealed an average FRET efficiency of 14.4 ± 7.5 when the FSHR-LHR cT-mCherry was coexpressed with LHR-YFP. In contrast, coexpression of a 5-HT2cVSV-YFP with FSHR-LHR cT-mCherry showed only 5.6 ± 3.2 average FRET efficiency, a value indistinguishable from the detection limit using intensity-based FRET methods. These data demonstrate that coexpression of FSHR and LHR can lead to heterodimerization, and we hypothesize that it is possible for this to occur during granulosa cell differentiation. PMID:25761594

  2. Antagonism of peptidoleukotrienes and inhibition of systemic anaphylaxis by RG 12525 in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Inwegen, R.G.; Nuss, G.W.; Carnathan, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    RG 12525 was determined to be a specific, competitive and orally effective antagonist of the peptidoleukotrienes, LTC/sub 4/, LTD/sub 4/ and LTE/sub 4/, in several assays utilizing guinea pigs. In vitro, RG 12525 competitively inhibited /sup 3/H-LTD/sub 4/ binding to lung membranes and competitively antagonized the spasmogenic activity of LTC/sub 4/, LTD/sub 4/ and LTE/sub 4/ on lung strips with > 8000 fold selectivity. In vivo, RG 12525 orally inhibited LTD/sub 4/ induced wheal formation LTD/sub 4/ induced bronchoconstriction and anaphylactic death and antigen induced bronchoconstriction. RG 12525 represents a significant improvement in receptor affinity and oral efficacy and thus, is a valuable pharmacological tool to evaluate peptidoleukotrienes in allergic diseases.

  3. Competitive antagonism of fluorescent gentamicin uptake in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Kachelmeier, Allan; Steyger, P S

    2010-09-01

    Aminoglycosides enter inner ear hair cells via apical endocytosis, or mechanoelectrical transduction channels, implying that, in vivo, aminoglycosides enter hair cells from endolymph prior to exerting their cytotoxic effect. If so, circulating aminoglycosides likely cross the strial blood-labyrinth barrier and enter marginal cells prior to clearance into endolymph. We characterized the competitive antagonism of unconjugated aminoglycosides on the uptake of fluorescent gentamicin (GTTR) in the stria vascularis and kidney cells at an early time point. In mice, uptake of GTTR by kidney proximal tubule cells was competitively antagonized by gentamicin at all doses, but only weakly by kanamycin (mimicking in vitro data). GTTR fluorescence was approximately 100-fold greater in proximal tubule cells than in the stria vascularis. Furthermore, only high molar ratios of aminoglycosides significantly reduced strial uptake of GTTR. Thus, gentamicin antagonism of GTTR uptake is more efficacious in proximal tubules than in the stria vascularis. Competitive antagonism of GTTR uptake is indicative of specific cell-regulatable uptake mechanisms (e.g., ion channels, transporters) in the kidney. Strial uptake mechanisms have lower specific affinity for gentamicin, and/or density (compared to the kidney), yet may be critical to transport gentamicin across the strial blood-labyrinth barrier into marginal cells. PMID:20561573

  4. The effect of reduced dopamine D4 receptor expression in the 5-choice continuous performance task: Separating response inhibition from premature responding

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jared W.; Powell, Susan B.; Scott, Christine N.; Zhou, Xianjin; Geyer, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in attention/vigilance and response disinhibition are commonly observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Validating animal models could help in developing therapeutics for cognitive deficits and improving functional outcomes in such disorders. The 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT) in mice offers the opportunity to assess vigilance and two forms of impulsivity. Since reduced dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) function is implicated in several disorders, DRD4 is a potential therapeutic target for cognition enhancement. We trained wildtype (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice of the murine Drd4 to perform the 5C-CPT under baseline and variable stimulus duration conditions. To dissect motor impulsivity (premature responding) from behavioral disinhibition (false alarms), we administered the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084 during an extended inter-trial-interval session. We also examined the preattentive and exploratory profile of these mice in prepulse inhibition (PPI) and the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM). Reduced Drd4 expression in HT mice, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, resulted in response dis-inhibition and impaired 5C-CPT performance, while premature responding was unaffected. Conversely, SB242084 increased premature responding without affecting response inhibition or attentional measures. No genotypic differences were observed in PPI or BPM behavior. Thus, reduced Drd4 expression impairs attentional performance, but not other behaviors associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover, the use of signal and non-signal stimuli in the 5C-CPT enabled the differentiation of response disinhibition from motor impulsivity in a vigilance task. PMID:21458500

  5. Antagonism of type I interferon responses by new world hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jessica R; Prescott, Joseph; Brown, Kyle S; Best, Sonja M; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2010-11-01

    Evasion of interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral signaling is a common defense strategy for pathogenic RNA viruses. To date, research on IFN antagonism by hantaviruses is limited and has focused on only a subset of the numerous recognized hantavirus species. The host IFN response has two phases, an initiation phase, resulting in the induction of alpha/beta IFN (IFN-α/β), and an amplification phase, whereby IFN-α/β signals through the Jak/STAT pathway, resulting in the establishment of the cellular antiviral state. We examined interactions between these critical host responses and the New World hantaviruses. We observed delayed cellular responses in both Andes virus (ANDV)- and Sin Nombre virus (SNV)-infected A549 and Huh7-TLR3 cells. We found that IFN-β induction is inhibited by coexpression of ANDV nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and is robustly inhibited by SNV GPC alone. Downstream amplification by Jak/STAT signaling is also inhibited by SNV GPC and by either NP or GPC of ANDV. Therefore, ANDV- and SNV-encoded proteins have the potential for inhibiting both IFN-β induction and signaling, with SNV exhibiting the more potent antagonism ability. Herein we identify ANDV NP, a previously unrecognized inhibitor of Jak/STAT signaling, and show that IFN antagonism by ANDV relies on expression of both the glycoproteins and NP, whereas the glycoproteins appear to be sufficient for antagonism by SNV. These data suggest that IFN antagonism strategies by hantaviruses are quite variable, even between species with similar disease phenotypes, and may help to better elucidate species-specific pathogenesis. PMID:20844031

  6. Highly potent, non-basic 5-HT6 ligands. Site mutagenesis evidence for a second binding mode at 5-HT6 for antagonism.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ralph N; Stabler, Russel S; Repke, David B; Kress, James M; Walker, Keith A; Martin, Renee S; Brothers, Julie M; Ilnicka, Mariola; Lee, Simon W; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2010-06-01

    A series of 5-HT(6) ligands derived from (R)-1-(amino)methyl-6-(phenyl)sulfonyltetralin was prepared that yielded several non-basic analogs having sub-nanomolar affinity. Ligand structure-activity relationships, receptor point mutation studies, and molecular modeling of these novel ligands all combined to reveal a new alternative binding mode to 5-HT(6) for antagonism. PMID:20434910

  7. Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Numerous "antihistamines" as well as various psychotropic medications with antihistamine properties are widely utilized to treat insomnia. Over-the-counter sleep aids usually contain an antihistamine and various antidepressants and antipsychotics with antihistamine properties have sedative-hypnotic actions. Although widely used for the treatment of insomnia, many agents that block the histamine H1 receptor are also widely considered to have therapeutic limitations, including the development of next-day carryover sedation, as well as problems with chronic use, such as the development of tolerance to sedative-hypnotic actions and weight gain. Although these clinical actions are classically attributed to blockade of the H1 receptor, recent findings with H1 selective agents and H1 selective dosing of older agents are challenging these notions and suggest that some of the clinical limitations of current H1-blocking agents at their currently utilized doses could be attributable to other properties of these drugs, especially to their simultaneous actions on muscarinic, cholinergic, and adrenergic receptors. Selective H1 antagonism is emerging as a novel approach to the treatment of insomnia, without tolerance, weight gain, or the need for the restrictive prescription scheduling required of other hypnotics. PMID:19179941

  8. Cerebral, spinal and peripheral inhibition of gastrointestinal transit by PI017: differential antagonism by naloxonazine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.L.; Heyman, J.S.; Porreca, F.; Burks, T.F.

    1986-03-05

    The authors were interested in characterizing the relative importance of central (cerebral, spinal) and peripheral opioid receptors in inhibition of gastrointestinal transit. The mu-receptor selective agonist, (NMePhe/sup 3/,D-Pro/sup 4/)morphiceptin (PL017), was evaluated for its effectiveness in slowing gastrointestinal transit after subcutaneous, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.th.) administration when given alone or after pretreatment with naloxonazine, an irreversible mu/sub 1/ selective opioid receptor antagonist. Male, ICR mice (20-25 g) were pretreated with saline, naloxone or naloxonazine (35 mg/kg, s.c.) 25 hr prior to testing. Gastrointestinal transit was evaluated in previously fasted (18 hr) mice by oral administration of a liquid radiolabelled marker (Na/sub 2//sup 51/CrO/sub 4/). I.th. PL017 (100-1000 ng) was effective in slowing transit, but was essentially insensitive to naloxone or naloxonazine pretreatment. PL017 produced a dose-related inhibition of transit when given by either the i.c.v. (100-1000 ng) or s.c.(1-10 mg/kg) route; this effect was not sensitive to naloxone pretreatment but was antagonized by naloxonazine. These results indicate that the opioid receptors mediating gastrointestinal transit in the brain and periphery may be mu/sub 1/. In contrast, the insensitivity to naloxonazine suggests that the gastrointestinal effects of PL017 in the spinal cord may be the result of activation of mu/sub 2/ or possibly delta opioid receptors.

  9. Effects of heroin and its metabolites on schedule-controlled responding and thermal nociception in rhesus monkeys: sensitivity to antagonism by quadazocine, naltrindole and beta-funaltrexamine.

    PubMed

    Negus, S Stevens; Brandt, Michael R; Gatch, Michael B; Mello, Nancy K

    2003-05-01

    Recent studies have reported differences in the receptor mechanisms and intrinsic efficacies of heroin and its metabolites 6-acetylmorphine and morphine in rodents. The present study examined the generality of these findings to rhesus monkeys using two behavioral procedures. In an assay of schedule-controlled behavior, response rates were recorded under a fixed-ratio 30 schedule of food presentation. In an assay of thermal nociception, tail-withdrawal latencies were measured from warm water (42-58 degrees C). Heroin, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine produced dose-dependent rate-decreasing and antinociceptive effects. Antagonism studies were conducted with the competitive mu-selective antagonist quadazocine, the competitive delta-selective antagonist naltrindole, and the irreversible mu-selective antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA). Quadazocine dose-dependently antagonized the effects of all three opioids. Quadazocine pA2 values were similar across drugs and assays (7.4-7.8) and similar to quadazocine pA2 values for antagonism of other mu agonists. In contrast, naltrindole did not alter the effects of any of the opioids. beta-FNA antagonized the rate-decreasing and antinociceptive effects of heroin and morphine. Dose-effect data for heroin- and morphine-induced antinociception alone and after beta-FNA treatment were used to estimate in vivo apparent efficacy values (tau). Tau values (95% confidence limits) were 8.1 (6.9-9.6) for heroin and 2.6 (2.5-2.9) for morphine, but this difference is relatively small. These results suggest that the rate-decreasing and antinociceptive effects of heroin, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine are mediated by pharmacologically similar populations of mu opioid receptors in rhesus monkeys. The in vivo apparent efficacy of heroin at mu receptors was similar to or only slightly greater than that of morphine. PMID:12681522

  10. Effects on amine oxidase of substances which antagonize 5-hydroxytryptamine more than tryptamine on the rat fundus strip

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, R. B.

    1961-01-01

    Certain substances, 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide, dimethyltryptamine (3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)indole), 2-methyldimethyltryptamine (3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-2-methylindole), and 5-benzyloxydimethyltryptamine (5-benzyloxy-3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)indole), antagonize the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the rat fundus strip more than those of tryptamine. These substances have been tested for their ability to inhibit the oxidation of tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine by suspensions of guinea-pig liver and rat fundus. 2-Bromolysergic acid diethylamide has virtually no inhibitory activity and it is doubtful if the others produce any significant inhibition of amine oxidase in the concentrations which antagonize the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine more than those of tryptamine. It seems that the differential character of the blocking action of these compounds should be ascribed either to interference with the transport of tryptamine (but not 5-hydroxytryptamine) through the cell wall, coupled with the block of a receptor common to both tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, or to the existence of separate tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors. The amine oxidases of the guinea-pig liver and rat fundus appear to be a mixture of at least two types of enzyme, one of which has a higher affinity for 5-hydroxytryptamine than the other and is more susceptible to inhibition by 2-methyldimethyltryptamine. PMID:13687054

  11. Deletion of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Induces Schizophrenia-Related Behaviors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Alvaro, Antonio; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Manzanares, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The possible role of the CB2 receptor (CB2r) in psychiatric disorders has been considered. Several animal models use knockout (KO) mice that display schizophrenia-like behaviors and this study evaluated the role of CB2r in the regulation of such behaviors. Mice lacking the CB2r (CB2KO) were challenged in open field, light–dark box, elevated plus-maze, tail suspension, step down inhibitory avoidance, and pre-pulse inhibition tests (PPI). Furthermore, the effects of treatment with cocaine and risperidone were evaluated using the OF and the PPI test. Gene expression of dopamine D2 (D2r), adrenergic-α2C (α2Cr), serotonergic 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2Ar and 5-HT2Cr) were studied by RT-PCR in brain regions related to schizophrenia. Deletion of CB2r decreased motor activity in the OF test, but enhanced response to acute cocaine and produced mood-related alterations, PPI deficit, and cognitive impairment. Chronic treatment with risperidone tended to impair PPI in WT mice, whereas it ‘normalized' the PPI deficit in CB2KO mice. CB2KO mice presented increased D2r and α2Cr gene expressions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and locus coeruleus (LC), decreased 5-HT2Cr gene expression in the dorsal raphe (DR), and 5-HT2Ar gene expression in the PFC. Chronic risperidone treatment in WT mice left α2Cr gene expression unchanged, decreased D2r gene expression (15 μg/kg), and decreased 5-HT2Cr and 5-HT2Ar in PFC and DR. In CB2KO, the gene expression of D2r in the PFC, of α2Cr in the LC, and of 5-HT2Cr and 5-HT2Ar in PFC was reduced; 5-HT2Cr and 5-HT2Ar gene expressions in DR were increased after treatment with risperidone. These results suggest that deletion of CB2r has a relation with schizophrenia-like behaviors. Pharmacological manipulation of CB2r may merit further study as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia-related disorders. PMID:21430651

  12. Relationship of dopamine to serotonin in the neonatal 6-OHDA rat model of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Allen, S M; Davis, W M

    1999-09-01

    Rats were treated as neonates with either 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) 100 micrograms or vehicle intracisternally. Upon maturation, animals receiving 6-OHDA were assigned to four groups, with two of the four groups receiving intraventricular 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) 75 micrograms bilaterally. At 94 days of age, animals were injected with either SKF-38393 (3.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), a dopamine D1 agonist, or m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.), a 5-HT2C agonist, in an attempt to evoke behaviors such as stereotypical chewing, head-nodding, self-biting and self-mutilation. Both SKF-38393 and m-CPP induced the target behaviors in animals receiving 6-OHDA alone. Animals receiving additional 5,7-DHT treatment did not show any of the target behaviors in response to SKF-38393, but exhibited a much higher sensitivity to m-CPP. Pre-treatment with SCH-23390 in animals receiving 6-OHDA alone was effective in preventing SKF-38393-induced target behaviors, but not those induced by m-CPP. Pre-treatment with mianserin partially antagonized the effects of both SKF-38393 and m-CPP in these same animals. In groups receiving both neonatal 6-OHDA and adult 5,7-DHT, mianserin was effective in reducing m-CPP-induced behaviors, while SCH-23390 was largely ineffective. These data provide evidence of a serial relationship between the D1 and 5-HT2C receptor systems in the neostriatum of animals receiving neonatal 6-OHDA lesions. PMID:10780253

  13. CXCR4 Antagonism Attenuates the Development of Diabetic Cardiac Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Po-Yin; Walder, Ken; Horlock, Duncan; Williams, David; Nelson, Erin; Byrne, Melissa; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin; Zimmet, Paul; Kaye, David M

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is an increasingly recognized complication of diabetes. Cardiac fibrosis is an important causative mechanism of HF associated with diabetes. Recent data indicate that inflammation may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular fibrosis. We sought to determine the mechanism by which cardiac fibrosis develops and to specifically investigate the role of the CXCR4 axis in this process. Animals with type I diabetes (streptozotocin treated mice) or type II diabetes (Israeli Sand-rats) and controls were randomized to treatment with a CXCR4 antagonist, candesartan or vehicle control. Additional groups of mice also underwent bone marrow transplantation (GFP+ donor marrow) to investigate the potential role of bone marrow derived cell mobilization in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Both type I and II models of diabetes were accompanied by the development of significant cardiac fibrosis. CXCR4 antagonism markedly reduced cardiac fibrosis in both models of diabetes, similar in magnitude to that seen with candesartan. In contrast to candesartan, the anti-fibrotic actions of CXCR4 antagonism occurred in a blood pressure independent manner. Whilst the induction of diabetes did not increase the overall myocardial burden of GFP+ cells, it was accompanied by an increase in GFP+ cells expressing the fibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and this was attenuated by CXCR4 antagonism. CXCR4 antagonism was also accompanied by increased levels of circulating regulatory T cells. Taken together the current data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 significantly reduces diabetes induced cardiac fibrosis, providing a potentially important therapeutic approach. PMID:26214690

  14. Nucleostemin Rejuvenates Cardiac Progenitor Cells and Antagonizes Myocardial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Nirmala; Quijada, Pearl; Mohsin, Sadia; Joyo, Anya; Samse, Kaitlen; Monsanto, Megan; De La Torre, Andrea; Avitabile, Daniele; Ormachea, Lucia; McGregor, Michael J.; Tsai, Emily J; Sussman, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Functional decline in stem cell-mediated regeneration contributes to aging associated with cellular senescence in c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Clinical implementation of CPC-based therapy with elderly patients would benefit tremendously from understanding molecular characteristics of senescence to antagonize aging. Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein regulating stem cell proliferation and pluripotency. OBJECTIVES The goal is to demonstrate that NS preserves characteristics associated with “stemness” in CPCs and antagonizes myocardial senescence and aging. METHODS CPCs isolated from human fetal (FhCPC) and adult failing (AhCPC) hearts, as well as young (YCPC) and old mice (OCPC), were studied for senescence characteristics and NS expression. Heterozygous knockout mice with one functional allele of NS (NS+/−) were used to demonstrate that NS preserves myocardial structure and function and slows characteristics of aging. RESULTS NS expression is decreased in AhCPCs relative to FhCPC, correlating with lowered proliferation potential and shortened telomere length. AhCPC characteristics resemble OCPCs, which have a phenotype induced by NS silencing, resulting in cell flattening, senescence, multinucleated cells, decreased S phase progression, diminished expression of stemness markers and up-regulation of p53 and p16. CPC senescence resulting from NS loss is partially p53 dependent and is rescued by concurrent silencing of p53. Mechanistically, NS induction correlates with Pim-1 kinase-mediated stabilization of c-Myc. Engineering OCPCs and AhCPCs to overexpress NS decreases senescent and multinucleated cells, restores morphology, and antagonizes senescence, thereby preserving phenotypic properties of “stemness.” Early cardiac aging with decline in cardiac function, increase in senescence markers p53 and p16, telomere attrition, and accompanied CPC exhaustion is evident in NS+/− mice. CONCLUSIONS Youthful properties and antagonism of

  15. CXCR4 Antagonism Attenuates the Development of Diabetic Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Po-Yin; Walder, Ken; Horlock, Duncan; Williams, David; Nelson, Erin; Byrne, Melissa; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin; Zimmet, Paul; Kaye, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is an increasingly recognized complication of diabetes. Cardiac fibrosis is an important causative mechanism of HF associated with diabetes. Recent data indicate that inflammation may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular fibrosis. We sought to determine the mechanism by which cardiac fibrosis develops and to specifically investigate the role of the CXCR4 axis in this process. Animals with type I diabetes (streptozotocin treated mice) or type II diabetes (Israeli Sand-rats) and controls were randomized to treatment with a CXCR4 antagonist, candesartan or vehicle control. Additional groups of mice also underwent bone marrow transplantation (GFP+ donor marrow) to investigate the potential role of bone marrow derived cell mobilization in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Both type I and II models of diabetes were accompanied by the development of significant cardiac fibrosis. CXCR4 antagonism markedly reduced cardiac fibrosis in both models of diabetes, similar in magnitude to that seen with candesartan. In contrast to candesartan, the anti-fibrotic actions of CXCR4 antagonism occurred in a blood pressure independent manner. Whilst the induction of diabetes did not increase the overall myocardial burden of GFP+ cells, it was accompanied by an increase in GFP+ cells expressing the fibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and this was attenuated by CXCR4 antagonism. CXCR4 antagonism was also accompanied by increased levels of circulating regulatory T cells. Taken together the current data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 significantly reduces diabetes induced cardiac fibrosis, providing a potentially important therapeutic approach. PMID:26214690

  16. Tailored fragments of roseophilin selectively antagonize Mcl-1 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Jack D.; Carlson, Andrew D.; Frederich, James H.; Nguyen, Mai; Shore, Gordon C.; Harran, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered a fragment of the natural product roseophilin, a member of the prodiginine family, that antagonizes Mcl-1 functions in a liposome-based assay for mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. By tailoring this substance such that it can participate in salt bridging with the protein surface, we have prepared the first prodiginine inspired structure that shows direct, saturable binding to a recombinant Bcl-2 family member in vitro. PMID:26019371

  17. Pantothenate and Pantetheine Antagonize the Antitubercular Activity of Pyrazinamide

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Nicholas A.; Peterson, Nicholas D.; Rosen, Brandon C.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a first-line tuberculosis drug that inhibits the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via an as yet undefined mechanism. An M. tuberculosis laboratory strain that was auxotrophic for pantothenate was found to be insensitive to PZA and to the active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA). To determine whether this phenotype was strain or condition specific, the effect of pantothenate supplementation on PZA activity was assessed using prototrophic strains of M. tuberculosis. It was found that pantothenate and other β-alanine-containing metabolites abolished PZA and POA susceptibility, suggesting that POA might selectively target pantothenate synthesis. However, when the pantothenate-auxotrophic strain was cultivated using a subantagonistic concentration of pantetheine in lieu of pantothen