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Sample records for 5-ht3 ab receptors

  1. Subunit rotation models activation of serotonin 5-HT3AB receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Maksay, Gábor; Simonyi, Miklós; Bikádi, Zsolt

    2004-10-01

    The N-terminal extracellular regions of heterooligomeric 3AB-type human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT3ABR) were modelled based on the crystal structure of snail acetylcholine binding protein AChBP. Stepwise rotation of subunit A by 5 degrees was performed between -10 degrees and 15 degrees to mimic agonist binding and receptor activation. Anticlockwise rotation reduced the size of the binding cavity in interface AB and reorganised the network of hydrogen bonds along the interface. AB subunit dimers with different rotations were applied for docking of ligands with different efficacies: 5-HT, m-chlorophenylbiguanide, SR 57227, quinolinyl piperazine and lerisetron derivatives. All ligands were docked into the dimer with -10 degrees rotation representing ligand-free, open binding cavities similarly, without pharmacological discrimination. Their ammonium ions were in hydrogen bonding distance to the backbone carbonyl of W183. Anticlockwise rotation and contraction of the binding cavity led to distinctive docking interactions of agonists with E129 and cation-pi interactions of their ammonium ions. Side chains of several further amino acids participating in docking (Y143, Y153, Y234 and E236) are in agreement with the effects of point mutations in the binding loops. Our model postulates that 5-HT binds to W183 in a hydrophobic cleft as well as to E236 in a hydrophilic vestibule. Then it elicits anticlockwise rotation to draw in loop C via pi-cation-pi interactions of its ammonium ion with W183 and Y234. Finally, closure of the binding cavity might end in rebinding of 5-HT to E129 in the hydrophilic vestibule.

  2. Impact of intracellular domain flexibility upon properties of activated human 5-HT3 receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kozuska, J L; Paulsen, I M; Belfield, W J; Martin, I L; Cole, D J; Holt, A; Dunn, S M J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been proposed that arginine residues lining the intracellular portals of the homomeric 5-HT3A receptor cause electrostatic repulsion of cation flow, accounting for a single-channel conductance substantially lower than that of the 5-HT3AB heteromer. However, comparison of receptor homology models for wild-type pentamers suggests that salt bridges in the intracellular domain of the homomer may impart structural rigidity, and we hypothesized that this rigidity could account for the low conductance. Experimental Approach Mutations were introduced into the portal region of the human 5-HT3A homopentamer, such that putative salt bridges were broken by neutralizing anionic partners. Single-channel and whole cell currents were measured in transfected tsA201 cells and in Xenopus oocytes respectively. Computational simulations of protein flexibility facilitated comparison of wild-type and mutant receptors. Key Results Single-channel conductance was increased substantially, often to wild-type heteromeric receptor values, in most 5-HT3A mutants. Conversely, introduction of arginine residues to the portal region of the heteromer, conjecturally creating salt bridges, decreased conductance. Gating kinetics varied significantly between different mutant receptors. EC50 values for whole-cell responses to 5-HT remained largely unchanged, but Hill coefficients for responses to 5-HT were usually significantly smaller in mutants. Computational simulations suggested increased flexibility throughout the protein structure as a consequence of mutations in the intracellular domain. Conclusions and Implications These data support a role for intracellular salt bridges in maintaining the quaternary structure of the 5-HT3 receptor and suggest a role for the intracellular domain in allosteric modulation of cooperativity and agonist efficacy. Linked Article This article is commented on by Vardy and Kenakin, pp. 1614–1616 of volume 171 issue 7. To view this commentary

  3. Agonist- and antagonist-induced up-regulation of surface 5-HT3A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A; Baptista-Hon, Daniel T; Hales, Tim G; Lovinger, David M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The 5-HT3 receptor is a member of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family and is pharmacologically targeted to treat irritable bowel syndrome and nausea/emesis. Furthermore, many antidepressants elevate extracellular concentrations of 5-HT. This study investigates the functional consequences of exposure of recombinant 5-HT3A receptors to agonists and antagonists. Experimental Approach We used HEK cells stably expressing recombinant 5-HT3A receptors and the ND7/23 (mouse neuroblastoma/dorsal root ganglion hybrid) cell line, which expresses endogenous 5-HT3 receptors. Surface expression of recombinant 5-HT3A receptors, modified to contain the bungarotoxin (BTX) binding sequence, was quantified using fluorescence microscopy to image BTX-conjugated fluorophores. Whole cell voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to measure the density of current mediated by 5-HT3A receptors. Key Results 5-HT3A receptors were up-regulated by the prolonged presence of agonists (5-HT and m-chlorophenylbiguanide) and antagonists (MDL-72222 and morphine). The up-regulation of 5-HT3A receptors by 5-HT and MDL-72222 was time- and concentration-dependent but was independent of newly translated receptors. The phenomenon was observed for recombinant rodent and human 5-HT3A receptors and for endogenous 5-HT3 receptors in neuronal ND7/23 cells. Conclusions and Implications Up-regulation of 5-HT3A receptors, following exposure to either agonists or antagonists suggests that this phenomenon may occur in response to different therapeutic agents. Medications that elevate 5-HT levels, such as the antidepressant inhibitors of 5-HT reuptake and antiemetic inhibitors of 5-HT3 receptor function, may both raise receptor expression. However, this will require further investigation in vivo. PMID:25989383

  4. Discovery of 2-substituted benzoxazole carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhicai; Fairfax, David J; Maeng, Jun-Ho; Masih, Liaqat; Usyatinsky, Alexander; Hassler, Carla; Isaacson, Soshanna; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; DeOrazio, Russell J; Chen, Jianqing; Harding, James P; Isherwood, Matthew; Dobritsa, Svetlana; Christensen, Kevin L; Wierschke, Jonathan D; Bliss, Brian I; Peterson, Lisa H; Beer, Cathy M; Cioffi, Christopher; Lynch, Michael; Rennells, W Martin; Richards, Justin J; Rust, Timothy; Khmelnitsky, Yuri L; Cohen, Marlene L; Manning, David D

    2010-11-15

    A new class of 2-substituted benzoxazole carboxamides are presented as potent functional 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists. The chemical series possesses nanomolar in vitro activity against human 5-HT(3)A receptors. A chemistry optimization program was conducted and identified 2-aminobenzoxazoles as orally active 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists with good metabolic stability. These novel analogues possess drug-like characteristics and have potential utility for the treatment of diseases attributable to improper 5-HT(3) receptor function, especially diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D).

  5. Volunteer models for predicting antiemetic activity of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Minton, N A

    1994-01-01

    1. Selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonists are highly effective in preventing nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Their pharmacological activity may be determined in vitro and in animal models of emesis. However, these methods may not give an accurate indication of the antiemetic dose range of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists in patients. Two volunteer models have been used to predict more accurately clinically effective antiemetic doses of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists. 2. The flare response to intradermal 5-HT is thought to be mediated by excitation of 5-HT3-receptors on cutaneous afferents, with release of substance P and subsequent vasodilation. Antagonism of the flare response appears to provide an indication of the effective antiemetic dose of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists but data on duration of action are conflicting. 3. Ipecacuanha-induced emesis is thought to be mediated through both peripheral and central 5-HT3-receptors. Antagonism of this response has demonstrated a close correlation with clinically effective antiemetic doses of the specific 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, ondansetron, and has the advantage of being more conceptually relevant than the flare model. 4. Further work, with newer 5-HT3-receptor antagonists, will clarify the role of these models as predictive of the use of these drugs in clinical practice. PMID:7917768

  6. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response.

  7. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. PMID:26631478

  8. Excitation of rat colonic afferent fibres by 5-HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Gareth A; Coldwell, Jonathan R; Schindler, Marcus; Bland Ward, Philip A; Jenkins, David; Lynn, Penny A; Humphrey, Patrick P A; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2002-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract contains most of the body's 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and releases large amounts after meals or exposure to toxins. Increased 5-HT release occurs in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and their peak plasma 5-HT levels correlate with pain episodes. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists reduce symptoms of IBS clinically, but their site of action is unclear and the potential for other therapeutic targets is unexplored. Here we investigated effects of 5-HT on sensory afferents from the colon and the expression of 5-HT3 receptors on their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Distal colon, inferior mesenteric ganglion and the lumbar splanchnic nerve bundle (LSN) were placed in a specialized organ bath. Eighty-six single fibres were recorded from the LSN. Three classes of primary afferents were found: 70 high-threshold serosal afferents, four low-threshold muscular afferents and 12 mucosal afferents. Afferent cell bodies were retrogradely labelled from the distal colon to the lumbar DRG, where they were processed for 5-HT3 receptor-like immunoreactivity. Fifty-six percent of colonic afferents responded to 5-HT (between 10−6 and 10−3 M) and 30 % responded to the selective 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT (between 10−6 and 10−2 M). Responses to 2-methyl-5-HT were blocked by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron (2 × 10−7 M), whereas responses to 5-HT were only partly inhibited. Twenty-six percent of L1 DRG cell bodies retrogradely labelled from the colon displayed 5-HT3 receptor-like immunoreactivity. We conclude that colonic sensory neurones expressing 5-HT3 receptors also functionally express the receptors at their peripheral endings. Our data reveal actions of 5-HT on colonic afferent endings via both 5-HT3 and non-5-HT3 receptors. PMID:12411529

  9. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT3A promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT3A mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μm 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μm ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μm m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Historically, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been described as a candidate neurotransmitter in the gustatory system and recent studies show that type III taste receptor cells release 5-HT in response to various taste stimuli. In the present study, we demonstrate that a subset of gustatory sensory neurons express functional

  10. The interaction of trichloroethanol with murine recombinant 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, D L; Hope, A G; Belelli, D; Lambert, J J; Peters, J A; Bentley, K R; Steward, L J; Chen, C Y; Barnes, N M

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of ethanol, chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol upon the 5-HT3 receptor have been investigated by use of electrophysiological techniques applied to recombinant 5-HT3 receptor subunits (5-HT3R-A or 5-HT3R-As) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Additionally, the influence of trichloroethanol upon the specific binding of [3H]-granisetron to membrane preparations of HEK 293 cells stably transfected with the murine 5-HT3R-As subunit and 5-HT3 receptors endogenous to NG 108-15 cell membranes was assessed. 2. Ethanol (30-300 mM), chloral hydrate (1-30 mM) and trichloroethanol (0.3-10 mM), produced a reversible, concentration-dependent, enhancement of 5-HT-mediated currents recorded from oocytes expressing either the 5-HT3R-A, or the 5-HT3R-As subunit. 3. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a parallel leftward shift of the 5-HT concentration-response curve, reducing the EC50 for 5-HT from 1 +/- 0.04 microM (n = 4) to 0.5 +/- 0.01 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A. A similar shift, from 2.1 +/- 0.05 microM (n = 11) to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microM (n = 4), was observed in oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-As subunit. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) had little or no effect upon the maximum current produced by 5-HT for either recombinant receptor. 4. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) similarly reduced the EC50 for 2-methyl-5-HT from 13 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) to 4.6 +/- 0.2 microM (n = 4) and from 15 +/- 2 microM (n = 4) to 5 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. Additionally, trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a clear enhancement of the maximal current to 2-methyl-5-HT (expressed as a percentage of the maximal current to 5-HT) from 63 +/- 0.7% (n = 4) to 101 +/- 1.6% (n = 4) and from 9 +/- 0.2% (n = 4) to 74 +/- 2% (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. 5. Trichloroethanol (2.5 mM) had no effect upon the Kd, or Bmax, of specific [3H]-granisetron binding to membrane homogenates of NG

  11. Role of central vagal 5-HT3 receptors in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N.

    2015-01-01

    Vagal neurocircuits are vitally important in the co-ordination and modulation of GI reflexes and homeostatic functions. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is critically important in the regulation of several of these autonomic gastrointestinal (GI) functions including motility, secretion and visceral sensitivity. While several 5-HT receptors are involved in these physiological responses, the ligand-gated 5-HT3 receptor appears intimately involved in gut-brain signaling, particularly via the afferent (sensory) vagus nerve. 5-HT is released from enterochromaffin cells in response to mechanical or chemical stimulation of the GI tract which leads to activation of 5-HT3 receptors on the terminals of vagal afferents. 5-HT3 receptors are also present on the soma of vagal afferent neurons, including GI vagal afferent neurons, where they can be activated by circulating 5-HT. The central terminals of vagal afferents also exhibit 5-HT3 receptors that function to increase glutamatergic synaptic transmission to second order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius within the brainstem. While activation of central brainstem 5-HT3 receptors modulates visceral functions, it is still unclear whether central vagal neurons, i.e., nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons themselves also display functional 5-HT3 receptors. Thus, activation of 5-HT3 receptors may modulate the excitability and activity of gastrointestinal vagal afferents at multiple sites and may be involved in several physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including distention- and chemical-evoked vagal reflexes, nausea, and vomiting, as well as visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26578870

  12. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  13. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  14. Aggression and anxiety in adolescent AAS-treated hamsters: A role for 5HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we have shown that anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure throughout adolescence stimulates offensive aggression while also reducing anxious behaviors during the exposure period. Interestingly, AAS exposure through development correlates with alterations to the serotonin system in regions known to contain 5HT3 receptors that influence the control of both aggression and anxiety. Despite these effects, little is known about whether these separate developmental AAS-induced behavioral alterations occur as a function of a common neuroanatomical locus. To begin to address this question, we localized 5HT3 receptors in regions that have been implicated in aggression and anxiety. To examine the impact these receptors may have on AAS alterations to behavior, we microinjected the 5HT3 agonist mCPBG directly into a region know for its influence over aggressive behavior, the lateral division of the anterior hypothalamus, and recorded alterations to anxious behaviors using the elevated plus maze. AAS exposure primarily reduced the presence of 5HT3 receptors in aggression/anxiety regions. Accordingly, mCPBG blocked the anxiolytic effects of adolescent AAS exposure. These data suggest that the 5HT3 receptor plays a critical role in the circuit modulating developmental AAS-induced changes to both aggressive and anxious behaviors, and further implicates the lateral division of the anterior hypothalamus as an important center for the negative behavioral effects of developmental AAS-exposure.

  15. Palonosetron: a unique 5-HT3-receptor antagonist for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced emesis.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Steven M; Koeller, James M

    2003-12-01

    Palonosetron (Aloxi) is a 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist antiemetic indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and for acute nausea and vomiting following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Although it is the fourth member of this class to enter the US market, palonosetron is distinguished by distinct pharmacological characteristics. It has a higher binding affinity for the 5-HT(3 )receptor and a terminal serum half-life at least four times greater than any other available agent of this class (approximately 40 h). The high affinity and long half-life may explain the persistence of antiemetic effect throughout the delayed emesis risk period. The indications for palonosetron are supported by one dose-ranging study and three large, randomised, Phase III studies that all demonstrated at least equivalent activity (and in some cases, superior activity) compared to other 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists. In spite of the pharmacological differences, the side effect profile of palonosetron is comparable to that of other 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists. Palonosetron may prove valuable in combination therapy for delayed emesis and may be an appropriate agent for clinical settings, such as multiple-day chemotherapy, where acute emesis is repeatedly induced. Palonosetron provides a convenience advantage if multiple-day 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist therapy is anticipated and is a unique addition to the antiemetic armamentarium. PMID:14640928

  16. The Structure of the Mouse Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor in Lipid Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Deluz, Cédric; Hassaine, Gherici; Grasso, Luigino; Graf-Meyer, Alexandra; Vogel, Horst; Stahlberg, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The function of membrane proteins is best understood if their structure in the lipid membrane is known. Here, we determined the structure of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor inserted in lipid bilayers to a resolution of 12 Å without stabilizing antibodies by cryo electron tomography and subtomogram averaging. The reconstruction reveals protein secondary structure elements in the transmembrane region, the extracellular pore, and the transmembrane channel pathway, showing an overall similarity to the available X-ray model of the truncated 5-HT3 receptor determined in the presence of a stabilizing nanobody. Structural analysis of the 5-HT3 receptor embedded in a lipid bilayer allowed the position of the membrane to be determined. Interactions between the densely packed receptors in lipids were visualized, revealing that the interactions were maintained by the short horizontal helices. In combination with methodological improvements, our approach enables the structural analysis of membrane proteins in response to voltage and ligand gating.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure and dynamics of 5-HT3 serotonin receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, M. Yu.; Popinako, A. V.; Prokopiev, G. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we investigated structure, dynamics and ion transportation in transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 serotonin receptor. High-resolution (0.35 nm) structure of the 5-HT3 receptor in complex with stabilizing nanobodies was determined by protein crystallography in 2014 (Protein data bank (PDB) code 4PIR). Transmembrane domain of the structure was prepared in complex with explicit membrane environment (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)) and solvent (TIP3P water model). Molecular dynamics protocols for simulation and stabilization of the transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 receptor model were developed and 60 ns simulation of the structure was conducted in order to explore structural parameters of the system. We estimated the mean force profile for Na+ ions using umbrella sampling method.

  18. 5-HT3 receptors as important mediators of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. The first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been very effective in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis in the first 24 h postchemotherapy (acute emesis), but have not been as effective against delayed emesis (24-120 h postchemotherapy). Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a FDA approved antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters: dopamine at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonin at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for chemotherapy-induced emesis and nausea, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  19. Serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists for the reduction of symptoms of low anterior resection syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Itagaki, Ryohei; Koda, Keiji; Yamazaki, Masato; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Kosugi, Chihiro; Hirano, Atsushi; Arimitsu, Hidehito; Shiragami, Risa; Yoshimura, Yukino; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT])3 receptor antagonists are effective for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), in which exaggerated intestinal/colonic hypermotility is often observed. Recent studies have suggested that the motility disorder, especially spastic hypermotility, seen in the neorectum following sphincter-preserving operations for rectal cancer may be the basis of the postoperative defecatory malfunction seen in these patients. We investigated the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in patients suffering from severe low anterior resection syndrome. Patients and methods A total of 25 male patients with complaints of uncontrollable urgency or fecal incontinence following sphincter-preserving operations were enrolled in this study. Defecatory status, assessed on the basis of incontinence score (0–20), urgency grade (0–3), and number of toilet visits per day, was evaluated using a questionnaire before and 1 month after the administration of the 5-HT3 antagonist ramosetron. Results All the parameters assessed improved significantly after taking ramosetron for 1 month. The effect was more prominent in cases whose anastomotic line was lower, ie, inside the anal canal. Defecatory function was better in patients who commenced ramosetron therapy within 6 months postoperatively, as compared to those who were not prescribed ramosetron for more than 7 months postoperatively. Conclusion These results suggest that 5-HT3 antagonists are effective for the treatment of low anterior resection syndrome, as in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The improvement in symptoms is not merely time dependent, but it is related to treatment with 5-HT3 antagonists. PMID:24648748

  20. The 5-HT3 receptor is essential for exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Shimada, S

    2015-11-01

    Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the 5-HT system has been suggested to have an important role in these exercise-induced neuronal effects. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, analysis of the 5-HT type 3A receptor subunit-deficient (htr3a(-/-)) mice revealed that lack of the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor resulted in loss of exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects, but not of learning enhancement. Furthermore, stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptor promoted neurogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the 5-HT3 receptor is the critical target of 5-HT action in the brain following exercise, and is indispensable for hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects induced by exercise. This is the first report of a pivotal 5-HT receptor subtype that has a fundamental role in exercise-induced morphological changes and psychological effects.

  1. The function of 5-HT3 receptors on colonic transit in rats.

    PubMed

    Haga, K; Asano, K; Fukuda, T; Kobayakawa, T

    1995-12-01

    The function of serotonin (5-HT)3 receptors on colonic transit was investigated in unanesthetized rats. The colonic transit was accelerated by 5-HT (10 mg/kg, s.c.), 2-methyl-5-HT (30 mg/kg, s.c.), neostigmine (0.03-0.1 mg/kg, s.c.), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF; 1 microgram intracerebroventricular administration) and restraint stress (for 45 minutes). A potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, azasetron (+/-)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-6-chloro- 4-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-8-carboxamide monohydrochloride ; 0.01-10 mg/kg, p.o. inhibited the 5-HT-, CRF- and stress-accelerated colonic transit in a dose-dependent manner. Ondansetron (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and granisetron (1 mg/kg, p.o) also inhibited the stress-accelerated colonic transit, but azasetron was more effective than these two drugs. Atropine methylbromide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and tetrodotoxin (0.01 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited the accelerated colonic transit under stress conditions, but methysergide (10 mg/kg, s.c.), SDZ205-557 (10 mg/kg, s.c.), domperidone (30 mg/kg, p.o.), trimebutine (300 mg/kg, p.o.), did not. Azasetron (10 micrograms) administered intracerebroventricularly did not inhibit the stress-induced acceleration. These results suggest that endogenous 5-HT which is released through stress accelerates the colonic transit via the 5-HT3 receptors and finally a cholinergic mechanism. It is considered that azasetron inhibits colonic transit particularly under stress conditions through the blockade of the peripheral 5-HT3 receptors. Azasetron may improve bowel function in stress-related colonic dysfunction like irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:8653566

  2. Activation of 5-HT3 receptors leads to altered responses 6 months after MDMA treatment.

    PubMed

    Gyongyosi, Norbert; Balogh, Brigitta; Katai, Zita; Molnar, Eszter; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Kornelia; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-03-01

    The recreational drug "Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] has a well-characterised neurotoxic effect on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in animals. Despite intensive studies, the long-term functional consequencies of the 5-HT neurodegeneration remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any alteration of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor functions on the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and quantitative EEG could be detected 6 months after a single dose of 15 mg/kg of MDMA. The selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle was administered to freely moving rats pre-treated with MDMA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 6 months earlier. Polysomnographic and motor activity recordings were performed. Active wake (AW), passive wake (PW), light slow wave sleep (SWS-1), deep slow wave sleep (SWS-2), and paradoxical sleep were classified. In addition, EEG power spectra were calculated for the second hour after mCPBG treatment for each stage. AW increased and SWS-1 decreased in the second hour after mCPBG treatment in control animals. mCPBG caused significant changes in the EEG power in states with cortical activation (AW, PW, paradoxical sleep). In addition, mCPBG had a biphasic effect on hippocampal theta power in AW with a decrease in 7 Hz and a stage-selective increase in the upper range (8-9 Hz). Effects of mCPBG on the time spent in AW and SWS-1 were eliminated or reduced in MDMA-treated animals. In addition, mCPBG did not increase the upper theta power of AW in rats pre-treated with MDMA. These data suggest long-term changes in 5-HT(3) receptor function after MDMA. PMID:20052506

  3. Serotonin Enhances Urinary Bladder Nociceptive Processing Via a 5-HT3 Receptor Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jason D.; DeWitte, Cary; Ness, Timothy J.; Robbins, Meredith T.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin from the descending pain modulatory pathway is critical to nociceptive processing. Its effects on pain modulation may either be inhibitory or facilitatory, depending on the type of pain and which receptors are involved. Little is known about the role of serotonergic systems in bladder nociceptive processing. These studies examined the effect of systemic administration of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on normal bladder and somatic sensation in rats. ELISA was used to quantify peripheral and central changes in serotonin and its major metabolite following 5-HTP administration, and the potential role of the 5-HT3 receptor on changes in bladder sensation elicited by 5-HTP was investigated. 5-HTP produced bladder hypersensitivity and somatic analgesia. The pro-nociceptive effect of 5-HTP was attenuated by intrathecal, but not systemic, ondansetron. Peripheral increases in serotonin, its metabolism and rate of turnover were detectable within 30 min of 5-HTP administration. Significant enhancement of serotonin metabolism was observed centrally. These findings suggest that 5-HTP increases serotonin, which may then affect descending facilitatory systems to produce bladder hypersensitivity via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:26247537

  4. Serotonin enhances urinary bladder nociceptive processing via a 5-HT3 receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jason D; DeWitte, Cary; Ness, Timothy J; Robbins, Meredith T

    2015-09-14

    Serotonin from the descending pain modulatory pathway is critical to nociceptive processing. Its effects on pain modulation may either be inhibitory or facilitatory, depending on the type of pain and which receptors are involved. Little is known about the role of serotonergic systems in bladder nociceptive processing. These studies examined the effect of systemic administration of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on normal bladder and somatic sensation in rats. ELISA was used to quantify peripheral and central changes in serotonin and its major metabolite following 5-HTP administration, and the potential role of the 5-HT3 receptor on changes in bladder sensation elicited by 5-HTP was investigated. 5-HTP produced bladder hypersensitivity and somatic analgesia. The pro-nociceptive effect of 5-HTP was attenuated by intrathecal, but not systemic, ondansetron. Peripheral increases in serotonin, its metabolism and rate of turnover were detectable within 30min of 5-HTP administration. Significant enhancement of serotonin metabolism was observed centrally. These findings suggest that 5-HTP increases serotonin, which may then affect descending facilitatory systems to produce bladder hypersensitivity via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors.

  5. Fluorophore assisted light inactivation (FALI) of recombinant 5-HT3A receptor constitutive internalization and function

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A.; Luo, Guoxiang; Davis, Margaret I.; Hales, Tim G.; Lovinger, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins and molecules are now widely used to tag and visualize proteins resulting in an improved understanding of protein trafficking, localization, and function. In addition, fluorescent tags have also been used to inactivate protein function in a spatially and temporally-defined manner, using a technique known as fluorophore-assisted light inactivation (FALI) or chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI). In this study we tagged the serotonin3 A subunit with the α-bungarotoxin binding sequence (BBS) and subsequently labeled 5-HT3A/BBS receptors with fluorescently conjugated α-bungarotoxin in live cells. We show that 5-HT3A/BBS receptors are constitutively internalized in the absence of an agonist and internalization as well as receptor function are inhibited by fluorescence. The fluorescence-induced disruption of function and internalization was reduced with oxygen radical scavengers suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species, implicating the FALI process. Furthermore, these data suggest that intense illumination during live-cell microscopy may result in inadvertent FALI and inhibition of protein trafficking. PMID:21338684

  6. The effects of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on cognition in rodents and primates.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J M; Costall, B; Coughlan, J; Domeney, A M; Gerrard, P A; Kelly, M E; Naylor, R J; Onaivi, E S; Tomkins, D M; Tyers, M B

    1990-04-01

    The selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, onansetron, has been assessed in three tests of cognition in the mouse, rat and marmoset. In a habituation test in the mouse, ondansetron facilitated performance in young adult and aged animals, and inhibited an impairment in habituation induced by scopolamine, electrolesions or ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Arecoline failed to improve basal performance in young adult mice but inhibited the impairment caused by scopolamine and lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. In the T-maze reinforced alternation task in rats, ondansetron and arecoline antagonised a scopolamine-induced impairment. In an object discrimination and reversal learning task in the marmoset, assessed using a Wisconsin General Test Apparatus, ondansetron improved performance in a reversal learning task. We conclude that ondansetron potently improves basal performance in rodent and primate tests of cognition and inhibits the impairments in performance caused by cholinergic deficits.

  7. Involvement of 5-HT3 receptors in the action of vortioxetine in rat brain: Focus on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maurizio S; Sánchez, Connie; Celada, Pau; Artigas, Francesc

    2016-09-01

    The antidepressant vortioxetine is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibitor. Vortioxetine occupies all targets at high therapeutic doses and only SERT and 5-HT3-R at low doses. Vortioxetine increases extracellular monoamine concentrations in rat forebrain more than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and shows pro-cognitive activity in preclinical models. Given its high affinity for 5-HT3-R (Ki = 3.7 nM), selectively expressed in GABA interneurons, we hypothesized that vortioxetine may disinhibit glutamatergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission following 5-HT3-R blockade. Here we assessed vortioxetine effect on pyramidal neuron activity and extracellular 5-HT concentration using in vivo extracellular recordings of rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons and microdialysis in mPFC and ventral hippocampus (vHPC). Vortioxetine, but not escitalopram, increased pyramidal neuron discharge in mPFC. This effect was prevented by SR57227A (5-HT3-R agonist) and was mimicked by ondansetron (5-HT3-R antagonist) and by escitalopram/ondansetron combinations. In microdialysis experiments, ondansetron augmented the 5-HT-enhancing effect of escitalopram in mPFC and vHPC. Local ondansetron in vHPC augmented escitalopram effect, indicating the participation of intrinsic mechanisms. Since 5-HT neurons express GABAB receptors, we examined their putative involvement in controlling 5-HT release after 5-HT3-R blockade. Co-perfusion of baclofen (but not muscimol) reversed the increased 5-HT levels produced by vortioxetine and escitalopram/ondansetron combinations in vHPC. The present results suggest that vortioxetine increases glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in rat forebrain by blocking 5-HT3 receptors in GABA interneurons. PMID:27106166

  8. 5-HT3 receptor-channels coupled with Na+ influx in human T cells: role in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Khan, N A; Poisson, J P

    1999-09-01

    The study was conducted on a human (Jurkat) T cell line, loaded with a Na+ fluorescent probe, SBFI/AM. Serotonin and an agonist of 5-HT3 receptor-channels, 2-methyl-5HT, evoked Na+ influx, whereas the agonists of other serotonergic receptor subtypes, i.e., 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors, failed to induce Na+ influx in these cells. By using 3H-BRL43694, an agonist of 5-HT3 receptor-channels, we characterized 5-HT3 lymphocyte receptors which exhibited a density (Bmax) of 300 +/- 20 fmol/10(6) cells and a Kd of 30 nM in Jurkat T cells. The T-cell 5-HT3 receptor-channel is not regulated either by the protein kinase C or by the free intracellular calcium concentrations as the agents known to activate the PKC and to induce increases in intracellular free calcium concentrations failed to influence the free intracellular Na+ concentrations, [Na+]i, in these cells. Furthermore, an increase in [Na+]i, induced by 2-methyl-5HT, via 5-HT3 receptor-channels seems to stimulate T-cell activation by facilitating the progression of T cells from S to G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

  9. Functional evidence for the rapid desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on vagal afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) desensitize upon repeated exposure to selective agonists. BJR-mediated falls in heart rate, diastolic arterial blood pressure and cardiac output elicited by the 5-HT(3)-receptor agonists, phenylbiguanide (100 microg/kg, i.v.) or 2-methyl-5-HT (100 microg/kg, i.v.), progressively diminished upon repeated injection in conscious rats. The BJR responses elicited by 5-HT (40 microg/kg, i.v.) were markedly reduced in rats which had received the above injections of phenylbiguanide or 2-methyl-5-HT whereas the BJR responses elicited by L-S-nitrosocysteine (10 micromol/kg, i.v.) were similar before and after the injections of the 5-HT(3) receptor agonists. These findings suggest that tachyphylaxis to 5-HT(3) receptor agonists may be due to the desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents rather than the impairment of the central or peripheral processing of the BJR.

  10. Interaction of pyridostigmine with the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Capacio, B.R.; Byers, C.E.; Matthews, R.L.; Anderson, D.R.; Anders, J.C.

    1993-05-13

    Serotonin receptor subtype three (5HT3) antagonists, such as the drug ondansetron (OND), have been developed as effective anti-emetic compounds. The purpose of this study was to assess the drug interactions of OND (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) with the organophosphorus pretreatment compound pyridostigmine (PYR; 0.94 mg/kg) after simultaneous oral administration to guinea pigs. Compatibility was assessed by determining (1) OND pharmacokinetics in the absence (Phase 1) and presence (Phase 2) of pyridostigmine (PYR) and (2) PYR-induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition kinetics in the absence (Phase 1) and the presence (Phase 2) of OND. AChE inhibition was examined because it has been shown to be an indicator of PYR efficacy against OP-induced lethality. The pharmacokinetics of OND alone and in the presence of PYR were linear and best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination rate kinetics. For OND 30 mg/kg the K10 was found to be significantly smaller in Phase 2 than Phase 1 (p < 0.05).

  11. Distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 Receptors Along the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Yaakob, Nor S; Chinkwo, Kenneth A; Chetty, Navinisha; Coupar, Ian M; Irving, Helen R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are associated with abnormal serotonin (5-HT) signaling or metabolism where the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are clinically relevant. The aim was to examine the distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the normal human colon and how this is associated with receptor interacting chaperone 3, G protein coupled receptor kinases, and protein LIN-7 homologs to extend previous observations limited to the sigmoid colon or the upper intestine. Methods Samples from ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid human colon were dissected into 3 separate layers (mucosa, longitudinal, and circular muscles) and ileum samples were dissected into mucosa and muscle layers (n = 20). Complementary DNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from extracted RNA and expression was determined by quantitative or end point polymerase chain reaction. Results The 5-HT3 receptor subunits were found in all tissues throughout the colon and ileum. The A subunit was detected in all samples and the C subunit was expressed at similar levels while the B subunit was expressed at lower levels and less frequently. The 5-HT3 receptor E subunit was mainly found in the mucosa layers. All splice variants of the 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors were expressed throughout the colon although the 5-HT4 receptor d, g, and i variants were expressed less often. Conclusions The major differences in 5-HT receptor distribution within the human colon are in relation to the mucosa and muscular tissue layers where the 5-HT3 receptor E subunit is predominantly found in the mucosal layer which may be of therapeutic relevance. PMID:26130632

  12. Anti-inflammatory effect of ondansetron through 5-HT3 receptors on TNBS-induced colitis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Motavallian-Naeini, Azadeh; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Rabbani, Mohammad; Mahzuni, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract whose etiology has not yet been fully elucidated. Available medicines for treatment of IBD are not universally effective and result in marked deleterious effects. This challenge has thus heightened the need for research in order to adopt new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of IBD. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. Our aim was to investigate the effect of ondansetron, 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in an immune-based animal model of IBD, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis and probable involvement of 5-HT3 receptors. Two hours after induction of colitis (instillation of 50 mg/kg of TNBS dissolved in 0.25 ml of ethanol 50 % v/v) to male Wistar rats, ondansetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT3 receptor agonist, or ondansetron + mCPBG were administrated intraperitoneally (ip) and continued daily for six days. The animals were sacrificed and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically and biochemically [myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 beta]. Ondansetron and dexamethasone resulted in a decrease in macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage significantly. In addition a dramatic reduction in MPO activity and colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines were seen. The protective effects of ondansetron were antagonized by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Our data suggests that the beneficial effects of ondansetron in TNBS-induced colitis could be mediated by 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:27350767

  13. Influence of the 5-HT3A Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Childhood Sexual Trauma on Central Serotonin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene-environment interactions are important for understanding alterations in human brain function. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) is known to reflect central serotonergic activity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor gene are associated with psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect between 5-HT3A receptor gene polymorphisms and childhood sexual trauma on the LDAEP as an electrophysiological marker in healthy subjects. Methods A total of 206 healthy subjects were recruited and evaluated using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Peak-to-peak N1/P2 was measured at five stimulus intensities, and the LDAEP was calculated as the linear-regression slope. In addition, the rs1062613 SNPs of 5-HT3A (CC, CT, and TT) were analyzed in healthy subjects. Results There was a significant interaction between scores on the CTQ-sexual abuse subscale and 5-HT3A genotype on the LDAEP. Subjects with the CC polymorphism had a significantly higher LDEAP than T carriers in the sexually abused group. In addition, CC genotype subjects in the sexually abused group showed a significantly higher LDAEP compared with CC genotype subjects in the non-sexually abused group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that people with the CC polymorphism of the 5-HT3A gene have a greater risk of developing mental health problems if they have experienced childhood sexual abuse, possibly due to low central serotonin activity. Conversely, the T polymorphism may be protective against any central serotonergic changes following childhood sexual trauma. PMID:26701104

  14. Palonosetron versus older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for nausea prevention in patients receiving chemotherapy: a multistudy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Gary R; Schwartzberg, Lee; Barbour, Sally Y; Ballinari, Gianluca; Thorn, Michael D; Cox, David

    2015-01-01

    Background No clinical standard currently exists for the optimal management of nausea induced by emetogenic chemotherapy, particularly delayed nausea. Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of palonosetron with older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (RAs) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea. Methods Data were pooled from 4 similarly designed multicenter, randomized, double-blind, clinical trials that compared single intravenous doses of palonosetron 0.25 mg or 0.75 mg with ondansetron 32 mg, dolasetron 100 mg, or granisetron 40 μg/kg, administered 30 minutes before moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Pooled data within each chemotherapy category (MEC: n = 1,132; HEC: n = 1,781) were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Nausea endpoints were complete control rates (ie, no more than mild nausea, no vomiting, and no rescue medication), nausea-free rates, nausea severity, and requirement for rescue antiemetic/antinausea medication over 5 days following chemotherapy. Pooled safety data were summarized descriptively. Results Numerically more palonosetron-treated patients were nausea-free on each day, and fewer had moderate-severe nausea. Similarly, usage of rescue medication was less frequent among palonosetron-treated patients. Complete control rates for palonosetron and older 5-HT3 RAs in the acute phase were 66% vs 63%, 52% vs 42% in the delayed phase (24-120 hours), and 46% vs 37% in the overall phase. The incidence of adverse events was similar for palonosetron and older 5-HT3 RAs. Limitations This post hoc analysis summarized data for palonosetron and several other 5-HT3 RAs but was not powered for statistical comparisons between individual agents. Because nausea is inherently subjective, the reliability of assessments of some aspects (eg, severity) may be influenced by interindividual variability. Conclusion Palonosetron may be more effective than older 5-HT3 RAs in preventing nausea, with comparable

  15. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Katrin M; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  16. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  17. The action of SDZ 205,557 at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3 and 5-HT4) receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R. M.; Alvarez, R.; Johnson, L. G.; Leung, E.; Wong, E. H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The interaction of the novel antagonist, SDZ 205,557 (2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chloro benzoic acid 2-(diethylamino) ethyl ester), at 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors has been assessed in vitro and in vivo. 2. In guinea-pig hippocampus and in the presence of 0.4 microM 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-HT4-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase was competitively antagonized by SDZ 205,557, with a pA2 value of 7.5, and a Schild slope of 0.81. In rat carbachol-contracted oesophagus, 5-HT4-receptor mediated relaxations were surmountably antagonized by SDZ 205,557 with a similar pA2 value (7.3). This value was agonist-independent with the exception of (R)-zacopride, against which a significantly lower value (6.4) was observed. 3. In functional studies of 5-HT3 receptors, SDZ 205,557 exhibited an affinity of 6.2 in guinea-pig ileum compared with 6.9 at binding sites labelled by [3H]-quipazine in NG108-15 cells. In the anaesthetized, vagotomized micropig, SDZ 205,557 produced only a transient blockade of 5-HT4-mediated tachycardia. This contrasted with tropisetron, which was active for over 60 min after administration. The half-lives for the inhibitory responses of SDZ 205,557 and tropisetron were 23 and 116 min, respectively. 4. In conclusion, SDZ 205,557 has similar affinity for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. The apparent selectivity observed in guinea-pig is due to the atypical nature of the 5-HT3 receptor in this species. The short duration of action of this novel antagonist may complicate its use in vivo. SDZ 205,557 should, therefore, be used with appropriate caution in studies defining the 5-HT4 receptor. PMID:8448587

  18. [Use of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, as a new type of antiemetic in pediatric oncology].

    PubMed

    Csáki, C; Ferencz, T; Koós, R; Schuler, D; Borsi, J

    1993-06-20

    The effectiveness of the new antiemetic drug, the 5-hydroxytryptamin (5-HT) receptor antagonist ondansetron was evaluated in paediatric cancer patients. 5-HT3 antagonists represent a new class of drugs effective in the control of chemo- and radiotherapy-induced emesis. Based on their selectivity 5-HT3 antagonist are free from extrapyramidal side effects, a major problem in children in the case of currently used dopamine receptor antagonists (e.g. metoclopramide). In this study ondansetron was tested as antiemetic in 33 children with malignant disease (132 chemotherapy cycles) treated with: 1. high-dose cisplatin (120 mg/m2), 2. intermediate-dose cisplatin (60 mg/m2) and 3. no cisplatin-containing, combined high-dose chemotherapy. Ondansetron was found to be safe and effective in the control of acute and delayed emesis in all treatment groups. Its effectiveness was superior to the currently used antiemetic drugs in the period of acute emesis.

  19. Stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in polyolefin bags for patient-controlled delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu-chao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Bin; Yuan, Fang-jun; Wang, Lin-hai

    2016-01-01

    Background Mixing 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) solutions of tramadol has been shown to decrease the incidence of nausea and vomiting associated with the use of tramadol PCA for postoperative pain. However, such mixtures are not commercially available, and the stability of the drug combinations has not been duly studied. The study aimed to evaluate the stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA administration. Materials and methods Test samples were prepared by adding 1,000 mg tramadol hydrochloride, 8 mg ondansetron hydrochloride, and 6 mg granisetron hydrochloride or 5 mg tropisetron hydrochloride to 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags. The samples were prepared in triplicates, stored at either 25°C or 4°C for 14 days, and assessed using the following compatibility parameters: precipitation, cloudiness, discoloration, and pH. Chemical stability was also determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Results All of the mixtures were clear and colorless throughout the initial observation period. No change in the concentration of tramadol hydrochloride occurred with any of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists during the 14 days. Similarly, little or no loss of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists occurred over the 14-day period. Conclusion Our results suggest that mixtures of tramadol hydrochloride, ondansetron hydrochloride, granisetron hydrochloride, or tropisetron hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were physically and chemically stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at both 4°C and 25°C. PMID:27350741

  20. Inhibition of native 5-HT3 receptor-evoked contractions in guinea pig and mouse ileum by antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Stephen P; Walsh, Jacqueline; Kelly, Mark C; Muhdar, Simerjyot; Adel-Aziz, Mohammed; Barrett, Iain D; Wildman, Scott S

    2014-09-01

    Quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine are commonly used to treat malaria, however, with associated gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects. These drugs act as antagonists at recombinant 5-HT3 receptors and modulate gut peristalsis. These gastrointestinal side effects may be the result of antagonism at intestinal 5-HT3 receptors. Ileum from male C57BL/6 mice and guinea pigs was mounted longitudinally in organ baths. The concentration-response curves for 5-HT and the selective 5-HT3 agonist 2-Me-5-HT were obtained with 5-HT (pEC50 = 7.57 ± 0.33, 12) more potent (P = 0.004) than 2-Me-5-HT (pEC50 = 5.45 ± 0.58, n = 5) in mouse ileum. There was no difference in potency of 5-HT (pEC50 = 5.42 ± 0.15, n = 8) and 2-Me-5-HT (pIC50 = 5.01 ± 0.55, n = 11) in guinea pig ileum (P > 0.05). Quinine, chloroquine or mefloquine was applied for 10 min and inhibitions prior to submaximal agonist application. In mouse ileum, quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 4.9 ± 0.17, n = 7; 4.76 ± 0.14, n = 5; 6.21 ± 0.2, n = 4, correspondingly) with mefloquine most potent (P < 0.05). Quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 2-me-5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 6.35 ± 0.11, n = 8; 4.64 ± 0.2, n = 7; 5.11 ± 0.22, n = 6, correspondingly) with quinine most potent (P < 0.05). In guinea-pig ileum, quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 5.02 ± 0.15, n = 6; 4.54 ± 0.1, n = 7; 5.32 ± 0.13, n = 5) and 2-me-5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 4.62 ± 0.25, n = 5; 4.56 ± 0.14, n = 6; 5.67 ± 0.12, n = 4) with chloroquine least potent against 5-HT and mefloquine most potent against 2-me-5-HT (P < 0.05). These results support previous studies identifying anti-malarial drugs as antagonists at recombinant 5-HT3 receptors and may also demonstrate the ability of these drugs to influence native 5-HT3 receptor-evoked contractile responses which may account for their associated GI side-effects. PMID:24886883

  1. Inhibition of temporomandibular joint input to medullary dorsal horn neurons by 5HT3 receptor antagonist in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Katagiri, Ayano; Rahman, Mostafeezur; Thompson, Randall; Bereiter, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated forced swim (FS) conditioning enhances nociceptive responses to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) stimulation in male and female rats. The basis for FS-induced TMJ hyperalgesia remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that serotonin 3 receptor (5HT3R) mechanisms contribute to enhanced TMJ nociception after FS, ovariectomized female rats were treated with estradiol and subjected to FS for three days. On day 4, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and TMJ-responsive neurons were recorded from superficial and deep laminae at the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical (Vc/C1–2) region and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the masseter muscle. Only Vc/C1–2 neurons activated by intra-TMJ injections of ATP were included for further analysis. Although neurons in both superficial and deep laminae were activated by ATP, only neurons in deep laminae displayed enhanced responses after FS. Local application of the 5HT3R antagonist, ondansetron (OND), at the Vc/C1–2 region reduced the ATP-evoked responses of neurons in superficial and deep laminae and reduced the EMG response in both sham and FS rats. OND also decreased the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in deep laminae and reduced the high threshold convergent cutaneous receptive field area of neurons in superficial and deep laminae in both sham and FS rats. These results revealed that central application of a 5HT3R antagonist, had widespread effects on the properties of TMJ-responsive neurons at the Vc/C1–2 region and on jaw muscle reflexes under sham and FS conditions. It is concluded that 5HT3R does not play a unique role in mediating stress-induced hyperalgesia related to TMJ nociception. PMID:25913635

  2. Noncompetitive Inhibition of 5-HT3 Receptors by Citral, Linalool, and Eucalyptol Revealed by Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Barbosa, Roseli; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Citral, eucalyptol, and linalool are widely used as flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Here, we examined their effects on electrophysiological and binding properties of human 5-HT3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to account for random variance in the peak current response between oocytes. The oils caused an insurmountable inhibition of 5-HT-evoked currents (citral IC50 = 120 µM; eucalyptol = 258 µM; linalool = 141 µM) and did not compete with fluorescently labeled granisetron, suggesting a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Inhibition was not use-dependent but required a 30-second preapplication. Compound washout caused a slow (∼180 seconds) but complete recovery. Coapplication of the oils with bilobalide or diltiazem indicated they did not bind at the same locations as these channel blockers. Homology modeling and ligand docking predicted binding to a transmembrane cavity at the interface of adjacent subunits. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that an essential oil extracted from Lippia alba contained 75.9% citral. This inhibited expressed 5-HT3 receptors (IC50 = 45 µg ml(-1)) and smooth muscle contractions in rat trachea (IC50 = 200 µg ml(-1)) and guinea pig ileum (IC50 = 20 µg ml(-1)), providing a possible mechanistic explanation for why this oil has been used to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. These results demonstrate that citral, eucalyptol, and linalool inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, and their binding to a conserved cavity suggests a valuable target for novel allosteric modulators. PMID:26669427

  3. The effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron on cocaine-induced conditioned taste aversions.

    PubMed

    Briscione, Maria A; Serafine, Katherine M; Merluzzi, Andrew P; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2013-04-01

    Although cocaine readily induces taste aversions, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. Recent work has shown that cocaine's actions on serotonin (5-HT) may be involved. To address this possibility, the present experiments examined a role of the specific 5-HT receptor, 5-HT3, in this effect given that it is implicated in a variety of behavioral effects of cocaine. This series of investigations first assessed the aversive effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron alone (Experiment 1). Specifically, in Experiment 1 male Sprague-Dawley rats were given repeated pairings of a novel saccharin solution and tropisetron (0, 0.056, 0.18 and 0.56mg/kg). Following this, a non-aversion-inducing dose of tropisetron (0.18mg/kg) was assessed for its ability to block aversions induced by a range of doses of cocaine (Experiment 2). Specifically, in Experiment 2 animals were given access to a novel saccharin solution and then injected with tropisetron (0 or 0.18mg/kg) followed by an injection of various doses of cocaine (0, 10, 18 and 32mg/kg). Cocaine induced dose-dependent taste aversions that were not blocked by tropisetron, suggesting that cocaine's aversive effects are not mediated by 5-HT, at least at this specific receptor subtype. At the intermediate dose of cocaine, aversions appeared to be potentiated, suggesting 5-HT3 may play a limiting role in cocaine's aversive effects. These data are discussed in the context of previous examinations of the roles of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in cocaine-induced aversions. PMID:23415734

  4. Noncompetitive Inhibition of 5-HT3 Receptors by Citral, Linalool, and Eucalyptol Revealed by Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Barbosa, Roseli; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Citral, eucalyptol, and linalool are widely used as flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Here, we examined their effects on electrophysiological and binding properties of human 5-HT3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to account for random variance in the peak current response between oocytes. The oils caused an insurmountable inhibition of 5-HT-evoked currents (citral IC50 = 120 µM; eucalyptol = 258 µM; linalool = 141 µM) and did not compete with fluorescently labeled granisetron, suggesting a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Inhibition was not use-dependent but required a 30-second preapplication. Compound washout caused a slow (∼180 seconds) but complete recovery. Coapplication of the oils with bilobalide or diltiazem indicated they did not bind at the same locations as these channel blockers. Homology modeling and ligand docking predicted binding to a transmembrane cavity at the interface of adjacent subunits. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that an essential oil extracted from Lippia alba contained 75.9% citral. This inhibited expressed 5-HT3 receptors (IC50 = 45 µg ml(-1)) and smooth muscle contractions in rat trachea (IC50 = 200 µg ml(-1)) and guinea pig ileum (IC50 = 20 µg ml(-1)), providing a possible mechanistic explanation for why this oil has been used to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. These results demonstrate that citral, eucalyptol, and linalool inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, and their binding to a conserved cavity suggests a valuable target for novel allosteric modulators.

  5. [Effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on estramustine phosphate sodium (Estracyt)-induced emesis in ferrets].

    PubMed

    Higashioka, Masaya; Yamaguchi, Emi; Takatori, Shingo; Tanaka, Mitsushi; Kyoi, Takashi

    2010-07-01

    Estracyt(R) is an antimitotic drug used for the treatment of prostate cancer, and its most common adverse effects are nausea and vomiting. In this study, we investigated the effect of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, granisetron, on emesis induced in ferrets by estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP), the active ingredient of Estracyt. To clarify the mechanism of action of EMP-induced emesis, we also investigated the effect of EMP on the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the isolated rat ileum. EMP (3 mg/kg, per os) induced 75.3+/-10.2 retching episodes and 7.5+/-1.3 vomiting episodes during a 2-h observation period. The latency to the first emetic response was 58.0+/-13.5 min. Granisetron (0.1 mg/kg, per os) administered 1 h before the administration of EMP reduced the number of EMP-induced retching and vomiting episodes to 1.3+/-1.3 and 1.0+/-1.0, respectively, and prolonged the latency by a factor of almost two. EMP (10-5 and 10-4 M) increased 5-HT release from isolated rat ileum, and 10 -7 M granisetron almost completely inhibited the increase induced by 10-4 M EMP. These results suggest that EMP induces nausea and vomiting via 5-HT release from the ileum, and that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful to prevent gastrointestinal adverse effects that occur during treatment with Estracyt.

  6. Agonist interactions with 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites in the rat entorhinal cortex labelled by structurally diverse radioligands.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J. M.; Barnes, N. M.; Costall, B.; Jagger, S. M.; Naylor, R. J.; Robertson, D. W.; Roe, S. Y.

    1992-01-01

    1. The pharmacological properties of 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites labelled with [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330 in membranes prepared from the rat entorhinal cortex were investigated to assess the presence of cooperativity within the 5-HT3 receptor complex. 2. In rat entorhinal cortex homogenates, [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330 labelled homogeneous densities of recognition sites (defined by granisetron, 10 microM) with high affinity (Bmax = 75 +/- 5, 53 +/- 5, 92 +/- 6 and 79 +/- 6 fmol mg-1 protein, respectively; pKd = 9.41 +/- 0.04, 8.69 +/- 0.14, 8.81 +/- 0.06 and 10.14 +/- 0.04 for [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330, respectively, n = 3-8). 3. Quipazine and granisetron competed for the binding of each of the radioligands in the rat entorhinal cortex preparation at low nanomolar concentrations (pIC50; quipazine 9.38-8.51, granisetron 8.62-8.03), whilst the agonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), phenylbiguanide (PBG) and 2-methyl-5-HT competed at sub-micromolar concentrations (pIC50; 5-HT 7.16-6.42, PBG 7.52-6.40, 2-methyl-5-HT 7.38-6.09). 4. Competition curves generated with increasing concentrations of quipazine, PBG, 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT displayed Hill coefficients greater than unity when the 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites in the entorhinal cortex preparation were labelled with [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330. These competing compounds displayed Hill coefficients of around unity when the sites were labelled with [3H]-(S)-zacopride. Competition for the binding of [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330 by granisetron generated Hill coefficients around unity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1559139

  7. An electrophysiological investigation of the properties of 5-HT3 receptors of rabbit nodose ganglion neurones in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J. A.; Malone, H. M.; Lambert, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-evoked currents in rabbit nodose ganglion neurones in culture have been determined by use of the whole-cell and outside-out membrane patch recording modes of the patch-clamp technique. 2. In 49% of cells investigated the bath application of 10(-5) M 5-HT at negative holding potentials elicited an inward current. The whole-cell response to 5-HT reversed in sign (E5-HT) at approximately -2 mV and exhibited inward rectification. 3. The influence of various ion substitutions upon E5-HT established that the 5-HT-evoked current is mainly mediated by a mixed Na+, K+ cation conductance with little or no contribution from Cl- ions. The omission of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from the extracellular solution enhanced the amplitude of the 5-HT-induced current. 4. On isolated outside-out membrane patches, the bath application of 10(-6) M 5-HT induced single channel currents with a chord conductance of approximately 17 pS at -70 mV and an average slope conductance of 19 pS over the range -100 to -40 mV. The 5-HT-induced single channels exhibited modest inward rectification and were reduced in frequency, but not amplitude, by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist metoclopramide (10(-6) M). 5. The bath application of 5-HT (3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M) to whole cells voltage clamped at -60 mV produced dose-dependent inward currents which were mimicked by 2-methyl-5-HT and 1-phenylbiguanide with equipotent molar ratios, relative to 5-HT, of 2.5 and 32 respectively. 6. Whole-cell inward currents produced by the local pressure application of 5-HT (10(-5) M) were unaffected by 10(-6) M methysergide, 10(-6) M ketanserin or 10(-6) M citalopram, but were concentration-dependently antagonized by the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists tropisetron (IC50 = 4.6 x 10(-11) M) ondansetron (IC50 = 5.7 x 10(-11) M), and bemesetron (IC50 = 3.3 x 10(-10) M). The response to 5-HT was also blocked by the non-selective antagonists metoclopramide

  8. Investigation of 5-HT3A receptor gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals who had been exposed to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahangari, Ghasem; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Mozafari, Sona; Majeidi, Ali; Deilami, Gholamreza Derkhshan

    2013-12-01

    The role of air pollution in exacerbation of allergic symptoms is well known. Several studies have shown the effect of air pollution on serotonergic system. The changes in serotonergic system could trigger several allergic symptoms. 5-HT(3A) is among serotonin receptors on the peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) as well as other cells. In the present study we compared the 5-HT(3A) gene expression in PBMCs of the asthmatic patients as well as individuals who had been exposed to the air pollution. Normal individuals were also included in the study as control for comparison of 5-HT(3A) gene expression. Following the synthesis of the cDNA using mRNA extracted from PBMCs the level of 5- HT(3A) gene expression was measured using real-time PCR. The results showed t a significant increase in the relative expression level of 5-HT(3A) receptor in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and individuals exposed to the air pollutants compared to normal controls. Our result indicates that significant increase in 5-HT(3A) receptor may contribute to the pathogenesis as well as allergic symptoms which resulted from air pollution.

  9. [NEPHROPROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF 5-HT3 RECEPTOR BLOCKER RU-63 IN EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE RENAL FAILURE UNDER HYPERGRAVITY CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Zaitseva, E N; Dubishchev, A V; Yakovlev, D S; Anisimova, V A

    2016-01-01

    The effective diuretic dose of 5-HT3 receptor blocker RU-63 (1 mg/kg) was found in experiments on white rats. It is established that the diuretic and saluretic effects of compound RU-63 increase on the background of impact of the gravitational factor. Compound RU-63 (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously) administered daily under hypergravity conditions (3 g in the direction of centrifugal force toward the kidneys) in animals with model ischemic acute renal failure increased excretory function of kidneys, glomerular filtration rate, and creatininuresis (on average by 180%; p < 0.05), and decreased serum creatinine, urinary excretion of protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and g-glutamyl transferase (on average by 49%; p < 0.05) as compared to the untreated control. Under similar conditions, the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (in a dose of 20 mg/kg, intragastric) produced a more pronounced creatininuretic action than that of RU-63 (by 358%; p < 0.05). PMID:27455574

  10. Blockade of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents in dissociated frog sensory neurones by benzoxazine derivative, Y-25130.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Akaike, N.

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of Y-25130, ((+-)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-6-chloro-4-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dih ydr o- 2H-1,4-benzoxazine-8-carboxamide hydrochloride), a high affinity 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor ligand, was examined on the 5-HT-induced response in dissociated frog dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones by use of the extremely rapid concentration-jump ('concentration-clamp') and the conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. 2. 5-HT induced a rapid transient inward current associated with an increase in membrane conductance at a holding potential of -70 mV. The current amplitude increased sigmoidally as 5-HT concentration increased. The half-maximum value (Ka) and the Hill coefficient estimated from the concentration-response curve were 1.7 x 10(-5) M and 1.7, respectively. 3. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship of 5-HT-induced current (I5-HT) showed inward rectification at potentials more positive than -40 mV. The reversal potential (E5-HT) was -11 mV. The E5-HT value was unaffected by total replacement of intracellular K+ by Cs+, indicating that the 5-HT-gated channels might be large cation channels. 4. Both the activation and inactivation phases of I5-HT were single exponentials. The time constants of activation and inactivation (tau a and tau i) decreased with increasing 5-HT concentration. 5. The 5-HT response was mimicked by a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, but the maximum response induced was approximately 25% that of 5-HT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1472977

  11. Solid gastric emptying mediated by the serotonin (5-HT)3 receptor in mice is a simple marker to predict emesis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kentaro; Takagi, Kan

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and emesis are often observed as side effects with many medicines and may lead to poor treatment compliance. In the present study, we aimed to establish simple methods for predicting nausea and/or emesis in mice, which do not vomit, using drugs and chemicals known to evoke nausea and/or emesis. The gastrointestinal transit test, the liquid gastric emptying by phenol red solution (Phenol red method) and the solid gastric emptying by resin beads (Beads method) were used and the effects of antispasmogenics (atropine, 0.1-3 mg/kg i.p.; salmon calcitonin, 1-30 units/kg i.m.), nauseants (copper sulfate, 1-30 mg/kg p.o.; apomorphine, 0.01-0.3 mg/kg s.c.) and chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, 0.3-10 mg/kg i.v.; doxorubicin, 0.3-10 mg/kg i.v.) were evaluated. In addition, the effects of ondansetron, a serotonin (5-HT)(3) receptor antagonist, on the inhibition of solid gastric emptying induced by salmon calcitonin, copper sulfate, cisplatin and doxorubicin were also assessed. Only the solid gastric emptying method could detect changes of gastric emptying by all drugs and chemicals. We also found that the inhibition of solid gastric emptying induced by cisplatin and doxorubicin was dose-dependently antagonized by ondansetron. However, ondansetron failed to antagonize the salmon calcitonin-induced delay, but exerted only very weak effects with copper sulfate. Solid gastric emptying may be more suitable than gastrointestinal intestinal transit or liquid gastric emptying in mice to predict nausea and/or emesis. Our results also suggest that chemotherapeutic-induced delay of solid gastric emptying mediated via 5-HT(3) receptors in mice could also be useful for prediction purposes. PMID:21297338

  12. The role of the AMPA receptor and 5-HT(3) receptor on aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in chronic social isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Koh; Kurosawa, Natsuki; Seki, Kenjiro

    2016-01-01

    Chronic social isolation (SI)-reared mice exhibit aggressive and depressive-like behaviors. However, the pathophysiological changes caused by chronic SI remain unclear. The hypothalamus and amygdala have been suggested to be associated with the stress of SI. In addition to serotonin 3 (5-HT3) receptors, AMPA receptors have also been suggested to be involved in aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in animals. Therefore, we examined whether chronic SI affects AMPA and 5-HT3 receptor expression levels in these regions. A Western blot analysis revealed that after four weeks of SI, mice exhibited up-regulated AMPA receptor subunit (GluR1, GluR2) protein levels in the amygdala and down-regulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor protein levels. The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist NBQX (10 mg/kg; i.p.) attenuated SI-induced depressive-like symptoms but not aggressive behavior. Intra-amygdalar infusions of the selective AMPA receptor agonist (S)-AMPA (10 μM) induced despair-like behavior, but not sucrose preference or aggressive behavior, in mice not reared in SI (naïve mice). Alternatively, treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A (3.0 mg/kg; i.p.) decreased aggression levels. In addition, intra-hypothalamic infusions of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (3 μM) did not trigger aggressive behavior in naïve mice; however, the administration of ondansetron (0.3 mg/kg; i.p.) increased aggression levels in two-week SI mice, which rarely exhibited the aggressive behavior. Moreover, ondansetron did not affect the depressive-like symptoms of the SI mice. These results suggest that SI-induced up-regulation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits protein levels in the amygdalar region and down-regulation of 5-HT3 receptor proteins level in the hypothalamic region are associated with the effect of AMPA receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist -induced aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms.

  13. The Role of Hippocampal 5HT3 Receptors in Harmaline-Induced Memory Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Nasehi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The plethora of studies indicated that there is a cross talk relationship between harmaline and serotonergic (5-HT) system on cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor on memory acquisition deficit induced by harmaline. Methods: Harmaline was injected peritoneally, while 5-HT4 receptor agonist (RS67333) and antagonist (RS23597-190) were injected intra-hippocampal. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance, open field and tail flick tasks were used for measurement of memory, locomotor activity and pain responses, respectively. Results: The data revealed that pre-training injection of higher dose of harmaline (1 mg/kg), RS67333 (0.5 ng/mouse) and RS23597-190 (0.5 ng/mouse) decreased memory acquisition process in the adult mice. Moreover, concurrent pre-training administration of subthreshold dose of RS67333 (0.005 ng/mouse) or RS23597-190 (0.005 ng/mouse) with subthreshold dose of harmaline (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) intensify impairment of memory acquisition. All above interventions did not change locomotion and tail flick behaviors. Discussion: The results demonstrated that the synergistic effect between both hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor agonist and antagonist with impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline, indicating a modulatory effect for hippocampal 5HT4 receptor on Harmaline induced amnesia. PMID:26904173

  14. Length and Amino Acid Sequence of Peptides Substituted for the 5-HT3A Receptor M3M4 Loop May Affect Channel Expression and Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Nicole K.; Bali, Moez; Akabas, Myles H.

    2012-01-01

    5-HT3A receptors are pentameric neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop receptor family. Each subunit contains an extracellular domain, four transmembrane segments (M1, M2, M3, M4) and a 115 residue intracellular loop between M3 and M4. In contrast, the M3M4 loop in prokaryotic homologues is <15 residues. To investigate the limits of M3M4 loop length and composition on channel function we replaced the 5-HT3A M3M4 loop with two to seven alanine residues (5-HT3A-An = 2–7). Mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using two electrode voltage clamp recording. All mutants were functional. The 5-HT EC50's were at most 5-fold greater than wild-type (WT). The desensitization rate differed significantly among the mutants. Desensitization rates for 5-HT3A-A2, 5-HT3A-A4, 5-HT3A-A6, and 5-HT3A-A7 were similar to WT. In contrast, 5-HT3A-A3 and 5-HT3A-A5 had desensitization rates at least an order of magnitude faster than WT. The one Ala loop construct, 5-HT3A-A1, entered a non-functional state from which it did not recover after the first 5-HT application. These results suggest that the large M3M4 loop of eukaryotic Cys-loop channels is not required for receptor assembly or function. However, loop length and amino acid composition can effect channel expression and desensitization. We infer that the cytoplasmic ends of the M3 and M4 segments may undergo conformational changes during channel gating and desensitization and/or the loop may influence the position and mobility of these segments as they undergo gating-induced conformational changes. Altering structure or conformational mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of M3 and M4 may be the basis by which phosphorylation or protein binding to the cytoplasmic loop alters channel function. PMID:22539982

  15. Piperazine analogs of naphthyridine-3-carboxamides and indole-2-carboxamides: novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with antidepressant-like activity.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arghya K; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2015-01-01

    Series of piperazine analogs of naphthyridine-3-carboxamides and indole-2-carboxamides were designed using a ligand-based approach with consideration of the pharmacophoric requirements for 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The title carboxamides were synthesized using appropriate synthetic routes. Initially, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonistic activity of all the compounds was determined on isolated guinea pig ileum tissue against the 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, which was denoted in the form of pA2 values. The structure-activity relationship regarding the influence of the aromatic part and basic moiety as features in the 5-HT3 pharmacophore was derived. Among all the compounds screened, the piperazine derivatives of indole-2-carboxamide 13i and naphthyridine-3-carboxamide 8h exhibited prominent 5-HT3 receptor antagonism with pA2 values of 7.5 and 7.3, respectively. Subsequent investigation of the antidepressant activities of selected compounds in the mouse forced swim test (FST) led to the identification of the piperazine analogs of indole-2-carboxamide 13i and naphthyridine-3-carboxamide 8h as the most promising compounds. Both 13i and 8h demonstrated significant reduction in the duration of immobility as compared to the control. Importantly, none of the tested compounds affected the baseline locomotion of mice at the tested dose levels.

  16. Ethanol fails to modify [3H]GR65630 binding to 5-HT3 receptors in NCB-20 cells and in rat cerebral membranes.

    PubMed

    Hellevuo, K; Hoffman, P L; Tabakoff, B

    1991-10-01

    Low concentrations of ethanol have been found to enhance the electrophysiologic effect of serotonin (5-HT) acting at 5-HT3 receptors on NCB-20 cells. To determine whether this action of ethanol reflects a change in the agonist-receptor interaction, the effect of ethanol (100 mM) on agonist and antagonist binding to 5-HT3 receptor was studied in vitro in membrane from NCB-20 cells and from cortex plus hippocampus of rat. The antagonist [3H]GR65630 was used to label 5-HT3 recognition sites. Ethanol did not change the characteristics of saturable [3H]GR65630 binding in either membrane preparation. In competition studies, the agonists 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT completely inhibited the binding of [3H]GR65630 to NCB-20 cell membranes, while in brain membranes the maximum displacement of specific [3H]GR65630 binding by 5-HT was approximately 30%. Ethanol decreased the affinity of the receptor for 2-methyl-5-HT, but not to 5-HT in NCB-20 cells, and had no effect on agonist binding in brain membranes. The results indicate that enhancement of 5-HT responses at 5-HT3 receptors by ethanol is not a result of changes in the equilibrium binding characteristics of the agonist.

  17. Design, synthesis and evaluation of antidepressant activity of novel 2-methoxy 1, 8 naphthyridine 3-carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Dhar, Arghya Kusum; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2014-05-01

    A series of novel 1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists were synthesized with an intention to explore the antidepressant activity of these compounds. The title carboxamides were designed using ligand-based approach keeping in consideration the structural requirement of the pharmacophore of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The compounds were synthesized using appropriate synthetic route from the starting material nicotinamide. 5-HT3 receptor antagonism of all the compounds, which was denoted in the form of pA2 value, was determined in longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus preparation from guinea-pig ileum against 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT. Compound 8g (2-methoxy-1, 8-naphthyridin-3-yl) (2-methoxy phenyl piperazine-1-yl) methanone was identified as the most active compound, which expressed a pA2 value of 7.67. The antidepressant activity of all the compounds was examined in mice model of forced swim test (FST); importantly, none of the compounds was found to cause any significant changes in the locomotor activity of mice at the tested dose levels. In FST, the compounds with considerably higher pA2 value exhibited promising antidepressant-like activity, whereas compounds with lower pA2 value did not show antidepressant-like activity as compared to the control group.

  18. Antidepressant Potential of 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonist, N-n- propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n)

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, R; Bhatt, S; Devadoss, T; Jindal, AK; Gautam, BK; Pandey, DK

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-n-propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n). The compound ‘6n’ with optimum log P and pA2 value identified from a series of compounds synthesized in our laboratory was subjected to forced Swim Test (FST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.). The compound ‘6n’ significantly reduced the duration of immobility in mice without affecting the baseline locomotion. Moreover, ‘6n’ (2 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch responses in mice and ‘6n’ at tested dose (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the reserpine-induced hypothermia in rats. In interaction studies of ‘6n’ with various standard drugs/ligands using FST, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) influenced the effect of harmane (5 mg/ kg, i.p.) as well as reversed the effect of parthenolide (1 mg/kg, i.p.) by reducing the duration of immobility in FST. Furthermore, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effect of bupropion (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) in TST. Chronic ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment attenuated the behavioral abnormalities in olfactory bulbectomized rats. In conclusion, these various findings reiterated the antidepressant-like effects of ‘6n’ in behavioral models of depression. PMID:23493308

  19. Effects of ginger constituents on the gastrointestinal tract: role of cholinergic M3 and serotonergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pertz, Heinz H; Lehmann, Jochen; Roth-Ehrang, René; Elz, Sigurd

    2011-07-01

    The herbal drug ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) may be effective for treating nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypomotility. In these conditions, cholinergic M (3) receptors and serotonergic 5-HT (3) and 5-HT (4) receptors are involved. The major chemical constituents of ginger are [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol. We studied the interaction of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol (racemates), and [6]-shogaol with guinea pig M (3) receptors, guinea pig 5-HT (3) receptors, and rat 5-HT (4) receptors. In whole segments of guinea pig ileum (bioassay for contractile M (3) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol slightly but significantly depressed the maximal carbachol response at an antagonist concentration of 10 µM. In the guinea pig myenteric plexus preparation (bioassay for contractile 5-HT (3) receptors), 5-HT maximal responses were depressed by [10]-gingerol from 93 ± 3 % to 65 ± 6 % at an antagonist concentration of 3 µM and to 48 ± 3 % at an antagonist concentration of 5 µM following desensitization of 5-HT (4) receptors and blockade of 5-HT (1) and 5-HT (2) receptors. [6]-Shogaol (3 µM) induced depression to 61 ± 3 %. In rat esophageal tunica muscularis mucosae (bioassay for relaxant 5-HT (4) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol (2-6.3 µM) showed no agonist effects. The maximal 5-HT response remained unaffected in the presence of the compounds. It is concluded that the efficiency of ginger in reducing nausea and vomiting may be based on a weak inhibitory effect of gingerols and shogaols at M (3) and 5-HT (3) receptors. 5-HT (4) receptors, which play a role in gastroduodenal motility, appear not to be involved in the action of these compounds. PMID:21305447

  20. Pharmacological characterization of RS 25259-197, a novel and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R M; Lee, C H; Smith, W L; Johnson, L G; Clark, R; Whiting, R L; Hegde, S S

    1995-01-01

    1. The pharmacological effects in vivo, of RS 25259-197, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, have been investigated. 2. In anaesthetized rats, RS 25259-197, administered by the intravenous, intraduodenal or transdermal route, dose-dependently inhibited the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex induced by 2-methyl 5-HT (ID50 = 0.04 micrograms kg-1, i.v., 3.2 micrograms kg-1, i.d. and 32.8 micrograms per chamber, respectively). In this regard, when administered intraduodenally, RS 25259-197 was more potent and exhibited a longer duration of action than either ondansetron or granisetron. 3. In conscious ferrets, RS 25259-197, administered intravenously or orally, dose-dependently inhibited emesis induced by cisplatin. The ID50 estimates of RS 25259-197 were 1.1 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 3.2 micrograms kg-1, p.o. In this respect, RS 25259-197 was more potent than ondansetron and equipotent with granisetron. 4. In conscious dogs, RS 25259-197, administered intravenously or orally, dose-dependently inhibited emesis induced by cisplatin (ID50 = 1.9 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 8.5 micrograms kg-1, p.o.), dacarbazine (ID50 = 4.1 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 9.7 micrograms kg-1, p.o.), actinomycin D (ID50 = 4.9 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 2.5 micrograms kg-1, p.o.) and mechlorethamine (ID50 = 4.4 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 3.0 micrograms kg-1, p.o.). Against each of the emetogenic agents, RS 25259-197 was very much more potent than ondansetron. When tested at equi-effective intravenous doses against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs, RS 25259-197 had a longer duration of anti-emetic activity (7 h) than ondansetron (4 h).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7773547

  1. Partial role of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in the activity of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Redrobe, J P; Bourin, M

    1997-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the roles of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in the mouse forced swimming test, by using selective agonists and antagonists of 5-HT(2A/C) and 5-HT3 receptor sites. Agonists/antagonists and antidepressants were administered 45 min and 30 min, respectively, prior to testing. Pretreatment with (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) (4 mg/kg, i.p.) or 2-methyl-5-HT (4 mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on the anti-immobility effects of any antidepressant tested. Prior administration of ritanserin (4 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketanserin (8 mg/kg, i.p.), on the other hand, potentiated the effects of sub-active doses of imipramine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) and desipramine (16 mg/kg, i.p.) but not of maprotiline (8 mg/kg, i.p.), fluoxetine (16 mg/kg, i.p.), citalopram (16 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluvoxamine (8 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment with ondansetron (1 X 10(-5) mg/kg, i.p.) enhanced the antidepressant-like effects of sub-active doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The results of the present study suggested that, in the forced swimming test, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act partially through 5-HT3 receptor sites, whereas the tricyclic antidepressants exert effects at 5-HT(2A/C) receptor sites. Anti-immobility effects of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, maprotiline, do not seem to be mediated by 5-HT(2A/C) or 5-HT3 receptor function.

  2. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ICS 205-930 and GR38032F, putative anxiolytic drugs, differ from diazepam in their pharmacological profile.

    PubMed

    Papp, M; Przegalinski, E

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacological profile of the two 5-HT(3) (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor antagonists, the putative anxiolytics ICS 205-930 and GR38032F was compared with that of diazepam in four standard behavioural tests in rats. All the investigated drugs induced an anxiolytic effect in the passive avoidance test, having reduced the latency to re-enter the chamber previously associated with an inescapable footshock, and increased the time spent in that chamber. On the basis of the lowest effective dose, both ICS 205-930 and GR38032F were about 20 times more potent than diazepam, though the anxiolytic activity of either 5- HT(3) receptor antagonist was confined to a narrow dose range (ICS 205-930: 93.7-187.5 μg/ kg, GR38032F: 125-375 μg/kg), their higher doses having been ineffective. The anxiolytic effect of diazepam, but not of ICS 205-930, was abolished by flumazenil. In contrast to diazepam, neither ICS 205-930 nor GR38032F-both given in doses up to 20 mg/kg-showed any activity in the pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, open field, and rota-rod tests. These results suggest that the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists may represent a new class of anxiolytic drugs devoid of anticonvulsant, sedative or muscle-relaxant properties, and that their anxi olytic activity is not mediated by benzodiazepine receptors.

  3. Inhibitory modulation of chemoreflex bradycardia by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus is mediated by 5-HT3 receptors in the NTS of awake rats.

    PubMed

    Weissheimer, Karin Viana; Machado, Benedito H

    2007-03-30

    Several studies demonstrated the involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its different receptor subtypes in the modulation of neurotransmission of cardiovascular reflexes in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Moreover, anatomic evidence suggests that nucleus raphe obscurus (ROb) is a source of 5-HT-containing terminals within the NTS. In the present study we investigated the possible changes in the cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreceptor activation by potassium cyanide (KCN, i.v.) following ROb stimulation with L-glutamate (10 nmol/50 nL) and also whether 5-HT3 receptors in the caudal commissural NTS are involved in this neuromodulation. The results showed that stimulation of the ROb with L-glutamate in awake rats (n=15) produced a significant reduction in the bradycardic response 30 s after the microinjection (-182+/-19 vs -236+/-10 bpm; Wilcoxon test) but no changes in the pressor response to peripheral chemoreceptor activation (43+/-4 vs 51+/-3 mmHg; two-way ANOVA) in relation to the control. Microinjection of 5--HT3 receptors antagonist granisetron (500 pmol/50 nL), but not the vehicle, into the caudal commissural NTS bilaterally prevented the reduction of chemoreflex bradycardia in response to microinjection of L-glutamate into ROb. These data indicate that 5-HT-containing projections from ROb to the NTS play an inhibitory neuromodulatory role in the chemoreflex evoked bradycardia by releasing 5-HT and activating 5-HT3 receptors in the caudal NTS.

  4. Regulation of the 5-HT3A receptor-mediated current by alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ui Joung; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoo Jin; Nam, Joo Won; Bae, Hyunsu; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2010-09-01

    Four known alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates, i.e., methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (1), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (2), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (3), and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (4), were isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner (Nymphaeaceae) for the first time. The structures of the isolates were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and comparison with published values. The compounds were evaluated for their effects on the 5-HT-stimulated inward current (I(5-HT)) mediated by the human 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 enhanced the I(5-HT), but 4 reduced it. These results indicate that 4 is an inhibitor of the 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

  5. Regulation of the 5-HT3A receptor-mediated current by alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ui Joung; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoo Jin; Nam, Joo Won; Bae, Hyunsu; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2010-09-01

    Four known alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates, i.e., methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (1), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (2), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (3), and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (4), were isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner (Nymphaeaceae) for the first time. The structures of the isolates were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and comparison with published values. The compounds were evaluated for their effects on the 5-HT-stimulated inward current (I(5-HT)) mediated by the human 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 enhanced the I(5-HT), but 4 reduced it. These results indicate that 4 is an inhibitor of the 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:20860031

  6. Pharmacological evaluation of novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, QCM-13 (N-cyclohexyl-3-methoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide) as anti-anxiety agent in behavioral test battery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Thangaraj, Devadoss; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the last few decades, serotonin type-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been identified as potential targets for anxiety disorders. In preclinical studies, 5-HT3 antagonists have shown promising antianxiety effects. In this study, a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, QCM-13(N-cyclohexyl-3-methoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide) was evaluated for anxiolytic-like activity in rodent behavioral test battery. Materials and Methods: Mice were given QCM-13 (2 and 4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) or diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle and after 30 min, mice were subjected to four validated behavioral test batteries viz. elevated plus maze, hole board, light-dark and open field tests. Interaction study of QCM-13 with m-chlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP) (mCPP, a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and buspirone (BUS, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) were performed to assess the pharmacological mechanism of the drug. Results: QCM-13 expressed potential anxiolytic effect with significant (P < 0.05) increase in behavioral parameters measured in aforementioned preliminary models. Besides, QCM-13 was unable to reverse the anxiogenic effect of mCPP, but potentiated anxiolytic affect of BUS. Conclusion: The results suggest that QCM-13 can be a potential therapeutic candidate for the management of anxiety-like disorders and combination doses of novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with standard anxiolytics may improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25883513

  7. 5HT3 receptor antagonist (ondansetron) reverses depressive behavior evoked by chronic unpredictable stress in mice: modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and brain serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2014-09-01

    Chronic stress is one of the major causes of depression, associated with behavioral and biochemical impairments. 5HT3 receptor antagonists (such as ondansetron) have shown alleviation of depressive symptomology in preclinical and in few clinical studies. However, their effects in chronic stress-induced depressive behavior and the underlying mechanism(s) are yet to be known. In the present study, the effects of a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron were evaluated in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-evoked depressive behavior. In addition, the possible mechanism was determined by measuring plasma corticosterone (CORT) as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis activity and serotonin levels in the discrete brain regions. Mice were subjected to a battery of unpredictable stressors for 28 days. Ondansetron (0.05, 0.1 and 1mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o.) were administered during the last 14 days (day 15-28th) of CUS testing paradigm. The results showed that the 4-week CUS produced significant depressive behavior in mice, which included increased despair effects in forced swim test (FST) and reward-related deficits in sucrose preference test. Biochemical assays demonstrated a significant increase in percentage of plasma CORT and decrease in percentage of serotonin levels in the discrete brain regions of CUS mice. Chronic ondansetron treatment, similar to that of positive control fluoxetine, significantly reversed despair effects in FST and reward-related deficits in sucrose preference test. In addition, ondansetron and fluoxetine treatments significantly increased percentage of serotonin levels in the measured brain regions and attenuated HPA-axis hyperactivity, as evidenced by low percentage of plasma CORT levels in CUS mice. These findings indicate the potential role of ondansetron (a 5HT3 receptor antagonist) in reversing CUS-induced depressive behavior, which is possibly mediated by its modulating effects on the HPA-axis and

  8. Comparison of the effects of trimebutine and YM114 (KAE-393), a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on stress-induced defecation.

    PubMed

    Miyata, K; Ito, H; Yamano, M; Hidaka, K; Kamato, T; Nishida, A; Yuki, H

    1993-12-01

    YM114 (KAE-393), (R)-5-[(2,3-dihydro-1-indolyl)carbonyl]-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-1H-benzimidazole hydrochloride, is a derivative of YM060, a potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. We investigated the effects of YM114 on 5-HT3 receptors, both in vitro and in vivo, and on bowel dysfunction induced by restraint stress, 5-HT and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and compared them with the effect of trimebutine. YM114 dose dependently inhibited the reduction in heart rate induced by 5-HT (30 micrograms/kg i.v.) in rats (ED50 = 0.31 micrograms/kg i.v.), and the potency of YM114 was almost the same as that of the racemate. The S-form of YM114 also inhibited 5-HT-induced bradycardia, but 1350 times less potent than the R-form. YM114 and its S-form inhibited [3H]GR65630 binding to N1E-115 cell membranes in a concentration-dependent manner with Ki values of 0.341 and 616 nM, respectively, showing the isomeric activity ratio (R-/S-form) of YM114 to be much greater (1800). YM114 antagonized 5-HT-induced depolarization of the nodose ganglion (EC50 = 1.39 nM). Trimebutine (1 mg/kg i.v.) failed to inhibit 5-HT-induced bradycardia, implying that it does not possess 5-HT3 receptor antagonistic activity. YM114 significantly and dose dependently prevented restraint stress-, 5-HT- and TRH-induced increases in fecal pellet output, and restraint stress- and 5-HT-induced diarrhea in rats and mice (ED50 = 6.9, 72.5, 154.6, 9.7 and 52.4 micrograms/kg p.o., respectively). Trimebutine significantly prevented stress- and 5-HT-induced diarrhea (ED50 = 29.4 and 87.3 mg/kg p.o., respectively), but only partially affected stress-, 5-HT- and TRH-induced increases in fecal pellet output. Thus, YM114 is a potent and stereoselective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with much greater protective effects against stress-induced defecation than trimebutine. PMID:8112388

  9. Fluvoxamine increased glutamate release by activating both 5-HT(3) and sigma-1 receptors in prelimbic cortex of chronic restraint stress C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingmei; Yu, Shunying; Guo, Xiaoyun; Li, Xia; Li, Ting; Li, Huafang; Dong, Yi

    2012-04-01

    Emerging evidence from therapeutic trials in humans and animal models suggests that in the treatment of depression, antidepressants play a role by targeting the glutamatergic system. Fluvoxamine is one of the widely used SSRIs which has been considered to target monoamine neurotransmitter reuptake mechanisms. However, whether fluvoxamine has an effect on the glutamate release is still unclear. The present experiment studied the effect of fluvoxamine on presynaptic glutamate release in prelimbic cortex, both in control C57BL/6 mice and chronic restraint stress C57BL/6 mice, and further investigated the mechanism underlying this effect by using patch clamp, on-line fluorimetry, pharmacological approaches combined with other techniques. The results showed that fluvoxamine increased the glutamate release in the depression model mice but it had no effect on the glutamate release in the control mice. The mechanism underlying these effects in depression model mice was that, fluvoxamine firstly activated presynaptic 5-HT(3) receptors, which transiently increased the Ca(2+) concentration. The increase of Ca(2+) concentration via 5-HT(3) receptors caused the activation of sigma-1 receptors, which were activated by fluvoxamine. The activation of sigma-1 receptors increased the intrasynaptosomal Ca(2+) concentration significantly through the outflow of endoplasmic reticulum calcium and finally activated PKC. These results suggested that fluvoxamine may have a selective effect and different mechanism based on the condition of animal. PMID:22306004

  10. The efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after craniotomy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Susan M; Newburn-Cook, Christine V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting in neurosurgical patients at 24 and 48+ hours. After a systematic search, 7 published randomized placebo controlled trials involving 448 craniotomy patients (222 treatment, 226 control) were included in the meta-analysis. Study drugs included ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron. The cumulative incidence of emesis was significantly reduced in the treatment group at 24 hours [relative risk (RR)=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.66] and 48+ hours (RR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.36-0.75). There were no differences between the treatment and control groups in the cumulative incidence of nausea at 24 hours (RR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.54-1.06) and 48+ hours (RR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.62-1.06). The cumulative incidence of both nausea and vomiting continued to increase after 24 hours in both groups. Despite the ability of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists to reduce emetic episodes, future investigations should seek to address the control of postoperative nausea and to reduce further postoperative emesis in this population. PMID:17198095

  11. Serotonin homeostasis and serotonin receptors as actors of cortical construction: special attention to the 5-HT3A and 5-HT6 receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Vitalis, Tania; Ansorge, Mark S.; Dayer, Alexandre G.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical circuits control higher-order cognitive processes and their function is highly dependent on their structure that emerges during development. The construction of cortical circuits involves the coordinated interplay between different types of cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural and glial cell subtypes. Among the multiple factors that regulate the assembly of cortical circuits, 5-HT is an important developmental signal that impacts on a broad diversity of cellular processes. 5-HT is detected at the onset of embryonic telencephalic formation and a variety of serotonergic receptors are dynamically expressed in the embryonic developing cortex in a region and cell-type specific manner. Among these receptors, the ionotropic 5-HT3A receptor and the metabotropic 5-HT6 receptor have recently been identified as novel serotonergic targets regulating different aspects of cortical construction including neuronal migration and dendritic differentiation. In this review, we focus on the developmental impact of serotonergic systems on the construction of cortical circuits and discuss their potential role in programming risk for human psychiatric disorders. PMID:23801939

  12. X-ray analysis of the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on gastrointestinal motility in rats repeatedly treated with the antitumoral drug cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Vera, Gema; López-Pérez, Ana Esther; Martínez-Villaluenga, María; Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Abalo, Raquel

    2014-08-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is associated with the development of numerous adverse effects, including nausea, emesis and other alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) motility. The administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists has provided a clinical advance in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced vomiting but these drugs lose efficacy throughout chronic treatment. The effects of these drugs in experimental animals under chronic administration are not well known. Our aim was to study, using radiographic methods, the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on GI dysmotility induced in the rat by repeated cisplatin administration. First, invasive methods were used to select a dose of granisetron capable of reducing increased stomach weight due to acute cisplatin administration (6 mg/kg, ip). Second, rats received two intraperitoneal (ip) injections once a week for 4 weeks: granisetron (1 mg/kg, ip) or saline and, thirty min later, saline or cisplatin (2 mg/kg, ip). Body weight gain was measured throughout treatment. Radiological techniques were used to determine the acute (after first dose) and chronic (after last dose) effects of cisplatin and/or granisetron on GI motility. Repeated cisplatin-induced weight loss which granisetron did not prevent. Gastric emptying was delayed after the first cisplatin administration. Granisetron completely prevented this effect. After weekly administration, cisplatin-induced gastric dysmotility was enhanced and granisetron was not capable of completely preventing this effect. Granisetron prevents gastric emptying alterations, but its efficacy decreases throughout antineoplastic treatment. This might be due to the enhanced effect of cisplatin. PMID:24798399

  13. Effect of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist 4i, in corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2015-04-01

    Stress in our daily life severely affects the normal physiology of the biological system. Dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the development of depression-like behavior, which remains under diagnosed and poorly treated. Exogenous corticosterone (CORT) administration has been demonstrated to develop a depression model, which has shown to mimic HPA-axis induced depression-like state in rodents. In the present study, the effect of a novel 5HT3 receptor, 4i was examined on CORT induced depression in mice. CORT (30mg/kg, subcutaneously) was given for 4-weeks to mice in control group, while mice in drug treated group were given 4i (0.5-1mg/kg, intraperitoneally)/fluoxetine (as a positive control, 10mg/kg), for the last 2-weeks of CORT dosing. Repeated CORT dosing caused depression-like behavior in mice as indicated by increased despair effects in forced swim test (FST) and anhedonia in sucrose preference test. In addition, CORT administration induced oxidative load in the brain with significant increase in pro-oxidant (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) markers and a substantial decline in anti-oxidant defense (catalase and reduced glutathione levels) system, indicating a direct effect of stress hormones in the induction of the brain oxidative damage. On the other hand, 4i and fluoxetine treatment reversed the CORT induced depressive-like deficits. Furthermore, 4i and fluoxetine prevented CORT induced oxidative brain insults, which may plausibly demonstrate one of the key mechanisms for antidepressant-like effects of the compounds. Thus, the study suggests that 5HT3 antagonist; 4i may be implicated as pharmacological intervention targeting depressive-like anomaly associated with HPA-axis dysregulation.

  14. Effects of serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on stress-induced colonic hyperalgesia and diarrhoea in rats: a comparative study with opioid receptor agonists, a muscarinic receptor antagonist and a synthetic polymer.

    PubMed

    Hirata, T; Keto, Y; Nakata, M; Takeuchi, A; Funatsu, T; Akuzawa, S; Sasamata, M; Miyata, K

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of serotonin (5-HT)3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs) including ramosetron, alosetron, and cilansetron on colonic nociceptive threshold in rats. Furthermore, we established a restraint stress-induced colonic hyperalgesia model in rats, and compared the inhibitory effects of 5-HT3RAs on restraint stress-induced colonic hyperalgesia and diarrhoea with those of loperamide, trimebutine, tiquizium and polycarbophil. The colonic nociceptive threshold was measured as the balloon pressure at the time the rat showed a nociceptive response during colonic distension by an intrarectally inserted balloon. Oral administration of ramosetron (3-30 microg kg(-1)), alosetron (30-300 microg kg(-1)), or cilansetron (30-300 microg kg(-1)) increased the colonic nociceptive threshold in a dose-dependent manner in non-stressed rats. Restraint stress for 1 h significantly decreased the colonic nociceptive threshold, but ramosetron (0.3-3 microg kg(-1)), alosetron (3-30 microg kg(-1)), cilansetron (3-30 microg kg(-1)) and trimebutine (100-1000 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited the decrease in the threshold. Loperamide (3-30 mg kg(-1)), tiquizium (100-1000 mg kg(-1)) and polycarbophil (1000 mg kg(-1)) did not affect the restraint stress-induced decrease in the colonic nociceptive threshold. All drugs tested in this study showed dose-dependent inhibition of restraint stress-induced diarrhoea in rats. These results indicate that, unlike existing antidiarrhoeal and spasmolytic agents, 5-HT3RAs have inhibitory effects on colonic nociception, and prevented restraint stress-induced both diarrhoea and hyperalgesia at almost the same doses in rats. This suggests that the 5-HT3RAs may be useful in ameliorating both colonic hyperalgesia and diarrhoea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:18221252

  15. Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor-Mediated Vomiting Occurs via the Activation of Ca2+/CaMKII-Dependent ERK1/2 Signaling in the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Weixia; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) by 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, can induce vomiting. However, downstream signaling pathways for the induced emesis remain unknown. The 5-HT3R channel has high permeability to extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and upon stimulation allows increased Ca2+ influx. We examined the contribution of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (Ca2+/CaMKIIα), interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling to 2-Me-5-HT-induced emesis in the least shrew. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found that 2-Me-5-HT augments intracellular Ca2+ levels in brainstem slices and that the selective 5-HT3R antagonist palonosetron, can abolish the induced Ca2+ signaling. Pre-treatment of shrews with either: i) amlodipine, an antagonist of L-type Ca2+ channels present on the cell membrane; ii) dantrolene, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Ca2+-release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); iii) a combination of their less-effective doses; or iv) inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059); dose-dependently suppressed emesis caused by 2-Me-5-HT. Administration of 2-Me-5-HT also significantly: i) enhanced the interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin in the brainstem as revealed by immunoprecipitation, as well as their colocalization in the area postrema (brainstem) and small intestine by immunohistochemistry; and ii) activated CaMKIIα in brainstem and in isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These effects were suppressed by palonosetron. 2-Me-5-HT also activated ERK1/2 in brainstem, which was abrogated by palonosetron, KN93, PD98059, amlodipine, dantrolene, or a combination of amlodipine plus dantrolene. However, blockade of ER inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptors by 2-APB, had no significant effect on the discussed behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study demonstrates

  16. Acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron, reduces immobility in intact female rats exposed to the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Gabriela; Maswood, Sharmin

    2006-10-01

    The effects of tropisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, were evaluated in adult Fischer female rats exposed to the Forced Swim Test (FST). Rats selected on the days of proestrus or estrus was immersed in a cylinder of water for 2 consecutive days. Rats were exposed to the FST for 15 min on day 1 (pretest), followed by a 5-min session (test), 24 h later. The proestrous-estrous group consisted of rats that were exposed to the FST on their proestrous stage (pretest); then 24 h later the same rats were exposed to the FST on their estrous stage (test). Rats in the estrous-diestrous group were exposed to the FST on their estrous stage (pretest) and 24 h later on their diestrous stage (test). Rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline or 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg tropisetron 30 min prior to exposure to the cylinder on the test day. Immobility, swimming, and struggling behaviors were scored for 5 min. There was a significant decline in immobility after treatment with 2.0 mg/kg tropisetron in both groups. In addition, a significant decline in swimming was observed in the estrous rats (proestrous-estrous group) after treatment with 2.0 mg/kg tropisetron. There were no significant effects of tropisetron on struggling in any groups examined.

  17. A retrospective study of R-CHOP/CHOP therapy-induced nausea and vomiting in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: a comparison of intravenous and oral 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kumanomidou, Satoshi; Takami, Saki; Okada, Takahiro; Adachi, Koji; Jo, Yumi; Ikejiri, Fumiyoshi; Onishi, Chie; Kawakami, Koshi; Miyake, Takaaki; Inoue, Masaya; Moriyama, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Suzumiya, Junji

    2016-09-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a serious problem for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The CHOP regimen is the standard treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and is categorized as highly or moderately emetogenic in the CINV guidelines. The efficacy of oral 5-HT3 receptor antagonists is equivalent to that of the intravenous form in patients with solid tumors, but there is no clear comparative data for the use of these agents NHL patients receiving CHOP. We analyzed retrospective CINV data from medical records of 72 NHL patients who received CHOP or rituximab-combined CHOP therapy (R-CHOP). All patients received 5-HT3 receptor antagonists alone for prevention of CINV; 39 of the patients received an intravenous form (mostly granisetron) and 33 an oral form (all ramosetron). Complete response (CR: defined as no vomiting and no rescue therapy) was observed in 58 of 72 patients (80.6 %) overall (0-120 h post-CHOP). The CR rate was not statistically different in patients treated with oral or intravenous 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (82.1 vs 78.8 %, P = 0.77). These findings suggest that oral 5-HT3 receptor antagonists represent a good alternative to intravenous forms in NHL receiving CHOP/R-CHOP chemotherapy. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal anti-emetic supportive therapy for NHL. PMID:27312042

  18. The effect of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale), its fractions and isolated compounds on the 5-HT3 receptor complex and the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Riyazi, A; Hensel, A; Bauer, K; Geissler, N; Schaaf, S; Verspohl, E J

    2007-04-01

    A contribution of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on inhabiting the 5-HT3 receptor complex had been shown. In the present study a possible interaction of some compounds of the volatile oil with the 5-HT3 receptor system expressed in N1E-115 cells and with the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum was investigated. The volatile oil was obtained by steam distillation and fractionated using a silica gel column resulting in five fractions. Compounds of the fractions were identified by GC-MS. The influence of the volatile oil, its fractions and pure components on serotonin-induced [14C]guanidinium influx into N1E-115 cells was measured indicating the inhibitory interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor channel system. Most potent inhibitors of cation influx were the volatile oil, fraction 4, beta-pinene, terpinolene, alpha-copaene and alpha-phellandrene. The volatile oil and fractions 1 and 4 were not able to significantly influence either serotonin (10 microM)-induced maximum contraction of the rat ileum or the second phase of the biphasic contraction 2.5 min after serotonin addition. However, beta-pinene, terpinolene and alpha-phellandrene reduced both contractions. In conclusion, the volatile oil and distinct compounds such as terpinolene, beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene interact with 5-HT3 receptor channel system and possess an antispasmodic effect at the rat ileum. PMID:17511060

  19. The efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative vomiting following craniotomy: two studies in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Susan M; Newburn-Cook, Christine V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the efficacy of prophylactic administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative vomiting (POV) in pediatric craniotomy patients at 24 hours. By updating a previously published systematic literature search, we found a recently published pediatric study to combine with the one already identified. The two published randomized placebo-controlled trials were combined for a total of 135 participants aged 2 to 20 (79 treatment and 56 controls). The only study drug was ondansetron. The combined relative risk (RR) of vomiting was not statistically significant in the treatment group compared to the control group (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.50-1.19). There was also no evidence of efficacy for ondansetron in reducing the use of rescue antiemetics in the treatment group compared to the control group (RR = .71; 95% CI: 0.34-1.49). While combining these randomized placebo-controlled trials did not show efficacy for ondansetron in preventing POV in craniotomy patients aged 2 to 20, a clinically significant effect cannot be excluded, as even the combined sample size remained small. Thus, there is no current evidence for or against this class of drugs for preventing POV in children after craniotomy, and clinical decision-making must be based on studies in other populations and clinical experience. Ongoing assessment of nausea and vomiting and ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of treatments in individual children and young adults remains an essential part of perianesthesia and postoperative neuroscience nursing. PMID:19397073

  20. Ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist reverses depression and anxiety-like behavior in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: possible implication of serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2014-12-01

    Increased prevalence and high comorbidity of depression-like mood disorders and diabetes have prompted investigation of new targets and potential contributing agents. There is considerable evidence supporting the inconsistent clinical efficacy and persistent undesirable effects of existing antidepressant therapy for depression associated with diabetes. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the effect of ondansetron, a selective 5HT3 receptor antagonist in attenuating depression and anxiety-like behavior comorbid with diabetes. Experimentally, Swiss albino mice were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg). After 8 weeks, diabetic mice received a single dose of vehicle/ondansetron (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.)/fluoxetine (the positive control, 10 mg/kg p.o.) for 28 days. Thereafter, behavioral studies were conducted to test depression-like behavior using forced swim test (FST) and anxiety-like deficits using hole-board and light-dark tests, followed by biochemical estimation of serotonin content in discrete brain regions. The results demonstrated that, STZ-induced diabetic mice exhibited increased duration of immobility and decreased swimming behavior in FST, reduced exploratory behavior during hole-board test and increased aversion to brightly illuminated light area in light-dark test as compared to non-diabetic mice, while ondansetron (similar to fluoxetine) treatment significantly reversed the same. Biochemical assay revealed that ondansetron administration attenuated diabetes-induced neurochemical impairment of serotonin function, indicated by elevated serotonin levels in discrete brain regions of diabetic mice. Collectively, the data indicate that ondansetron may reverse depression and anxiety-like behavioral deficits associated with diabetes in mice and modulation of serotonergic activity may be a key mechanism of the compound.

  1. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors and TTX resistant sodium channels (NaV1.8) on muscle nerve fibers in pain-free humans and patients with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that 5-HT3-antagonists reduce muscle pain, but there are no studies that have investigated the expression of 5-HT3-receptors in human muscles. Also, tetrodotoxin resistant voltage gated sodium-channels (NaV) are involved in peripheral sensitization and found in trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the rat masseter muscle. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nerve fibers that express 5-HT3A-receptors alone and in combination with NaV1.8 sodium-channels in human muscles and to compare it between healthy pain-free men and women, the pain-free masseter and tibialis anterior muscles, and patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and pain-free controls. Methods Three microbiopsies were obtained from the most bulky part of the tibialis and masseter muscles of seven and six healthy men and seven and six age-matched healthy women, respectively, while traditional open biopsies were obtained from the most painful spot of the masseter of five female patients and from a similar region of the masseter muscle of five healthy, age-matched women. The biopsies were processed by routine immunohistochemical methods. The biopsy sections were incubated with monoclonal antibodies against the specific axonal marker PGP 9.5, and polyclonal antibodies against the 5-HT3A-receptors and NaV1.8 sodium-channels. Results A similar percentage of nerve fibers in the healthy masseter (85.2%) and tibialis (88.7%) muscles expressed 5-HT3A-receptors. The expression of NaV1.8 by 5-HT3A positive nerve fibers associated with connective tissue was significantly higher than nerve fibers associated with myocytes (P < .001). In the patients, significantly more fibers per section were found with an average of 3.8 ± 3 fibers per section in the masseter muscle compared to 2.7 ± 0.2 in the healthy controls (P = .024). Further, the frequency of nerve fibers that co-expressed NaV1.8 and 5-HT3A receptors was significantly

  2. Dual role of serotonin in the acquisition and extinction of reward-driven learning: involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Hocht, Christian; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano; Rapanelli, Maximiliano

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been proposed as a possible encoder of reward. Nevertheless, the role of this neurotransmitter in reward-based tasks is not well understood. Given that the major serotonergic circuit in the rat brain comprises the dorsal raphe nuclei and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and because the latter structure is involved in the control of complex behaviors and expresses 1A (5-HT1A), 2A (5-HT2A), and 3 (5-HT3) receptors, the aim was to study the role of 5-HT and of these receptors in the acquisition and extinction of a reward-dependent operant conditioning task. Long Evans rats were trained in an operant conditioning task while receiving fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg), tianeptine (serotonin reuptake enhancer, 10mg/kg), buspirone (5-HT1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg), risperidone (5-HT2A antagonist, 1mg/kg), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 2mg/kg) or vehicle. Then, animals that acquired the operant conditioning without any treatment were trained to extinct the task in the presence of the pharmacological agents. Fluoxetine impaired acquisition but improved extinction. Tianeptine administration induced the opposite effects. Buspirone induced a mild deficit in acquisition and had no effects during the extinction phase. Risperidone administration resulted in learning deficits during the acquisition phase, although it promoted improved extinction. Ondansetron treatment showed a deleterious effect in the acquisition phase and an overall improvement in the extinction phase. These data showed a differential role of 5-HT in the acquisition and extinction of an operant conditioning task, suggesting that it may have a dual function in reward encoding. PMID:24949809

  3. Analysis of free ACh and 5-HT in milk from four different species and their bioactivity on 5-HT(3) and nACh receptors.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Limon, Agenor; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-07-25

    Milk is one of the most beneficial aliments and is highly recommended in normal conditions; however, in certain disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome, cow milk and dairy products worsen the gastric symptoms and their use is not recommended. Among the most recognized milk-induced gatrointestinal symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, which are processes controlled by cholinergic and serotonergic transmission. Whether the presence of bioavailable ACh and 5-HT in milk may contribute to normal peristalsis, or to the developing of these symptoms, is not known. In this work we attempt to determine whether the content of free ACh and 5-HT is of physiological significance in milk from four different species: cow (bovine), goat, camel and human. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify free ACh and 5-HT in milk, and activation of the serotonergic and cholinergic ionotropic receptors was investigated using electrophysiological experiments. Our principal hypothesis was that milk from these four species had sufficient free ACh and 5-HT to activate their correspondent receptors expressed in a heterologous system. Our results showed a more complex picture, in which free ACh and 5-HT and their ability to activate cholinergic and serotonergic receptors are not correlated. This work is a first step to elucidate whether 5-HT and ACh, at the concentrations present in the milk, can be associated to a direct function in the GI.

  4. Inhibitory effects of ramosetron, a potent and selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, on conditioned fear stress-induced abnormal defecation and normal defecation in rats: comparative studies with antidiarrheal and spasmolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takuya; Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Keto, Yoshihiro; Akuzawa, Shinobu; Sasamata, Masao; Miyata, Keiji

    2008-02-01

    We examined the effect of ramosetron, a potent serotonin (5-HT)(3)-receptor antagonist for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, on conditioned fear stress (CFS)-induced defecation and normal (non-stressed) defecation in rats and compared ramosetron with the antidiarrheal agent loperamide and the spasmolytic agents trimebutine and tiquizium. Ramosetron, loperamide, trimebutine, and tiquizium significantly inhibited CFS-induced defecation in a dose-dependent manner with ED(50) (95% confidence limit) values of 0.019 (0.01 - 0.028), 9.4 (4.0 - 22), 850 (520 - 2,400), and 300 (190 - 450) mg/kg, respectively. A significant effect of ramosetron on CFS-induced defecation appeared at 10 min after dosing and was sustained for 8 h. In contrast, loperamide, trimebutine, and tiquizium significantly inhibited CFS-induced defecation between 1 - 8, 1 - 4, and 1 - 8 h after administration, respectively. High doses of ramosetron did not affect normal defecation, whereas loperamide, trimebutine, and tiquizium significantly inhibited this process. In conclusion, ramosetron has potent, rapid-onset, and long-lasting inhibitory effects on CFS-induced defecation in rats, but does not influence normal defecation. The present findings indicate that ramosetron will be a useful therapeutic agent for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, showing greater efficacy and safety than other antidiarrheal and spasmolytic agents. PMID:18296863

  5. Short-term treatment of primary fibromyalgia with the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist tropisetron. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 418 patients.

    PubMed

    Färber, L; Stratz, T H; Brückle, W; Späth, M; Pongratz, D; Lautenschläger, J; Kötter, I; Zöller, B; Peter, H H; Neeck, G; Welzel, D; Müller, W

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of short-term treatment with tropisetron, a selective, competitive 5-HT3-receptor antagonist in fibromyalgia. The trial was designed as a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-finding study. We randomly assigned 418 patients suffering from primary fibromyalgia to receive either placebo, 5 mg, 10 mg or 15 mg tropisetron once daily for 10 days. Clinical response was measured by changes in pain score, visual analog scale, tender point count and ancillary symptoms. Responders were prospectively defined as patients showing a 35% or higher reduction in pain score. Treatment with 5 mg tropisetron resulted in a significantly higher response rate (39.2%) than placebo (26.2%) (p < 0.05). In the visual analog scale, the group administered 5 mg tropisetron showed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) and the group administered 10 mg tropisetron showed a nonsignificant clinical benefit. The number of painful tender points was significantly reduced (p = 0.002) in the 5 mg tropisetron group. Regarding ancillary symptoms, the 5 mg tropisetron group showed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in sleep and dizziness. The patients' overall assessment of efficacy was significantly higher for 5 mg (p = 0.016) and 10 mg (p = 0.002) tropisetron than for placebo. The safety and tolerability of tropisetron was good; gastrointestinal tract symptoms were the most frequently reported adverse events. Short-term treatment of fibromyalgia patients with 5 mg tropisetron for 10 days proved to be efficacious and well tolerated. In this study a bell-shaped dose-response curve was seen.

  6. Shuyu Capsules Relieve Premenstrual Syndrome Depression by Reducing 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR Expression in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Feng, Jizhen; Gao, Dongmei; Wang, Jieqiong; Song, Chunhong; Wei, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the Shuyu capsule on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression in a rat model of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) depression and on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and hippocampal neuron 5-HT3 channel current were investigated, to elucidate its mechanism of action against PMS depression. PMS depression model rats were divided into depression and Shuyu- and fluoxetine-treated groups, which were compared to control rats for frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and behavior. The depressed model rats displayed symptoms of depression, which were reduced in treated and normal control rats. Frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR levels were significantly higher in the model versus the control group and were significantly lower in the Shuyu group. As compared to control rats, the 5-HT3R channel current in the model group was significantly higher; the 5-HT3R channel current in hippocampal neurons treated with serum from Shuyu group rats was significantly lower than that in those treated with model group serum. Thus, PMS depression may be related to 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and increased 5-HT3 channel current. Shuyu capsules rectified abnormal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and 5-HT3 channel current changes in a rat model; this finding may provide insight into treating PMS depression. PMID:27725889

  7. Design and validation of a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence cell-based assay targeting the ligand-gated ion channel 5-HT3A.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Emilie; Wagner, Patrick; Plaisier, Fabrice; Schmitt, Martine; Durroux, Thierry; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Partiseti, Michel; Dupuis, Elodie; Bihel, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are considered as attractive protein targets in the search for new therapeutic agents. Nowadays, this strategy involves the capability to screen large chemical libraries. We present a new Tag-lite ligand binding assay targeting LGICs on living cells. This technology combines the use of suicide enzyme tags fused to channels of interest with homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) as the detection readout. Using the 5-HT3 receptor as system model, we showed that the pharmacology of the HALO-5HT3 receptor was identical to that of the native receptor. After validation of the assay by using 5-HT3 agonists and antagonists of reference, a pilot screen enabled us to identify azelastine, a well-known histamine H1 antagonist, as a potent 5-HT3 antagonist. This interesting result was confirmed with electrophysiological experiments. The method described here is easy to implement and could be applicable for other LGICs, opening new ways for the screening of chemical libraries. PMID:25998104

  8. Patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy: the influence of 5HT3 antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer-Dennert, M.; de Wit, R.; Schmitz, P. I.; Djontono, J.; v Beurden, V.; Stoter, G.; Verweij, J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, Coates conducted a survey that ranked the side-effects perceived by patients receiving chemotherapy in the order of their severity. Vomiting and nausea were found to be the two most distressing side-effects. They have an impact on quality of life and compliance with treatment. The development of 5HT3 antagonists has been a major step forward in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Presently, these antiemetics are routinely used as concomitant therapy in emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 5HT3 antagonists on patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy. Coates' survey was replicated in patients who received 5HT3 antagonists for acute nausea and vomiting resulting from emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients received the survey to identify those physical and non-physical side-effects that they attributed to chemotherapy and were asked to rank the five most distressing side-effects. Of the 197 patients who consented to take part in the study, 181 were evaluable. Nausea, hair loss and vomiting were described as the three most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy. Eighty per cent of all the patients actually experienced nausea and 57% experienced vomiting. Hair loss appeared to be more distressing to women (P < 0.001) but, in other aspects, gender, age and marital status did not influence the ranking of the three most distressing side-effects. Constipation was ranked as 6th and was not identified as a distressing side-effect in 1983. Nausea and vomiting remain to be the first and third most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy, even though the incidence and severity of acute nausea and vomiting are now significantly reduced. PMID:9376266

  9. The effect of intrahippocampal injections of ritanserin (5HT2A/2C antagonist) and granisetron (5HT3 antagonist) on learning as assessed in the spatial version of the water maze.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Nasser; Harooni, Hooman E

    2005-02-28

    5HT(2A/2C) and 5HT(3) receptors have an important role in cognitive behavior specially in spatial learning and memory but the literature concerning the role of these receptors in hippocampus in cognition remains controversial. In the present study a 5HT(2A/2C) antagonist ritanserin (0, 2, 4, 8 microg/0.5 microl) and a 5HT(3) antagonist granisetron (0.0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 microg/0.5 microl) were injected bilaterally into the CA1 region of rat hippocampus, 20 min before each training session in Morris Water Maze (MWM) task. Compare with control group, ritanserin (4 microg/0.5 microl) significantly reduced the escape latency and traveled distance of swimming to platform, but granisetron (0.25 microg/0.5 microl) significantly increased those parameters. Both drugs had no effect on escape latency and traveled distance of a non-spatial visual discrimination task. These results suggest a differential role of 5HT(2A/2C) and 5HT(3) receptors during spatial learning that ritanserin improves rat performance in spatial discrimination task whereas granisetron impairs it.

  10. Phenothiazine vs 5HT3 antagonist prophylactic regimens to prevent Post-Anesthesia Care Unit rescue antiemetic: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Joseph R.; Ensor, Joe E.; Lim, Jeffrey W.; Van Meter, Antoinette; Rahlfs, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our practitioners are asked to consider a patient’s postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk profile when developing their prophylactic antiemetic strategy. There is wide variation in employed strategies, and we have yet to determine the most effective PONV prophylactic regimen. The objective of this study is to compare prophylactic antiemetic regimens containing: phenothiazines to 5HT3 antagonists for effectiveness at reducing the incidence of Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) rescue antiemetic administration. Methods This is an observational study of 4,392 nonsmoking women who underwent general anesthesia for breast surgery from 1/1/2009 through 6/30/2012. Previous history of PONV or motion sickness (HxPONV/MS) and the use of PACU opioids were recorded. Prophylactic antiemetic therapy was left to the discretion of the anesthesia care team. We compared phenothiazines and 5HT3 antagonists alone and with a glucocorticoid to determine the most effective treatment regimen in our practice for the prevention of the administration of PACU rescue antiemetics. Results Patients who received a phenothiazine regimen compared to a 5HT3 antagonist regimen were less likely to have an antiemetic administered in the PACU (p=0.0100) and this significant difference in rates holds in a logistic regression model adjusted for HxPONV/MS and PACU Opioid use (p=0.0103). Conclusions Based on our findings our clinicians are encouraged to administer a combination of a phenothiazine and a glucocorticoid in female, nonsmoking surgical breast patients for the prevention of PACU rescue antiemetic administration. PMID:26635998

  11. Activation of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site.

    PubMed

    Lansdell, Stuart J; Sathyaprakash, Chaitra; Doward, Anne; Millar, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    In common with other members of the Cys-loop family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) are activated by the binding of a neurotransmitter to an extracellular orthosteric site, located at the interface of two adjacent receptor subunits. In addition, a variety of compounds have been identified that modulate agonist-evoked responses of 5-HT3Rs, and other Cys-loop receptors, by binding to distinct allosteric sites. In this study, we examined the pharmacological effects of a group of monoterpene compounds on recombinant 5-HT3Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Two phenolic monoterpenes (carvacrol and thymol) display allosteric agonist activity on human homomeric 5-HT3ARs (64 ± 7% and 80 ± 4% of the maximum response evoked by the endogenous orthosteric agonist 5-HT, respectively). In addition, at lower concentrations, where agonist effects are less apparent, carvacrol and thymol act as potentiators of responses evoked by submaximal concentrations of 5-HT. By contrast, carvacrol and thymol have no agonist or potentiating activity on the closely related mouse 5-HT3ARs. Using subunit chimeras containing regions of the human and mouse 5-HT3A subunits, and by use of site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified transmembrane amino acids that either abolish the agonist activity of carvacrol and thymol on human 5-HT3ARs or are able to confer this property on mouse 5-HT3ARs. By contrast, these mutations have no significant effect on orthosteric activation of 5-HT3ARs by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT3ARs can be activated by the binding of ligands to an allosteric transmembrane site, a conclusion that is supported by computer docking studies. PMID:25338672

  12. A cluster of novel serotonin receptor 3-like genes on human chromosome 3.

    PubMed

    Karnovsky, Alla M; Gotow, Lisa F; McKinley, Denise D; Piechan, Julie L; Ruble, Cara L; Mills, Cynthia J; Schellin, Kathleen A B; Slightom, Jerry L; Fitzgerald, Laura R; Benjamin, Christopher W; Roberds, Steven L

    2003-11-13

    The ligand-gated ion channel family includes receptors for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), acetylcholine, GABA, and glutamate. Drugs targeting subtypes of these receptors have proven useful for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. To identify new ligand-gated ion channels as potential therapeutic targets, drafts of human genome sequence were interrogated. Portions of four novel genes homologous to 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B) receptors were identified within human sequence databases. We named the genes 5-HT(3C1)-5-HT(3C4). Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping localized these genes to chromosome 3q27-28. All four genes shared similar intron-exon organizations and predicted protein secondary structure with 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B). Orthologous genes were detected by Southern blotting in several species including dog, cow, and chicken, but not in rodents, suggesting that these novel genes are not present in rodents or are very poorly conserved. Two of the novel genes are predicted to be pseudogenes, but two other genes are transcribed and spliced to form appropriate open reading frames. The 5-HT(3C1) transcript is expressed almost exclusively in small intestine and colon, suggesting a possible role in the serotonin-responsiveness of the gut.

  13. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-11-27

    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants. PMID:26456648

  14. The Staphylococcal Toxins γ-Hemolysin AB and CB Differentially Target Phagocytes by Employing Specific Chemokine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Spaan, András N.; Vrieling, Manouk; Wallet, Pierre; Badiou, Cédric; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Ohneck, Elizabeth A.; Benito, Yvonne; de Haas, Carla J.C.; Day, Christopher J.; Jennings, Michael P.; Lina, Gérard; Vandenesch, François; van Kessel, Kok P.M.; Torres, Victor J.; van Strijp, Jos A.G.; Henry, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Evasion of the host phagocyte response by Staphylococcus aureus is crucial to successful infection with the pathogen. γ-Hemolysin AB and CB (HlgAB, HlgCB) are bicomponent pore-forming toxins present in almost all human S. aureus isolates. Cellular tropism and contribution of the toxins to S. aureus pathophysiology are poorly understood. Here, we identify the chemokine receptors CXCR1, CXCR2 and CCR2 as targets for HlgAB, and the complement receptors C5aR and C5L2 as targets for HlgCB. The receptor expression patterns allow the toxins to efficiently and differentially target phagocytic cells. Murine neutrophils are resistant to HlgAB and HlgCB. CCR2 is the sole murine receptor orthologue compatible with γ-Hemolysin. In a murine peritonitis model, HlgAB contributes to S. aureus bacteremia in a CCR2-dependent manner. HlgAB-mediated targeting of CCR2+ cells highlights the involvement of inflammatory macrophages during S. aureus infection. Functional quantification identifies HlgAB and HlgCB as major secreted staphylococcal leukocidins. PMID:25384670

  15. Phosphoinositide system-linked serotonin receptor subtypes and their pharmacological properties and clinical correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, S C; Davis, J M; Pandey, G N

    1995-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission represents a complex mechanism involving pre- and post-synaptic events and distinct 5-HT receptor subtypes. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors have been classified into several categories, and they are termed as 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 type receptors. 5-HT1 receptors have been further subdivided into 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E and 5-HT1F. 5-HT2 receptors have been divided into 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors. All 5-HT2 receptor subtypes are linked to the multifunctional phosphoinositide (PI) signalling system. 5-HT3 receptors are considered ion-gated receptors and are also linked to the PI signalling system by an unknown mechanism. The 5-HT2A receptor subtype is the most widely studied of the 5-HT receptors in psychiatric disorders (for example, suicide, depression and schizophrenia) as well as in relation to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. The roles of 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors in psychiatric disorders are less clear. These 5-HT receptors also play an important role in alcoholism. It has been shown that 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 antagonists cause attenuation of alcohol intake in animals and humans. However, the exact mechanisms are unknown. The recent cloning of the cDNAs for 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors provides the opportunity to explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for the alterations in these receptors during illness as well as pharmacotherapy. This review article will focus on the current research into the pharmacological properties, molecular biology, and clinical correlates of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:7786883

  16. APN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac but not Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jizhen; Zhang, Min; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Guo, Yuyuan; Ni, Xinzhi; Li, Xianchun

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are phylogenetically divided into eight clusters, designated as APN1–8. Although APN1 has been implicated as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in several species, its potential role in the mode of action of Cry2Ab has not been functionally determined so far. To test whether APN1 also acts as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa zea and even for Cry2Ab in this species, we conducted a gain of function analysis by heterologously expressing H. zea APN1 (HzAPN1) in the midgut and fat body cell lines of H. zea and the ovarian cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and a loss of function analysis by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing of the endogenous APN1 in the three cell lines using the HzAPN1 double strand RNA (dsRNA). Heterologous expression of HzAPN1 significantly increased the susceptibility of the three cell lines to Cry1Ac, but had no effects on their susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Knocking down of the endogenous APN1 made the three cell lines resistant to Cry1Ac, but didn’t change cell lines susceptibility to Cry2Ab. The findings from this study demonstrate that HzAPN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but not Cry2Ab. PMID:26755166

  17. H/KDEL receptors mediate host cell intoxication by a viral A/B toxin in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Björn; Blum, Andrea; Gießelmann, Esther; Dausend, Julia; Rammo, Domenik; Müller, Nina C.; Tschacksch, Emilia; Steimer, Miriam; Spindler, Jenny; Becherer, Ute; Rettig, Jens; Breinig, Frank; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    A/B toxins such as cholera toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin and killer toxin K28 contain a KDEL-like amino acid motif at one of their subunits which ensures retrograde toxin transport through the secretory pathway of a target cell. As key step in host cell invasion, each toxin binds to distinct plasma membrane receptors that are utilized for cell entry. Despite intensive efforts, some of these receptors are still unknown. Here we identify the yeast H/KDEL receptor Erd2p as membrane receptor of K28, a viral A/B toxin carrying an HDEL motif at its cell binding β-subunit. While initial toxin binding to the yeast cell wall is unaffected in cells lacking Erd2p, binding to spheroplasts and in vivo toxicity strongly depend on the presence of Erd2p. Consistently, Erd2p is not restricted to membranes of the early secretory pathway but extends to the plasma membrane where it binds and internalizes HDEL-cargo such as K28 toxin, GFPHDEL and Kar2p. Since human KDEL receptors are fully functional in yeast and restore toxin sensitivity in the absence of endogenous Erd2p, toxin uptake by H/KDEL receptors at the cell surface might likewise contribute to the intoxication efficiency of A/B toxins carrying a KDEL-motif at their cytotoxic A-subunit(s). PMID:27493088

  18. H/KDEL receptors mediate host cell intoxication by a viral A/B toxin in yeast.

    PubMed

    Becker, Björn; Blum, Andrea; Gießelmann, Esther; Dausend, Julia; Rammo, Domenik; Müller, Nina C; Tschacksch, Emilia; Steimer, Miriam; Spindler, Jenny; Becherer, Ute; Rettig, Jens; Breinig, Frank; Schmitt, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    A/B toxins such as cholera toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin and killer toxin K28 contain a KDEL-like amino acid motif at one of their subunits which ensures retrograde toxin transport through the secretory pathway of a target cell. As key step in host cell invasion, each toxin binds to distinct plasma membrane receptors that are utilized for cell entry. Despite intensive efforts, some of these receptors are still unknown. Here we identify the yeast H/KDEL receptor Erd2p as membrane receptor of K28, a viral A/B toxin carrying an HDEL motif at its cell binding β-subunit. While initial toxin binding to the yeast cell wall is unaffected in cells lacking Erd2p, binding to spheroplasts and in vivo toxicity strongly depend on the presence of Erd2p. Consistently, Erd2p is not restricted to membranes of the early secretory pathway but extends to the plasma membrane where it binds and internalizes HDEL-cargo such as K28 toxin, GFP(HDEL) and Kar2p. Since human KDEL receptors are fully functional in yeast and restore toxin sensitivity in the absence of endogenous Erd2p, toxin uptake by H/KDEL receptors at the cell surface might likewise contribute to the intoxication efficiency of A/B toxins carrying a KDEL-motif at their cytotoxic A-subunit(s). PMID:27493088

  19. APN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac but not Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are phylogenetically divided into eight clusters, designated as APN1-8. Although APN1 has been implicated as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in several species, its potential role in the mode of action of Cry2Ab has not been functionally determined so fa...

  20. Inhibition of Stat5a/b enhances proteasomal degradation of androgen receptor liganded by antiandrogens in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, David T.; Gu, Lei; Liao, Zhiyong; Talati, Pooja G.; Shen, Feng; Koptyra, Mateusz; Tan, Shyh-Han; Ellsworth, Elyse; Gupta, Shilpa; Montie, Heather; Dagvadorj, Ayush; Savolainen, Saija; Leiby, Benjamin; Mirtti, Tuomas; Merry, Diane E.; Nevalainen, Marja T.

    2015-01-01

    Although poorly understood, androgen receptor (AR) signaling is sustained despite treatment of prostate cancer with antiandrogens and potentially underlies development of incurable castrate-resistant prostate cancer. However, therapies targeting the AR signaling axis eventually fail when prostate cancer progresses to the castrate-resistant stage. Stat5a/b, a candidate therapeutic target protein in prostate cancer, synergizes with AR to reciprocally enhance signaling of both proteins. In this work, we demonstrate that Stat5a/b sequesters antiandrogen-liganded (MDV3100, Bicalutamide, Flutamide) AR in prostate cancer cells and protects it against proteasomal degradation in prostate cancer. Active Stat5a/b increased nuclear levels of both unliganded and antiandrogen-liganded AR, as demonstrated in prostate cancer cell lines, xenograft tumors and clinical patient-derived prostate cancer samples. Physical interaction between Stat5a/b and AR in prostate cancer cells was mediated by the DNA-binding domain of Stat5a/b and the N-terminal domain of AR. Moreover, active Stat5a/b increased AR occupancy of the Prostate Specific Antigen promoter and AR-regulated gene expression in prostate cancer cells. Mechanistically, both Stat5a/b genetic knockdown and antiandrogen treatment induced proteasomal degradation of AR in prostate cancer cells, with combined inhibition of Stat5a/b and AR leading to maximal loss of AR protein and prostate cancer cell viability. Our results indicate that therapeutic targeting of AR in prostate cancer using antiandrogens may be substantially improved by targeting of Stat5a/b. PMID:25552366

  1. Expression of Serotonin Receptors in the Colonic Tissue of Chronic Diarrhea Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Juanjuan; Wan, Jiajia; Wang, Fengyun; Tang, Xudong; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the difference among the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors) in colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats. Materials and Methods: A rat model of chronic diarrhea was established by lactose diet. The expression of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the colonic tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Results: There is no significant difference on the protein expression of 5-HT3 receptor between the normal group and the chronic diarrhea model group. The mRNA expression of 5-HT3 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01). The protein and mRNA expression of 5-HT4 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.05, P < 0.01). On the contrary, the protein and mRNA expressions of 5-HT7 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly decreased compared with the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results suggested the receptors of 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 may be involved in inducing diarrhea by lactose diet. PMID:27184643

  2. Electrical interfacing of neurotransmitter receptor and field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peitz, I.; Fromherz, P.

    2009-10-01

    The interfacing of a ligand-gated ion channel to a transistor is studied. It relies on the transduction of ion current to a voltage in a cell-transistor junction. For the first time, a genetically modified cell is used without external driving voltage as applied by a patch-pipette. Using a core-coat conductor model, we show that an autonomous dynamics gives rise to a signal if a driving voltage is provided by potassium channels, and if current compensation is avoided by an inhomogeneous activation of channels. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we transfect HEK293 cells with the serotonin receptor 5-HT3A and the potassium channel Kv1.3. The interfacing is characterized under voltage-clamp with a negative transistor signal for activated 5-HT3A and a positive signal for activated Kv1.3. Without patch-pipette, a biphasic transient is induced by serotonin. The positive wave is assigned to 5-HT3A receptors in the free membrane that drive a potassium outward current through the adherent membrane. The negative wave is attributed to 5-HT3A receptors in the adherent membrane that are activated with a delay due to serotonin diffusion. The implementation of a receptor-cell-transistor device is a fundamental step in the development of biosensors that combine high specificity and universal microelectronic readout.

  3. Characterization of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating contraction in the pig isolated intravesical ureter

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Medardo; Barahona, María Victoria; Simonsen, Ulf; Recio, Paz; Rivera, Luis; Martínez, Ana Cristina; García-Sacristán, Albino; Orensanz, Luis M; Prieto, Dolores

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and to characterize the 5-HT receptors involved in 5-HT responses in the pig intravesical ureter. 5-HT (0.01–10 μM) concentration-dependently increased the tone of intravesical ureteral strips, whereas the increases in phasic contractions were concentration-independent. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist α-methyl 5-HT, mimicked the effect on tone whereas weak or no response was obtained with 5-CT, 8-OH-DPAT, m-chlorophenylbiguanide and RS 67333, 5-HT1, 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor agonists, respectively. 5-HT did not induce relaxation of U46619-contracted ureteral preparations. Pargyline (100 μM), a monoaminooxidase A/B activity inhibitor, produced leftward displacements of the concentration-response curves for 5-HT. 5-HT-induced tone was reduced by the 5-HT2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists ritanserine (0.1 μM) and spiperone (0.2 μM), respectively. However, 5-HT contraction was not antagonized by cyanopindolol (2 μM), SDZ–SER 082 (1 μM), Y-25130 (1 μM) and GR 113808 (0.1 μM), which are respectively, 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2B/2C, 5-HT3, and 5-HT4 selective receptor antagonists. Removal of the urothelium did not modify 5-HT-induced contractions. Blockade of neuronal voltage-activated sodium channels, α-adrenergic receptors and adrenergic neurotransmission with tetrodotoxin (1 μM), phentolamine (0.3 μM) and guanethidine (10 μM), respectively, reduced the contractions to 5-HT. However, physostigmine (1 μM), atropine (0.1 μM) and suramin (30 μM), inhibitors of cholinesterase activity, muscarinic- and purinergic P2-receptors, respectively, failed to modify the contractions to 5-HT. These results suggest that 5-HT increases the tone of the pig intravesical ureter through 5-HT2A receptors located at the smooth muscle. Part of the 5-HT contraction is indirectly mediated via noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerves. PMID:12522083

  4. Amino acid residues in the GerAB protein important in the function and assembly of the alanine spore germination receptor of Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gareth R; Moir, Anne

    2011-05-01

    The paradigm gerA operon is required for endospore germination in response to c-alanine as the sole germinant, and the three protein products, GerAA, GerAB, and GerAC are predicted to form a receptor complex in the spore inner membrane. GerAB shows homology to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) family of single-component transporters and is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with 10 membrane-spanning helices. Site-directed mutations were introduced into the gerAB gene at its natural location on the chromosome. Alterations to some charged or potential helix-breaking residues within membrane spans affected receptor function dramatically. In some cases, this is likely to reflect the complete loss of the GerA receptor complex, as judged by the absence of the germinant receptor protein GerAC, which suggests that the altered GerAB protein itself may be unstable or that the altered structure destabilizes the complex. Mutants that have a null phenotype for Instituto de Biotecnología de León, INBIOTEC, Parque Científico de León, Av. Real, 1, 24006 León, Spain-alanine germination but retain GerAC protein at near-normal levels are more likely to define amino acid residues of functional, rather than structural, importance. Single-amino-acid substitutions in each of the GerAB and GerAA proteins can prevent incorporation of GerAC protein into the spore; this provides strong evidence that the proteins within a specific receptor interact and that these interactions are required for receptor assembly. The lipoprotein nature of the GerAC receptor subunit is also important; an amino acid change in the prelipoprotein signal sequence in the gerAC1 mutant results in the absence of GerAC protein from the spore.

  5. A proposal of potent inhibitor for cancer metastasis blocking the pocket of urokinase receptor: ab initio molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasumi, Tomoyo; Araki, Kohta; Mizushima, Tatsuroh; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2013-04-01

    Recent biochemical experiments have elucidated that a variety of proteases play important roles in cancer invasion and metastasis. In particular, binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) to uPA receptor (uPAR) existing on the surface of a cancer cell is considered to be a trigger for cancer invasions. Therefore, the blocking of the binding is expected to inhibit cancer invasion. In previous experiments, several peptides of amino acids were proposed as a potent inhibitor for blocking the binding. In the present study, we obtained stable structures of the solvated complexes with uPAR and the peptides and investigated the specific interactions between uPAR and the peptides by ab initio molecular simulations. Base on these results, we clarified which peptide can bind more strongly to uPAR and proposed a novel potent peptide which can inhibit the uPAR-uPA binding efficiently.

  6. Domain II loop 3 of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin is involved in a "ping pong" binding mechanism with Manduca sexta aminopeptidase-N and cadherin receptors.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Sabino; Gómez, Isabel; Arenas, Ivan; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Rodríguez-Almazán, Claudia; Gill, Sarjeet S; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2009-11-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used worldwide as insecticides in agriculture, in forestry, and in the control of disease transmission vectors. In the lepidopteran Manduca sexta, cadherin (Bt-R(1)) and aminopeptidase-N (APN) function as Cry1A toxin receptors. The interaction with Bt-R(1) promotes cleavage of the amino-terminal end, including helix alpha-1 and formation of prepore oligomer that binds to APN, leading to membrane insertion and pore formation. Loops of domain II of Cry1Ab toxin are involved in receptor interaction. Here we show that Cry1Ab mutants located in domain II loop 3 are affected in binding to both receptors and toxicity against Manduca sexta larvae. Interaction with both receptors depends on the oligomeric state of the toxin. Monomers of loop 3 mutants were affected in binding to APN and to a cadherin fragment corresponding to cadherin repeat 12 but not with a fragment comprising cadherin repeats 7-12. In contrast, the oligomers of loop 3 mutants were affected in binding to both Bt-R(1) fragments but not to APN. Toxicity assays showed that either monomeric or oligomeric structures of Cry1Ab loop 3 mutations were severely affected in insecticidal activity. These data suggest that loop 3 is differentially involved in the binding with both receptor molecules, depending on the oligomeric state of the toxin and also that possibly a "ping pong" binding mechanism with both receptors is involved in toxin action.

  7. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-10-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/intermediate levels of SERT occupancy, vortioxetine affected rapid eye movement (REM) sleep differently than paroxetine. Here we investigated clinically meaningful doses (80-90% SERT occupancy) of vortioxetine and paroxetine on sleep-EEG in rats to further elucidate the serotoninergic receptor mechanisms mediating this difference. Cortical EEG, electromyography (EMG), and locomotion were recorded telemetrically for 10 days, following an acute dose, from rats receiving vortioxetine-infused chow or paroxetine-infused water and respective controls. Sleep stages were manually scored into active wake, quiet wake, and non-REM or REM sleep. Acute paroxetine or vortioxetine delayed REM onset latency (ROL) and decreased REM episodes. After repeated administration, vortioxetine yielded normal sleep-wake rhythms while paroxetine continued to suppress REM. Paroxetine, unlike vortioxetine, increased transitions from non-REM to wake, suggesting fragmented sleep. Next, we investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptors in eliciting these differences. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron significantly reduced paroxetine's acute effects on ROL, while the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A significantly increased vortioxetine's acute effect on ROL. Overall, our data are consistent with the clinical findings that vortioxetine impacts REM sleep differently than paroxetine, and suggests a role for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism in mitigating these differences.

  8. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/intermediate levels of SERT occupancy, vortioxetine affected rapid eye movement (REM) sleep differently than paroxetine. Here we investigated clinically meaningful doses (80–90% SERT occupancy) of vortioxetine and paroxetine on sleep-EEG in rats to further elucidate the serotoninergic receptor mechanisms mediating this difference. Cortical EEG, electromyography (EMG), and locomotion were recorded telemetrically for 10 days, following an acute dose, from rats receiving vortioxetine-infused chow or paroxetine-infused water and respective controls. Sleep stages were manually scored into active wake, quiet wake, and non-REM or REM sleep. Acute paroxetine or vortioxetine delayed REM onset latency (ROL) and decreased REM episodes. After repeated administration, vortioxetine yielded normal sleep-wake rhythms while paroxetine continued to suppress REM. Paroxetine, unlike vortioxetine, increased transitions from non-REM to wake, suggesting fragmented sleep. Next, we investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptors in eliciting these differences. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron significantly reduced paroxetine’s acute effects on ROL, while the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A significantly increased vortioxetine’s acute effect on ROL. Overall, our data are consistent with the clinical findings that vortioxetine impacts REM sleep differently than paroxetine, and suggests a role for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism in mitigating these differences. PMID:26174134

  9. Serotonin-3 receptors in the posterior ventral tegmental area regulate ethanol self-administration of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Oster, Scott M; Toalston, Jamie E; Pommer, Tylene J; McBride, William J; Murphy, James M

    2010-05-01

    Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 ([5-hydroxy tryptamine] 5-HT(3)) receptors in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers (Coulbourn Instruments, Allentown, PA) were used to examine the effects of seven consecutive bilateral microinfusions of ICS 205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (vol/vol) ethanol self-administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the fourth session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25, and 1.25 microg) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition postinjection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the three highest doses (0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 microg) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; after the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Microinfusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% wt/v) self-administration. Microinfusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT(3) receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA.

  10. Serotonin-3 Receptors in the Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area Regulate Ethanol Self-Administration of Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Zachary A.; Bell, Richard L.; Oster, Scott M.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Pommer, Tylene J.; McBride, William J.; Murphy, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT3 receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers were used to examine the effects of 7 consecutive bilateral micro-infusions of ICS205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (v/v) ethanol self-administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the 4th session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25 and 1.25 ug) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition post-injection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the 3 highest doses (0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 ug) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; following the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Micro-infusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever, and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% w/v) self-administration.. Micro-infusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT3 receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration, and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA. PMID:20682192

  11. Enhanced alcohol-seeking behavior by nicotine in the posterior ventral tegmental area of female alcohol-preferring (P) rats: modulation by serotonin-3 and nicotinic cholinergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Deehan, Gerald A.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol and nicotine co-use can reciprocally promote self-administration and drug-craving/drug-seeking behaviors. To date, the neurocircuitry in which nicotine influences ethanol (EtOH) seeking has not been elucidated. Clinical and preclinical research has suggested that the activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system is involved in the promotion of drug seeking. Alcohol, nicotine, and serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors interact within the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to regulate drug reward. Recently, our laboratory has reported that systemic administration of nicotine can promote context-induced EtOH seeking. Objectives The goals of the current study were to (1) determine if microinjections of pharmacologically relevant levels of nicotine into the pVTA would enhance EtOH seeking, (2) determine if coadministration of nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (nACh) or 5-HT3 receptor antagonists would block the ability of nicotine microinjected into the pVTA to promote EtOH seeking, and (3) determine if 5-HT3 receptors in the pVTA can modulate EtOH seeking. Results Nicotine (100 and 200 µM) microinjected into the pVTA enhanced EtOH seeking. Coinfusion with 200 µM mecamylamine (nACh antagonist) or 100 and 200 µM zacopride (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) blocked the observed nicotine enhancement of EtOH seeking. The data also indicated that microinjection of 1 µM CPBG (5-HT3 receptor agonist) promotes context-induced EtOH seeking; conversely microinjection of 100 and 200 µM zacopride alone reduced context-induced EtOH seeking. Conclusions Overall, the results show that nicotine-enhanced EtOH-seeking behavior is modulated by 5-HT3 and nACh receptors within the pVTA and that the 5-HT3 receptor system within pVTA may be a potential pharmacological target to inhibit EtOH-seeking behaviors. PMID:24599396

  12. Quantitative analysis of C4Ab and C4Bb binding to the C3b/C4b receptor (CR1, CD35)

    PubMed Central

    REILLY, B D; MOLD, C

    1997-01-01

    Complement-dependent clearance of immune complexes in humans is dependent on the activation and binding of the early components of the classical complement cascade. This prevents immune complex precipitation and promotes binding of the complexes by the C4b/C3b complement receptor CR1 (CD35) found on erythrocytes. The fourth component of human complement is encoded by two closely linked genes within the MHC. These genes give rise to the isotypic forms C4A and C4B, and recent studies suggest that CR1 binds activated C4A (C4Ab) to a greater extent than activated C4B (C4Bb). To study this difference in a more quantitative way the binding reactions between CR1 and C4Ab- and C4Bb-coated immune complexes and between CR1 and soluble dimers of C4Ab (C4Ab2) and C4Bb (C4Bb2) were analysed using the native receptor on human erythrocytes. The binding reaction between immune complexes with equivalent amounts of covalently bound C4Ab or C4Bb and erythrocyte CR1 showed a two-fold higher binding of complexes coated with C4A. Furthermore, erythrocyte CR1 bound C4Ab2 with an apparent four-fold higher affinity (Kd ≍ 1.4 10−7M) than C4Bb2 (Kd ≍ 4–8 10−7M), indicating a preferential binding of CR1 for C4A. PMID:9367418

  13. Neuronal and glial localization of NR1 and NR2A/B subunits of the NMDA receptor in the human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Conti, F; Barbaresi, P; Melone, M; Ducati, A

    1999-03-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a critical role in many cortical functions and are implicated in several neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study, the cellular expression of the NMDAR1 (NR1) and NMDAR2A and B (NR2A and B) subunits was investigated in the human cerebral cortex by immunocytochemistry with antibodies that recognize the NR1 or the NR2A and B subunits of the NMDA receptor. In frontal (areas 10 and 46) and temporal (area 21) association cortices and the cingulofrontal transition cortex (area 32), NR1 and NR2A/B immunoreactivity (ir) were similar and were localized to numerous neurons in all cortical layers. NR1- and NR2A/B-positive neurons were mostly pyramidal cells, but some nonpyramidal neurons were also labeled. Electron-microscopic observations showed that NR1 and NR2A/B ir were similar. In all cases, labeling of dendrites and dendritic spines was intense. In addition, both NR1 and NR2A/B were consistently found in the axoplasm of some axon terminals and in distal astrocytic processes. This investigation revealed that numerous NMDA receptors are localized to dendritic spines, and that they are also localized to axon terminals and astrocytic processes. These findings suggest that the effects of cortical NMDA activation in the human cortex do not depend exclusively on the opening of NMDA channels located at postsynaptic sites, and that the localization of NMDA receptors is similar in a variety of mammalian species.

  14. The sclerostin-neutralizing antibody AbD09097 recognizes an epitope adjacent to sclerostin's binding site for the Wnt co-receptor LRP6.

    PubMed

    Boschert, V; Frisch, C; Back, J W; van Pee, K; Weidauer, S E; Muth, E-M; Schmieder, P; Beerbaum, M; Knappik, A; Timmerman, P; Mueller, T D

    2016-08-01

    The glycoprotein sclerostin has been identified as a negative regulator of bone growth. It exerts its function by interacting with the Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6, blocks the binding of Wnt factors and thereby inhibits Wnt signalling. Neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies are able to restore Wnt activity and enhance bone growth thereby presenting a new osteoanabolic therapy approach for diseases such as osteoporosis. We have generated various Fab antibodies against human and murine sclerostin using a phage display set-up. Biochemical analyses have identified one Fab developed against murine sclerostin, AbD09097 that efficiently neutralizes sclerostin's Wnt inhibitory activity. In vitro interaction analysis using sclerostin variants revealed that this neutralizing Fab binds to sclerostin's flexible second loop, which has been shown to harbour the LRP5/6 binding motif. Affinity maturation was then applied to AbD09097, providing a set of improved neutralizing Fab antibodies which particularly bind human sclerostin with enhanced affinity. Determining the crystal structure of AbD09097 provides first insights into how this antibody might recognize and neutralize sclerostin. Together with the structure-function relationship derived from affinity maturation these new data will foster the rational design of new and highly efficient anti-sclerostin antibodies for the therapy of bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27558933

  15. Southern analysis of BT-R1, the Manduca sexta gene encoding the receptor for the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S E; Young, L; Watson, D; Cigan, A; Meyer, T; Bulla, L A

    1997-11-01

    Various subspecies of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are known to produce a wide array of insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) upon sporulation. These ICPs act primarily on the brush border of midgut epithelial cells of susceptible larvae. Recently, a protein of 210 kDa, isolated from the midgut of Manduca sexta, has been demonstrated to bind the Cry1Ab toxin produced by B. thuringiensis subsp, berliner and is therefore postulated to be involved in mediating the toxicity of Cry1Ab. The cDNA encoding the 210 kDa protein, termed BT-R1 (Bacillus thuringiensis receptor-1), was recently cloned, and shows limited homology to the cadherin superfamily of proteins. Quite naturally, there is a great deal of interest in the characterization of BT-R1, the gene encoding the 210 kDa Cry1Ab binding protein. The studies presented here involve the use of various restriction fragments prepared from the cDNA encoding BT-R1 as probes of Southern blots bearing M. sexta genomic DNA cleaved with a variety of restriction endonucleases. These Southern blot data reveal that there are two discrete regions within the M. sexta genome which encode sequences homologous to BT-R1. On the basis of the signal intensities seen on Southern blots, it appears that only one of these genes encodes BT-R1, whereas the other is a closely related homologue. PMID:9413435

  16. The sclerostin-neutralizing antibody AbD09097 recognizes an epitope adjacent to sclerostin's binding site for the Wnt co-receptor LRP6

    PubMed Central

    Boschert, V.; Frisch, C.; Back, J. W.; van Pee, K.; Weidauer, S. E.; Muth, E.-M.; Schmieder, P.; Beerbaum, M.; Knappik, A.; Timmerman, P.

    2016-01-01

    The glycoprotein sclerostin has been identified as a negative regulator of bone growth. It exerts its function by interacting with the Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6, blocks the binding of Wnt factors and thereby inhibits Wnt signalling. Neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies are able to restore Wnt activity and enhance bone growth thereby presenting a new osteoanabolic therapy approach for diseases such as osteoporosis. We have generated various Fab antibodies against human and murine sclerostin using a phage display set-up. Biochemical analyses have identified one Fab developed against murine sclerostin, AbD09097 that efficiently neutralizes sclerostin's Wnt inhibitory activity. In vitro interaction analysis using sclerostin variants revealed that this neutralizing Fab binds to sclerostin's flexible second loop, which has been shown to harbour the LRP5/6 binding motif. Affinity maturation was then applied to AbD09097, providing a set of improved neutralizing Fab antibodies which particularly bind human sclerostin with enhanced affinity. Determining the crystal structure of AbD09097 provides first insights into how this antibody might recognize and neutralize sclerostin. Together with the structure–function relationship derived from affinity maturation these new data will foster the rational design of new and highly efficient anti-sclerostin antibodies for the therapy of bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27558933

  17. Prophylaxis of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Using 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Salvo, Nadia; Doble, Brett; Khan, Luluel; Amirthevasar, Gayathri; Dennis, Kristopher; Pasetka, Mark; DeAngelis, Carlo; Tsao, May; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) compared with other antiemetic medication or placebo for prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Methods and Materials: We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and Web of Science. We also hand-searched reference lists of included studies. Randomized, controlled trials that compared a 5-HT3 RA with another antiemetic medication or placebo for preventing radiation-induced nausea and vomiting were included. We excluded studies recruiting patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager (v5) software. Relative risks were calculated using inverse variance as the statistical method under a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: Eligibility screening of 47 articles resulted in 9 included in the review. The overall methodologic quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of 5-HT3 RAs vs. placebo showed significant benefit for 5-HT3 RAs (relative risk [RR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.86 for emesis; RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 for nausea). Meta-analysis comparing 5-HT3 RAs vs. metoclopramide showed a significant benefit of the 5-HT3 RAs for emetic control (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are superior to placebo and other antiemetics for prevention of emesis, but little benefit was identified for nausea prevention. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are suggested for prevention of emesis. Limited evidence was found regarding delayed emesis, adverse events, quality of life, or need for rescue medication. Future randomized, controlled trials should evaluate different 5-HT3 antiemetics and new agents with novel mechanisms of action such at the NK

  18. APN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac but not Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat body is one of the most abundant not-gut hemocoelic tissues that may serve as the potential target tissues of Cry toxins in insect larvae, but nothing is known about its susceptibility to any Cry toxins. To estimate the susceptibilities to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab of fat body, we measured the cytotoxi...

  19. In-111 chelate conjugates of human transferrin (HTr) and mouse monoclonal anti human transferrin receptor antibody (. cap alpha. HTrR MoAb) for tumor imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.; Diamanti, C.I.; McCall, M.; McTigue, M.; Torti, F.; Martin, B.

    1984-01-01

    At least one of the major pathways of uptake of the commonly used tumor scanning agent Ga-67 is via the transferrin receptor. This suggested the use of stably radio-labeled HTr, and ..cap alpha..HTrR MoAb for tumor imaging in humans. HTr and mouse ..cap alpha..HTrR MoAb were alkylated with 1-(parabromacetamidobenzyl)-EDTA. The mM Alkylproteins, approx. =1 chelate/molecule were labeled with 1-3 mCi In-111 citrate pH/sub 5/ (Sp Act approx. = 100-300 Ci/m mole). Images were made 24 hours after 1 mCi IV and in some patients blood levels, urine excretion and digitized whole body scans were obtained at 1, 24,48 and 96 hours post injection. Ten patients with biopsy proven prostate cancer were studied with In-111 HTr, and four with In-111 ..cap alpha.. HTrR MoAb; all had positive mets on bone scan. In-111 HTr persisted in the circulation with a T1/2 of approx. = four days, approx. = 5%/day being excreted in the urine, to a total of approx. = 60% in 21 days. Nine of ten scans were false negative due to the high blood background. In-111 ..cap alpha..HTrR disappeared rapidly from the blood; with most in the bone marrow at 24 hours. ROI analysis of three patients showed whole body 94% at 24 hours, 89% at 48 hours, and 82% at 96 hours (T1/2 = 10.7 days); liver 19% at 1 hour, 25% at 24 hours, and 21% at 96 hours; spleen 3% at 1 hour, 8% at 24 hours, 7.3% at 48 hours, and 3% at 96 hours. The high bone marrow background allowed only a few of the bone mets seen as bone scan to be visualized. Other tumor types not located in bone may be more easily seen.

  20. Synthesis of alkylsulfonyl and substituted benzenesulfonyl curcumin mimics as dual antagonist of L-type Ca(2+) channel and endothelin A/B2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Park, Chong-Bin; Ahn, Chan Mug; Oh, Sangtae; Kwon, Daeho; Cho, Won-Chul; Shin, Woon-Seob; Cui, Yuan; Um, Ye Sol; Park, Byong-Gon; Lee, Seokjoon

    2015-10-15

    We synthesized a library of curcumin mimics with diverse alkylsulfonyl and substituted benzenesulfonyl modifications through a simple addition reaction of important intermediate, 1-(3-Amino-phenyl)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propenone (10), with various sulfonyl chloride reactants and then tested their vasodilatation effect on depolarization (50 mM K(+))- and endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced basilar artery contraction. Generally, curcumin mimics with aromatic sulfonyl groups showed stronger vasodilation effect than alkyl sulfonylated curcumin mimics. Among the tested compounds, six curcumin mimics (11g, 11h, 11i, 11j, 11l, and 11s) in a depolarization-induced vasoconstriction and seven compounds (11g, 11h, 11i, 11j, 11l, 11p, and 11s) in an ET-1-induced vasoconstriction showed strong vasodilation effect. Based on their biological properties, synthetic curcumin mimics can act as dual antagonist scaffold of L-type Ca(2+) channel and endothelin A/B2 receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells. In particular, compounds 11g and 11s are promising novel drug candidates to treat hypertension related to the overexpression of L-type Ca(2+) channels and ET peptides/receptors-mediated cardiovascular diseases.

  1. The Enigma of the Dichotomic Pressure Response of GluN1-4a/b Splice Variants of NMDA Receptor: Experimental and Statistical Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Bliznyuk, Alice; Gradwohl, Gideon; Hollmann, Michael; Grossman, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Professional deep-water divers, exposed to hyperbaric pressure (HP) above 1.1 MPa, develop High Pressure Neurological Syndrome (HPNS), which is associated with central nervous system (CNS) hyperexcitability. It was previously reported that HP augments N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) synaptic response, increases neuronal excitability and potentially causes irreversible neuronal damage. Our laboratory has reported differential current responses under HP conditions in NMDAR subtypes that contain either GluN1-1a or GluN1-1b splice variants co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with all four GluN2 subunits. Recently, we reported that the increase in ionic currents measured under HP conditions is also dependent on which of the eight splice variants of GluN1 is co-expressed with the GluN2 subunit. We now report that the NMDAR subtype that contains GluN1-4a/b splice variants exhibited “dichotomic” (either increased or decreased) responses at HP. The distribution of the results is not normal thus analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and clustering analysis were employed for statistical verification of the grouping. Furthermore, the calculated constants of alpha function distribution analysis for the two groups were similar, suggesting that the mechanism underlying the switch between an increase or a decrease of the current at HP is a single process, the nature of which is still unknown. This dichotomic response of the GluN1-4a/b splice variant may be used as a model for studying reduced response in NMDAR at HP. Successful reversal of other NMDAR subtypes response (i.e., current reduction) may allow the elimination of the reversible malfunctioning short term effects (HPNS), or even deleterious long term effects induced by increased NMDAR function during HP exposure. PMID:27375428

  2. Pentameric quaternary structure of the intracellular domain of serotonin type 3A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pandhare, Akash; Grozdanov, Petar N.; Jansen, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    In spite of extensive efforts over decades an experimentally-derived structure of full-length eukaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) is still lacking. These pharmaceutically highly-relevant channels contain structurally well-conserved and characterized extracellular and transmembrane domains. The intracellular domain (ICD), however, has been orphaned in structural studies based on the consensus assumption of being largely disordered. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that the serotonin type 3A (5-HT3A) ICD assembles into stable pentamers in solution in the absence of the other two domains, thought to be the drivers for oligomerization. Additionally, the soluble 5-HT3A-ICD construct interacted with the protein RIC-3 (resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase). The interaction provides evidence that the 5-HT3A-ICD is not only required but also sufficient for interaction with RIC-3. Our results suggest the ICD constitutes an oligomerization domain. This novel role significantly adds to its known contributions in receptor trafficking, targeting, and functional fine-tuning. The innate diversity of the ICDs with sizes ranging from 50 to 280 amino acids indicates new methodologies need to be developed to determine the structures of these domains. The use of soluble ICD proteins that we report in the present study constitutes a useful approach to address this gap. PMID:27045630

  3. Serotonergic receptor mechanisms underlying antidepressant-like action in the progesterone withdrawal model of hormonally induced depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Raaby, Kasper F; Sánchez, Connie; Gulinello, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Hormonally induced mood disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) are characterized by a range of physical and affective symptoms including anxiety, irritability, anhedonia, social withdrawal and depression. Studies demonstrated rodent models of progesterone withdrawal (PWD) have a high level of constructive and descriptive validity to model hormonally-induced mood disorders in women. Here we evaluate the effects of several classes of antidepressants in PWD female Long-Evans rats using the forced swim test (FST) as a measure of antidepressant activity. The study included fluoxetine, duloxetine, amitriptyline and an investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine (5-HT(3), 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist; 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist; 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist; inhibitor of the serotonin transporter (SERT)). After 14 days of administration, amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced immobility in the FST whereas fluoxetine and duloxetine were ineffective. After 3 injections over 48 h, neither fluoxetine nor duloxetine reduced immobility, whereas amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced FST immobility during PWD. When administered acutely during PWD, the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, flesinoxan, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, increased immobility. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, ondansetron, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR-57227, increased immobility. The 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, SB-269970, was inactive, although the 5-HT(7) receptor agonist, AS-19, significantly increased PWD-induced immobility. None of the compounds investigated (ondansetron, flesinoxan and SB-269970) improved the effect of fluoxetine during PWD. These data indicate that modulation of specific 5-HT receptor subtypes is critical for manipulating FST immobility in this model of hormone-induced depression.

  4. Expression of serotonin receptor genes in cranial ganglia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naohiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Taste cells release neurotransmitters to gustatory neurons to transmit chemical information they received. Sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells use ATP as a neurotransmitter. However, ATP release from sour taste cells has not been observed so far. Instead, they release serotonin when they are activated by sour/acid stimuli. Thus it is still controversial whether sour taste cells use ATP, serotonin, or both. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses, we revealed that of 14 serotonin receptor genes only 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B showed significant/clear signals in a subset of neurons of cranial sensory ganglia in which gustatory neurons reside. Double-fluorescent labeling analyses of ISH for serotonin receptor genes with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in cranial sensory ganglia of pkd1l3-WGA mice whose sour neural pathway is visualized by the distribution of WGA originating from sour taste cells in the posterior region of the tongue revealed that WGA-positive cranial sensory neurons rarely express either of serotonin receptor gene. These results suggest that serotonin receptors expressed in cranial sensory neurons do not play any role as neurotransmitter receptor from sour taste cells. PMID:26854841

  5. Distinct Actions of Endothelin A-Selective Versus Combined Endothelin A/B Receptor Antagonists in Early Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Mohamed A.; Pollock, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Selective endothelin A (ETA) and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists are being investigated for use in treating diabetic nephropathy. However, the receptor-specific mechanisms responsible for producing the potential benefits have not been discerned. Thus, we determined the actions of ETA and ETB receptors on measures of glomerular function and renal inflammation in the early stages of diabetic renal injury in rats through the use of selective and combined antagonists. Six weeks after streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia, rats were given 2R-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4S-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-(N,N-di(n-butyl)aminocarbonyl-methyl)-pyrrolidine-3R-carboxylic acid (ABT-627) (5 mg/kg/day), a selective ETA antagonist; (2R,3R,4S)-4-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(2-(N-propylpentylsulfonamido)ethyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride (A-182086) (10 mg/kg/day), a combined ETA/B antagonist; or vehicle for 1 week. Sham controls received STZ vehicle (saline). Hyperglycemia led to significant proteinuria, increased glomerular permeability to albumin (Palb), nephrinuria, and an increase in total matrix metalloprotease (MMP) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) activities in glomeruli. Plasma and glomerular soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were elevated after 7 weeks of hyperglycemia. Daily administration of both ABT-627 and A-182086 for 1 week significantly attenuated proteinuria, the increase in Palb, nephrinuria, and total MMP and TGF-β1 activity. However, glomerular sICAM-1 and MCP-1 expression was attenuated with ABT-627, but not A-182086, treatment. In summary, both selective ETA and combined ETA/B antagonists reduced proteinuria and glomerular permeability and restored glomerular filtration barrier component integrity, but only ETA-selective blockade had anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects. We conclude that selective ETA antagonists are more likely to be

  6. Dipicrylamine Modulates GABAρ1 Receptors through Interactions with Residues in the TM4 and Cys-Loop Domains.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Ruiz, Jorge M Reyes; Miledi, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Dipicrylamine (DPA) is a commonly used acceptor agent in Förster resonance energy transfer experiments that allows the study of high-frequency neuronal activity in the optical monitoring of voltage in living cells. However, DPA potently antagonizes GABAA receptors that contain α1 and β2 subunits by a mechanism which is not clearly understood. In this work, we aimed to determine whether DPA modulation is a general phenomenon of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs), and whether this modulation depends on particular amino acid residues. For this, we studied the effects of DPA on human homomeric GABAρ1, α7 nicotinic, and 5-HT3A serotonin receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results indicate that DPA is an allosteric modulator of GABAρ1 receptors with an IC50 of 1.6 µM, an enhancer of α7 nicotinic receptors at relatively high concentrations of DPA, and has little, if any, effect on 5-HT3A receptors. DPA antagonism of GABAρ1 was strongly enhanced by preincubation, was slightly voltage-dependent, and its washout was accelerated by bovine serum albumin. These results indicate that DPA modulation is not a general phenomenon of LGICs, and structural differences between receptors may account for disparities in DPA effects. In silico modeling of DPA docking to GABAρ1, α7 nicotinic, and 5-HT3A receptors suggests that a hydrophobic pocket within the Cys-loop and the M4 segment in GABAρ1, located at the extracellular/membrane interface, facilitates the interaction with DPA that leads to inhibition of the receptor. Functional examinations of mutant receptors support the involvement of the M4 segment in the allosteric modulation of GABAρ1 by DPA. PMID:26869399

  7. Single amino acid insertions in extracellular loop 2 of Bombyx mori ABCC2 disrupt its receptor function for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Aa toxins.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hiroaki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    In a previous report, seven Cry1Ab-resistant strains were identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; these strains were shown to have a tyrosine insertion at position 234 in extracellular loop 2 of the ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2). This insertion was confirmed to destroy the receptor function of BmABCC2 and confer the strains resistance against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. However, these strains were susceptible to Cry1Aa. In this report, we examined the mechanisms of the loss of receptor function of the transporter by expressing mutations in Sf9 cells. After replacement of one or two of the five amino acid residues in loop 2 of the susceptible BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_S] with alanine, cells still showed susceptibility, retaining the receptor function. Five mutants with single amino acid insertions at position 234 in BmABCC2 were also generated, resulting in loop 2 having six amino acids, which corresponds to replacing the tyrosine insertion in the resistant BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y)] with another amino acid. All five mutants exhibited loss of function against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence in loop 2 is less important than the loop size (five vs. six amino acids) or loop structure for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac activity. Several domain-swapped mutant toxins were then generated among Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac, which are composed of three domains. Swapped mutants containing domain II of Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac did not kill Sf9 cells expressing BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y), suggesting that domain II of the Cry toxin is related to the interaction with the receptor function of BmABCC2. This also suggests that different reactions against Bt-toxins in some B. mori strains, that is, Cry1Ab resistance or Cry1Aa susceptibility, are attributable to structural differences in domain II of Cry1A toxins. PMID:26928903

  8. Specific epitopes of domains II and III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin involved in the sequential interaction with cadherin and aminopeptidase-N receptors in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Isabel; Arenas, Iván; Benitez, Itzel; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Becerril, Baltazar; Grande, Ricardo; Almagro, Juan Carlos; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2006-11-10

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are specific to different insects. In Manduca sexta cadherin (Bt-R1) and aminopeptidase-N (APN) proteins are recognized as Cry1A receptors. Previous work showed that Cry1Ab binds to Bt-R1 promoting the formation of a pre-pore oligomer that binds to APN leading to membrane insertion. In this work we characterized the binding epitopes involved in the sequential interaction of Cry1Ab with Bt-R1 and APN. A Cry1Ab immune M13 phage repertoire was constructed using antibody gene transcripts of bone marrow or spleen from a rabbit immunized with Cry1Ab. We identified antibodies that recognize domain II loop 3 (scFvL3-3) or beta16-beta22 (scFvM22) in domain III. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and toxin overlay binding competition assays in the presence of scFvL3-3, scFvM22, or synthetic peptides showed that domain II loop 3 is an important epitope for interaction with Bt-R1 receptor, whereas domain III beta16 is involved in the interaction with APN. Both scFvL3-3 and scFvM22 lowered the toxicity of Cry1Ab to M. sexta larvae indicating that interaction with both receptors is important for in vivo toxicity. scFvL3-3 and anti-loop2 scFv (scFv73) promoted the formation of the pre-pore oligomer in contrast to scFvM22. In addition, scFvL3-3 and scFv73 preferentially recognized the monomeric toxin rather than the pre-pore suggesting a conformational change in domain II loops upon oligomerization. These results indicate for the first time that both receptor molecules participate in Cry1Ab toxin action in vivo: first the monomeric toxin binds to Bt-R1 through loops 2 and 3 of domain II promoting the formation of the pre-pore inducing some structural changes, then the pre-pore interacts with APN through beta-16 of domain III promoting membrane insertion and cell death.

  9. Characterization of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor which mediates contraction of the human isolated basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A A; Whalley, E T

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study which investigated the identity of the receptor involved in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) mediated contraction of the human basilar artery in vitro. 5-HT and a variety of 5-HT receptor agonists contracted human isolated basilar artery with a rank order of agonist potency: 5-carboxamidotryptamine greater than 5-HT greater than GR43175 much much greater than 2-methyl-5-HT. The maximum response produced by these agonists differed. The contractile responses to both 5-HT and GR43175 were resistant to antagonism by the 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin and the 5-HT3 antagonist GR38032, indicating that neither 5-HT nor GR43175 activate 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in this tissue. In striking contrast, methiothepin (an antagonist at 5-HT1-like receptors) proved a potent antagonist of the contractile actions of both 5-HT and GR43175. Methiothepin did not antagonize the contractile response to the thromboxane-A2 mimetic U-46619. It is concluded that 5-HT and GR43175 contract the human isolated basilar artery by activating 5-HT1-like receptors. It is suggested that the antimigraine action of GR43175 may reflect its ability to constrict certain cranial arteries via 5-HT1-like receptor activation. PMID:2544283

  10. A 10-amino-acid sequence in the N-terminal A/B domain of thyroid hormone receptor alpha is essential for transcriptional activation and interaction with the general transcription factor TFIIB.

    PubMed Central

    Hadzic, E; Desai-Yajnik, V; Helmer, E; Guo, S; Wu, S; Koudinova, N; Casanova, J; Raaka, B M; Samuels, H H

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the thyroid hormone (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine [T3]) on gene transcription are mediated by nuclear T3 receptors (T3Rs). alpha- and beta-isoform T3Rs (T3R alpha and -beta) are expressed from different genes and are members of a superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors that also includes the receptors for steroid hormones, vitamin D, and retinoids. Although T3 activates transcription by mediating a conformational change in the C-terminal approximately 220-amino-acid ligand-binding domain (LBD), the fundamental mechanisms of T3R-mediated transcriptional activation remain to be determined. We found that deletion of the 50-amino-acid N-terminal A/B domain of chicken T3R alpha (cT3R alpha) decreases T3-dependent stimulation of genes regulated by native thyroid hormone response elements about 10- to 20-fold. The requirement of the A/B region for transcriptional activation was mapped to amino acids 21 to 30, which contain a cluster of five basic amino acids. The A/B region of cT3R alpha is not required for T3 binding or for DNA binding of the receptor as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor. In vitro binding studies indicate that the N-terminal region of cT3R alpha interacts efficiently with TFIIB and that this interaction requires amino acids 21 to 30 of the A/B region. In contrast, the LBD interacts poorly with TFIIB. The region of TFIIB primarily involved in the binding of cT3R alpha includes an amphipathic alpha helix contained within residues 178 to 201. Analysis using a fusion protein containing the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 and the entire A/B region of cT3R alpha suggests that this region does not contain an intrinsic activation domain. These and other studies indicate that cT3R alpha mediates at least some of its effects through TFIIB in vivo and that the N-terminal region of DNA-bound cT3R alpha acts to recruit and/or stabilize the binding of TFIIB to the transcription complex. T3 stimulation could then result from ligand

  11. GABA-A receptor inhibition of local calcium signaling in spines and dendrites.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Joseph J; Carter, Adam G

    2014-11-26

    Cortical interneurons activate GABA-A receptors to rapidly control electrical and biochemical signaling at pyramidal neurons. Different populations of interneurons are known to uniquely target the soma and dendrites of pyramidal neurons. However, the ability of these interneurons to inhibit Ca(2+) signaling at spines and dendrites is largely unexplored. Here we use whole-cell recordings, two-photon microscopy, GABA uncaging and optogenetics to study dendritic inhibition at layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in slices of mouse PFC. We first show that GABA-A receptors strongly inhibit action potential (AP)-evoked Ca(2+) signals at both spines and dendrites. We find robust inhibition over tens of milliseconds that spreads along the dendritic branch. However, we observe no difference in the amount of inhibition at neighboring spines and dendrites. We then examine the influence of interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), or 5HT3a receptors. We determine that these populations of interneurons make unique contacts onto the apical and basal dendrites of L5 pyramidal neurons. We also show that SOM and 5HT3a but not PV interneurons potently inhibit AP Ca(2+) signals via GABA-A receptors at both spines and dendrites. These findings reveal how multiple interneurons regulate local Ca(2+) signaling in pyramidal neurons, with implications for cortical function and disease.

  12. Involvement of spinal muscarinic and serotonergic receptors in the anti-allodynic effect of electroacupuncture in rats with oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hwan; Go, Donghyun; Kim, Woojin; Lee, Giseog; Bae, Hyojeong; Quan, Fu Shi

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the spinal cholinergic and serotonergic analgesic systems mediate the relieving effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold allodynia in rats. The cold allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated by immersing the rat's tail into cold water (4℃) and measuring the withdrawal latency. EA stimulation (2 Hz, 0.3-ms pulse duration, 0.2~0.3 mA) at the acupoint ST36, GV3, or LI11 all showed a significant anti-allodynic effect, which was stronger at ST36. The analgesic effect of EA at ST36 was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine, 1 mg/kg), but not by nicotinic (mecamylamine, 2 mg/kg) receptor antagonist. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of M2 (methoctramine, 10 µg) and M3 (4-DAMP, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, but not M1 (pirenzepine, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, blocked the effect. Also, spinal administration of 5-HT3 (MDL-72222, 12 µg) receptor antagonist, but not 5-HT1A (NAN-190, 15 µg) or 5-HT2A (ketanserin, 30 µg) receptor antagonist, prevented the anti-allodynic effect of EA. These results suggest that EA may have a signifi cant analgesic action against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain, which is mediated by spinal cholinergic (M2, M3) and serotonergic (5-HT3) receptors. PMID:27382357

  13. Synergistic Self-Administration of Ethanol and Cocaine Directly into the Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area: Involvement of Serotonin-3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Scott M.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) and cocaine are both self-administered into the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA). Self-administration of either drug is prevented by coadministration of a serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonist. Electrophysiological studies indicated that cocaine and EtOH can act synergistically to stimulate VTA dopamine neurons. The current experiment assessed whether cocaine and EtOH would synergistically interact to produce a reinforcing action within the posterior VTA. Adult female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 13 groups. There were three control groups: artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), a subthreshold EtOH (100 mg%) group, and a subthreshold cocaine (25 pmol/100 nl) group. The other groups self-administered 50 or 75 mg% EtOH containing 6.25, 12.5, or 25 pmol/100 nl cocaine or 100 mg% EtOH containing 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, or 25 pmol/100 nl cocaine. All rats received the assigned infusate for sessions 1 through 4, aCSF alone in sessions 5 and 6, and the original infusate during session 7. The effects of adding a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist [tropisetron, C17H20N2O2 (ICS 205,930) and C17H22N4O.C4H4O4 (LY278-584)] on coadministration of EtOH and cocaine (75 mg% + 12.5 pmol/100 nl) were determined. Rats failed to self-administer aCSF or the subthreshold concentration of EtOH or cocaine. All three concentrations of EtOH (50, 75, and 100 mg%) combined with cocaine (12.5 and 25 pmol/100 nl) supported self-administration. Adding a 5HT3 receptor antagonist attenuated coadministration of EtOH + cocaine. Overall, the data indicate that the reinforcing properties of EtOH and cocaine interacted synergistically within the posterior VTA, and these synergistic effects were mediated, at least in part, by activation of local 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:22011435

  14. Ionotrophic 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor activates the protein kinase C-dependent phospholipase D pathway in human T-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, N A; Hichami, A

    1999-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) ionotrophic receptor 5-HT(3) in the activation of human Jurkat T-cells. 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT (2Me-5-HT), an agonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor, induced increases in intracellular free Na(+) concentrations, [Na(+)](i), via opening of the ionotrophic receptor in these cells. These two serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptaminergic) agents potentiated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced T-cell activation. However, they failed to potentiate dioctanoglycerol-plus-ionomycin-stimulated T-cell blastogenesis. Interestingly, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), GF 109203X, curtailed significantly 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT-potentiated T-cell activation. These results demonstrate that the opening of the 5-HT(3) ionotrophic receptor is implicated in T-cell activation via the PKC pathway. Furthermore, 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity, as measured by the production of phosphatidylethanol and phosphatidylbutanol at the expense of phosphatidic acid (PA). GF 109203X significantly curtailed the 5-HT- and 2Me-5-HT-induced PLD activity and T-cell activation. The PLD/PA pathway stimulated by these two serotonergic agents resulted in the production of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) mass in Jurkat T-cells. These results altogether suggest that 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT potentiate T-cell activation via increases in [Na(+)](i) and the activation of the PKC-dependent PLD pathway. PMID:10548551

  15. Ionotrophic 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor activates the protein kinase C-dependent phospholipase D pathway in human T-cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, N A; Hichami, A

    1999-11-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) ionotrophic receptor 5-HT(3) in the activation of human Jurkat T-cells. 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT (2Me-5-HT), an agonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor, induced increases in intracellular free Na(+) concentrations, [Na(+)](i), via opening of the ionotrophic receptor in these cells. These two serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptaminergic) agents potentiated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced T-cell activation. However, they failed to potentiate dioctanoglycerol-plus-ionomycin-stimulated T-cell blastogenesis. Interestingly, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), GF 109203X, curtailed significantly 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT-potentiated T-cell activation. These results demonstrate that the opening of the 5-HT(3) ionotrophic receptor is implicated in T-cell activation via the PKC pathway. Furthermore, 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity, as measured by the production of phosphatidylethanol and phosphatidylbutanol at the expense of phosphatidic acid (PA). GF 109203X significantly curtailed the 5-HT- and 2Me-5-HT-induced PLD activity and T-cell activation. The PLD/PA pathway stimulated by these two serotonergic agents resulted in the production of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) mass in Jurkat T-cells. These results altogether suggest that 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT potentiate T-cell activation via increases in [Na(+)](i) and the activation of the PKC-dependent PLD pathway.

  16. Role of spinal 5-HT receptors in cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by REM sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Ma, Ainiu; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation facilitates pain sensitivity. Since serotoninergic raphe neurons are involved both in regulation of sleep and descending pain modulation, we studied whether spinal 5-HT receptors have a role in sleep deprivation-induced facilitation of pain-related behavior. REM sleep deprivation of 48h was induced by the flower pot method in the rat. The pain modulatory influence of various serotoninergic compounds administered intrathecally was assessed by determining limb withdrawal response to monofilaments. REM sleep deprivation produced a marked hypersensitivity. Sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity and normal sensitivity in controls were reduced both by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist (WAY-100635) and a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist (RS-102221). An antagonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor (LY-278584) failed to modulate hypersensitivity in sleep-deprived or control animals. Paradoxically, sensitivity in sleep-deprived and control animals was reduced not only by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist but also by a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (8-OHDPAT). The results indicate that serotoninergic receptors in the spinal cord have a complex role in the control of sleep-deprivation induced cutaneous hypersensitivity as well as baseline sensitivity in control conditions. While endogenous serotonin acting on 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors may facilitate mechanical sensitivity in animals with a sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity as well as in controls, increased activation of spinal 5-HT(1A) receptors by an exogenous agonist leads to suppression of mechanical sensitivity in both conditions. Spinal 5-HT(3) receptors do not contribute to cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by sleep deprivation.

  17. Vagal anandamide signaling via cannabinoid receptor 1 contributes to luminal 5-HT modulation of visceral nociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chen-Chen; Yan, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Xin; Wang, Er-Man; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Li-Yan; Chen, Jun; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Sheng-Liang

    2014-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS), and luminal 5-HT time-dependently modulates visceral nociception. We found that duodenal biopsies from PI-IBS patients exhibited increased 5-HT and decreased anandamide levels and that decreased anandamide was associated with abdominal pain severity, indicating a link between 5-HT and endocannabinoid signaling pathways in PI-IBS. To understand this, we investigated the role of endocannabinoids in 5-HT modulation of visceral nociception in a rat model. Acute intraduodenally applied 5-HT attenuated the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distention, and this was reversed by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist AM251. Duodenal anandamide (but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol) content was greatly increased after luminal 5-HT treatment. This effect was abrogated by the 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonist granisetron, which was luminally delivered to preferentially target vagal terminals. Chemical denervation of vagal afferents blocked 5-HT-evoked antinociception and anandamide release. Chronic luminal 5-HT exposure for 5 days increased baseline VMR and VMR post-5-HT (days 4 and 5). Duodenal levels of anandamide and N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, the anandamide-synthesizing enzyme) protein gradually declined from day 1 to 5. The time-dependent effects of 5-HT were abolished by daily granisetron pretreatment. Daily pretreatment with CB1 agonists or anandamide from day 3 attenuated 5-HT-induced hyperalgesia. These data suggest that vagal 5-HT3R-mediated duodenal anandamide release contributes to acute luminal 5-HT-induced antinociception via CB1 signaling, whereas decreased anandamide is associated with hyperalgesia upon chronic 5-HT treatment. Further understanding of peripheral vagal anandamide signaling may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying 5-HT-related IBS.

  18. Cloning and expression of ligand-gated ion-channel receptor L2 in central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Houtani, Takeshi; Munemoto, Yumi; Kase, Masahiko; Sakuma, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Tetsuo . E-mail: sugimoto@takii.kmu.ac.jp

    2005-09-23

    An orphan receptor of ligand-gated ion-channel type (L2, also termed ZAC according to the presence of zinc ion for channel activation) was identified by computer-assisted search programs on human genome database. The L2 protein shares partial homology with serotonin receptors 5HT3A and 5HT3B. We have cloned L2 cDNA derived from human caudate nucleus and characterized the exon-intron structure as follows: (1) The L2 protein has four transmembrane regions (M1-M4) and a long cytoplasmic loop between M3 and M4. (2) The sequence is conserved in species including chimpanzee, dog, cow, and opossum. (3) Nine exons form its protein-coding region and especially exon 5 corresponds to a disulfide bond region on the amino-terminal side. Our analysis using multiple tissue cDNA panels revealed that at least two splicing variants of L2 mRNA are present. The cDNA PCR amplification study revealed that L2 mRNA is expressed in tissues including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle while 5HT3A mRNA could be detected in brain, heart, placenta, lung, kidney, pancreas, and skeletal muscle, and 5HT3B mRNA in brain, kidney, and skeletal muscle, suggesting different significance in tissue expression of these receptors. Regional expression of L2 mRNA and protein was examined in brain. The RT-PCR studies confirmed L2 mRNA expression in hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and thalamus in adult brain. The L2 protein was immunolocalized by using antipeptide antibodies. Immunostained tissue sections revealed that L2-like immunoreactivity was dominantly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. We analyzed the expression of L2 protein in HEK293 cells using GFP fusion protein reporter system. Western blots revealed that L2 protein confers sugar chains on the extracellular side. In transfected HEK293 cells, cellular membranes and intracellular puncta were densely labeled with GFP, suggesting selective dispatch to the

  19. SPINAL CORD MECHANISMS MEDIATING BEHAVIORAL HYPERALGESIA INDUCED BY NEUROKININ-1 TACHYKININ RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN THE ROSTRAL VENTROMEDIAL MEDULLA

    PubMed Central

    Lagraize, S. C.; Guo, W.; Yang, K.; Wei, F.; Ren, K.; Dubner, R.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperalgesia in animal injury models is linked to activation of descending raphespinal modulatory circuits originating in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). A neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist microinjected into the RVM before or after inflammation produced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) resulted in an attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia. A transient (acute) or a continuous infusion of Substance P (SP) microinjected into the RVM of non-inflamed animals led to similar pain hypersensitivity. Intrathecal pretreatment or post-treatment of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (Y-25130 or ondansetron) blocked the SP-induced hyperalgesia. The SP-induced hyperalgesia was both GABAA and NMDA receptor-dependent after pre- and post-treatment with selective antagonists at the spinal level. A microinjection of SP into the RVM also led to increased NMDA NR1 receptor subunit phosphorylation in spinal cord tissue. The GABAA receptor-mediated hyperalgesia involved a shift in the anionic gradient in dorsal horn nociceptive neurons and an increase in phosphorylated NKCC1 protein (isoform of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter). Following a low dose of SP infused into the RVM, intrathecal muscimol (GABAA agonist) increased SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, phosphorylated NKCC1 protein expression, and NMDA NR1 subunit phosphorylation in the spinal cord. The thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by intrathecal gabazine, the GABAA receptor antagonist, and MK-801, the NMDA receptor channel blocker. These findings indicate that NK-1 receptors in the RVM are involved in SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, this hyperalgesia is 5-HT3-receptor dependent at the spinal level, and involves the functional interaction of spinal GABAA and NMDA receptors. PMID:20888891

  20. Antagonistic properties of a natural product - Bicuculline with the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor: Studied through electrostatic potential mapping, electronic and vibrational spectra using ab initio and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha; Asthana, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    (+)-Bicuculline (hereinafter referred to as bicuculline), a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid is of current interest as an antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Its inhibitor properties have been studied through molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping of this molecule and GABA receptor. The hot site on the potential surface of bicuculline, which is also isosteric with GABA receptor, has been used to interpret the inhibitor property. A systematic quantum chemical study of the possible conformations, their relative stabilities, FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of bicuculline has been reported. The optimized geometries, wavenumber and intensity of the vibrational bands of all the conformers of bicuculline have been calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP functional and 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Mulliken atomic charges, HOMO-LUMO gap Δ E, ionization potential, dipole moments and total energy have also been obtained for the optimized geometries of both the molecules. TD-DFT method is used to calculate the electronic absorption parameters in gas phase as well as in solvent environment using integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) employing 6-31G basis set and the results thus obtained are compared with the UV absorption spectra. The combination of experimental and calculated results provides an insight into the structural and vibrational spectroscopic properties of bicuculline.

  1. Mechanisms linking depression co-morbid with obesity: An approach for serotonergic type 3 receptor antagonist as novel therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan

    2015-10-01

    Despite of the enormous research, therapeutic treatment for depression has always been a serious issue. Even though depression and obesity are individual abnormal health conditions, each act as a triggering factor for the other. Obese individuals are twice prone to develop depression than that of non-obese persons. The exact mechanism how obesity increases the risk for depression still remains an area of interest for research in neuropsychopharmacology. Depression and obesity share some common pathological pathways such as hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, dysregulation of oxidant/antioxidant system balance, higher level of inflammatory cytokines, leptin resistance, altered plasma glucose, insulin resistance, reduced neuronal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and decreased serotonergic neurotransmission in various regions of brain. The antidepressant-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists through allosteric modulation of serotonergic pathways is well evident from several research investigations belonging to our and some in other laboratories. Furthermore, serotonin regulates diet intake, leptin, corticosterone, inflammatory mechanisms, altered plasma glucose, insulin resistance and BDNF concentration in brain. The present review deals with various biological mechanisms involved in depression co-morbid with obesity and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists by modulation of serotonergic system as a therapeutic target for such co-morbid disorder.

  2. AB257. The study of the influence of the changes in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor and NGF on the diabetic urethral function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shouzhen; Wang, Wenfu; Zhu, Kejia; Zhang, Dongqing; Wang, Yong; Shi, Benkang

    2016-01-01

    Background To study the influence of the changes in the α1-adrenergic receptor and NGF/ProNGF pathway on the diabetic urethral function. Methods A total of 20 female Wistar rats were divided into two groups equally at random. Urethral function was examined by recordings of bladder pressure and urethral perfusion pressure (UPP). The expression of α1-adrenergic receptor in the urethra was measured via RT-qPCR and ELISA method. The expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the urethra was measured via RT-qPCR and ELISA method. The expression of proNGF, P75NTR and sortilin in the urethra was measured by western blotting. Results The lowest urethral pressure (UPP nadir) during urethral relaxation was higher in diabetic rats. The UPP nadir and baseline UPP in diabetic rats was significantly decreased by intravenous administration of the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin). The α1a and α1d adrenergic receptor in the urethra of the diabetic group was significantly increased via RT-qPCR and western blotting (P<0.05). The RT-qPCR and ELISA studies showed a significant decrease of NGF and the western blotting studies showed a significant increase of proNGF (P<0.05). There was a statistical decrease of the P75NTR in the urethras of diabetic rats (P<0.05) and no significant difference concerning sortilin between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusions The increase in the expression of α1-adrenoceptor and changes of the NGF/ProNGF pathway in the diabetic urethral was a possible mechanism of the diabetic urethral dysfunction.

  3. Inverse relationship between heat stable enterotoxin-b induced fluid accumulation and adherence of F4ac-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in ligated jejunal loops of F4ab/ac fimbria receptor-positive swine.

    PubMed

    Erume, Joseph; Wijemanne, Prageeth; Berberov, Emil M; Kachman, Stephen D; Oestmann, Daniel J; Francis, David H; Moxley, Rodney A

    2013-01-25

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) increases bacterial adherence to porcine enterocytes in vitro and enhances small intestinal colonization in swine. Heat-stable enterotoxin-b (STb) is not known to affect colonization; however, through an induction of net fluid accumulation it might reduce bacterial adherence. The relationship between fluid accumulation and bacterial adherence in jejunal loops inoculated with ETEC strains that produce LT, STb, both, or neither toxin was studied. Ligated jejunal loops were constructed in weaned Yorkshire pigs in two independent experiments (Exp. 1, n=5, 8-week-old; Exp. 2, n=6, 6-8-week-old). Each pig was inoculated with six F4ac(+)E. coli strains: (1) LT(+), STb(+) parent (WAM2317); (2) STb(-) (ΔestB) mutant (MUN297); (3) MUN297 complemented with STb (MUN298); (4) LT(-) STb(-) (ΔeltAB ΔestB) mutant (MUN300); (5) MUN300 complemented with LT (MUN301); and (6) 1836-2 (non-enterotoxigenic, wild-type). Pigs were confirmed to be K88 (F4)ab/ac receptor-positive in Exp. 2 by testing for intestinal mucin-type glycoproteins and inferred to be receptor-positive in both Exp. 1 and 2 based on histopathologic evidence of bacterial adherence. Strains that produced STb induced marked fluid accumulation with the response (ml/cm) to WAM2317 and MUN298 significantly greater than that to the other strains (P<0.0001). Conversely, bacterial adherence scores based on immunohistochemistry and CFU/g of washed mucosa were both lowest in the strains that expressed STb and highest in those that did not. For the two experiments combined, the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) between fluid volume (ml/cm) and log CFU per gram was -0.57021 (P<0.0001); R(2)=0.3521 (n=197). These results support the hypothesis that enterotoxin-induced fluid accumulation flushes progeny organisms into the lumen of the bowel, thereby increasing the likelihood of fecal shedding and transmission of the pathogen to new hosts. PMID

  4. The 5-HT4 receptor: molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of two splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, C; Adham, N; Kao, H T; Olsen, M A; Laz, T M; Schechter, L E; Bard, J A; Vaysse, P J; Hartig, P R; Branchek, T A

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cloning efforts have provided primary amino acid sequence and signal transduction data for a large collection of serotonin receptor subtypes. These include five 5-HT1-like receptors, three 5-HT2 receptors, one 5-HT3 receptor, two 5-HT5 receptors, one 5-HT6 receptor and one 5-HT7 receptor. Molecular biological information on the 5-HT4 receptor is notably absent from this list. We now report the cloning of the pharmacologically defined 5-HT4 receptor. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers, we identified a rat brain PCR fragment which encoded a '5-HT receptor-like' amino acid sequence. The corresponding full length cDNA was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. Transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, this receptor stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity and is sensitive to the benzamide derivative cisapride. The response is also blocked by ICS-205930. Interestingly, we isolated two splice variants of the receptor, 5-HT4L and 5-HT4S, differing in the length and sequence of their C-termini. In rat brain, the 5-HT4S transcripts are restricted to the striatum, but the 5-HT4L transcripts are expressed throughout the brain, except in the cerebellum where it was barely detectable. In peripheral tissues, differential expression was also observed in the atrium of the heart where only the 5-HT4S isoform was detectable. Images PMID:7796807

  5. Casopitant: a novel NK1-receptor antagonist in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Ruhlmann, Christina; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are among the most feared and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The knowledge of the pathogenesis and neuropharmacology of CINV has expanded enormously over the last decades, the most significant discoveries being the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3- and neurokinin (NK)1 receptors in the emetic reflex arch. This has led to the development of two new classes of antiemetics acting as highly selective antagonists at one of these receptors. These drugs have had a huge impact in the protection from chemotherapy-induced vomiting, whereas the effect on nausea seems to be limited. The first NK1 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, became clinically available in 2003, and casopitant, the second in this class of antiemetics, has now completed phase III trials. This review delineates the properties and clinical use of casopitant in the prevention of CINV. PMID:19536319

  6. Memories of AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, V. G.

    2013-06-01

    I had the good fortune to be a student of A. B. Migdal - AB, as we called him in person or in his absence - and to work in the sector he headed at the Kurchatov Institute, along with his other students and my friends, including Vitya Galitsky, Spartak Belyayev and Tolya Larkin. I was especially close with AB in the second half of the 1950s, the years most important for my formation, and AB's contribution to this formation was very great. To this day, I've often quoted AB on various occasions, as it's hard to put things better or more precisely than he did; I tell friends stories heard from AB, because these stories enhance life as AB himself enhanced it; my daughter is named Tanya after AB's wife Tatyana Lvovna, and so on. In what follows, I'll recount a few episodes in my life in which AB played an important or decisive role, and then will share some other memories of AB...

  7. Effect of homologous serotonin receptor loop substitutions on the heterologous expression in Pichia of a chimeric acetylcholine-binding protein with alpha-bungarotoxin-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joao A; Hawrot, Edward

    2009-10-01

    The molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) is a soluble homopentameric homolog of the extracellular domain of various ligand-gated ion channels. Previous studies have reported that AChBP, when fused to the ion pore domain of the serotonin receptor (5HT(3A)R), can form a functional ligand-gated chimeric channel only if the AChBP loop regions between beta-strands beta1 and beta2 (beta1-beta2), beta6 and beta7 (beta6-beta7), and beta8 and beta9 (beta8-beta9) are replaced with those of the 5HT(3A)R. To investigate further the potential interactions among these three important loop regions in a membrane- and detergent-free system, we designed AChBP constructs in which loops beta1-beta2, beta6-beta7, and beta8-beta9 of the AChBP were individually and combinatorially substituted in all permutations with the analogous loops of the 5HT(3A)R. These chimeras were expressed as secreted proteins using the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. [(125)I]-alpha-Bungarotoxin-binding was detected in the culture media obtained from homologous recombinant clones expressing the wild-type AChBP, the beta1-beta2 loop-only chimera, and the chimera containing all three 5HT(3A)R loop substitutions. The remaining chimeras failed to show [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin binding, and further analysis of cellular extracts allowed us to determine that these binding-negative chimeric constructs accumulated intracellularly and were not secreted into the culture medium. Our results demonstrate that coordinated interactions among loops beta1-beta2, beta6-beta7, and beta8-beta9 are essential for the formation of a functional ligand-binding site, as evidenced by [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin-binding, and for efficient protein secretion. In addition, the constructs described here demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing soluble scaffolds to explore functionally important interactions within the extracellular domain of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:19427904

  8. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor Subtypes and their Modulators with Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Pithadia, Anand B.; Jain, Sunita M.

    2009-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has become one of the most investigated and complex biogenic amines. The main receptors and their subtypes, e.g., 5-HTI (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HTID, 5-HTIE and 5-HT1F), 5-HT2 (5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C), 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5 (5-HT5A, 5-HT5B), 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 have been identified. Specific drugs which are capable of either selectively stimulating or inhibiting these receptor subtypes are being designed. This has generated therapeutic potentials of 5-HT receptor modulators in a variety of disease conditions. Conditions where 5-HT receptor modulators have established their use with distinct efficacy and advantages include migraine, anxiety, psychosis, obesity and cancer therapy-induced vomiting by cytotoxic drugs and radiation. Discovery of 5-HT, its biosynthesis, metabolism, physiological role and the potential of 5-HT receptor modulators in various nervous, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tract disorders, bone growth and micturition have been discussed in this article. Keywords 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors; Modulators; Biogenic amines PMID:22505971

  9. Structural Studies of GABAA Receptor Binding Sites: Which Experimental Structure Tells us What?

    PubMed Central

    Puthenkalam, Roshan; Hieckel, Marcel; Simeone, Xenia; Suwattanasophon, Chonticha; Feldbauer, Roman V.; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Ernst, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Atomic resolution structures of cys-loop receptors, including one of a γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA receptor) subtype, allow amazing insights into the structural features and conformational changes that these pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) display. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of more than 30 cys-loop receptor structures of homologous proteins that revealed several allosteric binding sites not previously described in GABAA receptors. These novel binding sites were examined in GABAA receptor homology models and assessed as putative candidate sites for allosteric ligands. Four so far undescribed putative ligand binding sites were proposed for follow up studies based on their presence in the GABAA receptor homology models. A comprehensive analysis of conserved structural features in GABAA and glycine receptors (GlyRs), the glutamate gated ion channel, the bacterial homologs Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) and Gloeobacter violaceus GLIC, and the serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor was performed. The conserved features were integrated into a master alignment that led to improved homology models. The large fragment of the intracellular domain that is present in the structure of the 5-HT3 receptor was utilized to generate GABAA receptor models with a corresponding intracellular domain fragment. Results of mutational and photoaffinity ligand studies in GABAA receptors were analyzed in the light of the model structures. This led to an assignment of candidate ligands to two proposed novel pockets, candidate binding sites for furosemide and neurosteroids in the trans-membrane domain were identified. The homology models can serve as hypotheses generators, and some previously controversial structural interpretations of biochemical data can be resolved in the light of the presented multi-template approach to comparative modeling. Crystal and cryo-EM microscopic structures of the closest homologs that were solved in different conformational

  10. Structure, Biological Functions and Applications of the AB5 Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Beddoe, Travis; Paton, Adrienne W.; Le Nours, Jérôme; Rossjohn, Jamie; Paton, James C.

    2010-01-01

    AB5 toxins are important virulence factors for several major bacterial pathogens, including Bordetella pertussis, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae and at least two distinct pathotypes of Escherichia coli. The AB5 toxins are so termed because they comprise a catalytic A-subunit, which is responsible for disruption of essential host functions, and a pentameric B-subunit that binds to specific glycan receptors on the target cell surface. The molecular mechanisms by which these AB5 toxins cause disease have been largely unraveled, including recent insights into a novel AB5 toxin family, subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB). Furthermore, AB5 toxins have become a valuable tool for studying fundamental cellular functions, and are now being investigated for potential applications in the clinical treatment of human diseases. PMID:20202851

  11. TSH RECEPTOR AUTOANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Krzysztof; Morshed, Syed A.; Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F.

    2009-01-01

    Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies (TSHR-Abs) of the stimulating variety are the hallmark of Graves’ disease. The presence of immune defects leading to synthesis of TSHR-Abs causes hyperthyroidism and is associated with other extrathyroidal manifestations. Further characterization of these antibodies has now been made possible by the generation of monoclonal antibodies with this unique stimulating capacity as well as similar TSHR-Abs not associated with hyperthyroidism. Their present classification divides TSHR-Abs into stimulating, blocking (competing with TSH binding) and neutral (no signaling). Recent studies using monoclonal TSHR-Abs has revealed that stimulating and blocking antibodies bind to the receptor using mostly conformational epitopes, whilst neutral antibodies utilize exclusively linear peptides. Subtle differences in epitopes for stimulating and blocking antibodies account for the diversity of their biological actions. Recently non-classical signaling elicited by neutral antibodies has also been described, raising the need for a new classification of TSHR-Abs. PMID:19332151

  12. The role of spinal serotonin receptor and alpha adrenoceptor on the antiallodynic effects induced by intrathecal milnacipran in chronic constriction injury rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takehiro; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Takeda, Ryuichiro; Igawa, Kaori; Naono-Nakayama, Rumi; Sakoda, Sumio; Nishimori, Toshikazu; Ishida, Yasushi

    2014-09-01

    Milnacipran, a reuptake inhibitor of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT), elicits an antiallodynic effect in rats with neuropathic pain; however, the role of NA and 5-HT receptors in the induction of the antiallodynic effect of milnacipran remains unclear. Thus, we examined the effects of prazosin as an α1 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine as an α2 adrenoceptor antagonist, metergoline as a 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, cyanopindolol as a 5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist, ketanserin as a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, and ondansetoron as a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist on the antiallodynic effect of milnacipran in neuropathic rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). The CCI rats expressed mechanical and thermal allodynia, which was attenuated by intrathecal injection of milnacipran. Yohimbine, but not prazosin, reversed the milnacipran-induced antiallodynic effect. The antiallodynic effect of milnacipran was also reversed by metergoline, ketanserin and ondansetron, while cyanopindolol reversed the antiallodynic effect on mechanical, but not thermal stimulation. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in lamina I/II of the spinal dorsal horn was enhanced by thermal stimulation and the enhanced expression of c-Fos was suppressed by milnacipran. This effect of milnacipran was reversed by yohimbine, metergoline, katanserin and ondansetron, but not prazosin. These results indicate that the effect of milnacipran on mechanical and thermal allodynia and c-Fos expression is elicited through the α2 adrenoceptor, but not α1 adrenoceptor, and 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors; furthermore, the 5-HT1A/1B receptor is involved in mechanical allodynia, but not thermal allodynia. PMID:24876059

  13. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine is a powerful central neuromodulator acting via opposing A1 (inhibitor) and A2a (activator) receptors. However, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), both adenosine receptor subtypes attenuate cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) sympathoinhibition of renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and attenuate reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Adenosine A1 receptors inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the CCR pathway, whereas adenosine A2a receptors most likely facilitate release of an unknown inhibitory neurotransmitter, which, in turn, inhibits the CCR. We hypothesized that adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the CCR via facilitation of GABA release in the NTS. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 51), we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors [microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 (20 pmol/50 nl)] preceded by blockade of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the NTS [bicuculline (10 pmol/100 nl) or SCH-50911 (1 nmol/100 nl)]. Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects. These effects were similar for the different sympathetic outputs. We conclude that stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibits CCR-evoked hemodynamic and regional sympathetic reflex responses via a GABA-ergic mechanism.

  14. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine is a powerful central neuromodulator acting via opposing A1 (inhibitor) and A2a (activator) receptors. However, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), both adenosine receptor subtypes attenuate cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) sympathoinhibition of renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and attenuate reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Adenosine A1 receptors inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the CCR pathway, whereas adenosine A2a receptors most likely facilitate release of an unknown inhibitory neurotransmitter, which, in turn, inhibits the CCR. We hypothesized that adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the CCR via facilitation of GABA release in the NTS. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 51), we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors [microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 (20 pmol/50 nl)] preceded by blockade of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the NTS [bicuculline (10 pmol/100 nl) or SCH-50911 (1 nmol/100 nl)]. Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects. These effects were similar for the different sympathetic outputs. We conclude that stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibits CCR-evoked hemodynamic and regional sympathetic reflex responses via a GABA-ergic mechanism. PMID:25910812

  15. The antinociceptive effects of intravenous tianeptine in colorectal distension-induced visceral pain in rats: the role of 5-HT₃ receptors.

    PubMed

    Bilge, S Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Ilkaya, Fatih; Ciftcioğlu, Engin; Kesim, Yüksel; Uzbay, Tayfun I

    2012-04-15

    Tianeptine is an unusual tricyclic antidepressant drug. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect of tianeptine on visceral pain in rats and to determine whether possible antinociceptive effect of tianeptine is mediated by serotonergic (5-HT(2,3)) and noradrenergic (α(1,2)) receptor subtypes. Male Sprague Dawley rats (250-300 g) were supplied with a venous catheter, for drug administrations, and enameled nichrome electrodes, for electromyography, at external oblique musculature. Colorectal distension (CRD) was employed as the noxious visceral stimulus and the visceromotor response (VMR) to CRD was quantified electromyographically before and 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after tianeptine administration. Antagonists were administered 10 min before tianeptine for their ability to change tianeptine antinociception. Intravenous administration of tianeptine (2.5-20 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent reduction in VMR. Administration of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg), but not 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist ketanserine (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg), reduced the antinociceptive effect of tianeptine (10mg/kg). In addition, administration of α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg/kg) or α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mg/kg) did not cause any significant effect on the tianeptine-induced antinociception. Our data indicate that intravenous tianeptine exerts a pronounced antinociception against CRD-induced visceral pain in rats, and suggests that the antinociceptive effect of tianeptine appears to be mediated in part by 5-HT(3) receptors, but does not involve 5-HT(2) receptors or α-adrenoceptors.

  16. The antinociceptive effects of intravenous tianeptine in colorectal distension-induced visceral pain in rats: the role of 5-HT₃ receptors.

    PubMed

    Bilge, S Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Ilkaya, Fatih; Ciftcioğlu, Engin; Kesim, Yüksel; Uzbay, Tayfun I

    2012-04-15

    Tianeptine is an unusual tricyclic antidepressant drug. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect of tianeptine on visceral pain in rats and to determine whether possible antinociceptive effect of tianeptine is mediated by serotonergic (5-HT(2,3)) and noradrenergic (α(1,2)) receptor subtypes. Male Sprague Dawley rats (250-300 g) were supplied with a venous catheter, for drug administrations, and enameled nichrome electrodes, for electromyography, at external oblique musculature. Colorectal distension (CRD) was employed as the noxious visceral stimulus and the visceromotor response (VMR) to CRD was quantified electromyographically before and 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after tianeptine administration. Antagonists were administered 10 min before tianeptine for their ability to change tianeptine antinociception. Intravenous administration of tianeptine (2.5-20 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent reduction in VMR. Administration of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg), but not 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist ketanserine (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg), reduced the antinociceptive effect of tianeptine (10mg/kg). In addition, administration of α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg/kg) or α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mg/kg) did not cause any significant effect on the tianeptine-induced antinociception. Our data indicate that intravenous tianeptine exerts a pronounced antinociception against CRD-induced visceral pain in rats, and suggests that the antinociceptive effect of tianeptine appears to be mediated in part by 5-HT(3) receptors, but does not involve 5-HT(2) receptors or α-adrenoceptors. PMID:22348811

  17. Omega-AB

    SciTech Connect

    Siirola, John D.; Slepoy, Alexander; Sprigg, Jr., James A.; Jorgensen, Craig R.; Selzler, Gene; Pryor, Richard J.

    2007-05-01

    A hierarchical, modular modeling environment for hybrid simulations of sequential-modular, systems dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based paradigms Omega-AB models contain a hierarchically-defined module tree that specifies the execution logic for the simulation, and a multi-network graph that defines the environment within which the simulation occurs. Modules are the fundamental buildinig blocks of an Omega-AB model and can define anything from a basic mathematical operation to a complex behavioral response model. Modules rely on the "plug-in" concept which allows developers to build independent module libraries that are gathered, linked, and instantiated by the Omega-AB engine at run time. Inter-module communication occurs through two complimentary systems: pull-based "ports" for general computation patterns and push-based "plugs" for event processing. The simulation environment is an abstract graph of nodes and links. Agents (module sub-trees headed up by an Agent module) reside at nodes and relate to their neighbors through typed links. To facilitate the construction and visualization of complex, interacting networks with dramatically different structure, Omega-AB provides a system for organizing the nodes into hierarchica trees that describe "slices" of the overall network.

  18. Omega-AB

    2007-05-01

    A hierarchical, modular modeling environment for hybrid simulations of sequential-modular, systems dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based paradigms Omega-AB models contain a hierarchically-defined module tree that specifies the execution logic for the simulation, and a multi-network graph that defines the environment within which the simulation occurs. Modules are the fundamental buildinig blocks of an Omega-AB model and can define anything from a basic mathematical operation to a complex behavioral response model. Modules rely on the "plug-in" conceptmore » which allows developers to build independent module libraries that are gathered, linked, and instantiated by the Omega-AB engine at run time. Inter-module communication occurs through two complimentary systems: pull-based "ports" for general computation patterns and push-based "plugs" for event processing. The simulation environment is an abstract graph of nodes and links. Agents (module sub-trees headed up by an Agent module) reside at nodes and relate to their neighbors through typed links. To facilitate the construction and visualization of complex, interacting networks with dramatically different structure, Omega-AB provides a system for organizing the nodes into hierarchica trees that describe "slices" of the overall network.« less

  19. Blockade of the NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus prevents the 5-HT₃ receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide-induced suppression of REM sleep in the rat.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jaime M; Jantos, Héctor; Catenaccio, Valentina; Xavier, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    The effects of the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (m-CPBG), and of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate)/kainate antagonists AP-5 [(±)-2-amino-5-phosphono-pentanoic acid] and CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione), respectively, were studied in adult male Wistar rats implanted for chronic sleep recordings. The compounds were microinjected directly into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) during the light period of the 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. Infusion of m-CPBG (2 and 4mM) into the DRN induced a significant reduction of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and of the number of REM periods. Local infusion of AP-5 (0.5-1 mM) and CNQX (2 mM) significantly increased slow wave sleep (SWS). Pretreatment with AP-5 (0.5 mM) or CNQX (0.5 mM) antagonized the m-CPBG-induced suppression of REMS. It is proposed that the reduction of REMS after microinjection of m-CPBG into de DRN is related to the activation of glutamatergic interneurons that express the 5-HT(3) receptor and make synaptic contacts with serotonergic cells. The resultant increase of serotonin release at postsynaptic sites involved in the induction of REMS would provoke the suppression of the behavioral state. Our findings provide, in addition, new details concerning the pharmacology of DRN serotonergic neurons in the rat that may become relevant to the development of drugs for enhancing cortical and subcortical serotonergic neurotransmission.

  20. Ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, an introduction to ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) has been given. Many of the basic concepts, like the Hellman-Feynman forces, the difference between the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and AIMD, have been explained. Also a very versatile AIMD code, the CP2K, has been introduced. On the application, the emphasis was on the aqueous systems and chemical reactions. The biochemical applications have not been discussed in depth.

  1. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted. PMID:26241351

  2. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-08-04

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT(2A/2C), 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted.

  3. Single cell laser dissection with molecular beacon polymerase chain reaction identifies 2A as the predominant serotonin receptor subtype in hypoglossal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Zhan, G; Shaheen, F; Mackiewicz, M; Fenik, P; Veasey, S C

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesize that sleep state-dependent withdrawal of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) at upper airway (UAW) dilator motoneurons contributes significantly to sleep-related suppression of dilator muscle activity in obstructive sleep apnea. Identification of 5-HT receptor subtypes involved in postsynaptic facilitation of UAW motoneuron activity may provide pharmacotherapies for this prevalent disorder. We have adapted two assays to provide semi-quantitative measurements of mRNA copy numbers for 5-HT receptor subtypes in single UAW motoneurons. Specifically, soma of 111 hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons in 10 adult male rats were captured using a laser dissection microscope, and then used individually in single round molecular beacon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for real-time quantitation of 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4), 5-HT(5A), 5-HT(5B), 5-HT(6) or 5-HT(7) receptor. Receptor mRNA copy numbers from single XII motoneurons were compared to control samples from within the XII nucleus and lateral medulla. All 20 motoneuronal soma assayed for the 5-HT(2A) receptor had measurable copy numbers (7028+/-2656 copies/cell). In contrast, copy numbers for the 5-HT(2A) receptor in XII non-motoneuronal (n=17) and lateral medulla (n=15) samples were 81+/-51 copies and 83+/-35 copies, respectively, P<0.05. Seven of 13 XII motoneurons assayed had measurable 5-HT(2C) receptor copy numbers of mRNA (287+/-112 copies/cell). XII soma had minimal 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4), 5-HT(5A), 5-HT(5B), 5-HT(6) or 5-HT(7) receptor mRNA. 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA presence within XII motoneurons was confirmed with digoxigenin-labeled in situ hybridization. In summary, combined use of laser dissection and molecular beacon PCR revealed 5-HT(2A) receptor as the predominant 5-HT receptor mRNA in XII motoneurons, and identified small quantities of 5-HT(2C) receptor. This information will allow a more complete understanding of serotonergic control of respiratory activity.

  4. Nucleus tractus solitarii A(2a) adenosine receptors inhibit cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of sympathetic outputs.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2014-02-01

    Previously we have shown that stimulation of inhibitory A1 adenosine receptors located in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) evoked inhibition of renal, adrenal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Activation of facilitatory A2a adenosine receptors, which dominate over A1 receptors in the NTS, contrastingly alters baseline activity of regional sympathetic outputs: it decreases renal, increases adrenal and does not change lumbar nerve activity. Considering that NTS A2a receptors may facilitate release of inhibitory transmitters we hypothesized that A2a receptors will act in concert with A1 receptors differentially inhibiting regional sympathetic CCR responses (adrenal>lumbar>renal). In urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats (n=38) we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT3 receptor agonist, phenylbiguanide, (1-8μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation, blockade or combined blockade and stimulation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors (microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 0.2-20pmol/50nl, ZM-241385 40pmol/100nl or ZM-241385+CGS-21680, respectively). We found that stimulation of A2a adenosine receptors uniformly inhibited the regional sympathetic and hemodynamic reflex responses and this effect was abolished by the selective blockade of NTS A2a receptors. This indicates that A2a receptor triggered inhibition of CCR responses and the contrasting shifts in baseline sympathetic activity are mediated via different mechanisms. These data implicate that stimulation of NTS A2a receptors triggers unknown inhibitory mechanism(s) which in turn inhibit transmission in the CCR pathway when adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hypotension. PMID:24216055

  5. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Structure and Function and Response to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Dani, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the “Cys-loop” superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that includes GABAA, glycine, and serotonin (5-HT3) receptors. There are 16 homologous mammalian nAChR subunits encoded by a multigene family. These subunits combine to form many different nAChR subtypes with various expression patterns, diverse functional properties, and differing pharmacological characteristics. Because cholinergic innervation is pervasive and nAChR expression is extremely broad, practically every area of the brain is impinged upon by nicotinic mechanisms. This review briefly examines the structural and functional properties of the receptor/channel complex itself. The review also summarizes activation and desensitization of nAChRs by the low nicotine concentrations obtained from tobacco. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure and the structural characteristics of channel gating has reached an advanced stage. Likewise, the basic functional properties of the channel also are reasonably well understood. It is these receptor/channel properties that underlie the participation of nAChRs in nearly every anatomical region of the mammalian brain. PMID:26472524

  6. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Structure and Function and Response to Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Dani, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the "Cys-loop" superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that includes GABAA, glycine, and serotonin (5-HT3) receptors. There are 16 homologous mammalian nAChR subunits encoded by a multigene family. These subunits combine to form many different nAChR subtypes with various expression patterns, diverse functional properties, and differing pharmacological characteristics. Because cholinergic innervation is pervasive and nAChR expression is extremely broad, practically every area of the brain is impinged upon by nicotinic mechanisms. This review briefly examines the structural and functional properties of the receptor/channel complex itself. The review also summarizes activation and desensitization of nAChRs by the low nicotine concentrations obtained from tobacco. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure and the structural characteristics of channel gating has reached an advanced stage. Likewise, the basic functional properties of the channel also are reasonably well understood. It is these receptor/channel properties that underlie the participation of nAChRs in nearly every anatomical region of the mammalian brain.

  7. Spinal 5-HT-receptors and tonic modulation of transmission through a withdrawal reflex pathway in the decerebrated rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R. W.; Harris, J.; Houghton, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    1. In decerebrated, non-spinalized rabbits, intrathecal administration of either of the selective 5-HT1A-receptor antagonists (S)WAY-100135 or WAY-100635 resulted in dose-dependent enhancement of the reflex responses of gastrocnemius motoneurones evoked by electrical stimulation of all myelinated afferents of the sural nerve. The approximate ED50 for WAY-100635 was 0.9 nmol and that for (S)WAY-100135 13 nmol. Intrathecal doses of the antagonists which caused maximal facilitation of reflexes in non-spinalized rabbits had no effect in spinalized preparations. 2. In non-spinalized animals, intravenous administration of (S)WAY-100135 was significantly less effective in enhancing reflexes than when it was given by the intrathecal route. 3. When given intrathecally, the selective 5-HT 2A/2C-receptor antagonist, ICI 170,809, produced a bellshaped dose-effect curve, augmenting reflexes at low doses (< or = 44 nmol), but reducing them at higher doses (982 nmol). Idazoxan, the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, was less effective in enhancing reflex responses when given intrathecally after ICI 170,809 compared to when it was given alone. Intravenous ICI 170,809 resulted only in enhancement of reflexes and the facilitatory effects of subsequent intrathecal administration of idazoxan were not compromised. 4. The selective 5-HT3-receptor blocker ondansetron faciliated gastrocnemius medialis reflex responses in a dose-related manner when given by either intrathecal or intravenous routes. This drug was slightly more potent when given i.v. and it did not alter the efficacy of subsequent intrathecal administration of idazoxan. 5. None of the antagonists had any consistent effects on arterial blood pressure or heart rate. 6. These data are consistent with the idea that, in the decrebrated rabbit, 5-HT released from descending axons has multiple roles in controlling transmission through the sural-gastrocnemius medialis reflex pathway. Thus, it appears 5-HT tonically inhibits

  8. The role of serotonin receptor subtypes in treating depression: a review of animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Gregory V.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective in treating depression. Given the existence of different families and subtypes of 5-HT receptors, multiple 5-HT receptors may be involved in the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of SSRIs. Objective Behavioral pharmacology studies investigating the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in producing or blocking the effects of SSRIs were reviewed. Results Few animal behavior tests were available to support the original development of SSRIs. Since their development, a number of behavioral tests and models of depression have been developed that are sensitive to the effects of SSRIs, as well as to other types of antidepressant treatments. The rationale for the development and use of these tests is reviewed. Behavioral effects similar to those of SSRIs (antidepressant-like) have been produced by agonists at 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, and 5-HT6 receptors. Also, antagonists at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5- HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors have been reported to produce antidepressant-like responses. Although it seems paradoxical that both agonists and antagonists at particular 5-HT receptors can produce antidepressant-like effects, they probably involve diverse neurochemical mechanisms. The behavioral effects of SSRIs and other antidepressants may also be augmented when 5-HT receptor agonists or antagonists are given in combination. Conclusions The involvement of 5-HT receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs is complex and involves the orchestration of stimulation and blockade at different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Individual 5-HT receptors provide opportunities for the development of a newer generation of antidepressants that may be more beneficial and effective than SSRIs. PMID:21107537

  9. Pharmacology of Indole and Indazole Synthetic Cannabinoid Designer Drugs AB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA, 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB-PINACA, ADBICA, and 5F-ADBICA.

    PubMed

    Banister, Samuel D; Moir, Michael; Stuart, Jordyn; Kevin, Richard C; Wood, Katie E; Longworth, Mitchell; Wilkinson, Shane M; Beinat, Corinne; Buchanan, Alexandra S; Glass, Michelle; Connor, Mark; McGregor, Iain S; Kassiou, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) designer drugs based on indole and indazole scaffolds and featuring l-valinamide or l-tert-leucinamide side chains are encountered with increasing frequency by forensic researchers and law enforcement agencies and are associated with serious adverse health effects. However, many of these novel SCs are unprecedented in the scientific literature at the time of their discovery, and little is known of their pharmacology. Here, we report the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of AB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA, 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB-PINACA, ADBICA, 5F-ADBICA, and several analogues. All synthesized SCs acted as high potency agonists of CB1 (EC50 = 0.24-21 nM) and CB2 (EC50 = 0.88-15 nM) receptors in a fluorometric assay of membrane potential, with 5F-ADB-PINACA showing the greatest potency at CB1 receptors. The cannabimimetic activities of AB-FUBINACA and AB-PINACA in vivo were evaluated in rats using biotelemetry. AB-FUBINACA and AB-PINACA dose-dependently induced hypothermia and bradycardia at doses of 0.3-3 mg/kg, and hypothermia was reversed by pretreatment with a CB1 (but not CB2) antagonist, indicating that these SCs are cannabimimetic in vivo, consistent with anecdotal reports of psychoactivity in humans. PMID:26134475

  10. Ab interno trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Pantcheva, Mina B; Kahook, Malik Y

    2010-10-01

    Anterior chamber drainage angle surgery, namely trabeculotomy and goniotomy, has been commonly utilized in children for many years. Its' reported success has ranged between 68% and 100% in infants and young children with congenital glaucoma. However, the long-term success of these procedures has been limited in adults presumably due to the formation of anterior synechiae (AS) in the postoperative phase. Recently, ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome™ has emerged as a novel surgical approach to effectively and selectively remove and ablate the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of the Schlemm's canal in an attempt to avoid AS formation or other forms of wound healing with resultant closure of the cleft. This procedure seems to have an appealing safety profile with respect to early hypotony or infection if compared to trabeculectomy or glaucoma drainage device implantation. This might be advantageous in some of the impoverish regions of the Middle East and Africa where patients experience difficulties keeping up with their postoperative visits. It is important to note that no randomized trial comparing the Trabectome to other glaucoma procedures appears to have been published to date. Trabectome surgery is not a panacea, however, and it is associated with early postoperative intraocular pressure spikes that may require additional glaucoma surgery as well as a high incidence of hyphema. Reported results show that postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) remains, at best, in the mid-teen range making it undesirable in patients with low-target IOP goals. A major advantage of Trabectome surgery is that it does not preclude further glaucoma surgery involving the conjunctiva, such as a trabeculectomy or drainage device implantation. As prospective randomized long-term clinical data become available, we will be better positioned to elucidate the exact role of this technique in the glaucoma surgical armamentarium. PMID:21180426

  11. Autonomous Biological System (ABS) experiments.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, T K; Anderson, G A; Poynter, J E; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

    1998-12-01

    Three space flight experiments have been conducted to test and demonstrate the use of a passively controlled, materially closed, bioregenerative life support system in space. The Autonomous Biological System (ABS) provides an experimental environment for long term growth and breeding of aquatic plants and animals. The ABS is completely materially closed, isolated from human life support systems and cabin atmosphere contaminants, and requires little need for astronaut intervention. Testing of the ABS marked several firsts: the first aquatic angiosperms to be grown in space; the first higher organisms (aquatic invertebrate animals) to complete their life cycles in space; the first completely bioregenerative life support system in space; and, among the first gravitational ecology experiments. As an introduction this paper describes the ABS, its flight performance, advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Characterization of the mechanism of action of the genetically modified Cry1AbMod toxin that is active against Cry1Ab-resistant insects.

    PubMed

    Muñóz-Garay, Carlos; Portugal, Leivi; Pardo-López, Liliana; Jiménez-Juárez, Nuria; Arenas, Ivan; Gómez, Isabel; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Arroyo, Raquel; Holzenburg, Andreas; Savva, Christos G; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2009-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used in the control of insect pests. They are pore-forming toxins with a complex mechanism that involves the sequential interaction with receptors. They are produced as protoxins, which are activated by midgut proteases. Activated toxin binds to cadherin receptor, inducing an extra cleavage including helix alpha-1, facilitating the formation of a pre-pore oligomer. The toxin oligomer binds to secondary receptors such as aminopeptidase and inserts into lipid rafts forming pores and causing larval death. The primary threat to efficacy of Bt-toxins is the evolution of insect resistance. Engineered Cry1AMod toxins, devoid of helix alpha-1, could be used for the control of resistance in lepidopterans by bypassing the altered cadherin receptor, killing resistant insects affected in this receptor. Here we analyzed the mechanism of action of Cry1AbMod. We found that alkaline pH and the presence of membrane lipids facilitates the oligomerization of Cry1AbMod. In addition, tryptophan fluorescence emission spectra, ELISA binding to pure aminopeptidase receptor, calcein release assay and analysis of ionic-conductance in planar lipid bilayers, indicated that the secondary steps in mode of action that take place after interaction with cadherin receptor such as oligomerization, receptor binding and pore formation are similar in the Cry1AbMod and in the wild type Cry1Ab. Finally, the membrane-associated structure of Cry1AbMod oligomer was analyzed by electron crystallography showing that it forms a complex with a trimeric organization. PMID:19559004

  13. Characterization of the mechanism of action of the genetically modified Cry1AbMod toxin that is active against Cry1Ab-resistant insects.

    PubMed

    Muñóz-Garay, Carlos; Portugal, Leivi; Pardo-López, Liliana; Jiménez-Juárez, Nuria; Arenas, Ivan; Gómez, Isabel; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Arroyo, Raquel; Holzenburg, Andreas; Savva, Christos G; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2009-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used in the control of insect pests. They are pore-forming toxins with a complex mechanism that involves the sequential interaction with receptors. They are produced as protoxins, which are activated by midgut proteases. Activated toxin binds to cadherin receptor, inducing an extra cleavage including helix alpha-1, facilitating the formation of a pre-pore oligomer. The toxin oligomer binds to secondary receptors such as aminopeptidase and inserts into lipid rafts forming pores and causing larval death. The primary threat to efficacy of Bt-toxins is the evolution of insect resistance. Engineered Cry1AMod toxins, devoid of helix alpha-1, could be used for the control of resistance in lepidopterans by bypassing the altered cadherin receptor, killing resistant insects affected in this receptor. Here we analyzed the mechanism of action of Cry1AbMod. We found that alkaline pH and the presence of membrane lipids facilitates the oligomerization of Cry1AbMod. In addition, tryptophan fluorescence emission spectra, ELISA binding to pure aminopeptidase receptor, calcein release assay and analysis of ionic-conductance in planar lipid bilayers, indicated that the secondary steps in mode of action that take place after interaction with cadherin receptor such as oligomerization, receptor binding and pore formation are similar in the Cry1AbMod and in the wild type Cry1Ab. Finally, the membrane-associated structure of Cry1AbMod oligomer was analyzed by electron crystallography showing that it forms a complex with a trimeric organization.

  14. Effect of palonosetron (5HT-3 antagonist) and pantoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) against surgical esophagitis induced by forestomach and pylorus ligation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Gautam, S; Rawat, J K; Singh, M; Saraf, S A; Kaithwas, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was embarked upon to evaluate the effects of pantoprazole and palonosetron on experimental esophagitis in albino wistar rats. Groups of rats, fasted for 36 h, were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation, supervened by treatment with normal saline (3 ml/kg, po, sham control), esophagitis control (3 ml/kg, po), pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, po), palonosetron (0.5 mg/kg, po), and their combination. Animals were sacrificed after 12 h and appraised for the volume of gastric juices, total acidity, free acidity, and esophagitis index. Esophageal tissues were further figured out biochemically for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. The combination therapy comparably inhibited the esophagitis index (52.86%), gastric volume (66.04%), free acidity (43.76%), and total acidity (42.60%) in comparison with toxic control. The combination therapy also subsidized the biochemical and inflammatory markers to the purview less than toxic control. The morphological changes were scrutinized by scanning electron microscopy and were observed to demonstrate momentous protection by the amalgamation therapy. Combination therapy with pantoprazole and palonosetron flaunted sententious protection against experimental esophagitis.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Leukocidin A/B (LukAB) Kills Human Monocytes via Host NLRP3 and ASC when Extracellular, but Not Intracellular

    PubMed Central

    DuMont, Ashley L.; Torres, Victor J.; Duncan, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing health burden worldwide, and paramount to this bacterium’s pathogenesis is the production of virulence factors, including pore-forming leukotoxins. Leukocidin A/B (LukAB) is a recently discovered toxin that kills primary human phagocytes, though the underlying mechanism of cell death is not understood. We demonstrate here that LukAB is a major contributor to the death of human monocytes. Using a variety of in vitro and ex vivo intoxication and infection models, we found that LukAB activates Caspase 1, promotes IL-1β secretion and induces necrosis in human monocytes. Using THP1 cells as a model for human monocytes, we found that the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC are required for LukAB-mediated IL-1β secretion and necrotic cell death. S. aureus was shown to kill human monocytes in a LukAB dependent manner under both extracellular and intracellular ex vivo infection models. Although LukAB-mediated killing of THP1 monocytes from extracellular S. aureus requires ASC, NLRP3 and the LukAB-receptor CD11b, LukAB-mediated killing from phagocytosed S. aureus is independent of ASC or NLRP3, but dependent on CD11b. Altogether, this study provides insight into the nature of LukAB-mediated killing of human monocytes. The discovery that S. aureus LukAB provokes differential host responses in a manner dependent on the cellular contact site is critical for the development of anti-infective/anti-inflammatory therapies that target the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:26069969

  16. AB173. TR4 nuclear receptor increases prostate cancer invasion via decreasing the miR-373-3p expression to alter TGFβR2/p-Smad3 signals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guosheng; Qiu, Xiaofo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which may play key roles to influence the metabolic diseases and prostate tumorigenesis. The purpose of our study is to elucidate the mechanisms how TR4 influences the prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis. Methods We constructed three different PCa cell lines including C4-2, PC3 and CWR22Rv1 with differential stable expression of TR4. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to validate identified downstream genes. To explore the function of genes, we manipulated cells 2D and 3D invasion assays and mice experiment. Results we found TR4 could promote PCa cell invasion using two different cell invasion assays. Mechanism dissection revealed that TR4 might enhance PCa cell invasion via modulation of the microRNA-373-3p (miR-373-3p) expression. An interruption approach using miR-373-3p partially reversed TR4-enhanced PCa cell invasion. Furthermore, we found TR4-miR-373-3p might function through modulation of the TGFβR2/p-Smad3 signals to enhance the PCa cell invasion. The in vivo mouse model using orthotopic xenografted CWR22Rv1 cell line transfected with luciferase-reporter also confirmed in vitro cell line studies showing TR4 enhanced PCa metastasis via modulation of miR-373-3p. Conclusions Our data suggest that TR4 may represent a key player to influence the PCa metastasis and targeting TR4 miR-373-3p→ TGFβR2/p-Smad3 axis using TR4 antagonist or TR4-siRNA or miR-373-3p may become a new potential therapeutic approach to better suppress PCa metastasis.

  17. N-Benzylpiperidine Derivatives as α7 Nicotinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Criado, Manuel; Mulet, José; Sala, Francisco; Sala, Salvador; Colmena, Inés; Gandía, Luis; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Chioua, Mourad; Marco-Contelles, José

    2016-08-17

    A series of multitarget directed propargylamines, as well as other differently susbstituted piperidines have been screened as potential modulators of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Most of them showed antagonist actions on α7 nAChRs. Especially, compounds 13, 26, and 38 displayed submicromolar IC50 values on homomeric α7 nAChRs, whereas they were less effective on heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs (up to 20-fold higher IC50 values in the case of 13). Antagonism was concentration dependent and noncompetitive, suggesting that these compounds behave as negative allosteric modulators of nAChRs. Upon the study of a series of less complex derivatives, the N-benzylpiperidine motif, common to these compounds, was found to be the main pharmacophoric group. Thus, 2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-ethylamine (48) showed an inhibitory potency comparable to the one of the previous compounds and also a clear preference for α7 nAChRs. In a neuroblastoma cell line, representative compounds 13 and 48 also inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, cytosolic Ca(2+) signals mediated by nAChRs. Finally, compounds 38 and 13 inhibited 5-HT3A serotonin receptors whereas they had no effect on α1 glycine receptors. Given the multifactorial nature of many pathologies in which nAChRs are involved, these piperidine antagonists could have a therapeutic potential in cases where cholinergic activity has to be negatively modulated. PMID:27254782

  18. Glutamate receptor antibodies in neurological diseases: anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, anti-mGluR1 antibodies or anti-mGluR5 antibodies are present in subpopulations of patients with either: epilepsy, encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, schizophrenia, mania or stroke. These autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies can bind neurons in few brain regions, activate glutamate receptors, decrease glutamate receptor's expression, impair glutamate-induced signaling and function, activate blood brain barrier endothelial cells, kill neurons, damage the brain, induce behavioral/psychiatric/cognitive abnormalities and ataxia in animal models, and can be removed or silenced in some patients by immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Levite, Mia

    2014-08-01

    pathological effects: they activate glutamate/AMPA receptors, kill neurons by 'Excitotoxicity', and/or by complement activation modulated by complement regulatory proteins, cause multiple brain damage, aggravate chemoconvulsant-induced seizures, and also induce behavioral/motor impairments. Some patients with 'Autoimmune Epilepsy' that have anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies respond well (although sometimes transiently) to immunotherapy, and thanks to that have reduced seizures and overall improved neurological functions. (2) Anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies are present in patients with autoimmune 'Anti-NMDA-receptor Encephalitis'. In humans, in animal models and in vitro the anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies can be very pathogenic since they can cause a pronounced decrease of surface NMDA receptors expressed in hippocampal neurons, and also decrease the cluster density and synaptic localization of the NMDA receptors. The anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies induce these effects by crosslinking and internalization of the NMDA receptors. Such changes can impair glutamate signaling via the NMDA receptors and lead to various neuronal/behavior/cognitive/psychiatric abnormalities. Anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies are frequently present in high levels in the CSF of the patients with 'Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis' due to their intrathecal production. Many patients with 'Anti-NMDA receptor Encephalitis' respond well to several modes of immunotherapy. (3) Anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies are present in a substantial number of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with or without neuropsychiatric problems. The exact percentage of SLE patients having anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies varies in different studies from 14 to 35%, and in one study such antibodies were found in 81% of patients with diffuse 'Neuropshychiatric SLE', and in 44% of patients with focal 'Neuropshychiatric SLE'. Anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies are also present in subpopulations of patients with Epilepsy of several types, Encephalitis of several types (e

  19. Mutations of L293 in transmembrane two of the mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine3A receptor alter gating and alcohol modulatory actions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Hayrapetyan, Volodya; Gadhiya, Jay J; Rhubottom, Heather E; Lovinger, David M; Machu, Tina K

    2006-05-01

    1 The goal of this study was to determine whether mutations of L293 at the 15' position of TM2 in the 5-HT(3A) receptor alter macroscopic current kinetics, and if these changes could account for alterations in alcohol modulation. Receptor function was assessed in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and in HEK293 cells with whole-cell patch-clamp recording and rapid drug application. 2 Examination of responses of L293C and L293S receptors to agonist alone revealed enhanced activation, deactivation, and desensitization rates relative to the wild-type receptor. The L293G mutation produced marked slowing of deactivation and desensitization rates. Increased potency of 5-HT and increased efficacy of the partial agonist, DA, was also observed in these mutant receptors. 3 Ethanol and trichloroethanol (TCEt) enhancement of receptor function was reduced or eliminated in receptors containing L293 mutations to C, G, or S. The L293I mutant receptor retained ethanol and TCEt sensitivity. Ethanol and TCEt enhanced activation rate in the wild-type, but not the L293G and L293S receptors. No relationship was observed between any physicochemical property of the substituted amino acids and the change in alcohol potentiation of function. 4 The changes in receptor-channel properties in the mutant receptors support the idea that the L293 residue has important roles in channel gating. Our findings indicate that loss of allosteric modulation by alcohols is not related in any simple way to changes in channel kinetic properties brought about by L293 mutants. We did not observe any evidence that L293 is part of an alcohol binding site. PMID:16520747

  20. Severe hemorrhage attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via NTS adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-15

    Selective stimulation of inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2a adenosine receptor subtypes located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) powerfully inhibits cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) control of regional sympathetic outputs via different mechanisms: direct inhibition of glutamate release and facilitation of an inhibitory neurotransmitter release, respectively. However, it remains unknown whether adenosine naturally released into the NTS has similar inhibitory effects on the CCR as the exogenous agonists do. Our previous study showed that adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hemorrhage and contributes to reciprocal changes of renal (decreases) and adrenal (increases) sympathetic nerve activity observed in this setting. Both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors are involved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that, during severe hemorrhage, CCR control of the two sympathetic outputs is attenuated by adenosine naturally released into the NTS. We compared renal and adrenal sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by right atrial injections of 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (2-8 μg/kg) under control conditions, during hemorrhage, and during hemorrhage preceded by blockade of NTS adenosine receptors with bilateral microinjections of 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats. CCR-mediated inhibition of renal and adrenal sympathetic activity was significantly attenuated during severe hemorrhage despite reciprocal changes in the baseline activity levels, and this attenuation was removed by bilateral blockade of adenosine receptors in the caudal NTS. This confirmed that adenosine endogenously released into the NTS has a similar modulatory effect on integration of cardiovascular reflexes as stimulation of NTS adenosine receptors with exogenous agonists.

  1. Severe hemorrhage attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via NTS adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-15

    Selective stimulation of inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2a adenosine receptor subtypes located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) powerfully inhibits cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) control of regional sympathetic outputs via different mechanisms: direct inhibition of glutamate release and facilitation of an inhibitory neurotransmitter release, respectively. However, it remains unknown whether adenosine naturally released into the NTS has similar inhibitory effects on the CCR as the exogenous agonists do. Our previous study showed that adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hemorrhage and contributes to reciprocal changes of renal (decreases) and adrenal (increases) sympathetic nerve activity observed in this setting. Both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors are involved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that, during severe hemorrhage, CCR control of the two sympathetic outputs is attenuated by adenosine naturally released into the NTS. We compared renal and adrenal sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by right atrial injections of 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (2-8 μg/kg) under control conditions, during hemorrhage, and during hemorrhage preceded by blockade of NTS adenosine receptors with bilateral microinjections of 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats. CCR-mediated inhibition of renal and adrenal sympathetic activity was significantly attenuated during severe hemorrhage despite reciprocal changes in the baseline activity levels, and this attenuation was removed by bilateral blockade of adenosine receptors in the caudal NTS. This confirmed that adenosine endogenously released into the NTS has a similar modulatory effect on integration of cardiovascular reflexes as stimulation of NTS adenosine receptors with exogenous agonists. PMID:25063794

  2. The mAb against adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2E4 attenuates the inflammation in the mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity via toll-like receptor 4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wang; Lv, Xiaobo; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-03-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) plays an important role in fatty acid-mediated processes and related metabolic and inflammatory responses. In this study, we prepared a novel monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, designated 2E4. Our data showed that 2E4 specifically binded to the recombinant A-FABP and native A-FABP of mice adipose tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of 2E4 on metabolic and inflammatory responses in C57BL/6J obese mice fed on a high fat diet. 2E4 administration improved glucose response in high-fat-diet induced obese mice. The 2E4 treated groups exhibited lower free fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a concentration-dependent manner. These changes were accompanied by down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and interleukin-6. Meanwhile, our data demonstrated that 2E4 significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of A-FABP in adipose tissue of mice. Further experiments showed that 2E4 notably suppressed the phosphorylation of IκBα and jun-N-terminal kinase through toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. Taken together, 2E4 is an effective monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, which attenuated the inflammatory responses induced in the high-fat-diet mice. These findings may provide scientific insight into the treatment of chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity.

  3. AB 1725: A Comprehensive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Board of Governors.

    A summary and analysis is provided of California Assembly Bill (AB) 1725, a reform bill that provides new direction and support for the state's community colleges. The analysis addresses each of the eight sections of the bill: (1) mission, highlighting reforms related to mission statements, transfer core curriculum, remedial limits, articulation…

  4. Oxymetazoline inhibits adenylate cyclase by activation of serotonin-1 receptors in the OK cell, an established renal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T J; Bylund, D B

    1988-07-01

    The nonselective alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline inhibits parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated cAMP production in intact OK cells, an epithelial cell line derived from an American opossum kidney. This inhibition, however, is not blocked by alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists. After excluding several alternate hypotheses to explain this anomalous activity of oxymetazoline, we hypothesized that oxymetazoline activates a receptor in OK cells that is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase but distinct from the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor. Prior exposure of OK cells to pertussis toxin blocks the inhibitory response to oxymetazoline, suggesting involvement of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein. Screening various compounds for attenuation of PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase showed that serotonin (5HT) is a potent and fully efficacious agonist. Desensitization of alpha 2-receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP production by epinephrine did not alter the response to either 5HT or oxymetazoline, indicating that these compounds do not produce their effect by activating alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. The 5HT1 receptor-selective antagonist methiothepin, but not ketanserin (5HT2-selective) or ICS-205,930 (5HT3-selective), blocked the response to both 5HT and oxymetazoline. The potency of methiothepin for antagonizing oxymetazoline-induced inhibition of PTH-stimulated cAMP production was not significantly different from its potency for the 5HT-induced effect. These data indicate that OK cells express a 5HT1 receptor that is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase and that oxymetazoline is an agonist at these receptors.

  5. AB-CHMINACA, AB-PINACA, and FUBIMINA: Affinity and Potency of Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids in Producing Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol–Like Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marusich, Julie A.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Antonazzo, Kateland R.; Wallgren, Michael T.; Cortes, Ricardo A.; Patel, Purvi R.; Grabenauer, Megan; Moore, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of synthetic cannabinoids for abuse began in the early 2000s. Despite legislation banning compounds currently on the drug market, illicit manufacturers continue to release new compounds for recreational use. This study examined new synthetic cannabinoids, AB-CHMINACA (N-[1-amino-3-methyl-oxobutan-2-yl]-1-[cyclohexylmethyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide), AB-PINACA [N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide], and FUBIMINA [(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-benzo[d]imadazol-2-yl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone], with the hypothesis that these compounds, like those before them, would be highly susceptible to abuse. Cannabinoids were examined in vitro for binding and activation of CB1 receptors, and in vivo for pharmacological effects in mice and in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) discrimination. AB-CHMINACA, AB-PINACA, and FUBIMINA bound to and activated CB1 and CB2 receptors, and produced locomotor suppression, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy. Furthermore, these compounds, along with JWH-018 [1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole], CP47,497 [rel-5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol], and WIN55,212-2 ([(3R)-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone, monomethanesulfonate), substituted for Δ9-THC in Δ9-THC discrimination. Rank order of potency correlated with CB1 receptor-binding affinity, and all three compounds were full agonists in [35S]GTPγS binding, as compared with the partial agonist Δ9-THC. Indeed, AB-CHMINACA and AB-PINACA exhibited higher efficacy than most known full agonists of the CB1 receptor. Preliminary analysis of urinary metabolites of the compounds revealed the expected hydroxylation. AB-PINACA and AB-CHMINACA are of potential interest as research tools due to their unique chemical structures and high CB1 receptor efficacies. Further studies on these chemicals are likely to include research on understanding cannabinoid receptors

  6. AB-CHMINACA, AB-PINACA, and FUBIMINA: Affinity and Potency of Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids in Producing Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Like Effects in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jenny L; Marusich, Julie A; Lefever, Timothy W; Antonazzo, Kateland R; Wallgren, Michael T; Cortes, Ricardo A; Patel, Purvi R; Grabenauer, Megan; Moore, Katherine N; Thomas, Brian F

    2015-09-01

    Diversion of synthetic cannabinoids for abuse began in the early 2000s. Despite legislation banning compounds currently on the drug market, illicit manufacturers continue to release new compounds for recreational use. This study examined new synthetic cannabinoids, AB-CHMINACA (N-[1-amino-3-methyl-oxobutan-2-yl]-1-[cyclohexylmethyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide), AB-PINACA [N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide], and FUBIMINA [(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-benzo[d]imadazol-2-yl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone], with the hypothesis that these compounds, like those before them, would be highly susceptible to abuse. Cannabinoids were examined in vitro for binding and activation of CB1 receptors, and in vivo for pharmacological effects in mice and in Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) discrimination. AB-CHMINACA, AB-PINACA, and FUBIMINA bound to and activated CB1 and CB2 receptors, and produced locomotor suppression, antinociception, hypothermia, and catalepsy. Furthermore, these compounds, along with JWH-018 [1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole], CP47,497 [rel-5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol], and WIN55,212-2 ([(3R)-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone, monomethanesulfonate), substituted for Δ(9)-THC in Δ(9)-THC discrimination. Rank order of potency correlated with CB1 receptor-binding affinity, and all three compounds were full agonists in [(35)S]GTPγS binding, as compared with the partial agonist Δ(9)-THC. Indeed, AB-CHMINACA and AB-PINACA exhibited higher efficacy than most known full agonists of the CB1 receptor. Preliminary analysis of urinary metabolites of the compounds revealed the expected hydroxylation. AB-PINACA and AB-CHMINACA are of potential interest as research tools due to their unique chemical structures and high CB1 receptor efficacies. Further studies on these chemicals are likely to include research on understanding cannabinoid

  7. Crystal structure of acetylcholine-binding protein from Bulinus truncatus reveals the conserved structural scaffold and sites of variation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Celie, Patrick H N; Klaassen, Remco V; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sarah E; van Elk, René; van Nierop, Pim; Smit, August B; Sixma, Titia K

    2005-07-15

    The crystal structure of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis is the established model for the ligand binding domains of the ligand-gated ion channel family, which includes nicotinic acetylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), types A and C, and glycine receptors. Here we present the crystal structure of a remote homolog, AChBP from Bulinus truncatus, which reveals both the conserved structural scaffold and the sites of variation in this receptor family. These include rigid body movements of loops that are close to the transmembrane interface in the receptors and changes in the intermonomer contacts, which alter the pentamer stability drastically. Structural, pharmacological and mutational analysis of both AChBPs shows how 3 amino acid changes in the binding site contribute to a 5-10-fold difference in affinity for nicotinic ligands. Comparison of these structures will be valuable for improving structure-function studies of ligand-gated ion channel receptors, including signal transduction, homology modeling, and drug design. PMID:15899893

  8. Yeast killer toxin-like candidacidal Ab6 antibodies elicited through the manipulation of the idiotypic cascade.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, Luciano; Beninati, Concetta; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Lo Passo, Carla; Pernice, Ida; Domina, Maria; Arigò, Milena; Papasergi, Salvatore; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A mouse anti-anti-anti-idiotypic (Id) IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb K20, Ab4), functionally mimicking a Wyckerhamomyces anomalus (Pichia anomala) killer toxin (KT) characterized by fungicidal activity against yeasts presenting specific cell wall receptors (KTR) mainly constituted by β-1,3-glucan, was produced from animals presenting anti-KT Abs (Ab3) following immunization with a rat IgM anti-Id KT-like mAb (mAb K10, Ab2). MAb K10 was produced by immunization with a KT-neutralizing mAb (mAb KT4, Ab1) bearing the internal image of KTR. MAb K20, likewise mAb K10, proved to be fungicidal in vitro against KT-sensitive Candida albicans cells, an activity neutralized by mAb KT4, and was capable of binding to β-1,3-glucan. MAb K20 and mAb K10 competed with each other and with KT for binding to C. albicans KTR. MAb K20 was used to identify peptide mimics of KTR by the selection of phage clones from random peptide phage display libraries. Using this strategy, four peptides (TK 1-4) were selected and used as immunogen in mice in the form of either keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugates or peptide-encoding minigenes. Peptide and DNA immunization could induce serum Abs characterized by candidacidal activity, which was inhibited by laminarin, a soluble β-1,3-glucan, but not by pustulan, a β-1,6-glucan. These findings show that the idiotypic cascade can not only overcome the barrier of animal species but also the nature of immunogens and the type of technology adopted. PMID:25162681

  9. Activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors inhibits regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreflex.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2012-09-01

    Previously we have shown that adenosine operating via the A(1) receptor subtype may inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the baroreflex arc within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and differentially increase renal (RSNA), preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA>RSNA≥LSNA). Since the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex and the arterial baroreflex are mediated via similar medullary pathways, and glutamate is a primary transmitter in both pathways, it is likely that adenosine operating via A(1) receptors in the NTS may differentially inhibit regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors. Therefore, in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 37) we compared regional sympathoinhibition evoked by the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (activated with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT(3) receptor agonist phenylbiguanide, PBG, 1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors [microinjections of N(6)-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), 0.033-330 pmol/50 nl]. Activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors evoked differential, dose-dependent sympathoinhibition (RSNA>ASNA>LSNA), and decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. These differential sympathetic responses were uniformly attenuated in dose-dependent manner by microinjections of CPA into the NTS. Volume control (n = 11) and blockade of adenosine receptor subtypes in the NTS via 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 1 nmol in 100 nl) (n = 9) did not affect the reflex responses. We conclude that activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors uniformly inhibits neural and cardiovascular cardiopulmonary chemoreflex responses. A(1) adenosine receptors have no tonic modulatory effect on this reflex under normal conditions. However, when adenosine is released into the NTS (i.e., during stress or severe hypotension/ischemia), it may serve as negative feedback regulator for depressor and sympathoinhibitory reflexes

  10. Pharmacokinetics of anti-hepcidin monoclonal antibody Ab 12B9m and hepcidin in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jim J; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Wang, Yow-Ming; Li, Hongyan; Rose, Mark J; Ma, Mark; Wu, Yuling; Hinkle, Beth; Perez-Ruixo, Juan Jose

    2010-12-01

    Hepcidin is a key regulator responsible for systemic iron homeostasis. A semi-mechanistic PK model for hepcidin and a fully human anti-hepcidin monoclonal antibody (Ab 12B9m) was developed to describe their total (free + bound) serum concentration-time data after single and multiple weekly intravenous or subcutaneous doses of Ab 12B9m. The model was based on target mediated drug disposition and the IgG-FcRn interaction concepts published previously. Both total Ab 12B9m and total hepcidin exhibited nonlinear kinetics due to saturable Fc-FcRn interaction. Ab 12B9m showed a limited volume of distribution and negligible linear elimination from serum. The nonlinear elimination of Ab 12B9m was attributed to the endosomal degradation of Ab 12B9m that was not bound to the FcRn receptor. The terminal half-life, assumed to be the same for free and total serum Ab 12B9m, was estimated to be 16.5 days. The subcutaneous absorption of Ab 12B9m was described with a first-order absorption rate constant k(a) of 0.0278 h⁻¹, with 86% bioavailability. The model suggested a rapid hepcidin clearance of approximately 800 mL h⁻¹ kg⁻¹. Only the highest-tested Ab 12B9m dose of 300 mg kg⁻¹ week⁻¹ was able to maintain free hepcidin level below the baseline during the dosing intervals. Free Ab 12B9m and free hepcidin concentrations were simulated, and their PK profiles were nonlinear as affected by their binding to each other. Additionally, the total amount of FcRn receptor involved in Ab 12B9m recycling at a given time was calculated empirically, and the temporal changes in the free FcRn levels upon Ab 12B9m administration were inferred. PMID:20737261

  11. Ameliorating effects of tropisetron on dopaminergic disruption of prepulse inhibition via the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kohnomi, Shuntaro; Suemaru, Katsuya; Goda, Mitsunori; Choshi, Tominari; Hibino, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Araki, Hiroaki

    2010-09-24

    Nicotine has ameliorating effects on sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. We have shown that nicotine ameliorated disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) via the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Wistar rats. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist tropisetron was recently found to be an alpha(7) nAChR partial agonist. We initially investigated the effects of tropisetron on disruption of PPI induced by phencyclidine (PCP) (2mg/kg) or apomorphine (1mg/kg). Tropisetron had no effect on the disruption of PPI induced by PCP, but ameliorated the disruption by apomorphine. The ameliorating effect of tropisetron was antagonized by methyllycaconitine (2 or 5mg/kg), a partially selective alpha(7) nAChR antagonist. Next, to find the action site of tropisetron, we examined c-Fos protein expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsolateral striatum (DLst) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Tropisetron alone did not change the number of c-Fos-positive cells, whereas apomorphine increased the number of positive cells in the NAc and DLst. Tropisetron administration followed by apomorphine administration decreased the number of positive cells in the VTA compared with the apomorphine-alone group. These results suggest that tropisetron has an ameliorating effect on the sensorimotor gating deficits via the alpha(7) nAChR, and that one possible site of its action is the VTA.

  12. Identification of a new component of the agonist binding site of the nicotinic alpha 7 homooligomeric receptor.

    PubMed

    Corringer, P J; Galzi, J L; Eiselé, J L; Bertrand, S; Changeux, J P; Bertrand, D

    1995-05-19

    Tryptophan 54 of the alpha 7 neuronal nicotinic homooligomeric receptor is homologous to gamma-Trp-55 and delta-Trp-57 of non-alpha subunits of Torpedo receptor labeled by d-tubocurarine. This residue was mutated on the alpha 7-V201-5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)3 homooligomeric chimera, which displays alpha 7 nicotinic pharmacology, and for which both equilibrium binding studies and electrophysiological recordings could be carried out in parallel. Replacement of Trp-54 by a Phe, Ala, or His causes a progressive decrease both in binding affinity and in responses (EC50 or IC50) for acetylcholine, nicotine, and dihydro-beta-erythroidine, without significant modification in alpha-Bgtx binding. Except for Gln-56, comparatively small effects are observed when the other residues of the 52-58 region are mutated into alanine. These data support the participation of Trp-54 to ligand binding, and provide evidence for a new "complementary component" of the alpha 7 nicotinic binding site, distinct from its three-loop "principal component," and homologous to the "non-alpha component" present on gamma and delta subunits.

  13. Receptor-Selective Agonists Induce Emesis and Fos Expression in the Brain and Enteric Nervous System of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Andrew P.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms of emesis has implicated multiple neurotransmitters via both central (dorsal vagal complex) and peripheral (enteric neurons and enterochromaffin cells) anatomical substrates. Taking advantage of advances in receptor-specific agonists, and utilizing Fos expression as a functional activity marker, this study demonstrates a strong, but incomplete, overlap in anatomical substrates for a variety of emetogens. We used cisplatin and specific agonists to 5-HT3 serotonergic, D2/D3 dopaminergic, and NK1 tachykininergic receptors to induce vomiting in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva), and quantified the resulting Fos expression. The least shrew is a small mammal whose responses to emetic challenges are very similar to its human counterparts. In all cases, the enteric nervous system, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus demonstrated significantly increased Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). However, Fos-IR induction was notably absent from the area postrema following the dopaminergic and NK1 receptor-specific agents. Two brain nuclei not usually discussed regarding emesis, the dorsal raphe nucleus and paraventricular thalamic nucleus, also demonstrated increased emesis-related Fos-IR. Taken together, these data suggest the dorsal vagal complex is part of a common pathway for a variety of distinct emetogens, but there are central emetic substrates, both medullary and diencephalic, that can be accessed without directly stimulating the area postrema. PMID:19699757

  14. Inhibitory FcγRIIb (CD32b) becomes activated by therapeutic mAb in both cis and trans and drives internalization according to antibody specificity.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Iriyama, Chisako; Beers, Stephen A; Chan, Claude H T; Lim, Sean H; Williams, Emily L; Shah, Vallari; Roghanian, Ali; Frendéus, Bjorn; Glennie, Martin J; Cragg, Mark S

    2014-01-30

    A major feature that distinguishes type I from type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and reduces their therapeutic efficacy is the tendency to internalize from the cell surface. We have shown previously that the extent of internalization correlates with the capacity of type I mAb to simultaneously engage both CD20 and the inhibitory Fcγ receptor, FcγRIIb, in a bipolar configuration. Here, we investigated whether mAbs directed at other B-cell surface receptors also engaged FcγRIIb and whether this interaction promoted internalization. Most mAbs engaged and activated FcγRIIb, with the strength of activation related to the level of mAb bound to the cell surface. However, engagement did not affect internalization of most mAb-ligated receptors, either in cell lines or primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with the exception of CD19 and CD38. Furthermore, at high cell concentrations/density both cis and trans interactions between cell-surface bound mAb and FcγRIIb were evident, but trans interactions did not inhibit type I anti-CD20 mAb-mediated internalization. These data identify that FcγRIIb is engaged by many mAbs in both cis and trans configurations, triggering its activation, but that internalization via FcγRIIb occurs for only a select subset. These findings have implications when designing new antibody-based therapeutics.

  15. AB INITIO AND CALPHAD THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A

    2004-04-14

    Ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement CALPHAD in two major ways for subsequent applications to stability in complex alloys. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics {acute a} la CALPHAD. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys.

  16. mRNA expression profile of serotonin receptor subtypes and distribution of serotonergic terminations in marmoset brain

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Rammohan; Watakabe, Akiya; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    To better understand serotonin function in the primate brain, we examined the mRNA expression patterns of all the 13 members of the serotonin receptor (5HTR) family, by in situ hybridization (ISH) and the distribution of serotonergic terminations by serotonin transporter (SERT) protein immunohistochemical analysis. Ten of the 13 5HTRs showed significant mRNA expressions in the marmoset brain. Our study shows several new features of the organization of serotonergic systems in the marmoset brain. (1) The thalamus expressed only a limited number of receptor subtypes compared with the cortex, hippocampus, and other subcortical regions. (2) In the cortex, there are layer-selective and area-selective mRNA expressions of 5HTRs. (3) Highly localized mRNA expressions of 5HT1F and 5HT3A were observed. (4) There was a conspicuous overlap of the mRNA expressions of receptor subtypes known to have somatodendritic localization of receptor proteins with dense serotonergic terminations in the visual cortex, the central lateral (CL) nucleus of the thalamus, the presubiculum, and the medial mammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. This suggests a high correlation between serotonin availability and receptor expression at these locations. (5) The 5HTRs show differences in mRNA expression pattern between the marmoset and mouse cortices whereas the patterns of both the species were much similar in the hippocampus. We discuss the possible roles of 5HTRs in the marmoset brain revealed by the analysis of their overall mRNA expression patterns. PMID:24904298

  17. Control of sensory neuron excitability by serotonin involves 5HT2C receptors and Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Isabella; Gantumur, Enkhbileg; Yousuf, Arsalan; Boehm, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Serotonin (5HT) is a constituent of the so-called "inflammatory soup" that sensitizes nociceptors during inflammation. Nevertheless, receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate an excitation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by 5HT remained controversial. Therefore, capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons dissociated from rat DRGs were used to investigate effects of 5HT on membrane excitability and currents through ligand- as well as voltage-gated ion channels. In 58% of the neurons tested, 5HT increased action potential firing, an effect that was abolished by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin, but not by the 5HT3 antagonist tropisetron. Unlike other algogenic mediators, such as PGE2 and bradykinin, 5HT did not affect currents through TTX-resistant Na(+) channels or Kv7 K(+) channels. In all neurons investigated, 5HT potentiated capsaicin-evoked currents through TRPV1 channels, an effect that was attenuated by antagonists at 5HT2A (4 F 4 PP), 5HT2B (SB 204741), as well as 5HT2C (RS 102221) receptors. 5HT triggered slowly arising inward Cl(-) currents in 53% of the neurons. This effect was antagonized by the 5HT2C receptor blocker only, and the current was prevented by an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (CaCC). The 5HT-induced increase in action potential firing was also abolished by this CaCC blocker and by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine. Amongst the subtype selective 5HT2 antagonists, only RS 102221 (5HT2C-selectively) counteracted the rise in action potential firing elicited by 5HT. These results show that 5HT excites DRG neurons mainly via 5HT2C receptors which concomitantly mediate a sensitization of TRPV1 channels and an opening of CaCCs.

  18. A Binding Site for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Toxin Is Lost during Larval Development in Two Forest Pests

    PubMed Central

    Rausell, Carolina; Martínez-Ramírez, Amparo Consuelo; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Real, María Dolores

    2000-01-01

    The insecticidal activity and receptor binding properties of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins towards the forest pests Thaumetopoea pityocampa (processionary moth) and Lymantria monacha (nun moth) were investigated. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac were highly toxic (corresponding 50% lethal concentration values: 956, 895, and 379 pg/μl, respectively) to first-instar T. pityocampa larvae. During larval development, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxicity decreased with increasing age, although the loss of activity was more pronounced for Cry1Ab. Binding assays with 125I-labelled Cry1Ab and brush border membrane vesicles from T. pityocampa first- and last-instar larvae detected a remarkable decrease in the overall Cry1Ab binding affinity in last-instar larvae, although saturable Cry1Ab binding to both instars was observed. Homologous competition experiments demonstrated the loss of one of the two Cry1Ab high-affinity binding sites detected in first-instar larvae. Growth inhibition assays with sublethal doses of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac in L. monacha showed that all three toxins were able to delay molting from second instar to third instar. Specific saturable binding of Cry1Ab was detected only in first- and second-instar larvae. Cry1Ab binding was not detected in last-instar larvae, although specific binding of Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac was observed. These results demonstrate a loss of Cry1Ab binding sites during development on the midgut epithelium of T. pityocampa and L. monacha, correlating in T. pityocampa with a decrease in Cry1Ab toxicity with increasing age. PMID:10742241

  19. An activin A/BMP2 chimera, AB204, displays bone-healing properties superior to those of BMP2.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Byung-Hak; Esquivies, Luis; Ahn, Chihoon; Gray, Peter C; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Choe, Senyon

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) has been used clinically to treat bone fractures in human patients. However, the high doses of rhBMP2 required for a therapeutic response can cause undesirable side effects. Here, we demonstrate that a novel Activin A/BMP2 (AB2) chimera, AB204, promotes osteogenesis and bone healing much more potently and effectively than rhBMP2. Remarkably, 1 month of AB204 treatment completely heals tibial and calvarial defects of critical size in mice at a concentration 10-fold lower than a dose of rhBMP2 that only partially heals the defect. We determine the structure of AB204 to 2.3 Å that reveals a distinct BMP2-like fold in which the Activin A sequence segments confer insensitivity to the BMP2 antagonist Noggin and an affinity for the Activin/BMP type II receptor ActRII that is 100-fold greater than that of BMP2. The structure also led to our identification of a single Activin A-derived amino acid residue, which, when mutated to the corresponding BMP2 residue, resulted in a significant increase in the affinity of AB204 for its type I receptor BMPRIa and a further enhancement in AB204's osteogenic potency. Together, these findings demonstrate that rationally designed AB2 chimeras can provide BMP2 substitutes with enhanced potency for treating non-union bone fractures.

  20. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Comparison of Ab Interno and Ab Externo Intraocular Lens Scleral Fixation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Lie; Garcia, Patricia Novita; Malavazzi, Gustavo Ricci; Allemann, Norma; Gomes, Rachel L R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods. Randomized patients underwent ab externo or ab interno scleral fixation of a PCIOL. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively, to determine PCIOL centration, IOL distance to the iris at 12, 3, 6, and 9 hours, and haptics placement in relation to the ciliary sulcus. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The ab externo technique was used in 7 eyes (46.6%) and the ab interno in 8 eyes (53.3%). In the ab externo technique, 14 haptics were located: 4 (28.57%) in the ciliary sulcus; 2 (14.28%) anterior to the sulcus; and 8 (57.14%) posterior to the sulcus, 6 in the ciliary body and 2 posterior to the ciliary body. In the ab interno group, 4 haptics (25.0%) were in the ciliary sulcus, 2 (12.50%) anterior to the sulcus, and 10 (75.0%) posterior to the sulcus, 4 in the ciliary body and 6 posterior to the ciliary body. Conclusions. Ab externo and ab interno scleral fixation techniques presented similar results in haptic placement. Ab externo technique presented higher vertical tilt when compared to the ab interno.

  1. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Comparison of Ab Interno and Ab Externo Intraocular Lens Scleral Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Lie; Garcia, Patricia Novita; Malavazzi, Gustavo Ricci; Allemann, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods. Randomized patients underwent ab externo or ab interno scleral fixation of a PCIOL. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively, to determine PCIOL centration, IOL distance to the iris at 12, 3, 6, and 9 hours, and haptics placement in relation to the ciliary sulcus. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The ab externo technique was used in 7 eyes (46.6%) and the ab interno in 8 eyes (53.3%). In the ab externo technique, 14 haptics were located: 4 (28.57%) in the ciliary sulcus; 2 (14.28%) anterior to the sulcus; and 8 (57.14%) posterior to the sulcus, 6 in the ciliary body and 2 posterior to the ciliary body. In the ab interno group, 4 haptics (25.0%) were in the ciliary sulcus, 2 (12.50%) anterior to the sulcus, and 10 (75.0%) posterior to the sulcus, 4 in the ciliary body and 6 posterior to the ciliary body. Conclusions. Ab externo and ab interno scleral fixation techniques presented similar results in haptic placement. Ab externo technique presented higher vertical tilt when compared to the ab interno. PMID:27293878

  2. Involvement of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in the forced swimming test and mouse strain differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yumi; Furutani, Sachiko; Kajiwara, Yoshinobu; Hirano, Kazufumi; Yamada, Shizuo; Tagawa, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Jun

    2010-03-10

    We previously demonstrated the presence of strain differences in baseline immobility time and sensitivity to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine in five strains of mice (ICR, ddY, C57BL, DBA/2 and BALB/c mice). Furthermore, variations in serotonin (5-HT) transporter binding in the brain were strongly related to strain differences in baseline immobility and sensitivity to fluvoxamine. In the present study, we examined the involvement of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in anti-immobility effects in DBA/2 mice, which show high sensitivity to fluvoxamine. The anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in DBA/2 mice were inhibited by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635). However, the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist 3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-4-hydroxy-N-[4-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]benzamide (GR55562), the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist 6-methyl-1-(methylethyl)-ergoline-8beta-carboxylic acid 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl ester (LY 53857), the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron and the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy-benzoic acid 2-(diethylamino)ethyl ester (SDZ 205,557) did not influence the anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in DBA/2 mice. These results suggest that fluvoxamine-induced antidepressant-like effects in DBA/2 mice are mediated by the 5-HT(1A) receptor. We analyzed 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in the brains of five strains of mice. Strain differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding were observed. 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in brain was not correlated with baseline immobility time in the five strains of mice examined. These results suggest that, although the anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in DBA/2 mice are mediated by the 5-HT(1A) receptor, strain differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding are not related to variation in immobility time and responses to fluvoxamine.

  3. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab in Trichoplusia ni Is Conferred by a Novel Genetic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaozhao; Kain, Wendy; Cassidy, Douglas; Wang, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry2Ab in a greenhouse-originated Trichoplusia ni strain resistant to both Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was characterized. Biological assays determined that the Cry2Ab resistance in the T. ni strain was a monogenic recessive trait independent of Cry1Ac resistance, and there existed no significant cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in T. ni. From the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni strain, a strain resistant to Cry2Ab only was isolated, and the Cry2Ab resistance trait was introgressed into a susceptible laboratory strain to facilitate comparative analysis of the Cry2Ab resistance with the susceptible T. ni strain. Results from biochemical analysis showed no significant difference between the Cry2Ab-resistant and -susceptible T. ni larvae in midgut proteases, including caseinolytic proteolytic activity and zymogram profile and serine protease activities, in midgut aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and in midgut esterases and hemolymph plasma melanization activity. For analysis of genetic linkage of Cry2Ab resistance with potential Cry toxin receptor genes, molecular markers for the midgut cadherin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aminopeptidase N (APN) genes were identified between the original greenhouse-derived dual-toxin-resistant and the susceptible laboratory T. ni strains. Genetic linkage analysis showed that the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni was not genetically associated with the midgut genes coding for the cadherin, ALP, and 6 APNs (APN1 to APN6) nor associated with the ABC transporter gene ABCC2. Therefore, the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni is conferred by a novel but unknown genetic mechanism. PMID:26025894

  4. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab in Trichoplusia ni Is Conferred by a Novel Genetic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaozhao; Kain, Wendy; Cassidy, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry2Ab in a greenhouse-originated Trichoplusia ni strain resistant to both Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was characterized. Biological assays determined that the Cry2Ab resistance in the T. ni strain was a monogenic recessive trait independent of Cry1Ac resistance, and there existed no significant cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in T. ni. From the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni strain, a strain resistant to Cry2Ab only was isolated, and the Cry2Ab resistance trait was introgressed into a susceptible laboratory strain to facilitate comparative analysis of the Cry2Ab resistance with the susceptible T. ni strain. Results from biochemical analysis showed no significant difference between the Cry2Ab-resistant and -susceptible T. ni larvae in midgut proteases, including caseinolytic proteolytic activity and zymogram profile and serine protease activities, in midgut aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and in midgut esterases and hemolymph plasma melanization activity. For analysis of genetic linkage of Cry2Ab resistance with potential Cry toxin receptor genes, molecular markers for the midgut cadherin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aminopeptidase N (APN) genes were identified between the original greenhouse-derived dual-toxin-resistant and the susceptible laboratory T. ni strains. Genetic linkage analysis showed that the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni was not genetically associated with the midgut genes coding for the cadherin, ALP, and 6 APNs (APN1 to APN6) nor associated with the ABC transporter gene ABCC2. Therefore, the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni is conferred by a novel but unknown genetic mechanism. PMID:26025894

  5. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di Yan; Smith, David Glenn; Hardeland, Rüdiger; Yang, Ming Yao; Xu, Huai Liang; Zhang, Long; Yin, Hua Dong; Zhu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A) and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B) receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C), has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor. PMID:23712359

  6. Ab initio phonon limited transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, Matthieu

    We revisit the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of two champion materials, PbTe and SnSe, using fully first principles methods. In both cases the performance of the material is due to subtle combinations of structural effects, scattering, and phase space reduction. In PbTe anharmonic effects are completely opposite to the predicted quasiharmonic evolution of phonon frequencies and to frequently (and incorrectly) cited extrapolations of experiments. This stabilizes the material at high T, but also tends to enhance its thermal conductivity, in a non linear manner, above 600 Kelvin. This explains why PbTe is in practice limited to room temperature applications. SnSe has recently been shown to be the most efficient TE material in bulk form. This is mainly due to a strongly enhanced carrier concentration and electrical conductivity, after going through a phase transition from 600 to 800 K. We calculate the transport coefficients as well as the defect concentrations ab initio, showing excellent agreement with experiment, and elucidating the origin of the double phase transition as well as the new charge carriers. AH Romero, EKU Gross, MJ Verstraete, and O Hellman PRB 91, 214310 (2015) O. Hellman, IA Abrikosov, and SI Simak, PRB 84 180301 (2011)

  7. Ab Initio Study of Polonium

    SciTech Connect

    Zabidi, Noriza Ahmad; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    2008-05-20

    Polonium is the only element with a simple cubic (sc) crystal structure. Atoms in solid polonium sit at the corners of a simple cubic unit cell and no where else. Polonium has a valence electron configuration 6s{sup 2}6p{sup 4} (Z = 84). The low temperature {alpha}-phase transforms into the rhombohedral (trigonal) {beta} structure at {approx}348 K. The sc {alpha}-Po unit cell constant is a = 3.345 A. The beta form of polonium ({beta}-Po) has the lattice parameters, a{sub R} = 3.359 A and a rhombohedral angle 98 deg. 13'. We have performed an ab initio electronic structure calculation by using the density functional theory. We have performed the calculation with and without spin-orbit (SO) coupling by using both the LDA and the GGA for the exchange-correlations. The k-points in a simple cubic BZ are determined by R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5), {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), M (0.5, 0.5, 0) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). Other directions of k-points are {gamma} (0, 0, 0), X (0.5, 0, 0), R (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) and {gamma} (0, 0, 0). The SO splittings of p states at the {gamma} point in the GGA+SO scheme for {alpha}-Po are 0.04 eV and 0.02 eV while for the {beta}-Po these are 0.03 eV and 0.97 eV. We have also calculated the vibrational spectra for the unit cells in both the structures. We find that exchanging of a Po atom by Pb atom produces several more bands and destabilizes the {beta} phase.

  8. Modeling study of the ABS relay valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin; Luo, Zai; Xu, Weidong

    2011-05-01

    The ABS (anti-lock braking system) relay valve is the key component of anti-lock braking system in most commercial vehicles such as trucks, tractor-trailers, etc. In this paper, structure of ABS relay valve and its work theory were analyzed. Then a mathematical model of ABS relay valve, which was investigated by dividing into electronic part, magnetic part, pneumatic part and mechanical part, was set up. The displacement of spools and the response of pressure increasing, holding, releasing of ABS relay valve were simulated and analyzed under conditions of control pressure 500 KPa, braking pressure 600 KPa, atmospheric pressure 100 KPa and air temperature 310 K. Thisarticle provides reliable theory for improving the performance and efficiency of anti-lock braking system of vehicles.

  9. Modeling study of the ABS relay valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin; Luo, Zai; Xu, Weidong

    2010-12-01

    The ABS (anti-lock braking system) relay valve is the key component of anti-lock braking system in most commercial vehicles such as trucks, tractor-trailers, etc. In this paper, structure of ABS relay valve and its work theory were analyzed. Then a mathematical model of ABS relay valve, which was investigated by dividing into electronic part, magnetic part, pneumatic part and mechanical part, was set up. The displacement of spools and the response of pressure increasing, holding, releasing of ABS relay valve were simulated and analyzed under conditions of control pressure 500 KPa, braking pressure 600 KPa, atmospheric pressure 100 KPa and air temperature 310 K. Thisarticle provides reliable theory for improving the performance and efficiency of anti-lock braking system of vehicles.

  10. An ab initio MO study of butalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Katsuhisa; Shima, Toru

    1994-01-01

    Butalene as a structural isomer of p-benzyne has been studied by using an ab initio GVB wavefunction. The geometry of butalene, which is shown to be almost rectangular, is first optimized as a local minimum on the energy surface at the ab initio level. However, the energy barrier of conversion to p-benzyne is as small as 1.6 kcal/mol, and experimental isolation of butalene is predicted to be difficult from a force-constant analysis.

  11. The effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab,ac on early-weaned piglets: a gene expression study.

    PubMed

    Schroyen, M; Goddeeris, B M; Stinckens, A; Verhelst, R; Janssens, S; Cox, E; Georges, M; Niewold, T; Buys, N

    2013-03-15

    Diarrhoea in neonatal and early-weaned piglets due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-F4 (ETEC-F4) is an important problem in the pig farming industry. There is substantial evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to ETEC-F4 since not all pigs suffer from diarrhoea after an ETEC-F4 infection. A region on SSC13 has been found to be in close linkage to the susceptibility of piglets for ETEC-F4ab,ac. Potential candidate genes on SSC13 have been examined and although some polymorphisms were found to be in linkage disequilibrium with the phenotype, the causative mutation has not yet been found. In this study we are looking at the expression of porcine genes in relation to ETEC-F4ab,ac. With the aid of the Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Array we were able to find differentially expressed genes between ETEC-F4ab,ac receptor positive (Fab,acR(+)) piglets without diarrhoea and F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea or F4ab,acR(-) animals. Since the susceptibility to ETEC-F4ab,ac was described as a Mendelian trait, it is not so surprisingly that only two differentially expressed genes, transferrin receptor (TFRC) and trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), came out of the analysis. Although both genes could pass for functional candidate genes only TFRC also mapped to the region on SSC13 associated with susceptibility for ETEC-F4, which makes TFRC a positional functional candidate gene. Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of TFRC and TFF1. In piglets without diarrhoea, the expression of both genes was higher in F4ab,acR(+) than in F4ab,acR(-) piglets. Similarly, TFRC and TFF1 expression in F4ab,acR(+) piglets without diarrhoea was also higher than in F4ab,acR(+) piglets with diarrhoea. Consequently, although both genes might not play a role as receptor for F4 fimbriae, they could be of great importance during an ETEC-F4 outbreak. An upregulation of TFRC can be a consequence of the piglets ability to raise an effective immune response. An elevation of TFF1, a

  12. The influence of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists to modify drug induced disinhibitory effects in the mouse light/dark test

    PubMed Central

    Costall, Brenda; Naylor, Robert J

    1997-01-01

    The ability of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists to modify the disinhibitory profile of diazepam and other agents was investigated in male BKW mice in the light/dark test box. The 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor antagonists ritanserin, MDL11939 and RP62203 and also methysergide, which failed to modify mouse behaviour when administered alone, caused dose-related enhancements (4 to 8 fold) in the potency of diazepam to disinhibit behavioural responding to the aversive situation of the test box. Ritanserin was shown to enhance the disinhibitory potency of other benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide (4 fold), temazepam (10 fold) and lorazepam (10 fold), the 5-HT1A receptor ligands, 8-OH-DPAT (25 fold), buspirone (100 fold) and lesopitron (500 fold), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ondansetron (100 fold) R(+)-zacopride (100 fold) and S(−)-zacopride (greater than a 1000 fold), the substituted benzamides, sulpiride (10 fold) and tiapride (5 to 10 fold) and the cholecystokinin (CCK)A receptor antagonist, devazepide (100 fold). It also reduced the onset of action of disinhibition following treatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine. Ritanserin failed to enhance the disinhibitory effects of the CCKB receptor antagonist CI-988, the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist losarten or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ceranapril. The 5-HT4 receptor antagonists SDZ205-557, GR113808 and SB204070 caused dose-related reductions in the disinhibitory effect of diazepam, returning values to those shown in vehicle treated controls. The antagonists failed to modify mouse behaviour when administered alone. GR113808 was also shown to cause a dose-related antagonism of the disinhibitory effects of chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, lesopitron, ondansetron, R(+)-zacopride, sulpiride, tiapride, devazepide, CI-988, losarten, ceranapril and parachlorophenylalanine. It was concluded that in BKW mice (a) the failure of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists

  13. Rectal antinociceptive properties of alverine citrate are linked to antagonism at the 5-HT1A receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Coelho, A M; Jacob, L; Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    2001-10-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is considered as a major mediator causing hyperalgesia and is involved in inflammatory reactions and irritable bowel syndrome. Alverine citrate may possess visceral antinociceptive properties in a rat model of rectal distension-induced abdominal contractions. This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological properties of alverine citrate in a rat model of rectal hyperalgesia induced by 5-HTP (5-HT precursor) and by a selective 5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) and to compare this activity with a reference 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY 100635). At 4 h after their administration, 5-HTP and 8-OH-DPAT increased the number of abdominal contractions in response to rectal distension at the lowest volume of distension (0.4 mL). When injected intraperitoneally before 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HTP, WAY 100635 (1 mg kg(-1)) blocked their nociceptive effect, but also reduced the response to the highest volume of distension (1.6 mL). Similarly, when injected intraperitoneally, alverine citrate (20 mg kg(-1)) suppressed the effect of 5-HTP, but not that of 8-OH-DPAT. However, when injected intracerebroventricularly (75 microg/rat) alverine citrate reduced 8-OH-DPAT-induced enhancement of rectal distension-induced abdominal contractions. In-vitro binding studies revealed that alverine citrate had a high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors and a weak affinity for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 subtypes. These results suggest that 5-HTP-induced rectal hypersensitivity involves 5-TH1A receptors and that alverine citrate acts as a selective antagonist at the 5-HT1A receptor subtype to block both 5-HTP and 8-OH-DPAT-induced rectal hypersensitivity. PMID:11697552

  14. Spinal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel contributes to central pain hypersensitivity in various pathophysiological conditions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Koivisto, Ari; Saarnilehto, Marja; Chapman, Hugh; Kuokkanen, Katja; Hao, Bin; Huang, Jin-Lu; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti

    2011-03-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is expressed on nociceptive primary afferent neurons. On the proximal nerve ending within the spinal dorsal horn, TRPA1 regulates transmission to spinal interneurons, and thereby pain hypersensitivity. Here we assessed whether the contribution of the spinal TRPA1 channel to pain hypersensitivity varies with the experimental pain model, properties of test stimulation or the behavioral pain response. The antihypersensitivity effect of intrathecally (i.t.) administered Chembridge-5861528 (CHEM; a selective TRPA1 channel antagonist; 5-10μg) was determined in various experimental models of pain hypersensitivity in the rat. In spinal nerve ligation and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation models, i.t. CHEM attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity. Capsaicin-induced secondary (central) but not primary (peripheral) mechanical hypersensitivity was also reduced by i.t. administration of CHEM or A-967079, another TRPA1 channel antagonist. Formalin-induced secondary mechanical hypersensitivity, but not spontaneous pain, was suppressed by i.t. CHEM. Moreover, mechanical hypersensitivity induced by cholekystokinin in the rostroventromedial medulla was attenuated by i.t. pretreatment with CHEM. Independent of the model, the antihypersensitivity effect induced by i.t. CHEM was predominant on responses evoked by low-intensity stimuli (⩽6g). CHEM (10μg i.t.) failed to attenuate pain behavior in healthy controls or mechanical hypersensitivities induced by i.t. administrations of a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, or NMDA or 5-HT(3) receptor agonists. Conversely, i.t. administration of a TRPA1 channel agonist, cinnamon aldehyde, induced mechanical hypersensitivity. The results indicate that the spinal TRPA1 channel exerts an important role in secondary (central) pain hypersensitivity to low-intensity mechanical stimulation in various pain hypersensitivity conditions. The spinal TRPA1 channel provides a promising target

  15. MicroRNAs miR-146a/b negatively modulate the senescence-associated inflammatory mediators IL-6 and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Bhaumik, Dipa; Scott, Gary K.; Schokrpur, Shiruyeh; Patil, Christopher K.; Orjalo, Arturo V.; Rodier, Francis; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Campisi, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Senescence is a cellular program that irreversibly arrests the proliferation of damaged cells and induces the secretion of the inflammatory mediators IL- 6 and IL-8 which are part of a larger senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We screened quiescent and senescent human fibroblasts for differentially expressed microRNAS (miRNAs) and found that miRNAs 146a and 146b (miR-146a/b) were significantly elevated during senescence. We suggest that delayed miR-146a/b induction might be a compensatory response to restrain inflammation. Indeed, ectopic expression of miR-146a/b in primary human fibroblasts suppressed IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and downregulated IRAK1, a crucial component of the IL-1 receptor signal transduction pathway. Cells undergoing senescence without induction of a robust SASP did not express miR-146a/b. Further, IL-1α neutralizing antibodies abolished both miR-146a/b expression and IL-6 secretion. Our findings expand the biological contexts in which miRNA-146a/b modulates inflammatory responses. They suggest that IL-1 receptor signaling initiates both miR-146a/b upregulation and cytokine secretion, and that miR-146a/b is expressed in response to rising inflammatory cytokine levels as part of a negative feedback loop that restrains excessive SASP activity. PMID:20148189

  16. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect neither the function of other ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels and acetylcholinesterase, nor β-amyloid content.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ravazzini, Federica; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Feuerbach, Dominik; Boffi, Juan C; Draczkowski, Piotr; Montag, Dirk; Brown, Brandon M; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Puia, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The activity of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), 3-furan-2-yl-N-o-tolylacrylamide (PAM-3), and 3-furan-2-yl-N-phenylacrylamide (PAM-4), was tested on a variety of ligand- [i.e., human (h) α7, rat (r) α9α10, hα3-containing AChRs, mouse (m) 5-HT3AR, and several glutamate receptors (GluRs)] and voltage-gated (i.e., sodium and potassium) ion channels, as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and β-amyloid (Aβ) content. The functional results indicate that PAM-2 inhibits hα3-containing AChRs (IC50=26±6μM) with higher potency than that for NR1aNR2B and NR1aNR2A, two NMDA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 affects neither the activity of m5-HT3ARs, GluR5/KA2 (a kainate-sensitive GluR), nor AChE, and PAM-4 does not affect agonist-activated rα9α10 AChRs. Relevant clinical concentrations of PAM-2-4 do not inhibit Nav1.2 and Kv3.1 ion channels. These PAMs slightly enhance the activity of GluR1 and GluR2, two AMPA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 does not change the levels of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model (i.e., 5XFAD). The molecular docking and dynamics results using the hα7 model suggest that the active sites for PAM-2 include the intrasubunit (i.e., PNU-120596 locus) and intersubunit sites. These results support our previous study showing that these PAMs are selective for the α7 AChR, and clarify that the procognitive/promnesic/antidepressant activity of PAM-2 is not mediated by other targets.

  17. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect neither the function of other ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels and acetylcholinesterase, nor β-amyloid content.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ravazzini, Federica; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Feuerbach, Dominik; Boffi, Juan C; Draczkowski, Piotr; Montag, Dirk; Brown, Brandon M; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Puia, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The activity of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), 3-furan-2-yl-N-o-tolylacrylamide (PAM-3), and 3-furan-2-yl-N-phenylacrylamide (PAM-4), was tested on a variety of ligand- [i.e., human (h) α7, rat (r) α9α10, hα3-containing AChRs, mouse (m) 5-HT3AR, and several glutamate receptors (GluRs)] and voltage-gated (i.e., sodium and potassium) ion channels, as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and β-amyloid (Aβ) content. The functional results indicate that PAM-2 inhibits hα3-containing AChRs (IC50=26±6μM) with higher potency than that for NR1aNR2B and NR1aNR2A, two NMDA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 affects neither the activity of m5-HT3ARs, GluR5/KA2 (a kainate-sensitive GluR), nor AChE, and PAM-4 does not affect agonist-activated rα9α10 AChRs. Relevant clinical concentrations of PAM-2-4 do not inhibit Nav1.2 and Kv3.1 ion channels. These PAMs slightly enhance the activity of GluR1 and GluR2, two AMPA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 does not change the levels of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model (i.e., 5XFAD). The molecular docking and dynamics results using the hα7 model suggest that the active sites for PAM-2 include the intrasubunit (i.e., PNU-120596 locus) and intersubunit sites. These results support our previous study showing that these PAMs are selective for the α7 AChR, and clarify that the procognitive/promnesic/antidepressant activity of PAM-2 is not mediated by other targets. PMID:27129924

  18. A cadherin-like protein influences Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxicity in the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Jiang, Xingfu; Luo, Lizhi; Stanley, David; Sappington, Thomas W; Zhang, Lei

    2013-06-01

    Cadherins comprise a family of calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins that act in cell-cell interactions. Cadherin-like proteins (CADs) in midguts of some insects act as receptors that bind some of the toxins produced by the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). We cloned a CAD gene associated with larval midguts prepared from Mythimna separata. The full-length cDNA (MsCAD1, GenBank Accession No. JF951432) is 5642 bp, with an open reading frame encoding a 1757 amino acid and characteristics typical of insect CADs. Expression of MsCAD1 is predominantly in midgut tissue, with highest expression in the 3rd- to 6th-instars and lowest in newly hatched larvae. Knocking-down MsCAD1 decreased Cry1Ab susceptibility, indicated by reduced developmental time, increased larval weight and reduced larval mortality. We expressed MsCAD1 in E. coli and recovered the recombinant protein, rMsCAD1, which binds Cry1Ab toxin. Truncation analysis and binding experiments revealed that a contiguous 209-aa, located in CR11 and CR12, is the minimal Cry1Ab binding region. These results demonstrate that MsCAD1 is associated with Cry1Ab toxicity and is one of the Cry1Ab receptors in this insect. The significance of this work lies in identifying MsCAD1 as a Cry1Ab receptor, which helps understand the mechanism of Cry1Ab toxicity and of potential resistance to Bt in M. separata. PMID:23754724

  19. Structure-function studies of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by site-directed mutagenesis in the pore region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyun

    In nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as in glycine, GABA A, serotonin 5-HT3, and GluCl glutamate receptors, a leucine residue at the approximate midpoint (the 9' position) of the M2 transmembrane domain is conserved across all known subunits. We expressed the embryonic mouse muscle nAChRs with varying numbers (m* s) of subunits (2 αs, 1 β, 1 γ, and 1 δ) mutated at this position in Xenopus oocytes and discovered that mutations to serine (Leu9'Ser) result in a tenfold higher receptor sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh) for each subunit mutated. Moreover, increases of side-chain polarity increase the sensitivity to ACh when other natural and unnatural residues are incorporated into this position. The data also indicated an especially strong interaction between the γ and δ subunits in the pore region, suggesting a specific arrangement of subunits within the pentamer. Detailed single-channel kinetic studies reveal that Leu9'Ser AChRs have (1) longer voltage- relaxation time constants, (2) longer ACh-induced openings and bursts, and (3) more frequent spontaneous openings. These effects increase with m* s. Synthesized postsynaptic currents were produced with a piezoelectric micromanipulator that delivered brief ACh pulses to multi-channel patches. Their decay time constants were, as expected, similar to the channel burst duration. Thus, both longer and more frequent openings contribute to the >=104-fold increase in the receptor sensitivity to ACh from the wild-type receptor to the receptor with m*s=4; and the highly conserved 9' leucine is crucial for the brief synaptic events that are normally observed. We also explored the effects of ligand-binding domain mutations: γD174N and δD180N (aspartic acid (D) to asparagine (N)). Macroscopic dose-response relations revealed that these mutations decrease the receptor's sensitivity to ACh. The combined effect with Leu9'Ser, however, differs from that predicted from a linear or independent sum of effects from

  20. QCM-4, a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist ameliorates plasma HPA axis hyperactivity, leptin resistance and brain oxidative stress in depression and anxiety-like behavior in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj

    2015-01-01

    Several preclinical studies have revealed antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. In our earlier study, we have reported the antidepressive-like effect of 3-methoxy-N-p-tolylquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCM-4) in obese mice subjected to chronic stress. The present study deals with the biochemical mechanisms associated with depression co-morbid with obesity. Mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, further subjected for treatment with QCM-4 (1 and 2mg/kg p.o.) and standard antidepressant escitalopram (ESC) (10mg/kg p.o.) for 28 days. Behavioral assays for depression such as sucrose preference test (SPT), forced swim test (FST) and for anxiety such as light and dark test (LDT) and hole board test (HBT) were performed in obese mice. Biochemical assessments including plasma leptin and corticosterone concentration followed by brain oxidative stress parameters malonaldehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were performed. Results confirmed that QCM-4 exhibits antidepressive effect by increasing the sucrose consumption in SPT, reducing immobility time in FST and anxiolytic effect by increasing transitions and time in light chamber in LDT, increasing head dip and crossing score in HBT. Furthermore, QCM-4 attenuated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity by reducing the plasma corticosterone, reversing altered plasma leptin, restoring the imbalance of brain MDA and GSH concentration. In conclusion, QCM-4 showed antidepressive and anxiolytic effect by reversing the behavioral alterations that were supported by biochemical estimations in obese mice.

  1. Receptor mechanisms for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in isolated ovine umbilical vein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Dyer, D C

    1990-08-10

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-amphetamine (DOM) produced a concentration-dependent contraction in isolated umbilical veins obtained from fetal lambs within 2 weeks of term. Contractions to 5-HT were antagonized by ketanserin, mianserin and methiothepin with the dissociation constants (KB) being 2.17 +/- 0.36, 1.37 +/- 0.55 and 1.98 +/- 0.48 nM, respectively. The order of potency of serotonergic agonists in this tissue was: DOM greater than 5-HT greater than alpha-methyl-5-HT greater than 1(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) greater than m-trifluoromethyl-phenylpiperazine (TFMPP) greater than 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) = 2-methyl-5-HT. alpha-Methyl-5-HT was a full agonist compared to 5-HT. DOM possessed greater affinity but less efficacy than that of 5-HT. The affinities and efficacies of the other agonists studied were lower than those of 5-HT. Variation in the sensitivity and potency of agonists is primarily due to variations in their affinity for 5-HT receptors. Assessment of receptor occupancy vs. functional response demonstrated very little, if any, receptor reserve for 5-HT receptors in this tissue. Contractile responses to DOM, 8-OH-DPAT, mCPP and 2-methyl-5-HT were effectively blocked by ketanserin. The dissociation constants (KB) of ketanserin against these agonists were as follows: DOM, 2.78 +/- 0.85 nM; 8-OH-DPAT, 3.47 +/- 1.12 nM; mCPP, 1.45 +/- 0.51 nM; 2-methyl-5-HT, 1.99 +/- 0.74 nM. The dissociation constant of MDL 72222 (3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate) vs. 5-HT was 13833 nM. No antagonism by prazosin (10(-7) M) or yohimbine (10(-7) M) of the responses to 5-HT was observed. These results indicate that 5-HT2 receptors are present in the ovine umbilical vein. 5-HT3 receptors were not present in this tissue. Activation of alpha-adrenoceptors was not involved in the contractions to 5-HT.

  2. Serotonin via 5-HT7 receptors activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C epsilon resulting in interleukin-6 synthesis in human U373 MG astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Klaus; Biersack, Lisa; Waschbisch, Anne; Orlikowski, Sonja; Akundi, Ravi Shankar; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo; Hüll, Michael; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2005-05-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a widely distributed neurotransmitter which is involved in neuroimmunomodulatory processes. Previously, it has been demonstrated that 5-HT may induce interleukin (IL)-6 expression in primary rat hippocampal astrocytes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular pathways underlying this induction of IL-6 synthesis. As a model system, we used the human astrocytoma cell line U373 MG, which synthesizes IL-6 upon stimulation with various inducers. 5-HT dose- and time-dependently induced IL-6 protein synthesis. We identified several 5-HT receptors to be expressed on U373 MG cells, including the 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptors. In this report, we show that the 5-HT-induced IL-6 release is mediated by the 5-HT7 receptor based on several agonist/antagonists that were used. 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis is inhibited by the partially selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, pimozide, and the selective antagonist SB269970. Furthermore, IL-6 synthesis was induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist carboxamidotryptamin. In addition, we found p38 MAPKs and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon to be involved in 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis as specific inhibitors of these enzymes (SB202190 and RO-31-8425, respectively) blocked 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis. Furthermore, 5-HT mediated the phosphorylation of both p38 MAPK as well as the PKC epsilon isoform. The p42/44 MAPKs, however, were not involved in 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis. This study shows, for the first time, a central role of 5-HT7 receptor linked to p38 MAPK and PKC epsilon for the induction of cytokine synthesis in astrocytic cells. PMID:15836614

  3. Involvement of 5-HT(2C) receptors in the anti-immobility effects of antidepressants in the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Clenet, F; De Vos, A; Bourin, M

    2001-04-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(3) receptors were implicated in the mechanism of action of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test. Despite extensive evidence for a role of 5-HT(2C) receptors in depression, the precise role of these receptors in the effects of clinically established antidepressants was not directly investigated in the mouse forced swimming test. This work was aimed at exploring interactions between several doses of Ro 60-0175, a recently available, full and selective 5-HT(2C) agonist, and antidepressant drugs in the mouse forced swimming test. Spontaneous locomotor activity was measured as an index of intact sensorimotor functions and the dose-effect of Ro 60-0175 alone, as well as interactions with several antidepressants, such as tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine and maprotiline) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine, citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and sertraline), were studied in the mouse forced swimming test. There was no intrinsic antidepressant-like effect of Ro 60-0175, but an impairment in locomotor function was detected when using doses higher than 4 mg/kg in the mouse. There was a synergistic effect of low doses of Ro 60-0175 with sub-active doses of imipramine, paroxetine, citalopram and fluvoxamine; an antagonism between the highest dose of Ro 60-0175 and the active doses of paroxetine and fluoxetine was also detected. There is evidence that 5-HT(2C) receptors may be involved in the action of antidepressants which are able to boost the concentration of serotonin in the synapse, i.e. SSRIs and imipramine

  4. Serum PDGF-AB in pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Filiberti, Rosa; Marroni, Paola; Neri, Monica; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Betta, Pier Giacomo; Cafferata, Mara A; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Puntoni, Riccardo; Ivaldi, Giovanni Paolo; Paganuzzi, Michela

    2005-01-01

    Overexpression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been observed in lung and pleural tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of serum PDGF in pleural mesothelioma (PM). Four groups of subjects were studied: 93 malignant PM patients, 33 primary non small cell lung cancer patients, 51 subjects exposed to asbestos, defined as high-risk controls, and 24 healthy controls. PDGF-AB mean concentration was higher in PM patients (45.8 ng/ml) than in high-risk controls (33.1 ng/ml) and healthy controls (26.8 ng/ml). Using the cut-off level of 49.8 ng/ml, corresponding to the mean+2SD of PDGF-AB in healthy controls, 43% of PM patients showed positive PDGF-AB levels. Survival was evaluated in 82 PM patients. At the end of the follow-up (median 9.8 months) 80.5% of patients had died. Median survival was 13.1 and 7.9 months for patients with PDGF-AB lower and higher than the cut-off, respectively. Adjusting for age, sex, histology and platelet count, positive PDGF-AB levels were associated with lower survival (OR=1.2, 95%CI: 0.9-1.6), even if not significantly so. In conclusion, serum PDGF may represent a useful additional parameter to prognostic factors already available for PM.

  5. Ab interno trabeculectomy: patient selection and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Ab interno trabeculectomy is one among several recently introduced minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries that avoid a conjunctival incision and full-thickness sclerostomy involved in traditional glaucoma surgery. Ablation of the trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm's canal is performed in an arcuate fashion via a clear corneal incision, alone or in combination with phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Intraocular pressure reduction following ab interno trabeculectomy is limited by resistance in distal outflow pathways and generally stabilizes in the mid-to-high teens. Relief of medication burden has been demonstrated by some studies. A very low rate of complications, most commonly transient hyphema and intraocular pressure elevations in the immediate postoperative period, have been reported. However, available data are derived from small retrospective and prospective case series. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the potential merits of ab interno trabeculectomy in the combined setting versus phacoemulsification cataract surgery alone and to compare it with other minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries. PMID:27574396

  6. Imaging of human leukemic T-cell xenografts in nude mice by radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, A.; Buchegger, F.; Carrel, S.; Mach, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) that react with the T-lymphocyte markers called cluster of differentiation CD5 and CD2 were labeled with iodine 131 (/sup 131/I) and were injected intravenously in nude mice bearing solid subcutaneous xenografts derived from the human T-cell leukemia line Ichikawa. Both MoAb anti-CD5 and anti-CD2 yielded favorable mean tumor to whole-body ratios of 3.8 and 5.1, respectively. These ratios were further increased up to 10.0 for MoAb anti-CD5 and 15.5 for MoAb anti-CD2 by using their F(ab')2 fragments. The tumors could be imaged clearly by external scanning after injection of F(ab')2 fragments from both MoAb. F(ab')2 fragments from MoAb anti-CD2 and of a third MoAb recognizing the clonotypic determinant (Ti) of the antigen receptor expressed by the human T-cell line Jurkat were injected in mice bearing intrasplenic Jurkat xenografts. A selective localization of both fragments in tumor tissue was demonstrated with mean tumor to whole-body ratios of 7.5 and 4.1 for MoAb anti-CD2 and anti-Ti, respectively. These in vivo experimental results may provide useful information for the potential use of radiolabeled MoAb and fragments in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with T-cell lymphoma and different other forms of T-cell malignancies.

  7. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: Aerosol experiments ABCOVE AB5, AB6, AB7, and LACE LA2

    SciTech Connect

    Souto, F.J.; Haskin, F.E.; Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-10-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been used to model four of the large-scale aerosol behavior experiments conducted in the Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) vessel. Tests AB5, AB6 and AB7 of the ABCOVE program simulate the dry aerosol conditions during a hypothetical severe accident in an LMFBR. Test LA2 of the LACE program simulates aerosol behavior in a condensing steam environment during a postulated severe accident in an LWR with failure to isolate the containment. The comparison of code results to experimental data show that MELCOR is able to correctly predict most of the thermal-hydraulic results in the four tests. MELCOR predicts reasonably well the dry aerosol behavior of the ABCOVE tests, but significant disagreements are found in the aerosol behavior modelling for the LA2 experiment. These results tend to support some of the concerns about the MELCOR modelling of steam condensation onto aerosols expressed in previous works. During these analyses, a limitation in the MELCOR input was detected for the specification of the aerosol parameters for more than one component. A Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) sensitivity study of the aerosol dynamic constants is presented for test AB6. The study shows the importance of the aerosol shape factors in the aerosol deposition behavior, and reveals that MELCOR input/output processing is highly labor intensive for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses based on LHS.

  8. Serotonergic innervation and serotonin receptor expression of NPY-producing neurons in the rat lateral and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bonn, M; Schmitt, A; Lesch, K-P; Van Bockstaele, E J; Asan, E

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacobehavioral studies in experimental animals, and imaging studies in humans, indicate that serotonergic transmission in the amygdala plays a key role in emotional processing, especially for anxiety-related stimuli. The lateral and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei receive a dense serotonergic innervation in all species studied to date. We investigated interrelations between serotonergic afferents and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-producing neurons, which are a subpopulation of inhibitory interneurons in the rat lateral and basolateral nuclei with particularly strong anxiolytic properties. Dual light microscopic immunolabeling showed numerous appositions of serotonergic afferents on NPY-immunoreactive somata. Using electron microscopy, direct membrane appositions and synaptic contacts between serotonin-containing axon terminals and NPY-immunoreactive cellular profiles were unequivocally established. Double in situ hybridization documented that more than 50 %, and about 30-40 % of NPY mRNA-producing neurons, co-expressed inhibitory 5-HT1A and excitatory 5-HT2C mRNA receptor subtype mRNA, respectively, in both nuclei with no gender differences. Triple in situ hybridization showed that individual NPY mRNA-producing interneurons co-express both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C mRNAs. Co-expression of NPY and 5-HT3 mRNA was not observed. The results demonstrate that serotonergic afferents provide substantial innervation of NPY-producing neurons in the rat lateral and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of serotonin receptor subtype co-expression indicate a differential impact of the serotonergic innervation on this small, but important, population of anxiolytic interneurons, and provide the basis for future studies of the circuitry underlying serotonergic modulation of emotional stimulus processing in the amygdala.

  9. Functional Chimeras of GLIC Obtained by Adding the Intracellular Domain of Anion- and Cation-Conducting Cys-Loop Receptors.

    PubMed

    Mnatsakanyan, Nelli; Nishtala, Sita Nirupama; Pandhare, Akash; Fiori, Mariana C; Goyal, Raman; Pauwels, Jonathan E; Navetta, Andrew F; Ahrorov, Afzal; Jansen, Michaela

    2015-04-28

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs), also called Cys-loop receptors in eukaryotic superfamily members, play diverse roles in neurotransmission and serve as primary targets for many therapeutic drugs. Structural studies of full-length eukaryotic pLGICs have been challenging because of glycosylation, large size, pentameric assembly, and hydrophobicity. X-ray structures of prokaryotic pLGICs, including the Gloeobacter violaceus LGIC (GLIC) and the Erwinia chrysanthemi LGIC (ELIC), and truncated eukaryotic pLGICs have significantly improved and complemented the understanding of structural details previously obtained with acetylcholine-binding protein and Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Prokaryotic pLGICs share their overall structural features with eukaryotic pLGICs for the ligand-binding extracellular and channel-lining transmembrane domains. The large intracellular domain (ICD) is present only in eukaryotic members and is characterized by a low level of sequence conservation and significant variability in length (50-250 amino acids), making the ICD a potential target for the modulation of specific pLGIC subunits. None of the structures includes a complete ICD. Here, we created chimeras by adding the ICD of cation-conducting (nAChR-α7) and anion-conducting (GABAρ1, Glyα1) eukaryotic homopentamer-forming pLGICs to GLIC. GLIC-ICD chimeras assemble into pentamers to form proton-gated channels, as does the parent GLIC. Additionally, the sensitivity of the chimeras toward modulation of functional maturation by chaperone protein RIC-3 is preserved as in those of the parent eukaryotic channels. For a previously described GLIC-5HT3A-ICD chimera, we now provide evidence of its successful large-scale expression and purification to homogeneity. Overall, the chimeras provide valuable tools for functional and structural studies of eukaryotic pLGIC ICDs. PMID:25861708

  10. Predicted structure of the extracellular region of ligand-gated ion-channel receptors shows SH2-like and SH3-like domains forming the ligand-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Gready, J. E.; Ranganathan, S.; Schofield, P. R.; Matsuo, Y.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast synaptic neurotransmission is mediated by ligand-gated ion-channel (LGIC) receptors, which include receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, glycine, and glutamate. LGICs are pentamers with extracellular ligand-binding domains and form integral membrane ion channels that are selective for cations (acetylcholine and serotonin 5HT3 receptors) or anions (GABAA and glycine receptors and the invertebrate glutamate-binding chloride channel). They form a protein superfamily with no sequence similarity to any protein of known structure. Using a 1D-3D structure mapping approach, we have modeled the extracellular ligand-binding domain based on a significant match with the SH2 and SH3 domains of the biotin repressor structure. Refinement of the model based on knowledge of the large family of SH2 and SH3 structures, sequence alignments, and use of structure templates for loop building, allows the prediction of both monomer and pentamer models. These are consistent with medium-resolution electron microscopy structures and with experimental structure/function data from ligand-binding, antibody-binding, mutagenesis, protein-labeling and subunit-linking studies, and glycosylation sites. Also, the predicted polarity of the channel pore calculated from electrostatic potential maps of pentamer models of superfamily members is consistent with known ion selectivities. Using the glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit, which forms homopentamers, the monomeric and pentameric models define the agonist and antagonist (strychnine) binding sites to a deep crevice formed by an extended loop, which includes the invariant disulfide bridge, between the SH2 and SH3 domains. A detailed binding site for strychnine is reported that is in strong agreement with known structure/function data. A site for interaction of the extracellular ligand-binding domain with the activation of the M2 transmembrane helix is also suggested. PMID:9144769

  11. Tobacco plants expressing the Cry1AbMod toxin suppress tolerance to Cry1Ab toxin of Manduca sexta cadherin-silenced larvae.

    PubMed

    Porta, Helena; Jiménez, Gladys; Cordoba, Elizabeth; León, Patricia; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2011-07-01

    Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria are insecticidal proteins used worldwide in the control of different insect pests. Alterations in toxin-receptor interaction represent the most common mechanism to induce resistance to Cry toxins in lepidopteran insects. Cry toxins bind with high affinity to the cadherin protein present in the midgut cells and this interaction facilitates the proteolytic removal of helix α-1 and pre-pore oligomer formation. Resistance to Cry toxins has been linked with mutations in the cadherin gene. One strategy effective to overcome larval resistance to Cry1A toxins is the production of Cry1AMod toxins that lack helix α-1. Cry1AMod are able to form oligomeric structures without binding to cadherin receptor and were shown to be toxic to cadherin-silenced Manduca sexta larvae and Pectinophora gossypiella strain with resistance linked to mutations in a cadherin gene. We developed Cry1AbMod tobacco transgenic plants to analyze if Cry1AMod toxins can be expressed in transgenic crops, do not affect plant development and are able to control insect pests. Our results show that production of the Cry1AbMod toxin in transgenic plants does not affect plant development, since these plants exhibited healthy growth, produced abundant seeds, and were virtually undistinguishable from control plants. Most importantly, Cry1AbMod protein produced in tobacco plants retains its functional toxic activity against susceptible and tolerant M. sexta larvae due to the silencing of cadherin receptor by RNAi. These results suggest that CryMod toxins could potentially be expressed in other transgenic crops to protect them against both toxin-susceptible and resistant lepidopteran larvae affected in cadherin gene. PMID:21621616

  12. Differential effects of three 5-HT receptor antagonists on the performance of rats in attentional and working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, S; Sirviö, J; Jäkälä, P; Puumala, T; MacDonald, E; Riekkinen, P

    1997-05-01

    The effects of three different serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonists (ketanserin, methysegide, methiothepin) in the modulation of attention, working memory and behavioural activity were investigated in this study by assessing the performance of rats in two separate cognitive models; the 5-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) task, which measures attention, and the delayed non-matching to position (DNMTP) task, which measures working memory. Methysergide and methiothepin bind at the 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 as well as the 5-HT5-7 receptors, with varying degrees of selectivity, and ketanserin binds at the 5-HT2A receptors rather selectively. None of these agents bind to any significant extent to 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptors. In the 5-CSRT task, neither methiothepin (0.15 mg/kg) nor ketanserin (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) impaired the choice accuracy of rats, although they induced sedation. The low doses of methysergide (1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg) slightly increased the behavioural activity of rats, whereas the high dose of methysergide (15.0 mg/kg) reduced behavioural activity and slightly reduced choice accuracy of the rats in the attentional task (monitoring of visual stimuli) under the baseline conditions or curtailed stimulus duration. This effect was not augmented at the reduced stimulus intensity. These findings suggest that the high dose of methysergide did not interfere with the visual discrimination of rats. Furthermore, methysergide did not reduce motivation for this task, since it did not increase food collection latencies. In the DNMTP task, methiothepin (0.15 mg/kg) induced a delay non-dependent deficit in choice accuracy. This could be due to an impaired alternation ability or akinesia, which increases an actual delay between sample and choice. Methiothepin (0.15 mg/kg) also interfered with behavioural activity of rats. Interestingly, ketanserin (1.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg) and methysergide (3.0-15.0 mg/kg) neither impaired the choice accuracy nor reduced the behavioural activity of

  13. Influence of platelet-derived growth factor-AB on tissue development in autologous platelet-rich plasma gels.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Simone; Dietrich, Maren; Flanagan, Thomas C; Bokermann, Gudrun; Wagner, Wolfgang; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Jockenhoevel, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Fibrin-based scaffolds are widely used in tissue engineering. We postulated that the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in contrast to platelet-poor plasma and pure fibrinogen as the basic material leads to an increased release of autologous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB, which may have a consequent positive effect on tissue development. Therefore, we evaluated the release of PDGF-AB during the production process and the course of PDGF release during cultivation of plasma gels with and w/o platelets. The influence of PDGF-AB on the proliferation rate of human umbilical cord artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) was studied using XTT assay. The synthesis of extracellular matrix by HUASMCs in plasma- and fibrin gels was measured using hydroxyproline assay. The use of PRP led to an increase in autologous PDGF-AB release. Further, the platelet-containing plasma gels showed a prolonged release of growth factor during cultivation. Both PRP and platelet-poor plasma gels had a positive effect on the production of collagen. However, PDGF-AB as a supplement in medium and in pure fibrin gel had neither an effect on cell proliferation nor on the collagen synthesis rate. This observation may be due to an absence of PDGF receptors in HUASMCs as determined by flow cytometry. In conclusion, although the prolonged autologous production of PDGF-AB in PRP gels is possible, the enhanced tissue development by HUASMCs within such gels is not PDGF related.

  14. Tianeptine: 5-HT uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors modulate memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental task.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies using invertebrate and mammal species have revealed that, endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) modulates cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory, though, at present, it is unclear the manner, where, and how long 5-HT systems are involved. Hence in this work, an attempt was made to study the effects of 5-HT endogenous on memory formation, using a 5-HT uptake facilitator (tianeptine) and, selective 5-HT(1-7) receptor antagonists to determine whether 5-HT uptake sites and which 5-HT receptors are involved, respectively. Results showed that post-training tianeptine injection enhanced memory consolidation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task, which has been useful to detect changes on memory formation elicited by drugs or aging. On interaction experiments, ketanserin (5-HT(1D/2A/2C) antagonist) slightly enhanced tianeptine effects, while WAY 100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist), SB-224289 (5-HT(1B) inverse agonist), SB-200646 (5-HT(2B/2C) antagonist), ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist), GR 127487 (5-HT(4) antagonist), Ro 04-6790 (5-HT(6) antagonist), DR 4004 (5-HT(7) antagonist), or fluoxetine (an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake) blocked the facilitatory tianeptine effect. Notably, together tianeptine and Ro 04-6790 impaired learning consolidation. Moreover, 5-HT depletion completely reversed the tianeptine effect. Tianeptine also normalized an impaired memory elicited by scopolamine (an antimuscarinic) or dizocilpine (non-competitive glutamatergic antagonist), while partially reversed that induced by TFMPP (5-HT(1B/1D/2A-2C/7) agonist/antagonist). Finally, tianeptine-fluoxetine coadministration had no effect on learning consolidation; nevertheless, administration of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, phenserine, potentiated subeffective tianeptine or fluoxetine doses. Collectively, these data confirmed that endogenously 5-HT modulates, via uptake sites and 5-HT(1-7) receptors, memory consolidation, and are consistent with the

  15. On the Strain Rate Sensitivity of Abs and Abs Plus Fused Deposition Modeling Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairis, A.; Petousis, M.; Vidakis, N.; Savvakis, K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of fused deposition modeling parts built with Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS plus material is presented. ASTM D638-02a specimens were built with ABS and ABS plus and they were tested on a Schenck Trebel Co. tensile test machine at three different test speeds, equal, lower, and higher to the test speed required by the ASTM D638-02a standard. The experimental tensile strength results were compared and evaluated. The fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope, to determine failure mode of the filament strands. It was found that, as the test speed increases, specimens develop higher tensile strength and have higher elastic modulus. Specimens tested in the highest speed of the experiment had on average about 10% higher elastic modulus and developed on average about 11% higher tensile strength.

  16. On the Strain Rate Sensitivity of Abs and Abs Plus Fused Deposition Modeling Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairis, A.; Petousis, M.; Vidakis, N.; Savvakis, K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of fused deposition modeling parts built with Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS plus material is presented. ASTM D638-02a specimens were built with ABS and ABS plus and they were tested on a Schenck Trebel Co. tensile test machine at three different test speeds, equal, lower, and higher to the test speed required by the ASTM D638-02a standard. The experimental tensile strength results were compared and evaluated. The fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope, to determine failure mode of the filament strands. It was found that, as the test speed increases, specimens develop higher tensile strength and have higher elastic modulus. Specimens tested in the highest speed of the experiment had on average about 10% higher elastic modulus and developed on average about 11% higher tensile strength.

  17. Variability in the cadherin gene in an Ostrinia nubilalis strain selected for Cry1Ab resistance.

    PubMed

    Bel, Yolanda; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Siegfried, Blair D; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar

    2009-03-01

    Transgenic corn expressing Cry1Ab (a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) is highly effective in the control of Ostrinia nubilalis. For its toxic action, Cry1Ab has to bind to specific insect midgut proteins. To date, in three Lepidoptera species resistance to a Cry1A toxin has been conferred by mutations in cadherin, a protein of the Lepidoptera midgut membrane. The implication of cadherin in the resistance of an Ostrinia nubilalis colony (Europe-R) selected with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protoxin was investigated. Several major mutations in the cadherin (cdh) gene were found, which introduced premature termination codons and/or large deletions (ranging from 1383 to 1701bp). The contribution of these major mutations to the resistance was analyzed in resistant individuals that survived exposure to a high concentration of Cry1Ab protoxin. The results indicated that the presence of major mutations was drastically reduced in individuals that survived exposure. Previous inheritance experiments with the Europe-R strain indicated the involvement of more than one genetic locus and reduced amounts of the cadherin receptor. The results of the present work support a polygenic inheritance of resistance in the Europe-R strain, in which mutations in the cdh gene would contribute to resistance by means of an additive effect. PMID:19114103

  18. Diabetes-induced changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibitory receptors involved in the pressor effect elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat.

    PubMed

    García, Mónica; Morán, Asunción; Calama, Elena; Martín, Maria Luisa; Barthelmebs, Mariette; Román, Luis San

    2005-07-01

    1. We investigated the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the pressor responses induced by stimulation of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, and analysed the type and/or subtype of 5-HT receptors involved. 2. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single s.c. injection of alloxan, then 4 weeks later, they were anaesthetized, pretreated with atropine and pithed. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Hz) resulted in frequency-dependent increases in blood pressure. 3. Intravenous infusions of 5-HT (1-80 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The 5-HT(1) receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-CT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), caused an inhibition of the pressor response, whereas the selective 5-HT(2) receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-HT (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) and the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide (40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), did not modify the sympathetic pressor responses. 5-HT had no effect on exogenous noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor responses. 4. The inhibition of electrically induced pressor responses by 5-HT (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was unable to be elicited after i.v. treatment with methiothepin (100 microg kg(-1)) because of the marked inhibition produced by methiothepin alone. The 5-HT-induced inhibition was blocked after i.v. administration of WAY-100,635 (100 microg kg(-1)) and not affected by ritanserin (1 mg kg(-1)), MDL 72222 (2 mg kg(-1)). 5. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotretalin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) (5-20 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) but neither the rodent 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist, CGS-12066B (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), nor the selective nonrodent 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptor agonist, L-694,247 (5 and 40 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), inhibited the electrically induced pressor response. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor

  19. Adding 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 antagonists may reduce drug-induced nausea in poor insight obsessive-compulsive patients taking off-label doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a 52-week follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Poor-insight obsessive-compulsive disorder (PI-OCD) is a severe form of OCD where the 'typically obsessive' features of intrusive, 'egodystonic' feelings and thoughts are absent. PI-OCD is difficult to treat, often requiring very high doses of serotonergic drugs as well as antipsychotic augmentation. When this occurs, unpleasant side effects as nausea are common, eventually further reducing compliance to medication and increasing the need for pharmacological alternatives. We present the case of a PI-OCD patient who developed severe nausea after response to off-label doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine. Drug choices are discussed, providing pharmacodynamic rationales and hypotheses along with reports of rating scale scores, administered within a follow-up period of 52 weeks. A slight reduction of fluoxetine dose, augmentation with mirtazapine and a switch from amisulpride to olanzapine led to resolution of nausea while preserving the anti-OCD therapeutic effect. Mirtazapine and olanzapine have already been suggested for OCD treatment, although a lack of evidence exists about their role in the course of PI-OCD. Both mirtazapine and olanzapine also act as 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 (5-HT3) blockers, making them preferred choices especially in cases of drug-induced nausea. PMID:21143969

  20. Masses and activity of AB Doradus B a/b. The age of the AB Dor quadruple system revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, U.; Czesla, S.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Robrade, J.; Engels, D.; Wieringa, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the close binary AB Dor Ba/b (Rst137B). Our study comprises astrometric orbit measurements, optical spectroscopy, X-ray and radio observations. Using all available adaptive optics images of AB Dor B taken with VLT/NACO from 2004 to 2009, we tightly constrain its orbital period to 360.6 ± 1.5 days. We present the first orbital solution of Rst 137B and estimate the combined mass of AB Dor Ba+b as 0.69+0.02-0.24 M⊙, slightly exceeding previous estimates based on IR photometry. Our determined orbital inclination of Rst 137B is close to the axial inclination of AB Dor A inferred from Doppler imaging. Our VLT/UVES spectra yield high rotational velocities of ≥30 km s-1 for both components Ba and Bb, in accord with previous measurements, which corresponds to rotation periods significantly shorter than one day. Our combined spectral model, using PHOENIX spectra, yields an effective temperature of 3310 ± 50 K for the primary and approximately 60 K less for the secondary. The optical spectra presumably cover a chromospheric flare and show that at least one component of Rst 137B is significantly active. Activity and weak variations are also found in our simultaneous XMM-Newton observations, while our ATCA radio data yield constant fluxes at the level of previous measurements. Using evolutionary models, our newly determined stellar parameters confirm that the age of Rst 137B is between 50 and 100 Myr. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, 383.D-1002(A) and the ESO Science Archive Facility. Using data obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member states and NASA. Using data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) operated by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).

  1. Further characterization of the putative 5-HT receptor which mediates blockade of neurogenic plasma extravasation in rat dura mater.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M G; Moskowitz, M A; Peroutka, S J; Byun, B

    1991-06-01

    1. We describe the effects of pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on neurogenically-mediated plasma protein extravasation ([125I]-albumin) in rat dura mater and in extracranial tissues (temporalis muscle fascia, conjunctiva, eyelid and lip) induced by electrical stimulation of the right trigeminal ganglion. 2. Leakage of [125I]-bovine serum albumin from blood vessels in dura mater following high intensity stimulation (1.2 mA, 5 ms, 5 Hz for 5 min) was significantly reduced by the intravenous administration of drugs active at 5-HT receptors with some selectivity for the 5-HT1 receptor subtypes: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (threshold dose, 1 ng kg-1); 5-benzyloxytryptamine (5-BT) (10, 30 or 100 micrograms kg-1); 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (300 micrograms kg-1); and as previously reported, sumatriptan (100 micrograms kg-1), dihydroergotamine (DHE) (50 micrograms kg-1); ergotamine tartrate (100 micrograms kg-1) and chronically administered methysergide (1 mg kg-1). 3. The putative 5-HT receptor antagonist, metergoline 100 micrograms kg-1, inhibited partially the effect of sumatriptan in dura mater providing additional evidence for a 5-HT1 receptor subtype-mediated mechanism, although it was not effective against 5-CT (1 ng kg-1). Methiothepin (300 micrograms kg-1) did not affect the response to sumatriptan. When administered at high concentrations (1 mg kg-1) methiothepin and metergoline decreased plasma protein extravasation in rat dura mater. 4. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists pizotifen, 300pugkg 1, or ketanserin, 300,ugkg ', or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists MDL 72222, 300,ugkg-1, or ICS 205-930, 300pgkg-1, did not affect plasma protein leakage following electrical trigeminal stimulation. Blockade by sumatriptan of plasma protein extravasation was not inhibited by pizotifen (300,ug kg-1) or MDL 72222 (300pg kg- '). 5. The 5-HT receptor(s) mediating this response were present only on

  2. Conjoint occurrence of GABAB receptor antibodies in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome with antibodies to the voltage gated calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Dogan Onugoren, Müjgan; Rauschka, Helmut; Bien, Christian G

    2014-08-15

    Antibodies (abs) to the GABAB receptor have been recently found to be responsible for immune-mediated encephalitis with dominant seizures. They are in approximately 50% of cases associated with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). GABAB receptors are mainly located in the hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum in the presynaptic and postsynaptic regions of synapses. The main function of these receptors is to reduce activity states of neurons. In some instances, GABAB receptor abs in these patients were accompanied by other antibodies, among them VGCC abs (Lancaster et al., 2010, Boronat et al., 2011). VGCC abs cause paraneoplastic Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) by reduction of presynaptic VGCCs (Titulaer et al., 2011). In the domain of CNS disease, VGCC abs have been found in association with paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia (Mason et al., 1997) and rarely and at low titres also in other paraneoplastic encephalopathies together with Hu abs (Lennon et al., 1995). It has been a long-standing debate if abs in paraneoplastic conditions associate rather with the neurological syndrome or the tumour. Here, we describe the conjoint occurrence of abs to the GABAB receptor and to the VGCC in a patient with SCLC presenting only symptoms of the peripheral nervous system giving another example of the latter hypothesis. PMID:24929678

  3. Effect of the anti-receptor ligand-blocking 225 monoclonal antibody on EGF receptor endocytosis and sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, Maria L. . E-mail: maria.jaramillo@nrc.ca; Leon, Zully; Grothe, Suzanne; Paul-Roc, Beatrice; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; O'Connor McCourt, Maureen

    2006-09-10

    The anti-receptor antibody, 225 mAb, is known to block binding of ligand to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the effect of this neutralizing antibody on EGFR endocytosis, trafficking and degradation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endocytosis of {sup 125}I-225 mAb occurs, albeit with a slower rate than that of EGF. Using pulse chase assays, we show that internalized {sup 125}I-225 mAb is recycled to the surface much more efficiently than internalized {sup 125}I-EGF. Also, we found that internalization of {sup 125}I-225 mAb, in contrast to that of EGF, is independent of receptor tyrosine kinase activity, as evidenced by its insensitivity to AG1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Analysis of the levels of cell surface and total EGFR showed that treatment with 225 mAb results in a 30-40% decrease in surface EGFR and a relatively slow downregulation of total EGFR. Taken together, these data indicate that 225 mAb induces internalization and downregulation of EGFR via a mechanism distinct from that underlying EGF-induced EGFR internalization and downregulation.

  4. Granisetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking serotonin, a natural substance in the body that causes ... and tranylcypromine (Parnate); moxifloxacin (Avelox); pimozide (Orap); selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram ( ...

  5. Granisetron

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking serotonin, a natural substance in the body that causes ... Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar), and tranylcypromine (Parnate); phenobarbital; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram ( ...

  6. Ab initio infrared and Raman spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredkin, D. R.; White, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.; Komornicki, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that with increased computer power and improved computational techniques, such as the gradients developed in recent years, it is becoming practical to compute spectra ab initio, from the fundamental constants of nature, for systems of increasing complexity. The present investigation has the objective to explore several possible ab initio approaches to spectra, giving particular attention to infrared and nonresonance Raman. Two approaches are discussed. The sequential approach, in which first the electronic part and then later the nuclear part of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is solved, is appropriate for small systems. The simultaneous approach, in which the electronic and nuclear parts are solved at the same time, is more appropriate for many-atom systems. A review of the newer quantum gradient techniques is provided, and the infrared and Raman spectral band contours for the water molecule are computed.

  7. Ab interno trabeculectomy: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Ab interno trabeculectomy is one among several recently introduced minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries that avoid a conjunctival incision and full-thickness sclerostomy involved in traditional glaucoma surgery. Ablation of the trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm’s canal is performed in an arcuate fashion via a clear corneal incision, alone or in combination with phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Intraocular pressure reduction following ab interno trabeculectomy is limited by resistance in distal outflow pathways and generally stabilizes in the mid-to-high teens. Relief of medication burden has been demonstrated by some studies. A very low rate of complications, most commonly transient hyphema and intraocular pressure elevations in the immediate postoperative period, have been reported. However, available data are derived from small retrospective and prospective case series. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the potential merits of ab interno trabeculectomy in the combined setting versus phacoemulsification cataract surgery alone and to compare it with other minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries. PMID:27574396

  8. Comparative study on the ability of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms to neutralize lethal and myotoxic effects induced by Micrurus nigrocinctus (coral snake) venom.

    PubMed

    León, G; Stiles, B; Alape, A; Rojas, G; Gutiérrez, J M

    1999-08-01

    A comparative study was performed on the ability of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms to neutralize lethal and myotoxic activities of Micrurus nigrocinctus venom. Both antivenoms were adjusted to a similar neutralizing potency in experiments where venom and antivenoms were preincubated prior to injection. No significant differences were observed between IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms concerning neutralization of lethal effect in rescue experiments, i.e., when antivenom was administered intravenously after envenomation. However, F(ab')2 antivenom was more effective in prolonging the time of death when subneutralizing doses were administered immediately after venom injection. Both products partially reversed the binding of M. nigrocinctus alpha-neurotoxins to acetylcholine receptor in vitro. The IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms effectively neutralized venom-induced myotoxicity when administered intravenously immediately after envenomation, although neutralization was poor if antivenom injections were delayed. Intramuscular injection of venom promoted diffusion of antivenom antibodies throughout muscle tissue, and F(ab')2 diffused to a higher extent than IgG molecules. Thus, despite the observation that F(ab')2 antivenom was more effective than IgG antivenom in prolonging the time of death when subneutralizing doses were administered immediately after envenomation, no major differences were observed in antivenom neutralization of lethal and myotoxic effects or in their capacity to reverse neurotoxin binding to the acetylcholine receptor.

  9. Anti-phospholipid antibodies restore mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in complement receptor 2/complement receptor 1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sherry D; Egan, Ryan P; Chai, Chunyan; Girardi, Guillermina; Holers, V Michael; Salmon, Jane; Monestier, Marc; Tsokos, George C

    2004-12-01

    Complement receptor 2-deficient (Cr2(-/-)) mice are resistant to mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury because they lack a component of the natural Ab repertoire. Neither the nature of the Abs that are involved in I/R injury nor the composition of the target Ag, to which recognition is lacking in Cr2(-/-) mice, is known. Because anti-phospholipid Abs have been shown to mediate fetal growth retardation and loss when injected into pregnant mice, we performed experiments to determine whether anti-phospholipid Abs can also reconstitute I/R injury and, therefore, represent members of the injury-inducing repertoire that is missing in Cr2(-/-) mice. We demonstrate that both murine and human monoclonal and polyclonal Abs against negatively charged phospholipids can reconstitute mesenteric I/R-induced intestinal and lung tissue damage in Cr2(-/-) mice. In addition, Abs against beta2 glycoprotein I restore local and remote tissue damage in the Cr2(-/-) mice. Unlike Cr2(-/-) mice, reconstitution of I/R tissue damage in the injury-resistant Rag-1(-/-) mouse required the infusion of both anti-beta2-glycoprotein I and anti-phospholipid Ab. We conclude that anti-phospholipid Abs can bind to tissues subjected to I/R insult and mediate tissue damage. PMID:15557203

  10. [Clinical study on the inhibitory effect of a 5-HT3 antagonist, granisetron, for nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy (CHOP, VEPA, high-dose ETP) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Sasai, Y; Misawa, S; Iwai, T; Tamura, A; Nakazawa, N; Ueda, Y; Kaneko, H; Horiike, S; Yokota, S; Taniwaki, M; Kashima, K; Tsuda, S; Ookawara, Y; Nakao, M; Nakagawa, H; Fujii, H

    1998-04-01

    The antiemetic effect of granisetron on nausea and vomiting induced by cancer chemotherapy (CHOP, VEPA, VEPA-B, massive dose of ETP) was studied in fifty patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was almost no difference in the inhibitory effect by regimen, with the rates of perfect inhibition of nausea and vomiting standing at 55.6% to 60%. Nausea and vomiting was perfectly controlled in 60% of 35 patients receiving CHOP therapy. As a part of this study, a comparison was made of perfect inhibitory effect on nausea and vomiting by potency of chemotherapy under the potency scale of 750 mg/m2 of CPA as 1, revealing no significant difference in the rates of complete inhibition as 71.4% for a drug potency of less than 0.8 vs 52.4% for 0.8 or above (p = 0.26). However, it was clear that the higher the dose of chemotherapy, the lower the rate of complete inhibition. The results confirmed the high efficacy and safety of granisetron in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by cancer chemotherapy.

  11. The Dinoflagellate Toxin 20-Methyl Spirolide-G Potently Blocks Skeletal Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Couesnon, Aurélie; Aráoz, Rómulo; Iorga, Bogdan I.; Benoit, Evelyne; Reynaud, Morgane; Servent, Denis; Molgó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic imine toxin 20-methyl spirolide G (20-meSPX-G), produced by the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii/Alexandrium peruvianum, has been previously reported to contaminate shellfish in various European coastal locations, as revealed by mouse toxicity bioassay. The aim of the present study was to determine its toxicological profile and its molecular target selectivity. 20-meSPX-G blocked nerve-evoked isometric contractions in isolated mouse neuromuscular preparations, while it had no action on contractions elicited by direct electrical stimulation, and reduced reversibly nerve-evoked compound muscle action potential amplitudes in anesthetized mice. Voltage-clamp recordings in Xenopus oocytes revealed that 20-meSPX-G potently inhibited currents evoked by ACh on Torpedo muscle-type and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), whereas lower potency was observed in human α4β2 nAChR. Competition-binding assays showed that 20-meSPX-G fully displaced [3H]epibatidine binding to HEK-293 cells expressing the human α3β2 (Ki = 0.040 nM), whereas a 90-fold lower affinity was detected in human α4β2 nAChR. The spirolide displaced [125I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes (Ki = 0.028 nM) and in HEK-293 cells expressing chick chimeric α7-5HT3 nAChR (Ki = 0.11 nM). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that 20-meSPX-G is a potent antagonist of nAChRs, and its subtype selectivity is discussed on the basis of molecular docking models. PMID:27563924

  12. The Novel, Nicotinic Alpha7 Receptor Partial Agonist, BMS-933043, Improves Cognition and Sensory Processing in Preclinical Models of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Linda J.; Easton, Amy E.; Li, Yu-Wen; Sivarao, Digavalli V.; Lidge, Regina; Jones, Kelli M.; Post-Munson, Debra; Daly, Christopher; Lodge, Nicholas J.; Gallagher, Lizbeth; Molski, Thaddeus; Pieschl, Richard; Chen, Ping; Hendricson, Adam; Westphal, Ryan; Cook, James; Iwuagwu, Christiana; Morgan, Daniel; Benitex, Yulia; King, Dalton; Macor, John E.; Zaczek, Robert; Olson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The development of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists is considered a promising approach for the treatment of cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. In the present studies we characterized the novel agent, (2R)-N-(6-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4-pyrimidinyl)-4'H-spiro[4-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,5'-[1,3]oxazol]-2'-amine (BMS-933043), in vitro and in rodent models of schizophrenia-like deficits in cognition and sensory processing. BMS-933043 showed potent binding affinity to native rat (Ki = 3.3 nM) and recombinant human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (Ki = 8.1 nM) and agonist activity in a calcium fluorescence assay (EC50 = 23.4 nM) and whole cell voltage clamp electrophysiology (EC50 = 0.14 micromolar (rat) and 0.29 micromolar (human)). BMS-933043 exhibited a partial agonist profile relative to acetylcholine; the relative efficacy for net charge crossing the cell membrane was 67% and 78% at rat and human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors respectively. BMS-933043 showed no agonist or antagonist activity at other nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and was at least 300 fold weaker at binding to and antagonizing human 5-HT3A receptors (Ki = 2,451 nM; IC50 = 8,066 nM). BMS-933043 treatment i) improved 24 hour novel object recognition memory in mice (0.1–10 mg/kg, sc), ii) reversed MK-801-induced deficits in Y maze performance in mice (1–10 mg/kg, sc) and set shift performance in rats (1–10 mg/kg, po) and iii) reduced the number of trials required to complete the extradimensional shift discrimination in neonatal PCP treated rats performing the intra-dimensional/extradimensional set shifting task (0.1–3 mg/kg, po). BMS-933043 also improved auditory gating (0.56–3 mg/kg, sc) and mismatch negativity (0.03–3 mg/kg, sc) in rats treated with S(+)ketamine or neonatal phencyclidine respectively. Given this favorable preclinical profile BMS-933043 was selected for further development to support clinical evaluation in humans. PMID

  13. The Novel, Nicotinic Alpha7 Receptor Partial Agonist, BMS-933043, Improves Cognition and Sensory Processing in Preclinical Models of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Linda J; Easton, Amy E; Li, Yu-Wen; Sivarao, Digavalli V; Lidge, Regina; Jones, Kelli M; Post-Munson, Debra; Daly, Christopher; Lodge, Nicholas J; Gallagher, Lizbeth; Molski, Thaddeus; Pieschl, Richard; Chen, Ping; Hendricson, Adam; Westphal, Ryan; Cook, James; Iwuagwu, Christiana; Morgan, Daniel; Benitex, Yulia; King, Dalton; Macor, John E; Zaczek, Robert; Olson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The development of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists is considered a promising approach for the treatment of cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. In the present studies we characterized the novel agent, (2R)-N-(6-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4-pyrimidinyl)-4'H-spiro[4-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,5'-[1,3]oxazol]-2'-amine (BMS-933043), in vitro and in rodent models of schizophrenia-like deficits in cognition and sensory processing. BMS-933043 showed potent binding affinity to native rat (Ki = 3.3 nM) and recombinant human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (Ki = 8.1 nM) and agonist activity in a calcium fluorescence assay (EC50 = 23.4 nM) and whole cell voltage clamp electrophysiology (EC50 = 0.14 micromolar (rat) and 0.29 micromolar (human)). BMS-933043 exhibited a partial agonist profile relative to acetylcholine; the relative efficacy for net charge crossing the cell membrane was 67% and 78% at rat and human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors respectively. BMS-933043 showed no agonist or antagonist activity at other nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and was at least 300 fold weaker at binding to and antagonizing human 5-HT3A receptors (Ki = 2,451 nM; IC50 = 8,066 nM). BMS-933043 treatment i) improved 24 hour novel object recognition memory in mice (0.1-10 mg/kg, sc), ii) reversed MK-801-induced deficits in Y maze performance in mice (1-10 mg/kg, sc) and set shift performance in rats (1-10 mg/kg, po) and iii) reduced the number of trials required to complete the extradimensional shift discrimination in neonatal PCP treated rats performing the intra-dimensional/extradimensional set shifting task (0.1-3 mg/kg, po). BMS-933043 also improved auditory gating (0.56-3 mg/kg, sc) and mismatch negativity (0.03-3 mg/kg, sc) in rats treated with S(+)ketamine or neonatal phencyclidine respectively. Given this favorable preclinical profile BMS-933043 was selected for further development to support clinical evaluation in humans. PMID:27467081

  14. The Novel, Nicotinic Alpha7 Receptor Partial Agonist, BMS-933043, Improves Cognition and Sensory Processing in Preclinical Models of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Linda J; Easton, Amy E; Li, Yu-Wen; Sivarao, Digavalli V; Lidge, Regina; Jones, Kelli M; Post-Munson, Debra; Daly, Christopher; Lodge, Nicholas J; Gallagher, Lizbeth; Molski, Thaddeus; Pieschl, Richard; Chen, Ping; Hendricson, Adam; Westphal, Ryan; Cook, James; Iwuagwu, Christiana; Morgan, Daniel; Benitex, Yulia; King, Dalton; Macor, John E; Zaczek, Robert; Olson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The development of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists is considered a promising approach for the treatment of cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. In the present studies we characterized the novel agent, (2R)-N-(6-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4-pyrimidinyl)-4'H-spiro[4-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,5'-[1,3]oxazol]-2'-amine (BMS-933043), in vitro and in rodent models of schizophrenia-like deficits in cognition and sensory processing. BMS-933043 showed potent binding affinity to native rat (Ki = 3.3 nM) and recombinant human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (Ki = 8.1 nM) and agonist activity in a calcium fluorescence assay (EC50 = 23.4 nM) and whole cell voltage clamp electrophysiology (EC50 = 0.14 micromolar (rat) and 0.29 micromolar (human)). BMS-933043 exhibited a partial agonist profile relative to acetylcholine; the relative efficacy for net charge crossing the cell membrane was 67% and 78% at rat and human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors respectively. BMS-933043 showed no agonist or antagonist activity at other nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and was at least 300 fold weaker at binding to and antagonizing human 5-HT3A receptors (Ki = 2,451 nM; IC50 = 8,066 nM). BMS-933043 treatment i) improved 24 hour novel object recognition memory in mice (0.1-10 mg/kg, sc), ii) reversed MK-801-induced deficits in Y maze performance in mice (1-10 mg/kg, sc) and set shift performance in rats (1-10 mg/kg, po) and iii) reduced the number of trials required to complete the extradimensional shift discrimination in neonatal PCP treated rats performing the intra-dimensional/extradimensional set shifting task (0.1-3 mg/kg, po). BMS-933043 also improved auditory gating (0.56-3 mg/kg, sc) and mismatch negativity (0.03-3 mg/kg, sc) in rats treated with S(+)ketamine or neonatal phencyclidine respectively. Given this favorable preclinical profile BMS-933043 was selected for further development to support clinical evaluation in humans.

  15. CD44 Antibody Inhibition of Macrophage Phagocytosis Targets Fcγ Receptor- and Complement Receptor 3-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amash, Alaa; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yawen; Bhakta, Varsha; Fairn, Gregory D; Hou, Ming; Peng, Jun; Sheffield, William P; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-04-15

    Targeting CD44, a major leukocyte adhesion molecule, using specific Abs has been shown beneficial in several models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms contributing to the anti-inflammatory effects of CD44 Abs, however, remain poorly understood. Phagocytosis is a key component of immune system function and can play a pivotal role in autoimmune states where CD44 Abs have shown to be effective. In this study, we show that the well-known anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab IM7 can inhibit murine macrophage phagocytosis of RBCs. We assessed three selected macrophage phagocytic receptor systems: Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3), and dectin-1. Treatment of macrophages with IM7 resulted in significant inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized RBCs. The inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis was at an early stage in the phagocytic process involving both inhibition of the binding of the target RBC to the macrophages and postbinding events. This CD44 Ab also inhibited CR3-mediated phagocytosis of C3bi-opsonized RBCs, but it did not affect the phagocytosis of zymosan particles, known to be mediated by the C-type lectin dectin-1. Other CD44 Abs known to have less broad anti-inflammatory activity, including KM114, KM81, and KM201, did not inhibit FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of RBCs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate selective inhibition of FcγR and CR3-mediated phagocytosis by IM7 and suggest that this broadly anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab inhibits these selected macrophage phagocytic pathways. The understanding of the immune-regulatory effects of CD44 Abs is important in the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies for the potential treatment of autoimmune conditions.

  16. CD44 Antibody Inhibition of Macrophage Phagocytosis Targets Fcγ Receptor- and Complement Receptor 3-Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amash, Alaa; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yawen; Bhakta, Varsha; Fairn, Gregory D; Hou, Ming; Peng, Jun; Sheffield, William P; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-04-15

    Targeting CD44, a major leukocyte adhesion molecule, using specific Abs has been shown beneficial in several models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms contributing to the anti-inflammatory effects of CD44 Abs, however, remain poorly understood. Phagocytosis is a key component of immune system function and can play a pivotal role in autoimmune states where CD44 Abs have shown to be effective. In this study, we show that the well-known anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab IM7 can inhibit murine macrophage phagocytosis of RBCs. We assessed three selected macrophage phagocytic receptor systems: Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3), and dectin-1. Treatment of macrophages with IM7 resulted in significant inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized RBCs. The inhibition of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis was at an early stage in the phagocytic process involving both inhibition of the binding of the target RBC to the macrophages and postbinding events. This CD44 Ab also inhibited CR3-mediated phagocytosis of C3bi-opsonized RBCs, but it did not affect the phagocytosis of zymosan particles, known to be mediated by the C-type lectin dectin-1. Other CD44 Abs known to have less broad anti-inflammatory activity, including KM114, KM81, and KM201, did not inhibit FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of RBCs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate selective inhibition of FcγR and CR3-mediated phagocytosis by IM7 and suggest that this broadly anti-inflammatory CD44 Ab inhibits these selected macrophage phagocytic pathways. The understanding of the immune-regulatory effects of CD44 Abs is important in the development and optimization of therapeutic strategies for the potential treatment of autoimmune conditions. PMID:26944929

  17. Effect of the 3- and 4-Methyl Groups on the Opioid Receptor Properties of N-Substituted trans-3,4-Dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    N-substituted trans-3,4-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidines (2a,b) are opioid receptor antagonists where the antagonist properties are not due to the type of N-substituent. In order to gain a better understanding of the contribution that the 3- and 4-methyl groups make to the pure antagonist properties of 2a,b, we synthesized analogues of 2a,b that lacked the 4-methyl (5a,b), 3-methyl (6a,b), and both the 3- and 4-methyl group (7a,b) and compared their opioid receptor properties. We found that (1) all N-methyl and N-phenylpropyl substituted compounds were nonselective opioid antagonists (2) all N-phenylpropyl analogues were more potent than their N-methyl counterparts, and (3) compounds 2a,b which have both a 3- and 4-methyl substituent, were more potent antagonists than analogues 5a,b, 6a,b, and 7a,b. We also found that the removal of 3-methyl substituent of N-methyl and N-phenylpropyl 3-methyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperazines (8a,b) gives (4a,b), which are opioid antagonists. PMID:24635568

  18. Undoing Gender Through Legislation and Schooling: the Case of AB 537 and AB 394 IN California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knotts, Greg

    2009-11-01

    This article investigates California laws AB 537: The Student Safety and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, and the recently enacted AB 394: Safe Place to Learn Act. Both demand that gender identity and sexual orientation be added to the lexicon of anti-harassment protection in public education. However, despite these progressive measures, schools have an unconscious acceptance of heteronormativity and gendered norms, which undermines both the spirit and language of these laws. This paper examines how California schools can both change standard practices and realise the transformative social change that laws like AB 537 and AB 394 can instigate. I assert that the systemic implementation of these laws, through the adoption, enforcement and evaluation of existing AB 537 Task Force Recommendations, is necessary for their success. My second assertion is that AB 537 and AB 394 have the potential to change and reconstitute gender-based and heteronormative standards at school sites.

  19. The Tail Associated Protein of Acinetobacter baumannii Phage ΦAB6 Is the Host Specificity Determinant Possessing Exopolysaccharide Depolymerase Activity.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meng-Jiun; Chang, Kai-Chih; Huang, Shiuan-Wen; Luo, Cheng-Hung; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Wu, Chao-Chuan; Lin, Nien-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a non-fermenting, gram-negative bacterium. In recent years, the frequency of A. baumannii infections has continued to increase, and multidrug-resistant strains are emerging in hospitalized patients. Therefore, as therapeutic options become limited, the potential of phages as natural antimicrobial agents to control infections is worth reconsidering. In our previous study, we isolated ten virulent double-stranded DNA A. baumannii phages, ϕAB1-9 and ϕAB11, and found that each has a narrow host range. Many reports indicate that receptor-binding protein of phage mediates host recognition; however, understanding of the specific interactions between A. baumannii and phages remains very limited. In this study, host determinants of A. baumannii phages were investigated. Sequence comparison of ϕAB6 and ϕAB1 revealed high degrees of conservation among their genes except the tail fiber protein (ORF41 in ϕAB1 and ORF40 in ϕAB6). Furthermore, we found that ORF40ϕAB6 has polysaccharide depolymerase activity capable of hydrolyzing the A. baumannii exopolysaccharide and is a component of the phage tail apparatus determining host specificity. Thus, the lytic phages and their associated depolymerase not only have potential as alternative therapeutic agents for treating A. baumannii infections but also provide useful and highly specific tools for studying host strain exopolysaccharides and producing glycoconjugate vaccines. PMID:27077375

  20. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of...

  1. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of...

  2. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of...

  3. Involvement of GABAB receptors in biochemical alterations induced by anxiety-related responses to nicotine in mice: genetic and pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Pedrón, Valeria T; Bettler, Bernhard; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that anxiety-related responses induced by nicotine (NIC), measured by the elevated plus maze, were abolished by 2-OH-saclofen (GABAB receptor antagonist) (1 mg/kg; ip) or the lack of GABAB receptors (GABAB1 knockout mice). Based on these behavioral data, the aims of the present study were: 1) to evaluate the possible neurochemical changes (dopamine, DA, serotonin, 5-HT, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA and noradrenaline, NA) and the c-Fos expression induced by the anxiolytic (0.05 mg/kg) or anxiogenic (0.8 mg/kg) doses of NIC in the dorsal raphe (DRN) and lateral septal (LSN) nucleus; 2) to study the possible involvement of GABAB receptors on the neurochemical alterations and c-Fos expression induced by NIC (0.05 and 0.8 mg/kg), using both pharmacological (2-OH-saclofen) and genetic (mice GABAB1 knockout) approaches. The results revealed that in wild-type mice, NIC (0.05 mg/kg) increased the concentration of 5-HT and 5-HIAA (p < 0.05) in the DRN, and NIC (0.8 mg/kg) increased the levels of 5-HT (p < 0.01) and NA (p < 0.05) in the LSN. Additionally, 2-OH-saclofen pretreatment (1 mg/kg, ip) or the lack of GABAB receptors abolished these neurochemical changes induced by NIC (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). On the other hand, NIC 0.05 and 0.8 mg/kg increased (p < 0.01) the c-Fos expression in the DRN and LSN respectively, in wild-type mice. In addition, 2-OH-saclofen pretreatment (1 mg/kg, ip) or the lack of GABAB receptors prevented the c-Fos alterations induced by NIC (p < 0.01). In summary, both approaches show that GABAB receptors would participate in the modulation of anxiolytic- and anxiogenic-like responses induced by NIC, suggesting the potential therapeutic target of these receptors for the tobacco addiction treatment.

  4. Analyzing antibody-Fc-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Nimmerjahn, Falk; Ravetch, Jeffrey V

    2008-01-01

    Cellular receptors for immunoglobulins (Fc-receptors; FcR) are central mediators of antibody-triggered effector functions. Immune complex (IC) binding to FcRs results in a variety of reactions such as the release of inflammatory mediators, antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis of ICs. Analyzing antibody-FcR (Ab-FcR) interactions in vitro is essential to determine the effector mechanisms, binding characteristics and affinity parameters that will impact and predict antibody activity in vivo. The methods described in this chapter include the generation of ICs and soluble FcR variants, as well as ELISA and FACS-based assays to study Ab-FcR interactions.

  5. Ab initio melting curve of osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Preston, D. L.

    2015-11-01

    The melting curve of osmium up to a pressure P of 500 GPa is obtained from an extensive suite of ab initio quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations using the Z method. The ab initio P =0 melting point of Os is 3370 ±75 K; this range encompasses all of the available data in the literature and corroborates the conclusion of J. W. Arblaster [Platinum Metals Rev. 49, 166 (2005)], 10.1595/147106705X70264 that the melting temperature of pure Os is 3400 ±50 K and that the 3300 K typically quoted in the literature is the melting point of impure Os. The T =0 equation of state (EOS) of Os and the P dependence of the optimized c /a ratio for the hexagonal unit cell, both to pressures ˜900 GPa, are obtained in the ab initio approach as validation of its use. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (P ≲80 GPa) is found, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes the QMD data to higher pressures, in agreement with the more recent experimental EOS by Godwal et al. The theoretical melting curve of Os obtained earlier by Joshi et al. is shown to be inconsistent with our QMD results, and the possible reason for this discrepancy is suggested. Regularities in the melting curves of Os and five other third-row transition metals (Ta, W, Re, Pt, Au) could be used to estimate the currently unknown melting curves of Hf and Ir.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus LukAB cytotoxin kills human neutrophils by targeting the CD11b subunit of the integrin Mac-1

    PubMed Central

    DuMont, Ashley L.; Yoong, Pauline; Day, Christopher J.; Alonzo, Francis; McDonald, W. Hayes; Jennings, Michael P.; Torres, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes diseases ranging from superficial wound infections to more invasive manifestations like osteomyelitis and endocarditis. The evasion of host phagocytes recruited to the site of infection is essential to the success of S. aureus as a pathogen. A single S. aureus strain can produce up to five different bicomponent pore-forming leukotoxins that lyse immune cells by forming pores in the cellular plasma membrane. Although these leukotoxins have been considered redundant due to their cytotoxic activity toward human neutrophils, each toxin displays varied species and cell-type specificities. This suggests that cellular factors may influence which cells each toxin targets. Here we describe the identification of CD11b, the α subunit of the αM/β2 integrin (CD11b/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen, or complement receptor 3, as a cellular receptor for leukocidin A/B (LukAB), an important toxin that contributes to S. aureus killing of human neutrophils. We demonstrate that CD11b renders human neutrophils susceptible to LukAB-mediated killing by purified LukAB as well as during S. aureus infection ex vivo. LukAB directly interacts with human CD11b by binding to the I domain, a property that determines the species specificity exhibited by this toxin. Identification of a LukAB cellular target has broad implications for the use of animal models to study the role of LukAB in S. aureus pathogenesis, explains the toxin’s tropism toward human neutrophils and other phagocytes, and provides a cellular therapeutic target to block the effect of LukAB toward human neutrophils. PMID:23754403

  7. Ab-initio phasing in protein crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plas, J. L.; Millane, Rick P.

    2000-11-01

    The central problem in the determination of protein structures form x-ray diffraction dada (x-ray crystallography) corresponds to a phase retrieval problem with undersampled amplitude data. Algorithms for this problem that have an increased radius of convergence have the potential for reducing the amount of experimental work, and cost, involved in determining protein structures. We describe such an algorithm. Application of the algorithm to a simulated crystallographic problem shows that it converges to the correct solution, with no initial phase information, where currently used algorithms fail. The results lend support to the possibility of ab initio phasing in protein crystallography.

  8. Testing Distributed ABS System with Fault Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawczyński, Dawid; Sosnowski, Janusz; Gawkowski, Piotr

    The paper deals with the problem of adapting software implemented fault injection technique (SWIFI) to evaluate dependability of reactive microcontroller systems. We present an original methodology of disturbing controller operation and analyzing fault effects taking into account reactions of the controlled object and the impact of the system environment. Faults can be injected randomly (in space and time) or targeted at the most sensitive elements of the controller to check it at high stresses. This approach allows identifying rarely encountered problems, usually missed in classical approaches. The developed methodology has been used successfully to verify dependability of ABS system. Experimental results are commented in the paper.

  9. New challenges to medicare beneficiary access to mAbs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Precision binding of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to biological targets, their relative clinical success, and expansion of indications following initial approval, are distinctive clinical features. The relatively high cost of mAbs, together with the absence of a regulatory pathway to generics, stand out as distinctive economic features. Based on both literature review and primary data collection we enumerated mAb original approvals, supplemental indications and off-label uses, assessed payer formulary management of mAbs, and determined new challenges to Medicare beneficiary access to mAbs. We found that the FDA has approved 22 mAbs and 30 supplemental indications pertaining to the originally approved mAbs. In addition, there are 46 off-label use citations in officially recognized pharmaceutical compendia. Across Part B carriers and Part D plans, we found considerable variation in terms of coverage and conditions of reimbursement related to on- and off-label uses of mAbs. Our results point to four major challenges facing mAb developers, health care providers, Medicare beneficiaries, payers and policymakers. These include administrative price controls, coverage variation, projected shift from physician- to self-administered mAbs, and comparative effectiveness. We suggest more systematic use of “coverage with evidence development” as a means of optimally addressing these challenges. PMID:20046575

  10. Molecular evolution of the mammalian alpha 2B adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Ole; Willemsen, Diederik; Ursing, Björn M; Arnason, Ulfur; de Jong, Wilfried W

    2002-12-01

    The alpha 2B adrenergic receptor (A2AB) is a heptahelical G protein-coupled receptor for catecholamines. We compared the almost complete coding region (about 1,175 bp) of the A2AB gene from 48 mammalian species, including eight newly determined sequences, representing all the 18 eutherian and two marsupial orders. Comparison of the encoded proteins reveals that residues thought to be involved in agonist binding are highly conserved, as are the regions playing a role in G protein-coupling. The three extracellular loops are generally more variable than the transmembrane domains and two of the intracellular loops, indicating a lower functional constraint. However, the greatest variation is observed in the very long, third intracellular loop, where only a few residues and a polyglutamyl tract are preserved. Although this polyglutamyl domain displays a great variation in length, its presence in all described A2ABs confirms its proposed role in agonist-dependent phosphorylation of the third intracellular loop. Phylogenetic analyses of the A2AB data set, including Bayesian methods, recognized the superordinal clades Afrotheria, Laurasiatheria, and Euarchontoglires, in agreement with recent molecular evidence, albeit with lower support. Within Afrotheria, A2AB strongly supports the paenungulate clade and the association of the continental African otter shrew with Malagasy tenrecs. Among Laurasiatheria, A2AB confirms the nesting of whales within the artiodactyls, as a sister group to hippopotamus. Within the Euarchontoglires, there is constant support for rodent monophyly. PMID:12446807

  11. Tissue localization of beta receptors for platelet-derived growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor B chain during wound repair in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Reuterdahl, C; Sundberg, C; Rubin, K; Funa, K; Gerdin, B

    1993-01-01

    The expression and localization of PDGF beta receptors and PDGF-AB/BB in human healing wounds was evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques and in situ hybridization. Expression of PDGF beta receptor protein and PDGF-AB/BB were analyzed in wound margin biopsies using the PDGFR-B2 and PDGF 007 antibodies. PDGF beta receptor expression was minor in normal skin. An increased expression of PDGF beta receptor protein was prominent in vessels in the proliferating tissue zone in wounds as early as 1 d after surgery and was apparent < or = 4 wk after surgery. There was also a concordant increase in PDGF beta receptor mRNA detected by in situ hybridization. PDGF-AB/BB was present in healing wounds as well as in normal skin. In normal skin, expression of PDGF-AB/BB was confined to peripheral nerve fibers and to solitary cells of the epidermis and of the superficial dermis. In wounds, infiltrating mononuclear cells also stained for PDGF-AB/BB. To identify cell types expressing PDGF AB/BB and PDGF beta receptors, respectively, we performed double immunofluorescence stainings. PDGF beta receptors were expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells and cells in capillary walls; the receptor protein could not be detected in neurofilament containing structures, T lymphocytes, or CD68 expressing macrophages. PDGF-AB/BB colocalized with neurofilaments, it was present in Langerhans cells of the epidermis and in HLA-DR positive cells located in the epidermal/dermal junction area. Of the macrophages infiltrating the wound, 43 +/- 18% stained positively for PDGF AB/BB. Since PDGF-AB/BB and PDGF beta receptors are expressed in the healing wound, two essential prerequisites for a role of PDGF in wound healing are fulfilled. Images PMID:8486774

  12. Receptor binding profiles and quantitative structure-affinity relationships of some 5-substituted-N,N-diallyltryptamines.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Nicholas V; Daley, Paul F

    2016-02-01

    N,N-Diallyltryptamine (DALT) and 5-methoxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine (5-MeO-DALT) are two tryptamines synthesized and tested by Alexander Shulgin. In self-experiments, 5-MeO-DALT was reported to be psychoactive in the 12-20mg range, while the unsubstituted compound DALT had few discernible effects in the 42-80 mg range. Recently, 5-MeO-DALT has been used in nonmedical settings for its psychoactive effects, but these effects have been poorly characterized and little is known of its pharmacological properties. We extended the work of Shulgin by synthesizing additional 5-substituted-DALTs. We then compared them to DALT and 5-MeO-DALT for their binding affinities at 45 cloned receptors and transporter proteins. Based on in vitro binding affinity, we identified 27 potential receptor targets for the 5-substituted-DALT compounds. Five of the DALT compounds had affinity in the 10-80 nM range for serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B receptors, while the affinity of DALT itself at 5-HT1A receptors was slightly lower at 100 nM. Among the 5-HT2 subtypes, the weakest affinity was at 5-HT2A receptors, spanning 250-730 nM. Five of the DALT compounds had affinity in the 50-400 nM range for serotonin 5-HT1D, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors; again, it was the unsubstituted DALT that had the weakest affinity at all three subtypes. The test drugs had even weaker affinity for 5-HT1B, 5-HT1E, and 5-HT5A subtypes and little or no affinity for the 5-HT3 subtype. These compounds also had generally nanomolar affinities for adrenergic α2A, α2B, and α2C receptors, sigma receptors σ1 and σ2, histamine H1 receptors, and norepinephrine and serotonin uptake transporters. They also bound to other targets in the nanomolar-to-low micromolar range. Based on these binding results, it is likely that multiple serotonin receptors, as well as several nonserotonergic sites are important for the psychoactive effects of DALT drugs. To learn whether any quantitative structure-affinity relationships existed, we evaluated

  13. Ab initio Study of HZnF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, S.; Léonard, C.; Chambaud, G.

    2009-11-01

    On the basis of highly correlated ab initio calculations, an accurate determination of the electronic structure and of the rovibrational spectroscopy has been performed for the electronic ground state of the HZnF system. Using effective core pseudopotentials for the Zn and F atoms and associated aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets, we have calculated, at the multireference configuration interaction level including the Davidson correction, the three-dimensional potential energy surface of the X1Σ+ ground state. The rovibrational energy levels have been obtained variationally, and the results have been discussed and compared with existing experimental data on the ground state of the close system HZnCl, which exhibits a complicated vibration-rotation spectrum. Our analysis shows that the nature of the H-ZnF bond is quite similar to that of the H-ZnCl bond, according to their bond lengths, harmonic frequencies of the H-Zn stretching mode, and dissociation energies into H and ZnF/ZnCl. The ab initio study of the electronic ground and excited states of ZnH and ZnH+ are also presented using similar level of calculations. Characteristic constants are given for the first bounded electronic states correlating to the first two dissociation asymptotes of the neutral and ionic diatomics.

  14. Longitudinal wheel slip during ABS braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartikainen, Lassi; Petry, Frank; Westermann, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) braking tests with two subcompact passenger cars were performed on dry and wet asphalt, as well as on snow and ice surfaces. The operating conditions of the tyres in terms of wheel slip were evaluated using histograms of the wheel slip data. The results showed different average slip levels for different road surfaces. It was also found that changes in the tyre tread stiffness affected the slip operating range through a modification of the slip value at which the maximum longitudinal force is achieved. Variation of the tyre footprint length through modifications in the inflation pressure affected the slip operating range as well. Differences in the slip distribution between vehicles with different brake controllers were also observed. The changes in slip operating range in turn modified the relative local sliding speeds between the tyre and the road. The results highlight the importance of the ABS controller's ability to adapt to changing slip-force characteristics of tyres and provide estimates of the magnitude of the effects of different tyre and road operating conditions.

  15. Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-12-07

    Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li{sub 3} molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.

  16. Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Frisch, Michael J.; Li, Xiaosong

    2014-12-01

    Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li3 molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.

  17. Quantum phases of AB 2 fermionic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia-Correa, L. S.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-02-01

    A fermionic chain is a one-dimensional system with fermions that interact locally and can jump between sites in the lattice, in particular an AB n chain type, where A and B are sites that exhibit a difference in energy level of Δ and site B is repeated n-times, such that the unit cell has n +1 sites. A limit case of this model, called the ionic Hubbard model (n = 1), has been widely studied due to its interesting physics and applications. In this paper, we study the ground state of an AB 2 chain, which describes the material R 4[Pt 2(P 2O5H2)4X] · nH 2 O. Specifically, we consider a filling with two electrons per unit cell, and using the density matrix renormalization group method we found that the system exhibits the band insulator and Mott correlated insulator phases, as well as an intermediate phase between them. For couplings of Δ = 2,10 and 20, we estimate the critical points that separate these phases through the structure factor and the energy gap in the sector of charge and spin, finding that the position of the critical point rises as a function of Δ.

  18. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Gönül; Turabik, Meral

    2006-07-31

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 degrees C and 3.0, 25 degrees C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature.

  19. Anti-GD2 mAb and Vorinostat synergize in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kroesen, Michiel; Büll, Christian; Gielen, Paul R; Brok, Ingrid C; Armandari, Inna; Wassink, Melissa; Looman, Maaike W G; Boon, Louis; den Brok, Martijn H; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Adema, Gosse J

    2016-06-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a childhood malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. For high-risk NBL patients, the mortality rate is still over 50%, despite intensive multimodal treatment. Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAB) in combination with systemic cytokine immunotherapy has shown clinical efficacy in high-risk NBL patients. Targeted therapy using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is currently being explored in cancer treatment and already shows promising results. Using our recently developed transplantable TH-MYCN NBL model, we here report that the HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat synergizes with anti-GD2 mAb therapy in reducing NBL tumor growth. Further mechanistic studies uncovered multiple mechanisms for the observed synergy, including Vorinostat-induced specific NBL cell death and upregulation of the tumor antigen GD2 on the cell surface of surviving NBL cells. Moreover, Vorinostat created a permissive tumor microenvironment (TME) for tumor-directed mAb therapy by increasing macrophage effector cells expressing high levels of Fc-receptors (FcR) and decreasing the number and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Collectively, these data imply further testing of other epigenetic modulators with immunotherapy and provide a strong basis for clinical testing of anti-GD2 plus Vorinostat combination therapy in NBL patients.

  20. Anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer: limitations, controversies, and contradictories.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Ren, Wei; Xie, Li; Li, Ming; Liu, Jiang; Hu, Jing; Liu, Bao-Rui; Qian, Xiao-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Anti-epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) treatment for chemotherapy refractory or metastatic colorectal cancer has obtained great achievement. However, not every colorectal patient responds to such molecular-targeted agent well. Biomarkers associated with anti-EGFR resistance are not limited to KRAS mutation up to now. It was recently reported that cross-talking molecular effectors interacted with EGFR-related pathway were also negative predictor for anti-EGFR treatment. However, the limited data, controversial results, and contradictories between in vitro and clinical studies restrict the clinical application of these new biomarkers. Although the current theory of tumor microenvironment supported the application of multi-target treatment, the results from the clinical studies were less than expected. Moreover, WHO or RECIST guideline for response assessment in anti-EGFR MoAb treatment was also queried by recent AIO KRK-0306 trial. This review focuses on these controversies, contradictories, and limitations, in order to uncover the unmet needs in current status of anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer. PMID:24916545

  1. Antibody-Fc receptor interactions in protection against intracellular pathogens.

    PubMed

    Joller, Nicole; Weber, Stefan S; Oxenius, Annette

    2011-04-01

    Intracellular pathogen-specific antibodies (Abs) can contribute to host protection by a number of different mechanisms. Ab opsonization of pathogens residing outside a host cell can prevent infection of target cells either via neutralization of the critical surface epitopes required for host cell entry, complement-mediated degradation, or via subsequent intracellular degradation. In the case of intracellular localization, Abs can bind to infected cells and thus mark them for destruction by Fc receptor (FcR)-bearing effector cells. This review focuses on the protective role of Abs against intracellular bacteria and parasites involving FcR interactions that modulate the intracellular trafficking of the pathogen, the ability of FcRs to interfere with the establishment of an intracellular replicative niche and the involvement of FcRs to modulate pathogen-specific T-cell responses. PMID:21413006

  2. Antibody-Fc receptor interactions in protection against intracellular pathogens.

    PubMed

    Joller, Nicole; Weber, Stefan S; Oxenius, Annette

    2011-04-01

    Intracellular pathogen-specific antibodies (Abs) can contribute to host protection by a number of different mechanisms. Ab opsonization of pathogens residing outside a host cell can prevent infection of target cells either via neutralization of the critical surface epitopes required for host cell entry, complement-mediated degradation, or via subsequent intracellular degradation. In the case of intracellular localization, Abs can bind to infected cells and thus mark them for destruction by Fc receptor (FcR)-bearing effector cells. This review focuses on the protective role of Abs against intracellular bacteria and parasites involving FcR interactions that modulate the intracellular trafficking of the pathogen, the ability of FcRs to interfere with the establishment of an intracellular replicative niche and the involvement of FcRs to modulate pathogen-specific T-cell responses.

  3. The role of dorsal raphe nucleus serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons, and of their receptors, in regulating waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jaime M

    2010-10-01

    Based on electrophysiological, neurochemical, genetic and neuropharmacological approaches it is currently accepted that serotonin (5-HT) functions to promote waking (W) and to inhibit rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS). The serotonin-containing neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) provide part of the serotonergic innervation of the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon of laboratory animals and man. The DRN has been subdivided into several clusters on the basis of differences in cellular morphology, expression of other neurotransmitters and afferent and efferent connections. These differences among subpopulations of 5-HT neurons may have important implications for neural mechanisms underlying 5-HT modulation of sleep and waking. The DRN contains 5-HT and non-5-HT neurons. The latter express a variety of substances including dopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. In addition, nitric oxide and a number of neuropeptides have been characterized in the DRN. Available evidence tends to indicate that non-5-HT cells contribute to the regulation of the activity of 5-HT neurons during the sleep-wake cycle through local circuits and/or their mediation of the effects of afferent inputs. Mutant mice that do not express 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1B) receptor exhibit greater amounts of REMS than their wild-type couterparts. 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor knockout mice show a significant increase of W and a reduction of slow wave sleep that is related, at least in part, to the increased release of norepinephrine and dopamine. A normal circadian sleep pattern is observed in 5-HT(7) receptor knockout mice; however, the mutants spend less time in REMS. Local microinjection of 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A/2C), 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists into the DRN selectively suppresses REMS in the rat. In contrast, microinjection of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists promotes REMS. Similarly, local administration of the melanin-concentrating hormone or the GABA(A) receptor

  4. Comparison between Internalizing Anti-HER2 mAbs and Non-Internalizing Anti-CEA mAbs in Alpha-Radioimmunotherapy of Small Volume Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Using 212Pb

    PubMed Central

    Busson, Muriel; Garambois, Véronique; Jarlier, Marta; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Pèlegrin, André; Paillas, Salomé; Chouin, Nicolas; Quenet, François; Maquaire, Patrick; Torgue, Julien; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pouget, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose We assessed the contribution of antibody internalization in the efficacy and toxicity of intraperitoneal α-radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of small volume carcinomatosis using 212Pb-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target HER2 (internalizing) or CEA (non-internalizing) receptors. Materials and Methods Athymic nude mice bearing 2–3 mm intraperitoneal tumor xenografts were intraperitoneally injected with similar activities (370, 740 and 1480 kBq; 37 MBq/mg) of 212Pb-labeled 35A7 (anti-CEA), trastuzumab (anti-HER2) or PX (non-specific) mAbs, or with equivalent amounts of unlabeled mAbs, or with NaCl. Tumor volume was monitored by bioluminescence and survival was reported. Hematologic toxicity and body weight were assessed. Biodistribution of 212Pb-labeled mAbs and absorbed dose-effect relationships using MIRD formalism were established. Results Transient hematological toxicity, as revealed by white blood cells and platelets numbering, was reported in mice treated with the highest activities of 212Pb-labeled mAbs. The median survival (MS) was significantly higher in mice injected with 1.48 MBq of 212Pb-35A7 (non-internalizing mAbs) (MS = 94 days) than in animals treated with the same activity of 212Pb-PX mAbs or with NaCl (MS = 18 days). MS was even not reached after 130 days when follow-up was discontinued in mice treated with 1.48 MBq of 212Pb-trastuzumab. The later efficacy was unexpected since final absorbed dose resulting from injection of 1.48 MBq, was higher for 212Pb-35A7 (35.5 Gy) than for 212Pb-trastuzumab (27.6 Gy). These results also highlight the lack of absorbed dose-effect relationship when mean absorbed dose was calculated using MIRD formalism and the requirement to perform small-scale dosimetry. Conclusions These data indicate that it might be an advantage of using internalizing anti-HER2 compared with non-internalizing anti-CEA 212Pb-labeled mAbs in the therapy of small volume xenograft tumors. They support clinical

  5. Anti-GD2 mAbs and next-generation mAb-based agents for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Horta, Zulmarie Perez; Goldberg, Jacob L; Sondel, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated efficacy in the clinic, becoming an important approach for cancer immunotherapy. Due to its limited expression on normal tissue, the GD2 disialogangloside expressed on neuroblastoma cells is an excellent candidate for mAb therapy. In 2015, dinutuximab (an anti-GD2 mAb) was approved by the US FDA and is currently used in a combination immunotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of children with high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we review the extensive preclinical and clinical development of anti-GD2 mAbs and the different mechanisms by which they mediate tumor cell killing. In addition, we discuss different mAb-based strategies that capitalize on the targeting ability of anti-GD2 mAbs to potentially deliver, as monotherapy, or in combination with other treatments, improved antitumor efficacy.

  6. Somatostatin receptors.

    PubMed

    Srikant, C B; Patel, Y C

    1985-01-01

    It is now well established that the biological actions of tetradecapeptide somatostatin (somatostatin-14, S-14) are receptor-mediated. These receptors were first quantified in GH4C pituitary tumor cells using [125I-Tyr1] S-14 as radioligand which was found to exhibit high non-specific binding to membrane receptor preparations from normal tissues. Our studies have shown that [125I-Tyr11] S-14 in which the radiolabel is situated away from the N-terminus exhibits significantly lower non-specific binding and therefore is more suitable for S-14 receptor studies. In the CNS, highest concentration of S-14 receptors was found in the cerebral cortex, followed by thalamus, hypothalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus while medulla-pons, cerebellum and spinal cord exhibited negligible binding. Outside the CNS membrane receptors for S-14 have been characterized in pituitary, adrenal cortex and pancreatic acini. In all these tissues a single class of high affinity binding sites for S-14 were present, the receptors in pancreatic acinar cells exhibiting significantly greater affinity for binding S-14 than in other tissues.

  7. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881

  8. Ab Initio Modeling of Molecular Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Schwenke, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiative emission from excited states of atoms and molecules can comprise a significant fraction of the total heat flux experienced by spacecraft during atmospheric entry at hypersonic speeds. For spacecraft with ablating heat shields, some of this radiative flux can be absorbed by molecular constituents in the boundary layer that are formed by the ablation process. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are carried out to predict the strengths of these emission and absorption processes. This talk will describe the methods used in these calculations using, as examples, the 4th positive emission bands of CO and the 1g+ 1u+ absorption in C3. The results of these calculations are being used as input to NASA radiation modeling codes like NeqAir, HARA and HyperRad.

  9. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

  10. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  11. Dissecting the A-B personality type.

    PubMed

    Ray, J J; Bozek, R

    1980-06-01

    It is suggested that 'freneticism' might be an appropriate name for the type of personality said by Rosenman, Friedman and Jenkins to be at risk from coronary heart disease. In study 1 the measure of this personality type (the JAS) was given a uniform answer format and, as such, was found to give improved reliability. It was administered to a random postal sample of Australians. A short form of 24 items was also produced. In study 2 a similar sample received the 24-item form and scales to measure achievement motivation, dominance and extraversion. 'A' types were found to be very much achievement motivated and dominant. A factor analysis showed these two traits as the main components of the A-B concept with only a third factor of 'freneticism'. This factor was measured in a third study which showed that the factor could be used as a scale in its own right.

  12. Ab Initio Calculation of the Hoyle State

    SciTech Connect

    Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2011-05-13

    The Hoyle state plays a crucial role in the helium burning of stars heavier than our Sun and in the production of carbon and other elements necessary for life. This excited state of the carbon-12 nucleus was postulated by Hoyle as a necessary ingredient for the fusion of three alpha particles to produce carbon at stellar temperatures. Although the Hoyle state was seen experimentally more than a half century ago nuclear theorists have not yet uncovered the nature of this state from first principles. In this Letter we report the first ab initio calculation of the low-lying states of carbon-12 using supercomputer lattice simulations and a theoretical framework known as effective field theory. In addition to the ground state and excited spin-2 state, we find a resonance at -85(3) MeV with all of the properties of the Hoyle state and in agreement with the experimentally observed energy.

  13. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  14. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  15. In vitro screening of major neurotransmitter systems possibly involved in the mechanism of action of antibodies to S100 protein in released-active form

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunov, Evgeniy A; Ertuzun, Irina A; Kachaeva, Evgeniya V; Tarasov, Sergey A; Epstein, Oleg I

    2015-01-01

    Experimentally and clinically, it was shown that released-active form of antibodies to S100 protein (RAF of Abs to S100) exerts a wide range of pharmacological activities: anxiolytic, antiasthenic, antiaggressive, stress-protective, antihypoxic, antiischemic, neuroprotective, and nootropic. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of RAF of Abs to S100 on major neurotransmitter systems (serotoninergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and on sigma receptors as well) which are possibly involved in its mechanism of pharmacological activity. Radioligand binding assays were used for assessment of the drug influence on ligand–receptor interaction. [35S]GTPγS binding assay, cyclic adenosine monophosphate HTRF™, cellular dielectric spectroscopy assays, and assays based on measurement of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ions were used for assessment of agonist or antagonist properties of the drug toward receptors. RAF of Abs to S100 increased radioligand binding to 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2Cedited, 5-HT3, and to D3 receptors by 142.0%, 131.9%, 149.3%, 120.7%, and 126.3%, respectively. Also, the drug significantly inhibited specific binding of radioligands to GABAB1A/B2 receptors by 25.8%, and to both native and recombinant human sigma1 receptors by 75.3% and 40.32%, respectively. In the functional assays, it was shown that the drug exerted antagonism at 5-HT1B, D3, and GABAB1A/B2 receptors inhibiting agonist-induced responses by 23.24%, 32.76%, and 30.2%, respectively. On the contrary, the drug exerted an agonist effect at 5-HT1A receptors enhancing receptor functional activity by 28.0%. The pharmacological profiling of RAF of Abs to S100 among 27 receptor provides evidence for drug-related modification of major neurotransmitter systems. PMID:26604768

  16. Somatostatin receptors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y C; Srikant, C B

    1997-12-01

    The diverse biological effects of somatostatin (SRIF) are mediated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors (termed sst) that are encoded by five nonallelic genes located on separate chromosomes. The receptors can be further divided into two subfamilies: sst(2,3,5) react with octapeptide and hexapeptide SRIF analogues and belong to one subclass; sst(1,4) react poorly with these compounds and fall into another subclass. This review focuses on the molecular pharmacology and function of these receptors, with particular emphasis on the ligand-binding domain, subtype-selective analogues, agonist-dependent receptor regulation and desensitization responses, subtype-specific effector coupling, and signal transduction pathways responsible for inhibiting cell secretion and cell growth or induction of apoptosis.

  17. AB1402: Design-Build Project Guidelines. 2002 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of School Facilities Planning.

    Assembly Bill (AB) 1402 authorized California's school districts to enter into design-build contracts for projects with design and construction costs exceeding $10 million. These guidelines are intended to accomplish the following purposes: (1) inform school districts of the design-build process under AB 1402; (2) help school districts to…

  18. History of California's AB 1725 and Its Major Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Tab

    This paper addresses the history of California's Assembly Bill 1725 (AB 1725) legislation and describes its major provisions. Signed in 1988 by Governor George Deukmejian, AB 1725's focus is to emphasize the new role of California community colleges as postsecondary institutions committed to transferring students, offering remedial courses, and…

  19. Towards Accurate Ab Initio Predictions of the Spectrum of Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out extensive ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of methane, and these results are used to compute vibrational energy levels. We include basis set extrapolations, core-valence correlation, relativistic effects, and Born- Oppenheimer breakdown terms in our calculations. Our ab initio predictions of the lowest lying levels are superb.

  20. Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab-resistant and -susceptible strains of Ostrinia furnacalis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Na; Ling, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yue-Qin; Wang, Zhen-Ying; Hu, Ben-Jin; Zhou, Zi-Yan; Hu, Fei; He, Kang-Lai

    2015-01-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), can develop strong resistance to Cry1Ab, the most widely commercialized Cry toxin for Bt maize worldwide. It is essential to understand the mechanism of resistance for management of this species, but information on the post-transcriptional regulation of Bt resistance in this target insect is limited. In the present study, RNA was extracted from the ACB in various larval stages (1–5 instar) from Cry1Ab-sensitive (ACB-BtS) and -resistant (ACB-AbR) strains, each of which included two biological replicates. Using Illumina sequencing, a total of 23,809,890 high-quality reads were collected from the four ACB libraries. The numbers of known microRNAs (miRNAs) were 302 and 395 for ACB-BtS and 268 and 287 for ACB-AbR. Using Mireap software, we identified 32 and 16 potential novel miRNAs for ACB-BtS and 18 and 22 for ACB-AbR. Among them, 21 known and 1 novel miRNAs had significantly different expression between ACB-BtS and ACB-AbR. Several miRNAs were observed to target potential Bt receptor genes, such as aminopeptidase N and cadherin-like protein. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthetic process and ABC transporters pathway were identified through Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis of target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. PMID:26486179

  1. Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab-resistant and -susceptible strains of Ostrinia furnacalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Na; Ling, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yue-Qin; Wang, Zhen-Ying; Hu, Ben-Jin; Zhou, Zi-Yan; Hu, Fei; He, Kang-Lai

    2015-01-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), can develop strong resistance to Cry1Ab, the most widely commercialized Cry toxin for Bt maize worldwide. It is essential to understand the mechanism of resistance for management of this species, but information on the post-transcriptional regulation of Bt resistance in this target insect is limited. In the present study, RNA was extracted from the ACB in various larval stages (1-5 instar) from Cry1Ab-sensitive (ACB-BtS) and -resistant (ACB-AbR) strains, each of which included two biological replicates. Using Illumina sequencing, a total of 23,809,890 high-quality reads were collected from the four ACB libraries. The numbers of known microRNAs (miRNAs) were 302 and 395 for ACB-BtS and 268 and 287 for ACB-AbR. Using Mireap software, we identified 32 and 16 potential novel miRNAs for ACB-BtS and 18 and 22 for ACB-AbR. Among them, 21 known and 1 novel miRNAs had significantly different expression between ACB-BtS and ACB-AbR. Several miRNAs were observed to target potential Bt receptor genes, such as aminopeptidase N and cadherin-like protein. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthetic process and ABC transporters pathway were identified through Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis of target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. PMID:26486179

  2. Role of alkaline phosphatase from Manduca sexta in the mechanism of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Iván; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Gómez, Isabel

    2010-04-23

    Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis have been recognized as pore-forming toxins whose primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells in their target insect. In the case of the Cry1A toxins, a prepore oligomeric intermediate is formed after interaction with cadherin receptor. The Cry1A oligomer then interacts with glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptors. Two Manduca sexta glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, aminopeptidase (APN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), have been shown to bind Cry1Ab, although their role in toxicity remains to be determined. Detection of Cry1Ab binding proteins by ligand blot assay revealed that ALP is preferentially expressed earlier during insect development, because it was found in the first larval instars, whereas APN is induced later after the third larval instar. The binding of Cry1Ab oligomer to pure preparations of APN and ALP showed that this toxin structure interacts with both receptors with high affinity (apparent K(d) = 0.6 nM), whereas the monomer showed weaker binding (apparent K(d) = 101.6 and 267.3 nM for APN and ALP, respectively). Several Cry1Ab nontoxic mutants located in the exposed loop 2 of domain II or in beta-16 of domain III were affected in binding to APN and ALP, depending on their oligomeric state. In particular monomers of the nontoxic domain III, the L511A mutant did not bind ALP but retained APN binding, suggesting that initial interaction with ALP is critical for toxicity. Our data suggest that APN and ALP fulfill two roles. First APN and ALP are initial receptors promoting the localization of toxin monomers in the midgut microvilli before interaction with cadherin. Then APN and ALP function as secondary receptors mediating oligomer insertion into the membrane. However, the expression pattern of these receptors and the phenotype of L511A mutant suggest that ALP may have a predominant role in toxin action because Cry toxins are highly effective against the neonate larvae that is

  3. QCM-4, a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist ameliorates plasma HPA axis hyperactivity, leptin resistance and brain oxidative stress in depression and anxiety-like behavior in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj

    2015-01-01

    Several preclinical studies have revealed antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. In our earlier study, we have reported the antidepressive-like effect of 3-methoxy-N-p-tolylquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCM-4) in obese mice subjected to chronic stress. The present study deals with the biochemical mechanisms associated with depression co-morbid with obesity. Mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, further subjected for treatment with QCM-4 (1 and 2mg/kg p.o.) and standard antidepressant escitalopram (ESC) (10mg/kg p.o.) for 28 days. Behavioral assays for depression such as sucrose preference test (SPT), forced swim test (FST) and for anxiety such as light and dark test (LDT) and hole board test (HBT) were performed in obese mice. Biochemical assessments including plasma leptin and corticosterone concentration followed by brain oxidative stress parameters malonaldehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were performed. Results confirmed that QCM-4 exhibits antidepressive effect by increasing the sucrose consumption in SPT, reducing immobility time in FST and anxiolytic effect by increasing transitions and time in light chamber in LDT, increasing head dip and crossing score in HBT. Furthermore, QCM-4 attenuated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity by reducing the plasma corticosterone, reversing altered plasma leptin, restoring the imbalance of brain MDA and GSH concentration. In conclusion, QCM-4 showed antidepressive and anxiolytic effect by reversing the behavioral alterations that were supported by biochemical estimations in obese mice. PMID:25446100

  4. QCM-4, a serotonergic type 3 receptor modulator attenuates depression co-morbid with obesity in mice: an approach based on behavioral and biochemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Gupta, Deepali; Devadoss, Thangaraj

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory examined the antidepressant potential of 3-methoxy-N-p-tolylquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCM-4), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in acute and chronic rodent models of depression. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of QCM-4 on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depression in obese mice using behavioral based battery tests and biochemical assessments. Depressive behavior was induced in obese mice by subjecting to different stress procedures for 28 days. The results indicated that the CUMS induced severe depressive behavior in obese mice as demonstrated by a significant decreased sucrose consumption, increased immobility time in forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), decreased percent entries and time in open arm in elevated plus maze (EPM). Moreover, CUMS significantly increased the plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins in obese mice. Chronic treatment with QCM-4 (2 mg/kg po) and standard drug escitalopram (10 mg/kg po) significantly reversed the depressive behavioral changes (increased sucrose consumption, decreased immobility time in FST and TST, and increased the percent entries and time in open arm in EPM) and biochemical alterations (reversed the raised levels of plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins) in obese mice subjected to CUMS. No alteration was observed in the locomotor score in obese mice. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that QCM-4 attenuated the depression co-morbid with obesity in mice subjected to CUMS which to some extent is mediated by reversing the "insulin resistance" or "altered plasma glucose" in obese mice.

  5. Lipoxin receptors.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mario; Recchia, Irene; Recchiuti, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Lipoxins (LXs) represent a class of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites that carry potent immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, LXA4 and LXB4 being the main components of this series. LXs are generated by cooperation between 5-lipoxygenase (LO) and 12- or 15-LO during cell-cell interactions or by single cell types. LX epimers at carbon 15, the 15-epi-LXs, are formed by aspirin-acetylated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cooperation with 5-LO. 15-epi-LXA4 is also termed aspirin-triggered LX (ATL). In vivo studies with stable LX and ATL analogs have established that these eicosanoids possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. A LXA4 receptor has been cloned. It belongs to the family of chemotactic receptors and clusters with formyl peptide receptors on chromosome 19. Therefore, it was initially denominated formyl peptide receptor like 1 (FPRL1). This receptor binds with high affinity and stereoselectivity LXA4 and ATL. It also recognizes a variety of peptides, synthetic, endogenously generated, or disease associated, but with lower affinity compared to LXA4. For this reason, this receptor has been renamed ALX. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ALX expression, signaling, and potential pathophysiological role. The involvement of additional recognition sites in LX bioactions is also discussed. PMID:17767357

  6. Activation and inhibition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor tyrosine kinase by monoclonal antibodies and absence of agonist activity of pleiotrophin.

    PubMed

    Moog-Lutz, Christel; Degoutin, Joffrey; Gouzi, Jean Y; Frobert, Yvelyne; Brunet-de Carvalho, Nicole; Bureau, Jocelyne; Créminon, Christophe; Vigny, Marc

    2005-07-15

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is transiently expressed in specific regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems, suggesting a role in its normal development and function. The nature of the cognate ligands of ALK in vertebrate is still a matter of debate. We produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the extracellular domain of the human receptor. Two major species of ALK (220 and 140 kDa) were identified in transfected cells, and the use of our mAbs established that the 140-kDa species results from a cleavage of the 220-kDa form. Two mAbs, in the nm range, induced the differentiation of PC12 cells transiently transfected with ALK. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing ALK, these two mAbs strongly activated the receptor and subsequently the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We further showed for the first time that activation of ALK also resulted in a specific activation of STAT3. In contrast, other mAbs presented the characteristics of blocking antibodies. Finally, in these cell systems, a mitogenic form of pleiotrophin, a proposed ligand of ALK, failed to activate this receptor. Thus, in the absence of clearly established ligand(s) in vertebrates, the availability of mAbs allowing the activation or the inhibition of the receptor will be essential for a better understanding of the biological roles of ALK.

  7. Undoing Gender through Legislation and Schooling: The Case of AB 537 and AB 394 in California, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates California laws AB 537: The Student Safety and Violence Prevention Act of 2000, and the recently enacted AB 394: Safe Place to Learn Act. Both demand that gender identity and sexual orientation be added to the lexicon of anti-harassment protection in public education. However, despite these progressive measures, schools…

  8. The brain as immunoprecipitator of serum autoantibodies against N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Gomez, Esther; Kästner, Anne; Steiner, Johann; Schneider, Anja; Hettling, Bilke; Poggi, Giulia; Ostehr, Kristin; Uhr, Manfred; Asif, Abdul R; Matzke, Mike; Schmidt, Ulrike; Pfander, Viktoria; Hammer, Christian; Schulz, Thomas F; Binder, Lutz; Stöcker, Winfried; Weber, Frank; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies (AB) against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 (NMDAR1) are highly seroprevalent in health and disease. Symptomatic relevance may arise upon compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, it remained unknown whether circulating NMDAR1 AB appear in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Of n = 271 subjects with CSF-serum pairs, 26 were NMDAR1 AB seropositive, but only 1 was CSF positive. Contrariwise, tetanus AB (non-brain-binding) were present in serum and CSF of all subjects, with CSF levels higher upon BBB dysfunction. Translational mouse experiments proved the hypothesis that the brain acts as an 'immunoprecipitator'; simultaneous injection of NMDAR1 AB and the non-brain-binding green fluorescent protein AB resulted in high detectability of the former in brain and the latter in CSF. PMID:26505629

  9. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1

    PubMed Central

    Kelker, Matthew S.; Berry, Colin; Evans, Steven L.; Pai, Reetal; McCaskill, David G.; Wang, Nick X.; Russell, Joshua C.; Baker, Matthew D.; Yang, Cheng; Pflugrath, J. W.; Wade, Matthew; Wess, Tim J.; Narva, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this three-domain family and little is known of their three dimensional structures, limiting our understanding of their mechanisms of action and our ability to engineer the proteins to enhance their function. Among the non-three domain Cry toxins, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from B. thuringiensis strain PS149B1 are required to act together to produce toxicity to the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte via a pore forming mechanism of action. Cry34Ab1 is a protein of ∼14 kDa with features of the aegerolysin family (Pfam06355) of proteins that have known membrane disrupting activity, while Cry35Ab1 is a ∼44 kDa member of the toxin_10 family (Pfam05431) that includes other insecticidal proteins such as the binary toxin BinA/BinB. The Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins represent an important seed trait technology having been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids for control of WCR. The structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 have been elucidated to 2.15 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The solution structures of the toxins were further studied by small angle X-ray scattering and native electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. We present here the first published structure from the aegerolysin protein domain family and the structural comparisons of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 with other pore forming toxins. PMID:25390338

  10. Structural and biophysical characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1.

    PubMed

    Kelker, Matthew S; Berry, Colin; Evans, Steven L; Pai, Reetal; McCaskill, David G; Wang, Nick X; Russell, Joshua C; Baker, Matthew D; Yang, Cheng; Pflugrath, J W; Wade, Matthew; Wess, Tim J; Narva, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this three-domain family and little is known of their three dimensional structures, limiting our understanding of their mechanisms of action and our ability to engineer the proteins to enhance their function. Among the non-three domain Cry toxins, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from B. thuringiensis strain PS149B1 are required to act together to produce toxicity to the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte via a pore forming mechanism of action. Cry34Ab1 is a protein of ∼14 kDa with features of the aegerolysin family (Pfam06355) of proteins that have known membrane disrupting activity, while Cry35Ab1 is a ∼44 kDa member of the toxin_10 family (Pfam05431) that includes other insecticidal proteins such as the binary toxin BinA/BinB. The Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins represent an important seed trait technology having been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids for control of WCR. The structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 have been elucidated to 2.15 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The solution structures of the toxins were further studied by small angle X-ray scattering and native electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. We present here the first published structure from the aegerolysin protein domain family and the structural comparisons of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 with other pore forming toxins.

  11. Ab initio calculations of nitramine dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh-Fallet, Sharon; Schweigert, Igor

    2015-06-01

    Elevated temperatures and pressures are typically thought to have opposing effects on the reaction channels of nitramine decomposition. These high temperatures promote reactions with loose transition structures (positive activation entropies and volumes), such as N-N bond homolysis. Elevated pressures promote reactions with tight transition structures (negative activation entropies and volumes), such as intramolecular and intermolecular H transfer. However, no quantitative data exists regarding the range of temperatures and pressures at which these effects become pronounced. We are pursuing ab initio calculations of the corresponding unimolecular and bimolecular transition structures with the objective of estimating the relevant thermochemical parameters and quantifying the effects of elevated temperature and pressures on the corresponding rate constants. Here, we present density functional theory and complete active space calculations of gas-phase molecular dimers of nitramines as an intermediate step toward modeling transition structures directly in the condensed phase. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory via the American Society for Engineering and Education and by the Office of Naval Research, both directly and through the Naval Research Laboratory.

  12. Ab initio two-component Ehrenfest dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Liu, Hongbin; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong

    2015-09-21

    We present an ab initio two-component Ehrenfest-based mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method to describe the effect of nuclear motion on the electron spin dynamics (and vice versa) in molecular systems. The two-component time-dependent non-collinear density functional theory is used for the propagation of spin-polarized electrons while the nuclei are treated classically. We use a three-time-step algorithm for the numerical integration of the coupled equations of motion, namely, the velocity Verlet for nuclear motion, the nuclear-position-dependent midpoint Fock update, and the modified midpoint and unitary transformation method for electronic propagation. As a test case, the method is applied to the dissociation of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In contrast to conventional Ehrenfest dynamics, this two-component approach provides a first principles description of the dynamics of non-collinear (e.g., spin-frustrated) magnetic materials, as well as the proper description of spin-state crossover, spin-rotation, and spin-flip dynamics by relaxing the constraint on spin configuration. This method also holds potential for applications to spin transport in molecular or even nanoscale magnetic devices.

  13. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient. PMID:25624670

  14. Ab interno trabeculectomy in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient.

  15. ABS_PDv14.0 beta

    2008-07-30

    ABS_PD stands for Adaptive Background Suppression and Peak Detection algorithm. This algorithm uses an iterative process to simultaneously estimate the background and identify peaks in signals where the bakground is slowly varying relative to the peaks to be detected. This is sone on an automated manner. The algorithm can be applied to many physical processes where the desired signal is superimposed on a background. The main advantage of this algorithm is that the background canmore » be variable and doesn't have to be known. All that is required is that a set of basis function,s capa ble of representing the background, needs to be defined. Depending on the signals to be processed, the basis functions can be as simple as low order polynomials. The current algorithm has polynomials built-in and allows for additional basis functions to be defined by the user. An additional advantage is that the algorithm does not use any derivatives in detection of peaks and thus allows for analysis of noisy data. The noise level in the data is automatically taken into account when setting thresholds for peak detection.« less

  16. Ab initio two-component Ehrenfest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Liu, Hongbin; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong

    2015-09-01

    We present an ab initio two-component Ehrenfest-based mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method to describe the effect of nuclear motion on the electron spin dynamics (and vice versa) in molecular systems. The two-component time-dependent non-collinear density functional theory is used for the propagation of spin-polarized electrons while the nuclei are treated classically. We use a three-time-step algorithm for the numerical integration of the coupled equations of motion, namely, the velocity Verlet for nuclear motion, the nuclear-position-dependent midpoint Fock update, and the modified midpoint and unitary transformation method for electronic propagation. As a test case, the method is applied to the dissociation of H2 and O2. In contrast to conventional Ehrenfest dynamics, this two-component approach provides a first principles description of the dynamics of non-collinear (e.g., spin-frustrated) magnetic materials, as well as the proper description of spin-state crossover, spin-rotation, and spin-flip dynamics by relaxing the constraint on spin configuration. This method also holds potential for applications to spin transport in molecular or even nanoscale magnetic devices.

  17. Ab Initio Studies of Calcium Carbonate Hydration.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Berganza, Josue A; Diao, Yijue; Pamidighantam, Sudhakar; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M

    2015-11-25

    Ab initio simulations of large hydrated calcium carbonate clusters are challenging due to the existence of multiple local energy minima. Extensive conformational searches around hydrated calcium carbonate clusters (CaCO3·nH2O for n = 1-18) were performed to find low-energy hydration structures using an efficient combination of Monte Carlo searches, density-functional tight binding (DFTB+) method, and density-functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP level, or Møller-Plesset perturbation theory at the MP2 level. This multilevel optimization yields several low-energy structures for hydrated calcium carbonate. Structural and energetics analysis of the hydration of these clusters revealed a first hydration shell composed of 12 water molecules. Bond-length and charge densities were also determined for different cluster sizes. The solvation of calcium carbonate in bulk water was investigated by placing the explicitly solvated CaCO3·nH2O clusters in a polarizable continuum model (PCM). The findings of this study provide new insights into the energetics and structure of hydrated calcium carbonate and contribute to the understanding of mechanisms where calcium carbonate formation or dissolution is of relevance.

  18. Phonocatalysis. An ab initio simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangnam; Kaviany, Massoud

    2016-06-01

    Using simulations, we postulate and show that heterocatalysis on large-bandgap semiconductors can be controlled by substrate phonons, i.e., phonocatalysis. With ab initio calculations, including molecular dynamic simulations, the chemisorbed dissociation of XeF6 on h-BN surface leads to formation of XeF4 and two surface F/h-BN bonds. The reaction pathway and energies are evaluated, and the sorption and reaction emitted/absorbed phonons are identified through spectral analysis of the surface atomic motion. Due to large bandgap, the atomic vibration (phonon) energy transfer channels dominate and among them is the match between the F/h-BN covalent bond stretching and the optical phonons. We show that the chemisorbed dissociation (the pathway activation ascent) requires absorption of large-energy optical phonons. Then using progressively heavier isotopes of B and N atoms, we show that limiting these high-energy optical phonons inhibits the chemisorbed dissociation, i.e., controllable phonocatalysis.

  19. Current techniques for AB0-incompatible living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rummler, Silke; Bauschke, Astrid; Bärthel, Erik; Jütte, Heike; Maier, Katrin; Ziehm, Patrice; Malessa, Christina; Settmacher, Utz

    2016-09-24

    For a long time, it was considered medical malpractice to neglect the blood group system during transplantation. Because there are far more patients waiting for organs than organs available, a variety of attempts have been made to transplant AB0-incompatible (AB0i) grafts. Improvements in AB0i graft survival rates have been achieved with immunosuppression regimens and plasma treatment procedures. Nevertheless, some grafts are rejected early after AB0i living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to antibody mediated rejection or later biliary complications that affect the quality of life. Therefore, the AB0i LDLT is an option only for emergency situations, and it requires careful planning. This review compares the treatment possibilities and their effect on the patients' graft outcome from 2010 to the present. We compared 11 transplant center regimens and their outcomes. The best improvement, next to plasma treatment procedures, has been reached with the prophylactic use of rituximab more than one week before AB0i LDLT. Unfortunately, no standardized treatment protocols are available. Each center treats its patients with its own scheme. Nevertheless, the transplant results are homogeneous. Due to refined treatment strategies, AB0i LDLT is a feasible option today and almost free of severe complications. PMID:27683633

  20. Boiling treatment of ABS and PS plastics for flotation separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Bao-xin; Liu, Qun

    2014-07-01

    A new physical method, namely boiling treatment, was developed to aid flotation separation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) plastics. Boiling treatment was shown to be effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on ABS plastic. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis was conducted to investigate the mechanism of boiling treatment of ABS. Surface rearrangement of polymer may be responsible for surface change of boiling treated ABS, and the selective influence of boiling treatment on the floatability of boiling treated plastics may be attributed to the difference in the molecular mobility of polymer chains. The effects of flotation time, frother concentration and particle size on flotation behavior of simple plastic were investigated. Based on flotation behavior of simple plastic, flotation separation of boiling treatment ABS and PS with different particle sizes was achieved efficiently. The purity of ABS and PS was up to 99.78% and 95.80%, respectively; the recovery of ABS and PS was up to 95.81% and 99.82%, respectively. Boiling treatment promotes the industrial application of plastics flotation and facilitates plastic recycling.

  1. Current techniques for AB0-incompatible living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rummler, Silke; Bauschke, Astrid; Bärthel, Erik; Jütte, Heike; Maier, Katrin; Ziehm, Patrice; Malessa, Christina; Settmacher, Utz

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, it was considered medical malpractice to neglect the blood group system during transplantation. Because there are far more patients waiting for organs than organs available, a variety of attempts have been made to transplant AB0-incompatible (AB0i) grafts. Improvements in AB0i graft survival rates have been achieved with immunosuppression regimens and plasma treatment procedures. Nevertheless, some grafts are rejected early after AB0i living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to antibody mediated rejection or later biliary complications that affect the quality of life. Therefore, the AB0i LDLT is an option only for emergency situations, and it requires careful planning. This review compares the treatment possibilities and their effect on the patients’ graft outcome from 2010 to the present. We compared 11 transplant center regimens and their outcomes. The best improvement, next to plasma treatment procedures, has been reached with the prophylactic use of rituximab more than one week before AB0i LDLT. Unfortunately, no standardized treatment protocols are available. Each center treats its patients with its own scheme. Nevertheless, the transplant results are homogeneous. Due to refined treatment strategies, AB0i LDLT is a feasible option today and almost free of severe complications. PMID:27683633

  2. Current techniques for AB0-incompatible living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rummler, Silke; Bauschke, Astrid; Bärthel, Erik; Jütte, Heike; Maier, Katrin; Ziehm, Patrice; Malessa, Christina; Settmacher, Utz

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, it was considered medical malpractice to neglect the blood group system during transplantation. Because there are far more patients waiting for organs than organs available, a variety of attempts have been made to transplant AB0-incompatible (AB0i) grafts. Improvements in AB0i graft survival rates have been achieved with immunosuppression regimens and plasma treatment procedures. Nevertheless, some grafts are rejected early after AB0i living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to antibody mediated rejection or later biliary complications that affect the quality of life. Therefore, the AB0i LDLT is an option only for emergency situations, and it requires careful planning. This review compares the treatment possibilities and their effect on the patients’ graft outcome from 2010 to the present. We compared 11 transplant center regimens and their outcomes. The best improvement, next to plasma treatment procedures, has been reached with the prophylactic use of rituximab more than one week before AB0i LDLT. Unfortunately, no standardized treatment protocols are available. Each center treats its patients with its own scheme. Nevertheless, the transplant results are homogeneous. Due to refined treatment strategies, AB0i LDLT is a feasible option today and almost free of severe complications.

  3. Safety assessment of Cry1Ab/Ac fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Guo, Xing; Yuan, Yanfang; Huang, Kunlun

    2009-07-01

    Cry1ab/ac gene was fused by both the cry1ab gene (GenBank Accession No. X54939) and the cry1ac gene (GenBank Accession No. Y09787), which was widely used in genetically modified (GM) rice, cotton, maize and so on. In order to support the safety assessment of GM food or feed products containing Cry1Ab/Ac protein, sufficient quantities of Cry1Ab/Ac protein were produced in Escherichia coli for in vitro evaluation and animal studies. The Cry1Ab/Ac protein does not possess the characteristics associated with food toxins or allergens, i.e., it has no sequence homology with any known allergens or toxins, and no N-glycosylation sites, can be rapidly degraded in gastric and intestinal fluids, and is devoid of adverse effects in mice by gavage at a high dose level of 5g (Cry1Ab/Ac protein)/kg body weight. In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the Cry1Ab/Ac protein in human food or animal feed.

  4. Structural Basis of Subtilase Cytotoxin SubAB Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Le Nours, Jérôme; Paton, Adrienne W.; Byres, Emma; Troy, Sally; Herdman, Brock P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Paton, James C.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Beddoe, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli produce a number of toxins that belong to the AB5 toxin family, which comprise a catalytic A-subunit that induces cellular dysfunction and a B-pentamer that recognizes host glycans. Although the molecular actions of many of the individual subunits of AB5 toxins are well understood, how they self-associate and the effect of this association on cytotoxicity are poorly understood. Here we have solved the structure of the holo-SubAB toxin that, in contrast to other AB5 toxins whose molecular targets are located in the cytosol, cleaves the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP. SubA interacts with SubB in a similar manner to other AB5 toxins via the A2 helix and a conserved disulfide bond that joins the A1 domain with the A2 helix. The structure revealed that the active site of SubA is not occluded by the B-pentamer, and the B-pentamer does not enhance or inhibit the activity of SubA. Structure-based sequence comparisons with other AB5 toxin family members, combined with extensive mutagenesis studies on SubB, show how the hydrophobic patch on top of the B-pentamer plays a dominant role in binding the A-subunit. The structure of SubAB and the accompanying functional characterization of various mutants of SubAB provide a framework for understanding the important role of the B-pentamer in the assembly and the intracellular trafficking of this AB5 toxin. PMID:23921389

  5. D1/5 modulation of synaptic NMDA receptor currents

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Juan A.; Hirsch, Silke J.; Chapman, David; Leverich, Leah S.; Greene, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that salience-associated modulation of behavior is mediated by the release of monoamines and that monoaminergic activation of D1/5 receptors is required for normal hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. However, it is not understood how D1/5 modulation of hippocampal circuits can affect salience-associated learning and memory. We have observed in CA1 pyramidal neurons that D1/5 receptor activation elicits a bi-directional long-term plasticity of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents with the polarity of plasticity determined by NMDA receptor, NR2A/B subunit composition. This plasticity results in a decrease in the NR2A/NR2B ratio of subunit composition. Synaptic responses mediated by NMDA receptors that include NR2B subunits are potentiated by D1/5 receptor activation, while responses mediated by NMDA receptors that include NR2A subunits are depressed. Furthermore, these bidirectional, subunit-specific effects are mediated by distinctive intracellular signaling mechanisms. As there is a predominance of NMDA receptors composed of NR2A subunits observed in entorhinal-CA1 inputs and a predominance of NMDA receptors composed of NR2B subunits in CA3-CA1 synapses, potentiation of synaptic NMDA currents predominates in the proximal CA3-CA1 synapses, while depression of synaptic NMDA currents predominates in the distal entorhinal-CA1 synapses. Finally, all of these effects are reproduced by the release of endogenous monoamines through activation of D1/5 receptors. Thus, endogenous D1/5 activation can, 1) decrease the NR2A/B ratio of NMDAR subunit composition at glutamatergic synapses, a rejuvenation to a composition similar to developmentally immature synapses, and, 2) in CA1, bias NMDA receptor responsiveness towards the more highly processed tri-synaptic CA3-CA1 circuit and away from the direct entorhinal-CA1 input. PMID:19279248

  6. Ab initio derivation of model energy density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobaczewski, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    I propose a simple and manageable method that allows for deriving coupling constants of model energy density functionals (EDFs) directly from ab initio calculations performed for finite fermion systems. A proof-of-principle application allows for linking properties of finite nuclei, determined by using the nuclear nonlocal Gogny functional, to the coupling constants of the quasilocal Skyrme functional. The method does not rely on properties of infinite fermion systems but on the ab initio calculations in finite systems. It also allows for quantifying merits of different model EDFs in describing the ab initio results.

  7. On the hierarchical parallelization of ab initio simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Barragan, Sergi; Ishimura, Kazuya; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2016-02-01

    A hierarchical parallelization has been implemented in a new unified code PIMD-SMASH for ab initio simulation where the replicas and the Born-Oppenheimer forces are parallelized. It is demonstrated that ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations can be carried out very efficiently for systems up to a few tens of water molecules. The code was then used to study a Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and butenone by ab initio string method. A reduction in the reaction energy barrier is found in the presence of hydrogen-bonded water, in accordance with experiment.

  8. Pindolol does not act only on 5-HT1A receptors in augmenting antidepressant activity in the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Redrobe, J P; Baker, G B

    1998-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify the receptor subtypes involved in (+/-) pindolol's ability to enhance the effects of antidepressant drugs in the mouse forced swimming test. Interaction studies were performed with S 15535 (presynaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonist) and methiothepin (5-HT1B autoreceptor antagonist) in an attempt to attenuate or potentiate antidepressant-like activity. (+/-) Pindolol was tested in combination with selective agonists and antagonists at 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptor subtypes. Pretreatment with S 15535 and methiothepin attenuated the activity of paroxetine, fluvoxamine and citalopram (32 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.01). (+/-) Pindolol (32 mg/kg, i.p.) induced significant anti-immobility effects when tested in combination with 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridyl)-1H-indole (RU 24969) (1 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05), 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[-(2-phthalimido) butyl]piperazine) (NAN 190) (0.5 mg/kg; P < 0.05) and ondansetron (0.00001 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.01). Pretreatment with NAN 190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effects of RU 24969 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05) and (+/-) pindolol (32 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05) in the forced swimming test, as did ondansetron (0.00001 mg/kg, i.p.). Significant additive effects were induced when RU 24969 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was tested in combination with NAN 190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05), (+/-) pindolol (32 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05) and ondansetron (0.0000 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05). 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketanserin (8 mg/kg, i.p.) did not induce significant antidepressant-like effects with any of the agonists/antagonists tested. The results of the present study suggest that pindolol is acting at presynaptic 5-HT1B serotonergic receptors, in addition to the 5-HT1A subtype, in augmenting the activity of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.

  9. The roles of dopamine and serotonin, and of their receptors, in regulating sleep and waking.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jaime M; Jantos, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    Based on electrophysiological, neurochemical and neuropharmacological approaches, it is currently accepted that serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function to promote waking (W) and to inhibit slow wave sleep (SWS) and/or rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). Serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) fire at a steady rate during W, decrease their firing during SWS and virtually cease activity during REMS. On the other hand, DA cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) do not change their mean firing rate across the sleep-wake cycle. It has been proposed that DA cells in the midbrain show a change in temporal pattern rather than firing rate during the sleep-wake cycle. Available evidence tends to indicate that during W and REMS an increase of burst firing activity of DA neurons occurs together with an enhanced release of DA in the VTA, the nucleus accumbens and several forebrain structures. Recently, DA neurons were characterised in the ventral periaqueductal grey matter (VPAG) that express Fos protein during W. Lesioning of these cells resulted in an increase of SWS and REMS, which led to the proposal that VPAG DA neurons may play a role in the promotion of W. Systemic injection of full agonists at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) (8-OH-DPAT, flesinoxan), 5-HT(1B) (CGS 12066B, CP-94,253), 5-HT(2A/2C) (DOI, DOM) and 5-HT(3) (m-chlorophenylbiguanide) receptors increases W and reduces SWS and REMS. On the other hand, microdialysis perfusion or direct infusion of 8-OH-DPAT or flesinoxan into the DRN, where somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) receptors are located, significantly increases REMS. Systemic administration of the selective DA D(1) receptor agonist SKF 38393 induces behavioural arousal together with an increase of W and a reduction of sleep. On the other hand, injection of a DA D(2) receptor agonist (apomorphine, bromocriptine, quinpirole) gives rise to biphasic effects, such that low doses reduce W and augment SWS and REMS

  10. Skutterudites under pressure: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, Swetarekha; Kanchana, V.; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2014-03-07

    Ab initio results on the band structure, density of states, and Fermi surface (FS) properties of LaRu{sub 4}X{sub 12} (X = P, As, Sb) are presented at ambient pressure as well as under compression. The analysis of density of states reveals the major contribution at the Fermi level to be mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. We have a complicated Fermi surface with both electron and hole characters for all the three compounds which is derived mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. There is also a simpler FS with hole character derived from the P-p{sub z} orbital for LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12} and Ru-d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital in the case of As and Sb containing compounds. More interestingly, Fermi surface nesting feature is observed only in the case of the LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12}. Under compression, we observe the topology of the complicated FS sheet of LaRu{sub 4}As{sub 12} to change around V/V{sub 0} = 0.85, leading to a behaviour similar to that of a multiband superconductor, and in addition, we have two more hole pockets centered around Γ at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 for the same compound. Apart from this, we find the hole pocket to vanish at V/V{sub 0} = 0.8 in the case of LaRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and the opening of the complicated FS sheet gets reduced. The de Haas van Alphen calculation shows the number of extremal orbits in the complicated sheet to change in As and Sb containing compounds under compression, where we also observe the FS topology to change.

  11. Ab Initio Calculations of Water Line Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry

    1998-01-01

    We report on the determination of a high quality ab initiu potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment function for water. This PES is empirically adjusted to improve the agreement between the computed line positions and those from the HITRAN 92 data base with J less than 6 for H2O. The changes in the PES are small, nonetheless including an estimate of core (oxygen 1s) electron correlation greatly improves the agreement with experiment. Using this adjusted PES, we can match 30,092 of the 30,117 transitions in the HITRAN 96 data base for H2O with theoretical lines. The 10,25,50,75, and 90 percentiles of the difference between the calculated and tabulated line positions are -0.11, -0.04, -0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 l/cm. Non-adiabatic effects are not explicitly included. About 3% of the tabulated line positions appear to be incorrect. Similar agreement using this adjusted PES is obtained for the oxygen 17 and oxygen 18 isotopes. For HDO, the agreement is not as good, with root-mean-square error of 0.25 l/cm for lines with J less than 6. This error is reduced to 0.02 l/cm by including a small asymmetric correction to the PES, which is parameterized by simultaneously fitting to HDO md D2O data. Scaling this correction by mass factors yields good results for T2O and HTO. The intensities summed over vibrational bands are usually in good agreement between the calculations and the tabulated results, but individual lines strengths can differ greatly. A high temperature list consisting of 307,721,352 lines is generated for H2O using our PES and dipole moment function.

  12. Ab Initio: And a New Era of Airline Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of air transportation and decreasing numbers seeking pilot training point to a shortage of qualified pilots. Ab initio training, in which candidates with no flight time are trained to air transport proficiency, could resolve the problem. (SK)

  13. Tensile deformation mechanisms of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Gao, J.; Lin, S. X.; Zhang, P.; Huang, J.; Xu, L. L.

    2014-08-01

    The tensile deformation mechanisms of acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) / polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends toughened by ethylene methacrylate (EMA) copolymer was investigated by analysing the fracture morphology. ABS/PMMA was blended with EMA copolymer by melt mixing technique using co-rotating twin extruder. Tensile tests show that the elongation at break of ABS/PMMA blends can be efficiently improved with the increase in EMA content. Fracture morphology of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends reveals that the material yield induced by hollowing-out of EMA particles and its propagation into yield zone is the main toughening mechanism. Moreover, the appearance that EMA particles in the central area are given priority to hollowing-out may be related to the skin-core structure of the injection moulded parts caused by the different cooling rate between surface and inside in the process of injection moulding.

  14. Inheritance of porcine receptors for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with fimbriae F4ad and their relation to other F4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rampoldi, A; Bertschinger, H U; Bürgi, E; Dolf, G; Sidler, X; Bratus, A; Vögeli, P; Neuenschwander, S

    2014-06-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli infections are a highly relevant cause of disease and death in young pigs. Breeding genetically resistant pigs is an economical and sustainable method of prevention. Resistant pigs are protected against colonization of the intestine through the absence of receptors for the bacterial fimbriae, which mediate adhesion to the intestinal surface. The present work aimed at elucidation of the mode of inheritance of the F4ad receptor which according to former investigations appeared quite confusing. Intestines of 489 pigs of an experimental herd were examined by a microscopic adhesion test modified in such a manner that four small intestinal sites instead of one were tested for adhesion of the fimbrial variant F4ad. Segregation analysis revealed that the mixed inheritance model explained our data best. The heritability of the F4ad phenotype was estimated to be 0.7±0.1. There are no relations to the strong receptors for variants F4ab and F4ac. Targeted matings allowed the discrimination between two F4ad receptors, that is, a fully adhesive receptor (F4adRFA) expressed on all enterocytes and at all small intestinal sites, and a partially adhesive receptor (F4adRPA) variably expressed at different sites and often leading to partial bacterial adhesion. In pigs with both F4ad receptors, the F4adRPA receptor is masked by the F4adRFA. The hypothesis that F4adRFA must be encoded by at least two complementary or epistatic dominant genes is supported by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium statistics. The F4adRPA receptor is inherited as a monogenetic dominant trait. A comparable partially adhesive receptor for variant F4ab (F4abRPA) was also observed but the limited data did not allow a prediction of the mode of inheritance. Pigs were therefore classified into one of eight receptor phenotypes: A1 (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adRFA); A2 (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adRPA); B (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adR-); C1 (F4abRPA/F4acR-/F4adRFA); C2 (F4abRPA/F4acR-/F4adRPA); D1 (F4abR-/F4acR-/F4ad

  15. Inheritance of porcine receptors for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with fimbriae F4ad and their relation to other F4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rampoldi, A; Bertschinger, H U; Bürgi, E; Dolf, G; Sidler, X; Bratus, A; Vögeli, P; Neuenschwander, S

    2014-06-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli infections are a highly relevant cause of disease and death in young pigs. Breeding genetically resistant pigs is an economical and sustainable method of prevention. Resistant pigs are protected against colonization of the intestine through the absence of receptors for the bacterial fimbriae, which mediate adhesion to the intestinal surface. The present work aimed at elucidation of the mode of inheritance of the F4ad receptor which according to former investigations appeared quite confusing. Intestines of 489 pigs of an experimental herd were examined by a microscopic adhesion test modified in such a manner that four small intestinal sites instead of one were tested for adhesion of the fimbrial variant F4ad. Segregation analysis revealed that the mixed inheritance model explained our data best. The heritability of the F4ad phenotype was estimated to be 0.7±0.1. There are no relations to the strong receptors for variants F4ab and F4ac. Targeted matings allowed the discrimination between two F4ad receptors, that is, a fully adhesive receptor (F4adRFA) expressed on all enterocytes and at all small intestinal sites, and a partially adhesive receptor (F4adRPA) variably expressed at different sites and often leading to partial bacterial adhesion. In pigs with both F4ad receptors, the F4adRPA receptor is masked by the F4adRFA. The hypothesis that F4adRFA must be encoded by at least two complementary or epistatic dominant genes is supported by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium statistics. The F4adRPA receptor is inherited as a monogenetic dominant trait. A comparable partially adhesive receptor for variant F4ab (F4abRPA) was also observed but the limited data did not allow a prediction of the mode of inheritance. Pigs were therefore classified into one of eight receptor phenotypes: A1 (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adRFA); A2 (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adRPA); B (F4abRFA/F4acR+/F4adR-); C1 (F4abRPA/F4acR-/F4adRFA); C2 (F4abRPA/F4acR-/F4adRPA); D1 (F4abR-/F4acR-/F4ad

  16. Preparation and Biological Activity of the Monoclonal Antibody against the Second Extracellular Loop of the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mingming; Zhao, Chengrui; Zhang, Suli; Wang, Li; Liu, Huirong; Ma, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    The current study was to prepare a mouse-derived antibody against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-mAb) based on monoclonal antibody technology, to provide a foundation for research on AT1-AA-positive diseases. Balb/C mice were actively immunized with the second extracellular loop of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R-ECII). Then, mouse spleen lymphocytes were fused with myeloma cells and monoclonal hybridomas that secreted AT1-mAb were generated and cultured, after which those in logarithmic-phase were injected into the abdominal cavity of mice to retrieve the ascites. Highly purified AT1-mAb was isolated from mouse ascites after injection with 1 × 107 hybridomas. A greater amount of AT1-mAb was purified from mouse ascites compared to the cell supernatant of hybridomas. AT1-mAb purified from mouse ascites constricted the thoracic aorta of mice and increased the beat frequency of neonatal rat myocardial cells via the AT1R, identical to the effects of AT1-AA extracted from patients' sera. Murine blood pressure increased after intravenous injection of AT1-mAb via the tail vein. High purity and good biological activity of AT1-mAb can be obtained from mouse ascites after intraperitoneal injection of monoclonal hybridomas that secrete AT1-mAb. These data provide a simple tool for studying AT1-AA-positive diseases. PMID:27057554

  17. Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, B R; Navratil, P; Vary, J P

    2011-04-11

    A long-standing goal of nuclear theory is to determine the properties of atomic nuclei based on the fundamental interactions among the protons and neutrons (i.e., nucleons). By adopting nucleon-nucleon (NN), three-nucleon (NNN) and higher-nucleon interactions determined from either meson-exchange theory or QCD, with couplings fixed by few-body systems, we preserve the predictive power of nuclear theory. This foundation enables tests of nature's fundamental symmetries and offers new vistas for the full range of complex nuclear phenomena. Basic questions that drive our quest for a microscopic predictive theory of nuclear phenomena include: (1) What controls nuclear saturation; (2) How the nuclear shell model emerges from the underlying theory; (3) What are the properties of nuclei with extreme neutron/proton ratios; (4) Can we predict useful cross sections that cannot be measured; (5) Can nuclei provide precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature; and (6) Under what conditions do we need QCD to describe nuclear structure, among others. Along with other ab initio nuclear theory groups, we have pursued these questions with meson-theoretical NN interactions, such as CD-Bonn and Argonne V18, that were tuned to provide high-quality descriptions of the NN scattering phase shifts and deuteron properties. We then add meson-theoretic NNN interactions such as the Tucson-Melbourne or Urbana IX interactions. More recently, we have adopted realistic NN and NNN interactions with ties to QCD. Chiral perturbation theory within effective field theory ({chi}EFT) provides us with a promising bridge between QCD and hadronic systems. In this approach one works consistently with systems of increasing nucleon number and makes use of the explicit and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry to expand the strong interaction in terms of a dimensionless constant, the ratio of a generic small momentum divided by the chiral symmetry breaking scale taken to be about 1 GeV/c. The resulting NN

  18. Ab-initio calculation of electronic structure and optical properties of AB-stacked bilayer α-graphyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2016-09-01

    Monolayer α-graphyne is a new two-dimensional carbon allotrope with many special features. In this work the electronic properties of AA- and AB-stacked bilayers of this material and then the optical properties are studied, using first principle plane wave method. The electronic spectrum has two Dirac cones for AA stacked bilayer α-graphyne. For AB-stacked bilayer, the interlayer interaction changes the linear bands into parabolic bands. The optical spectra of the most stable AB-stacked bilayer closely resemble to that of the monolayer, except for small shifts of peak positions and increasing of their intensity. For AB-stacked bilayer, a pronounced peak has been found at low energies under the perpendicular polarization. This peak can be clearly ascribed to the transitions at the Dirac point as a result of the small degeneracy lift in the band structure.

  19. Cry1Ab-expressing rice did not influence expression of fecundity-related genes in the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Peng, Yuan-De; He, Chao; Wei, Bao-Yang; Liang, Yun-Shan; Yang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Zhi; Stanley, David; Song, Qi-Sheng

    2016-10-30

    The impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin proteins on non-target predatory arthropods is not well understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Here, we investigated the potential effects of Cry1Ab expressing rice on fecundity of the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata, and some of the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that brown planthoppers (BPHs) reared on Cry1Ab-expressing rice accumulated the Cry toxin and that reproductive parameters (pre-oviposition period, post-oviposition stage, number of eggs, and egg hatching rate) of the spiders that consumed BPHs reared on Bt rice were not different from those that consumed BPHs reared on the non-Bt control rice. The accumulated Cry1Ab did not influence several vitellin (Vt) parameters, including stored energy and amino acid composition, during one generation. We considered the possibility that the Cry toxins exert their influence on beneficial predators via more subtle effects detectable at the molecular level in terms of gene expression. This led us to transcriptome analysis to detect differentially expressed genes in the ovaries of spiders exposed to dietary Cry1Ab and their counterpart control spiders. Eight genes, associated with vitellogenesis, vitellogenin receptor activity, and vitellin membrane formation were not differentially expressed between ovaries from the treated and control spiders, confirmed by qPCR analysis. We infer that dietary Cry1Ab expressing rice does not influence fecundity, nor expression levels of Vt-associated genes in P. pseudoannulata.

  20. Cry1Ab-expressing rice did not influence expression of fecundity-related genes in the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Peng, Yuan-De; He, Chao; Wei, Bao-Yang; Liang, Yun-Shan; Yang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Zhi; Stanley, David; Song, Qi-Sheng

    2016-10-30

    The impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin proteins on non-target predatory arthropods is not well understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Here, we investigated the potential effects of Cry1Ab expressing rice on fecundity of the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata, and some of the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that brown planthoppers (BPHs) reared on Cry1Ab-expressing rice accumulated the Cry toxin and that reproductive parameters (pre-oviposition period, post-oviposition stage, number of eggs, and egg hatching rate) of the spiders that consumed BPHs reared on Bt rice were not different from those that consumed BPHs reared on the non-Bt control rice. The accumulated Cry1Ab did not influence several vitellin (Vt) parameters, including stored energy and amino acid composition, during one generation. We considered the possibility that the Cry toxins exert their influence on beneficial predators via more subtle effects detectable at the molecular level in terms of gene expression. This led us to transcriptome analysis to detect differentially expressed genes in the ovaries of spiders exposed to dietary Cry1Ab and their counterpart control spiders. Eight genes, associated with vitellogenesis, vitellogenin receptor activity, and vitellin membrane formation were not differentially expressed between ovaries from the treated and control spiders, confirmed by qPCR analysis. We infer that dietary Cry1Ab expressing rice does not influence fecundity, nor expression levels of Vt-associated genes in P. pseudoannulata. PMID:27452121

  1. A phase 1 trial of the Fc-engineered CD19 antibody XmAb5574 (MOR00208) demonstrates safety and preliminary efficacy in relapsed CLL

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Farrukh; Flinn, Ian W.; Berdeja, Jesus G.; Wiley, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Sharmeen; Huang, Ying; Lozanski, Gerard; Foster, Paul A.; Byrd, John C.

    2014-01-01

    CD19 is ubiquitously expressed on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and is therefore an attractive candidate for antibody targeting. XmAb5574 (aka MOR00208) is a novel humanized CD19 monoclonal antibody with an engineered Fc region to enhance Fcγ receptor binding affinity. Here we report results of a first in human phase 1 trial of XmAb5574 in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled to 6 escalating dose levels, with expansion at the highest dose level of 12 mg/kg. Nine doses of XmAb5574 were infused over 8 weeks. No maximal tolerated dose was reached, and the drug was generally well tolerated, with infusion reactions of grades 1 and 2 being the most common toxicities. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities occurred in 5 patients and included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, increased aspartate aminotransferase, febrile neutropenia, and tumor lysis syndrome. XmAb5574 showed preliminary efficacy, with 18 patients (66.7%) responding by physical examination criteria and laboratory studies, and 8 patients (29.6%) responding by computed tomography criteria. Pharmacokinetics showed a half-life of 14 days with clearance that was not dose-dependent. In conclusion, this phase 1 trial demonstrates safety and preliminary efficacy of a novel Fc-engineered CD19 monoclonal antibody XmAb5574 and justifies movement into the phase 2 setting. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01161511. PMID:25301708

  2. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  3. Clinical experience with monoclonal antibodies to epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Emiliano; Rowinsky, Eric K

    2005-03-01

    Recent knowledge about the intermediate steps and final consequences of ligand-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has clearly supported the notion that EGFR plays a fundamental role in regulating the proliferation and survival of malignant neoplasms. Among the rationally designed target-based therapeutics that are being assessed, those targeting EGFR appear to be some of the most clinically relevant. The strategy of using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to block ligand binding to the extracellular domain of the EGFR has led to the development of therapeutics that robustly arrest malignant cell proliferation and, in some cases, induce profound tumor regression. The chimeric mAb against EGFR, cetuximab, has already been approved by regulatory agencies worldwide to treat patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Other mAbs against EGFR, particularly panitumumab (ABX-EGF), h-R3, and EMD72000, are in advanced stages of clinical development. PMID:15717942

  4. Rosetting of activated human T lymphocytes with autologous erythrocytes. Definition of the receptor and ligand molecules as CD2 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3).

    PubMed

    Plunkett, M L; Sanders, M E; Selvaraj, P; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1987-03-01

    CD2, also known as LFA-2, T11, and the E rosette receptor, is a T lymphocyte surface protein functionally important in adhesion to target cells and T cell triggering. LFA-3 is a widely distributed cell surface protein that functions in adhesion on target cells. We find that LFA-3 is expressed on human E, and that CD2 is a receptor for LFA-3 that mediates T cell adhesion to human E. Pretreatment of T lymphocytes with CD2 mAb or of E with LFA-3 mAb inhibits rosetting. Purified CD2 molecules bind to human E and inhibit rosetting. 125I-CD2 binding to E is inhibited by LFA-3 mAb; reciprocally, binding of LFA-3 mAb to human E is inhibited by pretreatment with purified CD2. Higher concentrations of CD2 aggregate human E; aggregation is inhibited by mAb to LFA-3.

  5. Biochemical characterization of the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Griot-Wenk, M; Pahlsson, P; Chisholm-Chait, A; Spitalnik, P F; Spitalnik, S L; Giger, U

    1993-12-01

    The biochemical nature of the feline AB blood group system was characterized by analysing red blood cells from homozygous (genotype A/A) and heterozygous (A/B) type A, type B (B/B), and type AB cats. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of red cell glycolipids revealed that specific neuraminic acids (NA) on gangliosides, containing ceramide dihexoside (CDH) as a backbone, correlated with the feline AB blood group antigens. Although disialogangliosides predominated, mono- and trisialogangliosides were also isolated. B cats expressed solely N-acetyl-NA (NeuNAc) on these gangliosides. In addition to expressing N-glycolyl-NA (NeuNGc) containing gangliosides, A red cells have gangliosides with only NeuNAc or mixtures of both NA. HPTLC profiles of disialogangliosides from homozygous and heterozygous A cats differed slightly in the quantity of disialogangliosides. Equal amounts of NeuNAc and NeuNGc containing disialogangliosides, as well as two intermediary forms, were recovered from AB erythrocytes. Analysing disialogangliosides from red cells belonging to 17 genetically related cats, we consistently obtained the expected disialoganglioside profile, based on blood typing and pedigree information. SDS-PAGE of red cell membrane proteins and blotting with Triticum vulgaris, a lectin recognizing NeuNAc, revealed glycoproteins of approximately 51, 53, and 80 kD in B and AB cats but only a faint band of approximately 53 kD in A cats. By haemagglutination, Triticum vulgaris could also distinguish different blood types by specifically binding to B and AB cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8273913

  6. Biodistribution of an anti-interleukin 2 receptor monoclonal antibody in rat recipients of a heart allograft, and its use as a rejection marker in gamma scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Thedrez, P.; Paineau, J.; Jacques, Y.; Chatal, J.F.; Pelegrin, A.; Bouchaud, C.; Soulillou, J.P. )

    1989-09-01

    Anti-interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies have been shown to prevent allograft rejection. This paper reports on the biodistribution of a mouse MoAb directed at the 55 Kd alpha chain of rat interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) during allograft rejection. Only a low percentage (approximately 1%) of intact 125I-labeled MoAb was detected in the rejected graft, and irrelevant control IgG1 was found at a similar level. This suggests that most of the injected intact MoAb bound to graft tissue via its monomorphic Fc segment. In contrast, OX39 F(ab')2 fragments showed a preferential localization in the rejected allograft and did not bind to the LEW-to-LEW syngeneic heart graft. Irrelevant F(ab')2 did not concentrate in the allogeneic graft. Accordingly, F(ab')2 fragments from OX39 or irrelevant MoAb were used for gamma-scintigraphy on allograft recipients together with biodistribution studies. Results show that scintigraphy was able to detect allograft accumulation of 131I OX39 F(ab')2, whereas no imaging was obtained when OX39 F(ab')2 was used in the syngeneic combination or when irrelevant 131-IgG1 F(ab')2 was given to allograft recipients. This method, applied to the clinical situation, could be of interest for detection of early graft rejection episodes by immunoscintigraphy using reagents specific for activation determinants on lymphocyte membranes, such as anti-interleukin-2 receptor MoAb.

  7. Ab Initio Studies of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the current understanding of ozone depletion chemistry, particularly with regards the formation of the so-called Antarctic ozone hole, will be presented together with an outline as to how ab initio quantum chemistry can be used to further our understanding of stratospheric chemistry. The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results will be shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.

  8. THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS: FROM AB INITIO TO PHENOMENOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A

    2004-09-24

    Quantum mechanical-based (or ab initio) methods are used to predict the stability properties of materials although their application is limited to relatively simple systems in terms of structures and number of alloy components. However thermodynamics of complex multi-component alloys requires a more versatile approach afforded within the CALPHAD formalism. Despite its success, the lack of experimental data very often prevents the design of robust thermodynamic databases. After a brief survey of ab initio methodologies and CALPHAD, it will be shown how ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement in two ways CALPHAD for subsequent applications. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics '{acute a} la CALPHAD'. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys. Finally, comments will be made on challenges and future prospects.

  9. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.506...

  10. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.506...

  11. The diagnostic utility of folate receptor autoantibodies in blood.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Jeffrey M; Ramaekers, Vincent Th; Quadros, Edward V

    2013-03-01

    Folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defect (NTD) pregnancy, and folinic acid has been used to correct cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) in children with developmental disorders. In the absence of systemic folate deficiency, the discovery of autoantibodies (AuAbs) to folate receptor α (FRα) that block the uptake of folate offers one mechanism to explain the response to folate in these disorders. The association of FRα AuAbs with pregnancy-related complications, CFD syndrome, and autism spectrum disorders and response to folate therapy is highly suggestive of the involvement of these AuAbs in the disruption of brain development and function via folate pathways. The two types of antibodies identified in the serum of patients are blocking antibody and binding antibody. The two antibodies can be measured by the specific assays described and exert their pathological effects either by functional blocking of folate transport as previously shown or hypothetically by disrupting the FR by an antigen-antibody-mediated inflammatory response. We have identified both IgG and IgM AuAbs in these conditions. The predominant antibodies in women with NTD pregnancy belong to the IgG1 and IgG2 isotype and in CFD children, the IgG1 and IgG4 isotype. This review describes the methods used to measure these AuAbs, their binding characteristics, affinity, cross-reactivity, and potential mechanisms by which folate therapy could work. Because these AuAbs are associated with various pathologies during fetal and neonatal development, early detection and intervention could prevent or reverse the consequences of exposure to these AuAbs. PMID:23314538

  12. Double-membraned Liposomes Sculpted by Poliovirus 3AB Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Ptacek, Jennifer B.; Kirkegaard, Karla; Bullitt, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Infection with many positive-strand RNA viruses dramatically remodels cellular membranes, resulting in the accumulation of double-membraned vesicles that resemble cellular autophagosomes. In this study, a single protein encoded by poliovirus, 3AB, is shown to be sufficient to induce the formation of double-membraned liposomes via the invagination of single-membraned liposomes. Poliovirus 3AB is a 109-amino acid protein with a natively unstructured N-terminal domain. HeLa cells transduced with 3AB protein displayed intracellular membrane disruption; specifically, the formation of cytoplasmic invaginations. The ability of a single viral protein to produce structures of similar topology to cellular autophagosomes should facilitate the understanding of both cellular and viral mechanisms for membrane remodeling. PMID:23908350

  13. Wheel slip control of ABS using ER valve pressure modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Myung-Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control via sliding mode controller for a new anti-lock brake system (ABS) of a passenger vehicle using electrorheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. The principal design parameters of the ER valves and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering braking pressure variation during ABS operation. An electrically controllable pressure modulator using the ER valves is then constructed and its governing equations are derived. Subsequently, the pressure control performance of the new pressure modulator is experimentally evaluated. The governing equations of motion for a quarter car wheel model are derived and the sliding mode controller is formulated for wheel slip control. Hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) for braking performance evaluation is undertaken in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ABS associated with the ER valve pressure modulator.

  14. Control Performance of Vehicle Abs Featuring ER Valve Pressure Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M. S.; Choi, S. B.; Wereley, N. M.

    In this work, an electrically controllable anti-lock brake system (ABS) for passenger vehicle is developed by utilizing electrorheological (ER) fluid. A pressure modulator which consists of a cylindrical ER valve and the hydraulic booster is constructed in order to achieve sufficient brake pressure variation during ABS operation. The principal design parameters of the modulator are determined by considering ER properties as well as required braking pressure. After investigating pressure controllability of the modulator, a vehicle model which is integrated with the proposed pressure modulator is formulated to design yaw rate controller. A sliding mode controller is designed to obtain desired yaw rate, and the friction forces between roads and wheels are estimated via the estimator. Braking performances of the proposed ABS under various roads are evaluated through the hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) and the steering stability during braking operation is demonstrated by undertaking split-μ test.

  15. Stimulation of UvrD helicase by UvrAB.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, John; Guy, Colin P; Cadman, Chris J; Moolenaar, Geri F; Goosen, Nora; McGlynn, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Helicases play critical roles in all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism by catalyzing the remodeling of DNA and RNA structures. UvrD is an abundant helicase in Escherichia coli with well characterized functions in mismatch and nucleotide excision repair and a possible role in displacement of proteins such as RecA from single-stranded DNA. The mismatch repair protein MutL is known to stimulate UvrD. Here we show that the nucleotide excision repair proteins UvrA and UvrB can together stimulate UvrD-catalyzed unwinding of a range of DNA substrates containing strand discontinuities, including forked DNA substrates. The stimulation is specific for UvrD, as UvrAB failed to stimulate Rep helicase, a UvrD homologue. Moreover, although UvrAB can promote limited strand displacement, stimulation of UvrD did not require the strand displacement function of UvrAB. We conclude that UvrAB, like MutL, modulate UvrD helicase activity. This stimulation likely plays a role in DNA strand and protein displacement by UvrD in nucleotide excision repair. Promotion of UvrD-catalyzed unwinding of nicked duplexes by UvrAB may also explain the need for UvrAB and UvrD in Okazaki fragment processing in cells lacking DNA polymerase I. More generally, these data support the idea that helicase activity is regulated in vivo, with helicases acting as part of multisubunit complexes rather than in isolation. PMID:19208629

  16. Selective Targeting of Antibody Conjugated Multifunctional Nanoclusters (Nanoroses) to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li Leo; Tam, Justina O.; Willsey, Brian W.; Rigdon, Daniel; Ramesh, Rajagopal; Sokolov, Konstantin; Johnston, Keith P.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of smaller than 100 nm antibody (Ab) nanoparticle conjugates to target and modulate the biology of specific cell types may enable major advancements in cellular imaging and therapy in cancer. A key challenge is to load a high degree of targeting, imaging, and therapeutic functionality into small, yet stable particles. A versatile method called thin autocatalytic growth on substrate (TAGs) has been developed in our previous study to form ultra-thin and asymmetric gold coatings on iron oxide nanocluster cores producing exceptional near infrared (NIR) absorbance. AlexaFluor 488 labeled Abs were used to correlate the number of Abs conjugated to iron oxide/gold nanoclusters (nanoroses) with the hydrodynamic size. A transition from sub-monolayer to multilayer aggregates of Abs on the nanorose surface was observed for 54 Abs and an overall particle diameter of ~60 to 65 nm. The hydrodynamic diameter indicated coverage of a monolayer of 54 Abs, in agreement with the prediction of a geometric model, by assuming a circular footprint of 16.9 nm diameter per Ab molecule. The targeting efficacy of nanoclusters conjugated with monoclonal Abs specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was evaluated in A431 cancer cells using dark field microscopy and atomic absorbance spectrometry (AAS) analysis. Intense NIR scattering was achieved from both high uptake of nanoclusters in cells and high intrinsic NIR absorbance of individual nanoclusters. Dual mode imaging with dark field reflectance microscopy and fluorescence microscopy indicates the Abs remained attached to the Au surfaces upon the uptake by the cancer cells. The ability to load intense multifunctionality, specifically strong NIR absorbance, conjugation of an Ab monolayer in addition to a strong r2 MRI contrast that was previously demonstrated in a total particle size of only 63 nm, is an important step forward in development of theranostic agents for combined molecular specific imaging and therapy. PMID

  17. Association of anti-phospholipasea2-receptor antibodies with clinical course of idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Thokhonelidze, I; Maglakelidze, N; Sarishvili, N; Kasradze, T; Dalakishvili, K

    2015-04-01

    Aim of the study - assessment of the presence of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies in Georgian patients with biopsy proven IMN and their correlation with the disease activity for the appliance and monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy. A total 37 patients, after exclusion of the possible secondary factors, with biopsy proven IMN entered the study. All patients received standard immunosuppressive therapy: cyclosporine combined with methylprednisolone. There were 28 (76%) patients with PLA2R-AB positive and 9 (24%) negative (assessed as 1:<10) at baseline. Among the 28 patients under immunosuppressive therapy at month 6 in 11 of them PLA2R-AB turned negative, in 14 decreased quantitatively but were persistent positive and in 3 of them PLA2R-AB once turned negative then relapsed after withdrawn of immunosuppressive therapy. Among 11 PLA2R-AB negative patients, 9 patients got complete remission of proteinuria and the other 2 patients only partial remission. At month 12 the range of proteinuria was significantly lower in PLA2R-AB negative group than in PLA2R-AB positive group. The level of circulating PLA2R-AB in IMN patients showed correlation with disease activity. The indicators of good prognosis of IMN were negative PLA2R-AB titer at baseline and progressive decreasing of titer under the immunosuppressive therapy in PLA2R-AB positive patients. The detection and measurement of PLA2R-AB in INM patients may be important tool in monitoring of the disease and efficacy of the treatment.

  18. Multiplexing of receptor occupancy measurements for pharmacodynamic biomarker assessment of biopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Vainshtein, Inna; Schneider, Amy K.; Sun, Bo; Schwickart, Martin; Roskos, Lorin K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Receptor occupancy (RO) assays measure drug target engagement, and are used as pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers. RO assays are commonly performed by flow cytometry and often require multiplexing for assessment of multiple PD biomarkers when specimen volumes are limited. We present multiplexed RO assays for an IGF1R‐EGFR bispecific antibody (Bs‐Ab) and a CTLA4‐Ig recombinant fusion protein to demonstrate key considerations for accurate RO assessment. Methods RO in cynomolgus monkeys was determined in whole blood using flow cytometry. Free and total receptors were measured using anti‐receptor fluorescence‐labeled detection reagents, competitive and noncompetitive to drug, respectively. Results RO of IGF1R was examined as PD for Bs‐Ab, since IGF1R was expressed on blood cells. Multiplexed measurements of free and total IGF1R showed that IGF1R expression measured by total receptor was highly variable, impacting interpretation of free‐IGF1R. Normalization of free‐over‐total IGF1R measurements compensated for variability of receptor expression allowing for accurate RO assessment. RO of CTLA4‐Ig, a recombinant fusion protein targeting CD80 and CD86 receptors, was multiplexed to simultaneously measure target engagements for both receptors. Both RO methods demonstrated specificity of receptor measurements without cross‐reactivity to each other in multiplexed formats. RO methods were used for evaluation of PD activity of Bs‐Ab and CTLA4‐Ig in cynomolgus monkeys. In both cases, RO results showed dose‐dependent target engagement, corresponding well to the pharmacokinetics. Conclusions Multiplexed RO methods allowed accurate assessment of PD activity for Bs‐Ab and CTLA4‐Ig, facilitating development of these biopharmaceuticals from preclinical to clinical stages. © 2015 The Authors Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332491

  19. Identification of the Single Immunodominant Region of the Native Human CC Chemokine Receptor 6 Recognized by Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Dorgham, Karim; Dejou, Cécile; Piesse, Christophe; Gorochov, Guy; Pène, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines and their receptors play an important role in cell trafficking and recruitment. The CCR6 chemokine receptor, selectively expressed on leukocyte populations, has been shown to play a deleterious role in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases and, as such, may constitute a prime target in the development of immunotherapeutic treatment. However, to date no neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for this chemokine receptor have been reported, whereas information on small molecules capable of interfering with the interaction of CCR6 and its ligands is scant. Here, we report the failure to generate neutralizing mouse mAbs specific for human (hu)CCR6. Immunization of mice with peptides mimicking extracellular domains, potentially involved in CCR6 function, failed to induce Abs reactive with the native receptor. Although the use of NIH-3T3 cells expressing huCCR6 resulted in the isolation of mAbs specific for this receptor, they were not able to block the interaction between huCCR6 and huCCL20. Investigation of the anti-huCCR6 mAbs generated in the present study, as well as those commercially available, show that all mAbs invariably recognize a unique, non-neutralizing, immunodominant region in the first part of its N-terminal domain. Together, these results indicate that the generation of potential neutralizing anti-huCCR6 mAbs in the mouse is unlikely to succeed and that alternative techniques, such as the use of other animal species for immunization, might constitute a better approach to generate such a potentially therapeutic tool for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:27336468

  20. 1984 AB - A unique Mars-crossing asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helin, E. F.; Dunbar, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Asteroid 1984 AB, discovered in January 1984, proved to be a unique object with a close dynamical relationship to Mars. A brief history of the discovery and subsequent 'evolution' of the orbit as it was refined is presented. The preliminary orbit of 1984 AB indicated that it might be a Mars Trojan, and an extended discussion of this interesting possibility is presented, but this hypothesis had to be dismissed after further observations had refined the orbit. The semimajor axis and orbital eccentricity are very similar to that of Mars. No other known Mars-crossing asteroid exists with an orbit as closely associated to Mars.

  1. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  2. Ab initio computations of photodissociation products of CFC alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, S.; Illinger, K.H.; Kenny, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Ab initio computations, have already been used to examine the energetics of the photodissociation of stratospheric chlorofluorocarbons. Our awn research has investigated the ab initio computation of vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F, CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}H, and CF{sub 3}CH{sub 3}; continuing research will attempt to expand these computations to the energetics of the photodissociation of these molecules, since sane of the most common types of chlorofluorocarbon substitutes are hydrofluoroethanes.

  3. Flow cytometry evaluation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (UPA-R) in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Castagnari, B; Moretti, S; Latorraca, A; Rigolin, G M; Balsamo, R; Lanza, F; Castoldi, G L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate by flow cytometry the expression of the UPA-R (Urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor-CD87) on the blastic population of AML and ALL patients in order to evaluate whether the presence of this molecule could be associated with peculiar clinical and biologic features of leukemic cells. Five different monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) (clones: 3B10#; VIM5*; 109#; 68#; 100#) were used in order to detect the distinct forms of this cellular receptor. Cell reactivity varied significantly from case to case, also depending on the MoAb used for the flow cytometry analysis. In brief, 3B10# and VIM5* MoAbs were found to be positive in more than 90% of monocytes and neutrophils from healthy subjects, while the number of positive cells was decreased (60%) using the 109# MoAb. However, either 68# and 100# MoAbs recognised only a low number of blood monocytes and neutrophils (8-20%), while lymphocytes were unreactive with all the five UPA-R MoAbs. ALL cells were found to be CD87 negative in all cases. Blasts from AML showed a heterogeneous pattern of expression for the UPA-R MoAbs, being the reactivity strictly dependent on the MoAb used, and, to a higher extent, on the degree and type of maturation of the blastic cells. The number of blasts recognising 3B10# and VIM5* MoAbs was significantly higher than that reacting with the remaining MoAbs irrespective of the FAB subtype. Since proteolytic enzymes, like UPA, play a key role in the dissolution of the extracellular matrix, and in facilitating the cell egress from the bone marrow, it is conceivable that the expression of the UPA-R could contribute to the invasive properties and, possibly, metastatic potential of leukemic cells. PMID:8519488

  4. The Diagnosis Accuracy of PLA2R-AB in the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yu; Li, Junhua; He, Fan; Lv, Yongman; Liu, Wei; Wu, Ping; Huang, Jiao; Wei, Sheng; Gao, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of antibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R-AB) is considered to be a promising serological diagnostic biomarker of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). However, controversy remains about the diagnostic accuracy of serum PLA2R-AB testing. Here, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the overall diagnostic value of serum PLA2R-AB testing in iMN detection. Methods PubMed, Embase, and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched for relevant original articles through January 31, 2014. The summary sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were estimated using the bivariate model. The heterogeneity among studies was explored by subgroup and meta-regression analysis. Results 9 articles, including 15 studies, were eventually identified with a total of 2212 patients. The summary sensitivity of all studies is 78% (95% CI: 66% to 87%) and the specificity is 99% (95% CI: 96% to 100%). The summary positive and negative likelihood ratios are 96.1 (95% CI, 19.5 to 472.1) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.35), respectively. The DOR is 437 (95%CI, 74 to 2592). The subgroup analysis and meta-regression suggest the test interval is the main source of heterogeneity. Conclusions Serum PLA2R-AB testing is a useful tool to detect iMN. In addition, considering the high heterogeneity and potential publication bias, further high quality studies are needed in the future. PMID:25136841

  5. GJ 282 AB (WDS 07400-0336 AB = BGH 3 AB) and GICLAS 112-29: A Very Wide System in Process of Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rica, F. M.; Benavides, R.

    2016-04-01

    Very wide binaries are interesting objects that shed light on the binary formation process and their dynamical evolution. Poveda et al. (2009) studied the possible physical relation of the near (14.2 pc) and wide (~58") binary star GJ 282 AB and the extremely wide (1.09º; ~55,000 AU) companion, NLTT 18149, and they concluded that this very wide system is in the process of dynamical disintegration. In this work, we confirm the same conclusion but using a different method. We first study dynamically GJ 282 AB, confirmed that it is a bound system and then we determine possible orbital solutions. Later, we calculate the relative velocity of NLTT 18149 with respect to the GJ 282 AB's center mass using their (U, V, W) galactocentric velocity. The relative velocity, Vrel = 1.98 ± 0.16 km s-1, is much larger than the escape velocity (0.25 ± 0.01 km s-1). Therefore, with a significance level of 11s, we also conclude that this very wide system is in a process of dynamical disintegration.

  6. The LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life. PMID:19299327

  7. Structure-based screen identifies a potent small-molecule inhibitor of Stat5a/b with therapeutic potential for prostate cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhiyong; Gu, Lei; Vergalli, Jenny; Mariani, Samanta A.; De Dominici, Marco; Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Dagvadorj, Ayush; Purushottamachar, Puranik; McCue, Peter A.; Trabulsi, Edouard; Lallas, Costas D.; Gupta, Shilpa; Ellsworth, Elyse; Blackmon, Shauna; Ertel, Adam; Fortina, Paolo; Leiby, Benjamin; Xia, Guanjun; Rui, Hallgeir; Hoang, David T.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Cingolani, Gino; Njar, Vincent; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Calabretta, Bruno; Nevalainen, Marja T.

    2015-01-01

    Bypassing tyrosine kinases responsible for Stat5a/b phosphorylation would be advantageous for therapy development for Stat5a/b-regulated cancers. Here, we sought to identify small-molecule inhibitors of Stat5a/b for lead optimization and therapy development for prostate cancer (PC) and Bcr-Abl-driven leukemias. In silico screening of chemical structure databases combined with medicinal chemistry was used for identification of a panel of small-molecule inhibitors to block SH2-domain-mediated docking of Stat5a/b to the receptor-kinase complex and subsequent phosphorylation and dimerization. We tested the efficacy of the lead-compound, IST5-002, in experimental models and patient samples of two known Stat5a/b-driven cancers, prostate cancer (PC) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The lead compound Inhibitor of Stat5-002 (IST5-002) prevented both Jak2 and Bcr-Abl-mediated phosphorylation and dimerization of Stat5a/b, and selectively inhibited transcriptional activity of Stat5a (IC50 1.5 μM) and Stat5b (IC50 3.5 μM). IST5-002 suppressed nuclear translocation of Stat5a/b, binding to DNA and Stat5a/b target gene expression. IST5-002 induced extensive apoptosis of PC cells, impaired growth of PC xenograft tumors and induced cell death in patient-derived PCs when tested ex vivo in explant organ cultures. Importantly, IST5-002 induced robust apoptotic death not only of imatinib-sensitive but also imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines and primary CML cells from patients. IST5-002 provides a lead structure for further chemical modifications for clinical development for Stat5a/b-driven solid tumors and hematological malignancies. PMID:26026053

  8. Obtaining anti-type 1 melatonin receptor antibodies by immunization with melatonin receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Nelia; Wijkhuisen, Anne; Savatier, Alexandra; Moulharat, Natacha; Ferry, Gilles; Léonetti, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies (Abs) specific to cell-surface receptors are attractive tools for studying the physiological role of such receptors or for controlling their activity. We sought to obtain such antibodies against the type 1 receptor for melatonin (MT1). For this, we injected mice with CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding human MT1 (CHO-MT1-h), in the presence or absence of an adjuvant mixture containing Alum and CpG1018. As we previously observed that the immune response to a protein antigen is increased when it is coupled to a fusion protein, called ZZTat101, we also investigated if the association of ZZTat101 with CHO-MT1-h cells provides an immunogenic advantage. We measured similar levels of anti-CHO and anti-MT1-h Ab responses in animals injected with either CHO-MT1-h cells or ZZTat101/CHO-MT1-h cells, with or without adjuvant, indicating that neither the adjuvant mixture nor ZZTat101 increased the anti-cell immune response. Then, we investigated whether the antisera also recognized murine MT1 (MT1-m). Using cloned CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding MT1-m, we found that antisera raised against CHO-MT1-h cells also bound the mouse receptor. Altogether our studies indicate that immunizing approaches based on MT1-h-expressing CHO cells allow the production of polyclonal antibodies against MT1 receptors of different origins. This paves the way to preparation of MT1-specific monoclonal antibodies.

  9. Diabetes-induced changes in the 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibitory receptors involved in the pressor effect elicited by sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat

    PubMed Central

    García, Mónica; Morán, Asunción; Calama, Elena; Martín, Maria Luisa; Barthelmebs, Mariette; Román, Luis San

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the pressor responses induced by stimulation of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, and analysed the type and/or subtype of 5-HT receptors involved. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single s.c. injection of alloxan, then 4 weeks later, they were anaesthetized, pretreated with atropine and pithed. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 Hz) resulted in frequency-dependent increases in blood pressure. Intravenous infusions of 5-HT (1–80 μg kg−1 min−1) reduced the pressor effects obtained by electrical stimulation. The 5-HT1 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-CT (5 μg kg−1 min−1), caused an inhibition of the pressor response, whereas the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist, α-methyl-5-HT (5 μg kg−1 min−1) and the selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 1-phenylbiguanide (40 μg kg−1 min−1), did not modify the sympathetic pressor responses. 5-HT had no effect on exogenous noradrenaline (NA)-induced pressor responses. The inhibition of electrically induced pressor responses by 5-HT (10 μg kg−1 min−1) was unable to be elicited after i.v. treatment with methiothepin (100 μg kg−1) because of the marked inhibition produced by methiothepin alone. The 5-HT-induced inhibition was blocked after i.v. administration of WAY-100,635 (100 μg kg−1) and not affected by ritanserin (1 mg kg−1), MDL 72222 (2 mg kg−1). The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotretalin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) (5–20 μg kg−1 min−1) but neither the rodent 5-HT1B receptor agonist, CGS-12066B (5 μg kg−1 min−1), nor the selective nonrodent 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor agonist, L-694,247 (5 and 40 μg kg−1 min−1), inhibited the electrically induced pressor response. The selective 5-HT1A

  10. Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein interacts with the type II interleukin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, D; Lundkvist, J; Layé, S; Bartfai, T

    1998-06-16

    Stably transfected HEK-293 cells express on their surface the murine type II IL-1 receptor (mIL-1RII) as demonstrated by FACS analysis using the mAb 4E2, however binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to these cells is nearly absent. Saturable high affinity binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta is observed when the murine IL-1 receptor accessory protein (mIL-1RAcP) is coexpressed with mIL-1RII. Binding of [125I]-hrIL-1beta to mIL-1RII-mIL-1RAcP complex can be inhibited either with antibodies to mIL-1RII (mAb 4E2), or by antibodies to mIL-1RAcP (mAb 4C5). The number of high affinity binding sites in cells stably transfected with the cDNA for mIL-1RII is dependent on the dose of cDNA for mIL-1RAcP used to transfect the cells. The high affinity complex between mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP is not preformed by interaction between the intracellular domains of these two transmembrane proteins, rather it appears to require the extracellular portions of mIL-1RII and mIL-1RAcP and the presence of a ligand. We suggest that in addition to its earlier described decoy receptor role, IL-1RII may modulate the responsiveness of cells to IL-1 by binding the IL-1RAcP in unproductive/non-signalling complexes and thus reducing the number of signalling IL-1RI-IL-1RAcP-agonist complexes when IL-1 is bound.

  11. Identification and in vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel and selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, Br-IQ17B

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing-shu; Xie, Bing-xue; Bian, Xi-ling; Xue, Yu; Wei, Ning-ning; Zhou, Jing-heng; Hao, Yu-chen; Li, Gang; Zhang, Liang-ren; Wang, Ke-wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is a ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable ion channel implicated in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders. Activation of α7 nAChR improves learning, memory, and sensory gating in animal models. To identify novel α7 nAChR agonists, we synthesized a series of small molecules and characterized a representative compound, Br-IQ17B, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]oct-3-yl]-5-bromoindolizine-2-carboxamide, which specifically activates α7 nAChR. Methods: Two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) recordings were primarily used for screening in Xenopus oocytes expressing human α7 nAChR. Assays, including radioisotope ligand binding, Western blots, whole-cell recordings of hippocampal culture neurons, and spontaneous IPSC recordings of brain slices, were also utilized to evaluate and confirm the specific activation of α7 nAChR by Br-IQ17B. Results: Br-IQ17B potently activates α7 nAChR with an EC50 of 1.8±0.2 μmol/L. Br-IQ17B is selective over other subtypes such as α4β2 and α3β4, but it blocks 5-HT3A receptors. Br-IQ17B displaced binding of the α7 blocker [3H]-MLA to hippocampal crude membranes with a Ki of 14.9±3.2 nmol/L. In hippocampal neurons, Br-IQ17B evoked α7-like currents that were inhibited by MLA and enhanced in the presence of the α7 PAM PNU-120596. In brain slice recordings, Br-IQ17B enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission in CA1 neurons. Mechanistically, Br-IQ17B increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was MLA-sensitive. Conclusion: We identified the novel, potent, and selective α7 agonist Br-IQ17B, which enhances synaptic transmission. Br-IQ17B may be a helpful tool to understand new aspects of α7 nAChR function, and it also has potential for being developed as therapy for schizophrenia and cognitive deficits. PMID:25948478

  12. Specific interaction of aurintricarboxylic acid with the human immunodeficiency virus/CD4 cell receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Schols, D.; Baba, M.; Pauwels, R.; Desmyter, J.; De Clercq, E. )

    1989-05-01

    The triphenylmethane derivative aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), but not aurin, selectively prevented the binding of OKT4A/Leu-3a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and, to a lesser extent, OKT4 mAb to the CD4 cell receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The effect was seen within 1 min at an ATA concentration of 10 {mu}M in various T4{sup +} cells (MT-4, U-937, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and monocytes). It was dose-dependent and reversible. ATA prevented the attachment of radiolabeled HIV-1 particles to MT-4 cells, which could be expected as the result of its specific binding to the HIV/CD4 receptor. Other HIV inhibitors such as suramin, fuchsin acid, azidothymidine, dextran sulfate, heparin, and pentosan polysulfate did not affect OKT4A/Leu-3a mAb binding to the CD4 receptor, although the sulfated polysaccharides suppressed HIV-1 adsorption to the cells at concentrations required for complete protection against HIV-1 cytopathogenicity. Thus, ATA is a selective marker molecule for the CD4 receptor. ATA also interfered with the staining of membrane-associated HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 by a mAb against it. These unusual properties of a small molecule of nonimmunological origin may have important implications for the study of CD4/HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and possibly treatment.

  13. Motif based Hessian matrixfor ab initio geometry optimization ofnanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhengji; Wang, Lin-Wang; Meza, Juan

    2006-04-05

    A simple method to estimate the atomic degree Hessian matrixof a nanosystem is presented. The estimated Hessian matrix, based on themotif decomposition of the nanosystem, can be used to accelerate abinitio atomic relaxations with speedups of 2 to 4 depending on the sizeof the system. In addition, the programing implementation for using thismethod in a standard ab initio package is trivial.

  14. Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.; Markland, Thomas E.

    2014-02-28

    Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy.

  15. Ab initio calculations in three-body cluster systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Redondo, C.; Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.

    2013-06-10

    In this work we briefly outline the extension of the ab initio no-core shell model/Resonating group method (NCSM/RGM) to three-body cluster states. We present the results for {sup 6}He ground state within a {sup 4}He+n+n cluster basis under this approach.

  16. Information Manual: Procedures, Planning Concepts, Subsystems. ABS Publication No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley.

    This report, the third in a series which presents the results of a systems analysis of the problem of providing science and engineering buildings at the university level, is a technical manual for using the Academic Building Systems (ABS) approach in programing, designing, and constructing such facilities. The document presents (1) planning…

  17. Discovery of New Substrates for LuxAB Bacterial Bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianyu; Wang, Weishan; Wu, Xingkang; Wu, Wenxiao; Bai, Haixiu; Ma, Zhao; Shen, Yuemao; Yang, Keqian; Li, Minyong

    2016-08-01

    In this article, four novel substrates with long halftime have been designed and synthesized successfully for luxAB bacterial bioluminescence. After in vitro and in vivo biological evaluation, these molecules can emit obvious bioluminescence emission with known bacterial luciferase, thus indicating a new promising approach to developing the bacterial bioluminescent system.

  18. A-B Distinction in a Sample of Prominent Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Jesse D.; Berzins, Juris I.

    1976-01-01

    A sample of prominent psychotherapists were asked to fill out the A-B therapist "type" scale and comment on their possible differential effectiveness in treating schizoid/schizophrenic versus neurotic patients. The data suggest that B therapists desire and seek more complex and exciting sensory-cognitive inputs during therapy hours than A…

  19. Food for Thought on the "ABS Academic Journal Quality Guide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Simon

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relating to the use of the Association of Business Schools' (ABS) "Academic Journal Quality Guide" within UK business schools. It also looks at several specific issues raised by the Chair of the British Accounting Association/British Accounting and Finance Association regarding the ratings for top…

  20. Further Food for Thought on the "ABS Guide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper replies to points raised by the editors of the "ABS Guide", Huw Morris, Charles Harvey, Aidan Kelly and Michael Rowlinson (2011) "Accounting Education: an international journal", 20(6), pp. 561-573) in response to a paper published in a previous issue of "Accounting Education" (Hussain, S. (2011)…

  1. Environmental Study: Science and Engineering Buildings. ABS Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley.

    This report is the first of a series which present the results of a systems analysis of the problem of providing science and engineering buildings at the university level conducted by the Academic Building Systems (ABS) program. The document includes (1) a user survey (data and conclusions from a series of studies involving a spectrum of…

  2. AB 1725 Model Accountability System. California Community Colleges. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Board of Governors.

    This report proposes a model accountability system for the California community colleges to comply with the directives of Assembly Bill 1725 (AB 1725). The purpose of the accountability system is to provide colleges and districts, the board of governors, and the California legislature with information that will allow for the continued improvement…

  3. The Quantum Nature of Drug-Receptor Interactions: Deuteration Changes Binding Affinities for Histamine Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Repič, Matej; Zakšek, Maja; Kotnik, Kristina; Fijan, Estera; Mavri, Janez

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report a combined experimental and computational study concerning the effects of deuteration on the binding of histamine and two other histaminergic agonists to 3H-tiotidine-labeled histamine H2 receptor in neonatal rat astrocytes. Binding affinities were measured by displacing radiolabeled tiotidine from H2 receptor binding sites present on cultured neonatal rat astrocytes. Quantum-chemical calculations were performed by employing the empirical quantization of nuclear motion within a cluster model of the receptor binding site extracted from the homology model of the entire H2 receptor. Structure of H2 receptor built by homology modelling is attached in the supporting information (S1 Table) Experiments clearly demonstrate that deuteration affects the binding by increasing the affinity for histamine and reducing it for 2-methylhistamine, while basically leaving it unchanged for 4-methylhistamine. Ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on the cluster system extracted from the homology H2 model along with the implicit quantization of the acidic N–H and O–H bonds demonstrate that these changes in the binding can be rationalized by the altered strength of the hydrogen bonding upon deuteration known as the Ubbelohde effect. Our computational analysis also reveals a new mechanism of histamine binding, which underlines an important role of Tyr250 residue. The present work is, to our best knowledge, the first study of nuclear quantum effects on ligand receptor binding. The ligand H/D substitution is relevant for therapy in the context of perdeuterated and thus more stable drugs that are expected to enter therapeutic practice in the near future. Moreover, presented approach may contribute towards understanding receptor activation, while a distant goal remains in silico discrimination between agonists and antagonists based on the receptor structure. PMID:27159606

  4. The Quantum Nature of Drug-Receptor Interactions: Deuteration Changes Binding Affinities for Histamine Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Kržan, Mojca; Vianello, Robert; Maršavelski, Aleksandra; Repič, Matej; Zakšek, Maja; Kotnik, Kristina; Fijan, Estera; Mavri, Janez

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report a combined experimental and computational study concerning the effects of deuteration on the binding of histamine and two other histaminergic agonists to 3H-tiotidine-labeled histamine H2 receptor in neonatal rat astrocytes. Binding affinities were measured by displacing radiolabeled tiotidine from H2 receptor binding sites present on cultured neonatal rat astrocytes. Quantum-chemical calculations were performed by employing the empirical quantization of nuclear motion within a cluster model of the receptor binding site extracted from the homology model of the entire H2 receptor. Structure of H2 receptor built by homology modelling is attached in the supporting information (S1 Table) Experiments clearly demonstrate that deuteration affects the binding by increasing the affinity for histamine and reducing it for 2-methylhistamine, while basically leaving it unchanged for 4-methylhistamine. Ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on the cluster system extracted from the homology H2 model along with the implicit quantization of the acidic N-H and O-H bonds demonstrate that these changes in the binding can be rationalized by the altered strength of the hydrogen bonding upon deuteration known as the Ubbelohde effect. Our computational analysis also reveals a new mechanism of histamine binding, which underlines an important role of Tyr250 residue. The present work is, to our best knowledge, the first study of nuclear quantum effects on ligand receptor binding. The ligand H/D substitution is relevant for therapy in the context of perdeuterated and thus more stable drugs that are expected to enter therapeutic practice in the near future. Moreover, presented approach may contribute towards understanding receptor activation, while a distant goal remains in silico discrimination between agonists and antagonists based on the receptor structure. PMID:27159606

  5. Comparative binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1F Bacillus thuringiensis toxins to brush border membrane proteins from Ostrinia nubilalis, Ostrinia furnacalis and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) midgut tissue.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sek Yee; Cayabyab, Bonifacio F; Alcantara, Edwin P; Huang, Fangneng; He, Kanglai; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Siegfried, Blair D

    2013-11-01

    The European (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) and Asian corn borers (Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée) are closely related and display similar sensitivity to Cry1 toxins. In this study, we compared the binding patterns of Cry1Ab and Cry1F toxins between both Ostrinia spp., as well as the expression of putative cadherin- and aminopeptidase-N (APN)-like protein receptors. Additionally, cDNA sequences of these putative toxin receptors from both Ostrinia species were compared. Ligand blots for both species indicated a similar binding pattern for Cry1Ab with the strongest immunoreactive band at 260 kDa in both species. In addition, similar expression of the putative cadherin- and APN-like protein receptors were observed at 260 and 135 kDa, respectively. A high degree of similarity (98% amino acid sequence identity) of cDNA sequences for both putative receptor sequences was observed. The Cry1F ligand blot revealed that O. furnacalis and O. nubilalis BBMV exhibited slightly different binding patterns, with strong binding to putative proteins at 150 and 140 kDa, respectively. Both proteins appeared to also bind Cry1Ab, although the signal intensity was much reduced with Cry1Ab. O. furnacalis showed an additional but weaker band at 210 kDa relative to the 150 kDa band. Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius), which was used as an outgroup species, exhibited different binding patterns than either Ostrinia species, with both Cry1Ab and Cry1F toxins binding to a 210 kDa protein. These results support the previous experiments indicating that O. nubilalis and O. furnacalis share similar patterns of susceptibility to Cry toxins. PMID:23999243

  6. Pentylindole/Pentylindazole Synthetic Cannabinoids and Their 5-Fluoro Analogs Produce Different Primary Metabolites: Metabolite Profiling for AB-PINACA and 5F-AB-PINACA.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Castaneto, Marisol S; Zhu, Mingshe; Pang, Shaokun; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Kronstrand, Robert; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Whereas non-fluoropentylindole/indazole synthetic cannabinoids appear to be metabolized preferably at the pentyl chain though without clear preference for one specific position, their 5-fluoro analogs' major metabolites usually are 5-hydroxypentyl and pentanoic acid metabolites. We determined metabolic stability and metabolites of N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-PINACA) and 5-fluoro-AB-PINACA (5F-AB-PINACA), two new synthetic cannabinoids, and investigated if results were similar. In silico prediction was performed with MetaSite (Molecular Discovery). For metabolic stability, 1 μmol/L of each compound was incubated with human liver microsomes for up to 1 h, and for metabolite profiling, 10 μmol/L was incubated with pooled human hepatocytes for up to 3 h. Also, authentic urine specimens from AB-PINACA cases were hydrolyzed and extracted. All samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry on a TripleTOF 5600+ (AB SCIEX) with gradient elution (0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile). High-resolution full-scan mass spectrometry (MS) and information-dependent acquisition MS/MS data were analyzed with MetabolitePilot (AB SCIEX) using different data processing algorithms. Both drugs had intermediate clearance. We identified 23 AB-PINACA metabolites, generated by carboxamide hydrolysis, hydroxylation, ketone formation, carboxylation, epoxide formation with subsequent hydrolysis, or reaction combinations. We identified 18 5F-AB-PINACA metabolites, generated by the same biotransformations and oxidative defluorination producing 5-hydroxypentyl and pentanoic acid metabolites shared with AB-PINACA. Authentic urine specimens documented presence of these metabolites. AB-PINACA and 5F-AB-PINACA produced suggested metabolite patterns. AB-PINACA was predominantly hydrolyzed to AB-PINACA carboxylic acid, carbonyl-AB-PINACA, and hydroxypentyl AB-PINACA, likely in 4-position. The most intense 5F-AB

  7. The development of FRET-based dual receptor optical biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Juntao

    The focus of the research presented in this dissertation is the development of a new FRET-based dual receptor sensing method for detecting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The new detection method presented in this dissertation imitates the way HIV infects cells. It utilizes the two receptor-binding event and integrates a chemical transducer system with two unique protein receptors, CD4 and mAb (HIV-1 gp120 monoclonal antibody), which both bind to gp120. The chemical transduction system is based on the distance-dependant principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The work presented in this dissertation attempts to demonstrate the feasibility of this new sensing method both in solution and on an optical fiber. Appropriate FRET pairs which have high energy transfer efficiency as well as good conjugation properties with receptors were selected and optimized. The two receptors, CD4 and mAb which specifically bind to gp120, were conjugated to one of the optimized FRET fluorophore pairs, AMCA-NHS (succinimidyl-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid) and FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate), respectively. For the solution test, the viral protein gp120, which is the featured protein on the surface of HIV-1, was detected by the mixed solution of the two FRET pair tagged receptors. A spectrofluorometer was used to detect the fluorescent change between AMCA-NHS and FITC peak intensities when the receptors bind to the gp120. Specific binding and non-specific binding gp120 were used to test the selectivity of this method. The results of the solution test indicated that FRET-conjugated receptors can efficiently distinguish the presence of specific and non-specific binding gp120 and proved the feasibility of the FRET-based dual receptor method in detecting the presence of gp120 with a limit of detection of 5ng/ml (0.5nM) in solution. For the optical fiber test, two FRET-conjugated receptors were immobilized onto an optical fiber silica core tip to detect the

  8. A bi-functional antibody-receptor domain fusion protein simultaneously targeting IGF-IR and VEGF for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yang; Zeng, Lin; Novosyadlyy, Ruslan; Forest, Amelie; Zhu, Aiping; Korytko, Andrew; Zhang, Haifan; Eastman, Scott W; Topper, Michael; Hindi, Sagit; Covino, Nicole; Persaud, Kris; Kang, Yun; Burtrum, Douglas; Surguladze, David; Prewett, Marie; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Wroblewski, Victor J; Shen, Juqun; Balderes, Paul; Zhu, Zhenping; Snavely, Marshall; Ludwig, Dale L

    2015-01-01

    Bi-specific antibodies (BsAbs), which can simultaneously block 2 tumor targets, have emerged as promising therapeutic alternatives to combinations of individual monoclonal antibodies. Here, we describe the engineering and development of a novel, human bi-functional antibody-receptor domain fusion molecule with ligand capture (bi-AbCap) through the fusion of the domain 2 of human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) to an antibody directed against insulin-like growth factor – type I receptor (IGF-IR). The bi-AbCap possesses excellent stability and developability, and is the result of minimal engineering. Beyond potent neutralizing activities against IGF-IR and VEGF, the bi-AbCap is capable of cross-linking VEGF to IGF-IR, leading to co-internalization and degradation of both targets by tumor cells. In multiple mouse xenograft tumor models, the bi-AbCap improves anti-tumor activity over individual monotherapies. More importantly, it exhibits superior inhibition of tumor growth, compared with the combination of anti-IGF-IR and anti-VEGF therapies, via powerful blockade of both direct tumor cell growth and tumor angiogenesis. The unique “capture-for-degradation” mechanism of the bi-AbCap is informative for the design of next-generation bi-functional anti-cancer therapies directed against independent signaling pathways. The bi-AbCap design represents an alternative approach to the creation of dual-targeting antibody fusion molecules by taking advantage of natural receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:26073904

  9. Neutralizing epitopes of the SARS-CoV S-protein cluster independent of repertoire, antigen structure or mAb technology

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Kevin; Rini, James M; Yu, Meng; Wang, Linfa; Plummer, Francis A; Corbett, Cindi R; Andonov, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody responses to the surface glycoproteins of enveloped viruses play an important role in immunity. Many of these glycoproteins, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein form trimeric units in the membrane of the native virion. There is substantial experimental and pre-clinical evidence showing that the S protein is a promising lead for vaccines and therapeutics. Previously we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to whole inactivated SARS-CoV which neutralize the virus in vitro.1,2 Here, we define their specificity and affinity, map several of their epitopes and lastly characterise chimeric versions of them. Our data show that the neutralizing mAbs bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS S protein. Three of the chimeric mAbs retain their binding specificity while one conformational mAb, F26G19, lost its ability to bind the S protein despite high level expression. The affinity for recombinant S is maintained in all of the functional chimeric versions of the parental mAbs. Both parental mAb F26G18 and the chimeric version neutralize the TOR2 strain of SARS-CoV with essentially identical titres (2.07 and 2.47 nM, respectively). Lastly, a comparison with other neutralizing mAbs to SARS-CoV clearly shows that the dominance of a 33 amino acid residue loop of the SARS-CoV RBD is independent of repertoire, species, quaternary structure, and importantly, the technology used to derive the mAbs. In cases like this, the dominance of a compact RBD antigenic domain and the central role of the S protein in pathogenesis may inherently create immunoselection pressure on viruses to evolve more complex evasion strategies or die out of a host species. The apparent simplicity of the mechanism of SARS-CoV neutralization is in stark contrast to the complexity shown by other enveloped viruses. PMID:20168090

  10. Fc alpha receptors mediate release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 by human monocytes following receptor aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Patry, C; Herbelin, A; Lehuen, A; Bach, J F; Monteiro, R C

    1995-01-01

    The functional capacity of the human monocyte receptor for the Fc portion of IgA (Fc alpha R) in mediating signal transduction was evaluated by cytokine release. F(ab')2 fragments of anti-Fc alpha R monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were used as specific probes to induce release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Multivalent cross-linking by a secondary anti-mouse antibody [F(ab')2 fragments] induced a significant release of TNF-alpha and IL-6 by human blood mononuclear cells, indicating requirements for Fc alpha R aggregation on the cell surface to transmit signals. Both cytokines were released exclusively by adherent cells, identifying monocytes as the responding cells within the mononuclear cell population. This cytokine release could not be due to contaminating endotoxins, because it was not abolished by polymyxin B, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibitor. Moreover, purified recombinant soluble Fc alpha R inhibited the anti-Fc alpha R mAb-mediated cytokine release from blood monocytes, demonstrating that TNF-alpha and IL-6 were released in a receptor-specific manner. Our data suggest that Fc alpha R, through its capacity to mediate secretion of IL-6, may play an important role in B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. On the other hand, release of TNF-alpha following stimulation of Fc alpha R molecules directly implicates these receptors in amplification and regulation of the inflammatory process occurring during IgA-mediated host defence. PMID:7590867

  11. Targeting Anti-Insulin B Cell Receptors Improves Receptor Editing in Type 1 Diabetes-Prone Mice.

    PubMed

    Bonami, Rachel H; Thomas, James W

    2015-11-15

    Autoreactive B lymphocytes that commonly arise in the developing repertoire can be salvaged by receptor editing, a central tolerance mechanism that alters BCR specificity through continued L chain rearrangement. It is unknown whether autoantigens with weak cross-linking potential, such as insulin, elicit receptor editing, or whether this process is dysregulated in related autoimmunity. To resolve these issues, we developed an editing-competent model in which anti-insulin Vκ125 was targeted to the Igκ locus and paired with anti-insulin VH125Tg. Physiologic, circulating insulin increased RAG-2 expression and was associated with BCR replacement that eliminated autoantigen recognition in a proportion of developing anti-insulin B lymphocytes. The proportion of anti-insulin B cells that underwent receptor editing was reduced in the type 1 diabetes-prone NOD strain relative to a nonautoimmune strain. Resistance to editing was associated with increased surface IgM expression on immature (but not transitional or mature) anti-insulin B cells in the NOD strain. The actions of mAb123 on central tolerance were also investigated, because selective targeting of insulin-occupied BCR by mAb123 eliminates anti-insulin B lymphocytes and prevents type 1 diabetes. Autoantigen targeting by mAb123 increased RAG-2 expression and dramatically enhanced BCR replacement in newly developed B lymphocytes. Administering F(ab')2123 induced IgM downregulation and reduced the frequency of anti-insulin B lymphocytes within the polyclonal repertoire of VH125Tg/NOD mice, suggesting enhanced central tolerance by direct BCR interaction. These findings indicate that weak or faulty checkpoints for central tolerance can be overcome by autoantigen-specific immunomodulatory therapy.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the two toxin-binding sites of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, A.J.; Hall, Z.W.

    1987-10-06

    The authors have isolated and characterized 12 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that block the binding of ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin (..cap alpha..-BuTx) to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of Torpedo californica. Two of the mAbs block ..cap alpha..-BuTx binding completely; the other 10 inhibit only about 50% of the binding. The mAbs that partially inhibit ..cap alpha..-BuTx binding can be divided into two groups by examination of the additive effect of pairs of mAbs on toxin binding, and by analysis of competition between mAbs for binding to the AChR. These two groups of mAbs, which we have termed A and B, appear to recognize different toxin-binding sites on the same receptor. A and B mAbs were used to determine the kinetic and pharmacological properties of the two sites. The site recognized by A mAbs binds ..cap alpha..-BuTx with a forward rate constant of 0.98 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, d-tubocurarine (dTC) with a K/sub D/ of (6.8 +/- 0.3) x 10/sup -8/ M, and pancuronium with a K/sub D/ of (1.9 +/- 1.0) x 10/sup -9/ M. The site recognized by B mAbs binds ..cap alpha..-BuTx with a forward rate constant of 9.3 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, dTC with a K/sub D/ of (4.6 +/- 0.3) x 10/sup -6/ M, and pancurionium with a K/sub D/ of (9.3 +/- 0.8) x 10/sup -6/ M. Binding of A and B mAbs to the AChR was variably inhibited by nicotinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists, and by ..cap alpha..-conotoxin. The observed pattern of inhibition is consistent with the relative affinity of the two sites for antagonists as given above but also indicates that the mAbs recognize a diversity of epitopes within each site.

  13. Hyperspectral molecular imaging of multiple receptors using immunolabeled plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seekell, Kevin; Crow, Matthew J.; Marinakos, Stella; Ostrander, Julie; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Wax, Adam

    2011-11-01

    This work presents simultaneous imaging and detection of three different cell receptors using three types of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs). The size, shape, and composition-dependent scattering profiles of these NPs allow for a system of multiple distinct molecular markers using a single optical source. With this goal in mind, tags consisting of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor gold nanorods, anti-insulin-like growth factor 1-R silver nanospheres, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2Ab gold nanospheres were developed to monitor the expression of receptors commonly overexpressed by cancer cells. These labels were chosen because they scatter strongly in distinct spectral windows. A hyperspectral darkfield microspectroscopy system was developed to record the scattering spectra of cells labeled with these molecular tags. Simultaneous monitoring of multiple tags may lead to applications such as profiling of cell line immunophenotype and investigation of receptor signaling pathways. Single, dual, and triple tag experiments were performed to analyze NP tag specificity as well as their interactions. Distinct resonance peaks were observed in these studies, showing the ability to characterize cell lines using conjugated NPs. However, interpreting shifts in these peaks due to changes in a cellular dielectric environment may be complicated by plasmon coupling between NPs bound to proximal receptors and other coupling mechanisms due to the receptors themselves.

  14. LACK OF ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF SPINAL ONDANSETRON ON THERMAL AND MECHANICAL HYPERSENSITIVITY FOLLOWING SPINAL NERVE LIGATION IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Christopher M.; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Ewan, Eric E.; Nakajima, Kunie; Obata, Hideaki; Xu, Qinghao; Yaksh, Tony L.; Eisenach, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The balance between descending inhibition and facilitation is thought to be disturbed in chronic pain states. Increased facilitation by spinally released serotonin has been suggested by demonstration that mechanically evoked neuronal responses of wide dynamic range neurons are inhibited by 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in rats following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) but not sham operation. Despite these physiologic data, the effects of spinal 5-HT3 receptor blockade on behavioral hypersensitivity and neurochemical alterations in spinal serotonergic system have not been thoroughly investigated following spinal nerve ligation in the rat. To test this, we acutely injected intrathecal ondansetron in rats between 14 and 30 days after SNL and assessed effects on thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity. We also determined the density of serotonergic nerve fibers, serotonin content and the levels of 5-HT3 receptors within the spinal cord at this time point. Intrathecal ondansetron (1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μg) produced no effect on behavioral measures of thermal or mechanical hypersensitivity whereas intrathecal morphine (1μg) and gabapentin (200 μg) partially reversed thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity following SNL. In addition, SNL did not alter the density of serotonergic fibers or 5-HT3 receptor immunoreactivity or spinal tissue content of 5-HT within the dorsal horn. These results do not support anatomic plasticity of descending serotonergic pathways or tonic 5-HT3 receptor activity in maintaining hypersensitivity after nerve injury and in contrast to previous studies fail to demonstrate an anti-hypersensitivity effect of intrathecal injection of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron following peripheral nerve injury. Importantly, behavioral measures of mechanical hypersensitivity assess threshold responses whereas physiological studies of mechanically evoked neuronal responses involve application of suprathreshold stimuli. Thus, suprathreshold or more intense

  15. A Multidimensional Interpretation and Comparison of Three A-B Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Edward; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Despite a rapidly expanding literature on the A-B therapist-type variable, an adequate conceptual and empirical understanding has not been forthcoming. The present study endeavors to increase understanding of the A-B dimension as well as to compare three different versions of the A-B scale. (Author)

  16. Opsonin-independent ligation of Fc gamma receptors. The 3G8-bearing receptors on neutrophils mediate the phagocytosis of concanavalin A- treated erythrocytes and nonopsonized Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We report that phagocytosis by human neutrophils of Con A-treated erythrocytes (E-Con A) and nonopsonized Escherichia coli with mannose- binding adhesions is mediated by the Fc gamma receptor bearing the 3G8 epitope. Modulation of Fc receptors by pretreating with aggregated-IgG or with 3G8 anti-Fc gamma receptor mAb markedly inhibited internalization of E-Con A and E. coli without altering their cell surface attachment. Phagocytosis of these probes was specifically blocked by alpha-methylmannoside and D-mannose and not by other monosaccharides. Thus, recognition of E-Con A and E. coli by the Fc receptor is dependent upon the mannose-specific interaction with lectin or lectin-like adhesions. These data demonstrate that ligands other than the classical IgG opsonins can bind to classical immune receptors for IgG through lectin-carbohydrate interactions. PMID:2445895

  17. Ab-initio calculations on melting of thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-05-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics study has been performed on face centered cubic structured thorium to determine its melting temperature at room pressure. The ion-electron interaction potential energy calculated as a function of temperature for three volumes (a0)3 and (1.02a0)3 and (1.04a0)3 increases gradually with temperature and undergoes a sharp jump at ~2200 K, ~2100 K and ~1800 K, respectively. Here, a0 = 5.043 Å is the equilibrium lattice parameter at 0 K obtained from ab-initio calculations. These jumps in interaction energy are treated as due to the onset of melting and corresponding temperatures as melting point. The melting point of 2100 K is close to the experimental value of 2023K. Further, the same has been verified by plotting the atomic arrangement evolved at various temperatures and corresponding pair correlation functions.

  18. Ab initio molecular dynamics: Concepts, recent developments, and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Iftimie, Radu; Minary, Peter; Tuckerman, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology of ab initio molecular dynamics, wherein finite-temperature dynamical trajectories are generated by using forces computed “on the fly” from electronic structure calculations, has had a profound influence in modern theoretical research. Ab initio molecular dynamics allows chemical processes in condensed phases to be studied in an accurate and unbiased manner, leading to new paradigms in the elucidation of microscopic mechanisms, rationalization of experimental data, and testable predictions of new phenomena. The purpose of this work is to give a brief introduction to the technique and to review several important recent developments in the field. Several illustrative examples showing the power of the technique have been chosen. Perspectives on future directions in the field also will be given. PMID:15870204

  19. Ab Initio Electronic Relaxation Times and Transport in Noble Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Jamal I.; Bernardi, Marco; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.

    Relaxation times employed to study electron transport in metals are typically assumed to be constants and obtained empirically using the Drude model. Here, we employ ab initio calculations to compute the electron-phonon relaxation times of Cu, Ag, and Au, and find that they vary significantly on the Fermi surface, spanning ~15 -45 fs. We compute room temperature resistivities in excellent agreement with experiment by combining GW bandstructures, Wannier-interpolated band velocities, and ab initio relaxation times. Our calculations are compared to other approximations used for the relaxation times. Additionally, an importance sampling scheme is introduced to speed up the convergence of resistivity and transport calculations by sampling directly points on the Fermi surface. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR15-1508412 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by DOE at LBNL's NERSC facility.

  20. [B0 aberrant genotype of AB0 blood group system].

    PubMed

    Zachová, M; Pexa, T; Zelený, M; Mazura, I; Hirt, M

    2004-07-01

    The AB0 blood group system typing remains one of the basic laboratory tasks in a forensic practice. However, problems arise when the analysed samples are seriously degraded. The DNA analysis promised to solve this but an unexpected complication was encountered. For the AB0 blood group system typing a Polymerase Chain Reaction method was used to amplify glycosyltransferase gene, when DNA had been isolated from artificially created blood stains, followed by their subsequent artificial thermal degradation. In the B0 genotype an aberrant genotype was suprisingly found and its structure was confirmed by sequencing. This meant that a newly formed B00 (not the original BO) genotype was present. Such a finding, to our best knowledge, had not been observed yet and we were unable to find any references in the professional literature. The explanation of this result thus remains unclear. PMID:15493712

  1. Thermophysical Modeling of WISE Data on 2010 AB78

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.

    2010-10-01

    2010 AB78 was the first NEO discovered by WISE in early January. It came back through the WISE scan path in February and again in July, appearing in a total of 89 frames. The lines-of-sight to the asteroid cover 180 deg in RA and 70 deg in Dec. These data are used to constrain the rotation rate, rotation axis, thermal inertia and size of 2010 AB78 using the rotating cratered thermophysical model of Wright (2007). All data were obtained on the same side of the WISE scan circle, limiting our ability to constrain the thermal inertia. The effect of poorly constrained parameters on the size is handled using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach.

  2. Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio nuclear wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-03-01

    Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum j , leading to j -j coupling, decades ago phenomenological models suggested that a simpler picture for 0 p -shell nuclides can be realized via coupling of the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L . I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell-model calculations using modern ab initio two-body interactions and dissect the resulting wave functions into their component L - and S -components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly 50 years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest that L -S decomposition may be a useful tool for analyzing ab initio wave functions of light nuclei, for example, in the case of rotational bands.

  3. Towards AB Initio Calculation of the Circular Dichroism of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molteni, E.; Onida, G.; Tiana, G.

    2012-08-01

    In this work we plan to use ab initio spectroscopy calculations to compute circular dichroism (CD) spectra of peptides. CD provides information on protein secondary structure content; peptides, instead, remain difficult to address, due to their tendency to adopt multiple conformations in equilibrium. Therefore peptides are an interesting test-case for ab initio calculation of CD spectra. As a first application, we focus on the (83-92) fragment of HIV-1 protease, which is known to be involved in the folding and dimerization of this protein. As a preliminary step, we performed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in order to obtain a set of representative conformers of the peptide. Then, on some of the obtained conformations, we calculated absorption spectra at the independent particle, RPA and TDLDA levels, showing the presence of charge transfer excitations, and their influence on spectral features.

  4. Ab Initio Calculations Of Light-Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Roth, R; Horiuchi, W

    2012-03-12

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of nuclear forces, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. In this contribution, we present one of such promising techniques capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. By combining the resonating-group method (RGM) with the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM), we complement a microscopic cluster approach with the use of realistic interactions and a microscopic and consistent description of the clusters. We discuss applications to light nuclei scattering, radiative capture and fusion reactions.

  5. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies and early miscarriages in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Toulis, Konstantinos A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Tsolakidou, Konstantina; Hilidis, Ilias; Fragkos, Marios; Polyzos, Stergios A; Gerofotis, Antonios; Kita, Marina; Bili, Helen; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Daniilidis, Michail; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Papadimas, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    We have previously hypothesized that early miscarriage in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis might be the result of a cross-reactivity process, in which blocking autoantibodies against thyrotropin receptor (TSHr-Ab) antagonize hCG action on its receptor on the corpus luteum. To test this hypothesis from the clinical perspective, we investigated the presence of TSHr-Ab in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with apparently unexplained, first-trimester recurrent miscarriages compared to that in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with documented normal fertility. A total of 86 subjects (43 cases and 43 age-matched controls) were finally included in a case-control study. No difference in the prevalence of TSHr-Ab positivity was detected between cases and controls (Fisher's exact test, p value = 1.00). In patients with recurrent miscarriages, TSHr-Ab concentrations did not predict the number of miscarriages (univariate linear regression, p value = 0.08). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses, including only cases with full investigation or those with three or more miscarriages. We conclude that no role could be advocated for TSHr-Ab in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriages in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  6. GAUSSIAN 76: An ab initio Molecular Orbital Program

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type Gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.

  7. Preparation of F(ab')2 fragments of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Killion, J J; Holtgrewe, E M

    1983-11-01

    We describe a simple protocol for the preparation of F(ab')2 fragments of immunoglobulin G, based upon the known Fc- binding properties of protein A-Sepharose. The fragment preparations of xenogeneic and allogeneic anti-IgG were noncytotoxic to intact target cells, and were able to block the cytotoxicity of intact antibody. This method should therefore be useful for functional studies not requiring biochemical homogeneity.

  8. Probing the A-B interface of superfluid helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Richard

    2015-03-01

    At temperatures around 1 mK helium-3 forms a BCS spin triplet condensate. The order parameter is sufficiently complex that more than one superfluid phase exists, each exhibiting a different broken symmetry, and there is a model first order transition between the two most stable phases, labeled A and B. The Lancaster Ultra-Low Temperature Group has developed techniques to probe the properties of the A-B interface in the deep sub-mK regime where the superfluid is in the pure condensate limit. Shaped and controllable magnetic fields are used to induce the transition, and to stabilize and move the A-B phase boundary inside the experimental volume. The latent heat of the transition has been measured, and the nucleation behavior shown to be incompatible with conventional thermodynamic models. Since superfluid helium-3 is inherently pure, and the order parameter transforms continuously across the A-B interface, it is the most coherent two-dimensional structure to which we have experimental access. It has been proposed that this 2D surface in the surrounding 3D bulk volume is a good analog of a cosmological brane separating two distinct quantum vacuum states; experiments that simulate brane annihilation and the creation of topological defects have been carried out at Lancaster. Other investigations have included measurements of the surface tension and wetting behavior of the interface. During these studies it was discovered that a large, unpredicted frictional force was acting on the interface even though it is moving through a pure superfluid. Recent breakthrough work on the dynamics of the A-B interface has finally solved this puzzle. Current experiments include a setup where the interface region is probed directly using quartz tuning fork resonators that couple to the local density of broken Cooper pair quasiparticle excitations and thus give insight into the order parameter energy gap structure as A transforms to B.

  9. Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.

  10. Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.; Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J.

    2014-08-07

    We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.

  11. Acceleration of the Convergence in ab initio Atomic Relaxations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhengji; Wang, Lin-Wang; Meza, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Atomic relaxations is often required to accurately describe the properties of nanosystems. In ab initio calculations, a common practice is to use a standard search algorithm, such as BFGS (Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno) or CG (conjugate gradient) method, which starts the atomic relaxations without any knowledge of the Hessian matrix of the system. For example, the initial Hessian in BFGS method is often set to identity, and there is no preconditioning to CG method. One way to accelerate the convergence of the atomic relaxations is to estimate an approximate Hessian matrix of the system and then use it as the initial Hessian in BFGS method or a preconditioner in CG method. Previous attempts to obtain the approximated Hessian were focused on the use of classical force field models which rely on the existence of good parameters. Here, we present an alternative method to estimate the Hessian matrix of a nanosystem. First, we decompose the system into motifs which consist of a few atoms, then calculate the Hessian matrix elements on different motif types from ab initio calculations for small prototype systems. Then we generate the Hessian Matrix of the whole system by putting together these motif Hessians. We have applied our motif-based Hessian matrix in ab initio atomic relaxations in several bulk (with/without impurity) and quantum dot systems, and have found a speed up factor of 2 to 4 depending on the system size.

  12. A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter

    2016-09-01

    A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of 12CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm-1. The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement.

  13. A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane.

    PubMed

    Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter

    2016-09-14

    A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of (12)CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm(-1). The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement. PMID:27634258

  14. Diffusion in liquid Germanium using ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, R. V.; Aulbur, W. G.; Stroud, D.

    1996-03-01

    We describe the results of calculations of the self-diffusion constant of liquid Ge over a range of temperatures. The calculations are carried out using an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme which combines an LDA model for the electronic structure with the Bachelet-Hamann-Schlüter norm-conserving pseudopotentials^1. The energies associated with electronic degrees of freedom are minimized using the Williams-Soler algorithm, and ionic moves are carried out using the Verlet algorithm. We use an energy cutoff of 10 Ry, which is sufficient to give results for the lattice constant and bulk modulus of crystalline Ge to within 1% and 12% of experiment. The program output includes not only the self-diffusion constant but also the structure factor, electronic density of states, and low-frequency electrical conductivity. We will compare our results with other ab initio and semi-empirical calculations, and discuss extension to impurity diffusion. ^1 We use the ab initio molecular dynamics code fhi94md, developed at 1cm the Fritz-Haber Institute, Berlin. ^2 Work supported by NASA, Grant NAG3-1437.

  15. Pressure tracking control of vehicle ABS using piezo valve modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control for the ABS(anti-lock brake system) of a passenger vehicle using a controllable piezo valve modulator. The ABS is designed to optimize for braking effectiveness and good steerability. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the piezo valve and pressure modulator are appropriately determined by considering the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. The proposed piezo valve consists of a flapper, pneumatic circuit and a piezostack actuator. In order to get wide control range of the pressure, the pressure modulator is desired. The modulator consists of a dual-type cylinder filled with different substances (fluid and gas) and a piston rod moving vertical axis to transmit the force. Subsequently, a quarter car wheel slip model is formulated and integrated with the governing equation of the piezo valve modulator. A sliding mode controller to achieve the desired slip rate is then designed and implemented. Braking control performances such as brake pressure and slip rate are evaluated via computer simulations.

  16. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Draayer, Jerry P.

    2014-09-28

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  17. Ab initio calculations of reactions with light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; Calci, Angelo; Navrátil, Petr; Roth, Robert

    2016-03-01

    An ab initio (i.e., from first principles) theoretical framework capable of providing a unified description of the structure and low-energy reaction properties of light nuclei is desirable to further our understanding of the fundamental interactions among nucleons, and provide accurate predictions of crucial reaction rates for nuclear astrophysics, fusion-energy research, and other applications. In this contribution we review ab initio calculations for nucleon and deuterium scattering on light nuclei starting from chiral two- and three-body Hamiltonians, obtained within the framework of the ab initio no-core shell model with continuum. This is a unified approach to nuclear bound and scattering states, in which square-integrable energy eigenstates of the A-nucleon system are coupled to (A-a)+a target-plus-projectile wave functions in the spirit of the resonating group method to obtain an efficient description of the many-body nuclear dynamics both at short and medium distances and at long ranges.

  18. Ab initio calculations for industrial materials engineering: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Erich; Najafabadi, Reza; Young, George A; Ballard, Jake D; Angeliu, Thomas M; Vollmer, James; Chambers, James J; Niimi, Hiroaki; Shaw, Judy B; Freeman, Clive; Christensen, Mikael; Wolf, Walter; Saxe, Paul

    2010-09-29

    Computational materials science based on ab initio calculations has become an important partner to experiment. This is demonstrated here for the effect of impurities and alloying elements on the strength of a Zr twist grain boundary, the dissociative adsorption and diffusion of iodine on a zirconium surface, the diffusion of oxygen atoms in a Ni twist grain boundary and in bulk Ni, and the dependence of the work function of a TiN-HfO(2) junction on the replacement of N by O atoms. In all of these cases, computations provide atomic-scale understanding as well as quantitative materials property data of value to industrial research and development. There are two key challenges in applying ab initio calculations, namely a higher accuracy in the electronic energy and the efficient exploration of large parts of the configurational space. While progress in these areas is fueled by advances in computer hardware, innovative theoretical concepts combined with systematic large-scale computations will be needed to realize the full potential of ab initio calculations for industrial applications.

  19. A highly accurate ab initio potential energy surface for methane.

    PubMed

    Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter

    2016-09-14

    A new nine-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for methane has been generated using state-of-the-art ab initio theory. The PES is based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and incorporates a range of higher-level additive energy corrections. These include core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms beyond perturbative triples, scalar relativistic effects, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. Sub-wavenumber accuracy is achieved for the majority of experimentally known vibrational energy levels with the four fundamentals of (12)CH4 reproduced with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 cm(-1). The computed ab initio equilibrium C-H bond length is in excellent agreement with previous values despite pure rotational energies displaying minor systematic errors as J (rotational excitation) increases. It is shown that these errors can be significantly reduced by adjusting the equilibrium geometry. The PES represents the most accurate ab initio surface to date and will serve as a good starting point for empirical refinement.

  20. Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Makhov, Dmitry V; Glover, William J; Martinez, Todd J; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V

    2014-08-01

    We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions. PMID:25106573

  1. A new mouse anti-mouse complement receptor type 2 and 1 (CR2/CR1) monoclonal antibody as a tool to study receptor involvement in chronic models of immune responses and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Liudmila; Hewitt, Finnegan B.; Willis, Van C.; Rodriguez, Rosa; Tomlinson, Stephen; Holers, V. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although reagents are available to block mouse complement receptor type 2 and/or type1 (CR2/CR1, CD21/CD35) function in acute or short term models of human disease, a mouse anti-rat antibody response limits their use in chronic models. We have addressed this problem by generating in Cr2−/− mice a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb 4B2) to mouse CR2/CR1. The binding of murine mAb 4B2 to CR2/CR1 directly blocked C3dg (C3d) ligand binding. In vivo injection of mAb 4B2 induced substantial down regulation of CR2 and CR1 from the B cell surface, an effect that lasted six weeks after a single injection of 2 mg of mAb. The 4B2 mAb was studied in vivo for the capability to affect immunological responses to model antigens. Pre-injection of mAb 4B2 before immunization of C57BL/6 mice reduced the IgG1 antibody response to the T-dependent antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC) to a level comparable to that found in Cr2−/− mice. We also used the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, a CR2/CR1-dependent autoimmune disease model, and found that mice pre-injected with mAb 4B2 demonstrated substantially reduced levels of pathogenic IgG2a antibodies to both the bovine type II collagen (CII) used to induce arthritis and to endogenous mouse CII. Consistent with this result, mice pre-injected with mAb 4B2 demonstrated only very mild arthritis. This reduction in disease, together with published data in CII-immunized Cr2−/− mice, confirm both that the arthritis development depends on CR2/CR1 receptors and that mAb 4B2 can be used to induce biologically relevant receptor blockade. Thus mAb 4B2 is an excellent candidate for use in chronic murine models to determine how receptor blockage at different points modifies disease activity and autoantibody responses. PMID:25457881

  2. Receptor editing can lead to allelic inclusion and development of B cells that retain antibodies reacting with high avidity autoantigens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sucai; Velez, Maria-Gabriela; Humann, Jessica; Rowland, Sarah; Conrad, Frank J; Halverson, Regina; Torres, Raul M; Pelanda, Roberta

    2005-10-15

    Receptor editing is a major B cell tolerance mechanism that operates by secondary Ig gene rearrangements to change the specificity of autoreactive developing B cells. In the 3-83Igi mouse model, receptor editing operates in every autoreactive anti-H-2K(b) B cell, providing a novel receptor without additional cell loss. Despite the efficiency of receptor editing in generating nonautoreactive Ag receptors, we show in this study that this process does not inactivate the autoantibody-encoding gene(s) in every autoreactive B cell. In fact, receptor editing can generate allelically and isotypically included B cells that simultaneously express the original autoreactive and a novel nonautoreactive Ag receptors. Such dual Ab-expressing B cells differentiate into transitional and mature B cells retaining the expression of the autoantibody despite the high avidity interaction between the autoantibody and the self-Ag in this system. Moreover, we find that these high avidity autoreactive B cells retain the autoreactive Ag receptor within the cell as a consequence of autoantigen engagement and through a Src family kinase-dependent process. Finally, anti-H-2K(b) IgM autoantibodies are found in the sera of older 3-83Igi mice, indicating that dual Ab-expressing autoreactive B cells are potentially functional and capable of differentiating into IgM autoantibody-secreting plasma cells under certain circumstances. These results demonstrate that autoreactive B cells reacting with ubiquitous membrane bound autoantigens can bypass mechanisms of central tolerance by coexpressing nonautoreactive Abs. These dual Ab-expressing autoreactive B cells conceal their autoantibodies within the cell manifesting a superficially tolerant phenotype that can be partially overcome to secrete IgM autoantibodies.

  3. A combined α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist and monoamine reuptake inhibitor, NS9775, represents a novel profile with potential benefits in emotional and cognitive disturbances.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Christensen, Jeppe K; Olsen, Gunnar M; Peters, Dan

    2013-10-01

    As affective and cognitive disturbances frequently co-occur in psychiatric disorders, research into opportunities to simultaneously target both entities is warranted. These disorders are typically treated with monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MRIs), whereas ongoing research suggests that symptoms also improve by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation. Preclinical studies have corroborated this and also demonstrated a synergistic antidepressant-like action when nAChR agonists and MRIs are combined. Here, we present the in vitro and in vivo profile of NS9775, a combined full α7 nAChR agonist and triple MRI. NS9775 potently inhibited [(3)H]α-bungarotoxin binding in vitro (Ki: 1.8 nM), and ex vivo (ED₅₀: 3.6 mg/kg), showing negligible activity at α4β2-(Ki: 1720 nM) or α1-containing nAChRs (Ki: 12,200 nM). In α7-expressing oocytes, NS9775 displayed an EC₅₀ value of 280 nM, with a maximal response of 77% relative to a saturating acetylcholine concentration. Furthermore, NS9775 inhibited cortical [(3)H]5-HT, [(3)H]NA and [(3)H]DA uptake equipotently (14-43 nM), and inhibited striatal [(3)H]WIN35,428 binding (ED₅₀: 9.1 mg/kg). Behaviourally in mice, NS9775 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) reversed scopolamine-induced deficits in a modified Y-maze and MK-801-induced learning deficits in 5-trial inhibitory avoidance. Swim distance in the forced swim test was increased by 30 mg/kg NS9775, and 10 and 30 mg/kg NS9775 reduced digging behaviour in the marble burying paradigm and increased the number of punished crossings in the four plate test. This pro-cognitive, antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effect of NS9775 suggests that combining α7 nAChR agonism and triple monoamine reuptake inhibition could be a step in the evolution of pharmacological treatments of affective and/or cognitive disturbances.

  4. Activin A, B and AB decrease progesterone production by down-regulating StAR in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Shi, Feng-Tao; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-09-01

    Activins are homo- or heterodimers of inhibin β subunits that play important roles in the reproductive system. Our previous work has shown that activins A (βAβA), B (βBβB) and AB (βAβB) induce aromatase/estradiol, but suppress StAR/progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells. However, the underlying molecular determinants of these effects have not been examined. In this continuing study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) to investigate the effects of activins in regulating StAR/progesterone and the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, activins A, B and AB produced comparable down-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. In addition, all three activin isoforms induced equivalent phosphorylation of both SMAD2 and SMAD3. Importantly, the activin-induced down-regulation of StAR, increase in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and decrease in progesterone were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. Interestingly, the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALK4 but not ALK5 reversed the activin-induced suppression of StAR. Furthermore, the knockdown of SMAD4 or SMAD2 but not SMAD3 abolished the inhibitory effects of all three activin isoforms on StAR expression. These results provide evidence that activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of activins on human granulosa cell steroidogenesis.

  5. Binding of monoclonal antibody AA4 to gangliosides on rat basophilic leukemia cells produces changes similar to those seen with Fc epsilon receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The mAb AA4 binds to novel derivatives of the ganglioside Gd1b on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Some of the gangliosides are located close to the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI), and binding of mAb AA4 inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated histamine release. In the present study, mAb AA4 was found to bind exclusively to mast cells in all rat tissues examined. In vitro, within 1 min of mAb AA4 binding, the cells underwent striking morphologic changes. They lost their normal spindle shaped appearance, increased their ruffling, and spread over the surface of the culture dish. These changes were accompanied by a redistribution of the cytoskeletal elements, actin, tubulin, and vimentin, but only the actin was associated with the membrane ruffles. Binding of mAb AA4 also induces a rise in intracellular calcium, stimulates phosphatidyl inositol breakdown, and activates PKC. However, the extent of these changes was less than that observed when the cells were stimulated with antigen or antibody directed against the Fc epsilon RI. None of these changes associated with mAb AA4 binding were seen when the cells were exposed to nonspecific IgG, IgE, or four other anti-cell surface antibodies, nor were the changes induced by binding mAb AA4 at 4 degrees C or in the absence of extracellular calcium. Although mAb AA4 does not stimulate histamine release, it enhances the effect of the calcium ionophore A23187 mediated release. The morphological and biochemical effects produced by mAb AA4 are similar to those seen following activation of the cell through the IgE receptor. Therefore, the surface gangliosides which bind mAb AA4 may function in modulating secretory events. PMID:1370498

  6. ABC Transporter CslAB, a Stabilizer of ComCDE Signal in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianlei; Xue, Shoubin; Wang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Streptococcus mutans, ComCDE, a peptide-induced two-component signal transduction system, forms a closed signal transduction, and even if difunctional ComE closes this signal at its headstream to avoid its infinite amplification, it is not enough for ComE to work in a concentration-dependent manner. CslAB has a chance to regulate ComCDE by controlling extracellular competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) concentration through its processing and secretion. Objectives: To first confirm the binding properties of cslAB promoter (PcslAB) with ComE, then to uncover in vivo need of cslAB expression, and finally to unveil the role of CslAB. Materials and Methods: Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to confirm the binding properties of PcslAB with ComE. In vivo cslAB transcription was detected by β-galactosidase activity because its gene has been fused to cslAB operon, and finally the role of CslAB was reviewed. Results: PcslAB is a weak promoter responding to ComE and its binding appears to be negative cooperative. Although PcslAB is partially controlled by ComCDE, it can respond to ComCDE regulation. Supported by the obtained molecular evidence, CslAB acts as a stabilizer of ComCDE signal on the patterns of its expression. Conclusions: PcslAB is partially controlled by ComCDE. CslAB is a stabilizer of ComCDE signal to ensure that ComE works in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:26468366

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the sclerostin-neutralizing Fab AbD09097.

    PubMed

    Boschert, Verena; Muth, Eva Maria; Knappik, Achim; Frisch, Christian; Mueller, Thomas D

    2015-04-01

    The secreted cystine-knot protein sclerostin was first identified from genetic screening of patients suffering from the rare bone-overgrowth diseases sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease. Sclerostin acts a negative regulator of bone growth through inhibiting the canonical Wnt signalling cascade by binding to and blocking the Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6. Its function in blocking osteoblastogenesis makes it an important target for osteoanabolic therapy approaches to treat osteoporosis, which is characterized by a progressive decrease in bone mass and density. In this work, the production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis of a sclerostin-neutralizing human Fab antibody fragment, AbD09097, obtained from a naive antibody library are reported. Crystals of the Fab AbD09097 belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 45.19, b = 78.49, c = 59.20 Å, β = 95.71° and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.8 Å.

  8. Evolution of GluN2A/B cytoplasmic domains diversified vertebrate synaptic plasticity and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Tomás J; Kopanitsa, Maksym V; Indersmitten, Tim; Nithianantharajah, Jess; Afinowi, Nurudeen O; Pettit, Charles; Stanford, Lianne E; Sprengel, Rolf; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; O'Dell, Thomas J; Grant, Seth G N; Komiyama, Noboru H

    2013-01-01

    Two genome duplications early in the vertebrate lineage expanded gene families, including GluN2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. Diversification between the four mammalian GluN2 proteins occurred primarily at their intracellular C-terminal domains (CTDs). To identify shared ancestral functions and diversified subunit-specific functions, we exchanged the exons encoding the GluN2A (also known as Grin2a) and GluN2B (also known as Grin2b) CTDs in two knock-in mice and analyzed the mice's biochemistry, synaptic physiology, and multiple learned and innate behaviors. The eight behaviors were genetically separated into four groups, including one group comprising three types of learning linked to conserved GluN2A/B regions. In contrast, the remaining five behaviors exhibited subunit-specific regulation. GluN2A/B CTD diversification conferred differential binding to cytoplasmic MAGUK proteins and differential forms of long-term potentiation. These data indicate that vertebrate behavior and synaptic signaling acquired increased complexity from the duplication and diversification of ancestral GluN2 genes.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor I receptors of fetal brain are enriched in nerve growth cones and contain a beta-subunit variant.

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, S; Garofalo, R S; Pfenninger, K H

    1995-01-01

    Nerve growth cones isolated from fetal rat brain are highly enriched in a 97-kDa glycoprotein, termed beta gc, that comigrates with the beta subunit of the IGF-I receptor upon two-dimensional PAGE and is disulfide-linked to this receptor's alpha subunit. Antibodies prepared to a conserved domain shared by the insulin and IGF-I receptor beta subunits (AbP2) or to beta gc were used to study receptor distribution further. Subcellular fractionation of the fetal brain segregated most AbP2 immunoreactivity away from growth cones, whereas most beta gc immunoreactivity copurified with growth cones. Experiments involving ligand-activated receptor autophosphorylation confirmed the concentration of IGF-I but not of insulin receptors in growth cone fractions. These results indicate the enrichment of IGF-I receptors in (presumably axonal) growth cones of the differentiating neuron. Furthermore, the segregation of beta gc from AbP2 immunoreactivity suggests that such neurons express an immunochemically distinct variant of the IGF-I receptor beta subunit at the growth cone. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753803

  10. A new family of cytokinin receptors from Cereales.

    PubMed

    Kulaeva, O N; Zagranichnaya, T K; Brovko, F A; Karavaiko, N N; Selivankina, S Y; Zemlyachenko, Y V; Hall, M; Lipkin, V M; Boziev, K M

    1998-02-20

    The highly specific recognition of a natural cytokinin, trans-zeatin, by cytokinin-binding protein (CBP) of 67 kDa from barley leaves was detected with an assay developed on the basis of cytokinin competition in ELISA with anti-idiotype antibodies (raised against antibodies to zeatin) for complex formation with CBP. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against 70 kDa CBP from etiolated maize seedlings cross-reacted with barley 67 kDa CBP and prevented barley CBP and trans-zeatin induced activation of transcription elongation directed by RNA polymerase I associated with barley chromatin. One mAb (Z-6) had an agonistic effect. Maize CBP replaced barley CBP in activation of RNA synthesis with cytokinin in the barley transcription system. Hence, a new family of cytokinin receptors with common functions and immunodeterminants including maize and barley CBPs was found.

  11. Inhibition of allograft rejection by anti-T-cell receptor-alpha beta monoclonal antibodies preserving resistance to bacterial infection.

    PubMed Central

    Eto, M; Yoshikai, Y; Nishimura, Y; Hiromatsu, K; Maeda, T; Nomoto, K; Kong, Y Y; Kubo, R T; Kumazawa, J; Nomoto, K

    1994-01-01

    Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been administered in clinical organ transplantation to reverse acute allograft rejection; however, severe immunodeficiency can result from such mAb treatment and cause an increased incidence of opportunistic infections. Therefore, new model systems are required in order to establish better methods for suppressing allograft rejection while preserving resistance to opportunistic infections. In this study, we compared the effects of the in vivo administration of anti-T-cell receptor-alpha beta (TcR alpha beta) mAb, H57-597, with those of anti-CD3 mAb, 145-2C11. Much to our surprise, the in vivo administration of anti-TcR alpha beta mAb prior to skin grafting led to a longer allograft survival than that of anti-CD3 mAb at any of the comparable dosages examined. In the lymphoid organs of mice treated with anti-TcR alpha beta mAb, TcR alpha beta-bearing cells were almost completely depleted, while TcR gamma delta-bearing cells remained at a relatively increased level on day 14 after anti-TcR alpha beta mAb treatment. The in vitro stimulation by anti-TcR gamma delta mAb clearly showed that such TcR gamma delta-bearing cells were functionally intact. Furthermore, the mice treated with anti-TcR alpha beta mAb, but not anti-CD3 mAb, were observed to be resistant to infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Finally, treatment with H57-597, but not with 145-2C11, led to a marked prolongation of skin allograft survival in the thymectomized mice. These results strongly suggest that anti-TcR alpha beta mAb, which partially preserved anti-bacterial resistance, may be more effective in preventing graft rejection than anti-CD3 mAb in the periphery, and indicate that anti-TcR alpha beta mAb may thus be potentially applicable for human transplantation. In addition, these results also indicate that the TcR gamma delta-bearing cells alone, at least in the absence of TcR alpha beta-bearing cells, do not contribute to allograft rejection in vivo. PMID

  12. Melanocortins Contribute to Sequential Differentiation and Enucleation of Human Erythroblasts via Melanocortin Receptors 1, 2 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Simamura, Eriko; Arikawa, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Takayuki; Shimada, Hiroki; Shoji, Hiroki; Masuta, Hiroko; Nakajima, Yuriko; Otani, Hiroki; Yonekura, Hideto; Hatta, Toshihisa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we showed that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) promoted erythroblast differentiation and increased the enucleation ratio of erythroblasts. Because ACTH was contained in hematopoietic medium as contamination, the ratio decreased by the addition of anti-ACTH antibody (Ab). Addition of neutralizing Abs (nAbs) for melanocortin receptors (MCRs) caused erythroblast accumulation at specific stages, i.e., the addition of anti-MC2R nAb led to erythroblast accumulation at the basophilic stage (baso-E), the addition of anti-MC1R nAb caused accumulation at the polychromatic stage (poly-E), and the addition of anti-MC5R nAb caused accumulation at the orthochromatic stage (ortho-E). During erythroblast differentiation, ERK, STAT5, and AKT were consecutively phosphorylated by erythropoietin (EPO). ERK, STAT5, and AKT phosphorylation was inhibited by blocking MC2R, MC1R, and MC5R, respectively. Finally, the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2, which is essential for the formation of contractile actomyosin rings, was inhibited by anti-MC5R nAb. Taken together, our study suggests that MC2R and MC1R signals are consecutively required for the regulation of EPO signal transduction in erythroblast differentiation, and that MC5R signal transduction is required to induce enucleation. Thus, melanocortin induces proliferation and differentiation at baso-E, and polarization and formation of an actomyosin contractile ring at ortho-E are required for enucleation. PMID:25860801

  13. Targeting Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphoblastoid cells using antibodies with T-cell receptor-like specificities.

    PubMed

    Lai, Junyun; Tan, Wei Jian; Too, Chien Tei; Choo, Joanna Ai Ling; Wong, Lan Hiong; Mustafa, Fatimah Bte; Srinivasan, Nalini; Lim, Angeline Pei Chiew; Zhong, Youjia; Gascoigne, Nicholas R J; Hanson, Brendon J; Chan, Soh Ha; Chen, Jianzhu; MacAry, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncovirus associated with several human malignancies including posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in immunosuppressed patients. We show here that anti-EBV T-cell receptor-like monoclonal antibodies (TCR-like mAbs) E1, L1, and L2 bound to their respective HLA-A*0201-restricted EBV peptides EBNA1562-570, LMP1125-133, and LMP2A426-434 with high affinities and specificities. These mAbs recognized endogenously presented targets on EBV B lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCLs), but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells, from which they were derived. Furthermore, these mAbs displayed similar binding activities on several BLCLs, despite inherent heterogeneity between different donor samples. A single weekly administration of the naked mAbs reduced splenomegaly, liver tumor spots, and tumor burden in BLCL-engrafted immunodeficient NOD-SCID/Il2rg(-/-) mice. In particular, mice that were treated with the E1 mAb displayed a delayed weight loss and significantly prolonged survival. In vitro, these TCR-like mAbs induced early apoptosis of BLCLs, thereby enhancing their Fc-dependent phagocytic uptake by macrophages. These data provide evidence for TCR-like mAbs as potential therapeutic modalities to target EBV-associated diseases. PMID:27338099

  14. Reversible Intercalation of Fluoride-Anion Receptor Complexes in Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William C.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Leifer, Nicole; Greenbaum, Steve; Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar; Blanco, Mario; Narayanan, S. R.

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated a route to reversibly intercalate fluoride-anion receptor complexes in graphite via a nonaqueous electrochemical process. This approach may find application for a rechargeable lithium-fluoride dual-ion intercalating battery with high specific energy. The cell chemistry presented here uses graphite cathodes with LiF dissolved in a nonaqueous solvent through the aid of anion receptors. Cells have been demonstrated with reversible cathode specific capacity of approximately 80 mAh/g at discharge plateaus of upward of 4.8 V, with graphite staging of the intercalant observed via in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during charging. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and B-11 nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggest that cointercalation of the anion receptor with the fluoride occurs during charging, which likely limits the cathode specific capacity. The anion receptor type dictates the extent of graphite fluorination, and must be further optimized to realize high theoretical fluorination levels. To find these optimal anion receptors, we have designed an ab initio calculations-based scheme aimed at identifying receptors with favorable fluoride binding and release properties.

  15. A leukocyte immune-type receptor (LITR) subset is a marker of antiviral cytotoxic cells in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, leukocyte immune type-receptors (LITRs) represent a multigene family that encodes immunoglobulin superfamily proteins that mediate activating or inhibitory signaling. Here we demonstrate the utility of mAb CC41 to monitor viral cytotoxic responses in catfish an...

  16. Macromolecular ab initio phasing enforcing secondary and tertiary structure

    PubMed Central

    Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Usón, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio phasing of macromolecular structures, from the native intensities alone with no experimental phase information or previous particular structural knowledge, has been the object of a long quest, limited by two main barriers: structure size and resolution of the data. Current approaches to extend the scope of ab initio phasing include use of the Patterson function, density modification and data extrapolation. The authors’ approach relies on the combination of locating model fragments such as polyalanine α-helices with the program PHASER and density modification with the program SHELXE. Given the difficulties in discriminating correct small substructures, many putative groups of fragments have to be tested in parallel; thus calculations are performed in a grid or supercomputer. The method has been named after the Italian painter Arcimboldo, who used to compose portraits out of fruit and vegetables. With ARCIMBOLDO, most collections of fragments remain a ‘still-life’, but some are correct enough for density modification and main-chain tracing to reveal the protein’s true portrait. Beyond α-helices, other fragments can be exploited in an analogous way: libraries of helices with modelled side chains, β-strands, predictable fragments such as DNA-binding folds or fragments selected from distant homologues up to libraries of small local folds that are used to enforce nonspecific tertiary structure; thus restoring the ab initio nature of the method. Using these methods, a number of unknown macromolecules with a few thousand atoms and resolutions around 2 Å have been solved. In the 2014 release, use of the program has been simplified. The software mediates the use of massive computing to automate the grid access required in difficult cases but may also run on a single multicore workstation (http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE) to solve straightforward cases. PMID:25610631

  17. GQ Lup Ab Visible & Near-Infrared Photometric Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; Macintosh, B; Barman, T

    2006-08-07

    We have re-analyzed archival HST R and I band images and Subaru CH{sub 4}, H, Ks and L{prime} data of the recently discovered planetary mass companion (PMC) GQ Lup Ab. With these we produce the first R and I band photometry of the companion and fit a radius and effective temperature using detailed model atmospheres. We find an effective temperature of 2338 {+-} 100K, and a radius of 0.37 {+-} 0.05R{sub {circle_dot}} and luminosity of log(L/L{sub {circle_dot}}) = -2.43 {+-} 0.07 (at 140pc). Since we fit wavelengths that span most of the emitted radiation from GQ Lup this luminosity estimate is robust, with uncertainty dominated by the distance uncertainty. The radius obtained for 140pc (0.37R{sub {circle_dot}}) is significantly larger than the one originally derived. The mass of the object is much more model-dependent than the radiative properties, but for the GAIA dusty models we find a mass between 9-20 M{sub Jup}, in the range of the brown dwarf and PMC deuterium burning boundary. Assuming a distance of 140pc, observations fit to 1{sigma} the Baraffe evolution model for a {approx} 15 M{sub Jup} brown dwarf. Additionally, the F606W photometric band is significantly overluminous compared to model predictions. Such overluminosity could be explained by a bright H{alpha} emission from chromospheric activity, interaction with another undetected companion, or accretion. Assuming that GQ Lup Ab has a bright H{alpha} emission line, its H{alpha} emission strength is 10{sup -1.71 {+-} 0.10} L{sub bol}, significantly larger than field late-type dwarfs. GQ Lup Ab might be strongly accreting and still be in its formation phase.

  18. Macromolecular ab initio phasing enforcing secondary and tertiary structure.

    PubMed

    Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Usón, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio phasing of macromolecular structures, from the native intensities alone with no experimental phase information or previous particular structural knowledge, has been the object of a long quest, limited by two main barriers: structure size and resolution of the data. Current approaches to extend the scope of ab initio phasing include use of the Patterson function, density modification and data extrapolation. The authors' approach relies on the combination of locating model fragments such as polyalanine α-helices with the program PHASER and density modification with the program SHELXE. Given the difficulties in discriminating correct small substructures, many putative groups of fragments have to be tested in parallel; thus calculations are performed in a grid or supercomputer. The method has been named after the Italian painter Arcimboldo, who used to compose portraits out of fruit and vegetables. With ARCIMBOLDO, most collections of fragments remain a 'still-life', but some are correct enough for density modification and main-chain tracing to reveal the protein's true portrait. Beyond α-helices, other fragments can be exploited in an analogous way: libraries of helices with modelled side chains, β-strands, predictable fragments such as DNA-binding folds or fragments selected from distant homologues up to libraries of small local folds that are used to enforce nonspecific tertiary structure; thus restoring the ab initio nature of the method. Using these methods, a number of unknown macromolecules with a few thousand atoms and resolutions around 2 Å have been solved. In the 2014 release, use of the program has been simplified. The software mediates the use of massive computing to automate the grid access required in difficult cases but may also run on a single multicore workstation (http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE) to solve straightforward cases.

  19. Macromolecular ab initio phasing enforcing secondary and tertiary structure.

    PubMed

    Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Usón, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Ab initio phasing of macromolecular structures, from the native intensities alone with no experimental phase information or previous particular structural knowledge, has been the object of a long quest, limited by two main barriers: structure size and resolution of the data. Current approaches to extend the scope of ab initio phasing include use of the Patterson function, density modification and data extrapolation. The authors' approach relies on the combination of locating model fragments such as polyalanine α-helices with the program PHASER and density modification with the program SHELXE. Given the difficulties in discriminating correct small substructures, many putative groups of fragments have to be tested in parallel; thus calculations are performed in a grid or supercomputer. The method has been named after the Italian painter Arcimboldo, who used to compose portraits out of fruit and vegetables. With ARCIMBOLDO, most collections of fragments remain a 'still-life', but some are correct enough for density modification and main-chain tracing to reveal the protein's true portrait. Beyond α-helices, other fragments can be exploited in an analogous way: libraries of helices with modelled side chains, β-strands, predictable fragments such as DNA-binding folds or fragments selected from distant homologues up to libraries of small local folds that are used to enforce nonspecific tertiary structure; thus restoring the ab initio nature of the method. Using these methods, a number of unknown macromolecules with a few thousand atoms and resolutions around 2 Å have been solved. In the 2014 release, use of the program has been simplified. The software mediates the use