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Sample records for 5-ht3 receptor activation

  1. Volunteer models for predicting antiemetic activity of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Minton, N A

    1994-01-01

    1. Selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonists are highly effective in preventing nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Their pharmacological activity may be determined in vitro and in animal models of emesis. However, these methods may not give an accurate indication of the antiemetic dose range of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists in patients. Two volunteer models have been used to predict more accurately clinically effective antiemetic doses of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists. 2. The flare response to intradermal 5-HT is thought to be mediated by excitation of 5-HT3-receptors on cutaneous afferents, with release of substance P and subsequent vasodilation. Antagonism of the flare response appears to provide an indication of the effective antiemetic dose of 5-HT3-receptor antagonists but data on duration of action are conflicting. 3. Ipecacuanha-induced emesis is thought to be mediated through both peripheral and central 5-HT3-receptors. Antagonism of this response has demonstrated a close correlation with clinically effective antiemetic doses of the specific 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, ondansetron, and has the advantage of being more conceptually relevant than the flare model. 4. Further work, with newer 5-HT3-receptor antagonists, will clarify the role of these models as predictive of the use of these drugs in clinical practice. PMID:7917768

  2. Activation of 5-HT3 receptors leads to altered responses 6 months after MDMA treatment.

    PubMed

    Gyongyosi, Norbert; Balogh, Brigitta; Katai, Zita; Molnar, Eszter; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Kornelia; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-03-01

    The recreational drug "Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] has a well-characterised neurotoxic effect on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in animals. Despite intensive studies, the long-term functional consequencies of the 5-HT neurodegeneration remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any alteration of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor functions on the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and quantitative EEG could be detected 6 months after a single dose of 15 mg/kg of MDMA. The selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle was administered to freely moving rats pre-treated with MDMA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 6 months earlier. Polysomnographic and motor activity recordings were performed. Active wake (AW), passive wake (PW), light slow wave sleep (SWS-1), deep slow wave sleep (SWS-2), and paradoxical sleep were classified. In addition, EEG power spectra were calculated for the second hour after mCPBG treatment for each stage. AW increased and SWS-1 decreased in the second hour after mCPBG treatment in control animals. mCPBG caused significant changes in the EEG power in states with cortical activation (AW, PW, paradoxical sleep). In addition, mCPBG had a biphasic effect on hippocampal theta power in AW with a decrease in 7 Hz and a stage-selective increase in the upper range (8-9 Hz). Effects of mCPBG on the time spent in AW and SWS-1 were eliminated or reduced in MDMA-treated animals. In addition, mCPBG did not increase the upper theta power of AW in rats pre-treated with MDMA. These data suggest long-term changes in 5-HT(3) receptor function after MDMA. PMID:20052506

  3. Impact of intracellular domain flexibility upon properties of activated human 5-HT3 receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kozuska, J L; Paulsen, I M; Belfield, W J; Martin, I L; Cole, D J; Holt, A; Dunn, S M J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been proposed that arginine residues lining the intracellular portals of the homomeric 5-HT3A receptor cause electrostatic repulsion of cation flow, accounting for a single-channel conductance substantially lower than that of the 5-HT3AB heteromer. However, comparison of receptor homology models for wild-type pentamers suggests that salt bridges in the intracellular domain of the homomer may impart structural rigidity, and we hypothesized that this rigidity could account for the low conductance. Experimental Approach Mutations were introduced into the portal region of the human 5-HT3A homopentamer, such that putative salt bridges were broken by neutralizing anionic partners. Single-channel and whole cell currents were measured in transfected tsA201 cells and in Xenopus oocytes respectively. Computational simulations of protein flexibility facilitated comparison of wild-type and mutant receptors. Key Results Single-channel conductance was increased substantially, often to wild-type heteromeric receptor values, in most 5-HT3A mutants. Conversely, introduction of arginine residues to the portal region of the heteromer, conjecturally creating salt bridges, decreased conductance. Gating kinetics varied significantly between different mutant receptors. EC50 values for whole-cell responses to 5-HT remained largely unchanged, but Hill coefficients for responses to 5-HT were usually significantly smaller in mutants. Computational simulations suggested increased flexibility throughout the protein structure as a consequence of mutations in the intracellular domain. Conclusions and Implications These data support a role for intracellular salt bridges in maintaining the quaternary structure of the 5-HT3 receptor and suggest a role for the intracellular domain in allosteric modulation of cooperativity and agonist efficacy. Linked Article This article is commented on by Vardy and Kenakin, pp. 1614–1616 of volume 171 issue 7. To view this commentary

  4. 5-HT3 receptor-channels coupled with Na+ influx in human T cells: role in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Khan, N A; Poisson, J P

    1999-09-01

    The study was conducted on a human (Jurkat) T cell line, loaded with a Na+ fluorescent probe, SBFI/AM. Serotonin and an agonist of 5-HT3 receptor-channels, 2-methyl-5HT, evoked Na+ influx, whereas the agonists of other serotonergic receptor subtypes, i.e., 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors, failed to induce Na+ influx in these cells. By using 3H-BRL43694, an agonist of 5-HT3 receptor-channels, we characterized 5-HT3 lymphocyte receptors which exhibited a density (Bmax) of 300 +/- 20 fmol/10(6) cells and a Kd of 30 nM in Jurkat T cells. The T-cell 5-HT3 receptor-channel is not regulated either by the protein kinase C or by the free intracellular calcium concentrations as the agents known to activate the PKC and to induce increases in intracellular free calcium concentrations failed to influence the free intracellular Na+ concentrations, [Na+]i, in these cells. Furthermore, an increase in [Na+]i, induced by 2-methyl-5HT, via 5-HT3 receptor-channels seems to stimulate T-cell activation by facilitating the progression of T cells from S to G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

  5. Subunit rotation models activation of serotonin 5-HT3AB receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Maksay, Gábor; Simonyi, Miklós; Bikádi, Zsolt

    2004-10-01

    The N-terminal extracellular regions of heterooligomeric 3AB-type human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT3ABR) were modelled based on the crystal structure of snail acetylcholine binding protein AChBP. Stepwise rotation of subunit A by 5 degrees was performed between -10 degrees and 15 degrees to mimic agonist binding and receptor activation. Anticlockwise rotation reduced the size of the binding cavity in interface AB and reorganised the network of hydrogen bonds along the interface. AB subunit dimers with different rotations were applied for docking of ligands with different efficacies: 5-HT, m-chlorophenylbiguanide, SR 57227, quinolinyl piperazine and lerisetron derivatives. All ligands were docked into the dimer with -10 degrees rotation representing ligand-free, open binding cavities similarly, without pharmacological discrimination. Their ammonium ions were in hydrogen bonding distance to the backbone carbonyl of W183. Anticlockwise rotation and contraction of the binding cavity led to distinctive docking interactions of agonists with E129 and cation-pi interactions of their ammonium ions. Side chains of several further amino acids participating in docking (Y143, Y153, Y234 and E236) are in agreement with the effects of point mutations in the binding loops. Our model postulates that 5-HT binds to W183 in a hydrophobic cleft as well as to E236 in a hydrophilic vestibule. Then it elicits anticlockwise rotation to draw in loop C via pi-cation-pi interactions of its ammonium ion with W183 and Y234. Finally, closure of the binding cavity might end in rebinding of 5-HT to E129 in the hydrophilic vestibule.

  6. Influence of the 5-HT3A Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Childhood Sexual Trauma on Central Serotonin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene-environment interactions are important for understanding alterations in human brain function. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) is known to reflect central serotonergic activity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor gene are associated with psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect between 5-HT3A receptor gene polymorphisms and childhood sexual trauma on the LDAEP as an electrophysiological marker in healthy subjects. Methods A total of 206 healthy subjects were recruited and evaluated using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Peak-to-peak N1/P2 was measured at five stimulus intensities, and the LDAEP was calculated as the linear-regression slope. In addition, the rs1062613 SNPs of 5-HT3A (CC, CT, and TT) were analyzed in healthy subjects. Results There was a significant interaction between scores on the CTQ-sexual abuse subscale and 5-HT3A genotype on the LDAEP. Subjects with the CC polymorphism had a significantly higher LDEAP than T carriers in the sexually abused group. In addition, CC genotype subjects in the sexually abused group showed a significantly higher LDAEP compared with CC genotype subjects in the non-sexually abused group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that people with the CC polymorphism of the 5-HT3A gene have a greater risk of developing mental health problems if they have experienced childhood sexual abuse, possibly due to low central serotonin activity. Conversely, the T polymorphism may be protective against any central serotonergic changes following childhood sexual trauma. PMID:26701104

  7. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Katrin M; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  8. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  9. Piperazine analogs of naphthyridine-3-carboxamides and indole-2-carboxamides: novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with antidepressant-like activity.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arghya K; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2015-01-01

    Series of piperazine analogs of naphthyridine-3-carboxamides and indole-2-carboxamides were designed using a ligand-based approach with consideration of the pharmacophoric requirements for 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The title carboxamides were synthesized using appropriate synthetic routes. Initially, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonistic activity of all the compounds was determined on isolated guinea pig ileum tissue against the 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, which was denoted in the form of pA2 values. The structure-activity relationship regarding the influence of the aromatic part and basic moiety as features in the 5-HT3 pharmacophore was derived. Among all the compounds screened, the piperazine derivatives of indole-2-carboxamide 13i and naphthyridine-3-carboxamide 8h exhibited prominent 5-HT3 receptor antagonism with pA2 values of 7.5 and 7.3, respectively. Subsequent investigation of the antidepressant activities of selected compounds in the mouse forced swim test (FST) led to the identification of the piperazine analogs of indole-2-carboxamide 13i and naphthyridine-3-carboxamide 8h as the most promising compounds. Both 13i and 8h demonstrated significant reduction in the duration of immobility as compared to the control. Importantly, none of the tested compounds affected the baseline locomotion of mice at the tested dose levels.

  10. Design, synthesis and evaluation of antidepressant activity of novel 2-methoxy 1, 8 naphthyridine 3-carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Dhar, Arghya Kusum; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2014-05-01

    A series of novel 1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists were synthesized with an intention to explore the antidepressant activity of these compounds. The title carboxamides were designed using ligand-based approach keeping in consideration the structural requirement of the pharmacophore of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The compounds were synthesized using appropriate synthetic route from the starting material nicotinamide. 5-HT3 receptor antagonism of all the compounds, which was denoted in the form of pA2 value, was determined in longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus preparation from guinea-pig ileum against 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT. Compound 8g (2-methoxy-1, 8-naphthyridin-3-yl) (2-methoxy phenyl piperazine-1-yl) methanone was identified as the most active compound, which expressed a pA2 value of 7.67. The antidepressant activity of all the compounds was examined in mice model of forced swim test (FST); importantly, none of the compounds was found to cause any significant changes in the locomotor activity of mice at the tested dose levels. In FST, the compounds with considerably higher pA2 value exhibited promising antidepressant-like activity, whereas compounds with lower pA2 value did not show antidepressant-like activity as compared to the control group.

  11. Discovery of 2-substituted benzoxazole carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhicai; Fairfax, David J; Maeng, Jun-Ho; Masih, Liaqat; Usyatinsky, Alexander; Hassler, Carla; Isaacson, Soshanna; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; DeOrazio, Russell J; Chen, Jianqing; Harding, James P; Isherwood, Matthew; Dobritsa, Svetlana; Christensen, Kevin L; Wierschke, Jonathan D; Bliss, Brian I; Peterson, Lisa H; Beer, Cathy M; Cioffi, Christopher; Lynch, Michael; Rennells, W Martin; Richards, Justin J; Rust, Timothy; Khmelnitsky, Yuri L; Cohen, Marlene L; Manning, David D

    2010-11-15

    A new class of 2-substituted benzoxazole carboxamides are presented as potent functional 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists. The chemical series possesses nanomolar in vitro activity against human 5-HT(3)A receptors. A chemistry optimization program was conducted and identified 2-aminobenzoxazoles as orally active 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists with good metabolic stability. These novel analogues possess drug-like characteristics and have potential utility for the treatment of diseases attributable to improper 5-HT(3) receptor function, especially diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D).

  12. Partial role of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in the activity of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Redrobe, J P; Bourin, M

    1997-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the roles of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in the mouse forced swimming test, by using selective agonists and antagonists of 5-HT(2A/C) and 5-HT3 receptor sites. Agonists/antagonists and antidepressants were administered 45 min and 30 min, respectively, prior to testing. Pretreatment with (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) (4 mg/kg, i.p.) or 2-methyl-5-HT (4 mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on the anti-immobility effects of any antidepressant tested. Prior administration of ritanserin (4 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketanserin (8 mg/kg, i.p.), on the other hand, potentiated the effects of sub-active doses of imipramine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) and desipramine (16 mg/kg, i.p.) but not of maprotiline (8 mg/kg, i.p.), fluoxetine (16 mg/kg, i.p.), citalopram (16 mg/kg, i.p.) or fluvoxamine (8 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment with ondansetron (1 X 10(-5) mg/kg, i.p.) enhanced the antidepressant-like effects of sub-active doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The results of the present study suggested that, in the forced swimming test, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act partially through 5-HT3 receptor sites, whereas the tricyclic antidepressants exert effects at 5-HT(2A/C) receptor sites. Anti-immobility effects of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, maprotiline, do not seem to be mediated by 5-HT(2A/C) or 5-HT3 receptor function.

  13. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response.

  14. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. PMID:26631478

  15. Fluvoxamine increased glutamate release by activating both 5-HT(3) and sigma-1 receptors in prelimbic cortex of chronic restraint stress C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingmei; Yu, Shunying; Guo, Xiaoyun; Li, Xia; Li, Ting; Li, Huafang; Dong, Yi

    2012-04-01

    Emerging evidence from therapeutic trials in humans and animal models suggests that in the treatment of depression, antidepressants play a role by targeting the glutamatergic system. Fluvoxamine is one of the widely used SSRIs which has been considered to target monoamine neurotransmitter reuptake mechanisms. However, whether fluvoxamine has an effect on the glutamate release is still unclear. The present experiment studied the effect of fluvoxamine on presynaptic glutamate release in prelimbic cortex, both in control C57BL/6 mice and chronic restraint stress C57BL/6 mice, and further investigated the mechanism underlying this effect by using patch clamp, on-line fluorimetry, pharmacological approaches combined with other techniques. The results showed that fluvoxamine increased the glutamate release in the depression model mice but it had no effect on the glutamate release in the control mice. The mechanism underlying these effects in depression model mice was that, fluvoxamine firstly activated presynaptic 5-HT(3) receptors, which transiently increased the Ca(2+) concentration. The increase of Ca(2+) concentration via 5-HT(3) receptors caused the activation of sigma-1 receptors, which were activated by fluvoxamine. The activation of sigma-1 receptors increased the intrasynaptosomal Ca(2+) concentration significantly through the outflow of endoplasmic reticulum calcium and finally activated PKC. These results suggested that fluvoxamine may have a selective effect and different mechanism based on the condition of animal. PMID:22306004

  16. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT3A promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT3A mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μm 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μm ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μm m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Historically, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been described as a candidate neurotransmitter in the gustatory system and recent studies show that type III taste receptor cells release 5-HT in response to various taste stimuli. In the present study, we demonstrate that a subset of gustatory sensory neurons express functional

  17. Role of central vagal 5-HT3 receptors in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N.

    2015-01-01

    Vagal neurocircuits are vitally important in the co-ordination and modulation of GI reflexes and homeostatic functions. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is critically important in the regulation of several of these autonomic gastrointestinal (GI) functions including motility, secretion and visceral sensitivity. While several 5-HT receptors are involved in these physiological responses, the ligand-gated 5-HT3 receptor appears intimately involved in gut-brain signaling, particularly via the afferent (sensory) vagus nerve. 5-HT is released from enterochromaffin cells in response to mechanical or chemical stimulation of the GI tract which leads to activation of 5-HT3 receptors on the terminals of vagal afferents. 5-HT3 receptors are also present on the soma of vagal afferent neurons, including GI vagal afferent neurons, where they can be activated by circulating 5-HT. The central terminals of vagal afferents also exhibit 5-HT3 receptors that function to increase glutamatergic synaptic transmission to second order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius within the brainstem. While activation of central brainstem 5-HT3 receptors modulates visceral functions, it is still unclear whether central vagal neurons, i.e., nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons themselves also display functional 5-HT3 receptors. Thus, activation of 5-HT3 receptors may modulate the excitability and activity of gastrointestinal vagal afferents at multiple sites and may be involved in several physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including distention- and chemical-evoked vagal reflexes, nausea, and vomiting, as well as visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26578870

  18. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  19. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  20. Palonosetron: a unique 5-HT3-receptor antagonist for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced emesis.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Steven M; Koeller, James M

    2003-12-01

    Palonosetron (Aloxi) is a 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist antiemetic indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and for acute nausea and vomiting following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Although it is the fourth member of this class to enter the US market, palonosetron is distinguished by distinct pharmacological characteristics. It has a higher binding affinity for the 5-HT(3 )receptor and a terminal serum half-life at least four times greater than any other available agent of this class (approximately 40 h). The high affinity and long half-life may explain the persistence of antiemetic effect throughout the delayed emesis risk period. The indications for palonosetron are supported by one dose-ranging study and three large, randomised, Phase III studies that all demonstrated at least equivalent activity (and in some cases, superior activity) compared to other 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists. In spite of the pharmacological differences, the side effect profile of palonosetron is comparable to that of other 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists. Palonosetron may prove valuable in combination therapy for delayed emesis and may be an appropriate agent for clinical settings, such as multiple-day chemotherapy, where acute emesis is repeatedly induced. Palonosetron provides a convenience advantage if multiple-day 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist therapy is anticipated and is a unique addition to the antiemetic armamentarium. PMID:14640928

  1. Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor-Mediated Vomiting Occurs via the Activation of Ca2+/CaMKII-Dependent ERK1/2 Signaling in the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Weixia; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) by 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, can induce vomiting. However, downstream signaling pathways for the induced emesis remain unknown. The 5-HT3R channel has high permeability to extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and upon stimulation allows increased Ca2+ influx. We examined the contribution of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (Ca2+/CaMKIIα), interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling to 2-Me-5-HT-induced emesis in the least shrew. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found that 2-Me-5-HT augments intracellular Ca2+ levels in brainstem slices and that the selective 5-HT3R antagonist palonosetron, can abolish the induced Ca2+ signaling. Pre-treatment of shrews with either: i) amlodipine, an antagonist of L-type Ca2+ channels present on the cell membrane; ii) dantrolene, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Ca2+-release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); iii) a combination of their less-effective doses; or iv) inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059); dose-dependently suppressed emesis caused by 2-Me-5-HT. Administration of 2-Me-5-HT also significantly: i) enhanced the interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin in the brainstem as revealed by immunoprecipitation, as well as their colocalization in the area postrema (brainstem) and small intestine by immunohistochemistry; and ii) activated CaMKIIα in brainstem and in isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These effects were suppressed by palonosetron. 2-Me-5-HT also activated ERK1/2 in brainstem, which was abrogated by palonosetron, KN93, PD98059, amlodipine, dantrolene, or a combination of amlodipine plus dantrolene. However, blockade of ER inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptors by 2-APB, had no significant effect on the discussed behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study demonstrates

  2. Agonist- and antagonist-induced up-regulation of surface 5-HT3A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A; Baptista-Hon, Daniel T; Hales, Tim G; Lovinger, David M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The 5-HT3 receptor is a member of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family and is pharmacologically targeted to treat irritable bowel syndrome and nausea/emesis. Furthermore, many antidepressants elevate extracellular concentrations of 5-HT. This study investigates the functional consequences of exposure of recombinant 5-HT3A receptors to agonists and antagonists. Experimental Approach We used HEK cells stably expressing recombinant 5-HT3A receptors and the ND7/23 (mouse neuroblastoma/dorsal root ganglion hybrid) cell line, which expresses endogenous 5-HT3 receptors. Surface expression of recombinant 5-HT3A receptors, modified to contain the bungarotoxin (BTX) binding sequence, was quantified using fluorescence microscopy to image BTX-conjugated fluorophores. Whole cell voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to measure the density of current mediated by 5-HT3A receptors. Key Results 5-HT3A receptors were up-regulated by the prolonged presence of agonists (5-HT and m-chlorophenylbiguanide) and antagonists (MDL-72222 and morphine). The up-regulation of 5-HT3A receptors by 5-HT and MDL-72222 was time- and concentration-dependent but was independent of newly translated receptors. The phenomenon was observed for recombinant rodent and human 5-HT3A receptors and for endogenous 5-HT3 receptors in neuronal ND7/23 cells. Conclusions and Implications Up-regulation of 5-HT3A receptors, following exposure to either agonists or antagonists suggests that this phenomenon may occur in response to different therapeutic agents. Medications that elevate 5-HT levels, such as the antidepressant inhibitors of 5-HT reuptake and antiemetic inhibitors of 5-HT3 receptor function, may both raise receptor expression. However, this will require further investigation in vivo. PMID:25989383

  3. Excitation of rat colonic afferent fibres by 5-HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Gareth A; Coldwell, Jonathan R; Schindler, Marcus; Bland Ward, Philip A; Jenkins, David; Lynn, Penny A; Humphrey, Patrick P A; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2002-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract contains most of the body's 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and releases large amounts after meals or exposure to toxins. Increased 5-HT release occurs in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and their peak plasma 5-HT levels correlate with pain episodes. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists reduce symptoms of IBS clinically, but their site of action is unclear and the potential for other therapeutic targets is unexplored. Here we investigated effects of 5-HT on sensory afferents from the colon and the expression of 5-HT3 receptors on their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Distal colon, inferior mesenteric ganglion and the lumbar splanchnic nerve bundle (LSN) were placed in a specialized organ bath. Eighty-six single fibres were recorded from the LSN. Three classes of primary afferents were found: 70 high-threshold serosal afferents, four low-threshold muscular afferents and 12 mucosal afferents. Afferent cell bodies were retrogradely labelled from the distal colon to the lumbar DRG, where they were processed for 5-HT3 receptor-like immunoreactivity. Fifty-six percent of colonic afferents responded to 5-HT (between 10−6 and 10−3 M) and 30 % responded to the selective 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT (between 10−6 and 10−2 M). Responses to 2-methyl-5-HT were blocked by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron (2 × 10−7 M), whereas responses to 5-HT were only partly inhibited. Twenty-six percent of L1 DRG cell bodies retrogradely labelled from the colon displayed 5-HT3 receptor-like immunoreactivity. We conclude that colonic sensory neurones expressing 5-HT3 receptors also functionally express the receptors at their peripheral endings. Our data reveal actions of 5-HT on colonic afferent endings via both 5-HT3 and non-5-HT3 receptors. PMID:12411529

  4. Involvement of 5-HT3 receptors in the action of vortioxetine in rat brain: Focus on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maurizio S; Sánchez, Connie; Celada, Pau; Artigas, Francesc

    2016-09-01

    The antidepressant vortioxetine is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibitor. Vortioxetine occupies all targets at high therapeutic doses and only SERT and 5-HT3-R at low doses. Vortioxetine increases extracellular monoamine concentrations in rat forebrain more than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and shows pro-cognitive activity in preclinical models. Given its high affinity for 5-HT3-R (Ki = 3.7 nM), selectively expressed in GABA interneurons, we hypothesized that vortioxetine may disinhibit glutamatergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission following 5-HT3-R blockade. Here we assessed vortioxetine effect on pyramidal neuron activity and extracellular 5-HT concentration using in vivo extracellular recordings of rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons and microdialysis in mPFC and ventral hippocampus (vHPC). Vortioxetine, but not escitalopram, increased pyramidal neuron discharge in mPFC. This effect was prevented by SR57227A (5-HT3-R agonist) and was mimicked by ondansetron (5-HT3-R antagonist) and by escitalopram/ondansetron combinations. In microdialysis experiments, ondansetron augmented the 5-HT-enhancing effect of escitalopram in mPFC and vHPC. Local ondansetron in vHPC augmented escitalopram effect, indicating the participation of intrinsic mechanisms. Since 5-HT neurons express GABAB receptors, we examined their putative involvement in controlling 5-HT release after 5-HT3-R blockade. Co-perfusion of baclofen (but not muscimol) reversed the increased 5-HT levels produced by vortioxetine and escitalopram/ondansetron combinations in vHPC. The present results suggest that vortioxetine increases glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in rat forebrain by blocking 5-HT3 receptors in GABA interneurons. PMID:27106166

  5. The interaction of trichloroethanol with murine recombinant 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, D L; Hope, A G; Belelli, D; Lambert, J J; Peters, J A; Bentley, K R; Steward, L J; Chen, C Y; Barnes, N M

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of ethanol, chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol upon the 5-HT3 receptor have been investigated by use of electrophysiological techniques applied to recombinant 5-HT3 receptor subunits (5-HT3R-A or 5-HT3R-As) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Additionally, the influence of trichloroethanol upon the specific binding of [3H]-granisetron to membrane preparations of HEK 293 cells stably transfected with the murine 5-HT3R-As subunit and 5-HT3 receptors endogenous to NG 108-15 cell membranes was assessed. 2. Ethanol (30-300 mM), chloral hydrate (1-30 mM) and trichloroethanol (0.3-10 mM), produced a reversible, concentration-dependent, enhancement of 5-HT-mediated currents recorded from oocytes expressing either the 5-HT3R-A, or the 5-HT3R-As subunit. 3. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a parallel leftward shift of the 5-HT concentration-response curve, reducing the EC50 for 5-HT from 1 +/- 0.04 microM (n = 4) to 0.5 +/- 0.01 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A. A similar shift, from 2.1 +/- 0.05 microM (n = 11) to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microM (n = 4), was observed in oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-As subunit. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) had little or no effect upon the maximum current produced by 5-HT for either recombinant receptor. 4. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) similarly reduced the EC50 for 2-methyl-5-HT from 13 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) to 4.6 +/- 0.2 microM (n = 4) and from 15 +/- 2 microM (n = 4) to 5 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. Additionally, trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a clear enhancement of the maximal current to 2-methyl-5-HT (expressed as a percentage of the maximal current to 5-HT) from 63 +/- 0.7% (n = 4) to 101 +/- 1.6% (n = 4) and from 9 +/- 0.2% (n = 4) to 74 +/- 2% (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. 5. Trichloroethanol (2.5 mM) had no effect upon the Kd, or Bmax, of specific [3H]-granisetron binding to membrane homogenates of NG

  6. Serotonin Enhances Urinary Bladder Nociceptive Processing Via a 5-HT3 Receptor Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jason D.; DeWitte, Cary; Ness, Timothy J.; Robbins, Meredith T.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin from the descending pain modulatory pathway is critical to nociceptive processing. Its effects on pain modulation may either be inhibitory or facilitatory, depending on the type of pain and which receptors are involved. Little is known about the role of serotonergic systems in bladder nociceptive processing. These studies examined the effect of systemic administration of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on normal bladder and somatic sensation in rats. ELISA was used to quantify peripheral and central changes in serotonin and its major metabolite following 5-HTP administration, and the potential role of the 5-HT3 receptor on changes in bladder sensation elicited by 5-HTP was investigated. 5-HTP produced bladder hypersensitivity and somatic analgesia. The pro-nociceptive effect of 5-HTP was attenuated by intrathecal, but not systemic, ondansetron. Peripheral increases in serotonin, its metabolism and rate of turnover were detectable within 30 min of 5-HTP administration. Significant enhancement of serotonin metabolism was observed centrally. These findings suggest that 5-HTP increases serotonin, which may then affect descending facilitatory systems to produce bladder hypersensitivity via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:26247537

  7. Serotonin enhances urinary bladder nociceptive processing via a 5-HT3 receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jason D; DeWitte, Cary; Ness, Timothy J; Robbins, Meredith T

    2015-09-14

    Serotonin from the descending pain modulatory pathway is critical to nociceptive processing. Its effects on pain modulation may either be inhibitory or facilitatory, depending on the type of pain and which receptors are involved. Little is known about the role of serotonergic systems in bladder nociceptive processing. These studies examined the effect of systemic administration of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on normal bladder and somatic sensation in rats. ELISA was used to quantify peripheral and central changes in serotonin and its major metabolite following 5-HTP administration, and the potential role of the 5-HT3 receptor on changes in bladder sensation elicited by 5-HTP was investigated. 5-HTP produced bladder hypersensitivity and somatic analgesia. The pro-nociceptive effect of 5-HTP was attenuated by intrathecal, but not systemic, ondansetron. Peripheral increases in serotonin, its metabolism and rate of turnover were detectable within 30min of 5-HTP administration. Significant enhancement of serotonin metabolism was observed centrally. These findings suggest that 5-HTP increases serotonin, which may then affect descending facilitatory systems to produce bladder hypersensitivity via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors.

  8. Aggression and anxiety in adolescent AAS-treated hamsters: A role for 5HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-07-01

    Previously, we have shown that anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure throughout adolescence stimulates offensive aggression while also reducing anxious behaviors during the exposure period. Interestingly, AAS exposure through development correlates with alterations to the serotonin system in regions known to contain 5HT3 receptors that influence the control of both aggression and anxiety. Despite these effects, little is known about whether these separate developmental AAS-induced behavioral alterations occur as a function of a common neuroanatomical locus. To begin to address this question, we localized 5HT3 receptors in regions that have been implicated in aggression and anxiety. To examine the impact these receptors may have on AAS alterations to behavior, we microinjected the 5HT3 agonist mCPBG directly into a region know for its influence over aggressive behavior, the lateral division of the anterior hypothalamus, and recorded alterations to anxious behaviors using the elevated plus maze. AAS exposure primarily reduced the presence of 5HT3 receptors in aggression/anxiety regions. Accordingly, mCPBG blocked the anxiolytic effects of adolescent AAS exposure. These data suggest that the 5HT3 receptor plays a critical role in the circuit modulating developmental AAS-induced changes to both aggressive and anxious behaviors, and further implicates the lateral division of the anterior hypothalamus as an important center for the negative behavioral effects of developmental AAS-exposure.

  9. The Structure of the Mouse Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor in Lipid Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Deluz, Cédric; Hassaine, Gherici; Grasso, Luigino; Graf-Meyer, Alexandra; Vogel, Horst; Stahlberg, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The function of membrane proteins is best understood if their structure in the lipid membrane is known. Here, we determined the structure of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor inserted in lipid bilayers to a resolution of 12 Å without stabilizing antibodies by cryo electron tomography and subtomogram averaging. The reconstruction reveals protein secondary structure elements in the transmembrane region, the extracellular pore, and the transmembrane channel pathway, showing an overall similarity to the available X-ray model of the truncated 5-HT3 receptor determined in the presence of a stabilizing nanobody. Structural analysis of the 5-HT3 receptor embedded in a lipid bilayer allowed the position of the membrane to be determined. Interactions between the densely packed receptors in lipids were visualized, revealing that the interactions were maintained by the short horizontal helices. In combination with methodological improvements, our approach enables the structural analysis of membrane proteins in response to voltage and ligand gating.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure and dynamics of 5-HT3 serotonin receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, M. Yu.; Popinako, A. V.; Prokopiev, G. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we investigated structure, dynamics and ion transportation in transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 serotonin receptor. High-resolution (0.35 nm) structure of the 5-HT3 receptor in complex with stabilizing nanobodies was determined by protein crystallography in 2014 (Protein data bank (PDB) code 4PIR). Transmembrane domain of the structure was prepared in complex with explicit membrane environment (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)) and solvent (TIP3P water model). Molecular dynamics protocols for simulation and stabilization of the transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 receptor model were developed and 60 ns simulation of the structure was conducted in order to explore structural parameters of the system. We estimated the mean force profile for Na+ ions using umbrella sampling method.

  11. 5-HT3 receptors as important mediators of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. The first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been very effective in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis in the first 24 h postchemotherapy (acute emesis), but have not been as effective against delayed emesis (24-120 h postchemotherapy). Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a FDA approved antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters: dopamine at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonin at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for chemotherapy-induced emesis and nausea, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effect of ondansetron through 5-HT3 receptors on TNBS-induced colitis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Motavallian-Naeini, Azadeh; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Rabbani, Mohammad; Mahzuni, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract whose etiology has not yet been fully elucidated. Available medicines for treatment of IBD are not universally effective and result in marked deleterious effects. This challenge has thus heightened the need for research in order to adopt new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of IBD. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. Our aim was to investigate the effect of ondansetron, 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in an immune-based animal model of IBD, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis and probable involvement of 5-HT3 receptors. Two hours after induction of colitis (instillation of 50 mg/kg of TNBS dissolved in 0.25 ml of ethanol 50 % v/v) to male Wistar rats, ondansetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT3 receptor agonist, or ondansetron + mCPBG were administrated intraperitoneally (ip) and continued daily for six days. The animals were sacrificed and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically and biochemically [myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 beta]. Ondansetron and dexamethasone resulted in a decrease in macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage significantly. In addition a dramatic reduction in MPO activity and colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines were seen. The protective effects of ondansetron were antagonized by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Our data suggests that the beneficial effects of ondansetron in TNBS-induced colitis could be mediated by 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:27350767

  13. Serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists for the reduction of symptoms of low anterior resection syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Itagaki, Ryohei; Koda, Keiji; Yamazaki, Masato; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Kosugi, Chihiro; Hirano, Atsushi; Arimitsu, Hidehito; Shiragami, Risa; Yoshimura, Yukino; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT])3 receptor antagonists are effective for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), in which exaggerated intestinal/colonic hypermotility is often observed. Recent studies have suggested that the motility disorder, especially spastic hypermotility, seen in the neorectum following sphincter-preserving operations for rectal cancer may be the basis of the postoperative defecatory malfunction seen in these patients. We investigated the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in patients suffering from severe low anterior resection syndrome. Patients and methods A total of 25 male patients with complaints of uncontrollable urgency or fecal incontinence following sphincter-preserving operations were enrolled in this study. Defecatory status, assessed on the basis of incontinence score (0–20), urgency grade (0–3), and number of toilet visits per day, was evaluated using a questionnaire before and 1 month after the administration of the 5-HT3 antagonist ramosetron. Results All the parameters assessed improved significantly after taking ramosetron for 1 month. The effect was more prominent in cases whose anastomotic line was lower, ie, inside the anal canal. Defecatory function was better in patients who commenced ramosetron therapy within 6 months postoperatively, as compared to those who were not prescribed ramosetron for more than 7 months postoperatively. Conclusion These results suggest that 5-HT3 antagonists are effective for the treatment of low anterior resection syndrome, as in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The improvement in symptoms is not merely time dependent, but it is related to treatment with 5-HT3 antagonists. PMID:24648748

  14. The 5-HT3 receptor is essential for exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Shimada, S

    2015-11-01

    Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the 5-HT system has been suggested to have an important role in these exercise-induced neuronal effects. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, analysis of the 5-HT type 3A receptor subunit-deficient (htr3a(-/-)) mice revealed that lack of the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor resulted in loss of exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects, but not of learning enhancement. Furthermore, stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptor promoted neurogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the 5-HT3 receptor is the critical target of 5-HT action in the brain following exercise, and is indispensable for hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects induced by exercise. This is the first report of a pivotal 5-HT receptor subtype that has a fundamental role in exercise-induced morphological changes and psychological effects.

  15. The function of 5-HT3 receptors on colonic transit in rats.

    PubMed

    Haga, K; Asano, K; Fukuda, T; Kobayakawa, T

    1995-12-01

    The function of serotonin (5-HT)3 receptors on colonic transit was investigated in unanesthetized rats. The colonic transit was accelerated by 5-HT (10 mg/kg, s.c.), 2-methyl-5-HT (30 mg/kg, s.c.), neostigmine (0.03-0.1 mg/kg, s.c.), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF; 1 microgram intracerebroventricular administration) and restraint stress (for 45 minutes). A potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, azasetron (+/-)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-6-chloro- 4-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-8-carboxamide monohydrochloride ; 0.01-10 mg/kg, p.o. inhibited the 5-HT-, CRF- and stress-accelerated colonic transit in a dose-dependent manner. Ondansetron (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and granisetron (1 mg/kg, p.o) also inhibited the stress-accelerated colonic transit, but azasetron was more effective than these two drugs. Atropine methylbromide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and tetrodotoxin (0.01 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited the accelerated colonic transit under stress conditions, but methysergide (10 mg/kg, s.c.), SDZ205-557 (10 mg/kg, s.c.), domperidone (30 mg/kg, p.o.), trimebutine (300 mg/kg, p.o.), did not. Azasetron (10 micrograms) administered intracerebroventricularly did not inhibit the stress-induced acceleration. These results suggest that endogenous 5-HT which is released through stress accelerates the colonic transit via the 5-HT3 receptors and finally a cholinergic mechanism. It is considered that azasetron inhibits colonic transit particularly under stress conditions through the blockade of the peripheral 5-HT3 receptors. Azasetron may improve bowel function in stress-related colonic dysfunction like irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:8653566

  16. The action of SDZ 205,557 at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3 and 5-HT4) receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R. M.; Alvarez, R.; Johnson, L. G.; Leung, E.; Wong, E. H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The interaction of the novel antagonist, SDZ 205,557 (2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chloro benzoic acid 2-(diethylamino) ethyl ester), at 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors has been assessed in vitro and in vivo. 2. In guinea-pig hippocampus and in the presence of 0.4 microM 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-HT4-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase was competitively antagonized by SDZ 205,557, with a pA2 value of 7.5, and a Schild slope of 0.81. In rat carbachol-contracted oesophagus, 5-HT4-receptor mediated relaxations were surmountably antagonized by SDZ 205,557 with a similar pA2 value (7.3). This value was agonist-independent with the exception of (R)-zacopride, against which a significantly lower value (6.4) was observed. 3. In functional studies of 5-HT3 receptors, SDZ 205,557 exhibited an affinity of 6.2 in guinea-pig ileum compared with 6.9 at binding sites labelled by [3H]-quipazine in NG108-15 cells. In the anaesthetized, vagotomized micropig, SDZ 205,557 produced only a transient blockade of 5-HT4-mediated tachycardia. This contrasted with tropisetron, which was active for over 60 min after administration. The half-lives for the inhibitory responses of SDZ 205,557 and tropisetron were 23 and 116 min, respectively. 4. In conclusion, SDZ 205,557 has similar affinity for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. The apparent selectivity observed in guinea-pig is due to the atypical nature of the 5-HT3 receptor in this species. The short duration of action of this novel antagonist may complicate its use in vivo. SDZ 205,557 should, therefore, be used with appropriate caution in studies defining the 5-HT4 receptor. PMID:8448587

  17. Inhibition of temporomandibular joint input to medullary dorsal horn neurons by 5HT3 receptor antagonist in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Katagiri, Ayano; Rahman, Mostafeezur; Thompson, Randall; Bereiter, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated forced swim (FS) conditioning enhances nociceptive responses to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) stimulation in male and female rats. The basis for FS-induced TMJ hyperalgesia remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that serotonin 3 receptor (5HT3R) mechanisms contribute to enhanced TMJ nociception after FS, ovariectomized female rats were treated with estradiol and subjected to FS for three days. On day 4, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and TMJ-responsive neurons were recorded from superficial and deep laminae at the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical (Vc/C1–2) region and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the masseter muscle. Only Vc/C1–2 neurons activated by intra-TMJ injections of ATP were included for further analysis. Although neurons in both superficial and deep laminae were activated by ATP, only neurons in deep laminae displayed enhanced responses after FS. Local application of the 5HT3R antagonist, ondansetron (OND), at the Vc/C1–2 region reduced the ATP-evoked responses of neurons in superficial and deep laminae and reduced the EMG response in both sham and FS rats. OND also decreased the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in deep laminae and reduced the high threshold convergent cutaneous receptive field area of neurons in superficial and deep laminae in both sham and FS rats. These results revealed that central application of a 5HT3R antagonist, had widespread effects on the properties of TMJ-responsive neurons at the Vc/C1–2 region and on jaw muscle reflexes under sham and FS conditions. It is concluded that 5HT3R does not play a unique role in mediating stress-induced hyperalgesia related to TMJ nociception. PMID:25913635

  18. Fluorophore assisted light inactivation (FALI) of recombinant 5-HT3A receptor constitutive internalization and function

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A.; Luo, Guoxiang; Davis, Margaret I.; Hales, Tim G.; Lovinger, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins and molecules are now widely used to tag and visualize proteins resulting in an improved understanding of protein trafficking, localization, and function. In addition, fluorescent tags have also been used to inactivate protein function in a spatially and temporally-defined manner, using a technique known as fluorophore-assisted light inactivation (FALI) or chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI). In this study we tagged the serotonin3 A subunit with the α-bungarotoxin binding sequence (BBS) and subsequently labeled 5-HT3A/BBS receptors with fluorescently conjugated α-bungarotoxin in live cells. We show that 5-HT3A/BBS receptors are constitutively internalized in the absence of an agonist and internalization as well as receptor function are inhibited by fluorescence. The fluorescence-induced disruption of function and internalization was reduced with oxygen radical scavengers suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species, implicating the FALI process. Furthermore, these data suggest that intense illumination during live-cell microscopy may result in inadvertent FALI and inhibition of protein trafficking. PMID:21338684

  19. The effects of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on cognition in rodents and primates.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J M; Costall, B; Coughlan, J; Domeney, A M; Gerrard, P A; Kelly, M E; Naylor, R J; Onaivi, E S; Tomkins, D M; Tyers, M B

    1990-04-01

    The selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, onansetron, has been assessed in three tests of cognition in the mouse, rat and marmoset. In a habituation test in the mouse, ondansetron facilitated performance in young adult and aged animals, and inhibited an impairment in habituation induced by scopolamine, electrolesions or ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Arecoline failed to improve basal performance in young adult mice but inhibited the impairment caused by scopolamine and lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. In the T-maze reinforced alternation task in rats, ondansetron and arecoline antagonised a scopolamine-induced impairment. In an object discrimination and reversal learning task in the marmoset, assessed using a Wisconsin General Test Apparatus, ondansetron improved performance in a reversal learning task. We conclude that ondansetron potently improves basal performance in rodent and primate tests of cognition and inhibits the impairments in performance caused by cholinergic deficits.

  20. Functional evidence for the rapid desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on vagal afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) desensitize upon repeated exposure to selective agonists. BJR-mediated falls in heart rate, diastolic arterial blood pressure and cardiac output elicited by the 5-HT(3)-receptor agonists, phenylbiguanide (100 microg/kg, i.v.) or 2-methyl-5-HT (100 microg/kg, i.v.), progressively diminished upon repeated injection in conscious rats. The BJR responses elicited by 5-HT (40 microg/kg, i.v.) were markedly reduced in rats which had received the above injections of phenylbiguanide or 2-methyl-5-HT whereas the BJR responses elicited by L-S-nitrosocysteine (10 micromol/kg, i.v.) were similar before and after the injections of the 5-HT(3) receptor agonists. These findings suggest that tachyphylaxis to 5-HT(3) receptor agonists may be due to the desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents rather than the impairment of the central or peripheral processing of the BJR.

  1. [Effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on estramustine phosphate sodium (Estracyt)-induced emesis in ferrets].

    PubMed

    Higashioka, Masaya; Yamaguchi, Emi; Takatori, Shingo; Tanaka, Mitsushi; Kyoi, Takashi

    2010-07-01

    Estracyt(R) is an antimitotic drug used for the treatment of prostate cancer, and its most common adverse effects are nausea and vomiting. In this study, we investigated the effect of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, granisetron, on emesis induced in ferrets by estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP), the active ingredient of Estracyt. To clarify the mechanism of action of EMP-induced emesis, we also investigated the effect of EMP on the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the isolated rat ileum. EMP (3 mg/kg, per os) induced 75.3+/-10.2 retching episodes and 7.5+/-1.3 vomiting episodes during a 2-h observation period. The latency to the first emetic response was 58.0+/-13.5 min. Granisetron (0.1 mg/kg, per os) administered 1 h before the administration of EMP reduced the number of EMP-induced retching and vomiting episodes to 1.3+/-1.3 and 1.0+/-1.0, respectively, and prolonged the latency by a factor of almost two. EMP (10-5 and 10-4 M) increased 5-HT release from isolated rat ileum, and 10 -7 M granisetron almost completely inhibited the increase induced by 10-4 M EMP. These results suggest that EMP induces nausea and vomiting via 5-HT release from the ileum, and that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful to prevent gastrointestinal adverse effects that occur during treatment with Estracyt.

  2. Interaction of pyridostigmine with the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Capacio, B.R.; Byers, C.E.; Matthews, R.L.; Anderson, D.R.; Anders, J.C.

    1993-05-13

    Serotonin receptor subtype three (5HT3) antagonists, such as the drug ondansetron (OND), have been developed as effective anti-emetic compounds. The purpose of this study was to assess the drug interactions of OND (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) with the organophosphorus pretreatment compound pyridostigmine (PYR; 0.94 mg/kg) after simultaneous oral administration to guinea pigs. Compatibility was assessed by determining (1) OND pharmacokinetics in the absence (Phase 1) and presence (Phase 2) of pyridostigmine (PYR) and (2) PYR-induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition kinetics in the absence (Phase 1) and the presence (Phase 2) of OND. AChE inhibition was examined because it has been shown to be an indicator of PYR efficacy against OP-induced lethality. The pharmacokinetics of OND alone and in the presence of PYR were linear and best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination rate kinetics. For OND 30 mg/kg the K10 was found to be significantly smaller in Phase 2 than Phase 1 (p < 0.05).

  3. Distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 Receptors Along the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Yaakob, Nor S; Chinkwo, Kenneth A; Chetty, Navinisha; Coupar, Ian M; Irving, Helen R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are associated with abnormal serotonin (5-HT) signaling or metabolism where the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are clinically relevant. The aim was to examine the distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the normal human colon and how this is associated with receptor interacting chaperone 3, G protein coupled receptor kinases, and protein LIN-7 homologs to extend previous observations limited to the sigmoid colon or the upper intestine. Methods Samples from ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid human colon were dissected into 3 separate layers (mucosa, longitudinal, and circular muscles) and ileum samples were dissected into mucosa and muscle layers (n = 20). Complementary DNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from extracted RNA and expression was determined by quantitative or end point polymerase chain reaction. Results The 5-HT3 receptor subunits were found in all tissues throughout the colon and ileum. The A subunit was detected in all samples and the C subunit was expressed at similar levels while the B subunit was expressed at lower levels and less frequently. The 5-HT3 receptor E subunit was mainly found in the mucosa layers. All splice variants of the 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors were expressed throughout the colon although the 5-HT4 receptor d, g, and i variants were expressed less often. Conclusions The major differences in 5-HT receptor distribution within the human colon are in relation to the mucosa and muscular tissue layers where the 5-HT3 receptor E subunit is predominantly found in the mucosal layer which may be of therapeutic relevance. PMID:26130632

  4. Blockade of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents in dissociated frog sensory neurones by benzoxazine derivative, Y-25130.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Akaike, N.

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of Y-25130, ((+-)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-6-chloro-4-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dih ydr o- 2H-1,4-benzoxazine-8-carboxamide hydrochloride), a high affinity 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor ligand, was examined on the 5-HT-induced response in dissociated frog dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones by use of the extremely rapid concentration-jump ('concentration-clamp') and the conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. 2. 5-HT induced a rapid transient inward current associated with an increase in membrane conductance at a holding potential of -70 mV. The current amplitude increased sigmoidally as 5-HT concentration increased. The half-maximum value (Ka) and the Hill coefficient estimated from the concentration-response curve were 1.7 x 10(-5) M and 1.7, respectively. 3. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship of 5-HT-induced current (I5-HT) showed inward rectification at potentials more positive than -40 mV. The reversal potential (E5-HT) was -11 mV. The E5-HT value was unaffected by total replacement of intracellular K+ by Cs+, indicating that the 5-HT-gated channels might be large cation channels. 4. Both the activation and inactivation phases of I5-HT were single exponentials. The time constants of activation and inactivation (tau a and tau i) decreased with increasing 5-HT concentration. 5. The 5-HT response was mimicked by a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, but the maximum response induced was approximately 25% that of 5-HT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1472977

  5. Palonosetron versus older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for nausea prevention in patients receiving chemotherapy: a multistudy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Gary R; Schwartzberg, Lee; Barbour, Sally Y; Ballinari, Gianluca; Thorn, Michael D; Cox, David

    2015-01-01

    Background No clinical standard currently exists for the optimal management of nausea induced by emetogenic chemotherapy, particularly delayed nausea. Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of palonosetron with older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (RAs) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea. Methods Data were pooled from 4 similarly designed multicenter, randomized, double-blind, clinical trials that compared single intravenous doses of palonosetron 0.25 mg or 0.75 mg with ondansetron 32 mg, dolasetron 100 mg, or granisetron 40 μg/kg, administered 30 minutes before moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Pooled data within each chemotherapy category (MEC: n = 1,132; HEC: n = 1,781) were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Nausea endpoints were complete control rates (ie, no more than mild nausea, no vomiting, and no rescue medication), nausea-free rates, nausea severity, and requirement for rescue antiemetic/antinausea medication over 5 days following chemotherapy. Pooled safety data were summarized descriptively. Results Numerically more palonosetron-treated patients were nausea-free on each day, and fewer had moderate-severe nausea. Similarly, usage of rescue medication was less frequent among palonosetron-treated patients. Complete control rates for palonosetron and older 5-HT3 RAs in the acute phase were 66% vs 63%, 52% vs 42% in the delayed phase (24-120 hours), and 46% vs 37% in the overall phase. The incidence of adverse events was similar for palonosetron and older 5-HT3 RAs. Limitations This post hoc analysis summarized data for palonosetron and several other 5-HT3 RAs but was not powered for statistical comparisons between individual agents. Because nausea is inherently subjective, the reliability of assessments of some aspects (eg, severity) may be influenced by interindividual variability. Conclusion Palonosetron may be more effective than older 5-HT3 RAs in preventing nausea, with comparable

  6. [Use of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, as a new type of antiemetic in pediatric oncology].

    PubMed

    Csáki, C; Ferencz, T; Koós, R; Schuler, D; Borsi, J

    1993-06-20

    The effectiveness of the new antiemetic drug, the 5-hydroxytryptamin (5-HT) receptor antagonist ondansetron was evaluated in paediatric cancer patients. 5-HT3 antagonists represent a new class of drugs effective in the control of chemo- and radiotherapy-induced emesis. Based on their selectivity 5-HT3 antagonist are free from extrapyramidal side effects, a major problem in children in the case of currently used dopamine receptor antagonists (e.g. metoclopramide). In this study ondansetron was tested as antiemetic in 33 children with malignant disease (132 chemotherapy cycles) treated with: 1. high-dose cisplatin (120 mg/m2), 2. intermediate-dose cisplatin (60 mg/m2) and 3. no cisplatin-containing, combined high-dose chemotherapy. Ondansetron was found to be safe and effective in the control of acute and delayed emesis in all treatment groups. Its effectiveness was superior to the currently used antiemetic drugs in the period of acute emesis.

  7. Stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in polyolefin bags for patient-controlled delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu-chao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Bin; Yuan, Fang-jun; Wang, Lin-hai

    2016-01-01

    Background Mixing 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) solutions of tramadol has been shown to decrease the incidence of nausea and vomiting associated with the use of tramadol PCA for postoperative pain. However, such mixtures are not commercially available, and the stability of the drug combinations has not been duly studied. The study aimed to evaluate the stability of tramadol with three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA administration. Materials and methods Test samples were prepared by adding 1,000 mg tramadol hydrochloride, 8 mg ondansetron hydrochloride, and 6 mg granisetron hydrochloride or 5 mg tropisetron hydrochloride to 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags. The samples were prepared in triplicates, stored at either 25°C or 4°C for 14 days, and assessed using the following compatibility parameters: precipitation, cloudiness, discoloration, and pH. Chemical stability was also determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Results All of the mixtures were clear and colorless throughout the initial observation period. No change in the concentration of tramadol hydrochloride occurred with any of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists during the 14 days. Similarly, little or no loss of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists occurred over the 14-day period. Conclusion Our results suggest that mixtures of tramadol hydrochloride, ondansetron hydrochloride, granisetron hydrochloride, or tropisetron hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were physically and chemically stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at both 4°C and 25°C. PMID:27350741

  8. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ICS 205-930 and GR38032F, putative anxiolytic drugs, differ from diazepam in their pharmacological profile.

    PubMed

    Papp, M; Przegalinski, E

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacological profile of the two 5-HT(3) (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor antagonists, the putative anxiolytics ICS 205-930 and GR38032F was compared with that of diazepam in four standard behavioural tests in rats. All the investigated drugs induced an anxiolytic effect in the passive avoidance test, having reduced the latency to re-enter the chamber previously associated with an inescapable footshock, and increased the time spent in that chamber. On the basis of the lowest effective dose, both ICS 205-930 and GR38032F were about 20 times more potent than diazepam, though the anxiolytic activity of either 5- HT(3) receptor antagonist was confined to a narrow dose range (ICS 205-930: 93.7-187.5 μg/ kg, GR38032F: 125-375 μg/kg), their higher doses having been ineffective. The anxiolytic effect of diazepam, but not of ICS 205-930, was abolished by flumazenil. In contrast to diazepam, neither ICS 205-930 nor GR38032F-both given in doses up to 20 mg/kg-showed any activity in the pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, open field, and rota-rod tests. These results suggest that the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists may represent a new class of anxiolytic drugs devoid of anticonvulsant, sedative or muscle-relaxant properties, and that their anxi olytic activity is not mediated by benzodiazepine receptors.

  9. Inhibitory modulation of chemoreflex bradycardia by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus is mediated by 5-HT3 receptors in the NTS of awake rats.

    PubMed

    Weissheimer, Karin Viana; Machado, Benedito H

    2007-03-30

    Several studies demonstrated the involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its different receptor subtypes in the modulation of neurotransmission of cardiovascular reflexes in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Moreover, anatomic evidence suggests that nucleus raphe obscurus (ROb) is a source of 5-HT-containing terminals within the NTS. In the present study we investigated the possible changes in the cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreceptor activation by potassium cyanide (KCN, i.v.) following ROb stimulation with L-glutamate (10 nmol/50 nL) and also whether 5-HT3 receptors in the caudal commissural NTS are involved in this neuromodulation. The results showed that stimulation of the ROb with L-glutamate in awake rats (n=15) produced a significant reduction in the bradycardic response 30 s after the microinjection (-182+/-19 vs -236+/-10 bpm; Wilcoxon test) but no changes in the pressor response to peripheral chemoreceptor activation (43+/-4 vs 51+/-3 mmHg; two-way ANOVA) in relation to the control. Microinjection of 5--HT3 receptors antagonist granisetron (500 pmol/50 nL), but not the vehicle, into the caudal commissural NTS bilaterally prevented the reduction of chemoreflex bradycardia in response to microinjection of L-glutamate into ROb. These data indicate that 5-HT-containing projections from ROb to the NTS play an inhibitory neuromodulatory role in the chemoreflex evoked bradycardia by releasing 5-HT and activating 5-HT3 receptors in the caudal NTS.

  10. Inhibition of native 5-HT3 receptor-evoked contractions in guinea pig and mouse ileum by antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Stephen P; Walsh, Jacqueline; Kelly, Mark C; Muhdar, Simerjyot; Adel-Aziz, Mohammed; Barrett, Iain D; Wildman, Scott S

    2014-09-01

    Quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine are commonly used to treat malaria, however, with associated gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects. These drugs act as antagonists at recombinant 5-HT3 receptors and modulate gut peristalsis. These gastrointestinal side effects may be the result of antagonism at intestinal 5-HT3 receptors. Ileum from male C57BL/6 mice and guinea pigs was mounted longitudinally in organ baths. The concentration-response curves for 5-HT and the selective 5-HT3 agonist 2-Me-5-HT were obtained with 5-HT (pEC50 = 7.57 ± 0.33, 12) more potent (P = 0.004) than 2-Me-5-HT (pEC50 = 5.45 ± 0.58, n = 5) in mouse ileum. There was no difference in potency of 5-HT (pEC50 = 5.42 ± 0.15, n = 8) and 2-Me-5-HT (pIC50 = 5.01 ± 0.55, n = 11) in guinea pig ileum (P > 0.05). Quinine, chloroquine or mefloquine was applied for 10 min and inhibitions prior to submaximal agonist application. In mouse ileum, quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 4.9 ± 0.17, n = 7; 4.76 ± 0.14, n = 5; 6.21 ± 0.2, n = 4, correspondingly) with mefloquine most potent (P < 0.05). Quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 2-me-5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 6.35 ± 0.11, n = 8; 4.64 ± 0.2, n = 7; 5.11 ± 0.22, n = 6, correspondingly) with quinine most potent (P < 0.05). In guinea-pig ileum, quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 5.02 ± 0.15, n = 6; 4.54 ± 0.1, n = 7; 5.32 ± 0.13, n = 5) and 2-me-5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 4.62 ± 0.25, n = 5; 4.56 ± 0.14, n = 6; 5.67 ± 0.12, n = 4) with chloroquine least potent against 5-HT and mefloquine most potent against 2-me-5-HT (P < 0.05). These results support previous studies identifying anti-malarial drugs as antagonists at recombinant 5-HT3 receptors and may also demonstrate the ability of these drugs to influence native 5-HT3 receptor-evoked contractile responses which may account for their associated GI side-effects. PMID:24886883

  11. Pharmacological evaluation of novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, QCM-13 (N-cyclohexyl-3-methoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide) as anti-anxiety agent in behavioral test battery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Thangaraj, Devadoss; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the last few decades, serotonin type-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been identified as potential targets for anxiety disorders. In preclinical studies, 5-HT3 antagonists have shown promising antianxiety effects. In this study, a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, QCM-13(N-cyclohexyl-3-methoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide) was evaluated for anxiolytic-like activity in rodent behavioral test battery. Materials and Methods: Mice were given QCM-13 (2 and 4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) or diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle and after 30 min, mice were subjected to four validated behavioral test batteries viz. elevated plus maze, hole board, light-dark and open field tests. Interaction study of QCM-13 with m-chlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP) (mCPP, a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and buspirone (BUS, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) were performed to assess the pharmacological mechanism of the drug. Results: QCM-13 expressed potential anxiolytic effect with significant (P < 0.05) increase in behavioral parameters measured in aforementioned preliminary models. Besides, QCM-13 was unable to reverse the anxiogenic effect of mCPP, but potentiated anxiolytic affect of BUS. Conclusion: The results suggest that QCM-13 can be a potential therapeutic candidate for the management of anxiety-like disorders and combination doses of novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with standard anxiolytics may improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25883513

  12. Noncompetitive Inhibition of 5-HT3 Receptors by Citral, Linalool, and Eucalyptol Revealed by Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Barbosa, Roseli; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Citral, eucalyptol, and linalool are widely used as flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Here, we examined their effects on electrophysiological and binding properties of human 5-HT3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to account for random variance in the peak current response between oocytes. The oils caused an insurmountable inhibition of 5-HT-evoked currents (citral IC50 = 120 µM; eucalyptol = 258 µM; linalool = 141 µM) and did not compete with fluorescently labeled granisetron, suggesting a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Inhibition was not use-dependent but required a 30-second preapplication. Compound washout caused a slow (∼180 seconds) but complete recovery. Coapplication of the oils with bilobalide or diltiazem indicated they did not bind at the same locations as these channel blockers. Homology modeling and ligand docking predicted binding to a transmembrane cavity at the interface of adjacent subunits. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that an essential oil extracted from Lippia alba contained 75.9% citral. This inhibited expressed 5-HT3 receptors (IC50 = 45 µg ml(-1)) and smooth muscle contractions in rat trachea (IC50 = 200 µg ml(-1)) and guinea pig ileum (IC50 = 20 µg ml(-1)), providing a possible mechanistic explanation for why this oil has been used to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. These results demonstrate that citral, eucalyptol, and linalool inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, and their binding to a conserved cavity suggests a valuable target for novel allosteric modulators. PMID:26669427

  13. The effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron on cocaine-induced conditioned taste aversions.

    PubMed

    Briscione, Maria A; Serafine, Katherine M; Merluzzi, Andrew P; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2013-04-01

    Although cocaine readily induces taste aversions, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. Recent work has shown that cocaine's actions on serotonin (5-HT) may be involved. To address this possibility, the present experiments examined a role of the specific 5-HT receptor, 5-HT3, in this effect given that it is implicated in a variety of behavioral effects of cocaine. This series of investigations first assessed the aversive effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron alone (Experiment 1). Specifically, in Experiment 1 male Sprague-Dawley rats were given repeated pairings of a novel saccharin solution and tropisetron (0, 0.056, 0.18 and 0.56mg/kg). Following this, a non-aversion-inducing dose of tropisetron (0.18mg/kg) was assessed for its ability to block aversions induced by a range of doses of cocaine (Experiment 2). Specifically, in Experiment 2 animals were given access to a novel saccharin solution and then injected with tropisetron (0 or 0.18mg/kg) followed by an injection of various doses of cocaine (0, 10, 18 and 32mg/kg). Cocaine induced dose-dependent taste aversions that were not blocked by tropisetron, suggesting that cocaine's aversive effects are not mediated by 5-HT, at least at this specific receptor subtype. At the intermediate dose of cocaine, aversions appeared to be potentiated, suggesting 5-HT3 may play a limiting role in cocaine's aversive effects. These data are discussed in the context of previous examinations of the roles of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in cocaine-induced aversions. PMID:23415734

  14. Noncompetitive Inhibition of 5-HT3 Receptors by Citral, Linalool, and Eucalyptol Revealed by Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Barbosa, Roseli; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Citral, eucalyptol, and linalool are widely used as flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Here, we examined their effects on electrophysiological and binding properties of human 5-HT3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to account for random variance in the peak current response between oocytes. The oils caused an insurmountable inhibition of 5-HT-evoked currents (citral IC50 = 120 µM; eucalyptol = 258 µM; linalool = 141 µM) and did not compete with fluorescently labeled granisetron, suggesting a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Inhibition was not use-dependent but required a 30-second preapplication. Compound washout caused a slow (∼180 seconds) but complete recovery. Coapplication of the oils with bilobalide or diltiazem indicated they did not bind at the same locations as these channel blockers. Homology modeling and ligand docking predicted binding to a transmembrane cavity at the interface of adjacent subunits. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that an essential oil extracted from Lippia alba contained 75.9% citral. This inhibited expressed 5-HT3 receptors (IC50 = 45 µg ml(-1)) and smooth muscle contractions in rat trachea (IC50 = 200 µg ml(-1)) and guinea pig ileum (IC50 = 20 µg ml(-1)), providing a possible mechanistic explanation for why this oil has been used to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. These results demonstrate that citral, eucalyptol, and linalool inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, and their binding to a conserved cavity suggests a valuable target for novel allosteric modulators.

  15. The Role of Hippocampal 5HT3 Receptors in Harmaline-Induced Memory Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Nasehi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The plethora of studies indicated that there is a cross talk relationship between harmaline and serotonergic (5-HT) system on cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor on memory acquisition deficit induced by harmaline. Methods: Harmaline was injected peritoneally, while 5-HT4 receptor agonist (RS67333) and antagonist (RS23597-190) were injected intra-hippocampal. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance, open field and tail flick tasks were used for measurement of memory, locomotor activity and pain responses, respectively. Results: The data revealed that pre-training injection of higher dose of harmaline (1 mg/kg), RS67333 (0.5 ng/mouse) and RS23597-190 (0.5 ng/mouse) decreased memory acquisition process in the adult mice. Moreover, concurrent pre-training administration of subthreshold dose of RS67333 (0.005 ng/mouse) or RS23597-190 (0.005 ng/mouse) with subthreshold dose of harmaline (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) intensify impairment of memory acquisition. All above interventions did not change locomotion and tail flick behaviors. Discussion: The results demonstrated that the synergistic effect between both hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor agonist and antagonist with impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline, indicating a modulatory effect for hippocampal 5HT4 receptor on Harmaline induced amnesia. PMID:26904173

  16. Agonist interactions with 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites in the rat entorhinal cortex labelled by structurally diverse radioligands.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J. M.; Barnes, N. M.; Costall, B.; Jagger, S. M.; Naylor, R. J.; Robertson, D. W.; Roe, S. Y.

    1992-01-01

    1. The pharmacological properties of 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites labelled with [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330 in membranes prepared from the rat entorhinal cortex were investigated to assess the presence of cooperativity within the 5-HT3 receptor complex. 2. In rat entorhinal cortex homogenates, [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330 labelled homogeneous densities of recognition sites (defined by granisetron, 10 microM) with high affinity (Bmax = 75 +/- 5, 53 +/- 5, 92 +/- 6 and 79 +/- 6 fmol mg-1 protein, respectively; pKd = 9.41 +/- 0.04, 8.69 +/- 0.14, 8.81 +/- 0.06 and 10.14 +/- 0.04 for [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330, respectively, n = 3-8). 3. Quipazine and granisetron competed for the binding of each of the radioligands in the rat entorhinal cortex preparation at low nanomolar concentrations (pIC50; quipazine 9.38-8.51, granisetron 8.62-8.03), whilst the agonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), phenylbiguanide (PBG) and 2-methyl-5-HT competed at sub-micromolar concentrations (pIC50; 5-HT 7.16-6.42, PBG 7.52-6.40, 2-methyl-5-HT 7.38-6.09). 4. Competition curves generated with increasing concentrations of quipazine, PBG, 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT displayed Hill coefficients greater than unity when the 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites in the entorhinal cortex preparation were labelled with [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330. These competing compounds displayed Hill coefficients of around unity when the sites were labelled with [3H]-(S)-zacopride. Competition for the binding of [3H]-(S)-zacopride, [3H]-LY278,584, [3H]-granisetron and [3H]-GR67330 by granisetron generated Hill coefficients around unity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1559139

  17. An electrophysiological investigation of the properties of 5-HT3 receptors of rabbit nodose ganglion neurones in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J. A.; Malone, H. M.; Lambert, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-evoked currents in rabbit nodose ganglion neurones in culture have been determined by use of the whole-cell and outside-out membrane patch recording modes of the patch-clamp technique. 2. In 49% of cells investigated the bath application of 10(-5) M 5-HT at negative holding potentials elicited an inward current. The whole-cell response to 5-HT reversed in sign (E5-HT) at approximately -2 mV and exhibited inward rectification. 3. The influence of various ion substitutions upon E5-HT established that the 5-HT-evoked current is mainly mediated by a mixed Na+, K+ cation conductance with little or no contribution from Cl- ions. The omission of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from the extracellular solution enhanced the amplitude of the 5-HT-induced current. 4. On isolated outside-out membrane patches, the bath application of 10(-6) M 5-HT induced single channel currents with a chord conductance of approximately 17 pS at -70 mV and an average slope conductance of 19 pS over the range -100 to -40 mV. The 5-HT-induced single channels exhibited modest inward rectification and were reduced in frequency, but not amplitude, by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist metoclopramide (10(-6) M). 5. The bath application of 5-HT (3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-5) M) to whole cells voltage clamped at -60 mV produced dose-dependent inward currents which were mimicked by 2-methyl-5-HT and 1-phenylbiguanide with equipotent molar ratios, relative to 5-HT, of 2.5 and 32 respectively. 6. Whole-cell inward currents produced by the local pressure application of 5-HT (10(-5) M) were unaffected by 10(-6) M methysergide, 10(-6) M ketanserin or 10(-6) M citalopram, but were concentration-dependently antagonized by the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists tropisetron (IC50 = 4.6 x 10(-11) M) ondansetron (IC50 = 5.7 x 10(-11) M), and bemesetron (IC50 = 3.3 x 10(-10) M). The response to 5-HT was also blocked by the non-selective antagonists metoclopramide

  18. Investigation of 5-HT3A receptor gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals who had been exposed to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahangari, Ghasem; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Mozafari, Sona; Majeidi, Ali; Deilami, Gholamreza Derkhshan

    2013-12-01

    The role of air pollution in exacerbation of allergic symptoms is well known. Several studies have shown the effect of air pollution on serotonergic system. The changes in serotonergic system could trigger several allergic symptoms. 5-HT(3A) is among serotonin receptors on the peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) as well as other cells. In the present study we compared the 5-HT(3A) gene expression in PBMCs of the asthmatic patients as well as individuals who had been exposed to the air pollution. Normal individuals were also included in the study as control for comparison of 5-HT(3A) gene expression. Following the synthesis of the cDNA using mRNA extracted from PBMCs the level of 5- HT(3A) gene expression was measured using real-time PCR. The results showed t a significant increase in the relative expression level of 5-HT(3A) receptor in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and individuals exposed to the air pollutants compared to normal controls. Our result indicates that significant increase in 5-HT(3A) receptor may contribute to the pathogenesis as well as allergic symptoms which resulted from air pollution.

  19. [NEPHROPROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF 5-HT3 RECEPTOR BLOCKER RU-63 IN EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE RENAL FAILURE UNDER HYPERGRAVITY CONDITIONS].

    PubMed

    Zaitseva, E N; Dubishchev, A V; Yakovlev, D S; Anisimova, V A

    2016-01-01

    The effective diuretic dose of 5-HT3 receptor blocker RU-63 (1 mg/kg) was found in experiments on white rats. It is established that the diuretic and saluretic effects of compound RU-63 increase on the background of impact of the gravitational factor. Compound RU-63 (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously) administered daily under hypergravity conditions (3 g in the direction of centrifugal force toward the kidneys) in animals with model ischemic acute renal failure increased excretory function of kidneys, glomerular filtration rate, and creatininuresis (on average by 180%; p < 0.05), and decreased serum creatinine, urinary excretion of protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and g-glutamyl transferase (on average by 49%; p < 0.05) as compared to the untreated control. Under similar conditions, the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (in a dose of 20 mg/kg, intragastric) produced a more pronounced creatininuretic action than that of RU-63 (by 358%; p < 0.05). PMID:27455574

  20. Comparison of the effects of trimebutine and YM114 (KAE-393), a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on stress-induced defecation.

    PubMed

    Miyata, K; Ito, H; Yamano, M; Hidaka, K; Kamato, T; Nishida, A; Yuki, H

    1993-12-01

    YM114 (KAE-393), (R)-5-[(2,3-dihydro-1-indolyl)carbonyl]-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-1H-benzimidazole hydrochloride, is a derivative of YM060, a potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. We investigated the effects of YM114 on 5-HT3 receptors, both in vitro and in vivo, and on bowel dysfunction induced by restraint stress, 5-HT and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and compared them with the effect of trimebutine. YM114 dose dependently inhibited the reduction in heart rate induced by 5-HT (30 micrograms/kg i.v.) in rats (ED50 = 0.31 micrograms/kg i.v.), and the potency of YM114 was almost the same as that of the racemate. The S-form of YM114 also inhibited 5-HT-induced bradycardia, but 1350 times less potent than the R-form. YM114 and its S-form inhibited [3H]GR65630 binding to N1E-115 cell membranes in a concentration-dependent manner with Ki values of 0.341 and 616 nM, respectively, showing the isomeric activity ratio (R-/S-form) of YM114 to be much greater (1800). YM114 antagonized 5-HT-induced depolarization of the nodose ganglion (EC50 = 1.39 nM). Trimebutine (1 mg/kg i.v.) failed to inhibit 5-HT-induced bradycardia, implying that it does not possess 5-HT3 receptor antagonistic activity. YM114 significantly and dose dependently prevented restraint stress-, 5-HT- and TRH-induced increases in fecal pellet output, and restraint stress- and 5-HT-induced diarrhea in rats and mice (ED50 = 6.9, 72.5, 154.6, 9.7 and 52.4 micrograms/kg p.o., respectively). Trimebutine significantly prevented stress- and 5-HT-induced diarrhea (ED50 = 29.4 and 87.3 mg/kg p.o., respectively), but only partially affected stress-, 5-HT- and TRH-induced increases in fecal pellet output. Thus, YM114 is a potent and stereoselective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with much greater protective effects against stress-induced defecation than trimebutine. PMID:8112388

  1. Solid gastric emptying mediated by the serotonin (5-HT)3 receptor in mice is a simple marker to predict emesis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kentaro; Takagi, Kan

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and emesis are often observed as side effects with many medicines and may lead to poor treatment compliance. In the present study, we aimed to establish simple methods for predicting nausea and/or emesis in mice, which do not vomit, using drugs and chemicals known to evoke nausea and/or emesis. The gastrointestinal transit test, the liquid gastric emptying by phenol red solution (Phenol red method) and the solid gastric emptying by resin beads (Beads method) were used and the effects of antispasmogenics (atropine, 0.1-3 mg/kg i.p.; salmon calcitonin, 1-30 units/kg i.m.), nauseants (copper sulfate, 1-30 mg/kg p.o.; apomorphine, 0.01-0.3 mg/kg s.c.) and chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, 0.3-10 mg/kg i.v.; doxorubicin, 0.3-10 mg/kg i.v.) were evaluated. In addition, the effects of ondansetron, a serotonin (5-HT)(3) receptor antagonist, on the inhibition of solid gastric emptying induced by salmon calcitonin, copper sulfate, cisplatin and doxorubicin were also assessed. Only the solid gastric emptying method could detect changes of gastric emptying by all drugs and chemicals. We also found that the inhibition of solid gastric emptying induced by cisplatin and doxorubicin was dose-dependently antagonized by ondansetron. However, ondansetron failed to antagonize the salmon calcitonin-induced delay, but exerted only very weak effects with copper sulfate. Solid gastric emptying may be more suitable than gastrointestinal intestinal transit or liquid gastric emptying in mice to predict nausea and/or emesis. Our results also suggest that chemotherapeutic-induced delay of solid gastric emptying mediated via 5-HT(3) receptors in mice could also be useful for prediction purposes. PMID:21297338

  2. The role of the AMPA receptor and 5-HT(3) receptor on aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in chronic social isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Koh; Kurosawa, Natsuki; Seki, Kenjiro

    2016-01-01

    Chronic social isolation (SI)-reared mice exhibit aggressive and depressive-like behaviors. However, the pathophysiological changes caused by chronic SI remain unclear. The hypothalamus and amygdala have been suggested to be associated with the stress of SI. In addition to serotonin 3 (5-HT3) receptors, AMPA receptors have also been suggested to be involved in aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in animals. Therefore, we examined whether chronic SI affects AMPA and 5-HT3 receptor expression levels in these regions. A Western blot analysis revealed that after four weeks of SI, mice exhibited up-regulated AMPA receptor subunit (GluR1, GluR2) protein levels in the amygdala and down-regulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor protein levels. The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist NBQX (10 mg/kg; i.p.) attenuated SI-induced depressive-like symptoms but not aggressive behavior. Intra-amygdalar infusions of the selective AMPA receptor agonist (S)-AMPA (10 μM) induced despair-like behavior, but not sucrose preference or aggressive behavior, in mice not reared in SI (naïve mice). Alternatively, treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A (3.0 mg/kg; i.p.) decreased aggression levels. In addition, intra-hypothalamic infusions of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (3 μM) did not trigger aggressive behavior in naïve mice; however, the administration of ondansetron (0.3 mg/kg; i.p.) increased aggression levels in two-week SI mice, which rarely exhibited the aggressive behavior. Moreover, ondansetron did not affect the depressive-like symptoms of the SI mice. These results suggest that SI-induced up-regulation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits protein levels in the amygdalar region and down-regulation of 5-HT3 receptor proteins level in the hypothalamic region are associated with the effect of AMPA receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist -induced aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms.

  3. 5HT3 receptor antagonist (ondansetron) reverses depressive behavior evoked by chronic unpredictable stress in mice: modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and brain serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2014-09-01

    Chronic stress is one of the major causes of depression, associated with behavioral and biochemical impairments. 5HT3 receptor antagonists (such as ondansetron) have shown alleviation of depressive symptomology in preclinical and in few clinical studies. However, their effects in chronic stress-induced depressive behavior and the underlying mechanism(s) are yet to be known. In the present study, the effects of a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron were evaluated in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-evoked depressive behavior. In addition, the possible mechanism was determined by measuring plasma corticosterone (CORT) as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis activity and serotonin levels in the discrete brain regions. Mice were subjected to a battery of unpredictable stressors for 28 days. Ondansetron (0.05, 0.1 and 1mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o.) were administered during the last 14 days (day 15-28th) of CUS testing paradigm. The results showed that the 4-week CUS produced significant depressive behavior in mice, which included increased despair effects in forced swim test (FST) and reward-related deficits in sucrose preference test. Biochemical assays demonstrated a significant increase in percentage of plasma CORT and decrease in percentage of serotonin levels in the discrete brain regions of CUS mice. Chronic ondansetron treatment, similar to that of positive control fluoxetine, significantly reversed despair effects in FST and reward-related deficits in sucrose preference test. In addition, ondansetron and fluoxetine treatments significantly increased percentage of serotonin levels in the measured brain regions and attenuated HPA-axis hyperactivity, as evidenced by low percentage of plasma CORT levels in CUS mice. These findings indicate the potential role of ondansetron (a 5HT3 receptor antagonist) in reversing CUS-induced depressive behavior, which is possibly mediated by its modulating effects on the HPA-axis and

  4. Pharmacological characterization of RS 25259-197, a novel and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R M; Lee, C H; Smith, W L; Johnson, L G; Clark, R; Whiting, R L; Hegde, S S

    1995-01-01

    1. The pharmacological effects in vivo, of RS 25259-197, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, have been investigated. 2. In anaesthetized rats, RS 25259-197, administered by the intravenous, intraduodenal or transdermal route, dose-dependently inhibited the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex induced by 2-methyl 5-HT (ID50 = 0.04 micrograms kg-1, i.v., 3.2 micrograms kg-1, i.d. and 32.8 micrograms per chamber, respectively). In this regard, when administered intraduodenally, RS 25259-197 was more potent and exhibited a longer duration of action than either ondansetron or granisetron. 3. In conscious ferrets, RS 25259-197, administered intravenously or orally, dose-dependently inhibited emesis induced by cisplatin. The ID50 estimates of RS 25259-197 were 1.1 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 3.2 micrograms kg-1, p.o. In this respect, RS 25259-197 was more potent than ondansetron and equipotent with granisetron. 4. In conscious dogs, RS 25259-197, administered intravenously or orally, dose-dependently inhibited emesis induced by cisplatin (ID50 = 1.9 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 8.5 micrograms kg-1, p.o.), dacarbazine (ID50 = 4.1 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 9.7 micrograms kg-1, p.o.), actinomycin D (ID50 = 4.9 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 2.5 micrograms kg-1, p.o.) and mechlorethamine (ID50 = 4.4 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 3.0 micrograms kg-1, p.o.). Against each of the emetogenic agents, RS 25259-197 was very much more potent than ondansetron. When tested at equi-effective intravenous doses against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs, RS 25259-197 had a longer duration of anti-emetic activity (7 h) than ondansetron (4 h).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7773547

  5. Length and Amino Acid Sequence of Peptides Substituted for the 5-HT3A Receptor M3M4 Loop May Affect Channel Expression and Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Nicole K.; Bali, Moez; Akabas, Myles H.

    2012-01-01

    5-HT3A receptors are pentameric neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop receptor family. Each subunit contains an extracellular domain, four transmembrane segments (M1, M2, M3, M4) and a 115 residue intracellular loop between M3 and M4. In contrast, the M3M4 loop in prokaryotic homologues is <15 residues. To investigate the limits of M3M4 loop length and composition on channel function we replaced the 5-HT3A M3M4 loop with two to seven alanine residues (5-HT3A-An = 2–7). Mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using two electrode voltage clamp recording. All mutants were functional. The 5-HT EC50's were at most 5-fold greater than wild-type (WT). The desensitization rate differed significantly among the mutants. Desensitization rates for 5-HT3A-A2, 5-HT3A-A4, 5-HT3A-A6, and 5-HT3A-A7 were similar to WT. In contrast, 5-HT3A-A3 and 5-HT3A-A5 had desensitization rates at least an order of magnitude faster than WT. The one Ala loop construct, 5-HT3A-A1, entered a non-functional state from which it did not recover after the first 5-HT application. These results suggest that the large M3M4 loop of eukaryotic Cys-loop channels is not required for receptor assembly or function. However, loop length and amino acid composition can effect channel expression and desensitization. We infer that the cytoplasmic ends of the M3 and M4 segments may undergo conformational changes during channel gating and desensitization and/or the loop may influence the position and mobility of these segments as they undergo gating-induced conformational changes. Altering structure or conformational mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of M3 and M4 may be the basis by which phosphorylation or protein binding to the cytoplasmic loop alters channel function. PMID:22539982

  6. Ethanol fails to modify [3H]GR65630 binding to 5-HT3 receptors in NCB-20 cells and in rat cerebral membranes.

    PubMed

    Hellevuo, K; Hoffman, P L; Tabakoff, B

    1991-10-01

    Low concentrations of ethanol have been found to enhance the electrophysiologic effect of serotonin (5-HT) acting at 5-HT3 receptors on NCB-20 cells. To determine whether this action of ethanol reflects a change in the agonist-receptor interaction, the effect of ethanol (100 mM) on agonist and antagonist binding to 5-HT3 receptor was studied in vitro in membrane from NCB-20 cells and from cortex plus hippocampus of rat. The antagonist [3H]GR65630 was used to label 5-HT3 recognition sites. Ethanol did not change the characteristics of saturable [3H]GR65630 binding in either membrane preparation. In competition studies, the agonists 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT completely inhibited the binding of [3H]GR65630 to NCB-20 cell membranes, while in brain membranes the maximum displacement of specific [3H]GR65630 binding by 5-HT was approximately 30%. Ethanol decreased the affinity of the receptor for 2-methyl-5-HT, but not to 5-HT in NCB-20 cells, and had no effect on agonist binding in brain membranes. The results indicate that enhancement of 5-HT responses at 5-HT3 receptors by ethanol is not a result of changes in the equilibrium binding characteristics of the agonist.

  7. Antidepressant Potential of 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonist, N-n- propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n)

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, R; Bhatt, S; Devadoss, T; Jindal, AK; Gautam, BK; Pandey, DK

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-n-propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n). The compound ‘6n’ with optimum log P and pA2 value identified from a series of compounds synthesized in our laboratory was subjected to forced Swim Test (FST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.). The compound ‘6n’ significantly reduced the duration of immobility in mice without affecting the baseline locomotion. Moreover, ‘6n’ (2 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch responses in mice and ‘6n’ at tested dose (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the reserpine-induced hypothermia in rats. In interaction studies of ‘6n’ with various standard drugs/ligands using FST, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) influenced the effect of harmane (5 mg/ kg, i.p.) as well as reversed the effect of parthenolide (1 mg/kg, i.p.) by reducing the duration of immobility in FST. Furthermore, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effect of bupropion (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) in TST. Chronic ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment attenuated the behavioral abnormalities in olfactory bulbectomized rats. In conclusion, these various findings reiterated the antidepressant-like effects of ‘6n’ in behavioral models of depression. PMID:23493308

  8. Effects of ginger constituents on the gastrointestinal tract: role of cholinergic M3 and serotonergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pertz, Heinz H; Lehmann, Jochen; Roth-Ehrang, René; Elz, Sigurd

    2011-07-01

    The herbal drug ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) may be effective for treating nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypomotility. In these conditions, cholinergic M (3) receptors and serotonergic 5-HT (3) and 5-HT (4) receptors are involved. The major chemical constituents of ginger are [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol. We studied the interaction of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol (racemates), and [6]-shogaol with guinea pig M (3) receptors, guinea pig 5-HT (3) receptors, and rat 5-HT (4) receptors. In whole segments of guinea pig ileum (bioassay for contractile M (3) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol slightly but significantly depressed the maximal carbachol response at an antagonist concentration of 10 µM. In the guinea pig myenteric plexus preparation (bioassay for contractile 5-HT (3) receptors), 5-HT maximal responses were depressed by [10]-gingerol from 93 ± 3 % to 65 ± 6 % at an antagonist concentration of 3 µM and to 48 ± 3 % at an antagonist concentration of 5 µM following desensitization of 5-HT (4) receptors and blockade of 5-HT (1) and 5-HT (2) receptors. [6]-Shogaol (3 µM) induced depression to 61 ± 3 %. In rat esophageal tunica muscularis mucosae (bioassay for relaxant 5-HT (4) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol (2-6.3 µM) showed no agonist effects. The maximal 5-HT response remained unaffected in the presence of the compounds. It is concluded that the efficiency of ginger in reducing nausea and vomiting may be based on a weak inhibitory effect of gingerols and shogaols at M (3) and 5-HT (3) receptors. 5-HT (4) receptors, which play a role in gastroduodenal motility, appear not to be involved in the action of these compounds. PMID:21305447

  9. Regulation of the 5-HT3A receptor-mediated current by alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ui Joung; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoo Jin; Nam, Joo Won; Bae, Hyunsu; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2010-09-01

    Four known alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates, i.e., methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (1), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (2), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (3), and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (4), were isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner (Nymphaeaceae) for the first time. The structures of the isolates were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and comparison with published values. The compounds were evaluated for their effects on the 5-HT-stimulated inward current (I(5-HT)) mediated by the human 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 enhanced the I(5-HT), but 4 reduced it. These results indicate that 4 is an inhibitor of the 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

  10. Regulation of the 5-HT3A receptor-mediated current by alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ui Joung; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoo Jin; Nam, Joo Won; Bae, Hyunsu; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2010-09-01

    Four known alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates, i.e., methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (1), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (2), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (3), and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (4), were isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner (Nymphaeaceae) for the first time. The structures of the isolates were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and comparison with published values. The compounds were evaluated for their effects on the 5-HT-stimulated inward current (I(5-HT)) mediated by the human 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 enhanced the I(5-HT), but 4 reduced it. These results indicate that 4 is an inhibitor of the 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:20860031

  11. The efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after craniotomy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Susan M; Newburn-Cook, Christine V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting in neurosurgical patients at 24 and 48+ hours. After a systematic search, 7 published randomized placebo controlled trials involving 448 craniotomy patients (222 treatment, 226 control) were included in the meta-analysis. Study drugs included ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron. The cumulative incidence of emesis was significantly reduced in the treatment group at 24 hours [relative risk (RR)=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.66] and 48+ hours (RR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.36-0.75). There were no differences between the treatment and control groups in the cumulative incidence of nausea at 24 hours (RR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.54-1.06) and 48+ hours (RR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.62-1.06). The cumulative incidence of both nausea and vomiting continued to increase after 24 hours in both groups. Despite the ability of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists to reduce emetic episodes, future investigations should seek to address the control of postoperative nausea and to reduce further postoperative emesis in this population. PMID:17198095

  12. Serotonin homeostasis and serotonin receptors as actors of cortical construction: special attention to the 5-HT3A and 5-HT6 receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Vitalis, Tania; Ansorge, Mark S.; Dayer, Alexandre G.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical circuits control higher-order cognitive processes and their function is highly dependent on their structure that emerges during development. The construction of cortical circuits involves the coordinated interplay between different types of cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural and glial cell subtypes. Among the multiple factors that regulate the assembly of cortical circuits, 5-HT is an important developmental signal that impacts on a broad diversity of cellular processes. 5-HT is detected at the onset of embryonic telencephalic formation and a variety of serotonergic receptors are dynamically expressed in the embryonic developing cortex in a region and cell-type specific manner. Among these receptors, the ionotropic 5-HT3A receptor and the metabotropic 5-HT6 receptor have recently been identified as novel serotonergic targets regulating different aspects of cortical construction including neuronal migration and dendritic differentiation. In this review, we focus on the developmental impact of serotonergic systems on the construction of cortical circuits and discuss their potential role in programming risk for human psychiatric disorders. PMID:23801939

  13. Ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist reverses depression and anxiety-like behavior in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: possible implication of serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2014-12-01

    Increased prevalence and high comorbidity of depression-like mood disorders and diabetes have prompted investigation of new targets and potential contributing agents. There is considerable evidence supporting the inconsistent clinical efficacy and persistent undesirable effects of existing antidepressant therapy for depression associated with diabetes. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the effect of ondansetron, a selective 5HT3 receptor antagonist in attenuating depression and anxiety-like behavior comorbid with diabetes. Experimentally, Swiss albino mice were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg). After 8 weeks, diabetic mice received a single dose of vehicle/ondansetron (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.)/fluoxetine (the positive control, 10 mg/kg p.o.) for 28 days. Thereafter, behavioral studies were conducted to test depression-like behavior using forced swim test (FST) and anxiety-like deficits using hole-board and light-dark tests, followed by biochemical estimation of serotonin content in discrete brain regions. The results demonstrated that, STZ-induced diabetic mice exhibited increased duration of immobility and decreased swimming behavior in FST, reduced exploratory behavior during hole-board test and increased aversion to brightly illuminated light area in light-dark test as compared to non-diabetic mice, while ondansetron (similar to fluoxetine) treatment significantly reversed the same. Biochemical assay revealed that ondansetron administration attenuated diabetes-induced neurochemical impairment of serotonin function, indicated by elevated serotonin levels in discrete brain regions of diabetic mice. Collectively, the data indicate that ondansetron may reverse depression and anxiety-like behavioral deficits associated with diabetes in mice and modulation of serotonergic activity may be a key mechanism of the compound.

  14. X-ray analysis of the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on gastrointestinal motility in rats repeatedly treated with the antitumoral drug cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Vera, Gema; López-Pérez, Ana Esther; Martínez-Villaluenga, María; Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Abalo, Raquel

    2014-08-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is associated with the development of numerous adverse effects, including nausea, emesis and other alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) motility. The administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists has provided a clinical advance in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced vomiting but these drugs lose efficacy throughout chronic treatment. The effects of these drugs in experimental animals under chronic administration are not well known. Our aim was to study, using radiographic methods, the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on GI dysmotility induced in the rat by repeated cisplatin administration. First, invasive methods were used to select a dose of granisetron capable of reducing increased stomach weight due to acute cisplatin administration (6 mg/kg, ip). Second, rats received two intraperitoneal (ip) injections once a week for 4 weeks: granisetron (1 mg/kg, ip) or saline and, thirty min later, saline or cisplatin (2 mg/kg, ip). Body weight gain was measured throughout treatment. Radiological techniques were used to determine the acute (after first dose) and chronic (after last dose) effects of cisplatin and/or granisetron on GI motility. Repeated cisplatin-induced weight loss which granisetron did not prevent. Gastric emptying was delayed after the first cisplatin administration. Granisetron completely prevented this effect. After weekly administration, cisplatin-induced gastric dysmotility was enhanced and granisetron was not capable of completely preventing this effect. Granisetron prevents gastric emptying alterations, but its efficacy decreases throughout antineoplastic treatment. This might be due to the enhanced effect of cisplatin. PMID:24798399

  15. Effect of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist 4i, in corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2015-04-01

    Stress in our daily life severely affects the normal physiology of the biological system. Dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the development of depression-like behavior, which remains under diagnosed and poorly treated. Exogenous corticosterone (CORT) administration has been demonstrated to develop a depression model, which has shown to mimic HPA-axis induced depression-like state in rodents. In the present study, the effect of a novel 5HT3 receptor, 4i was examined on CORT induced depression in mice. CORT (30mg/kg, subcutaneously) was given for 4-weeks to mice in control group, while mice in drug treated group were given 4i (0.5-1mg/kg, intraperitoneally)/fluoxetine (as a positive control, 10mg/kg), for the last 2-weeks of CORT dosing. Repeated CORT dosing caused depression-like behavior in mice as indicated by increased despair effects in forced swim test (FST) and anhedonia in sucrose preference test. In addition, CORT administration induced oxidative load in the brain with significant increase in pro-oxidant (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) markers and a substantial decline in anti-oxidant defense (catalase and reduced glutathione levels) system, indicating a direct effect of stress hormones in the induction of the brain oxidative damage. On the other hand, 4i and fluoxetine treatment reversed the CORT induced depressive-like deficits. Furthermore, 4i and fluoxetine prevented CORT induced oxidative brain insults, which may plausibly demonstrate one of the key mechanisms for antidepressant-like effects of the compounds. Thus, the study suggests that 5HT3 antagonist; 4i may be implicated as pharmacological intervention targeting depressive-like anomaly associated with HPA-axis dysregulation.

  16. Effects of serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on stress-induced colonic hyperalgesia and diarrhoea in rats: a comparative study with opioid receptor agonists, a muscarinic receptor antagonist and a synthetic polymer.

    PubMed

    Hirata, T; Keto, Y; Nakata, M; Takeuchi, A; Funatsu, T; Akuzawa, S; Sasamata, M; Miyata, K

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of serotonin (5-HT)3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs) including ramosetron, alosetron, and cilansetron on colonic nociceptive threshold in rats. Furthermore, we established a restraint stress-induced colonic hyperalgesia model in rats, and compared the inhibitory effects of 5-HT3RAs on restraint stress-induced colonic hyperalgesia and diarrhoea with those of loperamide, trimebutine, tiquizium and polycarbophil. The colonic nociceptive threshold was measured as the balloon pressure at the time the rat showed a nociceptive response during colonic distension by an intrarectally inserted balloon. Oral administration of ramosetron (3-30 microg kg(-1)), alosetron (30-300 microg kg(-1)), or cilansetron (30-300 microg kg(-1)) increased the colonic nociceptive threshold in a dose-dependent manner in non-stressed rats. Restraint stress for 1 h significantly decreased the colonic nociceptive threshold, but ramosetron (0.3-3 microg kg(-1)), alosetron (3-30 microg kg(-1)), cilansetron (3-30 microg kg(-1)) and trimebutine (100-1000 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited the decrease in the threshold. Loperamide (3-30 mg kg(-1)), tiquizium (100-1000 mg kg(-1)) and polycarbophil (1000 mg kg(-1)) did not affect the restraint stress-induced decrease in the colonic nociceptive threshold. All drugs tested in this study showed dose-dependent inhibition of restraint stress-induced diarrhoea in rats. These results indicate that, unlike existing antidiarrhoeal and spasmolytic agents, 5-HT3RAs have inhibitory effects on colonic nociception, and prevented restraint stress-induced both diarrhoea and hyperalgesia at almost the same doses in rats. This suggests that the 5-HT3RAs may be useful in ameliorating both colonic hyperalgesia and diarrhoea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:18221252

  17. Acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron, reduces immobility in intact female rats exposed to the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Gabriela; Maswood, Sharmin

    2006-10-01

    The effects of tropisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, were evaluated in adult Fischer female rats exposed to the Forced Swim Test (FST). Rats selected on the days of proestrus or estrus was immersed in a cylinder of water for 2 consecutive days. Rats were exposed to the FST for 15 min on day 1 (pretest), followed by a 5-min session (test), 24 h later. The proestrous-estrous group consisted of rats that were exposed to the FST on their proestrous stage (pretest); then 24 h later the same rats were exposed to the FST on their estrous stage (test). Rats in the estrous-diestrous group were exposed to the FST on their estrous stage (pretest) and 24 h later on their diestrous stage (test). Rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline or 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg tropisetron 30 min prior to exposure to the cylinder on the test day. Immobility, swimming, and struggling behaviors were scored for 5 min. There was a significant decline in immobility after treatment with 2.0 mg/kg tropisetron in both groups. In addition, a significant decline in swimming was observed in the estrous rats (proestrous-estrous group) after treatment with 2.0 mg/kg tropisetron. There were no significant effects of tropisetron on struggling in any groups examined.

  18. A retrospective study of R-CHOP/CHOP therapy-induced nausea and vomiting in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: a comparison of intravenous and oral 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kumanomidou, Satoshi; Takami, Saki; Okada, Takahiro; Adachi, Koji; Jo, Yumi; Ikejiri, Fumiyoshi; Onishi, Chie; Kawakami, Koshi; Miyake, Takaaki; Inoue, Masaya; Moriyama, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Suzumiya, Junji

    2016-09-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a serious problem for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The CHOP regimen is the standard treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and is categorized as highly or moderately emetogenic in the CINV guidelines. The efficacy of oral 5-HT3 receptor antagonists is equivalent to that of the intravenous form in patients with solid tumors, but there is no clear comparative data for the use of these agents NHL patients receiving CHOP. We analyzed retrospective CINV data from medical records of 72 NHL patients who received CHOP or rituximab-combined CHOP therapy (R-CHOP). All patients received 5-HT3 receptor antagonists alone for prevention of CINV; 39 of the patients received an intravenous form (mostly granisetron) and 33 an oral form (all ramosetron). Complete response (CR: defined as no vomiting and no rescue therapy) was observed in 58 of 72 patients (80.6 %) overall (0-120 h post-CHOP). The CR rate was not statistically different in patients treated with oral or intravenous 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (82.1 vs 78.8 %, P = 0.77). These findings suggest that oral 5-HT3 receptor antagonists represent a good alternative to intravenous forms in NHL receiving CHOP/R-CHOP chemotherapy. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal anti-emetic supportive therapy for NHL. PMID:27312042

  19. The effect of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale), its fractions and isolated compounds on the 5-HT3 receptor complex and the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Riyazi, A; Hensel, A; Bauer, K; Geissler, N; Schaaf, S; Verspohl, E J

    2007-04-01

    A contribution of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on inhabiting the 5-HT3 receptor complex had been shown. In the present study a possible interaction of some compounds of the volatile oil with the 5-HT3 receptor system expressed in N1E-115 cells and with the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum was investigated. The volatile oil was obtained by steam distillation and fractionated using a silica gel column resulting in five fractions. Compounds of the fractions were identified by GC-MS. The influence of the volatile oil, its fractions and pure components on serotonin-induced [14C]guanidinium influx into N1E-115 cells was measured indicating the inhibitory interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor channel system. Most potent inhibitors of cation influx were the volatile oil, fraction 4, beta-pinene, terpinolene, alpha-copaene and alpha-phellandrene. The volatile oil and fractions 1 and 4 were not able to significantly influence either serotonin (10 microM)-induced maximum contraction of the rat ileum or the second phase of the biphasic contraction 2.5 min after serotonin addition. However, beta-pinene, terpinolene and alpha-phellandrene reduced both contractions. In conclusion, the volatile oil and distinct compounds such as terpinolene, beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene interact with 5-HT3 receptor channel system and possess an antispasmodic effect at the rat ileum. PMID:17511060

  20. The efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative vomiting following craniotomy: two studies in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Susan M; Newburn-Cook, Christine V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the efficacy of prophylactic administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative vomiting (POV) in pediatric craniotomy patients at 24 hours. By updating a previously published systematic literature search, we found a recently published pediatric study to combine with the one already identified. The two published randomized placebo-controlled trials were combined for a total of 135 participants aged 2 to 20 (79 treatment and 56 controls). The only study drug was ondansetron. The combined relative risk (RR) of vomiting was not statistically significant in the treatment group compared to the control group (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.50-1.19). There was also no evidence of efficacy for ondansetron in reducing the use of rescue antiemetics in the treatment group compared to the control group (RR = .71; 95% CI: 0.34-1.49). While combining these randomized placebo-controlled trials did not show efficacy for ondansetron in preventing POV in craniotomy patients aged 2 to 20, a clinically significant effect cannot be excluded, as even the combined sample size remained small. Thus, there is no current evidence for or against this class of drugs for preventing POV in children after craniotomy, and clinical decision-making must be based on studies in other populations and clinical experience. Ongoing assessment of nausea and vomiting and ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of treatments in individual children and young adults remains an essential part of perianesthesia and postoperative neuroscience nursing. PMID:19397073

  1. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors and TTX resistant sodium channels (NaV1.8) on muscle nerve fibers in pain-free humans and patients with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that 5-HT3-antagonists reduce muscle pain, but there are no studies that have investigated the expression of 5-HT3-receptors in human muscles. Also, tetrodotoxin resistant voltage gated sodium-channels (NaV) are involved in peripheral sensitization and found in trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the rat masseter muscle. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nerve fibers that express 5-HT3A-receptors alone and in combination with NaV1.8 sodium-channels in human muscles and to compare it between healthy pain-free men and women, the pain-free masseter and tibialis anterior muscles, and patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and pain-free controls. Methods Three microbiopsies were obtained from the most bulky part of the tibialis and masseter muscles of seven and six healthy men and seven and six age-matched healthy women, respectively, while traditional open biopsies were obtained from the most painful spot of the masseter of five female patients and from a similar region of the masseter muscle of five healthy, age-matched women. The biopsies were processed by routine immunohistochemical methods. The biopsy sections were incubated with monoclonal antibodies against the specific axonal marker PGP 9.5, and polyclonal antibodies against the 5-HT3A-receptors and NaV1.8 sodium-channels. Results A similar percentage of nerve fibers in the healthy masseter (85.2%) and tibialis (88.7%) muscles expressed 5-HT3A-receptors. The expression of NaV1.8 by 5-HT3A positive nerve fibers associated with connective tissue was significantly higher than nerve fibers associated with myocytes (P < .001). In the patients, significantly more fibers per section were found with an average of 3.8 ± 3 fibers per section in the masseter muscle compared to 2.7 ± 0.2 in the healthy controls (P = .024). Further, the frequency of nerve fibers that co-expressed NaV1.8 and 5-HT3A receptors was significantly

  2. Analysis of free ACh and 5-HT in milk from four different species and their bioactivity on 5-HT(3) and nACh receptors.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Limon, Agenor; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-07-25

    Milk is one of the most beneficial aliments and is highly recommended in normal conditions; however, in certain disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome, cow milk and dairy products worsen the gastric symptoms and their use is not recommended. Among the most recognized milk-induced gatrointestinal symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, which are processes controlled by cholinergic and serotonergic transmission. Whether the presence of bioavailable ACh and 5-HT in milk may contribute to normal peristalsis, or to the developing of these symptoms, is not known. In this work we attempt to determine whether the content of free ACh and 5-HT is of physiological significance in milk from four different species: cow (bovine), goat, camel and human. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify free ACh and 5-HT in milk, and activation of the serotonergic and cholinergic ionotropic receptors was investigated using electrophysiological experiments. Our principal hypothesis was that milk from these four species had sufficient free ACh and 5-HT to activate their correspondent receptors expressed in a heterologous system. Our results showed a more complex picture, in which free ACh and 5-HT and their ability to activate cholinergic and serotonergic receptors are not correlated. This work is a first step to elucidate whether 5-HT and ACh, at the concentrations present in the milk, can be associated to a direct function in the GI.

  3. Dual role of serotonin in the acquisition and extinction of reward-driven learning: involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Hocht, Christian; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano; Rapanelli, Maximiliano

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been proposed as a possible encoder of reward. Nevertheless, the role of this neurotransmitter in reward-based tasks is not well understood. Given that the major serotonergic circuit in the rat brain comprises the dorsal raphe nuclei and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and because the latter structure is involved in the control of complex behaviors and expresses 1A (5-HT1A), 2A (5-HT2A), and 3 (5-HT3) receptors, the aim was to study the role of 5-HT and of these receptors in the acquisition and extinction of a reward-dependent operant conditioning task. Long Evans rats were trained in an operant conditioning task while receiving fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg), tianeptine (serotonin reuptake enhancer, 10mg/kg), buspirone (5-HT1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg), risperidone (5-HT2A antagonist, 1mg/kg), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 2mg/kg) or vehicle. Then, animals that acquired the operant conditioning without any treatment were trained to extinct the task in the presence of the pharmacological agents. Fluoxetine impaired acquisition but improved extinction. Tianeptine administration induced the opposite effects. Buspirone induced a mild deficit in acquisition and had no effects during the extinction phase. Risperidone administration resulted in learning deficits during the acquisition phase, although it promoted improved extinction. Ondansetron treatment showed a deleterious effect in the acquisition phase and an overall improvement in the extinction phase. These data showed a differential role of 5-HT in the acquisition and extinction of an operant conditioning task, suggesting that it may have a dual function in reward encoding. PMID:24949809

  4. Inhibitory effects of ramosetron, a potent and selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, on conditioned fear stress-induced abnormal defecation and normal defecation in rats: comparative studies with antidiarrheal and spasmolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takuya; Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Keto, Yoshihiro; Akuzawa, Shinobu; Sasamata, Masao; Miyata, Keiji

    2008-02-01

    We examined the effect of ramosetron, a potent serotonin (5-HT)(3)-receptor antagonist for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, on conditioned fear stress (CFS)-induced defecation and normal (non-stressed) defecation in rats and compared ramosetron with the antidiarrheal agent loperamide and the spasmolytic agents trimebutine and tiquizium. Ramosetron, loperamide, trimebutine, and tiquizium significantly inhibited CFS-induced defecation in a dose-dependent manner with ED(50) (95% confidence limit) values of 0.019 (0.01 - 0.028), 9.4 (4.0 - 22), 850 (520 - 2,400), and 300 (190 - 450) mg/kg, respectively. A significant effect of ramosetron on CFS-induced defecation appeared at 10 min after dosing and was sustained for 8 h. In contrast, loperamide, trimebutine, and tiquizium significantly inhibited CFS-induced defecation between 1 - 8, 1 - 4, and 1 - 8 h after administration, respectively. High doses of ramosetron did not affect normal defecation, whereas loperamide, trimebutine, and tiquizium significantly inhibited this process. In conclusion, ramosetron has potent, rapid-onset, and long-lasting inhibitory effects on CFS-induced defecation in rats, but does not influence normal defecation. The present findings indicate that ramosetron will be a useful therapeutic agent for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, showing greater efficacy and safety than other antidiarrheal and spasmolytic agents. PMID:18296863

  5. Short-term treatment of primary fibromyalgia with the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist tropisetron. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 418 patients.

    PubMed

    Färber, L; Stratz, T H; Brückle, W; Späth, M; Pongratz, D; Lautenschläger, J; Kötter, I; Zöller, B; Peter, H H; Neeck, G; Welzel, D; Müller, W

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of short-term treatment with tropisetron, a selective, competitive 5-HT3-receptor antagonist in fibromyalgia. The trial was designed as a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-finding study. We randomly assigned 418 patients suffering from primary fibromyalgia to receive either placebo, 5 mg, 10 mg or 15 mg tropisetron once daily for 10 days. Clinical response was measured by changes in pain score, visual analog scale, tender point count and ancillary symptoms. Responders were prospectively defined as patients showing a 35% or higher reduction in pain score. Treatment with 5 mg tropisetron resulted in a significantly higher response rate (39.2%) than placebo (26.2%) (p < 0.05). In the visual analog scale, the group administered 5 mg tropisetron showed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) and the group administered 10 mg tropisetron showed a nonsignificant clinical benefit. The number of painful tender points was significantly reduced (p = 0.002) in the 5 mg tropisetron group. Regarding ancillary symptoms, the 5 mg tropisetron group showed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in sleep and dizziness. The patients' overall assessment of efficacy was significantly higher for 5 mg (p = 0.016) and 10 mg (p = 0.002) tropisetron than for placebo. The safety and tolerability of tropisetron was good; gastrointestinal tract symptoms were the most frequently reported adverse events. Short-term treatment of fibromyalgia patients with 5 mg tropisetron for 10 days proved to be efficacious and well tolerated. In this study a bell-shaped dose-response curve was seen.

  6. Shuyu Capsules Relieve Premenstrual Syndrome Depression by Reducing 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR Expression in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Feng, Jizhen; Gao, Dongmei; Wang, Jieqiong; Song, Chunhong; Wei, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the Shuyu capsule on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression in a rat model of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) depression and on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and hippocampal neuron 5-HT3 channel current were investigated, to elucidate its mechanism of action against PMS depression. PMS depression model rats were divided into depression and Shuyu- and fluoxetine-treated groups, which were compared to control rats for frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and behavior. The depressed model rats displayed symptoms of depression, which were reduced in treated and normal control rats. Frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR levels were significantly higher in the model versus the control group and were significantly lower in the Shuyu group. As compared to control rats, the 5-HT3R channel current in the model group was significantly higher; the 5-HT3R channel current in hippocampal neurons treated with serum from Shuyu group rats was significantly lower than that in those treated with model group serum. Thus, PMS depression may be related to 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and increased 5-HT3 channel current. Shuyu capsules rectified abnormal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and 5-HT3 channel current changes in a rat model; this finding may provide insight into treating PMS depression. PMID:27725889

  7. Activation of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site.

    PubMed

    Lansdell, Stuart J; Sathyaprakash, Chaitra; Doward, Anne; Millar, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    In common with other members of the Cys-loop family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) are activated by the binding of a neurotransmitter to an extracellular orthosteric site, located at the interface of two adjacent receptor subunits. In addition, a variety of compounds have been identified that modulate agonist-evoked responses of 5-HT3Rs, and other Cys-loop receptors, by binding to distinct allosteric sites. In this study, we examined the pharmacological effects of a group of monoterpene compounds on recombinant 5-HT3Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Two phenolic monoterpenes (carvacrol and thymol) display allosteric agonist activity on human homomeric 5-HT3ARs (64 ± 7% and 80 ± 4% of the maximum response evoked by the endogenous orthosteric agonist 5-HT, respectively). In addition, at lower concentrations, where agonist effects are less apparent, carvacrol and thymol act as potentiators of responses evoked by submaximal concentrations of 5-HT. By contrast, carvacrol and thymol have no agonist or potentiating activity on the closely related mouse 5-HT3ARs. Using subunit chimeras containing regions of the human and mouse 5-HT3A subunits, and by use of site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified transmembrane amino acids that either abolish the agonist activity of carvacrol and thymol on human 5-HT3ARs or are able to confer this property on mouse 5-HT3ARs. By contrast, these mutations have no significant effect on orthosteric activation of 5-HT3ARs by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT3ARs can be activated by the binding of ligands to an allosteric transmembrane site, a conclusion that is supported by computer docking studies. PMID:25338672

  8. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-11-27

    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants. PMID:26456648

  9. Design and validation of a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence cell-based assay targeting the ligand-gated ion channel 5-HT3A.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Emilie; Wagner, Patrick; Plaisier, Fabrice; Schmitt, Martine; Durroux, Thierry; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Partiseti, Michel; Dupuis, Elodie; Bihel, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are considered as attractive protein targets in the search for new therapeutic agents. Nowadays, this strategy involves the capability to screen large chemical libraries. We present a new Tag-lite ligand binding assay targeting LGICs on living cells. This technology combines the use of suicide enzyme tags fused to channels of interest with homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) as the detection readout. Using the 5-HT3 receptor as system model, we showed that the pharmacology of the HALO-5HT3 receptor was identical to that of the native receptor. After validation of the assay by using 5-HT3 agonists and antagonists of reference, a pilot screen enabled us to identify azelastine, a well-known histamine H1 antagonist, as a potent 5-HT3 antagonist. This interesting result was confirmed with electrophysiological experiments. The method described here is easy to implement and could be applicable for other LGICs, opening new ways for the screening of chemical libraries. PMID:25998104

  10. Patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy: the influence of 5HT3 antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer-Dennert, M.; de Wit, R.; Schmitz, P. I.; Djontono, J.; v Beurden, V.; Stoter, G.; Verweij, J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, Coates conducted a survey that ranked the side-effects perceived by patients receiving chemotherapy in the order of their severity. Vomiting and nausea were found to be the two most distressing side-effects. They have an impact on quality of life and compliance with treatment. The development of 5HT3 antagonists has been a major step forward in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Presently, these antiemetics are routinely used as concomitant therapy in emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 5HT3 antagonists on patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy. Coates' survey was replicated in patients who received 5HT3 antagonists for acute nausea and vomiting resulting from emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients received the survey to identify those physical and non-physical side-effects that they attributed to chemotherapy and were asked to rank the five most distressing side-effects. Of the 197 patients who consented to take part in the study, 181 were evaluable. Nausea, hair loss and vomiting were described as the three most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy. Eighty per cent of all the patients actually experienced nausea and 57% experienced vomiting. Hair loss appeared to be more distressing to women (P < 0.001) but, in other aspects, gender, age and marital status did not influence the ranking of the three most distressing side-effects. Constipation was ranked as 6th and was not identified as a distressing side-effect in 1983. Nausea and vomiting remain to be the first and third most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy, even though the incidence and severity of acute nausea and vomiting are now significantly reduced. PMID:9376266

  11. The effect of intrahippocampal injections of ritanserin (5HT2A/2C antagonist) and granisetron (5HT3 antagonist) on learning as assessed in the spatial version of the water maze.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Nasser; Harooni, Hooman E

    2005-02-28

    5HT(2A/2C) and 5HT(3) receptors have an important role in cognitive behavior specially in spatial learning and memory but the literature concerning the role of these receptors in hippocampus in cognition remains controversial. In the present study a 5HT(2A/2C) antagonist ritanserin (0, 2, 4, 8 microg/0.5 microl) and a 5HT(3) antagonist granisetron (0.0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 microg/0.5 microl) were injected bilaterally into the CA1 region of rat hippocampus, 20 min before each training session in Morris Water Maze (MWM) task. Compare with control group, ritanserin (4 microg/0.5 microl) significantly reduced the escape latency and traveled distance of swimming to platform, but granisetron (0.25 microg/0.5 microl) significantly increased those parameters. Both drugs had no effect on escape latency and traveled distance of a non-spatial visual discrimination task. These results suggest a differential role of 5HT(2A/2C) and 5HT(3) receptors during spatial learning that ritanserin improves rat performance in spatial discrimination task whereas granisetron impairs it.

  12. Phenothiazine vs 5HT3 antagonist prophylactic regimens to prevent Post-Anesthesia Care Unit rescue antiemetic: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Joseph R.; Ensor, Joe E.; Lim, Jeffrey W.; Van Meter, Antoinette; Rahlfs, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our practitioners are asked to consider a patient’s postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk profile when developing their prophylactic antiemetic strategy. There is wide variation in employed strategies, and we have yet to determine the most effective PONV prophylactic regimen. The objective of this study is to compare prophylactic antiemetic regimens containing: phenothiazines to 5HT3 antagonists for effectiveness at reducing the incidence of Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) rescue antiemetic administration. Methods This is an observational study of 4,392 nonsmoking women who underwent general anesthesia for breast surgery from 1/1/2009 through 6/30/2012. Previous history of PONV or motion sickness (HxPONV/MS) and the use of PACU opioids were recorded. Prophylactic antiemetic therapy was left to the discretion of the anesthesia care team. We compared phenothiazines and 5HT3 antagonists alone and with a glucocorticoid to determine the most effective treatment regimen in our practice for the prevention of the administration of PACU rescue antiemetics. Results Patients who received a phenothiazine regimen compared to a 5HT3 antagonist regimen were less likely to have an antiemetic administered in the PACU (p=0.0100) and this significant difference in rates holds in a logistic regression model adjusted for HxPONV/MS and PACU Opioid use (p=0.0103). Conclusions Based on our findings our clinicians are encouraged to administer a combination of a phenothiazine and a glucocorticoid in female, nonsmoking surgical breast patients for the prevention of PACU rescue antiemetic administration. PMID:26635998

  13. Electrical interfacing of neurotransmitter receptor and field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peitz, I.; Fromherz, P.

    2009-10-01

    The interfacing of a ligand-gated ion channel to a transistor is studied. It relies on the transduction of ion current to a voltage in a cell-transistor junction. For the first time, a genetically modified cell is used without external driving voltage as applied by a patch-pipette. Using a core-coat conductor model, we show that an autonomous dynamics gives rise to a signal if a driving voltage is provided by potassium channels, and if current compensation is avoided by an inhomogeneous activation of channels. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we transfect HEK293 cells with the serotonin receptor 5-HT3A and the potassium channel Kv1.3. The interfacing is characterized under voltage-clamp with a negative transistor signal for activated 5-HT3A and a positive signal for activated Kv1.3. Without patch-pipette, a biphasic transient is induced by serotonin. The positive wave is assigned to 5-HT3A receptors in the free membrane that drive a potassium outward current through the adherent membrane. The negative wave is attributed to 5-HT3A receptors in the adherent membrane that are activated with a delay due to serotonin diffusion. The implementation of a receptor-cell-transistor device is a fundamental step in the development of biosensors that combine high specificity and universal microelectronic readout.

  14. Ionotrophic 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor activates the protein kinase C-dependent phospholipase D pathway in human T-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, N A; Hichami, A

    1999-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) ionotrophic receptor 5-HT(3) in the activation of human Jurkat T-cells. 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT (2Me-5-HT), an agonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor, induced increases in intracellular free Na(+) concentrations, [Na(+)](i), via opening of the ionotrophic receptor in these cells. These two serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptaminergic) agents potentiated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced T-cell activation. However, they failed to potentiate dioctanoglycerol-plus-ionomycin-stimulated T-cell blastogenesis. Interestingly, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), GF 109203X, curtailed significantly 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT-potentiated T-cell activation. These results demonstrate that the opening of the 5-HT(3) ionotrophic receptor is implicated in T-cell activation via the PKC pathway. Furthermore, 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity, as measured by the production of phosphatidylethanol and phosphatidylbutanol at the expense of phosphatidic acid (PA). GF 109203X significantly curtailed the 5-HT- and 2Me-5-HT-induced PLD activity and T-cell activation. The PLD/PA pathway stimulated by these two serotonergic agents resulted in the production of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) mass in Jurkat T-cells. These results altogether suggest that 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT potentiate T-cell activation via increases in [Na(+)](i) and the activation of the PKC-dependent PLD pathway. PMID:10548551

  15. Ionotrophic 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor activates the protein kinase C-dependent phospholipase D pathway in human T-cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, N A; Hichami, A

    1999-11-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) ionotrophic receptor 5-HT(3) in the activation of human Jurkat T-cells. 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT (2Me-5-HT), an agonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor, induced increases in intracellular free Na(+) concentrations, [Na(+)](i), via opening of the ionotrophic receptor in these cells. These two serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptaminergic) agents potentiated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced T-cell activation. However, they failed to potentiate dioctanoglycerol-plus-ionomycin-stimulated T-cell blastogenesis. Interestingly, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), GF 109203X, curtailed significantly 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT-potentiated T-cell activation. These results demonstrate that the opening of the 5-HT(3) ionotrophic receptor is implicated in T-cell activation via the PKC pathway. Furthermore, 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity, as measured by the production of phosphatidylethanol and phosphatidylbutanol at the expense of phosphatidic acid (PA). GF 109203X significantly curtailed the 5-HT- and 2Me-5-HT-induced PLD activity and T-cell activation. The PLD/PA pathway stimulated by these two serotonergic agents resulted in the production of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) mass in Jurkat T-cells. These results altogether suggest that 5-HT and 2Me-5-HT potentiate T-cell activation via increases in [Na(+)](i) and the activation of the PKC-dependent PLD pathway.

  16. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-10-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/intermediate levels of SERT occupancy, vortioxetine affected rapid eye movement (REM) sleep differently than paroxetine. Here we investigated clinically meaningful doses (80-90% SERT occupancy) of vortioxetine and paroxetine on sleep-EEG in rats to further elucidate the serotoninergic receptor mechanisms mediating this difference. Cortical EEG, electromyography (EMG), and locomotion were recorded telemetrically for 10 days, following an acute dose, from rats receiving vortioxetine-infused chow or paroxetine-infused water and respective controls. Sleep stages were manually scored into active wake, quiet wake, and non-REM or REM sleep. Acute paroxetine or vortioxetine delayed REM onset latency (ROL) and decreased REM episodes. After repeated administration, vortioxetine yielded normal sleep-wake rhythms while paroxetine continued to suppress REM. Paroxetine, unlike vortioxetine, increased transitions from non-REM to wake, suggesting fragmented sleep. Next, we investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptors in eliciting these differences. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron significantly reduced paroxetine's acute effects on ROL, while the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A significantly increased vortioxetine's acute effect on ROL. Overall, our data are consistent with the clinical findings that vortioxetine impacts REM sleep differently than paroxetine, and suggests a role for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism in mitigating these differences.

  17. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/intermediate levels of SERT occupancy, vortioxetine affected rapid eye movement (REM) sleep differently than paroxetine. Here we investigated clinically meaningful doses (80–90% SERT occupancy) of vortioxetine and paroxetine on sleep-EEG in rats to further elucidate the serotoninergic receptor mechanisms mediating this difference. Cortical EEG, electromyography (EMG), and locomotion were recorded telemetrically for 10 days, following an acute dose, from rats receiving vortioxetine-infused chow or paroxetine-infused water and respective controls. Sleep stages were manually scored into active wake, quiet wake, and non-REM or REM sleep. Acute paroxetine or vortioxetine delayed REM onset latency (ROL) and decreased REM episodes. After repeated administration, vortioxetine yielded normal sleep-wake rhythms while paroxetine continued to suppress REM. Paroxetine, unlike vortioxetine, increased transitions from non-REM to wake, suggesting fragmented sleep. Next, we investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptors in eliciting these differences. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron significantly reduced paroxetine’s acute effects on ROL, while the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A significantly increased vortioxetine’s acute effect on ROL. Overall, our data are consistent with the clinical findings that vortioxetine impacts REM sleep differently than paroxetine, and suggests a role for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism in mitigating these differences. PMID:26174134

  18. Enhanced alcohol-seeking behavior by nicotine in the posterior ventral tegmental area of female alcohol-preferring (P) rats: modulation by serotonin-3 and nicotinic cholinergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Deehan, Gerald A.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol and nicotine co-use can reciprocally promote self-administration and drug-craving/drug-seeking behaviors. To date, the neurocircuitry in which nicotine influences ethanol (EtOH) seeking has not been elucidated. Clinical and preclinical research has suggested that the activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system is involved in the promotion of drug seeking. Alcohol, nicotine, and serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors interact within the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to regulate drug reward. Recently, our laboratory has reported that systemic administration of nicotine can promote context-induced EtOH seeking. Objectives The goals of the current study were to (1) determine if microinjections of pharmacologically relevant levels of nicotine into the pVTA would enhance EtOH seeking, (2) determine if coadministration of nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (nACh) or 5-HT3 receptor antagonists would block the ability of nicotine microinjected into the pVTA to promote EtOH seeking, and (3) determine if 5-HT3 receptors in the pVTA can modulate EtOH seeking. Results Nicotine (100 and 200 µM) microinjected into the pVTA enhanced EtOH seeking. Coinfusion with 200 µM mecamylamine (nACh antagonist) or 100 and 200 µM zacopride (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) blocked the observed nicotine enhancement of EtOH seeking. The data also indicated that microinjection of 1 µM CPBG (5-HT3 receptor agonist) promotes context-induced EtOH seeking; conversely microinjection of 100 and 200 µM zacopride alone reduced context-induced EtOH seeking. Conclusions Overall, the results show that nicotine-enhanced EtOH-seeking behavior is modulated by 5-HT3 and nACh receptors within the pVTA and that the 5-HT3 receptor system within pVTA may be a potential pharmacological target to inhibit EtOH-seeking behaviors. PMID:24599396

  19. SPINAL CORD MECHANISMS MEDIATING BEHAVIORAL HYPERALGESIA INDUCED BY NEUROKININ-1 TACHYKININ RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN THE ROSTRAL VENTROMEDIAL MEDULLA

    PubMed Central

    Lagraize, S. C.; Guo, W.; Yang, K.; Wei, F.; Ren, K.; Dubner, R.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperalgesia in animal injury models is linked to activation of descending raphespinal modulatory circuits originating in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). A neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist microinjected into the RVM before or after inflammation produced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) resulted in an attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia. A transient (acute) or a continuous infusion of Substance P (SP) microinjected into the RVM of non-inflamed animals led to similar pain hypersensitivity. Intrathecal pretreatment or post-treatment of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (Y-25130 or ondansetron) blocked the SP-induced hyperalgesia. The SP-induced hyperalgesia was both GABAA and NMDA receptor-dependent after pre- and post-treatment with selective antagonists at the spinal level. A microinjection of SP into the RVM also led to increased NMDA NR1 receptor subunit phosphorylation in spinal cord tissue. The GABAA receptor-mediated hyperalgesia involved a shift in the anionic gradient in dorsal horn nociceptive neurons and an increase in phosphorylated NKCC1 protein (isoform of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter). Following a low dose of SP infused into the RVM, intrathecal muscimol (GABAA agonist) increased SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, phosphorylated NKCC1 protein expression, and NMDA NR1 subunit phosphorylation in the spinal cord. The thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by intrathecal gabazine, the GABAA receptor antagonist, and MK-801, the NMDA receptor channel blocker. These findings indicate that NK-1 receptors in the RVM are involved in SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, this hyperalgesia is 5-HT3-receptor dependent at the spinal level, and involves the functional interaction of spinal GABAA and NMDA receptors. PMID:20888891

  20. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted. PMID:26241351

  1. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-08-04

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT(2A/2C), 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted.

  2. Activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors inhibits regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreflex.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2012-09-01

    Previously we have shown that adenosine operating via the A(1) receptor subtype may inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the baroreflex arc within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and differentially increase renal (RSNA), preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA>RSNA≥LSNA). Since the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex and the arterial baroreflex are mediated via similar medullary pathways, and glutamate is a primary transmitter in both pathways, it is likely that adenosine operating via A(1) receptors in the NTS may differentially inhibit regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors. Therefore, in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 37) we compared regional sympathoinhibition evoked by the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (activated with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT(3) receptor agonist phenylbiguanide, PBG, 1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors [microinjections of N(6)-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), 0.033-330 pmol/50 nl]. Activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors evoked differential, dose-dependent sympathoinhibition (RSNA>ASNA>LSNA), and decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. These differential sympathetic responses were uniformly attenuated in dose-dependent manner by microinjections of CPA into the NTS. Volume control (n = 11) and blockade of adenosine receptor subtypes in the NTS via 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 1 nmol in 100 nl) (n = 9) did not affect the reflex responses. We conclude that activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors uniformly inhibits neural and cardiovascular cardiopulmonary chemoreflex responses. A(1) adenosine receptors have no tonic modulatory effect on this reflex under normal conditions. However, when adenosine is released into the NTS (i.e., during stress or severe hypotension/ischemia), it may serve as negative feedback regulator for depressor and sympathoinhibitory reflexes

  3. Serotonergic receptor mechanisms underlying antidepressant-like action in the progesterone withdrawal model of hormonally induced depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Raaby, Kasper F; Sánchez, Connie; Gulinello, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Hormonally induced mood disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) are characterized by a range of physical and affective symptoms including anxiety, irritability, anhedonia, social withdrawal and depression. Studies demonstrated rodent models of progesterone withdrawal (PWD) have a high level of constructive and descriptive validity to model hormonally-induced mood disorders in women. Here we evaluate the effects of several classes of antidepressants in PWD female Long-Evans rats using the forced swim test (FST) as a measure of antidepressant activity. The study included fluoxetine, duloxetine, amitriptyline and an investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine (5-HT(3), 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist; 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist; 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist; inhibitor of the serotonin transporter (SERT)). After 14 days of administration, amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced immobility in the FST whereas fluoxetine and duloxetine were ineffective. After 3 injections over 48 h, neither fluoxetine nor duloxetine reduced immobility, whereas amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced FST immobility during PWD. When administered acutely during PWD, the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, flesinoxan, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, increased immobility. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, ondansetron, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR-57227, increased immobility. The 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, SB-269970, was inactive, although the 5-HT(7) receptor agonist, AS-19, significantly increased PWD-induced immobility. None of the compounds investigated (ondansetron, flesinoxan and SB-269970) improved the effect of fluoxetine during PWD. These data indicate that modulation of specific 5-HT receptor subtypes is critical for manipulating FST immobility in this model of hormone-induced depression.

  4. A cluster of novel serotonin receptor 3-like genes on human chromosome 3.

    PubMed

    Karnovsky, Alla M; Gotow, Lisa F; McKinley, Denise D; Piechan, Julie L; Ruble, Cara L; Mills, Cynthia J; Schellin, Kathleen A B; Slightom, Jerry L; Fitzgerald, Laura R; Benjamin, Christopher W; Roberds, Steven L

    2003-11-13

    The ligand-gated ion channel family includes receptors for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), acetylcholine, GABA, and glutamate. Drugs targeting subtypes of these receptors have proven useful for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. To identify new ligand-gated ion channels as potential therapeutic targets, drafts of human genome sequence were interrogated. Portions of four novel genes homologous to 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B) receptors were identified within human sequence databases. We named the genes 5-HT(3C1)-5-HT(3C4). Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping localized these genes to chromosome 3q27-28. All four genes shared similar intron-exon organizations and predicted protein secondary structure with 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B). Orthologous genes were detected by Southern blotting in several species including dog, cow, and chicken, but not in rodents, suggesting that these novel genes are not present in rodents or are very poorly conserved. Two of the novel genes are predicted to be pseudogenes, but two other genes are transcribed and spliced to form appropriate open reading frames. The 5-HT(3C1) transcript is expressed almost exclusively in small intestine and colon, suggesting a possible role in the serotonin-responsiveness of the gut.

  5. Dipicrylamine Modulates GABAρ1 Receptors through Interactions with Residues in the TM4 and Cys-Loop Domains.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Ruiz, Jorge M Reyes; Miledi, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Dipicrylamine (DPA) is a commonly used acceptor agent in Förster resonance energy transfer experiments that allows the study of high-frequency neuronal activity in the optical monitoring of voltage in living cells. However, DPA potently antagonizes GABAA receptors that contain α1 and β2 subunits by a mechanism which is not clearly understood. In this work, we aimed to determine whether DPA modulation is a general phenomenon of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs), and whether this modulation depends on particular amino acid residues. For this, we studied the effects of DPA on human homomeric GABAρ1, α7 nicotinic, and 5-HT3A serotonin receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results indicate that DPA is an allosteric modulator of GABAρ1 receptors with an IC50 of 1.6 µM, an enhancer of α7 nicotinic receptors at relatively high concentrations of DPA, and has little, if any, effect on 5-HT3A receptors. DPA antagonism of GABAρ1 was strongly enhanced by preincubation, was slightly voltage-dependent, and its washout was accelerated by bovine serum albumin. These results indicate that DPA modulation is not a general phenomenon of LGICs, and structural differences between receptors may account for disparities in DPA effects. In silico modeling of DPA docking to GABAρ1, α7 nicotinic, and 5-HT3A receptors suggests that a hydrophobic pocket within the Cys-loop and the M4 segment in GABAρ1, located at the extracellular/membrane interface, facilitates the interaction with DPA that leads to inhibition of the receptor. Functional examinations of mutant receptors support the involvement of the M4 segment in the allosteric modulation of GABAρ1 by DPA. PMID:26869399

  6. Oxymetazoline inhibits adenylate cyclase by activation of serotonin-1 receptors in the OK cell, an established renal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T J; Bylund, D B

    1988-07-01

    The nonselective alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline inhibits parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated cAMP production in intact OK cells, an epithelial cell line derived from an American opossum kidney. This inhibition, however, is not blocked by alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists. After excluding several alternate hypotheses to explain this anomalous activity of oxymetazoline, we hypothesized that oxymetazoline activates a receptor in OK cells that is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase but distinct from the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor. Prior exposure of OK cells to pertussis toxin blocks the inhibitory response to oxymetazoline, suggesting involvement of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein. Screening various compounds for attenuation of PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase showed that serotonin (5HT) is a potent and fully efficacious agonist. Desensitization of alpha 2-receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP production by epinephrine did not alter the response to either 5HT or oxymetazoline, indicating that these compounds do not produce their effect by activating alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. The 5HT1 receptor-selective antagonist methiothepin, but not ketanserin (5HT2-selective) or ICS-205,930 (5HT3-selective), blocked the response to both 5HT and oxymetazoline. The potency of methiothepin for antagonizing oxymetazoline-induced inhibition of PTH-stimulated cAMP production was not significantly different from its potency for the 5HT-induced effect. These data indicate that OK cells express a 5HT1 receptor that is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase and that oxymetazoline is an agonist at these receptors.

  7. Expression of serotonin receptor genes in cranial ganglia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naohiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Taste cells release neurotransmitters to gustatory neurons to transmit chemical information they received. Sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells use ATP as a neurotransmitter. However, ATP release from sour taste cells has not been observed so far. Instead, they release serotonin when they are activated by sour/acid stimuli. Thus it is still controversial whether sour taste cells use ATP, serotonin, or both. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses, we revealed that of 14 serotonin receptor genes only 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B showed significant/clear signals in a subset of neurons of cranial sensory ganglia in which gustatory neurons reside. Double-fluorescent labeling analyses of ISH for serotonin receptor genes with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in cranial sensory ganglia of pkd1l3-WGA mice whose sour neural pathway is visualized by the distribution of WGA originating from sour taste cells in the posterior region of the tongue revealed that WGA-positive cranial sensory neurons rarely express either of serotonin receptor gene. These results suggest that serotonin receptors expressed in cranial sensory neurons do not play any role as neurotransmitter receptor from sour taste cells. PMID:26854841

  8. Characterization of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor which mediates contraction of the human isolated basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A A; Whalley, E T

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study which investigated the identity of the receptor involved in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) mediated contraction of the human basilar artery in vitro. 5-HT and a variety of 5-HT receptor agonists contracted human isolated basilar artery with a rank order of agonist potency: 5-carboxamidotryptamine greater than 5-HT greater than GR43175 much much greater than 2-methyl-5-HT. The maximum response produced by these agonists differed. The contractile responses to both 5-HT and GR43175 were resistant to antagonism by the 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin and the 5-HT3 antagonist GR38032, indicating that neither 5-HT nor GR43175 activate 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in this tissue. In striking contrast, methiothepin (an antagonist at 5-HT1-like receptors) proved a potent antagonist of the contractile actions of both 5-HT and GR43175. Methiothepin did not antagonize the contractile response to the thromboxane-A2 mimetic U-46619. It is concluded that 5-HT and GR43175 contract the human isolated basilar artery by activating 5-HT1-like receptors. It is suggested that the antimigraine action of GR43175 may reflect its ability to constrict certain cranial arteries via 5-HT1-like receptor activation. PMID:2544283

  9. Phosphoinositide system-linked serotonin receptor subtypes and their pharmacological properties and clinical correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, S C; Davis, J M; Pandey, G N

    1995-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission represents a complex mechanism involving pre- and post-synaptic events and distinct 5-HT receptor subtypes. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors have been classified into several categories, and they are termed as 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 type receptors. 5-HT1 receptors have been further subdivided into 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E and 5-HT1F. 5-HT2 receptors have been divided into 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors. All 5-HT2 receptor subtypes are linked to the multifunctional phosphoinositide (PI) signalling system. 5-HT3 receptors are considered ion-gated receptors and are also linked to the PI signalling system by an unknown mechanism. The 5-HT2A receptor subtype is the most widely studied of the 5-HT receptors in psychiatric disorders (for example, suicide, depression and schizophrenia) as well as in relation to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. The roles of 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors in psychiatric disorders are less clear. These 5-HT receptors also play an important role in alcoholism. It has been shown that 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 antagonists cause attenuation of alcohol intake in animals and humans. However, the exact mechanisms are unknown. The recent cloning of the cDNAs for 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors provides the opportunity to explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for the alterations in these receptors during illness as well as pharmacotherapy. This review article will focus on the current research into the pharmacological properties, molecular biology, and clinical correlates of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:7786883

  10. Control of sensory neuron excitability by serotonin involves 5HT2C receptors and Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Isabella; Gantumur, Enkhbileg; Yousuf, Arsalan; Boehm, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Serotonin (5HT) is a constituent of the so-called "inflammatory soup" that sensitizes nociceptors during inflammation. Nevertheless, receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate an excitation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by 5HT remained controversial. Therefore, capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons dissociated from rat DRGs were used to investigate effects of 5HT on membrane excitability and currents through ligand- as well as voltage-gated ion channels. In 58% of the neurons tested, 5HT increased action potential firing, an effect that was abolished by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ritanserin, but not by the 5HT3 antagonist tropisetron. Unlike other algogenic mediators, such as PGE2 and bradykinin, 5HT did not affect currents through TTX-resistant Na(+) channels or Kv7 K(+) channels. In all neurons investigated, 5HT potentiated capsaicin-evoked currents through TRPV1 channels, an effect that was attenuated by antagonists at 5HT2A (4 F 4 PP), 5HT2B (SB 204741), as well as 5HT2C (RS 102221) receptors. 5HT triggered slowly arising inward Cl(-) currents in 53% of the neurons. This effect was antagonized by the 5HT2C receptor blocker only, and the current was prevented by an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (CaCC). The 5HT-induced increase in action potential firing was also abolished by this CaCC blocker and by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine. Amongst the subtype selective 5HT2 antagonists, only RS 102221 (5HT2C-selectively) counteracted the rise in action potential firing elicited by 5HT. These results show that 5HT excites DRG neurons mainly via 5HT2C receptors which concomitantly mediate a sensitization of TRPV1 channels and an opening of CaCCs.

  11. GABA-A receptor inhibition of local calcium signaling in spines and dendrites.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Joseph J; Carter, Adam G

    2014-11-26

    Cortical interneurons activate GABA-A receptors to rapidly control electrical and biochemical signaling at pyramidal neurons. Different populations of interneurons are known to uniquely target the soma and dendrites of pyramidal neurons. However, the ability of these interneurons to inhibit Ca(2+) signaling at spines and dendrites is largely unexplored. Here we use whole-cell recordings, two-photon microscopy, GABA uncaging and optogenetics to study dendritic inhibition at layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in slices of mouse PFC. We first show that GABA-A receptors strongly inhibit action potential (AP)-evoked Ca(2+) signals at both spines and dendrites. We find robust inhibition over tens of milliseconds that spreads along the dendritic branch. However, we observe no difference in the amount of inhibition at neighboring spines and dendrites. We then examine the influence of interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), or 5HT3a receptors. We determine that these populations of interneurons make unique contacts onto the apical and basal dendrites of L5 pyramidal neurons. We also show that SOM and 5HT3a but not PV interneurons potently inhibit AP Ca(2+) signals via GABA-A receptors at both spines and dendrites. These findings reveal how multiple interneurons regulate local Ca(2+) signaling in pyramidal neurons, with implications for cortical function and disease.

  12. Effects of pretreatment with clonidine, lithium and quinine on the activities of antidepressant drugs in the mouse tail suspension test.

    PubMed

    Redrobe, J P; Bourin, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the investigation of pretreatment effects with clonidine (0.06 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]), lithium (1 mEq, i.p.) or quinine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on the activities of various drugs acting on noradrenergic and/or serotonergic systems in the mouse tail suspension test. Drugs used in the present study included: the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and dothiepin, the heterocyclic antidepressant trazodone, the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine, the atypical antidepressants mianserin and iprindole, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist ipsapirone, the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist ritanserin, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Clonidine, lithium and quinine differentially enhanced the effects of several psychotropic/drugs administered at sub-active doses. The activity of iprindole (32 mg/kg, i.p.) was not potentiated by pretreatment with clonidine, lithium or quinine. Our results suggest that lithium exerted additive effects via postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor activation, quinine via potassium ion channel blockade of 5-HT3 receptors, while clonidine did so primarily via action at 5-HT2 receptors.

  13. Synergistic Self-Administration of Ethanol and Cocaine Directly into the Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area: Involvement of Serotonin-3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Scott M.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) and cocaine are both self-administered into the posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA). Self-administration of either drug is prevented by coadministration of a serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonist. Electrophysiological studies indicated that cocaine and EtOH can act synergistically to stimulate VTA dopamine neurons. The current experiment assessed whether cocaine and EtOH would synergistically interact to produce a reinforcing action within the posterior VTA. Adult female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 13 groups. There were three control groups: artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), a subthreshold EtOH (100 mg%) group, and a subthreshold cocaine (25 pmol/100 nl) group. The other groups self-administered 50 or 75 mg% EtOH containing 6.25, 12.5, or 25 pmol/100 nl cocaine or 100 mg% EtOH containing 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, or 25 pmol/100 nl cocaine. All rats received the assigned infusate for sessions 1 through 4, aCSF alone in sessions 5 and 6, and the original infusate during session 7. The effects of adding a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist [tropisetron, C17H20N2O2 (ICS 205,930) and C17H22N4O.C4H4O4 (LY278-584)] on coadministration of EtOH and cocaine (75 mg% + 12.5 pmol/100 nl) were determined. Rats failed to self-administer aCSF or the subthreshold concentration of EtOH or cocaine. All three concentrations of EtOH (50, 75, and 100 mg%) combined with cocaine (12.5 and 25 pmol/100 nl) supported self-administration. Adding a 5HT3 receptor antagonist attenuated coadministration of EtOH + cocaine. Overall, the data indicate that the reinforcing properties of EtOH and cocaine interacted synergistically within the posterior VTA, and these synergistic effects were mediated, at least in part, by activation of local 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:22011435

  14. Role of spinal 5-HT receptors in cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by REM sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Ma, Ainiu; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation facilitates pain sensitivity. Since serotoninergic raphe neurons are involved both in regulation of sleep and descending pain modulation, we studied whether spinal 5-HT receptors have a role in sleep deprivation-induced facilitation of pain-related behavior. REM sleep deprivation of 48h was induced by the flower pot method in the rat. The pain modulatory influence of various serotoninergic compounds administered intrathecally was assessed by determining limb withdrawal response to monofilaments. REM sleep deprivation produced a marked hypersensitivity. Sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity and normal sensitivity in controls were reduced both by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist (WAY-100635) and a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist (RS-102221). An antagonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor (LY-278584) failed to modulate hypersensitivity in sleep-deprived or control animals. Paradoxically, sensitivity in sleep-deprived and control animals was reduced not only by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist but also by a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (8-OHDPAT). The results indicate that serotoninergic receptors in the spinal cord have a complex role in the control of sleep-deprivation induced cutaneous hypersensitivity as well as baseline sensitivity in control conditions. While endogenous serotonin acting on 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors may facilitate mechanical sensitivity in animals with a sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity as well as in controls, increased activation of spinal 5-HT(1A) receptors by an exogenous agonist leads to suppression of mechanical sensitivity in both conditions. Spinal 5-HT(3) receptors do not contribute to cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by sleep deprivation.

  15. Cloning and expression of ligand-gated ion-channel receptor L2 in central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Houtani, Takeshi; Munemoto, Yumi; Kase, Masahiko; Sakuma, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Tetsuo . E-mail: sugimoto@takii.kmu.ac.jp

    2005-09-23

    An orphan receptor of ligand-gated ion-channel type (L2, also termed ZAC according to the presence of zinc ion for channel activation) was identified by computer-assisted search programs on human genome database. The L2 protein shares partial homology with serotonin receptors 5HT3A and 5HT3B. We have cloned L2 cDNA derived from human caudate nucleus and characterized the exon-intron structure as follows: (1) The L2 protein has four transmembrane regions (M1-M4) and a long cytoplasmic loop between M3 and M4. (2) The sequence is conserved in species including chimpanzee, dog, cow, and opossum. (3) Nine exons form its protein-coding region and especially exon 5 corresponds to a disulfide bond region on the amino-terminal side. Our analysis using multiple tissue cDNA panels revealed that at least two splicing variants of L2 mRNA are present. The cDNA PCR amplification study revealed that L2 mRNA is expressed in tissues including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle while 5HT3A mRNA could be detected in brain, heart, placenta, lung, kidney, pancreas, and skeletal muscle, and 5HT3B mRNA in brain, kidney, and skeletal muscle, suggesting different significance in tissue expression of these receptors. Regional expression of L2 mRNA and protein was examined in brain. The RT-PCR studies confirmed L2 mRNA expression in hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and thalamus in adult brain. The L2 protein was immunolocalized by using antipeptide antibodies. Immunostained tissue sections revealed that L2-like immunoreactivity was dominantly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. We analyzed the expression of L2 protein in HEK293 cells using GFP fusion protein reporter system. Western blots revealed that L2 protein confers sugar chains on the extracellular side. In transfected HEK293 cells, cellular membranes and intracellular puncta were densely labeled with GFP, suggesting selective dispatch to the

  16. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  17. Expression of Serotonin Receptors in the Colonic Tissue of Chronic Diarrhea Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Juanjuan; Wan, Jiajia; Wang, Fengyun; Tang, Xudong; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the difference among the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors) in colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats. Materials and Methods: A rat model of chronic diarrhea was established by lactose diet. The expression of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the colonic tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Results: There is no significant difference on the protein expression of 5-HT3 receptor between the normal group and the chronic diarrhea model group. The mRNA expression of 5-HT3 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01). The protein and mRNA expression of 5-HT4 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.05, P < 0.01). On the contrary, the protein and mRNA expressions of 5-HT7 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly decreased compared with the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results suggested the receptors of 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 may be involved in inducing diarrhea by lactose diet. PMID:27184643

  18. Anxiogenic activity of Myristica fragrans seeds.

    PubMed

    Sonavane, G S; Sarveiya, V P; Kasture, V S; Kasture, S B

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the n-hexane extract of Myristica fragrans (MF) seeds, acetone-insoluble part of the n-hexane extract (AIMF) and trimyristin (TM) were assessed for their anxiogenic activity. The MF (10 and 30 mg/kg), AIMF (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg), and TM (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally exhibited anxiogenic activity in elevated plus-maze (EPM) paradigm. The open-field test and hole-board test were also used to assess anxiogenic activity of AIMF and TM. In the EPM test, MF, AIMF, and TM decreased the time spent by mice in the open arm and the entries in the open arm. Further, the effect of diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.), serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (1 mg/kg i.p.), and 5-HT1A receptor agonist, buspirone (1 mg/kg i.p.), on the occupancy in open arm and entries in open arm was significantly reduced by TM. In the open-field test, AIMF as well as TM reduced the number of rearing and locomotion. Both TM and AIMF reduced the number of head pock in the hole-board test. Inhibition of anxiolytic activity of ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist), buspirone (5-HT1A receptor agonist), and diazepam [acting on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor] suggests a nonspecific anxiogenic activity of TM and also a link between 5-HT and GABA systems in the anxiogenic activity of TM.

  19. The 5-HT4 receptor: molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of two splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, C; Adham, N; Kao, H T; Olsen, M A; Laz, T M; Schechter, L E; Bard, J A; Vaysse, P J; Hartig, P R; Branchek, T A

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cloning efforts have provided primary amino acid sequence and signal transduction data for a large collection of serotonin receptor subtypes. These include five 5-HT1-like receptors, three 5-HT2 receptors, one 5-HT3 receptor, two 5-HT5 receptors, one 5-HT6 receptor and one 5-HT7 receptor. Molecular biological information on the 5-HT4 receptor is notably absent from this list. We now report the cloning of the pharmacologically defined 5-HT4 receptor. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers, we identified a rat brain PCR fragment which encoded a '5-HT receptor-like' amino acid sequence. The corresponding full length cDNA was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. Transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, this receptor stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity and is sensitive to the benzamide derivative cisapride. The response is also blocked by ICS-205930. Interestingly, we isolated two splice variants of the receptor, 5-HT4L and 5-HT4S, differing in the length and sequence of their C-termini. In rat brain, the 5-HT4S transcripts are restricted to the striatum, but the 5-HT4L transcripts are expressed throughout the brain, except in the cerebellum where it was barely detectable. In peripheral tissues, differential expression was also observed in the atrium of the heart where only the 5-HT4S isoform was detectable. Images PMID:7796807

  20. Signal transduction activated by cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Laviada, Inés; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia

    2005-07-01

    Since the discovery that cannabinoids exert biological actions through binding to specific receptors, signal mechanisms triggered by these receptors have been focus of extensive study. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signalling events produced by cannabinoids from membrane receptors to downstream regulators. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified to date: CB(1) and CB(2) both belonging to the heptahelichoidal receptor family but with different tissue distribution and signalling mechanisms. Coupling to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and thus inhibition of adenylyl cyclase has been observed in both receptors but other signal transduction pathways that are regulated or not by these G proteins are differently activated upon ligand-receptor binding including ion channels, sphingomyelin hydrolysis, ceramide generation, phospholipases activation and downstream targets as MAP kinase cascade, PI3K, FAK or NOS regulation. Cannabinoids may also act independently of CB(1)or CB(2) receptors. The existence of new unidentified putative cannabinoid receptors has been claimed by many investigators. Endocannabinoids activate vanilloid TRPV1 receptors that may mediate some of the cannabinoid effects. Other actions of cannabinoids can occur through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms.

  1. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine is a powerful central neuromodulator acting via opposing A1 (inhibitor) and A2a (activator) receptors. However, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), both adenosine receptor subtypes attenuate cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) sympathoinhibition of renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and attenuate reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Adenosine A1 receptors inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the CCR pathway, whereas adenosine A2a receptors most likely facilitate release of an unknown inhibitory neurotransmitter, which, in turn, inhibits the CCR. We hypothesized that adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the CCR via facilitation of GABA release in the NTS. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 51), we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors [microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 (20 pmol/50 nl)] preceded by blockade of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the NTS [bicuculline (10 pmol/100 nl) or SCH-50911 (1 nmol/100 nl)]. Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects. These effects were similar for the different sympathetic outputs. We conclude that stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibits CCR-evoked hemodynamic and regional sympathetic reflex responses via a GABA-ergic mechanism.

  2. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine is a powerful central neuromodulator acting via opposing A1 (inhibitor) and A2a (activator) receptors. However, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), both adenosine receptor subtypes attenuate cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) sympathoinhibition of renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and attenuate reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Adenosine A1 receptors inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the CCR pathway, whereas adenosine A2a receptors most likely facilitate release of an unknown inhibitory neurotransmitter, which, in turn, inhibits the CCR. We hypothesized that adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the CCR via facilitation of GABA release in the NTS. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 51), we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors [microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 (20 pmol/50 nl)] preceded by blockade of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the NTS [bicuculline (10 pmol/100 nl) or SCH-50911 (1 nmol/100 nl)]. Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects. These effects were similar for the different sympathetic outputs. We conclude that stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibits CCR-evoked hemodynamic and regional sympathetic reflex responses via a GABA-ergic mechanism. PMID:25910812

  3. Effect of homologous serotonin receptor loop substitutions on the heterologous expression in Pichia of a chimeric acetylcholine-binding protein with alpha-bungarotoxin-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joao A; Hawrot, Edward

    2009-10-01

    The molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) is a soluble homopentameric homolog of the extracellular domain of various ligand-gated ion channels. Previous studies have reported that AChBP, when fused to the ion pore domain of the serotonin receptor (5HT(3A)R), can form a functional ligand-gated chimeric channel only if the AChBP loop regions between beta-strands beta1 and beta2 (beta1-beta2), beta6 and beta7 (beta6-beta7), and beta8 and beta9 (beta8-beta9) are replaced with those of the 5HT(3A)R. To investigate further the potential interactions among these three important loop regions in a membrane- and detergent-free system, we designed AChBP constructs in which loops beta1-beta2, beta6-beta7, and beta8-beta9 of the AChBP were individually and combinatorially substituted in all permutations with the analogous loops of the 5HT(3A)R. These chimeras were expressed as secreted proteins using the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. [(125)I]-alpha-Bungarotoxin-binding was detected in the culture media obtained from homologous recombinant clones expressing the wild-type AChBP, the beta1-beta2 loop-only chimera, and the chimera containing all three 5HT(3A)R loop substitutions. The remaining chimeras failed to show [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin binding, and further analysis of cellular extracts allowed us to determine that these binding-negative chimeric constructs accumulated intracellularly and were not secreted into the culture medium. Our results demonstrate that coordinated interactions among loops beta1-beta2, beta6-beta7, and beta8-beta9 are essential for the formation of a functional ligand-binding site, as evidenced by [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin-binding, and for efficient protein secretion. In addition, the constructs described here demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing soluble scaffolds to explore functionally important interactions within the extracellular domain of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:19427904

  4. Using Nuclear Receptor Activity to Stratify Hepatocarcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Imran; Houck, Keith; Judson, Richard S.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Martin, Matthew T.; Reif, David M.; Wambaugh, John; Dix, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nuclear receptors (NR) are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that control a range of cellular processes. Persistent stimulation of some NR is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. Here we report on a systematic analysis of new in vitro human NR activity data on 309 environmental chemicals in relationship to their liver cancer-related chronic outcomes in rodents. Results The effects of 309 environmental chemicals on human constitutive androstane receptors (CAR/NR1I3), pregnane X receptor (PXR/NR1I2), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR/NR1C), liver X receptors (LXR/NR1H), retinoic X receptors (RXR/NR2B) and steroid receptors (SR/NR3) were determined using in vitro data. Hepatic histopathology, observed in rodents after two years of chronic treatment for 171 of the 309 chemicals, was summarized by a cancer lesion progression grade. Chemicals that caused proliferative liver lesions in both rat and mouse were generally more active for the human receptors, relative to the compounds that only affected one rodent species, and these changes were significant for PPAR (p0.001), PXR (p0.01) and CAR (p0.05). Though most chemicals exhibited receptor promiscuity, multivariate analysis clustered them into relatively few NR activity combinations. The human NR activity pattern of chemicals weakly associated with the severity of rodent liver cancer lesion progression (p0.05). Conclusions The rodent carcinogens had higher in vitro potency for human NR relative to non-carcinogens. Structurally diverse chemicals with similar NR promiscuity patterns weakly associated with the severity of rodent liver cancer progression. While these results do not prove the role of NR activation in human liver cancer, they do have implications for nuclear receptor chemical biology and provide insights into putative toxicity pathways. More importantly, these findings suggest the

  5. Xanthine oxidase, but not neutrophils, contributes to activation of cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischaemia in cats

    PubMed Central

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    2002-01-01

    Activation of cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischaemia causes angina and induces important cardiovascular reflex responses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important chemical stimuli of cardiac afferents during and after ischaemia. Iron-catalysed Fenton chemistry constitutes one mechanism of production of hydroxyl radicals. Another potential source of these species is xanthine oxidase-catalysed oxidation of purines. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) also contribute to the production of ROS in some conditions. The present study tested the hypothesis that both xanthine oxidase-catalysed oxidation of purines and neutrophils provide a source of ROS sufficient to activate cardiac afferents during ischaemia. We recorded single-unit activity of cardiac afferents innervating the ventricles recorded from the left thoracic sympathetic chain (T1-5) of anaesthetized cats to identify the afferents' responses to ischaemia. The role of xanthine oxidase in activation of these afferents was determined by infusion of oxypurinol (10 mg kg−1, i.v.), an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. The importance of neutrophils as a potential source of ROS in the activation of cardiac afferents during ischaemia was assessed by the infusion of a polyclonal antibody (3 mg ml−1 kg−1, i.v.) raised in rabbits immunized with cat PMNs. This antibody decreased the number of circulating PMNs and, to a smaller extent, platelets. Since previous data suggest that platelets release serotonin (5-HT), which activates cardiac afferents through a serotonin receptor (subtype 3,5-HT3 receptor) mechanism, before treatment with the antibody in another group, we blocked 5-HT3 receptors on sensory nerve endings with tropisetron (300 μg kg−1, i.v.). We observed that oxypurinol significantly decreased the activity of cardiac afferents during myocardial ischaemia from 1.5 ± 0.4 to 0.8 ± 0.4 impulses s−1. Similarly, the polyclonal antibody significantly reduced the discharge frequency of

  6. Pindolol does not act only on 5-HT1A receptors in augmenting antidepressant activity in the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Redrobe, J P; Baker, G B

    1998-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify the receptor subtypes involved in (+/-) pindolol's ability to enhance the effects of antidepressant drugs in the mouse forced swimming test. Interaction studies were performed with S 15535 (presynaptic 5-HT1A receptor agonist) and methiothepin (5-HT1B autoreceptor antagonist) in an attempt to attenuate or potentiate antidepressant-like activity. (+/-) Pindolol was tested in combination with selective agonists and antagonists at 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptor subtypes. Pretreatment with S 15535 and methiothepin attenuated the activity of paroxetine, fluvoxamine and citalopram (32 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.01). (+/-) Pindolol (32 mg/kg, i.p.) induced significant anti-immobility effects when tested in combination with 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridyl)-1H-indole (RU 24969) (1 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05), 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[-(2-phthalimido) butyl]piperazine) (NAN 190) (0.5 mg/kg; P < 0.05) and ondansetron (0.00001 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.01). Pretreatment with NAN 190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effects of RU 24969 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05) and (+/-) pindolol (32 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05) in the forced swimming test, as did ondansetron (0.00001 mg/kg, i.p.). Significant additive effects were induced when RU 24969 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was tested in combination with NAN 190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05), (+/-) pindolol (32 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05) and ondansetron (0.0000 mg/kg, i.p.; P < 0.05). 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or ketanserin (8 mg/kg, i.p.) did not induce significant antidepressant-like effects with any of the agonists/antagonists tested. The results of the present study suggest that pindolol is acting at presynaptic 5-HT1B serotonergic receptors, in addition to the 5-HT1A subtype, in augmenting the activity of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test.

  7. Activation of Neuropeptide FF Receptors by Kisspeptin Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shinya; Misu, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kenji; Setsuda, Shohei; Masuda, Ryo; Ohno, Hiroaki; Naniwa, Yousuke; Ieda, Nahoko; Inoue, Naoko; Ohkura, Satoshi; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2011-01-13

    Kisspeptin is a member of the RFamide neuropeptide family that is implicated in gonadotropin secretion. Because kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling is implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction, GPR54 ligands represent promising therapeutic agents against endocrine secretion disorders. In the present study, the selectivity profiles of GPR54 agonist peptides were investigated for several GPCRs, including RFamide receptors. Kisspeptin-10 exhibited potent binding and activation of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and NPFFR2). In contrast, short peptide agonists bound with much lower affinity to NPFFRs while showing relatively high selectivity toward GPR54. The possible localization of secondary kisspeptin targets was also demonstrated by variation in the levels of GnRH release from the median eminence and the type of GPR54 agonists used. Negligible affinity of the reported NPFFR ligands to GPR54 was observed and indicates the unidirectional cross-reactivity between both ligands.

  8. Mechanism of FGF receptor dimerization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (fgfs) are widely believed to activate their receptors by mediating receptor dimerization. Here we show, however, that the FGF receptors form dimers in the absence of ligand, and that these unliganded dimers are phosphorylated. We further show that ligand binding triggers structural changes in the FGFR dimers, which increase FGFR phosphorylation. The observed effects due to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2 are very different. The fgf2-bound dimer structure ensures the smallest separation between the transmembrane (TM) domains and the highest possible phosphorylation, a conclusion that is supported by a strong correlation between TM helix separation in the dimer and kinase phosphorylation. The pathogenic A391E mutation in FGFR3 TM domain emulates the action of fgf2, trapping the FGFR3 dimer in its most active state. This study establishes the existence of multiple active ligand-bound states, and uncovers a novel molecular mechanism through which FGFR-linked pathologies can arise. PMID:26725515

  9. Serotonin-3 receptors in the posterior ventral tegmental area regulate ethanol self-administration of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Oster, Scott M; Toalston, Jamie E; Pommer, Tylene J; McBride, William J; Murphy, James M

    2010-05-01

    Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 ([5-hydroxy tryptamine] 5-HT(3)) receptors in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers (Coulbourn Instruments, Allentown, PA) were used to examine the effects of seven consecutive bilateral microinfusions of ICS 205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (vol/vol) ethanol self-administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the fourth session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25, and 1.25 microg) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition postinjection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the three highest doses (0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 microg) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; after the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Microinfusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% wt/v) self-administration. Microinfusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT(3) receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA.

  10. Serotonin-3 Receptors in the Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area Regulate Ethanol Self-Administration of Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodd, Zachary A.; Bell, Richard L.; Oster, Scott M.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Pommer, Tylene J.; McBride, William J.; Murphy, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT3 receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers were used to examine the effects of 7 consecutive bilateral micro-infusions of ICS205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (v/v) ethanol self-administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the 4th session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25 and 1.25 ug) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition post-injection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the 3 highest doses (0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 ug) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; following the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Micro-infusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever, and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% w/v) self-administration.. Micro-infusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT3 receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration, and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA. PMID:20682192

  11. Characterization of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating contraction in the pig isolated intravesical ureter

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Medardo; Barahona, María Victoria; Simonsen, Ulf; Recio, Paz; Rivera, Luis; Martínez, Ana Cristina; García-Sacristán, Albino; Orensanz, Luis M; Prieto, Dolores

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and to characterize the 5-HT receptors involved in 5-HT responses in the pig intravesical ureter. 5-HT (0.01–10 μM) concentration-dependently increased the tone of intravesical ureteral strips, whereas the increases in phasic contractions were concentration-independent. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist α-methyl 5-HT, mimicked the effect on tone whereas weak or no response was obtained with 5-CT, 8-OH-DPAT, m-chlorophenylbiguanide and RS 67333, 5-HT1, 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor agonists, respectively. 5-HT did not induce relaxation of U46619-contracted ureteral preparations. Pargyline (100 μM), a monoaminooxidase A/B activity inhibitor, produced leftward displacements of the concentration-response curves for 5-HT. 5-HT-induced tone was reduced by the 5-HT2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists ritanserine (0.1 μM) and spiperone (0.2 μM), respectively. However, 5-HT contraction was not antagonized by cyanopindolol (2 μM), SDZ–SER 082 (1 μM), Y-25130 (1 μM) and GR 113808 (0.1 μM), which are respectively, 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2B/2C, 5-HT3, and 5-HT4 selective receptor antagonists. Removal of the urothelium did not modify 5-HT-induced contractions. Blockade of neuronal voltage-activated sodium channels, α-adrenergic receptors and adrenergic neurotransmission with tetrodotoxin (1 μM), phentolamine (0.3 μM) and guanethidine (10 μM), respectively, reduced the contractions to 5-HT. However, physostigmine (1 μM), atropine (0.1 μM) and suramin (30 μM), inhibitors of cholinesterase activity, muscarinic- and purinergic P2-receptors, respectively, failed to modify the contractions to 5-HT. These results suggest that 5-HT increases the tone of the pig intravesical ureter through 5-HT2A receptors located at the smooth muscle. Part of the 5-HT contraction is indirectly mediated via noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerves. PMID:12522083

  12. Coagulation, Protease Activated Receptors and Viral Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation protease cascade plays an essential role in hemostasis. In addition, a clot contributes to host defense by limiting the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases induce intracellular signaling by cleavage of cell surface receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors allow cells to sense changes in the extracellular environment, such as infection. Viruses activate the coagulation cascade by inducing tissue factor expression and by disrupting the endothelium. Virus infection of the heart can cause myocarditis, cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Recent studies using a mouse model have shown that tissue factor, thrombin and PAR-1 signaling all positively regulate the innate immune during viral myocarditis. In contrast, PAR-2 signaling was found to inhibit interferon-β expression and the innate immune response. These observations suggest that anticoagulants may impair the innate immune response to viral infection and that inhibition of PAR-2 may be a new target to reduce viral myocarditis.. PMID:24203054

  13. Modulators of androgen and estrogen receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bart L; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on significant recent findings regarding modulators of androgen and estrogen receptor activity. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) interact with androgen receptors (ARs), and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) interact with estrogen receptors (ERs), with variable tissue selectivity. SERMs, which interact with both ERб and ERв in a tissue-specific manner to produce diverse outcomes in multiple tissues, continue to generate significant interest for clinical application. Development of SARMs for clinical application has been slower to date because of potential adverse effects, but these diverse compounds continue to be investigated for use in disorders in which modulation of the AR is important. SARMs have been investigated mostly at the basic and preclinical level to date, with few human clinical trials published. These compounds have been evaluated mostly for application in different stages of prostate cancer to date, but they hold promise for multiple other applications. Publication of the large STAR and RUTH clinical trials demonstrated that the SERMs tamoxifen and raloxifene have interesting similarities and differences in tissues that contain ERs. Lasofoxifene, bazedoxifene, and arzoxifene are newer SERMs that have been demonstrated in clinical trials to more potently increase bone mineral density and lower serum cholesterol values than tamoxifen or raloxifene. Both SARMs and SERMs hold great promise for therapeutic use in multiple disorders in which tissue-specific effects are mediated by their respective receptors.

  14. [Nutrition, lifestyle, physical activity, and supportive care during chemotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Lümmen, G; Jäger, T; Sommer, F; Ebert, T; Schmitz-Draeger, B

    2006-05-01

    With improvements in cancer survival rates, more patients with cancer are living longer and the influence of nutrition, lifestyle, physical activity as well as supportive care during and after chemotherapy is of increasing interest. In several malignancies smoking cessation increases cancer survival. Similar effects are expected by healthy nutrition. Regular physical activity of cancer patients reduces drug interactions of chemotherapy, decreases the number of comorbid conditions, and helps patients maintain independence as long as possible. For supportive care during chemotherapy the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are more effective for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. There are several colony-stimulating factors (e.g. GCSF, erythropoietin) for hematopoietic recovery post-chemotherapy. Altogether supportive care of chemotherapy reduces toxicity and increases efficacy.

  15. Single cell laser dissection with molecular beacon polymerase chain reaction identifies 2A as the predominant serotonin receptor subtype in hypoglossal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Zhan, G; Shaheen, F; Mackiewicz, M; Fenik, P; Veasey, S C

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesize that sleep state-dependent withdrawal of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) at upper airway (UAW) dilator motoneurons contributes significantly to sleep-related suppression of dilator muscle activity in obstructive sleep apnea. Identification of 5-HT receptor subtypes involved in postsynaptic facilitation of UAW motoneuron activity may provide pharmacotherapies for this prevalent disorder. We have adapted two assays to provide semi-quantitative measurements of mRNA copy numbers for 5-HT receptor subtypes in single UAW motoneurons. Specifically, soma of 111 hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons in 10 adult male rats were captured using a laser dissection microscope, and then used individually in single round molecular beacon polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for real-time quantitation of 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4), 5-HT(5A), 5-HT(5B), 5-HT(6) or 5-HT(7) receptor. Receptor mRNA copy numbers from single XII motoneurons were compared to control samples from within the XII nucleus and lateral medulla. All 20 motoneuronal soma assayed for the 5-HT(2A) receptor had measurable copy numbers (7028+/-2656 copies/cell). In contrast, copy numbers for the 5-HT(2A) receptor in XII non-motoneuronal (n=17) and lateral medulla (n=15) samples were 81+/-51 copies and 83+/-35 copies, respectively, P<0.05. Seven of 13 XII motoneurons assayed had measurable 5-HT(2C) receptor copy numbers of mRNA (287+/-112 copies/cell). XII soma had minimal 5-HT(3), 5-HT(4), 5-HT(5A), 5-HT(5B), 5-HT(6) or 5-HT(7) receptor mRNA. 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA presence within XII motoneurons was confirmed with digoxigenin-labeled in situ hybridization. In summary, combined use of laser dissection and molecular beacon PCR revealed 5-HT(2A) receptor as the predominant 5-HT receptor mRNA in XII motoneurons, and identified small quantities of 5-HT(2C) receptor. This information will allow a more complete understanding of serotonergic control of respiratory activity.

  16. Nucleus tractus solitarii A(2a) adenosine receptors inhibit cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of sympathetic outputs.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2014-02-01

    Previously we have shown that stimulation of inhibitory A1 adenosine receptors located in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) evoked inhibition of renal, adrenal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Activation of facilitatory A2a adenosine receptors, which dominate over A1 receptors in the NTS, contrastingly alters baseline activity of regional sympathetic outputs: it decreases renal, increases adrenal and does not change lumbar nerve activity. Considering that NTS A2a receptors may facilitate release of inhibitory transmitters we hypothesized that A2a receptors will act in concert with A1 receptors differentially inhibiting regional sympathetic CCR responses (adrenal>lumbar>renal). In urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats (n=38) we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT3 receptor agonist, phenylbiguanide, (1-8μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation, blockade or combined blockade and stimulation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors (microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 0.2-20pmol/50nl, ZM-241385 40pmol/100nl or ZM-241385+CGS-21680, respectively). We found that stimulation of A2a adenosine receptors uniformly inhibited the regional sympathetic and hemodynamic reflex responses and this effect was abolished by the selective blockade of NTS A2a receptors. This indicates that A2a receptor triggered inhibition of CCR responses and the contrasting shifts in baseline sympathetic activity are mediated via different mechanisms. These data implicate that stimulation of NTS A2a receptors triggers unknown inhibitory mechanism(s) which in turn inhibit transmission in the CCR pathway when adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hypotension. PMID:24216055

  17. Using Nuclear Receptor Activity to Stratify Hepatocarcinogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NR) are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that control a range of cellular processes. Persistent stimulation of some NR is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. Here we report on a systematic an...

  18. Blockade of the NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus prevents the 5-HT₃ receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide-induced suppression of REM sleep in the rat.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jaime M; Jantos, Héctor; Catenaccio, Valentina; Xavier, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    The effects of the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (m-CPBG), and of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate)/kainate antagonists AP-5 [(±)-2-amino-5-phosphono-pentanoic acid] and CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione), respectively, were studied in adult male Wistar rats implanted for chronic sleep recordings. The compounds were microinjected directly into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) during the light period of the 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. Infusion of m-CPBG (2 and 4mM) into the DRN induced a significant reduction of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and of the number of REM periods. Local infusion of AP-5 (0.5-1 mM) and CNQX (2 mM) significantly increased slow wave sleep (SWS). Pretreatment with AP-5 (0.5 mM) or CNQX (0.5 mM) antagonized the m-CPBG-induced suppression of REMS. It is proposed that the reduction of REMS after microinjection of m-CPBG into de DRN is related to the activation of glutamatergic interneurons that express the 5-HT(3) receptor and make synaptic contacts with serotonergic cells. The resultant increase of serotonin release at postsynaptic sites involved in the induction of REMS would provoke the suppression of the behavioral state. Our findings provide, in addition, new details concerning the pharmacology of DRN serotonergic neurons in the rat that may become relevant to the development of drugs for enhancing cortical and subcortical serotonergic neurotransmission.

  19. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)–forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. PMID:26994072

  20. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally.

  1. Insulin receptor activation in solitary fibrous tumours.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Chang, Q; Rubin, B P; Fletcher, C D M; Morgan, T W; Mentzer, S J; Sugarbaker, D J; Fletcher, J A; Xiao, S

    2007-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are known to overexpress insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). The down-stream oncogenic pathways of IGF-2, however, are not clear. Here we report uniform activation of the insulin receptor (IR) pathway in SFTs, which are mesenchymal tumours frequently associated with hypoglycaemia. Whereas the IR and its downstream signalling pathways were constitutively activated in SFTs, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) was not expressed in these tumours. We also find that SFT cells secrete IGF-2 and proliferate in serum-free medium, consistent with an IGF-2/IR autocrine loop. The aetiological relevance of IGF-2 is supported by expression of IR-A, the IR isoform with high affinity for IGF-2, in all SFTs. Our studies suggest that IR activation plays an oncogenic role in SFTs.

  2. Biased Signaling of Protease-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peishen; Metcalf, Matthew; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their role in protein degradation and digestion, proteases can also function as hormone-like signaling molecules that regulate vital patho-physiological processes, including inflammation, hemostasis, pain, and repair mechanisms. Certain proteases can signal to cells by cleaving protease-activated receptors (PARs), a family of four G protein-coupled receptors. PARs are expressed by almost all cell types, control important physiological and disease-relevant processes, and are an emerging therapeutic target for major diseases. Most information about PAR activation and function derives from studies of a few proteases, for example thrombin in the case of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4, and trypsin in the case of PAR2 and PAR4. These proteases cleave PARs at established sites with the extracellular N-terminal domains, and expose tethered ligands that stabilize conformations of the cleaved receptors that activate the canonical pathways of G protein- and/or β-arrestin-dependent signaling. However, a growing number of proteases have been identified that cleave PARs at divergent sites to activate distinct patterns of receptor signaling and trafficking. The capacity of these proteases to trigger distinct signaling pathways is referred to as biased signaling, and can lead to unique patho-physiological outcomes. Given that a different repertoire of proteases are activated in various patho-physiological conditions that may activate PARs by different mechanisms, signaling bias may account for the divergent actions of proteases and PARs. Moreover, therapies that target disease-relevant biased signaling pathways may be more effective and selective approaches for the treatment of protease- and PAR-driven diseases. Thus, rather than mediating the actions of a few proteases, PARs may integrate the biological actions of a wide spectrum of proteases in different patho-physiological conditions. PMID:24860547

  3. Equivalent Activities of Repulsive Axon Guidance Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hong; Yoshikawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Receptors on the growth cone at the leading edge of elongating axons play critical guidance roles by recognizing cues via their extracellular domains and transducing signals via their intracellular domains, resulting in changes in direction of growth. An important concept to have emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a major guidance mechanism. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are likely to be qualitative differences in the signals they transduce. However, the nature of these possible differences is unknown. By creating chimeras using the extracellular and intracellular domains of three different Drosophila repulsive receptors, Unc5, Roundabout (Robo), and Derailed (Drl) and expressing them in defined cells within the embryonic nervous system, we examined the responses elicited by their intracellular domains systematically. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative differences in growth cone response or axon growth, suggesting that, despite their highly diverged sequences, each intracellular domain elicits repulsion via a common pathway. In terms of the signaling pathway(s) used by the repulsive receptors, mutations in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio strongly enhance the repulsive activity of all three intracellular domains, suggesting that repulsion by Unc5, Robo, and Drl, and perhaps repulsion in general, involves Trio activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A prevailing concept that has emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a guidance mechanism for steering axons to their appropriate targets. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are differences in the signals that they transduce. However, this has never been tested directly. We have used the advanced genetics of Drosophila to compare directly the outputs of different repulsive receptors. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Biscetti, F; Straface, G; Pitocco, D; Zaccardi, F; Ghirlanda, G; Flex, A

    2009-12-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of three nuclear receptor isoforms, PPARalpha, PPARgamma and PPARdelta, encoded by different genes, and they form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The clinical interest in PPARs originates with fibrates and thiazolidinediones, which, respectively, act on PPARalpha and PPARgamma and are used to ameliorate hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PPARs play a central role in these patients due to their ability to regulate the expression of numerous genes involved in glycaemic control, lipid metabolism, vascular tone and inflammation. Abnormal angiogenesis is implicated in several of the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, characterized by vasculopathy associated with aberrant growth of new blood vessels. This pathological process plays a crucial role in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, impaired wound healing and impaired coronary collateral vessel development. In recent years, there has been increasing appreciation of the fact that PPARs might be involved in the molecular mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis through the action of growth factors and cytokines that stimulate migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells. During the last few years direct comparative analyses have been performed, using selective PPARs agonists, to clarify the angiogenic properties of the different members of the PPAR family. Lately, the findings provide new information to order to understand the biological, clinical and therapeutic effects of PPARs, and the role of these nuclear receptors in angiogenesis, with potentially important implications for the management of subjects affected by T2DM. PMID:19628379

  5. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  6. Unbalanced Peptidergic Inhibition in Superficial Neocortex Underlies Spike and Wave Seizure Activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, S; Hunt, M; Simon, A; Cunnington, L G; Carracedo, L M; Schofield, I S; Forsyth, R; Traub, R D; Whittington, M A

    2015-06-24

    Slow spike and wave discharges (0.5-4 Hz) are a feature of many epilepsies. They are linked to pathology of the thalamocortical axis and a thalamic mechanism has been elegantly described. Here we present evidence for a separate generator in local circuits of associational areas of neocortex manifest from a background, sleep-associated delta rhythm in rat. Loss of tonic neuromodulatory excitation, mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine or serotonin (5HT3A) receptors, of 5HT3-immunopositive interneurons caused an increase in amplitude and slowing of the delta rhythm until each period became the "wave" component of the spike and wave discharge. As with the normal delta rhythm, the wave of a spike and wave discharge originated in cortical layer 5. In contrast, the "spike" component of the spike and wave discharge originated from a relative failure of fast inhibition in layers 2/3-switching pyramidal cell action potential outputs from single, sparse spiking during delta rhythms to brief, intense burst spiking, phase-locked to the field spike. The mechanisms underlying this loss of superficial layer fast inhibition, and a concomitant increase in slow inhibition, appeared to be precipitated by a loss of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated local circuit inhibition and a subsequent increase in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-mediated disinhibition. Blockade of NPY Y1 receptors was sufficient to generate spike and wave discharges, whereas blockade of VIP receptors almost completely abolished this form of epileptiform activity. These data suggest that aberrant, activity-dependent neuropeptide corelease can have catastrophic effects on neocortical dynamics. PMID:26109655

  7. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Tropsha, Alexander; Varnek, Alexandre; Zakharov, Alexey; Worth, Andrew; Richard, Ann M.; Grulke, Christopher M.; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Fourches, Denis; Horvath, Dragos; Benfenati, Emilio; Muratov, Eugene; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Grisoni, Francesca; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.; Incisivo, Giuseppina M.; Hong, Huixiao; Ng, Hui W.; Tetko, Igor V.; Balabin, Ilya; Kancherla, Jayaram; Shen, Jie; Burton, Julien; Nicklaus, Marc; Cassotti, Matteo; Nikolov, Nikolai G.; Nicolotti, Orazio; Andersson, Patrik L.; Zang, Qingda; Politi, Regina; Beger, Richard D.; Todeschini, Roberto; Huang, Ruili; Farag, Sherif; Rosenberg, Sine A.; Slavov, Svetoslav; Hu, Xin; Judson, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Objectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) and demonstrate the efficacy of using predictive computational models trained on high-throughput screening data to evaluate thousands of chemicals for ER-related activity and prioritize them for further testing. Methods: CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration with 17 groups in the United States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure–activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1,677 chemical structures provided by the U.S. EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical and 8 continuous models for binding, agonist, and antagonist ER activity. All predictions were evaluated on a set of 7,522 chemicals curated from the literature. To overcome the limitations of single models, a consensus was built by weighting models on scores based on their evaluated accuracies. Results: Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing high prediction reliabilities. Out of the 32,464 chemicals, the consensus model predicted 4,001 chemicals (12.3%) as high priority actives and 6,742 potential actives (20.8%) to be considered for further testing. Conclusion: This project demonstrated the possibility to screen large libraries of chemicals using a consensus of different in silico approaches. This concept will be applied in future projects related to other

  8. How IGF-1 activates its receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kavran, Jennifer M; McCabe, Jacqueline M; Byrne, Patrick O; Connacher, Mary Katherine; Wang, Zhihong; Ramek, Alexander; Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E; Hristova, Kalina; Cole, Philip A; Leahy, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is involved in growth and survival of normal and neoplastic cells. A ligand-dependent conformational change is thought to regulate IGF1R activity, but the nature of this change is unclear. We point out an underappreciated dimer in the crystal structure of the related Insulin Receptor (IR) with Insulin bound that allows direct comparison with unliganded IR and suggests a mechanism by which ligand regulates IR/IGF1R activity. We test this mechanism in a series of biochemical and biophysical assays and find the IGF1R ectodomain maintains an autoinhibited state in which the TMs are held apart. Ligand binding releases this constraint, allowing TM association and unleashing an intrinsic propensity of the intracellular regions to autophosphorylate. Enzymatic studies of full-length and kinase-containing fragments show phosphorylated IGF1R is fully active independent of ligand and the extracellular-TM regions. The key step triggered by ligand binding is thus autophosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03772.001 PMID:25255214

  9. Spongian diterpenoids inhibit androgen receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu Chi; Meimetis, Labros G; Tien, Amy H; Mawji, Nasrin R; Carr, Gavin; Wang, Jun; Andersen, Raymond J; Sadar, Marianne D

    2013-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and a validated drug target for all stages of prostate cancer. Antiandrogens compete with physiological ligands for AR ligand-binding domain (LBD). High-throughput screening of a marine natural product library for small molecules that inhibit AR transcriptional activity yielded the furanoditerpenoid spongia-13(16),-14-dien-19-oic acid, designated terpene 1 (T1). Characterization of T1 and the structurally related semi-synthetic analogues (T2 and T3) revealed that these diterpenoids have antiandrogen properties that include inhibition of both androgen-dependent proliferation and AR transcriptional activity by a mechanism that involved competing with androgen for AR LBD and blocking essential N/C interactions required for androgen-induced AR transcriptional activity. Structure activity relationship analyses revealed some chemical features of T1 that are associated with activity and yielded T3 as the most potent analogue. In vivo, T3 significantly reduced the weight of seminal vesicles, which are an androgen-dependent tissue, thereby confirming T3’s on-target activity. The ability to create analogues of diterpenoids that have varying antiandrogen activity represents a novel class of chemical compounds for the analysis of AR ligand-binding properties and therapeutic development. PMID:23443807

  10. Intrinsic relative activities of κ opioid agonists in activating Gα proteins and internalizing receptor: Differences between human and mouse receptors.

    PubMed

    DiMattio, Kelly M; Ehlert, Frederick J; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-08-15

    Several investigators recently identified biased κ opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi-G) and receptor internalization (RAi-I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi-G - logRAi-I, RAi-G/RAi-I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1-17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed.

  11. Intrinsic Relative Activities of Opioid Agonists in Activating Gα proteins and Internalizing Receptor: Differences between Human and Mouse Receptors

    PubMed Central

    DiMattio, Kelly M.; Ehlert, Frederick J.; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators recently identified biased opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [35S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi−G) and receptor internalization (RAi−I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi−G − Log RAi−I, RAi−G/RAi−I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1–17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed. PMID:26057692

  12. Signaling pathways engaged by NK cell receptors: double concerto for activating receptors, inhibitory receptors and NK cells.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, E; Bléry, M; Vély, F; Vivier, E

    2000-04-01

    Despite the absence of antigen-specific receptors at their surface, NK cells can selectively eliminate virus-infected cells, tumor cells and allogenic cells. A dynamic and precisely coordinated balance between activating and inhibitory receptors governs NK cell activation programs. Multiple activating and inhibitory NK cell surface molecules have been described, a group of them acting as receptors for MHC class I molecules. In spite of their heterogeneity, activating NK cell receptors present remarkable structural and functional homologies with T cell- and B cell-antigen receptors. Inhibitory NK cell receptors operate at early stages of activating cascades by recruiting protein tyrosine phosphatases via intra- cytoplasmic motifs (ITIM), a strategy which is widely conserved in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells.

  13. Principles of antibody-mediated TNF receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Wajant, H

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of research on receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), agonistic antibodies have been used to stimulate TNFRSF receptors in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, CD95, one of the first cloned TNFRSF receptors, was solely identified as the target of cell death-inducing antibodies. Early on, it became evident from in vitro studies that valency and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding of antibodies targeting TNFRSF receptors can be of crucial relevance for agonistic activity. TNFRSF receptor-specific antibodies of the IgM subclass and secondary cross-linked or aggregation prone dimeric antibodies typically display superior agonistic activity compared with dimeric antibodies. Likewise, anchoring of antibodies to cell surface-expressed FcγRs potentiate their ability to trigger TNFRSF receptor signaling. However, only recently has the relevance of oligomerization and FcγR binding for the in vivo activity of antibody-induced TNFRSF receptor activation been straightforwardly demonstrated in vivo. This review discusses the crucial role of oligomerization and/or FcγR binding for antibody-mediated TNFRSF receptor stimulation in light of current models of TNFRSF receptor activation and especially the overwhelming relevance of these issues for the rational development of therapeutic TNFRSF receptor-targeting antibodies. PMID:26292758

  14. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Structure and Function and Response to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Dani, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the “Cys-loop” superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that includes GABAA, glycine, and serotonin (5-HT3) receptors. There are 16 homologous mammalian nAChR subunits encoded by a multigene family. These subunits combine to form many different nAChR subtypes with various expression patterns, diverse functional properties, and differing pharmacological characteristics. Because cholinergic innervation is pervasive and nAChR expression is extremely broad, practically every area of the brain is impinged upon by nicotinic mechanisms. This review briefly examines the structural and functional properties of the receptor/channel complex itself. The review also summarizes activation and desensitization of nAChRs by the low nicotine concentrations obtained from tobacco. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure and the structural characteristics of channel gating has reached an advanced stage. Likewise, the basic functional properties of the channel also are reasonably well understood. It is these receptor/channel properties that underlie the participation of nAChRs in nearly every anatomical region of the mammalian brain. PMID:26472524

  15. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Structure and Function and Response to Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Dani, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the "Cys-loop" superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that includes GABAA, glycine, and serotonin (5-HT3) receptors. There are 16 homologous mammalian nAChR subunits encoded by a multigene family. These subunits combine to form many different nAChR subtypes with various expression patterns, diverse functional properties, and differing pharmacological characteristics. Because cholinergic innervation is pervasive and nAChR expression is extremely broad, practically every area of the brain is impinged upon by nicotinic mechanisms. This review briefly examines the structural and functional properties of the receptor/channel complex itself. The review also summarizes activation and desensitization of nAChRs by the low nicotine concentrations obtained from tobacco. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure and the structural characteristics of channel gating has reached an advanced stage. Likewise, the basic functional properties of the channel also are reasonably well understood. It is these receptor/channel properties that underlie the participation of nAChRs in nearly every anatomical region of the mammalian brain.

  16. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  17. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J.

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  18. Agonist induced constitutive receptor activation as a novel regulatory mechanism. Mu receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Sadée, W; Wang, Z

    1995-01-01

    We propose the hypothesis that certain G protein coupled receptors can become constitutively activated during agonist stimulation so that the receptor remains active even after the agonist is removed. This new paradigm of receptor regulation may account for some long term effects of neurotransmitters and hormones. We have tested the hypothesis that constitutive mu receptor activation represents a crucial step driving narcotic tolerance and dependence. Our results indeed support the conversion of mu to a constitutively active state, mu*, observed in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y tissue culture, in U293 cells transfected with the mu receptor gene, and in vivo. Constitutive mu activation may result from receptor phosphorylation to yield mu*, and further, in vivo studies indicate that formation of mu* could account for narcotic tolerance and dependence.

  19. Prophylaxis of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Using 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Salvo, Nadia; Doble, Brett; Khan, Luluel; Amirthevasar, Gayathri; Dennis, Kristopher; Pasetka, Mark; DeAngelis, Carlo; Tsao, May; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) compared with other antiemetic medication or placebo for prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Methods and Materials: We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and Web of Science. We also hand-searched reference lists of included studies. Randomized, controlled trials that compared a 5-HT3 RA with another antiemetic medication or placebo for preventing radiation-induced nausea and vomiting were included. We excluded studies recruiting patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager (v5) software. Relative risks were calculated using inverse variance as the statistical method under a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: Eligibility screening of 47 articles resulted in 9 included in the review. The overall methodologic quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of 5-HT3 RAs vs. placebo showed significant benefit for 5-HT3 RAs (relative risk [RR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.86 for emesis; RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 for nausea). Meta-analysis comparing 5-HT3 RAs vs. metoclopramide showed a significant benefit of the 5-HT3 RAs for emetic control (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are superior to placebo and other antiemetics for prevention of emesis, but little benefit was identified for nausea prevention. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are suggested for prevention of emesis. Limited evidence was found regarding delayed emesis, adverse events, quality of life, or need for rescue medication. Future randomized, controlled trials should evaluate different 5-HT3 antiemetics and new agents with novel mechanisms of action such at the NK

  20. Modulation of Glucagon Receptor Pharmacology by Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-2 (RAMP2)*

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Cathryn; Lu, Jing; Li, Naichang; Barkan, Kerry; Richards, Gareth O.; Roberts, David J.; Skerry, Timothy M.; Poyner, David; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; Reynolds, Christopher A.; Dowell, Simon J.; Willars, Gary B.; Ladds, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors play important, opposing roles in regulating blood glucose levels. Consequently, these receptors have been identified as targets for novel diabetes treatments. However, drugs acting at the GLP-1 receptor, although having clinical efficacy, have been associated with severe adverse side-effects, and targeting of the glucagon receptor has yet to be successful. Here we use a combination of yeast reporter assays and mammalian systems to provide a more complete understanding of glucagon receptor signaling, considering the effect of multiple ligands, association with the receptor-interacting protein receptor activity-modifying protein-2 (RAMP2), and the role of individual G protein α-subunits. We demonstrate that RAMP2 alters both ligand selectivity and G protein preference of the glucagon receptor. Importantly, we also uncover novel cross-reactivity of therapeutically used GLP-1 receptor ligands at the glucagon receptor that is abolished by RAMP2 interaction. This study reveals the glucagon receptor as a previously unidentified target for GLP-1 receptor agonists and highlights a role for RAMP2 in regulating its pharmacology. Such previously unrecognized functions of RAMPs highlight the need to consider all receptor-interacting proteins in future drug development. PMID:26198634

  1. Receptor Activity-modifying Proteins 2 and 3 Generate Adrenomedullin Receptor Subtypes with Distinct Molecular Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Harriet A.; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S.; Gingell, Joseph J.; Garelja, Michael; Pardamwar, Meenakshi; McElhinney, James M. W. R.; Lathbridge, Alex; Constantine, Arran; Harris, Paul W. R.; Yuen, Tsz-Ying; Brimble, Margaret A.; Barwell, James; Poyner, David R.; Woolley, Michael J.; Conner, Alex C.; Pioszak, Augen A.; Reynolds, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone with numerous effects in the vascular systems. AM signals through the AM1 and AM2 receptors formed by the obligate heterodimerization of a G protein-coupled receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and receptor activity-modifying proteins 2 and 3 (RAMP2 and RAMP3), respectively. These different CLR-RAMP interactions yield discrete receptor pharmacology and physiological effects. The effective design of therapeutics that target the individual AM receptors is dependent on understanding the molecular details of the effects of RAMPs on CLR. To understand the role of RAMP2 and -3 on the activation and conformation of the CLR subunit of AM receptors, we mutated 68 individual amino acids in the juxtamembrane region of CLR, a key region for activation of AM receptors, and determined the effects on cAMP signaling. Sixteen CLR mutations had differential effects between the AM1 and AM2 receptors. Accompanying this, independent molecular modeling of the full-length AM-bound AM1 and AM2 receptors predicted differences in the binding pocket and differences in the electrostatic potential of the two AM receptors. Druggability analysis indicated unique features that could be used to develop selective small molecule ligands for each receptor. The interaction of RAMP2 or RAMP3 with CLR induces conformational variation in the juxtamembrane region, yielding distinct binding pockets, probably via an allosteric mechanism. These subtype-specific differences have implications for the design of therapeutics aimed at specific AM receptors and for understanding the mechanisms by which accessory proteins affect G protein-coupled receptor function. PMID:27013657

  2. A widely used retinoic acid receptor antagonist induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Michael; Curtin, Joshua C; Kim, Roy J; Billin, Andrew N; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2007-05-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription factors whose activity is regulated by the binding of small lipophilic ligands, including hormones, vitamins, and metabolites. Pharmacological NR ligands serve as important therapeutic agents; for example, all-trans retinoic acid, an activating ligand for retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha), is used to treat leukemia. Another RARalpha ligand, (E)-S,S-dioxide-4-(2-(7-(heptyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-4,4-dimethyl-2H-1-benzothiopyran-6-yl)-1-propenyl)-benzoic acid (Ro 41-5253), is a potent antagonist that has been a useful and purportedly specific probe of RARalpha function. Here, we report that Ro 41-5253 also activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and target of widely prescribed antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Ro 41-5253 enhanced differentiation of mouse and human preadipocytes and activated PPARgamma target genes in mature adipocytes. Like the TZDs, Ro 41-5253 also down-regulated PPARgamma protein expression in adipocytes. In addition, Ro 41-5253 activated the PPARgamma-ligand binding domain in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. These effects were not prevented by a potent RARalpha agonist or by depleting cells of RARalpha, indicating that PPARgamma activation was not related to RARalpha antagonism. Indeed, Ro 41-5253 was able to compete with TZD ligands for binding to PPARgamma, suggesting that Ro 41-5253 directly affects PPAR activity. These results vividly demonstrate that pharmacological NR ligands may have "off-target" effects on other NRs. Ro 41-5253 is a PPARgamma agonist as well as an RARalpha antagonist whose pleiotropic effects on NRs may signify a unique spectrum of biological responses.

  3. Mineralocorticoid receptor activation in obesity hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Miki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2009-08-01

    Obesity hypertension and metabolic syndrome have become major public health concerns. Nowadays, aldosterone is recognized as an important mediator of cardiovascular and renal damage. In the kidney, aldosterone injures glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes), the final filtration barrier to plasma macromolecules, leading to proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists effectively ameliorate proteinuria in patients or in animal models of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as in patients who experience 'aldosterone breakthrough.' Recently, clinical and experimental studies have shown that plasma aldosterone concentration is associated with obesity hypertension and metabolic syndrome. We showed that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)/cp, an experimental model of obesity hypertension and metabolic syndrome, are prone to glomerular podocyte injury, proteinuria and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, especially when the animals are fed a high-salt diet. Inappropriate activation of the aldosterone/MR system underlies the renal and cardiac injuries. Adipocyte-derived aldosterone-releasing factors (ARFs), although still unidentified, may account for aldosterone excess and the resultant target organ complication in SHR/cp. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that MR activation triggers target organ disease even in normal or low aldosterone states. We identified a small GTP (guanosine triphosphate)-binding protein, Rac1, as a novel activator of MR, and showed that this ligand-independent MR activation by Rac1 contributes to the nephropathy of several CKD models. We expect that ARFs and Rac1 can be novel therapeutic targets for metabolic syndrome and CKD. Future large-scale clinical trials are awaited to prove the efficacy of MR blockade in patients with obesity hypertension and metabolic syndrome.

  4. RELAXIN ACTIVATES PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir; Bennett, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that triggers multiple signaling pathways through its receptor RXFP1. Many of relaxin’s functions, including vascular and antifibrotic effects, are similar to those induced by activation of PPARγ. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that relaxin signaling through RXFP1 would activate PPARγ activity. In cells overexpressing RXFP1 (HEK-RXFP1), relaxin increased transcriptional activity through a PPAR response element (PPRE) in a concentration-dependent manner. In cells lacking RXFP1, relaxin had no effect. Relaxin increased both the baseline activity and the response to the PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2, but not to agonists of PPARα or PPARδ. In HEK-RXFP1 cells infected with adenovirus expressing PPARγ, relaxin increased transcriptional activity through PPRE, and this effect was blocked with an adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative PPARγ. Knockdown of PPARγ using siRNA resulted in a decrease in the response to both relaxin and rosiglitazone. Both relaxin and rosiglitazone increased expression of the PPARγ target genes CD36 and LXRα in HEK-RXFP1 and in THP-1 cells naturally expressing RXFP1. Relaxin did not increase PPARγ mRNA or protein levels. Treatment of cells with GW9662, an inhibitor of PPARγ ligand binding, effectively blocked rosiglitazone-induced PPARγ activation, but had no effect on relaxin activation of PPARγ. These results suggest that relaxin activates PPARγ activity, and increases the overall response in the presence PPARγ agonists. This activation is dependent on the presence of RXFP1. Furthermore, relaxin activates PPARγ via a ligand-independent mechanism. These studies represent the first report that relaxin can activate the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. PMID:19712722

  5. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  6. Neuropeptide Y receptor mediates activation of ERK1/2 via transactivation of the IGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Sandra; Belemnaba, Lazare; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Bucher, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y binds to G-protein coupled receptors whose action results in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. Using HEK293 cells stably expressing the native neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors, we found that the NPY agonist elicits a transient phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). We first show that ERK1/2 activation following Y1 receptor stimulation is dependent on heterotrimeric Gi/o since it is completely inhibited by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin. In addition, ERK1/2 activation is internalization-independent since mutant Y1 receptors unable to recruit β-arrestins, can still activate ERK signaling to the same extent as wild-type receptors. We next show that this activation of the MAPK pathway is inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126, is not dependent on calcium signaling at the Y1 receptor (no effect upon inhibition of phospholipase C, protein kinase C or protein kinase D) but instead dependent on Gβ/γ and associated signaling pathways that activate PI3-kinase. Although inhibition of the epidermal-growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase did not influence NPY-induced ERK1/2 activation, we show that the inhibition of insulin growth factor receptor IGFR by AG1024 completely blocks activation of ERK1/2 by the Y1 receptor. This Gβ/γ-PI3K-AG1024-sensitive pathway does not involve activation of IGFR through the release of a soluble ligand by metalloproteinases since it is not affected by the metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat. Finally, we found that a similar pathway, sensitive to wortmannin-AG1024 but insensitive to marimastat, is implicated in activation of ERK signaling in HEK293 cells by endogenously expressed GPCRs coupled to Gq-protein (muscarinic M3 receptors) or coupled to Gs-protein (endothelin ETB receptors). Our analysis is the first to show that β-arrestin recruitment to the NPY Y1 receptor is not necessary for MAPK activation by this receptor but that transactivation of the IGFR receptor is required.

  7. The growth hormone receptor: mechanism of activation and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Andrew J; Waters, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Growth hormone is widely used clinically to promote growth and anabolism and for other purposes. Its actions are mediated via the growth hormone receptor, both directly by tyrosine kinase activation and indirectly by induction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Insensitivity to growth hormone (Laron syndrome) can result from mutations in the growth hormone receptor and can be treated with IGF-1. This treatment is, however, not fully effective owing to the loss of the direct actions of growth hormone and altered availability of exogenous IGF-1. Excessive activation of the growth hormone receptor by circulating growth hormone results in gigantism and acromegaly, whereas cell transformation and cancer can occur in response to autocrine activation of the receptor. Advances in understanding the mechanism of receptor activation have led to a model in which the growth hormone receptor exists as a constitutive dimer. Binding of the hormone realigns the subunits by rotation and closer apposition, resulting in juxtaposition of the catalytic domains of the associated tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2 below the cell membrane. This change results in activation of JAK2 by transphosphorylation, then phosphorylation of receptor tyrosines in the cytoplasmic domain, which enables binding of adaptor proteins, as well as direct phosphorylation of target proteins. This model is discussed in the light of salient information from closely related class 1 cytokine receptors, such as the erythropoietin, prolactin and thrombopoietin receptors. PMID:20664532

  8. Mutations of L293 in transmembrane two of the mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine3A receptor alter gating and alcohol modulatory actions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Hayrapetyan, Volodya; Gadhiya, Jay J; Rhubottom, Heather E; Lovinger, David M; Machu, Tina K

    2006-05-01

    1 The goal of this study was to determine whether mutations of L293 at the 15' position of TM2 in the 5-HT(3A) receptor alter macroscopic current kinetics, and if these changes could account for alterations in alcohol modulation. Receptor function was assessed in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and in HEK293 cells with whole-cell patch-clamp recording and rapid drug application. 2 Examination of responses of L293C and L293S receptors to agonist alone revealed enhanced activation, deactivation, and desensitization rates relative to the wild-type receptor. The L293G mutation produced marked slowing of deactivation and desensitization rates. Increased potency of 5-HT and increased efficacy of the partial agonist, DA, was also observed in these mutant receptors. 3 Ethanol and trichloroethanol (TCEt) enhancement of receptor function was reduced or eliminated in receptors containing L293 mutations to C, G, or S. The L293I mutant receptor retained ethanol and TCEt sensitivity. Ethanol and TCEt enhanced activation rate in the wild-type, but not the L293G and L293S receptors. No relationship was observed between any physicochemical property of the substituted amino acids and the change in alcohol potentiation of function. 4 The changes in receptor-channel properties in the mutant receptors support the idea that the L293 residue has important roles in channel gating. Our findings indicate that loss of allosteric modulation by alcohols is not related in any simple way to changes in channel kinetic properties brought about by L293 mutants. We did not observe any evidence that L293 is part of an alcohol binding site. PMID:16520747

  9. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric

    2015-11-30

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  10. Conserved structure and adjacent location of the thrombin receptor and protease-activated receptor 2 genes define a protease-activated receptor gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, M.; Ishii, K.; Kuo, W. L.; Piper, M.; Connolly, A.; Shi, Y. P.; Wu, R.; Lin, C. C.; Coughlin, S. R.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thrombin is a serine protease that elicits a variety of cellular responses. Molecular cloning of a thrombin receptor revealed a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a novel proteolytic mechanism. Recently, a second protease-activated receptor was discovered and dubbed PAR2. PAR2 is highly related to the thrombin receptor by sequence and, like the thrombin receptor, is activated by cleavage of its amino terminal exodomain. Also like the thrombin receptor, PAR2 can be activated by the hexapeptide corresponding to its tethered ligand sequence independent of receptor cleavage. Thus, functionally, the thrombin receptor and PAR2 constitute a fledgling receptor family that shares a novel proteolytic activation mechanism. To further explore the relatedness of the two known protease-activated receptors and to examine the possibility that a protease-activated gene cluster might exist, we have compared the structure and chromosomal locations of the thrombin receptor and PAR2 genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genomic structures of the two protease-activated receptor genes were determined by analysis of lambda phage, P1 bacteriophage, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomic clones. Chromosomal location was determined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes, and the relative distance separating the two genes was evaluated both by means of two-color FISH and analysis of YACs and BACs containing both genes. RESULTS: Analysis of genomic clones revealed that the two protease-activated receptor genes share a two-exon genomic structure in which the first exon encodes 5'-untranslated sequence and signal peptide, and the second exon encodes the mature receptor protein and 3'-untranslated sequence. The two receptor genes also share a common locus with the two human genes located at 5q13 and the two mouse genes at 13D2, a syntenic region of the mouse genome. These techniques also suggest that the physical distance separating

  11. Prothymosin alpha selectively enhances estrogen receptor transcriptional activity by interacting with a repressor of estrogen receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Martini, P G; Delage-Mourroux, R; Kraichely, D M; Katzenellenbogen, B S

    2000-09-01

    We find that prothymosin alpha (PTalpha) selectively enhances transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor (ER) but not transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors. This selectivity for ER is explained by PTalpha interaction not with ER, but with a 37-kDa protein denoted REA, for repressor of estrogen receptor activity, a protein that we have previously shown binds to ER, blocking coactivator binding to ER. We isolated PTalpha, known to be a chromatin-remodeling protein associated with cell proliferation, using REA as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen with a cDNA library from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. PTalpha increases the magnitude of ERalpha transcriptional activity three- to fourfold. It shows lesser enhancement of ERbeta transcriptional activity and has no influence on the transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors (progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, thyroid hormone receptor, or retinoic acid receptor) or on the basal activity of ERs. In contrast, the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 increases transcriptional activity of all of these receptors. Cotransfection of PTalpha or SRC-1 with increasing amounts of REA, as well as competitive glutathione S-transferase pulldown and mammalian two-hybrid studies, show that REA competes with PTalpha (or SRC-1) for regulation of ER transcriptional activity and suppresses the ER stimulation by PTalpha or SRC-1, indicating that REA can function as an anticoactivator in cells. Our data support a model in which PTalpha, which does not interact with ER, selectively enhances the transcriptional activity of the ER but not that of other nuclear receptors by recruiting the repressive REA protein away from ER, thereby allowing effective coactivation of ER with SRC-1 or other coregulators. The ability of PTalpha to directly interact in vitro and in vivo with REA, a selective coregulator of the ER, thereby enabling the interaction of ER with coactivators, appears to explain

  12. Cell Surface Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Increase Src and c-Cbl Activity and Receptor Ubiquitylation*

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Eileen E.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    There is an established role for the endocytic pathway in regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to downstream effectors. However, because ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis utilizes multiple “moving parts,” dissecting the spatial versus temporal contributions has been challenging. Blocking all endocytic trafficking can have unintended effects on other receptors as well as give rise to compensatory mechanisms, both of which impact interpretation of EGFR signaling. To overcome these limitations, we used epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated to polystyrene beads (EGF beads). EGF beads simultaneously activate the EGFR while blocking its endocytosis and allow analysis of EGFR signaling from the plasma membrane. Human telomerase immortalized corneal epithelial (hTCEpi) cells were used to model normal epithelial cell biology. In hTCEpi cells, both cell surface and intracellular EGFRs exhibited dose-dependent increases in effector activity after 15 min of ligand stimulation, but only the serine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was statistically significant when accounting for receptor phosphorylation. However, over time with physiological levels of receptor phosphorylation, cell surface receptors produced either enhanced or sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), and the pro-oncogene Src activity. These increases in effector communication by cell surface receptors resulted in an increase in EGFR ubiquitylation with sustained ligand incubation. Together, these data indicate that spatial regulation of EGFR signaling may be an important regulatory mechanism in receptor down-regulation. PMID:25074934

  13. Activating Receptor Signals Drive Receptor Diversity in Developing Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Jacquelyn; May, Rebecca M.; Li, Hongchuan; McCullen, Matthew; Zhang, Bin; Lenvik, Todd; Cichocki, Frank; Anderson, Stephen K.; Kambayashi, Taku

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been appreciated that NK cells exhibit many features reminiscent of adaptive immune cells. Considerable heterogeneity exists with respect to the ligand specificity of individual NK cells and as such, a subset of NK cells can respond, expand, and differentiate into memory-like cells in a ligand-specific manner. MHC I-binding inhibitory receptors, including those belonging to the Ly49 and KIR families, are expressed in a variegated manner, which creates ligand-specific diversity within the NK cell pool. However, how NK cells determine which inhibitory receptors to express on their cell surface during a narrow window of development is largely unknown. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that signals from activating receptors are critical for induction of Ly49 and KIR receptors during NK cell development; activating receptor-derived signals increased the probability of the Ly49 bidirectional Pro1 promoter to transcribe in the forward versus the reverse direction, leading to stable expression of Ly49 receptors in mature NK cells. Our data support a model where the balance of activating and inhibitory receptor signaling in NK cells selects for the induction of appropriate inhibitory receptors during development, which NK cells use to create a diverse pool of ligand-specific NK cells. PMID:27500644

  14. Activating Receptor Signals Drive Receptor Diversity in Developing Natural Killer Cells.

    PubMed

    Freund, Jacquelyn; May, Rebecca M; Yang, Enjun; Li, Hongchuan; McCullen, Matthew; Zhang, Bin; Lenvik, Todd; Cichocki, Frank; Anderson, Stephen K; Kambayashi, Taku

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been appreciated that NK cells exhibit many features reminiscent of adaptive immune cells. Considerable heterogeneity exists with respect to the ligand specificity of individual NK cells and as such, a subset of NK cells can respond, expand, and differentiate into memory-like cells in a ligand-specific manner. MHC I-binding inhibitory receptors, including those belonging to the Ly49 and KIR families, are expressed in a variegated manner, which creates ligand-specific diversity within the NK cell pool. However, how NK cells determine which inhibitory receptors to express on their cell surface during a narrow window of development is largely unknown. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that signals from activating receptors are critical for induction of Ly49 and KIR receptors during NK cell development; activating receptor-derived signals increased the probability of the Ly49 bidirectional Pro1 promoter to transcribe in the forward versus the reverse direction, leading to stable expression of Ly49 receptors in mature NK cells. Our data support a model where the balance of activating and inhibitory receptor signaling in NK cells selects for the induction of appropriate inhibitory receptors during development, which NK cells use to create a diverse pool of ligand-specific NK cells.

  15. Severe hemorrhage attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via NTS adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-15

    Selective stimulation of inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2a adenosine receptor subtypes located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) powerfully inhibits cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) control of regional sympathetic outputs via different mechanisms: direct inhibition of glutamate release and facilitation of an inhibitory neurotransmitter release, respectively. However, it remains unknown whether adenosine naturally released into the NTS has similar inhibitory effects on the CCR as the exogenous agonists do. Our previous study showed that adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hemorrhage and contributes to reciprocal changes of renal (decreases) and adrenal (increases) sympathetic nerve activity observed in this setting. Both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors are involved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that, during severe hemorrhage, CCR control of the two sympathetic outputs is attenuated by adenosine naturally released into the NTS. We compared renal and adrenal sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by right atrial injections of 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (2-8 μg/kg) under control conditions, during hemorrhage, and during hemorrhage preceded by blockade of NTS adenosine receptors with bilateral microinjections of 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats. CCR-mediated inhibition of renal and adrenal sympathetic activity was significantly attenuated during severe hemorrhage despite reciprocal changes in the baseline activity levels, and this attenuation was removed by bilateral blockade of adenosine receptors in the caudal NTS. This confirmed that adenosine endogenously released into the NTS has a similar modulatory effect on integration of cardiovascular reflexes as stimulation of NTS adenosine receptors with exogenous agonists.

  16. Severe hemorrhage attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via NTS adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-15

    Selective stimulation of inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2a adenosine receptor subtypes located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) powerfully inhibits cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) control of regional sympathetic outputs via different mechanisms: direct inhibition of glutamate release and facilitation of an inhibitory neurotransmitter release, respectively. However, it remains unknown whether adenosine naturally released into the NTS has similar inhibitory effects on the CCR as the exogenous agonists do. Our previous study showed that adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hemorrhage and contributes to reciprocal changes of renal (decreases) and adrenal (increases) sympathetic nerve activity observed in this setting. Both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors are involved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that, during severe hemorrhage, CCR control of the two sympathetic outputs is attenuated by adenosine naturally released into the NTS. We compared renal and adrenal sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by right atrial injections of 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (2-8 μg/kg) under control conditions, during hemorrhage, and during hemorrhage preceded by blockade of NTS adenosine receptors with bilateral microinjections of 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats. CCR-mediated inhibition of renal and adrenal sympathetic activity was significantly attenuated during severe hemorrhage despite reciprocal changes in the baseline activity levels, and this attenuation was removed by bilateral blockade of adenosine receptors in the caudal NTS. This confirmed that adenosine endogenously released into the NTS has a similar modulatory effect on integration of cardiovascular reflexes as stimulation of NTS adenosine receptors with exogenous agonists. PMID:25063794

  17. Biological activity of a polypeptide modulator of TRPV1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, I A; Andreev, Ya A; Logashina, Yu A; Murashev, A N; Grishin, E V

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents data on the activity of a new APHC2 polypeptide modulator of TRPV1 receptors, which was isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. It has been shown that APHC2 has an analgesic activity, does not impair normal motor activity, and does not change body temperature of experimental animals, which has a great practical value for design of potent analgesics of a new generation. Further study of the characteristics of binding of the polypeptide to the TRPV1 receptor may show approaches to the development of other antagonists of this receptor that do not influence the body temperature. PMID:26725234

  18. The activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by the transmitter.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D B; Spivak, C E

    1985-02-01

    Experimental evidence has been published from isolated guinea pig muscle in vitro, and from direct ligand binding to receptors from T. californica, indicating that two agonist ions react with the nicotinic receptor by exchanging for one magnesium ion. It is the basis of the ion exchange receptor pair model, in which two acetylcholine ions exchange for one magnesium ion in contact with and between a pair of negatively charged receptor groups about 4 A apart. In the resting state the electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged receptor groups and the Mg2+ ion exerts a binding force. This binding force is opposed by the quantum mechanical repulsions of the electron clouds of the charged groups and ions in contact, together with the mutual repulsion of the pair of receptor oxyanions. When the Mg2+ ion is replaced by two acetylcholine ions the quaternary heads of the latter are positioned so that they form two mutually repelling ACh+ receptor group dipoles. As the Mg2+ ion leaves, its rehydration energy contributes to the sum of the electron cloud repulsions and the ACh+ receptor group dipole repulsions, causing the receptor groups to be forced apart activating the receptor macromolecule. The subsequent decrease in ACh+ concentration results in the reestablishment of the resting state. The coulombic electrostatic energy, the Born repulsion energy, the London attraction energy and the oxyanion ACh+ dipole repulsion energies have been calculated and shown to be consistent with the model. The displacement of the Mg2+ by two ACh+ ions makes several hundred kcals of energy available for receptor group separation and receptor activation.

  19. Characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activiated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-independent effects of PPARalpha activators in the rodent liver: Di(2-ethylehexyl) phthalate activates the constitutive activated receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Recent studies indicate that the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl ph...

  20. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  1. Tie2 and Eph Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barton, William A.; Dalton, Annamarie C.; Seegar, Tom C.M.; Himanen, Juha P.

    2014-01-01

    The Eph and Tie cell surface receptors mediate a variety of signaling events during development and in the adult organism. As other receptor tyrosine kinases, they are activated on binding of extracellular ligands and their catalytic activity is tightly regulated on multiple levels. The Eph and Tie receptors display some unique characteristics, including the requirement of ligand-induced receptor clustering for efficient signaling. Interestingly, both Ephs and Ties can mediate different, even opposite, biological effects depending on the specific ligand eliciting the response and on the cellular context. Here we discuss the structural features of these receptors, their interactions with various ligands, as well as functional implications for downstream signaling initiation. The Eph/ephrin structures are already well reviewed and we only provide a brief overview on the initial binding events. We go into more detail discussing the Tie-angiopoietin structures and recognition. PMID:24478383

  2. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors via their allosteric binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, J; Bacáková, L; Lisá, V; el-Fakahany, E E; Tucek, S

    1996-01-01

    Ligands that bind to the allosteric-binding sites on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors alter the conformation of the classical-binding sites of these receptors and either diminish or increase their affinity for muscarinic agonists and classical antagonists. It is not known whether the resulting conformational change also affects the interaction between the receptors and the G proteins. We have now found that the muscarinic receptor allosteric modulators alcuronium, gallamine, and strychnine (acting in the absence of an agonist) alter the synthesis of cAMP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the M2 or the M4 subtype of muscarinic receptors in the same direction as the agonist carbachol. In addition, most of their effects on the production of inositol phosphates in CHO cells expressing the M1 or the M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes are also similar to (although much weaker than) those of carbachol. The agonist-like effects of the allosteric modulators are not observed in CHO cells that have not been transfected with the gene for any of the subtypes of muscarinic receptors. The effects of alcuronium on the formation of cAMP and inositol phosphates are not prevented by the classical muscarinic antagonist quinuclidinyl benzilate. These observations demonstrate for the first time that the G protein-mediated functional responses of muscarinic receptors can be evoked not only from their classical, but also from their allosteric, binding sites. This represents a new mechanism of receptor activation. PMID:8710935

  3. Receptor activity-modifying proteins; multifunctional G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L; Walker, Christopher S; Gingell, Joseph J; Ladds, Graham; Reynolds, Christopher A; Poyner, David R

    2016-04-15

    Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are single pass membrane proteins initially identified by their ability to determine the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a family B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). It is now known that RAMPs can interact with a much wider range of GPCRs. This review considers recent developments on the structure of the complexes formed between the extracellular domains (ECDs) of CLR and RAMP1 or RAMP2 as these provide insights as to how the RAMPs direct ligand binding. The range of RAMP interactions is also considered; RAMPs can interact with numerous family B GPCRs as well as examples of family A and family C GPCRs. They influence receptor expression at the cell surface, trafficking, ligand binding and G protein coupling. The GPCR-RAMP interface offers opportunities for drug targeting, illustrated by examples of drugs developed for migraine. PMID:27068971

  4. Activation of G protein by opioid receptors: role of receptor number and G-protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Remmers, A E; Clark, M J; Alt, A; Medzihradsky, F; Woods, J H; Traynor, J R

    2000-05-19

    The collision-coupling model for receptor-G-protein interaction predicts that the rate of G-protein activation is dependent on receptor density, but not G-protein levels. C6 cells expressing mu- or delta-opioid receptors, or SH-SY5Y cells, were treated with beta-funaltrexamine (mu) or naltrindole-5'-isothiocyanate (delta) to decrease receptor number. The time course of full or partial agonist-stimulated ¿35SGTPgammaS binding did not vary in C6 cell membranes containing <1-25 pmol/mg mu-opioid receptor, or 1. 4-4.3 pmol/mg delta-opioid receptor, or in SHSY5Y cells containing 0. 16-0.39 pmol/mg receptor. The association of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding was faster in membranes from C6mu cells than from C6delta cells. A 10-fold reduction in functional G-protein, following pertussis toxin treatment, lowered the maximal level of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding but not the association rate. These data indicate a compartmentalization of opioid receptors and G protein at the cell membrane. PMID:10822058

  5. Retinoic Acid-mediated Nuclear Receptor Activation and Hepatocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bushue, Nathan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Due to their well-known differentiation and apoptosis-inducing abilities, retinoic acid (RA) and its analogs have strong anti-cancer efficacy in human cancers. However, in vivo RA is a liver mitogen. While speculation has persisted that RA-mediated signaling is likely involved in hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration, direct evidence is still required. Findings in support of this proposition include observations that a release of retinyl palmitate (the precursor of RA) occurs in liver stellate cells following liver injury. Nevertheless, the biological action of this released vitamin A is virtually unknown. More likely is that the released vitamin A is converted to RA, the biological form, and then bound to a specific receptor (retinoid x receptor; RXRα), which is most abundantly expressed in the liver. Considering the mitogenic effects of RA, the RA-activated RXRα would likely then influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver tissue repair. At present, the mechanism by which RA stimulates hepatocyte proliferation is largely unknown. This review summarizes the activation of nuclear receptors (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, pregnane x receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and farnesoid x receptor) in an RXRα dependent manner to induce hepatocyte proliferation, providing a link between RA and its proliferative role.

  6. An activation switch in the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors: the thyrotropin receptor.

    PubMed

    Urizar, Eneko; Claeysen, Sylvie; Deupí, Xavier; Govaerts, Cedric; Costagliola, Sabine; Vassart, Gilbert; Pardo, Leonardo

    2005-04-29

    We aimed at understanding molecular events involved in the activation of a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, the thyrotropin receptor. We have focused on the transmembrane region and in particular on a network of polar interactions between highly conserved residues. Using molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed mutagenesis techniques we have identified residue Asn-7.49, of the NPxxY motif of TM 7, as a molecular switch in the mechanism of thyrotropin receptor (TSHr) activation. Asn-7.49 appears to adopt two different conformations in the inactive and active states. These two states are characterized by specific interactions between this Asn and polar residues in the transmembrane domain. The inactive gauche+ conformation is maintained by interactions with residues Thr-6.43 and Asp-6.44. Mutation of these residues into Ala increases the constitutive activity of the receptor by factors of approximately 14 and approximately 10 relative to wild type TSHr, respectively. Upon receptor activation Asn-7.49 adopts the trans conformation to interact with Asp-2.50 and a putatively charged residue that remains to be identified. In addition, the conserved Leu-2.46 of the (N/S)LxxxD motif also plays a significant role in restraining the receptor in the inactive state because the L2.46A mutation increases constitutive activity by a factor of approximately 13 relative to wild type TSHr. As residues Leu-2.46, Asp-2.50, and Asn-7.49 are strongly conserved, this molecular mechanism of TSHr activation can be extended to other members of the rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors.

  7. Pentameric quaternary structure of the intracellular domain of serotonin type 3A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pandhare, Akash; Grozdanov, Petar N.; Jansen, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    In spite of extensive efforts over decades an experimentally-derived structure of full-length eukaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) is still lacking. These pharmaceutically highly-relevant channels contain structurally well-conserved and characterized extracellular and transmembrane domains. The intracellular domain (ICD), however, has been orphaned in structural studies based on the consensus assumption of being largely disordered. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that the serotonin type 3A (5-HT3A) ICD assembles into stable pentamers in solution in the absence of the other two domains, thought to be the drivers for oligomerization. Additionally, the soluble 5-HT3A-ICD construct interacted with the protein RIC-3 (resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase). The interaction provides evidence that the 5-HT3A-ICD is not only required but also sufficient for interaction with RIC-3. Our results suggest the ICD constitutes an oligomerization domain. This novel role significantly adds to its known contributions in receptor trafficking, targeting, and functional fine-tuning. The innate diversity of the ICDs with sizes ranging from 50 to 280 amino acids indicates new methodologies need to be developed to determine the structures of these domains. The use of soluble ICD proteins that we report in the present study constitutes a useful approach to address this gap. PMID:27045630

  8. Clinically used selective oestrogen receptor modulators increase LDL receptor activity in primary human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cerrato, F; Fernández-Suárez, M E; Alonso, R; Alonso, M; Vázquez, C; Pastor, O; Mata, P; Lasunción, M A; Gómez-Coronado, D

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Treatment with selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. We assessed the effect of tamoxifen, raloxifene and toremifene and their combinations with lovastatin on LDL receptor activity in lymphocytes from normolipidaemic and familial hypercholesterolaemic (FH) subjects, and human HepG2 hepatocytes and MOLT-4 lymphoblasts. Experimental Approach Lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, treated with different compounds, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-labelled LDL uptake was analysed by flow cytometry. Key Results Tamoxifen, toremifene and raloxifene, in this order, stimulated DiI-LDL uptake by lymphocytes by inhibiting LDL-derived cholesterol trafficking and subsequent down-regulation of LDL receptor expression. Differently to what occurred in HepG2 and MOLT-4 cells, only tamoxifen consistently displayed a potentiating effect with lovastatin in primary lymphocytes. The SERM-mediated increase in LDL receptor activity was not altered by the anti-oestrogen ICI 182 780 nor was it reproduced by 17β-oestradiol. However, the tamoxifen-active metabolite endoxifen was equally effective as tamoxifen. The SERMs produced similar effects on LDL receptor activity in heterozygous FH lymphocytes as in normal lymphocytes, although none of them had a potentiating effect with lovastatin in heterozygous FH lymphocytes. The SERMs had no effect in homozygous FH lymphocytes. Conclusions and Implications Clinically used SERMs up-regulate LDL receptors in primary human lymphocytes. There is a mild enhancement between SERMs and lovastatin of lymphocyte LDLR activity, the potentiation being greater in HepG2 and MOLT-4 cells. The effect of SERMs is independent of oestrogen receptors but is preserved in the tamoxifen-active metabolite endoxifen. This mechanism may contribute to the cholesterol-lowering action of SERMs. PMID:25395200

  9. Transcriptional activation of nuclear estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and its regulation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qi-Liang; Qiu, Jing-Tao; Cui, Sheng; Xia, Guo-Liang; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2016-08-25

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are two important members of steroid receptors family, an evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors. Upon binding to their ligands, ER and PR enter cell nucleus to interact with specific DNA element in the context of chromatin to initiate the transcription of diverse target genes, which largely depends on the timely recruitment of a wide range of cofactors. Moreover, the interactions between steroid hormones and their respective receptors also trigger post-translational modifications on these receptors to fine-tune their transcriptional activities. Besides the well-known phosphorylation modifications on tyrosine and serine/threonine residues, recent studies have identified several other covalent modifications, such as ubiquitylation and sumoylation. These post-translational modifications of steroid receptors affect its stability, subcellular localization, and/or cofactor recruitment; eventually influence the duration and extent of transcriptional activation. This review is to focus on the recent research progress on the transcriptional activation of nuclear ER and PR as well as their physiological functions in early pregnancy, which may help us to better understand related female reproductive diseases. PMID:27546504

  10. Immunohistochemical quantitation of oestrogen receptors and proliferative activity in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, V; Ladekarl, M

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To evaluate the effect of the duration of formalin fixation and of tumour heterogeneity on quantitative estimates of oestrogen receptor content (oestrogen receptor index) and proliferative activity (MIB-1 index) in breast cancer. METHODS--Two monoclonal antibodies, MIB-1 and oestrogen receptor, were applied to formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue from 25 prospectively collected oestrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas, using a microwave antigen retrieval method. Tumour tissue was allocated systematically to different periods of fixation to ensure minimal intraspecimen variation. The percentages of MIB-1 positive and oestrogen receptor positive nuclei were estimated in fields of vision sampled systematically from the entire specimen and from the whole tumour area of one "representative" cross-section. RESULTS--No correlation was found between the oestrogen receptor and MIB-1 indices and the duration of formalin fixation. The estimated MIB-1 and oestrogen receptor indices in tissue sampled systematically from the entire tumour were closely correlated with estimates obtained in a "representative" section. The intra- and interobserver correlation of the MIB-1 index was good, although a slight systematical error at the second assessment of the intraobserver study was noted. CONCLUSION--Quantitative estimates of oestrogen receptor content and proliferative activity are not significantly influenced by the period of fixation in formalin, varying from less than four hours to more than 48 hours. The MIB-1 and the oestrogen receptor indices obtained in a "representative" section do not deviate significantly from average indices determined in tissue samples from the entire tumour. Finally, the estimation of MIB-1 index is reproducible, justifying its routine use. PMID:7629289

  11. Identification of COUP-TFII Orphan Nuclear Receptor as a Retinoic Acid-Activated Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Schoen W; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X Edward; Kretschman, Jennifer E; Reynolds, Ross; Vonrhein, Clemens; Xu, Yong; Wang, Liliang; Tsai, Sophia Y; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Xu, H Eric

    2010-01-12

    The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFI and II) make up the most conserved subfamily of nuclear receptors that play key roles in angiogenesis, neuronal development, organogenesis, cell fate determination, and metabolic homeostasis. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFs have been studied extensively, little is known of their structural features or aspects of ligand regulation. Here we report the ligand-free 1.48 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human COUP-TFII ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals an autorepressed conformation of the receptor, where helix {alpha}10 is bent into the ligand-binding pocket and the activation function-2 helix is folded into the cofactor binding site, thus preventing the recruitment of coactivators. In contrast, in multiple cell lines, COUP-TFII exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, substantially reduce the COUP-TFII transcriptional activity. Importantly, retinoid acids are able to promote COUP-TFII to recruit coactivators and activate a COUP-TF reporter construct. Although the concentration needed is higher than the physiological levels of retinoic acids, these findings demonstrate that COUP-TFII is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, in which ligands activate the receptor by releasing it from the autorepressed conformation.

  12. Insulin and rabbit anti-insulin receptor antibodies stimulate additively the intrinsic receptor kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ponzio, G; Dolais-Kitabgi, J; Louvard, D; Gautier, N; Rossi, B

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the properties of rabbit polyclonal antibodies directed against purified human insulin receptor which strongly stimulate the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. The stimulatory effect of the antibodies on the kinase activity was obtained on the insulin receptor autophosphorylation as well as on the kinase activity towards a synthetic substrate. This stimulation is additive to that induced by insulin. Moreover, rabbit antibodies do not impair insulin binding. These data strongly suggest that antibodies and insulin act through separate pathways. This conclusion is reinforced by the differences observed on the phosphopeptide maps of the receptor's beta subunit whose phosphorylation was performed either in the presence of insulin or rabbit antibodies. Interestingly, these polyclonal antibodies can also induce an activation of the receptor autophosphorylation by interacting only with extracellular determinants. The anti-insulin receptor antibodies mimic insulin in their stimulatory effect on amino acid (AIB) uptake, but they have a different effect to that found on the kinase activity; the simultaneous addition of the antiserum and insulin failed to stimulate this amino acid transport over the level induced by a saturating concentration of hormone. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3034584

  13. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  14. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    PubMed

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold. PMID:18434362

  15. Flavonoids as dietary regulators of nuclear receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Avior, Yishai; Bomze, David; Ramon, Ory

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, and dyslipidemia are a rising cause of mortality worldwide. The progression of many metabolic diseases is fundamentally regulated on the transcriptional level by a family of ligand-activated transcription factors, called nuclear receptors, which detect and respond to metabolic changes. Their role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis makes nuclear receptors an important pharmaceutical and dietary target. This review will present the growing evidence that flavonoids, natural secondary plant metabolites, are important regulators of nuclear receptor activity. Structural similarities between flavonoids and cholesterol derivatives combined with the promiscuous nature of most nuclear receptors provide a wealth of possibilities for pharmaceutical and dietary modulation of metabolism. While the challenges of bringing flavonoid-derived therapeutics to the market are significant, we consider this rapidly growing field to be an essential aspect of the functional food initiative and an important mine for pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23598551

  16. Receptor-Selective Agonists Induce Emesis and Fos Expression in the Brain and Enteric Nervous System of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Andrew P.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms of emesis has implicated multiple neurotransmitters via both central (dorsal vagal complex) and peripheral (enteric neurons and enterochromaffin cells) anatomical substrates. Taking advantage of advances in receptor-specific agonists, and utilizing Fos expression as a functional activity marker, this study demonstrates a strong, but incomplete, overlap in anatomical substrates for a variety of emetogens. We used cisplatin and specific agonists to 5-HT3 serotonergic, D2/D3 dopaminergic, and NK1 tachykininergic receptors to induce vomiting in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva), and quantified the resulting Fos expression. The least shrew is a small mammal whose responses to emetic challenges are very similar to its human counterparts. In all cases, the enteric nervous system, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus demonstrated significantly increased Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). However, Fos-IR induction was notably absent from the area postrema following the dopaminergic and NK1 receptor-specific agents. Two brain nuclei not usually discussed regarding emesis, the dorsal raphe nucleus and paraventricular thalamic nucleus, also demonstrated increased emesis-related Fos-IR. Taken together, these data suggest the dorsal vagal complex is part of a common pathway for a variety of distinct emetogens, but there are central emetic substrates, both medullary and diencephalic, that can be accessed without directly stimulating the area postrema. PMID:19699757

  17. Extended Synaptotagmin Interaction with the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Depends on Receptor Conformation, Not Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Michel G; Herdman, Chelsea; Guillou, François; Mishra, Prakash K; Baril, Joëlle; Bellenfant, Sabrina; Moss, Tom

    2015-06-26

    We previously demonstrated that ESyt2 interacts specifically with the activated FGF receptor and is required for a rapid phase of receptor internalization and for functional signaling via the ERK pathway in early Xenopus embryos. ESyt2 is one of the three-member family of Extended Synaptotagmins that were recently shown to be implicated in the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions and in the Ca(2+) dependent regulation of these junctions. Here we show that ESyt2 is directed to the ER by its putative transmembrane domain, that the ESyts hetero- and homodimerize, and that ESyt2 homodimerization in vivo requires a TM adjacent sequence but not the SMP domain. ESyt2 and ESyt3, but not ESyt1, selectively interact in vivo with activated FGFR1. In the case of ESyt2, this interaction requires a short TM adjacent sequence and is independent of receptor autophosphorylation, but dependent on receptor conformation. The data show that ESyt2 recognizes a site in the upper kinase lobe of FGFR1 that is revealed by displacement of the kinase domain activation loop during receptor activation.

  18. Allosteric Activation of a G Protein-coupled Receptor with Cell-penetrating Receptor Mimetics*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Leger, Andrew J.; Baleja, James D.; Rana, Rajashree; Corlin, Tiffany; Nguyen, Nga; Koukos, Georgios; Bohm, Andrew; Covic, Lidija; Kuliopulos, Athan

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are remarkably versatile signaling systems that are activated by a large number of different agonists on the outside of the cell. However, the inside surface of the receptors that couple to G proteins has not yet been effectively modulated for activity or treatment of diseases. Pepducins are cell-penetrating lipopeptides that have enabled chemical and physical access to the intracellular face of GPCRs. The structure of a third intracellular (i3) loop agonist, pepducin, based on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) was solved by NMR and found to closely resemble the i3 loop structure predicted for the intact receptor in the on-state. Mechanistic studies revealed that the pepducin directly interacts with the intracellular H8 helix region of PAR1 and allosterically activates the receptor through the adjacent (D/N)PXXYYY motif through a dimer-like mechanism. The i3 pepducin enhances PAR1/Gα subunit interactions and induces a conformational change in fluorescently labeled PAR1 in a very similar manner to that induced by thrombin. As pepducins can potentially be made to target any GPCR, these data provide insight into the identification of allosteric modulators to this major drug target class. PMID:25934391

  19. N-Benzylpiperidine Derivatives as α7 Nicotinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Criado, Manuel; Mulet, José; Sala, Francisco; Sala, Salvador; Colmena, Inés; Gandía, Luis; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Chioua, Mourad; Marco-Contelles, José

    2016-08-17

    A series of multitarget directed propargylamines, as well as other differently susbstituted piperidines have been screened as potential modulators of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Most of them showed antagonist actions on α7 nAChRs. Especially, compounds 13, 26, and 38 displayed submicromolar IC50 values on homomeric α7 nAChRs, whereas they were less effective on heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs (up to 20-fold higher IC50 values in the case of 13). Antagonism was concentration dependent and noncompetitive, suggesting that these compounds behave as negative allosteric modulators of nAChRs. Upon the study of a series of less complex derivatives, the N-benzylpiperidine motif, common to these compounds, was found to be the main pharmacophoric group. Thus, 2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-ethylamine (48) showed an inhibitory potency comparable to the one of the previous compounds and also a clear preference for α7 nAChRs. In a neuroblastoma cell line, representative compounds 13 and 48 also inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, cytosolic Ca(2+) signals mediated by nAChRs. Finally, compounds 38 and 13 inhibited 5-HT3A serotonin receptors whereas they had no effect on α1 glycine receptors. Given the multifactorial nature of many pathologies in which nAChRs are involved, these piperidine antagonists could have a therapeutic potential in cases where cholinergic activity has to be negatively modulated. PMID:27254782

  20. Redefining the concept of protease-activated receptors: cathepsin S evokes itch via activation of Mrgprs

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vemuri B.; Sun, Shuohao; Azimi, Ehsan; Elmariah, Sarina B.; Dong, Xinzhong; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory neurons expressing Mas-related G protein coupled receptors (Mrgprs) mediate histamine-independent itch. We show that the cysteine protease cathepsin S activates MrgprC11 and evokes receptor-dependent scratching in mice. In contrast to its activation of conventional protease-activated receptors, cathepsin S mediated activation of MrgprC11 did not involve the generation of a tethered ligand. We demonstrate further that different cysteine proteases selectively activate specific mouse and human Mrgpr family members. This expansion of our understanding by which proteases interact with GPCRs redefines the concept of what constitutes a protease-activated receptor. The findings also implicate proteases as ligands to members of this orphan receptor family while providing new insights into how cysteine proteases contribute to itch. PMID:26216096

  1. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migration through cytoskeleton changes. These findings have raised the question of intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors mediating these responses. During the past years, increasing evidence has shown that classical sex steroid receptors localized in the extra-nuclear compartment or close to membranes of target cells induce these events. The emerging picture is that a process of bidirectional control between signaling activation and sex steroid receptor localization regulates the outcome of hormonal responses in target cells. This mechanism ensures cell cycle progression in estradiol-treated breast cancer cells, and its derangement might occur in progression of human proliferative diseases. These findings will be reviewed here together with unexpected examples of the relationship between sex steroid receptor localization, signaling activation and biological responses in target cells. We apologize to scientists whose reports are not mentioned or extensively discussed owing to space limitations.

  2. Glycine Potentiates AMPA Receptor Function through Metabotropic Activation of GluN2A-Containing NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Jun; Hu, Rong; Lujan, Brendan; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Nakano, Yasuko; Cui, Tian-Yuan; Liao, Ming-Xia; Chen, Jin-Cao; Man, Heng-Ye; Feng, Hua; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors are Ca2+-permeable ion channels. The activation of NMDA receptors requires agonist glutamate and co-agonist glycine. Recent evidence indicates that NMDA receptor also has metabotropic function. Here we report that in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents independent of the channel activity of NMDA receptors and the activation of glycine receptors. The potentiation of AMPA receptor function by glycine is antagonized by the inhibition of ERK1/2. In the hippocampal neurons and in the HEK293 cells transfected with different combinations of NMDA receptors, glycine preferentially acts on GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2ARs), but not GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2BRs), to enhance ERK1/2 phosphorylation independent of the channel activity of GluN2ARs. Without requiring the channel activity of GluN2ARs, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents through GluN2ARs. Thus, these results reveal a metabotropic function of GluN2ARs in mediating glycine-induced potentiation of AMPA receptor function via ERK1/2 activation. PMID:27807405

  3. Overexpression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in hemangioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gregory J.; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Newcomb, Elizabeth W.

    2010-01-01

    Hemangioblastomas frequently develop in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. The tumors are characterized by a dense network of blood capillaries, often in association with cysts. Although activation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the development of malignant brain tumors such as high-grade gliomas, little is known about the role of RTK signaling in hemangioblastomas. To address this issue, we examined hemangioblastoma tumor specimens using receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation profiling and immunohistochemistry. Six human hemangioblastomas were analyzed with a phospho-RTK antibody array, revealing EGFR phosphorylation in all tumors. EGFR expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in all tumors analyzed and downstream effector pathway activation was demonstrated by positive staining for phospho-AKT. Our findings suggest that, in primary hemangioblastomas, RTK upregulation and signaling predominantly involves EGFR, providing an attractive molecular target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20730556

  4. Interfering with mineralocorticoid receptor activation: the past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. Aldosterone binds to and activates the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in a plethora of tissues, but the cardiovascular actions of aldosterone are of primary interest clinically. Although MR antagonists were developed as antihypertensive agents, they are now considered to be important therapeutic options for patients with heart failure. Specifically, blocking only the MR has proven to be a difficult task because of its similarity to other steroid receptors, including the androgen and progesterone receptors. This lack of specificity caused the use of the first-generation mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists to be fraught with difficulty because of the side effects produced by drug administration. However, in recent years, several advances have been made that could potentially increase the clinical use of agents that inhibit the actions of aldosterone. These will be discussed here along with some examples of the beneficial effects of these new therapeutic agents. PMID:25165560

  5. Histamine 3 receptor activation reduces the expression of neuronal angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the heart.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki; Levi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In severe myocardial ischemia, histamine 3 (H₃) receptor activation affords cardioprotection by preventing excessive norepinephrine release and arrhythmias; pivotal to this action is the inhibition of neuronal Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE). Conversely, angiotensin II, formed locally by mast cell-derived renin, stimulates NHE via angiotensin II type 1 (AT₁) receptors, facilitating norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Thus, ischemic dysfunction may depend on a balance between the NHE-modulating effects of H₃ receptors and AT₁ receptors. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to elucidate the H₃/AT₁ receptor interaction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We found that H₃ receptor blockade with clobenpropit increased norepinephrine overflow and arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. This coincided with increased neuronal AT₁ receptor expression. NHE inhibition with cariporide prevented both increases in norepinephrine release and AT₁ receptor expression. Moreover, norepinephrine release and AT₁ receptor expression were increased by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-methyl-L-arginine and the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. H₃ receptor activation in differentiated sympathetic neuron-like PC12 cells permanently transfected with H₃ receptor cDNA caused a decrease in protein kinase C activity and AT₁ receptor protein abundance. Collectively, our findings suggest that neuronal H₃ receptor activation inhibits NHE by diminishing protein kinase C activity. Reduced NHE activity sequentially causes intracellular acidification, increased NO synthesis, and diminished AT₁ receptor expression. Thus, H₃ receptor-mediated NHE inhibition in ischemia/reperfusion not only opposes the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of NHE in cardiac sympathetic neurons, but also down-regulates AT₁ receptor expression. Cardioprotection ultimately results from the combined

  6. Histamine 3 Receptor Activation Reduces the Expression of Neuronal Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Chan, Noel Yan-Ki

    2012-01-01

    In severe myocardial ischemia, histamine 3 (H3) receptor activation affords cardioprotection by preventing excessive norepinephrine release and arrhythmias; pivotal to this action is the inhibition of neuronal Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). Conversely, angiotensin II, formed locally by mast cell-derived renin, stimulates NHE via angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors, facilitating norepinephrine release and arrhythmias. Thus, ischemic dysfunction may depend on a balance between the NHE-modulating effects of H3 receptors and AT1 receptors. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to elucidate the H3/AT1 receptor interaction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We found that H3 receptor blockade with clobenpropit increased norepinephrine overflow and arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. This coincided with increased neuronal AT1 receptor expression. NHE inhibition with cariporide prevented both increases in norepinephrine release and AT1 receptor expression. Moreover, norepinephrine release and AT1 receptor expression were increased by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-methyl-l-arginine and the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. H3 receptor activation in differentiated sympathetic neuron-like PC12 cells permanently transfected with H3 receptor cDNA caused a decrease in protein kinase C activity and AT1 receptor protein abundance. Collectively, our findings suggest that neuronal H3 receptor activation inhibits NHE by diminishing protein kinase C activity. Reduced NHE activity sequentially causes intracellular acidification, increased NO synthesis, and diminished AT1 receptor expression. Thus, H3 receptor-mediated NHE inhibition in ischemia/reperfusion not only opposes the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of NHE in cardiac sympathetic neurons, but also down-regulates AT1 receptor expression. Cardioprotection ultimately results from the combined attenuation of angiotensin II and

  7. Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC). One agonist of PPARa (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemic...

  8. In vitro screening of major neurotransmitter systems possibly involved in the mechanism of action of antibodies to S100 protein in released-active form

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunov, Evgeniy A; Ertuzun, Irina A; Kachaeva, Evgeniya V; Tarasov, Sergey A; Epstein, Oleg I

    2015-01-01

    Experimentally and clinically, it was shown that released-active form of antibodies to S100 protein (RAF of Abs to S100) exerts a wide range of pharmacological activities: anxiolytic, antiasthenic, antiaggressive, stress-protective, antihypoxic, antiischemic, neuroprotective, and nootropic. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of RAF of Abs to S100 on major neurotransmitter systems (serotoninergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and on sigma receptors as well) which are possibly involved in its mechanism of pharmacological activity. Radioligand binding assays were used for assessment of the drug influence on ligand–receptor interaction. [35S]GTPγS binding assay, cyclic adenosine monophosphate HTRF™, cellular dielectric spectroscopy assays, and assays based on measurement of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ions were used for assessment of agonist or antagonist properties of the drug toward receptors. RAF of Abs to S100 increased radioligand binding to 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2Cedited, 5-HT3, and to D3 receptors by 142.0%, 131.9%, 149.3%, 120.7%, and 126.3%, respectively. Also, the drug significantly inhibited specific binding of radioligands to GABAB1A/B2 receptors by 25.8%, and to both native and recombinant human sigma1 receptors by 75.3% and 40.32%, respectively. In the functional assays, it was shown that the drug exerted antagonism at 5-HT1B, D3, and GABAB1A/B2 receptors inhibiting agonist-induced responses by 23.24%, 32.76%, and 30.2%, respectively. On the contrary, the drug exerted an agonist effect at 5-HT1A receptors enhancing receptor functional activity by 28.0%. The pharmacological profiling of RAF of Abs to S100 among 27 receptor provides evidence for drug-related modification of major neurotransmitter systems. PMID:26604768

  9. The cytoplasmic tails of protease-activated receptor-1 and substance P receptor specify sorting to lysosomes versus recycling.

    PubMed

    Trejo, J; Coughlin, S R

    1999-01-22

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), is activated when thrombin cleaves its amino-terminal exodomain. The irreversibility of this proteolytic mechanism raises the question of how desensitization and resensitization are accomplished for thrombin signaling. PAR1 is phosphorylated, uncoupled from signaling, and internalized after activation like classic GPCRs. However, unlike classic GPCRs, which internalize and recycle, activated PAR1 is sorted to lysosomes. To identify the signals that specify the distinct sorting of PAR1, we constructed chimeras between PAR1 and the substance P receptor. Wild-type substance P receptor internalized and recycled after activation; PAR1 bearing the cytoplasmic tail of the substance P receptor (P/S) behaved similarly. By contrast, wild-type PAR1 and a substance P receptor bearing the cytoplasmic tail of PAR1 (S/P) sorted to lysosomes after activation. Consistent with these observations, PAR1 and the S/P chimera were effectively down-regulated by their respective agonists as assessed by both receptor protein levels and signaling. Substance P receptor and the P/S chimera showed little down-regulation. These data suggest that the cytoplasmic tails of PAR1 and substance P receptor specify their distinct intracellular sorting patterns after activation and internalization. Moreover, by altering the trafficking fates of PAR1 and substance P receptor, one can dictate the efficiency with which a cell maintains responsiveness to PAR1 or substance P receptor agonists over time.

  10. Mechanisms of Activation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Monomers or Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play essential roles in cellular processes, including metabolism, cell-cycle control, survival, proliferation, motility and differentiation. RTKs are all synthesized as single-pass transmembrane proteins and bind polypeptide ligands, mainly growth factors. It has long been thought that all RTKs, except for the insulin receptor (IR) family, are activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptors. An increasing number of diverse studies, however, indicate that RTKs, previously thought to exist as monomers, are present as pre-formed, yet inactive, dimers prior to ligand binding. The non-covalently associated dimeric structures are reminiscent of those of the IR family, which has a disulfide-linked dimeric structure. Furthermore, recent progress in structural studies has provided insight into the underpinnings of conformational changes during the activation of RTKs. In this review, I discuss two mutually exclusive models for the mechanisms of activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, the neurotrophin receptor and IR families, based on these new insights. PMID:24758840

  11. Modulation of Receptor Phosphorylation Contributes to Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Other Peroxisome Proliferators

    PubMed Central

    Tamasi, Viola; Miller, Kristy K. Michael; Ripp, Sharon L.; Vila, Ermin; Geoghagen, Thomas E.; Prough, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 human adrenal steroid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in vivo but does not ligand-activate PPARα in transient transfection experiments. We demonstrate that DHEA regulates PPARα action by altering both the levels and phosphorylation status of the receptor. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with the expression plasmid encoding PPARα and a plasmid containing two copies of fatty acyl coenzyme oxidase (FACO) peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor responsive element consensus oligonucleotide in a luciferase reporter gene. Nafenopin treatment increased reporter gene activity in this system, whereas DHEA treatment did not. Okadaic acid significantly decreased nafenopin-induced reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Okadaic acid treatment of primary rat hepatocytes decreased both DHEA- and nafenopin-induced FACO activity in primary rat hepatocytes. DHEA induced both PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as PP2A message in primary rat hepatocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the serines at positions 12 and 21 were rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment with DHEA and nafenopin. Results using specific protein phosphatase inhibitors suggested that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for DHEA action, and protein phosphatase 1 might be involved in nafenopin induction. Mutation of serines at position 6, 12, and 21 to an uncharged alanine residue significantly increased transcriptional activity, whereas mutation to negative charged aspartate residues (mimicking receptor phosphorylation) decreased transcriptional activity. DHEA action involves induction of PPARα mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPARα transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region. PMID:18079279

  12. Liver X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist from Cornus alternifolia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-Qing; Ma, Guo-Yi; Peng, Jiang-nan; Ma, Zhan-Ying; Hamann, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptors superfamily and are transcription factors activated by specific ligands. Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptors and have been shown to play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. From the previous screening of several medicinal plants for potential partial PPARγ agonists, the extracts of Cornus alternifolia were found to exhibit promising bioactivity. In this paper, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of four new compounds and their potential as ligands for PPAR. Methods The new compounds were extracted from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and analysis of their hydrolysis products. Results Three new iridoid glycosides including an iridolactone, alternosides A-C (1–3), a new megastigmane glycoside, cornalternoside (4) and 10 known compounds, were obtained from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia. Kaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited potent agonistic activities for PPARα, PPARγ and LXR with EC50 values of 0.62, 3.0 and 1.8 μ M, respectively. Conclusions We isolated four new and ten known compounds from Cornus alternifolia, and one known compound showed agonistic activities for PPARα, PPARγ and LXR. General significance Compound 1 is the first example of a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside containing a β-glucopyranoside moiety at C-6. PMID:22353334

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of endogenous and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pomorska, Dorota K; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main role of endogenous opioid peptides is the modulation of pain. Opioid peptides exert their analgesic activity by binding to the opioid receptors distributed widely in the central nervous system (CNS). However, opioid receptors are also found on tissues and organs outside the CNS, including the cells of the immune system, indicating that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in periphery. Morphine, which is a gold standard in the treatment of chronic pain, is well-known for its immunosuppressive effects. Much less is known about the immunomodulatory effects exerted by endogenous (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins and endomorphins) and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors. In this review we tried to summarize opioid peptide-mediated modulation of immune cell functions which can be stimulatory as well as inhibitory. PMID:25553430

  14. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  15. Structural basis for selective activation of ABA receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Francis C.; Burgie, E. Sethe; Park, Sang-Youl; Jensen, Davin R.; Weiner, Joshua J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Chang, Chia-En A.; Cutler, Sean R.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2010-11-01

    Changing environmental conditions and lessening fresh water supplies have sparked intense interest in understanding and manipulating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which controls adaptive responses to drought and other abiotic stressors. We recently discovered a selective ABA agonist, pyrabactin, and used it to discover its primary target PYR1, the founding member of the PYR/PYL family of soluble ABA receptors. To understand pyrabactin's selectivity, we have taken a combined structural, chemical and genetic approach. We show that subtle differences between receptor binding pockets control ligand orientation between productive and nonproductive modes. Nonproductive binding occurs without gate closure and prevents receptor activation. Observations in solution show that these orientations are in rapid equilibrium that can be shifted by mutations to control maximal agonist activity. Our results provide a robust framework for the design of new agonists and reveal a new mechanism for agonist selectivity.

  16. Novel positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors with anesthetic activity

    PubMed Central

    Maldifassi, Maria C.; Baur, Roland; Pierce, David; Nourmahnad, Anahita; Forman, Stuart A.; Sigel, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    GABAA receptors are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and are targets for numerous clinically important drugs such as benzodiazepines, anxiolytics and anesthetics. We previously identified novel ligands of the classical benzodiazepine binding pocket in α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors using an experiment-guided virtual screening (EGVS) method. This screen also identified novel ligands for intramembrane low affinity diazepam site(s). In the current study we have further characterized compounds 31 and 132 identified with EGVS as well as 4-O-methylhonokiol. We investigated the site of action of these compounds in α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using voltage-clamp electrophysiology combined with a benzodiazepine site antagonist and transmembrane domain mutations. All three compounds act mainly through the two β+/α− subunit transmembrane interfaces of the GABAA receptors. We then used concatenated receptors to dissect the involvement of individual β+/α− interfaces. We further demonstrated that these compounds have anesthetic activity in a small aquatic animal model, Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The newly identified compounds may serve as scaffolds for the development of novel anesthetics. PMID:27198062

  17. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect neither the function of other ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels and acetylcholinesterase, nor β-amyloid content.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ravazzini, Federica; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Feuerbach, Dominik; Boffi, Juan C; Draczkowski, Piotr; Montag, Dirk; Brown, Brandon M; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Puia, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The activity of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), 3-furan-2-yl-N-o-tolylacrylamide (PAM-3), and 3-furan-2-yl-N-phenylacrylamide (PAM-4), was tested on a variety of ligand- [i.e., human (h) α7, rat (r) α9α10, hα3-containing AChRs, mouse (m) 5-HT3AR, and several glutamate receptors (GluRs)] and voltage-gated (i.e., sodium and potassium) ion channels, as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and β-amyloid (Aβ) content. The functional results indicate that PAM-2 inhibits hα3-containing AChRs (IC50=26±6μM) with higher potency than that for NR1aNR2B and NR1aNR2A, two NMDA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 affects neither the activity of m5-HT3ARs, GluR5/KA2 (a kainate-sensitive GluR), nor AChE, and PAM-4 does not affect agonist-activated rα9α10 AChRs. Relevant clinical concentrations of PAM-2-4 do not inhibit Nav1.2 and Kv3.1 ion channels. These PAMs slightly enhance the activity of GluR1 and GluR2, two AMPA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 does not change the levels of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model (i.e., 5XFAD). The molecular docking and dynamics results using the hα7 model suggest that the active sites for PAM-2 include the intrasubunit (i.e., PNU-120596 locus) and intersubunit sites. These results support our previous study showing that these PAMs are selective for the α7 AChR, and clarify that the procognitive/promnesic/antidepressant activity of PAM-2 is not mediated by other targets.

  18. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect neither the function of other ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels and acetylcholinesterase, nor β-amyloid content.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ravazzini, Federica; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Feuerbach, Dominik; Boffi, Juan C; Draczkowski, Piotr; Montag, Dirk; Brown, Brandon M; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Puia, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The activity of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), 3-furan-2-yl-N-o-tolylacrylamide (PAM-3), and 3-furan-2-yl-N-phenylacrylamide (PAM-4), was tested on a variety of ligand- [i.e., human (h) α7, rat (r) α9α10, hα3-containing AChRs, mouse (m) 5-HT3AR, and several glutamate receptors (GluRs)] and voltage-gated (i.e., sodium and potassium) ion channels, as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and β-amyloid (Aβ) content. The functional results indicate that PAM-2 inhibits hα3-containing AChRs (IC50=26±6μM) with higher potency than that for NR1aNR2B and NR1aNR2A, two NMDA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 affects neither the activity of m5-HT3ARs, GluR5/KA2 (a kainate-sensitive GluR), nor AChE, and PAM-4 does not affect agonist-activated rα9α10 AChRs. Relevant clinical concentrations of PAM-2-4 do not inhibit Nav1.2 and Kv3.1 ion channels. These PAMs slightly enhance the activity of GluR1 and GluR2, two AMPA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 does not change the levels of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model (i.e., 5XFAD). The molecular docking and dynamics results using the hα7 model suggest that the active sites for PAM-2 include the intrasubunit (i.e., PNU-120596 locus) and intersubunit sites. These results support our previous study showing that these PAMs are selective for the α7 AChR, and clarify that the procognitive/promnesic/antidepressant activity of PAM-2 is not mediated by other targets. PMID:27129924

  19. Cofactoring and Dimerization of Proteinase-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huilan; Liu, Allen P.; Smith, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are G protein–coupled receptors that transmit cellular responses to extracellular proteases and have important functions in vascular physiology, development, inflammation, and cancer progression. The established paradigm for PAR activation involves proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular N terminus, which reveals a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand by binding intramolecularly to the receptor to trigger transmembrane signaling. Most cells express more than one PAR, which can influence the mode of PAR activation and signaling. Clear examples include murine PAR3 cofactoring of PAR4 and transactivation of PAR2 by PAR1. Thrombin binds to and cleaves murine PAR3, which facilitates PAR4 cleavage and activation. This process is essential for thrombin signaling and platelet activation, since murine PAR3 cannot signal alone. Although PAR1 and PAR4 are both competent to signal, PAR1 is able to act as a cofactor for PAR4, facilitating more rapid cleavage and activation by thrombin. PAR1 can also facilitate PAR2 activation through a different mechanism. Cleavage of the PAR1 N terminus by thrombin generates a tethered ligand domain that can bind intermolecularly to PAR2 to activate signaling. Thus, PARs can regulate each other’s activity by localizing thrombin when in complex with PAR3 and PAR4 or by cleaved PAR1, providing its tethered ligand domain for PAR2 activation. The ability of PARs to cofactor or transactivate other PARs would necessitate that the two receptors be in close proximity, likely in the form of a heterodimer. Here, we discuss the cofactoring and dimerization of PARs and the functional consequences on signaling. PMID:24064459

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Bailey, David

    2000-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)s are a family of three nuclear hormone receptors, PPARα, -δ, and -γ, which are members of the steriod receptor superfamily. The first member of the family (PPARα) was originally discovered as the mediator by which a number of xenobiotic drugs cause peroxisome proliferation in the liver. Defined functions for all these receptors, until recently, mainly concerned their ability to regulate energy balance, with PPARα being involved in β-oxidation pathways, and PPARγ in the differentiation of adipocytes. Little is known about the functions of PPARδ, though it is the most ubiquitously expressed. Since their discovery, PPARs have been shown to be expressed in monocytes/macrophages, the heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, PPARs can be activated by a vast number of compounds including synthetic drugs, of the clofibrate, and anti-diabetic thiazoldinedione classes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a number of eicosanoids, including prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products, and oxidized low density lipoprotein. This review will aim to introduce the field of PPAR nuclear hormone receptors, and discuss the discovery and actions of PPARs in the cardiovascular system, as well as the source of potential ligands. PMID:10696077

  1. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARα,...

  2. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation. PMID:22269613

  3. Protease-activated-receptor-2 affects protease-activated-receptor-1-driven breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Mohammad; Maoz, Miriam; Kancharla, Arun; Agranovich, Daniel; Peretz, Tamar; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Uziely, Beatrice; Bar-Shavit, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian protease-activated-receptor-1 and -2 (PAR1 and PAR2) are activated by proteases found in the flexible microenvironment of a tumor and play a central role in breast cancer. We propose in the present study that PAR1 and PAR2 act together as a functional unit during malignant and physiological invasion processes. This notion is supported by assessing pro-tumor functions in the presence of short hairpin; shRNA knocked-down hPar2 or by the use of a truncated PAR2 devoid of the entire cytoplasmic tail. Silencing of hPar2 by shRNA-attenuated thrombin induced PAR1 signaling as recapitulated by inhibiting the assembly of Etk/Bmx or Akt onto PAR1-C-tail, by thrombin-instigated colony formation and invasion. Strikingly, shRNA-hPar2 also inhibited the TFLLRN selective PAR1 pro-tumor functions. In addition, while evaluating the physiological invasion process of placenta extravillous trophoblast (EVT) organ culture, we observed inhibition of both thrombin or the selective PAR1 ligand; TFLLRNPNDK induced EVT invasion by shRNA-hPar2 but not by scrambled shRNA-hPar2. In parallel, when a truncated PAR2 was utilized in a xenograft mouse model, it inhibited PAR1-PAR2-driven tumor growth in vivo. Similarly, it also attenuated the interaction of Etk/Bmx with the PAR1-C-tail in vitro and decreased markedly selective PAR1-induced Matrigel invasion. Confocal images demonstrated co-localization of PAR1 and PAR2 in HEK293T cells over-expressing YFP-hPar2 and HA-hPar1. Co-immuno-precipitation analyses revealed PAR1-PAR2 complex formation but no PAR1-CXCR4 complex was formed. Taken together, our observations show that PAR1 and PAR2 act as a functional unit in tumor development and placenta-uterus interactions. This conclusion may have significant consequences on future breast cancer therapeutic modalities and improved late pregnancy outcome. PMID:24177339

  4. Serotonin via 5-HT7 receptors activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C epsilon resulting in interleukin-6 synthesis in human U373 MG astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Klaus; Biersack, Lisa; Waschbisch, Anne; Orlikowski, Sonja; Akundi, Ravi Shankar; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo; Hüll, Michael; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2005-05-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a widely distributed neurotransmitter which is involved in neuroimmunomodulatory processes. Previously, it has been demonstrated that 5-HT may induce interleukin (IL)-6 expression in primary rat hippocampal astrocytes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular pathways underlying this induction of IL-6 synthesis. As a model system, we used the human astrocytoma cell line U373 MG, which synthesizes IL-6 upon stimulation with various inducers. 5-HT dose- and time-dependently induced IL-6 protein synthesis. We identified several 5-HT receptors to be expressed on U373 MG cells, including the 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptors. In this report, we show that the 5-HT-induced IL-6 release is mediated by the 5-HT7 receptor based on several agonist/antagonists that were used. 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis is inhibited by the partially selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, pimozide, and the selective antagonist SB269970. Furthermore, IL-6 synthesis was induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist carboxamidotryptamin. In addition, we found p38 MAPKs and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon to be involved in 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis as specific inhibitors of these enzymes (SB202190 and RO-31-8425, respectively) blocked 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis. Furthermore, 5-HT mediated the phosphorylation of both p38 MAPK as well as the PKC epsilon isoform. The p42/44 MAPKs, however, were not involved in 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis. This study shows, for the first time, a central role of 5-HT7 receptor linked to p38 MAPK and PKC epsilon for the induction of cytokine synthesis in astrocytic cells. PMID:15836614

  5. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  6. Lysophosphatidylserine analogues differentially activate three LysoPS receptors.

    PubMed

    Uwamizu, Akiharu; Inoue, Asuka; Suzuki, Kensuke; Okudaira, Michiyo; Shuto, Akira; Shinjo, Yuji; Ishiguro, Jun; Makide, Kumiko; Ikubo, Masaya; Nakamura, Sho; Jung, Sejin; Sayama, Misa; Otani, Yuko; Ohwada, Tomohiko; Aoki, Junken

    2015-03-01

    Lysophosphatidylserine (1-oleoyl-2 R-lysophosphatidylserine, LysoPS) has been shown to have lipid mediator-like actions such as stimulation of mast cell degranulation and suppression of T lymphocyte proliferation, although the mechanisms of LysoPS actions have been elusive. Recently, three G protein-coupled receptors (LPS1/GPR34, LPS2/P2Y10 and LPS3/GPR174) were found to react specifically with LysoPS, raising the possibility that LysoPS serves as a lipid mediator that exerts its role through these receptors. Previously, we chemically synthesized a number of LysoPS analogues and evaluated them as agonists for mast-cell degranulation. Here, we used a transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) shedding assay to see if these LysoPS analogues activated the three LysoPS receptors. Modification of the serine moiety significantly reduced the ability of the analogues to activate the three LysoPS receptors, whereas modification of other parts resulted in loss of activity in receptor-specific manner. We found that introduction of methyl group to serine moiety (1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidylallothreonine) and removal of sn-2 hydroxyl group (1-oleoyl-2-deoxy-LysoPS) resulted in reduction of reactivity with LPS1 and LPS3, respectively. Accordingly, we synthesized a LysoPS analogue with the two modifications (1-oleoyl-2-deoxy-lysophosphatidylallothreonine) and found it to be an LPS2-selective agonist. These pharmacological tools will definitely help to identify the biological roles of these LysoPS receptors. PMID:25320102

  7. The Search for Endogenous Activators of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linh P.; Bradfield, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    In its simplest aspect, this review is an attempt to describe the major ligand classes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). A grander objective is to provide models that may help define the physiological activator or “endogenous ligand” of the AHR. We begin by presenting evidence that supports a developmental function for the AHR. This is followed by proposing mechanisms by which an endogenous ligand and consequent AHR activation might be important during normal physiology and development. With this background, we then present a survey of the known xenobiotic, endogenous, dietary and “un-conventional” activators of the AHR. When possible, this includes information about their induction potency, receptor binding affinity and potential for exposure. Because of the essential function of the AHR in embryonic development, we discuss the candidacy of each of these compounds as physiologically important activators. PMID:18076143

  8. Receptor antagonism/agonism can be uncoupled from pharmacoperone activity.

    PubMed

    Janovick, Jo Ann; Spicer, Timothy P; Smith, Emery; Bannister, Thomas D; Kenakin, Terry; Scampavia, Louis; Conn, P Michael

    2016-10-15

    Pharmacoperones rescue misrouted mutants of the vasopressin receptor type 2 (V2R) and enable them to traffic to the correct biological locus where they function. Previously, a library of nearly 645,000 structures was interrogated with a high throughput screen; pharmacoperones were identified for V2R mutants with a view toward correcting the underlying mutational defects in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In the present study, an orthologous assay was used to evaluate hits from the earlier study. We found no consistent relation between antagonism or agonism and pharmacoperone activity. Active pharmacoperones were identified which had minimal antagonistic activity. This increases the therapeutic reach of these drugs, since virtually all pharmacoperone drugs reported to date were selected from peptidomimetic antagonists. Such mixed-activity drugs have a complex pharmacology limiting their therapeutic utility and requiring their removal prior to stimulation of the receptor with agonist. PMID:27389877

  9. Mechanisms of NOD-like receptor-associated inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Haitao; Miao, Edward A; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2013-09-19

    A major function of a subfamily of NLR (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing, or NOD-like receptor) proteins is in inflammasome activation, which has been implicated in a multitude of disease models and human diseases. This work will highlight key progress in understanding the mechanisms that activate the best-studied NLRs (NLRP3, NLRC4, NAIP, and NLRP1) and in uncovering inflammasome NLRs. PMID:24054327

  10. A transgenic zebrafish model for monitoring glucocorticoid receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Krug, R G; Poshusta, T L; Skuster, K J; Berg, M R; Gardner, S L; Clark, K J

    2014-06-01

    Gene regulation resulting from glucocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid response element interactions is a hallmark feature of stress response signaling. Imbalanced glucocorticoid production and glucocorticoid receptor activity have been linked to socioeconomically crippling neuropsychiatric disorders, and accordingly there is a need to develop in vivo models to help understand disease progression and management. Therefore, we developed the transgenic SR4G zebrafish reporter line with six glucocorticoid response elements used to promote expression of a short half-life green fluorescent protein following glucocorticoid receptor activation. Herein, we document the ability of this reporter line to respond to both chronic and acute exogenous glucocorticoid treatment. The green fluorescent protein expression in response to transgene activation was high in a variety of tissues including the brain, and provided single-cell resolution in the effected regions. The specificity of these responses is demonstrated using the partial agonist mifepristone and mutation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Importantly, the reporter line also modeled the temporal dynamics of endogenous stress response signaling, including the increased production of the glucocorticoid cortisol following hyperosmotic stress and the fluctuations of basal cortisol concentrations with the circadian rhythm. Taken together, these results characterize our newly developed reporter line for elucidating environmental or genetic modifiers of stress response signaling, which may provide insights to the neuronal mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder.

  11. Structural insights into µ-opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijiao; Manglik, Aashish; Venkatakrishnan, A J; Laeremans, Toon; Feinberg, Evan N; Sanborn, Adrian L; Kato, Hideaki E; Livingston, Kathryn E; Thorsen, Thor S; Kling, Ralf C; Granier, Sébastien; Gmeiner, Peter; Husbands, Stephen M; Traynor, John R; Weis, William I; Steyaert, Jan; Dror, Ron O; Kobilka, Brian K

    2015-08-20

    Activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To shed light on the structural basis for μOR activation, here we report a 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure of the murine μOR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and a G protein mimetic camelid antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the μOR binding pocket are subtle and differ from those observed for agonist-bound structures of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and the M2 muscarinic receptor. Comparison with active β2AR reveals a common rearrangement in the packing of three conserved amino acids in the core of the μOR, and molecular dynamics simulations illustrate how the ligand-binding pocket is conformationally linked to this conserved triad. Additionally, an extensive polar network between the ligand-binding pocket and the cytoplasmic domains appears to play a similar role in signal propagation for all three G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:26245379

  12. Orvinols with Mixed Kappa/Mu Opioid Receptor Agonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dual-acting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist and mu opioid receptor (MOR) partial agonist ligands have been put forward as potential treatment agents for cocaine and other psychostimulant abuse. Members of the orvinol series of ligands are known for their high binding affinity to both KOR and MOR, but efficacy at the individual receptors has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, it is shown that a predictive model for efficacy at KOR can be derived, with efficacy being controlled by the length of the group attached to C20 and by the introduction of branching into the side chain. In vivo evaluation of two ligands with the desired in vitro profile confirms both display KOR, and to a lesser extent MOR, activity in an analgesic assay suggesting that, in this series, in vitro measures of efficacy using the [35S]GTPγS assay are predictive of the in vivo profile. PMID:23438330

  13. Orvinols with mixed kappa/mu opioid receptor agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Greedy, Benjamin M; Bradbury, Faye; Thomas, Mark P; Grivas, Konstantinos; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Archambeau, Ashley; Bosse, Kelly; Clark, Mary J; Aceto, Mario; Lewis, John W; Traynor, John R; Husbands, Stephen M

    2013-04-25

    Dual-acting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist and mu opioid receptor (MOR) partial agonist ligands have been put forward as potential treatment agents for cocaine and other psychostimulant abuse. Members of the orvinol series of ligands are known for their high binding affinity to both KOR and MOR, but efficacy at the individual receptors has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, it is shown that a predictive model for efficacy at KOR can be derived, with efficacy being controlled by the length of the group attached to C20 and by the introduction of branching into the side chain. In vivo evaluation of two ligands with the desired in vitro profile confirms both display KOR, and to a lesser extent MOR, activity in an analgesic assay suggesting that, in this series, in vitro measures of efficacy using the [(35)S]GTPγS assay are predictive of the in vivo profile.

  14. Interaction of receptor-activity-modifying protein1 with tubulin.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Thomas H; Mueller-Steiner, Sarah; Schwerdtfeger, Kerstin; Kleinert, Peter; Troxler, Heinz; Kelm, Jens M; Ittner, Lars M; Fischer, Jan A; Born, Walter

    2007-08-01

    Receptor-activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 is an accessory protein of the G protein-coupled calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). The CLR/RAMP1 heterodimer defines a receptor for the potent vasodilatory calcitonin gene-related peptide. A wider tissue distribution of RAMP1, as compared to that of the CLR, is consistent with additional biological functions. Here, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid experiments identified beta-tubulin as a novel RAMP1-interacting protein. GST pull-down experiments indicated interactions between the N- and C-terminal domains of RAMP1 and beta-tubulin. Yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed the interaction between the N-terminal region of RAMP1 and beta-tubulin. Interestingly, alpha-tubulin was co-extracted with beta-tubulin in pull-down experiments and immunoprecipitation of RAMP1 coprecipitated alpha- and beta-tubulin. Confocal microscopy indicated colocalization of RAMP1 and tubulin predominantly in axon-like processes of neuronal differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion, the findings point to biological roles of RAMP1 beyond its established interaction with G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:17493758

  15. CINPA1 Is an Inhibitor of Constitutive Androstane Receptor That Does Not Activate Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Milu T; Lin, Wenwei; Wu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that enhance the detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endobiotics by modulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Elevated levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters, resulting from CAR activation in various cancers, promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents, leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness and acquired drug resistance. CAR inhibitors, in combination with existing chemotherapeutics, could therefore be used to attenuate multidrug resistance in cancers. Interestingly, all previously reported CAR inverse-agonists are also activators of PXR, rendering them mechanistically counterproductive in tissues where both these xenobiotic receptors are present and active. We used a directed high-throughput screening approach, followed by subsequent mechanistic studies, to identify novel, potent, and specific small-molecule CAR inhibitors that do not activate PXR. We describe here one such inhibitor, CINPA1 (CAR inhibitor not PXR activator 1), capable of reducing CAR-mediated transcription with an IC50 of ∼70 nM. CINPA1 1) is a specific xenobiotic receptor inhibitor and has no cytotoxic effects up to 30 µM; 2) inhibits CAR-mediated gene expression in primary human hepatocytes, where CAR is endogenously expressed; 3) does not alter the protein levels or subcellular localization of CAR; 4) increases corepressor and reduces coactivator interaction with the CAR ligand-binding domain in mammalian two-hybrid assays; and 5) disrupts CAR binding to the promoter regions of target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. CINPA1 could be used as a novel molecular tool for understanding CAR function. PMID:25762023

  16. Transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor through ligand-dependent receptor recruitment and chromatin remodelling.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Lars; Waterfall, Joshua J; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee; Zhao, Li; Park, Jeong Won; Nielsen, Ronni; Walker, Robert L; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul S; Hager, Gordon L; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    A bimodal switch model is widely used to describe transcriptional regulation by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In this model, the unliganded TR forms stable, chromatin-bound complexes with transcriptional co-repressors to repress transcription. Binding of hormone dissociates co-repressors and facilitates recruitment of co-activators to activate transcription. Here we show that in addition to hormone-independent TR occupancy, ChIP-seq against endogenous TR in mouse liver tissue demonstrates considerable hormone-induced TR recruitment to chromatin associated with chromatin remodelling and activated gene transcription. Genome-wide footprinting analysis using DNase-seq provides little evidence for TR footprints both in the absence and presence of hormone, suggesting that unliganded TR engagement with repressive complexes on chromatin is, similar to activating receptor complexes, a highly dynamic process. This dynamic and ligand-dependent interaction with chromatin is likely shared by all steroid hormone receptors regardless of their capacity to repress transcription in the absence of ligand. PMID:25916672

  17. Transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor through ligand-dependent receptor recruitment and chromatin remodelling.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Lars; Waterfall, Joshua J; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee; Zhao, Li; Park, Jeong Won; Nielsen, Ronni; Walker, Robert L; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul S; Hager, Gordon L; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    A bimodal switch model is widely used to describe transcriptional regulation by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In this model, the unliganded TR forms stable, chromatin-bound complexes with transcriptional co-repressors to repress transcription. Binding of hormone dissociates co-repressors and facilitates recruitment of co-activators to activate transcription. Here we show that in addition to hormone-independent TR occupancy, ChIP-seq against endogenous TR in mouse liver tissue demonstrates considerable hormone-induced TR recruitment to chromatin associated with chromatin remodelling and activated gene transcription. Genome-wide footprinting analysis using DNase-seq provides little evidence for TR footprints both in the absence and presence of hormone, suggesting that unliganded TR engagement with repressive complexes on chromatin is, similar to activating receptor complexes, a highly dynamic process. This dynamic and ligand-dependent interaction with chromatin is likely shared by all steroid hormone receptors regardless of their capacity to repress transcription in the absence of ligand.

  18. Solubilization of a functionally active platelet-activating factor receptor from rabbit platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, J E; Duronio, V; Wong, S I; McNeil, M; Salari, H

    1991-01-01

    Binding of platelet-activating factor (PAF) to a specific high-affinity membrane receptor has been demonstrated in numerous cell types, but very little is known about the molecular nature of this receptor. The receptor from rabbit platelets was solubilized using CHAPS, digitonin, octyl glucoside, Nonidet P-40 or sodium cholate, either with pre-bound [3H]PAF or in the absence of ligand. We have been able to demonstrate for the first time that the receptor solubilized with CHAPS, in the absence of ligand, could retain its binding activity. It migrated as a high molecular mass complex (greater than 350 kDa) on a Bio-Gel A-0.5 m gel filtration column. Binding to solubilized receptor rapidly reached an equilibrium at room temperature, but was much slower at 0 degrees C. Scatchard plots were used to calculate the number (approx. 100 per cell) and the affinity (Kd 2.5 +/- 1.4 nM) of the solubilized receptors. These values were comparable with those obtained from whole-cell binding experiments. Competition by PAF antagonists also verified that the assay was measuring PAF receptor binding activity. The presence of a protein in the receptor complex was demonstrated by heat and trypsin inactivation of binding activity. Trypsin had no effect on binding of PAF to whole cells, but was able to decrease binding activity in solubilized receptor preparations. Attempts to demonstrate the involvement of a glycoprotein by use of various lectin columns proved unsuccessful. The latter results are consistent with findings suggesting that the binding site of the PAF receptor may not be exposed at the cell surface. PMID:1654881

  19. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-12-15

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser(696) and Ser(698) in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser(886) and/or Ser(893) in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser(717) in the JM, and at Ser(733), Thr(752), Ser(783), Ser(864), Ser(911), Ser(958) and Thr(998) in the kinase domain. The LC-ESI-MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr(890), Ser(893) and Thr(894)) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr(890), Ser(893), Thr(894) and Thr(899), differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response.

  20. Conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of the Arabidopsis phytosulfokine receptor PSKR1 differentially affect kinase and receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jens; Linke, Dennis; Bönniger, Christine; Tholey, Andreas; Sauter, Margret

    2015-01-01

    PSK (phytosulfokine) is a plant peptide hormone perceived by a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase. Phosphosite mapping of epitope-tagged PSKR1 (phytosulfokine receptor 1) from Arabidopsis thaliana plants identified Ser696 and Ser698 in the JM (juxtamembrane) region and probably Ser886 and/or Ser893 in the AL (activation loop) as in planta phosphorylation sites. In vitro-expressed kinase was autophosphorylated at Ser717 in the JM, and at Ser733, Thr752, Ser783, Ser864, Ser911, Ser958 and Thr998 in the kinase domain. The LC–ESI–MS/MS spectra provided support that up to three sites (Thr890, Ser893 and Thr894) in the AL were likely to be phosphorylated in vitro. These sites are evolutionarily highly conserved in PSK receptors, indicative of a conserved function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the four conserved residues in the activation segment, Thr890, Ser893, Thr894 and Thr899, differentially altered kinase activity in vitro and growth-promoting activity in planta. The T899A and the quadruple-mutated TSTT-A (T890A/S893A/T894A/T899A) mutants were both kinase-inactive, but PSKR1(T899A) retained growth-promoting activity. The T890A and S893A/T894A substitutions diminished kinase activity and growth promotion. We hypothesize that phosphorylation within the AL activates kinase activity and receptor function in a gradual and distinctive manner that may be a means to modulate the PSK response. PMID:26472115

  1. Allosteric receptor activation by the plant peptide hormone phytosulfokine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizong; Li, Hongju; Han, Zhifu; Zhang, Heqiao; Wang, Tong; Lin, Guangzhong; Chang, Junbiao; Yang, Weicai; Chai, Jijie

    2015-09-10

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a disulfated pentapeptide that has a ubiquitous role in plant growth and development. PSK is perceived by its receptor PSKR, a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK). The mechanisms underlying the recognition of PSK, the activation of PSKR and the identity of the components downstream of the initial binding remain elusive. Here we report the crystal structures of the extracellular LRR domain of PSKR in free, PSK- and co-receptor-bound forms. The structures reveal that PSK interacts mainly with a β-strand from the island domain of PSKR, forming an anti-β-sheet. The two sulfate moieties of PSK interact directly with PSKR, sensitizing PSKR recognition of PSK. Supported by biochemical, structural and genetic evidence, PSK binding enhances PSKR heterodimerization with the somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases (SERKs). However, PSK is not directly involved in PSKR-SERK interaction but stabilizes PSKR island domain for recruitment of a SERK. Our data reveal the structural basis for PSKR recognition of PSK and allosteric activation of PSKR by PSK, opening up new avenues for the design of PSKR-specific small molecules.

  2. The Molecular Mechanism of P2Y1 Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, H. C. Stephen; Vogel, Horst; Filipek, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    Human purinergic G protein-coupled receptor P2Y1 (P2Y1R) is activated by adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP) to induce platelet activation and thereby serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Crystal structures of P2Y1R revealed that one ligand (MRS2500) binds to the extracellular vestibule of this GPCR, whereas another (BPTU) occupies the surface between transmembrane (TM) helices TM2 and TM3. We introduced a total of 20 µs all-atom long-timescale molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to inquire why two molecules in completely different locations both serve as antagonists while ADP activates the receptor. Our results indicate that BPTU acts as an antagonist by stabilizing extracellular helix bundles leading to an increase of the lipid order, whereas MRS2500 blocks signaling by occupying the ligand binding site. Both antagonists stabilize an ionic lock within the receptor. However, binding of ADP breaks this ionic lock, forming a continuous water channel that leads to P2Y1R activation. PMID:27460867

  3. Bisphenol A and Its Analogues Activate Human Pregnane X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yipeng; Ai, Ni; Park, Se-Hyung; Rios-Pilier, Jennifer; Perkins, Jordan T.; Welsh, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a base chemical used extensively in many consumer products. BPA and its analogues are present in environmental and human samples. Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including BPA, have been shown to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that functions as a master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism by which these chemicals activate PXR remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the mechanism by which BPA interacts with and activates PXR and examined selected BPA analogues to determine whether they bind to and activate PXR. Methods: Cell-based reporter assays, in silico ligand–PXR docking studies, and site-directed mutagenesis were combined to study the interaction between BPA and PXR. We also investigated the influence of BPA and its analogues on the regulation of PXR target genes in human LS180 cells. Results: We found that BPA and several of its analogues are potent agonists for human PXR (hPXR) but do not affect mouse PXR activity. We identified key residues within hPXR’s ligand-binding pocket that constitute points of interaction with BPA. We also deduced the structural requirements of BPA analogues that activate hPXR. BPA and its analogues can also induce PXR target gene expression in human LS180 cells. Conclusions: The present study advances our understanding of the mechanism by which BPA interacts with and activates human PXR. Activation of PXR by BPA may explain some of the adverse effects of BPA in humans. PMID:22214767

  4. An integrative framework of the skin receptors activation: mechanoreceptors activity patterns versus "labeled lines".

    PubMed

    Zeveke, Alexander V; Efes, Ekaterina D; Polevaya, Sofia A

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents a review of electrophysiological data which indicate the integrative mechanisms of information coded in the human and animal peripheral skin receptors. The activity of the skin sensory receptors was examined by applying various natural stimuli. It was revealed that numerous identical receptors respond to various stimuli (mechanical, temperature, and pain ones), but the spike patterns of these receptors were found to be specific for each stimulus. The description of characteristic structures of spike patterns in the cutaneous nerve fibers in response to five major modalities, namely: "touch", "pain", "vibration/breath", "cold", and "heat", is being presented. The recordings of the cutaneous physical state revealed a correlation between the patterns of spatiotemporal skin deformation and the receptors activity. A rheological state of the skin can be changed either in response to external temperature variation or by the sympathetic pilomotor activation. These results indicate that the skin sensory receptors activity may be considered as an integrative process. It depends not only on the receptors themselves, but also on the changes in the surrounding tissue and on the adaptive influence of the central nervous system. A new framework for the sensory channel system related to the skin is proposed on the basis of experimental results.

  5. An allosteric role for receptor activity-modifying proteins in defining GPCR pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    J Gingell, Joseph; Simms, John; Barwell, James; Poyner, David R; Watkins, Harriet A; Pioszak, Augen A; Sexton, Patrick M; Hay, Debbie L

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are allosteric proteins that control transmission of external signals to regulate cellular response. Although agonist binding promotes canonical G protein signalling transmitted through conformational changes, G protein-coupled receptors also interact with other proteins. These include other G protein-coupled receptors, other receptors and channels, regulatory proteins and receptor-modifying proteins, notably receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs have at least 11 G protein-coupled receptor partners, including many class B G protein-coupled receptors. Prototypic is the calcitonin receptor, with altered ligand specificity when co-expressed with RAMPs. To gain molecular insight into the consequences of this protein–protein interaction, we combined molecular modelling with mutagenesis of the calcitonin receptor extracellular domain, assessed in ligand binding and functional assays. Although some calcitonin receptor residues are universally important for peptide interactions (calcitonin, amylin and calcitonin gene-related peptide) in calcitonin receptor alone or with receptor activity-modifying protein, others have RAMP-dependent effects, whereby mutations decreased amylin/calcitonin gene-related peptide potency substantially only when RAMP was present. Remarkably, the key residues were completely conserved between calcitonin receptor and AMY receptors, and between subtypes of AMY receptor that have different ligand preferences. Mutations at the interface between calcitonin receptor and RAMP affected ligand pharmacology in a RAMP-dependent manner, suggesting that RAMP may allosterically influence the calcitonin receptor conformation. Supporting this, molecular dynamics simulations suggested that the calcitonin receptor extracellular N-terminal domain is more flexible in the presence of receptor activity-modifying protein 1. Thus, RAMPs may act in an allosteric manner to generate a spectrum of unique calcitonin receptor

  6. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  7. Mechanism of A2 adenosine receptor activation. I. Blockade of A2 adenosine receptors by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lohse, M.J.; Klotz, K.N.; Schwabe, U.

    1991-04-01

    It has previously been shown that covalent incorporation of the photoreactive adenosine derivative (R)-2-azido-N6-p-hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine ((R)-AHPIA) into the A1 adenosine receptor of intact fat cells leads to a persistent activation of this receptor, resulting in a reduction of cellular cAMP levels. In contrast, covalent incorporation of (R)-AHPIA into human platelet membranes, which contain only stimulatory A2 adenosine receptors, reduces adenylate cyclase stimulation via these receptors. This effect of (R)-AHPIA is specific for the A2 receptor and can be prevented by the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline. Binding studies indicate that up to 90% of A2 receptors can be blocked by photoincorporation of (R)-AHPIA. However, the remaining 10-20% of A2 receptors are sufficient to mediate an adenylate cyclase stimulation of up to 50% of the control value. Similarly, the activation via these 10-20% of receptors occurs with a half-life that is only 2 times longer than that in control membranes. This indicates the presence of a receptor reserve, with respect to both the extent and the rate of adenylate cyclase stimulation. These observations require a modification of the models of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling.

  8. Allosterism and Structure in Thermally Activated Transient Receptor Potential Channels.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Poblete, Horacio; Miño-Galaz, Germán; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramón

    2016-07-01

    The molecular sensors that mediate temperature changes in living organisms are a large family of proteins known as thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. These membrane proteins are polymodal receptors that can be activated by cold or hot temperatures, depending on the channel subtype, voltage, and ligands. The stimuli sensors are allosterically coupled to a pore domain, increasing the probability of finding the channel in its ion conductive conformation. In this review we first discuss the allosteric coupling between the temperature and voltage sensor modules and the pore domain, and then discuss the thermodynamic foundations of thermo-TRP channel activation. We provide a structural overview of the molecular determinants of temperature sensing. We also posit an anisotropic thermal diffusion model that may explain the large temperature sensitivity of TRP channels. Additionally, we examine the effect of several ligands on TRP channel function and the evidence regarding their mechanisms of action. PMID:27297398

  9. Monocyte Signal Transduction Receptors in Active and Latent Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Druszczynska, Magdalena; Wlodarczyk, Marcin; Janiszewska-Drobinska, Beata; Kielnierowski, Grzegorz; Zawadzka, Joanna; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Fol, Marek; Szpakowski, Piotr; Rudnicka, Karolina; Chmiela, Magdalena; Rudnicka, Wieslawa

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms that promote either resistance or susceptibility to TB disease remain insufficiently understood. Our aim was to compare the expression of cell signaling transduction receptors, CD14, TLR2, CD206, and β2 integrin LFA-1 on monocytes from patients with active TB or nonmycobacterial lung disease and healthy individuals with M.tb latency and uninfected controls to explain the background of the differences between clinical and subclinical forms of M.tb infection. A simultaneous increase in the expression of the membrane bound mCD14 receptor and LFA-1 integrin in patients with active TB may be considered a prodrome of breaking immune control by M.tb bacilli in subjects with the latent TB and absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:23401703

  10. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 reporter mice reveal receptor activation sites in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Mari; Tucker, Ana E.; Tran, Jennifer; Bergner, Jennifer B.; Turner, Ewa M.; Proia, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the GPCR sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates key physiological processes. S1P1 activation also has been implicated in pathologic processes, including autoimmunity and inflammation; however, the in vivo sites of S1P1 activation under normal and disease conditions are unclear. Here, we describe the development of a mouse model that allows in vivo evaluation of S1P1 activation. These mice, known as S1P1 GFP signaling mice, produce a S1P1 fusion protein containing a transcription factor linked by a protease cleavage site at the C terminus as well as a β-arrestin/protease fusion protein. Activated S1P1 recruits the β-arrestin/protease, resulting in the release of the transcription factor, which stimulates the expression of a GFP reporter gene. Under normal conditions, S1P1 was activated in endothelial cells of lymphoid tissues and in cells in the marginal zone of the spleen, while administration of an S1P1 agonist promoted S1P1 activation in endothelial cells and hepatocytes. In S1P1 GFP signaling mice, LPS-mediated systemic inflammation activated S1P1 in endothelial cells and hepatocytes via hematopoietically derived S1P. These data demonstrate that S1P1 GFP signaling mice can be used to evaluate S1P1 activation and S1P1-active compounds in vivo. Furthermore, this strategy could be potentially applied to any GPCR to identify sites of receptor activation during normal physiology and disease. PMID:24667638

  11. Models for the activation pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, S.R.; Niyogi, S.K. )

    1991-03-15

    Activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor's intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity, which occurs upon formation of the receptor-ligand complex, is the critical regulatory event affecting the subsequent EGF-dependent cellular responses leading to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. The molecular mechanism by which EGF-dependent activation of receptor kinase activity takes place is not clearly understood. In this study, the growth factor-dependent activation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase was examined in vitro using detergent-solubilized, partially purified GEF receptors from A5431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Evaluation of the cooperativity observed in the EGF-dependent activation of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase would suggest a mechanism requiring the binding of the EGF peptide to both ligand binding sites on a receptor dimer to induce full receptor kinase activity. Equations describing potential cooperative kinase activation pathways have been examined. The theoretical system which best simulates the allosteric regulation observed in the experimental kinase activation data is that describing multiple essential activation. In addition, studies using mutant analogs of the EGF peptide ligand appear to confirm the requirement for an essential conformational change in the receptor-ligand complex to activate the receptor kinase activity. Several mutant growth factor analogues are able to occupy the ligand binding sites on the receptor without inducing the fully active receptor conformation.

  12. Activation of signalling by the activin receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Attisano, L; Wrana, J L; Montalvo, E; Massagué, J

    1996-01-01

    Activin exerts its effects by simultaneously binding to two types of p rotein serine/threonine kinase receptors, each type existing in various isoforms. Using the ActR-IB and ActR-IIB receptor isoforms, we have investigated the mechanism of activin receptor activation. ActR-IIB are phosphoproteins with demonstrable affinity for each other. However, activin addition strongly promotes an interaction between these two proteins. Activin binds directly to ActR-IIB, and this complex associates with ActR-IB, which does not bind ligand on its own. In the resulting complex, ActR-IB becomes hyperphosphorylated, and this requires the kinase activity of ActR-IIB. Mutation of conserved serines and threonines in the GS domain, a region just upstream of the kinase domain in ActR-IB, abrogates both phosphorylation and signal propagation, suggesting that this domain contains phosphorylation sites required for signalling. ActR-IB activation can be mimicked by mutation of Thr-206 to aspartic acid, which yields a construct, ActR-IB(T206D), that signals in the absence of ligand. Furthermore, the signalling activity of this mutant construct is undisturbed by overexpression of a dominant negative kinase-defective ActR-IIB construct, indicating that ActR-IB(T206D) can signal independently of ActR-IIB. The evidence suggests that ActR-IIB acts as a primary activin receptor and ActR-IB acts as a downstream transducer of activin signals. PMID:8622651

  13. Structural insights into μ-opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weijiao; Manglik, Aashish; Venkatakrishnan, A. J.; Laeremans, Toon; Feinberg, Evan N.; Sanborn, Adrian L.; Kato, Hideaki E.; Livingston, Kathryn E.; Thorsen, Thor S.; Kling, Ralf; Granier, Sébastien; Gmeiner, Peter; Husbands, Stephen M.; Traynor, John R.; Weis, William I.; Steyaert, Jan; Dror, Ron O.; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) is responsible for the efficacy of the most effective analgesics. To understand the structural basis for μOR activation, we obtained a 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure of the μOR bound to the morphinan agonist BU72 and stabilized by a G protein-mimetic camelid-antibody fragment. The BU72-stabilized changes in the μOR binding pocket are subtle and differ from those observed for agonist-bound structures of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and the M2 muscarinic receptor (M2R). Comparison with active β2AR reveals a common rearrangement in the packing of three conserved amino acids in the core of the μOR, and molecular dynamics simulations illustrate how the ligand-binding pocket is conformationally linked to this conserved triad. Additionally, an extensive polar network between the ligand-binding pocket and the cytoplasmic domains appears to play a similar role in signal propagation for all three GPCRs. PMID:26245379

  14. Pharmacological activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptors regulates erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Ho, Ya-Hsuan; Chiang, Jui-Chung; Li, Meng-Wei; Lin, Shi-Hung; Chen, Wei-Min; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Lin, Yu-Nung; Yang, Ya-Jan; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lu, Jenher; Huang, Chang-Jen; Tigyi, Gabor; Yao, Chao-Ling; Lee, Hsinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a growth factor-like phospholipid, regulates numerous physiological functions, including cell proliferation and differentiation. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that LPA activates erythropoiesis by activating the LPA 3 receptor subtype (LPA3) under erythropoietin (EPO) induction. In the present study, we applied a pharmacological approach to further elucidate the functions of LPA receptors during red blood cell (RBC) differentiation. In K562 human erythroleukemia cells, knockdown of LPA2 enhanced erythropoiesis, whereas knockdown of LPA3 inhibited RBC differentiation. In CD34+ human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC) and K526 cells, the LPA3 agonist 1-oleoyl-2-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphothionate (2S-OMPT) promoted erythropoiesis, whereas the LPA2 agonist dodecyl monophosphate (DMP) and the nonlipid specific agonist GRI977143 (GRI) suppressed this process. In zebrafish embryos, hemoglobin expression was significantly increased by 2S-OMPT treatment but was inhibited by GRI. Furthermore, GRI treatment decreased, whereas 2S-OMPT treatment increased RBC counts and amount of hemoglobin level in adult BALB/c mice. These results indicate that LPA2 and LPA3 play opposing roles during RBC differentiation. The pharmacological activation of LPA receptor subtypes represent a novel strategies for augmenting or inhibiting erythropoiesis. PMID:27244685

  15. Androgen receptor antagonists (antiandrogens): structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Singh, S M; Gauthier, S; Labrie, F

    2000-02-01

    Prostate cancer, acne, seborrhea, hirsutism, and androgenic alopecia are well recognized to depend upon an excess or increased sensitivity to androgens or to be at least sensitive to androgens. It thus seems logical to use antiandrogens as therapeutic agents to prevent androgens from binding to the androgen receptor. The two predominant naturally occurring androgens are testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the more potent androgen in vivo and in vitro. All androgen-responsive genes are activated by androgen receptor (AR) bound to either T or DHT and it is believed that AR is more transcriptionally active when bound to DHT than T. The two classes of antiandrogens, presently available, are the steroidal derivatives, all of which possess mixed agonistic and antagonistic activities, and the pure non-steroidal antiandrogens of the class of flutamide and its derivatives. The intrinsic androgenic, estrogenic and glucocorticoid activities of steroidal derivatives have limited their use in the treatment of prostate cancer. The non-steroidal flutamide and its derivatives display pure antiandrogenic activity, without exerting agonistic or any other hormonal activity. Flutamide (89) and its derivatives, Casodex (108) and Anandron (114), are highly effective in the treatment of prostate cancer. The combination of flutamide and Anandron with castration has shown prolongation of life in prostate cancer. Furthermore, combined androgen blockade in association with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy are very effective in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Such an approach certainly raises the hope of a further improvement in prostate cancer therapy. However, all antiandrogens, developed so-far display moderate affinity for the androgen receptor, and thus moderate efficacy in vitro and in vivo. There is thus a need for next-generation antiandrogens, which could display an equal or even higher affinity for AR compared to the natural androgens, and at the

  16. GRK2 Constitutively Governs Peripheral Delta Opioid Receptor Activity.

    PubMed

    Brackley, Allison Doyle; Gomez, Ruben; Akopian, Armen N; Henry, Michael A; Jeske, Nathaniel A

    2016-09-01

    Opioids remain the standard for analgesic care; however, adverse effects of systemic treatments contraindicate long-term administration. While most clinical opioids target mu opioid receptors (MOR), those that target the delta class (DOR) also demonstrate analgesic efficacy. Furthermore, peripherally restrictive opioids represent an attractive direction for analgesia. However, opioid receptors including DOR are analgesically incompetent in the absence of inflammation. Here, we report that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) naively associates with plasma membrane DOR in peripheral sensory neurons to inhibit analgesic agonist efficacy. This interaction prevents optimal Gβ subunit association with the receptor, thereby reducing DOR activity. Importantly, bradykinin stimulates GRK2 movement away from DOR and onto Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP). protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent RKIP phosphorylation induces GRK2 sequestration, restoring DOR functionality in sensory neurons. Together, these results expand the known function of GRK2, identifying a non-internalizing role to maintain peripheral DOR in an analgesically incompetent state. PMID:27568556

  17. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis of fibrinogen receptors on activated thrombocytes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The present studies have been concerned with the role of fibrinogen and its receptor, GP IIb/IIIa, during the activation and early aggregation of pigeon thrombocytes. Thrombocytes were surface labeled with {sup 125}I then separated on SDS-PAGE. Analysis by gel autoradiography revealed major bands at MW 145 kd and 98 kd, which corresponded to human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Immunologic similarity of the pigeon and human receptor components was established by dot blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies directed against human GPIIb and GPIIIa. Pigeon fibrinogen, isolated by plasma precipitation with PEG-1000 and purified over Sepharose 4B, was used to study receptor-ligand interaction. Separation of pigeon fibrinogen on SDS-PAGE resulted in three peptides having apparent MW of 62kd, 55kd, and 47kd which are comparable to human fibrinogen. Further similarity of human and pigeon fibrinogen was verified by immonodiffusion against an antibody specific for the human protein. The role of fibrinogen and its receptor in thrombocyte function was established by turbidimetric aggregation using thrombin as an agonist under conditions requiring Ca++ and fibrinogen.

  18. Liver X Receptor β and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ regulate cholesterol transport in cholangiocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuefeng; Jung, Dongju; Webb, Paul; Zhang, Aijun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Lifei; Ayers, Stephen D.; Gabbi, Chiara; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Alpini, Gianfranco; Moore, David D.; LeSage, Gene D.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) play crucial roles in regulation of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, metabolism and conversion to bile acids, but their actions in cholangiocytes have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the roles of NRs in cholangiocyte physiology and cholesterol metabolism and flux. We examined the expression of NRs and other genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in freshly isolated and cultured rodent cholangiocytes and found that these cells express a specific subset of NRs which includes Liver X Receptor β (LXRβ) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ). Activation of LXRβ and/or PPARδ in cholangiocytes induces ATP-binding cassette cholesterol transporter A1 (ABCA1) and increases cholesterol export at the basolateral compartment in polarized cultured cholangiocytes. In addition, PPARδ induces Niemann Pick C1 Like L1 (NPC1L1), which imports cholesterol into cholangiocytes and is expressed on the apical cholangiocyte membrane, via specific interaction with a PPRE within the NPC1L1 promoter. Based on these studies, we propose that (i) LXRβ and PPARδ coordinate NPC1L1/ABCA1 dependent vectorial cholesterol flux from bile through cholangiocytes and (ii) manipulation of these processes may influence bile composition with important applications in cholestatic liver disease and gallstone disease, serious health concerns for humans. PMID:22729460

  19. Propofol Restores Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Receptor Subtype-1 Sensitivity via Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin Receptor Subtype-1 in Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyu; Wickley, Peter J.; Sinha, Sayantani; Bratz, Ian N.; Damron, Derek S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crosstalk between peripheral nociceptors belonging to the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype-1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin subtype-1 (TRPA1) family has recently been demonstrated. Moreover, the intravenous anesthetic propofol has been shown to directly activate TRPA1 receptors, and indirectly restore sensitivity of TRPV1 receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Our objective was to determine the extent to which TRPA1 activation is involved in mediating the propofol-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity. Methods Mouse DRG neurons were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and grown for 24 h. F-11 cells were transfected with complementary DNA for both TRPV1 and TRPA1 or TRPV1 only. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured in individual cells via fluorescence microscopy. Following TRPV1 de-sensitization with capsaicin (100 nM), cells were treated with propofol (1, 5 and 10 μM) alone, propofol in the presence of the TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031 (0.5 μM) or the TRPA1 agonist, Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, 100 μM) and capsaicin was then reapplied. Results In DRG neurons that contain both TRPV1 and TRPA1, propofol and AITC restored TRPV1 sensitivity. However, in DRG neurons containing only TRPV1 receptors, exposure to propofol or AITC following de-sensitization did not restore capsaicin-induced TRPV1 sensitivity. Similarly, in F-11 cells transfected with both TRPV1 and TRPA1, propofol and AITC restored TRPV1 sensitivity. However, in F-11 cells transfected with TRPV1 only, neither propofol nor AITC were capable of restoring TRPV1 sensitivity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that propofol restores TRPV1 sensitivity in primary DRG neurons and in cultured F-11 cells transfected with both the TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors via a TRPA1-dependent process. Propofol’s effects on sensory neurons may be clinically important and contribute to peripheral sensitization to nociceptive stimuli in traumatized tissue. PMID:21364461

  20. Differential effect of meclizine on the activity of human pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Yang, Guixiang; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Baucom, Christie C; Chang, Thomas K H

    2011-03-01

    Conflicting data exist as to whether meclizine is an activator of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR). Therefore, we conducted a detailed, systematic investigation to determine whether meclizine affects hPXR activity by performing a cell-based reporter gene assay, a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer competitive ligand-binding assay, a mammalian two-hybrid assay to assess coactivator recruitment, and a hPXR target gene expression assay. In pregnane X receptor (PXR)-transfected HepG2 cells, meclizine activated hPXR to a greater extent than rat PXR. It bound to hPXR ligand-binding domain and recruited steroid receptor coactivator-1 to the receptor. Consistent with its hPXR agonism, meclizine increased hPXR target gene expression (CYP3A4) in human hepatocytes. However, it did not increase but decreased testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, suggesting inhibition of CYP3A catalytic activity. Meclizine has also been reported to be an inverse agonist and antagonist of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR). Therefore, given that certain tissues (e.g., liver) express both hPXR and hCAR and that various genes are cross-regulated by them, we quantified the expression of a hCAR- and hPXR-regulated gene (CYP2B6) in cultured human hepatocytes treated with meclizine. This drug did not decrease constitutive CYP2B6 mRNA expression or attenuate hCAR agonist-mediated increase in CYP2B6 mRNA and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation levels. These observations reflect hPXR agonism and the lack of hCAR inverse agonism and antagonism by meclizine, which were assessed by a hCAR reporter gene assay and mammalian two-hybrid assay. In conclusion, meclizine is a hPXR agonist, and it does not act as a hCAR inverse agonist or antagonist in cultured human hepatocytes. PMID:21131266

  1. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation. PMID:27069764

  2. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation.

  3. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) as targets for antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret; McIntosh, Kathryn; Bushell, Trevor; Sloan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2016-04-15

    Since the identification of the proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) family as mediators of serine protease activity in the 1990s, there has been tremendous progress in the elucidation of their pathophysiological roles. The development of drugs that target PARs has been the focus of many laboratories for the potential treatment of thrombosis, cancer and other inflammatory diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of PAR activation and G protein signalling pathways evoked in response to the growing list of endogenous proteases has yielded great insight into receptor regulation at the molecular level. This has led to the development of new selective modulators of PAR activity, particularly PAR1. The mixed success of targeting PARs has been best exemplified in the context of inhibiting PAR1 as a new antiplatelet therapy. The development of the competitive PAR1 antagonist, vorapaxar (Zontivity), has clearly shown the value in targeting PAR1 in acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however the severity of associated bleeding with this drug has limited its use in the clinic. Due to the efficacy of thrombin acting via PAR1, strategies to selectively inhibit specific PAR1-mediated G protein signalling pathways or to target the second thrombin platelet receptor, PAR4, are being devised. The rationale behind these alternative approaches is to bias downstream thrombin activity via PARs to allow for inhibition of pro-thrombotic pathways but maintain other pathways that may preserve haemostatic balance and improve bleeding profiles for widespread clinical use. This review summarizes the structural determinants that regulate PARs and the modulators of PAR activity developed to date.

  4. Liver X Receptors Regulate the Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor: Implications for the Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Nancy; Ng, Sinnie Sin Man; Wang, Yonghong; Abel, Brent S.; Chrousos, George P.; Kino, Tomoshige

    2012-01-01

    GLUCOCORTICOIDS are steroid hormones that strongly influence intermediary carbohydrate metabolism by increasing the transcription rate of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, and suppress the immune system through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The liver X receptors (LXRs), on the other hand, bind to cholesterol metabolites, heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR), and regulate the cholesterol turnover, the hepatic glucose metabolism by decreasing the expression of G6Pase, and repress a set of inflammatory genes in immune cells. Since the actions of these receptors overlap with each other, we evaluated the crosstalk between the GR- and LXR-mediated signaling systems. Transient transfection-based reporter assays and gene silencing methods using siRNAs for LXRs showed that overexpression/ligand (GW3965) activation of LXRs/RXRs repressed GR-stimulated transactivation of certain glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-driven promoters in a gene-specific fashion. Activation of LXRs by GW3965 attenuated dexamethasone-stimulated elevation of circulating glucose in rats. It also suppressed dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in rats, mice and human hepatoma HepG2 cells, whereas endogenous, unliganded LXRs were required for dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In microarray transcriptomic analysis of rat liver, GW3965 differentially regulated glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional activity of about 15% of endogenous glucocorticoid-responsive genes. To examine the mechanism through which activated LXRs attenuated GR transcriptional activity, we examined LXRα/RXRα binding to GREs. Endogenous LXRα/RXRα bound GREs and inhibited GR binding to these DNA sequences both in in vitro and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, while their recombinant proteins did so on classic or G6Pase GREs in gel mobility shift assays. We propose that administration of

  5. Type-1 cannabinoid receptor activity during Alzheimer's disease progression.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Iván; González de San Román, Estíbaliz; Giralt, M Teresa; Ferrer, Isidro; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The activity of CB1 cannabinoid receptors was studied in postmortem brain samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients during clinical deterioration. CB1 activity was higher at earlier AD stages in limited hippocampal areas and internal layers of frontal cortex, but a decrease was observed at the advanced stages. The pattern of modification appears to indicate initial hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system in brain areas that lack classical histopathological markers at earlier stages of AD, indicating an attempt to compensate for the initial synaptic impairment, which is then surpassed by disease progression. These results suggest that initial CB1 stimulation might have therapeutic relevance.

  6. Static and dynamic activity of warm receptors in Boa constrictor.

    PubMed

    Hensel, H

    1975-01-01

    Afferent impulses from multi- and single-fiber preparations of the trigeminal nerve in Boa constrictor were recorded during exactly controlled thermal stimulation of the receptive field in the labial region. At constant temperatures in the range between 18 and 37 degrees C, multi-fiber preparations showed a continuous discharge with a maximum around 30 degrees C. Dynamic warming caused a high increase of the discharge, whereas dynamic cooling led to a complete inhibition. No cold-sensitive fivers have been found. Mechanical stimulation elicited large spikes from specific mechanoreceptors. Single-fiber preparations from labial warm receptors did not respond to mechanical stimulation. Their discharge was always regular at constant temperatures. The average frequency of a warm receptor population was zero at about 18 degrees C, reached a maximum of 13 sec-1 at 30 degrees C and fell again to zero at 37 degrees C. In addition, a few warm receptors increased their static discharge with temperature up to 36 degrees C, the highest frequency being 38 sec-1. Stepwise warming by delta T = + 5 degrees C caused a marked overshoot in frequency, after which the discharge usually fell to a minimum and then rose again to a new static level. Stepwise cooling by delta T = MINUS 5 DEGREES C led to a transient inhibition of activity followed by an increase until the new static level was reached. In the first group of warm receptors the height of the dynamic overshoot varied with the adapting temperature, the largest average overshoot of 160 sec-1 occurring at an adapting temperature of 30 degrees C. These receptors have their static maximum as well as their highest dynamic sensitivity in the temperature range of the natural tropical habitat of Boidae.

  7. Cleavage and activation of a Toll-like receptor by microbial proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bouwman, Lieneke I.; Keestra, A. Marijke; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that show high conservation throughout the animal kingdom. Most TLRs can be clustered into phylogenetic groups that respond to similar types of ligands. One exception is avian TLR15. This receptor does not categorize into one of the existing groups of TLRs and its ligand is still unknown. Here we report that TLR15 is a sensor for secreted virulence-associated fungal and bacterial proteases. Activation of TLR15 involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor ectodomain and stimulation of NF-κB–dependent gene transcription. Receptor activation can be mimicked by the expression of a truncated TLR15 of which the entire ectodomain is removed, suggesting that receptor cleavage alleviates receptor inhibition by the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results indicate TLR15 as a unique type of innate immune receptor that combines TLR characteristics with an activation mechanism typical for the evolutionary distinct protease-activated receptors. PMID:21383168

  8. Cleavage and activation of a Toll-like receptor by microbial proteases.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Marcel R; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Keestra, A Marijke; van Putten, Jos P M

    2011-03-22

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that show high conservation throughout the animal kingdom. Most TLRs can be clustered into phylogenetic groups that respond to similar types of ligands. One exception is avian TLR15. This receptor does not categorize into one of the existing groups of TLRs and its ligand is still unknown. Here we report that TLR15 is a sensor for secreted virulence-associated fungal and bacterial proteases. Activation of TLR15 involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor ectodomain and stimulation of NF-κB-dependent gene transcription. Receptor activation can be mimicked by the expression of a truncated TLR15 of which the entire ectodomain is removed, suggesting that receptor cleavage alleviates receptor inhibition by the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results indicate TLR15 as a unique type of innate immune receptor that combines TLR characteristics with an activation mechanism typical for the evolutionary distinct protease-activated receptors. PMID:21383168

  9. Allergens and Activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Response.

    PubMed

    Monie, Tom P; Bryant, Clare E

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) provide a crucial function in the detection of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first family of PRRs to be discovered and have been extensively studied since. Whilst TLRs remain the best characterized family of PRRs there is still much to be learnt about their mode of activation and the mechanisms of signal transduction they employ. Much of our understanding of these processes has been gathered through the use of cell based signaling assays utilizing specific gene-reporters or cytokine secretion based readouts. More recently it has become apparent that the repertoire of ligands recognized by these receptors may be wider than originally assumed and that their activation may be sensitized, or at least modulated by the presence of common household allergens such as the cat dander protein Fel d 1, or the house dust mite allergen Der p 2. In this chapter we provide an overview of the cell culture and stimulation processes required to study TLR signaling in HEK293 based assays and in bone marrow-derived macrophages. PMID:26803639

  10. Cholinergic modulation of microglial activation by alpha 7 nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Shytle, R Douglas; Mori, Takashi; Townsend, Kirk; Vendrame, Martina; Sun, Nan; Zeng, Jin; Ehrhart, Jared; Silver, Archie A; Sanberg, Paul R; Tan, Jun

    2004-04-01

    Almost all degenerative diseases of the CNS are associated with chronic inflammation. A central step in this process is the activation of brain mononuclear phagocyte cells, called microglia. While it is recognized that healthy neurons and astrocytes regulate the magnitude of microglia-mediated innate immune responses and limit excessive CNS inflammation, the endogenous signals governing this process are not fully understood. In the peripheral nervous system, recent studies suggest that an endogenous 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway' regulates systemic inflammatory responses via alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChR) found on blood-borne macrophages. These data led us to investigate whether a similar cholinergic pathway exists in the brain that could regulate microglial activation. Here we report for the first time that cultured microglial cells express alpha 7 nAChR subunit as determined by RT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescent, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Acetylcholine and nicotine pre-treatment inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha release in murine-derived microglial cells, an effect attenuated by alpha 7 selective nicotinic antagonist, alpha-bungarotoxin. Furthermore, this inhibition appears to be mediated by a reduction in phosphorylation of p44/42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Though preliminary, our findings suggest the existence of a brain cholinergic pathway that regulates microglial activation through alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. Negative regulation of microglia activation may also represent additional mechanism underlying nicotine's reported neuroprotective properties.

  11. Identification of intracellular receptor proteins for activated protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, D; Khaner, H; Lopez, J

    1991-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) translocates from the cytosol to the particulate fraction on activation. This activation-induced translocation of PKC is thought to reflect PKC binding to the membrane lipids. However, immunological and biochemical data suggest that PKC may bind to proteins in the cytoskeletal elements in the particulate fraction and in the nuclei. Here we describe evidence for the presence of intracellular receptor proteins that bind activated PKC. Several proteins from the detergent-insoluble material of the particulate fraction bound PKC in the presence of phosphatidylserine and calcium; binding was further increased with the addition of diacylglycerol. Binding of PKC to two of these proteins was concentration-dependent, saturable, and specific, suggesting that these binding proteins are receptors for activated C-kinase, termed here "RACKs." PKC binds to RACKs via a site on PKC distinct from the substrate binding site. We suggest that binding to RACKs may play a role in activation-induced translocation of PKC. Images PMID:1850844

  12. The prostaglandin EP1 receptor potentiates kainate receptor activation via a protein kinase C pathway and exacerbates status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Asheebo; Gueorguieva, Paoula; Lelutiu, Nadia; Quan, Yi; Shaw, Renee; Dingledine, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates membrane excitability, synaptic transmission, plasticity, and neuronal survival. The consequences of PGE2 release following seizures has been the subject of much study. Here we demonstrate that the prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1, or Ptger1) modulates native kainate receptors, a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. Global ablation of the EP1 gene in mice (EP1-KO) had no effect on seizure threshold after kainate injection but reduced the likelihood to enter status epilepticus. EP1-KO mice that did experience typical status epilepticus had reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration and a blunted inflammatory response. Further studies with native prostanoid and kainate receptors in cultured cortical neurons, as well as with recombinant prostanoid and kainate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, demonstrated that EP1 receptor activation potentiates heteromeric but not homomeric kainate receptors via a second messenger cascade involving phospholipase C, calcium and protein kinase C. Three critical GluK5 C-terminal serines underlie the potentiation of the GluK2/GluK5 receptor by EP1 activation. Taken together, these results indicate that EP1 receptor activation during seizures, through a protein kinase C pathway, increases the probability of kainic acid induced status epilepticus, and independently promotes hippocampal neurodegeneration and a broad inflammatory response. PMID:24952362

  13. Involvement of 5-HT(2C) receptors in the anti-immobility effects of antidepressants in the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Clenet, F; De Vos, A; Bourin, M

    2001-04-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(3) receptors were implicated in the mechanism of action of antidepressants in the mouse forced swimming test. Despite extensive evidence for a role of 5-HT(2C) receptors in depression, the precise role of these receptors in the effects of clinically established antidepressants was not directly investigated in the mouse forced swimming test. This work was aimed at exploring interactions between several doses of Ro 60-0175, a recently available, full and selective 5-HT(2C) agonist, and antidepressant drugs in the mouse forced swimming test. Spontaneous locomotor activity was measured as an index of intact sensorimotor functions and the dose-effect of Ro 60-0175 alone, as well as interactions with several antidepressants, such as tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine and maprotiline) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine, citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and sertraline), were studied in the mouse forced swimming test. There was no intrinsic antidepressant-like effect of Ro 60-0175, but an impairment in locomotor function was detected when using doses higher than 4 mg/kg in the mouse. There was a synergistic effect of low doses of Ro 60-0175 with sub-active doses of imipramine, paroxetine, citalopram and fluvoxamine; an antagonism between the highest dose of Ro 60-0175 and the active doses of paroxetine and fluoxetine was also detected. There is evidence that 5-HT(2C) receptors may be involved in the action of antidepressants which are able to boost the concentration of serotonin in the synapse, i.e. SSRIs and imipramine

  14. Detection of Neu1 Sialidase Activity in Regulating TOLL-like Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Abdulkhalek, Samar

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Not only are TLRs crucial sensors of microbial (e.g., viruses, bacteria and parasite) infections, they also play an important role in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases, inflammatory diseases, and possibly in autoimmune diseases. Thus, the intensity and duration of TLR responses against infectious diseases must be tightly controlled. It follows that understanding the structural integrity of sensor receptors, their ligand interactions and signaling components is essential for subsequent immunological protection. It would also provide important opportunities for disease modification through sensor manipulation. Although the signaling pathways of TLR sensors are well characterized, the parameters controlling interactions between the sensors and their ligands still remain poorly defined. We have recently identified a novel mechanism of TLR activation by its natural ligand, which has not been previously observed 1,2. It suggests that ligand-induced TLR activation is tightly controlled by Neu1 sialidase activation. We have also reported that Neu1 tightly regulates neurotrophin receptors like TrkA and TrkB 3, which involve Neu1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cross-talk in complex with the receptors 4. The sialidase assay has been initially use to find a novel ligand, thymoquinone, in the activation of Neu4 sialidase on the cell surface of macrophages, dendritic cells and fibroblast cells via GPCR Gαi proteins and MMP-9 5. For TLR receptors, our data indicate that Neu1 sialidase is already in complex with TLR-2, -3 and -4 receptors, and is induced upon ligand binding to either receptor. Activated Neu1 sialidase hydrolyzes sialyl α-2,3-linked β-galactosyl residues distant from ligand binding to remove steric hinderance to TLR-4 dimerization, MyD88/TLR4 complex recruitment, NFkB activation and pro-inflammatory cell responses. In a

  15. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  16. Phagocytic receptors activate and immune inhibitory receptor SIRPα inhibits phagocytosis through paxillin and cofilin.

    PubMed

    Gitik, Miri; Kleinhaus, Rachel; Hadas, Smadar; Reichert, Fanny; Rotshenker, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune function of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, tissue debris, pathogens, and cancer cells is essential for homeostasis, tissue repair, fighting infection, and combating malignancy. Phagocytosis is carried out in the central nervous system (CNS) by resident microglia and in both CNS and peripheral nervous system by recruited macrophages. While phagocytosis proceeds, bystander healthy cells protect themselves by sending a "do not eat me" message to phagocytes as CD47 on their surface ligates immune inhibitory receptor SIRPα on the surface of phagocytes and SIRPα then produces the signaling which inhibits phagocytosis. This helpful mechanism becomes harmful when tissue debris and unhealthy cells inhibit their own phagocytosis by employing the same mechanism. However, the inhibitory signaling that SIRPα produces has not been fully revealed. We focus here on how SIRPα inhibits the phagocytosis of the tissue debris "degenerated myelin" which hinders repair in axonal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. We tested whether SIRPα inhibits phagocytosis by regulating cytoskeleton function through paxillin and cofilin since (a) the cytoskeleton generates the mechanical forces that drive phagocytosis and (b) both paxillin and cofilin control cytoskeleton function. Paxillin and cofilin were transiently activated in microglia as phagocytosis was activated. In contrast, paxillin and cofilin were continuously activated and phagocytosis augmented in microglia in which SIRPα expression was knocked-down by SIRPα-shRNA. Further, levels of phagocytosis, paxillin activation, and cofilin activation positively correlated with one another. Taken together, these observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby paxillin and cofilin are targeted to control phagocytosis by both the activating signaling that phagocytic receptors produce by promoting the activation of paxillin and cofilin and the inhibiting signaling that immune inhibitory SIRPα produces by promoting the

  17. FATTY ACIDS MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4 ACTIVATION THROUGH REGULATION OF RECEPTOR DIMERIZATION AND RECRUITMENT INTO LIPID RAFTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saturated fatty acids acylated on Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial lipoproteins play critical roles in ligand recognition and receptor activation for Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2. The results from our previous studies (J Biol Chem 2003, 2004) demonstrated that saturated ...

  18. Helix 11 dynamics is critical for constitutive androstane receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Edward; Busby, Scott A; Wisecarver, Sarah; Vincent, Jeremy; Griffin, Patrick R; Fernandez, Elias J

    2011-01-12

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) transactivation can occur in the absence of exogenous ligand and this activity is enhanced by agonists TCPOBOP and meclizine. We use biophysical and cell-based assays to show that increased activity of CAR(TCPOBOP) relative to CAR(meclizine) corresponds to a higher affinity of CAR(TCPOBOP) for the steroid receptor coactivator-1. Additionally, steady-state fluorescence spectra suggest conformational differences between CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR and CAR(meclizine):RXR. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) data indicate that the CAR activation function 2 (AF-2) is more stable in CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR and CAR(meclizine):RXR than in CAR:RXR. HDX kinetics also show significant differences between CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR and CAR(meclizine):RXR. Unlike CAR(meclizine):RXR, CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR shows a higher overall stabilization that extends into RXR. We identify residues 339-345 in CAR as an allosteric regulatory site with a greater magnitude reduction in exchange kinetics in CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR than CAR(meclizine):RXR. Accordingly, assays with mutations on CAR at leucine-340 and leucine-343 confirm this region as an important determinant of CAR activity. PMID:21220114

  19. The Pharmacochaperone Activity of Quinine on Bitter Taste Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D.; Chakraborty, Raja; Shaik, Feroz A.; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Bhullar, Rajinder P.; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-01-01

    Bitter taste is one of the five basic taste sensations which is mediated by 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in humans. The mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction is not yet elucidated. The cellular processes underlying T2R desensitization including receptor internalization, trafficking and degradation are yet to be studied. Here, using a combination of molecular and pharmacological techniques we show that T2R4 is not internalized upon agonist treatment. Pretreatment with bitter agonist quinine led to a reduction in subsequent quinine-mediated calcium responses to 35 ± 5% compared to the control untreated cells. Interestingly, treatment with different bitter agonists did not cause internalization of T2R4. Instead, quinine treatment led to a 2-fold increase in T2R4 cell surface expression which was sensitive to Brefeldin A, suggesting a novel pharmacochaperone activity of quinine. This phenomenon of chaperone activity of quinine was also observed for T2R7, T2R10, T2R39 and T2R46. Our results suggest that the observed action of quinine for these T2Rs is independent of its agonist activity. This study provides novel insights into the pharmacochaperone activity of quinine and possible mechanism of T2R desensitization, which is of fundamental importance in understanding the mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction. PMID:27223611

  20. The Pharmacochaperone Activity of Quinine on Bitter Taste Receptors.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D; Chakraborty, Raja; Shaik, Feroz A; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-01-01

    Bitter taste is one of the five basic taste sensations which is mediated by 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in humans. The mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction is not yet elucidated. The cellular processes underlying T2R desensitization including receptor internalization, trafficking and degradation are yet to be studied. Here, using a combination of molecular and pharmacological techniques we show that T2R4 is not internalized upon agonist treatment. Pretreatment with bitter agonist quinine led to a reduction in subsequent quinine-mediated calcium responses to 35 ± 5% compared to the control untreated cells. Interestingly, treatment with different bitter agonists did not cause internalization of T2R4. Instead, quinine treatment led to a 2-fold increase in T2R4 cell surface expression which was sensitive to Brefeldin A, suggesting a novel pharmacochaperone activity of quinine. This phenomenon of chaperone activity of quinine was also observed for T2R7, T2R10, T2R39 and T2R46. Our results suggest that the observed action of quinine for these T2Rs is independent of its agonist activity. This study provides novel insights into the pharmacochaperone activity of quinine and possible mechanism of T2R desensitization, which is of fundamental importance in understanding the mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction. PMID:27223611

  1. Phosphorylation of the human leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor by mitogen-activated protein kinase and the regulation of LIF receptor function by heterologous receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Schiemann, W P; Graves, L M; Baumann, H; Morella, K K; Gearing, D P; Nielsen, M D; Krebs, E G; Nathanson, N M

    1995-01-01

    We used a bacterially expressed fusion protein containing the entire cytoplasmic domain of the human leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor to study its phosphorylation in response to LIF stimulation. The dose- and time-dependent relationships for phosphorylation of this construct in extracts of LIF-stimulated 3T3-L1 cells were superimposable with those for the stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Indeed, phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of the low-affinity LIF receptor alpha-subunit (LIFR) in Mono Q-fractionated, LIF-stimulated 3T3-L1 extracts occurred only in those fractions containing activated MAPK; Ser-1044 served as the major phosphorylation site in the human LIFR for MAPK both in agonist-stimulated 3T3-L1 lysates and by recombinant extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 in vitro. Expression in rat H-35 hepatoma cells of LIFR or chimeric granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR)-LIFR mutants lacking Ser-1044 failed to affect cytokine-stimulated expression of a reporter gene under the control of the beta-fibrinogen gene promoter but eliminated the insulin-induced attenuation of cytokine-stimulated gene expression. Thus, our results identify the human LIFR as a substrate for MAPK and suggest a mechanism of heterologous receptor regulation of LIFR signaling occurring at Ser-1044. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7777512

  2. Novel mechanisms for activated protein C cytoprotective activities involving noncanonical activation of protease-activated receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Burnier, Laurent; Mosnier, Laurent O

    2013-08-01

    The direct cytoprotective activities of activated protein C (APC) on cells convey therapeutic, relevant, beneficial effects in injury and disease models in vivo and require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Thrombin also activates PAR1, but its effects on cells contrast APC's cytoprotective effects. To gain insights into mechanisms for these contrasting cellular effects, protease activated receptor 3 (PAR3) activation by APC and thrombin was studied. APC cleaved PAR3 on transfected and endothelial cells in the presence of EPCR. Remarkably, APC cleaved a synthetic PAR3 N-terminal peptide at Arg41, whereas thrombin cleaved at Lys38. On cells, APC failed to cleave R41Q-PAR3, whereas K38Q-PAR3 was still cleaved by APC but not by thrombin. PAR3 tethered-ligand peptides beginning at amino acid 42, but not those beginning at amino acid 39, conveyed endothelial barrier-protective effects. In vivo, the APC-derived PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide, but not the thrombin-derived PAR3 peptide, blunted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability. These data indicate that PAR3 cleavage by APC at Arg41 can initiate distinctive APC-like cytoprotective effects. These novel insights help explain the differentiation of APC's cytoprotective versus thrombin's proinflammatory effects on cells and suggest a unique contributory role for PAR3 in the complex mechanisms underlying APC cytoprotective effects. PMID:23788139

  3. Activation of family C G-protein-coupled receptors by the tripeptide glutathione.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghua; Yao, Yi; Kuang, Donghui; Hampson, David R

    2006-03-31

    The Family C G-protein-coupled receptors include the metabotropic glutamate receptors, the gamma-aminobutyric acid, type B (GABAB) receptor, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which participates in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in the body, and a diverse group of sensory receptors that encompass the amino acid-activated fish 5.24 chemosensory receptor, the mammalian T1R taste receptors, and the V2R pheromone receptors. A common feature of Family C receptors is the presence of an amino acid binding site. In this study, a preliminary in silico analysis of the size and shape of the amino acid binding pocket in selected Family C receptors suggested that some members of this family could accommodate larger ligands such as peptides. Subsequent screening and docking experiments identified GSH as a potential ligand or co-ligand at the fish 5.24 receptor and the rat CaSR. These in silico predictions were confirmed using an [3H]GSH radioligand binding assay and a fluorescence-based functional assay performed on wild-type and chimeric receptors. Glutathione was shown to act as an orthosteric agonist at the 5.24 receptor and as a potent enhancer of calcium-induced activation of the CaSR. Within the mammalian receptors, this effect was specific to the CaSR because GSH neither directly activated nor potentiated other Family C receptors including GPRC6A (the putative mammalian homolog of the fish 5.24 receptor), the metabotropic glutamate receptors, or the GABAB receptor. Our findings reveal a potential new role for GSH and suggest that this peptide may act as an endogenous modulator of the CaSR in the parathyroid gland where this receptor is known to control the release of parathyroid hormone, and in other tissues such as the brain and gastrointestinal tract where the role of the calcium receptor appears to subserve other, as yet unknown, physiological functions. PMID:16455645

  4. Involvement of spinal muscarinic and serotonergic receptors in the anti-allodynic effect of electroacupuncture in rats with oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hwan; Go, Donghyun; Kim, Woojin; Lee, Giseog; Bae, Hyojeong; Quan, Fu Shi

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the spinal cholinergic and serotonergic analgesic systems mediate the relieving effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold allodynia in rats. The cold allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated by immersing the rat's tail into cold water (4℃) and measuring the withdrawal latency. EA stimulation (2 Hz, 0.3-ms pulse duration, 0.2~0.3 mA) at the acupoint ST36, GV3, or LI11 all showed a significant anti-allodynic effect, which was stronger at ST36. The analgesic effect of EA at ST36 was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine, 1 mg/kg), but not by nicotinic (mecamylamine, 2 mg/kg) receptor antagonist. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of M2 (methoctramine, 10 µg) and M3 (4-DAMP, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, but not M1 (pirenzepine, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, blocked the effect. Also, spinal administration of 5-HT3 (MDL-72222, 12 µg) receptor antagonist, but not 5-HT1A (NAN-190, 15 µg) or 5-HT2A (ketanserin, 30 µg) receptor antagonist, prevented the anti-allodynic effect of EA. These results suggest that EA may have a signifi cant analgesic action against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain, which is mediated by spinal cholinergic (M2, M3) and serotonergic (5-HT3) receptors. PMID:27382357

  5. Molecular details of the activation of the μ opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jihyun; Coop, Andrew; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2013-07-01

    Molecular details of μ opioid receptor activations were obtained using molecular dynamics simulations of the receptor in the presence of three agonists, three antagonists, and a partial agonist and on the constitutively active T279K mutant. Agonists have a higher probability of direct interactions of their basic nitrogen (N) with Asp147 as compared with antagonists, indicating that direct ligand-Asp147 interactions modulate activation. Medium-size substituents on the basic N of antagonists lead to steric interactions that perturb N-Asp147 interactions, while additional favorable interactions occur with larger basic N substituents, such as in N-phenethylnormorphine, restoring N-Asp147 interactions, leading to agonism. With the orvinols, the increased size of the C19 substituent in buprenorphine over diprenorphine leads to increased interactions with residues adjacent to Asp147, partially overcoming the presence of the cyclopropyl N substituent, such that buprenorphine is a partial agonist. Results also indicate different conformational properties of the intracellular regions of the transmembrane helices in agonists versus antagonists. PMID:23758404

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuguo; Tanaka, Naoki . E-mail: naopi@hsp.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp; Nakajima, Takero; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-08-11

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPAR{alpha} dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11{alpha}, might be associated with the PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part.

  7. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X; Zamponi, Gerald W; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  8. A new mechanism for growth hormone receptor activation of JAK2, and implications for related cytokine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Michael J; Brooks, Andrew J; Chhabra, Yash

    2014-01-01

    The growth hormone receptor was the first cytokine receptor to be cloned and crystallized, and provides a valuable exemplar for activation of its cognate kinase, JAK2. We review progress in understanding its activation mechanism, in particular the molecular movements made by this constitutively dimerized receptor in response to ligand binding, and how these lead to a separation of JAK-binding Box1 motifs. Such a separation leads to removal of the pseudokinase inhibitory domain from the kinase domain of a partner JAK2 bound to the receptor, and vice versa, leading to apposition of the kinase domains and transactivation. This may be a general mechanism for class I cytokine receptor action. PMID:25101218

  9. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to

  10. Differential effects of three 5-HT receptor antagonists on the performance of rats in attentional and working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, S; Sirviö, J; Jäkälä, P; Puumala, T; MacDonald, E; Riekkinen, P

    1997-05-01

    The effects of three different serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonists (ketanserin, methysegide, methiothepin) in the modulation of attention, working memory and behavioural activity were investigated in this study by assessing the performance of rats in two separate cognitive models; the 5-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) task, which measures attention, and the delayed non-matching to position (DNMTP) task, which measures working memory. Methysergide and methiothepin bind at the 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 as well as the 5-HT5-7 receptors, with varying degrees of selectivity, and ketanserin binds at the 5-HT2A receptors rather selectively. None of these agents bind to any significant extent to 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptors. In the 5-CSRT task, neither methiothepin (0.15 mg/kg) nor ketanserin (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) impaired the choice accuracy of rats, although they induced sedation. The low doses of methysergide (1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg) slightly increased the behavioural activity of rats, whereas the high dose of methysergide (15.0 mg/kg) reduced behavioural activity and slightly reduced choice accuracy of the rats in the attentional task (monitoring of visual stimuli) under the baseline conditions or curtailed stimulus duration. This effect was not augmented at the reduced stimulus intensity. These findings suggest that the high dose of methysergide did not interfere with the visual discrimination of rats. Furthermore, methysergide did not reduce motivation for this task, since it did not increase food collection latencies. In the DNMTP task, methiothepin (0.15 mg/kg) induced a delay non-dependent deficit in choice accuracy. This could be due to an impaired alternation ability or akinesia, which increases an actual delay between sample and choice. Methiothepin (0.15 mg/kg) also interfered with behavioural activity of rats. Interestingly, ketanserin (1.0 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg) and methysergide (3.0-15.0 mg/kg) neither impaired the choice accuracy nor reduced the behavioural activity of

  11. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Alexandre A; Costa, Ana Paula R; Bicca, Maíra A; Matheus, Filipe C; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L; Bortolotto, Zuner A; de Lima, Thereza C M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine--a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist--displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine--an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)--prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies. PMID:26795565

  12. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Alexandre A; Costa, Ana Paula R; Bicca, Maíra A; Matheus, Filipe C; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L; Bortolotto, Zuner A; de Lima, Thereza C M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine--a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist--displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine--an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)--prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies.

  13. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist enhances intrinsic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Onuma, Hirohisa; Inukai, Kouichi Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Nishida, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Katsuta, Hidenori; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • PPARγ activation was involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action. • Exendin-4 enhanced endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity in HUVECs. • H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement. • The anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 may be explained by PPARγ activation. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling to exert anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells, although the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether PPARγ activation is involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action on endothelial cells. When we treated HUVEC cells with 0.2 ng/ml exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity was significantly elevated, by approximately 20%, as compared with control cells. The maximum PPARγ activity enhancing effect of exendin-4 was observed 12 h after the initiation of incubation with exendin-4. As H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement, the signaling downstream from GLP-1 cross-talk must have been involved in PPARγ activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLP-1 has the potential to induce PPARγ activity, partially explaining the anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 on endothelial cells. Cross-talk between GLP-1 signaling and PPARγ activation would have major impacts on treatments for patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  14. Evidence for the presence of a protease-activated receptor distinct from the thrombin receptor in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, R J; Derian, C K; Darrow, A L; Tomko, K A; Eckardt, A J; Seiberg, M; Scarborough, R M; Andrade-Gordon, P

    1995-01-01

    Thrombin receptor activation was explored in human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts, cells that are actively involved in skin tissue repair. The effects of thrombin, trypsin, and the receptor agonist peptides SFLLRN and TFRIFD were assessed in inositolphospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization studies. Thrombin and SFLLRN stimulated fibroblasts in both assays to a similar extent, whereas TFRIFD was less potent. Trypsin demonstrated weak efficacy in these assays in comparison with thrombin. Results in fibroblasts were consistent with human platelet thrombin receptor activation. Keratinocytes, however, exhibited a distinct profile, with trypsin being a far better activator of inositolphospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization than thrombin. Furthermore, SFLLRN was more efficacious than thrombin, whereas no response was observed with TFRIFD. Since our data indicated that keratinocytes possess a trypsin-sensitive receptor, we addressed the possibility that these cells express the human homologue of the newly described murine protease-activated receptor, PAR-2 [Nystedt, S., Emilsson, K., Wahlestedt, C. & Sundelin, J. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 9208-9212]. PAR-2 is activated by nanomolar concentrations of trypsin and possesses the tethered ligand sequence SLIGRL. SLIGRL was found to be equipotent with SFLLRN in activating keratinocyte inositolphospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization. Desensitization studies indicated that SFLLRN, SLIGRL, and trypsin activate a common receptor, PAR-2. Northern blot analyses detected a transcript of PAR-2 in total RNA from keratinocytes but not fibroblasts. Levels of thrombin receptor message were equivalent in the two cell types. Our results indicate that human keratinocytes possess PAR-2, suggesting a potential role for this receptor in tissue repair and/or skin-related disorders. Images Fig. 6 PMID:7568091

  15. Spontaneous olfactory receptor neuron activity determines follower cell response properties

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joby; Dunn, Felice A.; Stopfer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Noisy or spontaneous activity is common in neural systems and poses a challenge to detecting and discriminating signals. Here we use the locust to answer fundamental questions about noise in the olfactory system: Where does spontaneous activity originate? How is this activity propagated or reduced throughout multiple stages of neural processing? What mechanisms favor the detection of signals despite the presence of spontaneous activity? We found that spontaneous activity long observed in the secondary projection neurons (PNs) originates almost entirely from the primary olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) rather than from spontaneous circuit interactions in the antennal lobe, and that spontaneous activity in ORNs tonically depolarizes the resting membrane potentials of their target PNs and local neurons (LNs), and indirectly tonically depolarizes tertiary Kenyon cells (KCs). However, because these neurons have different response thresholds, in the absence of odor stimulation, ORNs and PNs display a high spontaneous firing rate but KCs are nearly silent. Finally, we used a simulation of the olfactory network to show that discrimination of signal and noise in the KCs is best when threshold levels are set so that baseline activity in PNs persists. Our results show how the olfactory system benefits from making a signal detection decision after a point of maximal information convergence, e.g., after KCs pool inputs from many PNs. PMID:22357872

  16. The First Structure–Activity Relationship Studies for Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, two independent technologies have emerged and been widely adopted by the neuroscience community for remotely controlling neuronal activity: optogenetics which utilize engineered channelrhodopsin and other opsins, and chemogenetics which utilize engineered G protein-coupled receptors (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)) and other orthologous ligand–receptor pairs. Using directed molecular evolution, two types of DREADDs derived from human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been developed: hM3Dq which activates neuronal firing, and hM4Di which inhibits neuronal firing. Importantly, these DREADDs were not activated by the native ligand acetylcholine (ACh), but selectively activated by clozapine N-oxide (CNO), a pharmacologically inert ligand. CNO has been used extensively in rodent models to activate DREADDs, and although CNO is not subject to significant metabolic transformation in mice, a small fraction of CNO is apparently metabolized to clozapine in humans and guinea pigs, lessening the translational potential of DREADDs. To effectively translate the DREADD technology, the next generation of DREADD agonists are needed and a thorough understanding of structure–activity relationships (SARs) of DREADDs is required for developing such ligands. We therefore conducted the first SAR studies of hM3Dq. We explored multiple regions of the scaffold represented by CNO, identified interesting SAR trends, and discovered several compounds that are very potent hM3Dq agonists but do not activate the native human M3 receptor (hM3). We also discovered that the approved drug perlapine is a novel hM3Dq agonist with >10 000-fold selectivity for hM3Dq over hM3. PMID:25587888

  17. In vitro neuronal network activity in NMDA receptor encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anti-NMDA-encephalitis is caused by antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and characterized by a severe encephalopathy with psychosis, epileptic seizures and autonomic disturbances. It predominantly occurs in young women and is associated in 59% with an ovarian teratoma. Results We describe effects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from an anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis patient on in vitro neuronal network activity (ivNNA). In vitro NNA of dissociated primary rat cortical populations was recorded by the microelectrode array (MEA) system. The 23-year old patient was severely affected but showed an excellent recovery following multimodal immunomodulatory therapy and removal of an ovarian teratoma. Patient CSF (pCSF) taken during the initial weeks after disease onset suppressed global spike- and burst rates of ivNNA in contrast to pCSF sampled after clinical recovery and decrease of NMDAR antibody titers. The synchrony of pCSF-affected ivNNA remained unaltered during the course of the disease. Conclusion Patient CSF directly suppresses global activity of neuronal networks recorded by the MEA system. In contrast, pCSF did not regulate the synchrony of ivNNA suggesting that NMDAR antibodies selectively regulate distinct parameters of ivNNA while sparing their functional connectivity. Thus, assessing ivNNA could represent a new technique to evaluate functional consequences of autoimmune encephalitis-related CSF changes. PMID:23379293

  18. Evolution of the protease-activated receptor family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    JIN, MIN; YANG, HAI-WEI; TAO, AI-LIN; WEI, JI-FU

    2016-01-01

    Belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPcr) family, the protease-activated receptors (Pars) consist of 4 members, PAR1-4. PARs mediate the activation of cells via thrombin, serine and other proteases. Such protease-triggered signaling events are thought to be critical for hemostasis, thrombosis and other normal pathological processes. In the present study, we examined the evolution of PARs by analyzing phylogenetic trees, chromosome location, selective pressure and functional divergence based on the 169 functional gene alignment sequences from 57 vertebrate gene sequences. We found that the 4 PARs originated from 4 invertebrate ancestors by phylogenetic trees analysis. The selective pressure results revealed that only PAR1 appeared by positive selection during its evolution, while the other PAR members did not. In addition, we noticed that although these PARs evolved separately, the results of functional divergence indicated that their evolutional rates were similar and their functions did not significantly diverge. The findings of our study provide valuable insight into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate PAR family. PMID:26820116

  19. Antitussive activity of Withania somnifera and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Nosálová, Gabriela; Sivová, Veronika; Ray, Bimalendu; Fraňová, Soňa; Ondrejka, Igor; Flešková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Arabinogalactan is a polysaccharide isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera L. It contains 65% arabinose and 18% galactose. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitussive activity of arabinogalactan in conscious, healthy adult guinea pigs and the role of the opioid pathway in the antitussive action. A polysaccharide extract was given orally in a dose of 50 mg/kg. Cough was induced by an aerosol of citric acid in a concentration 0.3 mol/L, generated by a jet nebulizer into a plethysmographic chamber. The intensity of cough response was defined as the number of cough efforts counted during a 3-min exposure to the aerosol. The major finding was that arabinogalactan clearly suppressed the cough reflex; the suppression was comparable with that of codeine that was taken as a reference drug. The involvement of the opioid system was tested with the use of a blood-brain barrier penetrable, naloxone hydrochloride, and non-penetrable, naloxone methiodide, to distinguish between the central and peripheral mu-opioid receptor pathways. Both opioid antagonists acted to reverse the arabinogalactan-induced cough suppression; the reversion was total over time with the latter antagonist. We failed to confirm the presence of a bronchodilating effect of the polysaccharide, which could be involved in its antitussive action. We conclude that the polysaccharide arabinogalactan from Withania somnifera has a distinct antitussive activity consisting of cough suppression and that this action involves the mu-opioid receptor pathways.

  20. ERK5 activation by Gq-coupled muscarinic receptors is independent of receptor internalization and β-arrestin recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, Guzmán; Cabezudo, Sofía; García-Hoz, Carlota; Tobin, Andrew B; Mayor, Federico; Ribas, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to activate both G protein- and β-arrestin-dependent signalling cascades. The initiation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways is a key downstream event in the control of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Both G proteins and β-arrestins have been reported to mediate context-specific activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPKs. Recently, the activation of ERK5 MAPK by Gq-coupled receptors has been described to involve a direct interaction between Gαq and two novel effectors, PKCζ and MEK5. However, the possible contribution of β-arrestin towards this pathway has not yet been addressed. In the present work we sought to investigate the role of receptor internalization processes and β-arrestin recruitment in the activation of ERK5 by Gq-coupled GPCRs. Our results show that ERK5 activation is independent of M1 or M3 muscarinic receptor internalization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that phosphorylation-deficient muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors are still able to fully activate the ERK5 pathway, despite their reported inability to recruit β-arrestins. Indeed, the overexpression of Gαq, but not that of β-arrestin1 or β-arrestin2, was found to potently enhance ERK5 activation by GPCRs, whereas silencing of β-arrestin2 expression did not affect the activation of this pathway. Finally, we show that a β-arrestin-biased mutant form of angiotensin II (SII; Sar1-Ile4-Ile8 AngII) failed to promote ERK5 phosphorylation in primary cardiac fibroblasts, as compared to the natural ligand. Overall, this study shows that the activation of ERK5 MAPK by model Gq-coupled GPCRs does not depend on receptor internalization, β-arrestin recruitment or receptor phosphorylation but rather is dependent on Gαq-signalling.

  1. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  2. Vasopeptidase-activated latent ligands of the histamine receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François

    2013-11-01

    Whether peptidases present in vascular cells can activate prodrugs active on vascular cells has been tested with 2 potential latent ligands of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). First, a peptide consisting of the antihistamine cetirizine (CTZ) condensed at the N-terminus of ε-aminocaproyl-bradykinin (εACA-BK) was evaluated for an antihistamine activity that could be revealed by degradation of the peptide part of the molecule. CTZ-εACA-BK had a submicromolar affinity for the BK B2 receptor (B2R; IC50 of 590 nM, [(3)H]BK binding competition), but a non-negligible affinity for the human H1 receptor (H1R; IC50 of 11 μM for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding). In the human isolated umbilical vein, a system where both endogenous B2R and H1R mediate strong contractions, CTZ-εACA-BK exerted mild antagonist effects on histamine-induced contraction that were not modified by omapatrilat or by a B2R antagonist that prevents endocytosis of the BK conjugate. Cells expressing recombinant ACE or B2R incubated with CTZ-εACA-BK did not release a competitor of [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. Thus, there is no evidence that CTZ-εACA-BK can release free cetirizine in biological environments. The second prodrug was a blocked agonist, L-alanyl-histamine, potentially activated by aminopeptidase N (APN). This compound did not compete for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. The human umbilical vein contractility assay responded to L-alanyl-histamine (EC50 54.7 μM), but the APN inhibitor amastatin massively (17-fold) reduced its apparent potency. Amastatin did not influence the potency of histamine as a contractile agent. One of the 2 tested latent H1R ligands, L-alanyl-histamine, supported the feasibility of pro-drug activation by vascular ectopeptidases.

  3. Engineered epidermal growth factor mutants with faster binding on-rates correlate with enhanced receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Jennifer L.; Lui, Bertrand H.; Beck, Stayce E.; Lee, Stephen S.; Ly, Daphne P.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.; Cochran, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate critical cell signaling pathways, yet the properties of their cognate ligands that influence receptor activation are not fully understood. There is great interest in parsing these complex ligand-receptor relationships using engineered proteins with altered binding properties. Here we focus on the interaction between two engineered epidermal growth factor (EGF) mutants and the EGF receptor (EGFR), a model member of the RTK superfamily. We found that EGF mutants with faster kinetic on-rates stimulate increased EGFR activation compared to wild-type EGF. These findings support previous predictions that faster association rates correlate with enhanced receptor activity. PMID:21439278

  4. The WSXWS motif in cytokine receptors is a molecular switch involved in receptor activation: insight from structures of the prolactin receptor.

    PubMed

    Dagil, Robert; Knudsen, Maiken J; Olsen, Johan G; O'Shea, Charlotte; Franzmann, Magnus; Goffin, Vincent; Teilum, Kaare; Breinholt, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2012-02-01

    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is activated by binding of prolactin in a 2:1 complex, but the activation mechanism is poorly understood. PRLR has a conserved WSXWS motif generic to cytokine class I receptors. We have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the membrane proximal domain of the human PRLR and find that the tryptophans of the motif adopt a T-stack conformation in the unbound state. By contrast, in the hormone bound state, a Trp/Arg-ladder is formed. The conformational change is hormone-dependent and influences the receptor-receptor dimerization site 3. In the constitutively active, breast cancer-related receptor mutant PRLR(I146L), we observed a stabilization of the dimeric state and a change in the dynamics of the motif. Here we demonstrate a structural link between the WSXWS motif, hormone binding, and receptor dimerization and propose it as a general mechanism for class 1 receptor activation.

  5. Rectal antinociceptive properties of alverine citrate are linked to antagonism at the 5-HT1A receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Coelho, A M; Jacob, L; Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    2001-10-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is considered as a major mediator causing hyperalgesia and is involved in inflammatory reactions and irritable bowel syndrome. Alverine citrate may possess visceral antinociceptive properties in a rat model of rectal distension-induced abdominal contractions. This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological properties of alverine citrate in a rat model of rectal hyperalgesia induced by 5-HTP (5-HT precursor) and by a selective 5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) and to compare this activity with a reference 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY 100635). At 4 h after their administration, 5-HTP and 8-OH-DPAT increased the number of abdominal contractions in response to rectal distension at the lowest volume of distension (0.4 mL). When injected intraperitoneally before 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HTP, WAY 100635 (1 mg kg(-1)) blocked their nociceptive effect, but also reduced the response to the highest volume of distension (1.6 mL). Similarly, when injected intraperitoneally, alverine citrate (20 mg kg(-1)) suppressed the effect of 5-HTP, but not that of 8-OH-DPAT. However, when injected intracerebroventricularly (75 microg/rat) alverine citrate reduced 8-OH-DPAT-induced enhancement of rectal distension-induced abdominal contractions. In-vitro binding studies revealed that alverine citrate had a high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors and a weak affinity for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 subtypes. These results suggest that 5-HTP-induced rectal hypersensitivity involves 5-TH1A receptors and that alverine citrate acts as a selective antagonist at the 5-HT1A receptor subtype to block both 5-HTP and 8-OH-DPAT-induced rectal hypersensitivity. PMID:11697552

  6. Regulation of platelet activating factor receptor coupled phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were two-fold. The first was to establish whether binding of platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor was integral to the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in rabbit platelets. The second was to determine regulatory features of this receptor-coupled mechanism. ({sup 3}H)PAF binding demonstrated two binding sites, a high affinity site with a inhibitory constant (Ki) of 2.65 nM and a low affinity site with a Ki of 0.80 {mu}M. PAF receptor coupled activation of phosphoinositide-specific PLC was studied in platelets which were made refractory, by short term pretreatments, to either PAF or thrombin. Saponin-permeabilized rabbit platelets continue to regulate the mechanism(s) coupling PAF receptors to PLC stimulation. However, TRP{gamma}S and GDP{beta}S, which affect guanine nucleotide regulatory protein functions, were unable to modulate the PLC activity to any appreciable extent as compared to PAF. The possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in regulating PAF-stimulated PLC activity was studied in rabbit platelets pretreated with staurosporine followed by pretreatments with PAF or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  7. A restricted population of CB1 cannabinoid receptors with neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Chiarlone, Anna; Bellocchio, Luigi; Blázquez, Cristina; Resel, Eva; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Cannich, Astrid; Ferrero, José J.; Sagredo, Onintza; Benito, Cristina; Romero, Julián; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Lutz, Beat; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Guzmán, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main molecular target of endocannabinoids and cannabis active components, is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the mammalian brain. Of note, CB1 receptors are expressed at the synapses of two opposing (i.e., GABAergic/inhibitory and glutamatergic/excitatory) neuronal populations, so the activation of one and/or another receptor population may conceivably evoke different effects. Despite the widely reported neuroprotective activity of the CB1 receptor in animal models, the precise pathophysiological relevance of those two CB1 receptor pools in neurodegenerative processes is unknown. Here, we first induced excitotoxic damage in the mouse brain by (i) administering quinolinic acid to conditional mutant animals lacking CB1 receptors selectively in GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons, and (ii) manipulating corticostriatal glutamatergic projections remotely with a designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug pharmacogenetic approach. We next examined the alterations that occur in the R6/2 mouse, a well-established model of Huntington disease, upon (i) fully knocking out CB1 receptors, and (ii) deleting CB1 receptors selectively in corticostriatal glutamatergic or striatal GABAergic neurons. The data unequivocally identify the restricted population of CB1 receptors located on glutamatergic terminals as an indispensable player in the neuroprotective activity of (endo)cannabinoids, therefore suggesting that this precise receptor pool constitutes a promising target for neuroprotective therapeutic strategies. PMID:24843137

  8. Activation and Regulation of Purinergic P2X Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Yan, Zonghe; Obsil, Tomas; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ATP-gated nonselective cation channels (P2XRs) can be composed of seven possible subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7. Each subunit contains a large ectodomain, two transmembrane domains, and intracellular N and C termini. Functional P2XRs are organized as homomeric and heteromeric trimers. This review focuses on the binding sites involved in the activation (orthosteric) and regulation (allosteric) of P2XRs. The ectodomains contain three ATP binding sites, presumably located between neighboring subunits and formed by highly conserved residues. The detection and coordination of three ATP phosphate residues by positively charged amino acids are likely to play a dominant role in determining agonist potency, whereas an AsnPheArg motif may contribute to binding by coordinating the adenine ring. Nonconserved ectodomain histidines provide the binding sites for trace metals, divalent cations, and protons. The transmembrane domains account not only for the formation of the channel pore but also for the binding of ivermectin (a specific P2X4R allosteric regulator) and alcohols. The N- and C- domains provide the structures that determine the kinetics of receptor desensitization and/or pore dilation and are critical for the regulation of receptor functions by intracellular messengers, kinases, reactive oxygen species and mercury. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in a closed state provides a major advance in the understanding of this family of receptor channels. We will discuss data obtained from numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments accumulated during the last 15 years with reference to the crystal structure, allowing a structural interpretation of the molecular basis of orthosteric and allosteric ligand actions. PMID:21737531

  9. Activation of toll like receptor 4 attenuates GABA synthesis and postsynaptic GABA receptor activities in the spinal dorsal horn via releasing interleukin-1 beta.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xisheng; Jiang, Enshe; Weng, Han-Rong

    2015-01-09

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an innate immune pattern recognition receptor, expressed predominantly on microglia in the CNS. Activation of spinal TLR4 plays a critical role in the genesis of pathological pain induced by nerve injury, bone cancer, and tissue inflammation. Currently, it remains unknown how synaptic activities in the spinal dorsal horn are regulated by TLR4 receptors. Through recording GABAergic currents in neurons and glial glutamate transporter currents in astrocytes in rodent spinal slices, we determined whether and how TLR4 modulates GABAergic synaptic activities in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. We found that activation of TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces GABAergic synaptic activities through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Specifically, LPS causes the release of IL-1β from microglia. IL-1β in turn suppresses GABA receptor activities at the postsynaptic site through activating protein kinase C (PKC) in neurons. GABA synthesis at the presynaptic site is reduced upon activation of TLR4. Glial glutamate transporter activities are suppressed by IL-1β and PKC activation induced by LPS. The suppression of glial glutamate transporter activities leads to a deficiency of glutamine supply, which results in an attenuation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle-dependent GABA synthesis. These findings shed light on understanding synaptic plasticity induced by activation of TLR4 under neuroinflammation and identify GABA receptors, glial glutamate transporters, IL-1β and PKC as therapeutic targets to abrogate abnormal neuronal activities following activation of TLR4 in pathological pain conditions.

  10. Predicted structure of the extracellular region of ligand-gated ion-channel receptors shows SH2-like and SH3-like domains forming the ligand-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Gready, J. E.; Ranganathan, S.; Schofield, P. R.; Matsuo, Y.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast synaptic neurotransmission is mediated by ligand-gated ion-channel (LGIC) receptors, which include receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, glycine, and glutamate. LGICs are pentamers with extracellular ligand-binding domains and form integral membrane ion channels that are selective for cations (acetylcholine and serotonin 5HT3 receptors) or anions (GABAA and glycine receptors and the invertebrate glutamate-binding chloride channel). They form a protein superfamily with no sequence similarity to any protein of known structure. Using a 1D-3D structure mapping approach, we have modeled the extracellular ligand-binding domain based on a significant match with the SH2 and SH3 domains of the biotin repressor structure. Refinement of the model based on knowledge of the large family of SH2 and SH3 structures, sequence alignments, and use of structure templates for loop building, allows the prediction of both monomer and pentamer models. These are consistent with medium-resolution electron microscopy structures and with experimental structure/function data from ligand-binding, antibody-binding, mutagenesis, protein-labeling and subunit-linking studies, and glycosylation sites. Also, the predicted polarity of the channel pore calculated from electrostatic potential maps of pentamer models of superfamily members is consistent with known ion selectivities. Using the glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit, which forms homopentamers, the monomeric and pentameric models define the agonist and antagonist (strychnine) binding sites to a deep crevice formed by an extended loop, which includes the invariant disulfide bridge, between the SH2 and SH3 domains. A detailed binding site for strychnine is reported that is in strong agreement with known structure/function data. A site for interaction of the extracellular ligand-binding domain with the activation of the M2 transmembrane helix is also suggested. PMID:9144769

  11. Nongenomic effects of mineralocorticoid receptor activation in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mihailidou, Anastasia S; Funder, John W

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen years ago Wehling and colleagues showed unequivocal rapid effects of aldosterone, neither mimicked by cortisol nor blocked by spironolactone, and postulated that these nongenomic effects are mediated via a membrane receptor distinct from the classical mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Several recent studies have challenged this view. Alzamora et al. showed 11beta-hydroxysteroid denydrogenase 1 and 2 (11betaHSD1, 11betaHSD2) expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aldosterone rapidly raises intracellular pH via sodium-hydrogen exchange; cortisol is without effect and spironolactone does not block the aldosterone response. When, however, 11betaHSD activity is blocked by carbenoxolone, cortisol shows agonist effects indistinguishable from aldosterone; in addition, the effect of both aldosterone and cortisol is blocked by the open E-ring, water soluble MR antagonist RU28318. In rabbit cardiomyocytes, aldosterone increases intracellular [Na+] by activating Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport, with secondary effects on Na+/K+ pump activity. Pump current rises approximately 10-fold within 15', is unaffected by actinomycin D or the MR antagonist canrenone, and not elevated by cortisol. Pump current is, however, completely blocked by the open E-ring, water soluble MR antagonist K+ canrenoate and stoichometrically by cortisol. PKCepsilon agonist peptides (but not PKCalpha, PKCdelta or scrambled PKCepsilon peptides) mimic the effect of aldosterone, and PKCepsilon antagonist peptides block the effect. Very recently, cortisol has been shown to mimic the effect of aldosterone when cardiomyocyte redox state is altered by the installation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) via the pipet, paralleling the effect of carbenoxolone on vascular smooth cells and suggesting possible pathophysiologic roles for an always glucocorticoid occupied MR. PMID:15862816

  12. Modulation of Toll-Like Receptor Activity by Leukocyte Ig-Like Receptors and Their Effects during Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pilsbury, Louise E.; Allen, Rachel L.; Vordermeier, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a potent trigger for inflammatory immune responses. Without tight regulation their activation could lead to pathology, so it is imperative to extend our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that govern TLR expression and function. One family of immunoregulatory proteins which can provide a balancing effect on TLR activity are the Leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LILRs), which act as innate immune receptors for self-proteins. Here we describe the LILR family, their inhibitory effect on TLR activity in cells of the monocytic lineage, their signalling pathway, and their antimicrobial effects during bacterial infection. Agents have already been identified which enhances or inhibits LILR activity raising the future possibility that modulation of LILR function could be used as a means to modulate TLR activity. PMID:20634939

  13. P2Y2 receptor activation regulates the expression of acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine receptor genes at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed

    Tung, Edmund K K; Choi, Roy C Y; Siow, Nina L; Jiang, Joy X S; Ling, Karen K Y; Simon, Joseph; Barnard, Eric A; Tsim, Karl W K

    2004-10-01

    At the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (nmj), ATP is known to be coreleased with acetylcholine from the synaptic vesicles. We have previously shown that the P2Y1 receptor is localized at the nmj. Here, we extend the findings to show that another nucleotide receptor, P2Y2, is also localized there and with P2Y1 jointly mediates trophic responses to ATP. The P2Y2 receptor mRNA in rat muscle increased during development and peaked in adulthood. The P2Y2 receptor protein was shown to become restricted to the nmjs during embryonic development, in chick and in rat. In both rat and chick myotubes, P2Y1 and P2Y2 are expressed, increasing with differentiation, but P2Y4 is absent. The P2Y2 agonist UTP stimulated there inositol trisphosphate production and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, in a dose-dependent manner. These UTP-induced responses were insensitive to the P2Y1-specific antagonist MRS 2179 (2'-deoxy-N6-methyl adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate diammonium salt). In differentiated myotubes, P2Y2 activation induced expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) protein (but not control alpha-tubulin). This was shown to arise from AChE promoter activation, mediated by activation of the transcription factor Elk-1. Two Elk-1-responsive elements, located in intron-1 of the AChE promoter, were found by mutation to act in this gene activation initiated at the P2Y2 receptor and also in that initiated at the P2Y1 receptor. Furthermore, the promoters of different acetylcholine receptor subunits were also stimulated by application of UTP to myotubes. These results indicate that ATP regulates postsynaptic gene expressions via a common pathway triggered by the activation of P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors at the nmjs. PMID:15258260

  14. Developmental stability of taurine's activation on glycine receptors in cultured neurons of rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yun-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2008-01-01

    Taurine is an endogenous amino acid that can activate glycine and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the central nervous system. During natural development, taurine's receptor target undergoes a shift from glycine receptors to GABA(A) receptors in cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that taurine's receptor target in cortical neurons remains stable during in vitro development. With whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that taurine always activated glycine receptors, rather than GABA(A) receptors, in neurons of rat auditory cortex cultured for 5-22 days. Our results suggest that the functional sensitivity of glycine and GABA(A) receptors to taurine is critically regulated by their developmental environments.

  15. Activation of endplate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ∼300kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by αY190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by γW55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of α(1) and one each of β, δ, and either γ (fetal) or ϵ (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αγ or αϵ subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10(-6). When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C→O opening rate constant and C↔O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly

  16. The Structure of the GM-CSF Receptor Complex Reveals a Distinct Mode of Cytokine Receptor Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Guido; Hercus, Timothy R.; McClure, Barbara J.; Stomski, Frank C.; Dottore, Mara; Powell, Jason; Ramshaw, Hayley; Woodcock, Joanna M.; Xu, Yibin; Guthridge, Mark; McKinstry, William J.; Lopez, Angel F.; Parker, Michael W.

    2008-08-11

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls the production and function of blood cells, is deregulated in clinical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and leukemia, yet offers therapeutic value for other diseases. Its receptors are heterodimers consisting of a ligand-specific {alpha} subunit and a {beta}c subunit that is shared with the interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-5 receptors. How signaling is initiated remains an enigma. We report here the crystal structure of the human GM-CSF/GM-CSF receptor ternary complex and its assembly into an unexpected dodecamer or higher-order complex. Importantly, mutagenesis of the GM-CSF receptor at the dodecamer interface and functional studies reveal that dodecamer formation is required for receptor activation and signaling. This unusual form of receptor assembly likely applies also to IL-3 and IL-5 receptors, providing a structural basis for understanding their mechanism of activation and for the development of therapeutics.

  17. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr. )

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37{degree}C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of ({sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to {approximately}20% of control values, IP{sub 3} formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to {approximately}5% of control values, and both IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased the formation of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, (D-Pro{sup 2}, D-Try{sup 7,9})-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP{sub 3} formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization.

  18. Shadows across mu-Star? Constitutively active mu-opioid receptors revisited.

    PubMed

    Connor, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Constitutively active mu-opioid receptors (mu* receptors) are reported to be formed following prolonged agonist treatment of cells or whole animals. mu* receptors signal in the absence of activating ligand and a blockade of mu* activation of G-proteins by naloxone and naltrexone has been suggested to underlie the profound withdrawal syndrome precipitated by these antagonists in vivo. In this issue of the Journal, Divin et al. examined whether treatment of C6 glioma cells with mu-opioid receptor agonists produced constitutively active mu-opioid receptors or other commonly reported adaptations to prolonged agonist treatment. Adenylyl cyclase superactivation was readily apparent following agonist treatment but there was no evidence of the formation of constitutively active mu-opioid receptors. This result challenges the notion that prolonged agonist exposure inevitably produces mu* receptors, and is consistent with many studies of adaptations in neurons produced by chronic agonist treatment. The investigators provide no explanation of their failure to see mu* receptors in C6 cells, but this is perhaps understandable because the molecular nature of mu* receptors remains elusive, and the precise mechanisms that lead to their formation are unknown. Without knowing exactly what mu* receptors are, how they are formed and how they signal, understanding their role in cellular adaptations to prolonged opioid treatment will remain impossible. Studies such as this should refocus attention on establishing the molecular mechanisms that underlie that phenomenon of mu* receptors. PMID:19368530

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Vitti, Maurizio; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Di Carlo, Michela; Carta, Gaspare; Antonosante, Andrea; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Cimini, Annamaria; Tatone, Carla; Benedetti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343

  20. Negative Modulation of Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity by Daxx

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ding-Yen; Fang, Hsin-I; Ma, Ai-Hong; Huang, Yen-Sung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Jenster, Guido; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Shih, Hsiu-Ming

    2004-01-01

    The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) modulated by positive or negative regulators plays a critical role in controlling the growth and survival of prostate cancer cells. Although numerous positive regulators have been identified, negative regulators of AR are less well understood. We report here that Daxx functions as a negative AR coregulator through direct protein-protein interactions. Overexpression of Daxx suppressed AR-mediated promoter activity in COS-1 and LNCaP cells and AR-mediated prostate-specific antigen expression in LNCaP cells. Conversely, downregulation of endogenous Daxx expression by RNA interference enhances androgen-induced prostate-specific antigen expression in LNCaP cells. In vitro and in vivo interaction studies revealed that Daxx binds to both the amino-terminal and the DNA-binding domain of the AR. Daxx proteins interfere with the AR DNA-binding activity both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, sumoylation of AR at its amino-terminal domain is involved in Daxx interaction and trans-repression. Together, these findings not only provide a novel role of Daxx in controlling AR transactivation activity but also uncover the mechanism underlying sumoylation-dependent transcriptional repression of the AR. PMID:15572661

  1. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Vitti, Maurizio; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Di Carlo, Michela; Carta, Gaspare; Antonosante, Andrea; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Cimini, Annamaria; Tatone, Carla; Benedetti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed.

  2. Utilizing Chimeric Antigen Receptors to Direct Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hermanson, David L.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent an attractive lymphocyte population for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to lyse tumor targets without prior sensitization and without need for human leukocyte antigens-matching. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are able to enhance lymphocyte targeting and activation toward diverse malignancies. CARs consist of an external recognition domain (typically a small chain variable fragment) directed at a specific tumor antigen that is linked with one or more intracellular signaling domains that mediate lymphocyte activation. Most CAR studies have focused on their expression in T cells. However, use of CARs in NK cells is starting to gain traction because they provide a method to redirect these cells more specifically to target refractory cancers. CAR-mediated anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated using NK cell lines, as well as NK cells isolated from peripheral blood, and NK cells produced from human pluripotent stem cells. This review will outline the CAR constructs that have been reported in NK cells with a focus on comparing the use of different signaling domains in combination with other co-activating domains. PMID:25972867

  3. RSUME Enhances Glucocorticoid Receptor SUMOylation and Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Druker, Jimena; Liberman, Ana C.; Antunica-Noguerol, María; Gerez, Juan; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Rein, Theo; Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jorge A.; Holsboer, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity is modulated by posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation. The GR has three SUMOylation sites: lysine 297 (K297) and K313 in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and K721 within the ligand-binding domain. SUMOylation of the NTD sites mediates the negative effect of the synergy control motifs of GR on promoters with closely spaced GR binding sites. There is scarce evidence on the role of SUMO conjugation to K721 and its impact on GR transcriptional activity. We have previously shown that RSUME (RWD-containing SUMOylation enhancer) increases protein SUMOylation. We now demonstrate that RSUME interacts with the GR and increases its SUMOylation. RSUME regulates GR transcriptional activity and the expression of its endogenous target genes, FKBP51 and S100P. RSUME uncovers a positive role for the third SUMOylation site, K721, on GR-mediated transcription, demonstrating that GR SUMOylation acts positively in the presence of a SUMOylation enhancer. Both mutation of K721 and small interfering RNA-mediated RSUME knockdown diminish GRIP1 coactivator activity. RSUME, whose expression is induced under stress conditions, is a key factor in heat shock-induced GR SUMOylation. These results show that inhibitory and stimulatory SUMO sites are present in the GR and at higher SUMOylation levels the stimulatory one becomes dominant. PMID:23508108

  4. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Gaspare; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343

  5. Visualization of Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Marnie E.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens regulate a diverse range of physiological processes and affect multiple tissues. Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulate transcription by binding to DNA at conserved estrogen response elements, and such elements have been used to report ER activity in cultured cells and in transgenic mice. We generated stable, transgenic zebrafish containing five consecutive elements upstream of a c-fos minimal promoter and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to visualize and quantify transcriptional activation in live larvae. Transgenic larvae show robust, dose-dependent estrogen-dependent fluorescent labeling in the liver, consistent with er gene expression, whereas ER antagonists inhibit GFP expression. The nonestrogenic steroids dexamethasone and progesterone fail to activate GFP, confirming ER selectivity. Natural and synthetic estrogens activated the transgene with varying potency, and two chemicals, genistein and bisphenol A, preferentially induce GFP expression in the heart. In adult fish, fluorescence was observed in estrogenic tissues such as the liver, ovary, pituitary gland, and brain. Individual estrogen-responsive neurons and their projections were visualized in the adult brain, and GFP-positive neurons increased in number after 17β-estradiol exposure. The transgenic estrogen-responsive zebrafish allow ER signaling to be monitored visually and serve as in vivo sentinels for detection of estrogenic compounds. PMID:21540282

  6. High-affinity benzodiazepine receptor ligands among benzodiazepines and betacarbolines with different intrinsic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Yliniemelae, A.; Gynther, J. ); Konschin, H.; Tylli, H. ); Rouvinen, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electrostatic features of diazepam, flumazenil, and methyl betacarboline-3-carboxylate (BCCM) have been investigated using the molecular superimposition method. These high-affinity benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor ligands are structurally unrelated and they have different intrinsic activity. These ligands are superimposed in such a way that common structural and electrostatic features essential for the high receptor binding affinity overlap. In addition to this binding pharmacophore, there are roughly three separate binding zones in the BZ receptor, one for each class of ligands. The intrinsic activity of BZ receptor ligands depends on the molecular structures and the way the ligand approaches the receptor.

  7. Activation of EphA receptors mediates the recruitment of the adaptor protein Slap, contributing to the downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    PubMed

    Semerdjieva, Sophia; Abdul-Razak, Hayder H; Salim, Sharifah S; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Chen, Philip E; Tarabykin, Victor; Alifragis, Pavlos

    2013-04-01

    Regulation of the activity of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at glutamatergic synapses is essential for certain forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory and is also associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases. In this report, we investigate the role of Src-like adaptor protein (Slap) in NMDA receptor signaling. We present data showing that in dissociated neuronal cultures, activation of ephrin (Eph) receptors by chimeric preclustered eph-Fc ligands leads to recruitment of Slap and NMDA receptors at the sites of Eph receptor activation. Interestingly, our data suggest that prolonged activation of EphA receptors is as efficient in recruiting Slap and NMDA receptors as prolonged activation of EphB receptors. Using established heterologous systems, we examined whether Slap is an integral part of NMDA receptor signaling. Our results showed that Slap does not alter baseline activity of NMDA receptors and does not affect Src-dependent potentiation of NMDA receptor currents in Xenopus oocytes. We also demonstrate that Slap reduces excitotoxic cell death triggered by activation of NMDARs in HEK293 cells. Finally, we present evidence showing reduced levels of NMDA receptors in the presence of Slap occurring in an activity-dependent manner, suggesting that Slap is part of a mechanism that homeostatically modulates the levels of NMDA receptors.

  8. Ryanodine receptor dysfunction and triggered activity in the heart.

    PubMed

    Katra, Rodolphe P; Oya, Toshiyuki; Hoeker, Gregory S; Laurita, Kenneth R

    2007-05-01

    Arrhythmogenesis has been increasingly linked to cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR) dysfunction. However, the mechanistic relationship between abnormal RyR function and arrhythmogenesis in the heart is not clear. We hypothesize that, under abnormal RyR conditions, triggered activity will be caused by spontaneous calcium release (SCR) events that depend on transmural heterogeneities of calcium handling. We performed high-resolution optical mapping of intracellular calcium and transmembrane potential in the canine left ventricular wedge preparation (n = 28). Rapid pacing was used to initiate triggered activity under normal and abnormal RyR conditions induced by FKBP12.6 dissociation and beta-adrenergic stimulation (20-150 microM rapamycin, 0.2 microM isoproterenol). Under abnormal RyR conditions, almost all preparations experienced SCRs and triggered activity, in contrast to control, rapamycin, or isoproterenol conditions alone. Furthermore, under abnormal RyR conditions, complex arrhythmias (monomorphic and polymorphic tachycardia) were commonly observed. After washout of rapamycin and isoproterenol, no triggered activity was observed. Surprisingly, triggered activity and SCRs occurred preferentially near the epicardium but not the endocardium (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the occurrence of triggered activity and SCR events could not be explained by cytoplasmic calcium levels, but rather by fast calcium reuptake kinetics. These data suggest that, under abnormal RyR conditions, triggered activity is caused by multiple SCR events that depend on the faster calcium reuptake kinetics near the epicardium. Furthermore, multiple regions of SCR may be a mechanism for multifocal arrhythmias associated with RyR dysfunction. PMID:17189349

  9. Serotonin regulates contractile activity of the uterus in non-pregnant rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lychkova, Alla Edward; De Pasquale, Valeria; Avallone, Luigi; Puzikov, Alexander Michael; Pavone, Luigi Michele

    2014-09-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) can stimulate the cholinergic system of the uterus by indirect actions on the modulation of reflexes and a direct action on smooth muscles. We investigated the role of 5-HT in the regulation of the cholinergic activity in the uterine parts of non-pregnant rabbits. The right vagus or pelvic nerve and the left sympathetic trunk were stimulated by an electrical field, and the uterine contractile activity was evaluated by measuring the amplitude and frequency of slow wave electromyogram (EMG), with the surface of microelectrodes applied to the uterus bottom, body, and cervix, respectively. Double stimulation of the vagus or pelvic nerve and the sympathetic trunk increased the frequency and the amplitude of the slow wave EMG in all the uterine parts. Furthermore, the administration of exogenous 5-HT increased the vagus or pelvic induced EMG activity in all parts of the uterus. Overall our results demonstrate that 5-HT enhances the vagus contractile activity with a magnitude of the effect decreasing from the bottom to the cervix, whereas 5-HT enhances the pelvic nerve contractile functions with a magnitude of the response increasing from the bottom to the cervix. The administration of droperidol, a 5-HT3 and 4 receptor inhibitor, and spiperone, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, inhibited the effect of the serotoninergic fibers of the sympathetic trunk to increase the vagus and pelvic nerve EMG activity. These data suggest that 5-HT stimulation of the parasympathetic nerves results in the induction of uterine contraction via the activation of 5-HT2, 3, and 4 receptor subfamilies. PMID:24892885

  10. Pharmacologic Evaluation of Antidepressant Activity and Synthesis of 2-Morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine Hydrobromide.

    PubMed

    Sarapultsev, Alexey P; Chupakhin, Oleg N; Sarapultsev, Petr A; Sidorova, Larisa P; Tseitler, Tatiana A

    2016-01-01

    Substituted thiadiazines exert a reliable therapeutic effect in treating stress, and a schematic description of their ability to influence all aspects of a stress response has been depicted. This study was conducted to pharmacologically evaluate compound L-17, a substituted thiadiazine, (2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine, hydrobromide) for possible anti-psychotic/antidepressant activity. Compound L-17 was synthesized by cyclocondensation of α-bromoacetophenone with the original morpholine-4-carbothionic acid hydrazide. Pharmacologic evaluations were conducted using methods described by E.F. Lavretskaya (1985), and in accordance with published guidelines for studying drugs for neuroleptic activity. Compound L-17 was evaluated for various possible mechanisms of action, including its effects on cholinergic system agonists/antagonists, dopaminergic neurotransmission, the adrenergic system, and 5-HT3 serotonin receptors. One or more of these mechanisms may be responsible for the beneficial effects shown by thiadiazine compounds in experiments conducted to evaluate their activity in models of acute stress and acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27213404

  11. Pharmacologic Evaluation of Antidepressant Activity and Synthesis of 2-Morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine Hydrobromide

    PubMed Central

    Sarapultsev, Alexey P.; Chupakhin, Oleg N.; Sarapultsev, Petr A.; Sidorova, Larisa P.; Tseitler, Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    Substituted thiadiazines exert a reliable therapeutic effect in treating stress, and a schematic description of their ability to influence all aspects of a stress response has been depicted. This study was conducted to pharmacologically evaluate compound L-17, a substituted thiadiazine, (2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine, hydrobromide) for possible anti-psychotic/antidepressant activity. Compound L-17 was synthesized by cyclocondensation of α-bromoacetophenone with the original morpholine-4-carbothionic acid hydrazide. Pharmacologic evaluations were conducted using methods described by E.F. Lavretskaya (1985), and in accordance with published guidelines for studying drugs for neuroleptic activity. Compound L-17 was evaluated for various possible mechanisms of action, including its effects on cholinergic system agonists/antagonists, dopaminergic neurotransmission, the adrenergic system, and 5-HT3 serotonin receptors. One or more of these mechanisms may be responsible for the beneficial effects shown by thiadiazine compounds in experiments conducted to evaluate their activity in models of acute stress and acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27213404

  12. Activation of transmembrane cell‐surface receptors via a common mechanism? The “rotation model”

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It has long been thought that transmembrane cell‐surface receptors, such as receptor tyrosine kinases and cytokine receptors, among others, are activated by ligand binding through ligand‐induced dimerization of the receptors. However, there is growing evidence that prior to ligand binding, various transmembrane receptors have a preformed, yet inactive, dimeric structure on the cell surface. Various studies also demonstrate that during transmembrane signaling, ligand binding to the extracellular domain of receptor dimers induces a rotation of transmembrane domains, followed by rearrangement and/or activation of intracellular domains. The paper here describes transmembrane cell‐surface receptors that are known or proposed to exist in dimeric form prior to ligand binding, and discusses how these preformed dimers are activated by ligand binding. PMID:26241732

  13. Activation of serotonin receptors promotes microglial injury-induced motility but attenuates phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, Grietje; Matyash, Vitali; Pannasch, Ulrike; Mamer, Lauren; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Microglia, the brain immune cell, express several neurotransmitter receptors which modulate microglial functions. In this project we studied the impact of serotonin receptor activation on distinct microglial properties as serotonin deficiency not only has been linked to a number of psychiatric disease like depression and anxiety but may also permeate from the periphery through blood-brain barrier openings seen in neurodegenerative disease. First, we tested the impact of serotonin on the microglial response to an insult caused by a laser lesion in the cortex of acute slices from Cx3Cr1-GFP-/+ mice. In the presence of serotonin the microglial processes moved more rapidly towards the laser lesion which is considered to be a chemotactic response to ATP. Similarly, the chemotactic response of cultured microglia to ATP was also enhanced by serotonin. Quantification of phagocytic activity by determining the uptake of microspheres showed that the amoeboid microglia in slices from early postnatal animals or microglia in culture respond to serotonin application with a decreased phagocytic activity whereas we could not detect any significant change in ramified microglia in situ. The presence of microglial serotonin receptors was confirmed by patch-clamp experiments in culture and amoeboid microglia and by qPCR analysis of RNA isolated from primary cultured and acutely isolated adult microglia. These data suggest that microglia express functional serotonin receptors linked to distinct microglial properties. PMID:22198120

  14. Thrombin-Mediated Direct Activation of Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2: Another Target for Thrombin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Hansen, Kristina K; Renaux, Bernard; Polley, Danny; Gibson, Stacy; Vanderboor, Christina; Hollenberg, Morley D

    2016-05-01

    Thrombin is known to signal to cells by cleaving/activating a G-protein-coupled family of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). The signaling mechanism involves the proteolytic unmasking of an N-terminal receptor sequence that acts as a tethered receptor-activating ligand. To date, the recognized targets of thrombin cleavage and activation for signaling are PAR1 and PAR4, in which thrombin cleaves at a conserved target arginine to reveal a tethered ligand. PAR2, which like PAR1 is also cleaved at an N-terminal arginine to unmask its tethered ligand, is generally regarded as a target for trypsin but not for thrombin signaling. We now show that thrombin, at concentrations that can be achieved at sites of acute injury or in a tumor microenvironment, can directly activate PAR2 vasorelaxation and signaling, stimulating calcium and mitogen-activated protein kinase responses along with triggeringβ-arrestin recruitment. Thus, PAR2 can be added alongside PAR1 and PAR4 to the targets, whereby thrombin can affect tissue function.

  15. Hypersensitivity Induced by Activation of Spinal Cord PAR2 Receptors Is Partially Mediated by TRPV1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mrozkova, Petra; Spicarova, Diana; Palecek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear. To investigate the role of spinal PAR2 activation on nociceptive modulation, intrathecal drug application was used in behavioural experiments and patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous, miniature and dorsal root stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, mEPSCs, eEPSCs) were performed on superficial dorsal horn neurons in acute rat spinal cord slices. Intrathecal application of PAR2 activating peptide SLIGKV-NH2 induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was prevented by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist SB 366791 and was reduced by protein kinases inhibitor staurosporine. Patch-clamp experiments revealed robust decrease of mEPSC frequency (62.8 ± 4.9%), increase of sEPSC frequency (127.0 ± 5.9%) and eEPSC amplitude (126.9 ± 12.0%) in dorsal horn neurons after acute SLIGKV-NH2 application. All these EPSC changes, induced by PAR2 activation, were prevented by SB 366791 and staurosporine pretreatment. Our results demonstrate an important role of spinal PAR2 receptors in modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn at least partially mediated by activation of presynaptic TRPV1 receptors. The functional coupling between the PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors on the central branches of DRG neurons may be important especially during different pathological states when it may enhance pain perception. PMID:27755539

  16. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor constitutive activation: from molecular mechanisms to pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Petrel, Christophe; Clauser, Eric

    2009-04-29

    Mutations activating the angiotensin II AT(1) receptor are important to identify and characterize because they give access to the activation mechanisms of this G protein coupled receptor and help to characterize the signaling pathways and the potential pathophysiology of this receptor. The different constitutively activated mutations of the AT(1) receptor are mostly localized in transmembrane domains (TM) and their characterization demonstrated that release of intramolecular constraints and movements among these TM are a necessary step for receptor activation. These mutations constitutively activate Gq linked signaling pathways, receptor internalization and maybe the G protein-independent signaling pathways. Expression of such mutations in mice is linked to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, but such natural mutations have not been identified in human pathology. PMID:19061936

  17. Vagal anandamide signaling via cannabinoid receptor 1 contributes to luminal 5-HT modulation of visceral nociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chen-Chen; Yan, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Xin; Wang, Er-Man; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Li-Yan; Chen, Jun; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Sheng-Liang

    2014-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS), and luminal 5-HT time-dependently modulates visceral nociception. We found that duodenal biopsies from PI-IBS patients exhibited increased 5-HT and decreased anandamide levels and that decreased anandamide was associated with abdominal pain severity, indicating a link between 5-HT and endocannabinoid signaling pathways in PI-IBS. To understand this, we investigated the role of endocannabinoids in 5-HT modulation of visceral nociception in a rat model. Acute intraduodenally applied 5-HT attenuated the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distention, and this was reversed by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist AM251. Duodenal anandamide (but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol) content was greatly increased after luminal 5-HT treatment. This effect was abrogated by the 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonist granisetron, which was luminally delivered to preferentially target vagal terminals. Chemical denervation of vagal afferents blocked 5-HT-evoked antinociception and anandamide release. Chronic luminal 5-HT exposure for 5 days increased baseline VMR and VMR post-5-HT (days 4 and 5). Duodenal levels of anandamide and N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, the anandamide-synthesizing enzyme) protein gradually declined from day 1 to 5. The time-dependent effects of 5-HT were abolished by daily granisetron pretreatment. Daily pretreatment with CB1 agonists or anandamide from day 3 attenuated 5-HT-induced hyperalgesia. These data suggest that vagal 5-HT3R-mediated duodenal anandamide release contributes to acute luminal 5-HT-induced antinociception via CB1 signaling, whereas decreased anandamide is associated with hyperalgesia upon chronic 5-HT treatment. Further understanding of peripheral vagal anandamide signaling may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying 5-HT-related IBS.

  18. Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, C; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Cai, M; Hruby, V J; Bednarek, M; Novak, C M

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity and non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) are crucial factors accounting for individual differences in body weight, interacting with genetic predisposition. In the brain, a number of neuroendocrine intermediates regulate food intake and energy expenditure (EE); this includes the brain melanocortin (MC) system, consisting of MC peptides as well as their receptors (MCR). MC3R and MC4R have emerged as critical modulators of EE and food intake. To determine how variance in MC signaling may underlie individual differences in physical activity levels, we examined behavioral response to MC receptor agonists and antagonists in rats that show high and low levels of physical activity and NEAT, that is, high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR), developed by artificial selection for differential intrinsic aerobic running capacity. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we identified brain region-specific elevations in expression of MCR 3, 4, and also MC5R, in the highly active, lean HCR relative to the less active and obesity-prone LCR. Further, the differences in activity and associated EE as a result of MCR activation or suppression using specific agonists and antagonists were similarly region-specific and directly corresponded to the differential MCR expression patterns. The agonists and antagonists investigated here did not significantly impact food intake at the doses used, suggesting that the differential pattern of receptor expression may by more meaningful to physical activity than to other aspects of energy balance regulation. Thus, MCR-mediated physical activity may be a key neural mechanism in distinguishing the lean phenotype and a target for enhancing physical activity and NEAT.

  19. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 by eugenol.

    PubMed

    Chung, G; Im, S T; Kim, Y H; Jung, S J; Rhyu, M-R; Oh, S B

    2014-03-01

    Eugenol is a bioactive plant extract used as an analgesic agent in dentistry. The structural similarity of eugenol to cinnamaldehyde, an active ligand for transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), suggests that eugenol might produce its effect via TRPA1, in addition to TRPV1 as we reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effect of eugenol on TRPA1, by fura-2-based calcium imaging and patch clamp recording in trigeminal ganglion neurons and in a heterologous expression system. As the result, eugenol induced robust calcium responses in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons that responded to a specific TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), and not to capsaicin. Capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist failed to inhibit eugenol-induced calcium responses in AITC-responding neurons. In addition, eugenol response was observed in trigeminal ganglion neurons from TRPV1 knockout mice and human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines that express human TRPA1, which was inhibited by TRPA1-specific antagonist HC-030031. Eugenol-evoked TRPA1 single channel activity and eugenol-induced TRPA1 currents were dose-dependent with EC50 of 261.5μM. In summary, these results demonstrate that the activation of TRPA1 might account for another molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of eugenol.

  20. Odorant receptor-mediated sperm activation in disease vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, R. Jason; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaofan; Malpartida, Juan C.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Insects, such as the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, depend upon chemoreceptors to respond to volatiles emitted from a range of environmental sources, most notably blood meal hosts and oviposition sites. A subset of peripheral signaling pathways involved in these insect chemosensory-dependent behaviors requires the activity of heteromeric odorant receptor (OR) ion channel complexes and ligands for numerous A. gambiae ORs (AgOrs) have been identified. Although AgOrs are expressed in nonhead appendages, studies characterizing potential AgOr function in nonolfactory tissues have not been conducted. In the present study, we explore the possibility that AgOrs mediate responses of spermatozoa to endogenous signaling molecules in A. gambiae. In addition to finding AgOr transcript expression in testes, we show that the OR coreceptor, AgOrco, is localized to the flagella of A. gambiae spermatozoa where Orco-specific agonists, antagonists, and other odorant ligands robustly activate flagella beating in an Orco-dependent process. We also demonstrate Orco expression and Orco-mediated activation of spermatozoa in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Moreover, we find Orco localization in testes across distinct insect taxa and posit that OR-mediated responses in spermatozoa may represent a general characteristic of insect reproduction and an example of convergent evolution. PMID:24550284

  1. Activated Scavenger Receptor A Promotes Glial Internalization of Aβ

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei-wei; Wang, Shao-wei; Xu, Peng-xin; Yu, Xiao-lin; Liu, Rui-tian

    2014-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates have a pivotal role in pathological processing of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The clearance of Aβ monomer or aggregates is a causal strategy for AD treatment. Microglia and astrocytes are the main macrophages that exert critical neuroprotective roles in the brain. They may effectively clear the toxic accumulation of Aβ at the initial stage of AD, however, their functions are attenuated because of glial overactivation. In this study, we first showed that heptapeptide XD4 activates the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) on the glia by increasing the binding of Aβ to SR-A, thereby promoting glial phagocytosis of Aβ oligomer in microglia and astrocytes and triggering intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Moreover, XD4 enhances the internalization of Aβ monomers to microglia and astrocytes through macropinocytosis or SR-A-mediated phagocytosis. Furthermore, XD4 significantly inhibits Aβ oligomer-induced cytotoxicity to glial cells and decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may provide a novel strategy for AD treatment by activating SR-A. PMID:24718459

  2. Characterization of the intrinsic activity for a novel class of cannabinoid receptor ligands: Indole quinuclidine analogs.

    PubMed

    Franks, Lirit N; Ford, Benjamin M; Madadi, Nikhil R; Penthala, Narsimha R; Crooks, Peter A; Prather, Paul L

    2014-08-15

    Our laboratory recently reported that a group of novel indole quinuclidine analogs bind with nanomolar affinity to cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. This study characterized the intrinsic activity of these compounds by determining whether they exhibit agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist activity at cannabinoid type-1 and/or type-2 receptors. Cannabinoid receptors activate Gi/Go-proteins that then proceed to inhibit activity of the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase. Therefore, intrinsic activity was quantified by measuring the ability of compounds to modulate levels of intracellular cAMP in intact cells. Concerning cannabinoid type-1 receptors endogenously expressed in Neuro2A cells, a single analog exhibited agonist activity, while eight acted as neutral antagonists and two possessed inverse agonist activity. For cannabinoid type-2 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, all but two analogs acted as agonists; these two exceptions exhibited inverse agonist activity. Confirming specificity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors, modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by all proposed agonists and inverse agonists was blocked by co-incubation with the neutral cannabinoid type-1 antagonist O-2050. All proposed cannabinoid type-1 receptor antagonists attenuated adenylyl cyclase modulation by cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940. Specificity at cannabinoid type-2 receptors was confirmed by failure of all compounds to modulate adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells devoid of cannabinoid type-2 receptors. Further characterization of select analogs demonstrated concentration-dependent modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with potencies similar to their respective affinities for cannabinoid receptors. Therefore, indole quinuclidines are a novel structural class of compounds exhibiting high affinity and a range of intrinsic activity at cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors.

  3. Characterization of the intrinsic activity for a novel class of cannabinoid receptor ligands: Indole Quinuclidine analogues

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Madadi, Nikhil R.; Penthala, Narsimha R.; Crooks, Peter A.; Prather, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a group of novel indole quinuclidine analogues bind with nanomolar affinity to cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. This study characterized the intrinsic activity of these compounds by determining whether they exhibit agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist activity at cannabinoid type-1 and/or type-2 receptors. Cannabinoid receptors activate Gi/Go-proteins that then proceed to inhibit activity of the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase. Therefore, intrinsic activity was quantified by measuring the ability of compounds to modulate levels of intracellular cAMP in intact cells. Concerning cannabinoid type-1 receptors endogenously expressed in Neuro2A cells, a single analogue exhibited agonist activity, while eight acted as neutral antagonists and two possessed inverse agonist activity. For cannabinoid type-2 receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, all but two analogues acted as agonists; these two exceptions exhibited inverse agonist activity. Confirming specificity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors, modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity by all proposed agonists and inverse agonists was blocked by co-incubation with the neutral cannabinoid type-1 antagonist O-2050. All proposed cannabinoid type-1 receptor antagonists attenuated adenylyl cyclase modulation by cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940. Specificity at cannabinoid type-2 receptors was confirmed by failure of all compounds to modulate adenylyl cyclase activity in CHO cells devoid of cannabinoid type-2 receptors. Further characterization of select analogues demonstrated concentration-dependent modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with potencies similar to their respective affinities for cannabinoid receptors. Therefore, indole quinuclidines are a novel structural class of compounds exhibiting high affinity and a range of intrinsic activity at cannabinoid type-1 and type-2 receptors. PMID:24858620

  4. Switching of chemoattractant receptors programs development and morphogenesis in Dictyostelium: receptor subtypes activate common responses at different agonist concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Borleis, J A; Devreotes, P N

    1998-05-01

    One of the common functional features among G-protein coupled receptors is the occurrence of multiple subtypes involved in similar signal transduction events. The cAMP chemoattractant receptor family of Dictyostelium discoideum is composed of four receptors (cAR1-cAR4), which are expressed sequentially throughout the developmental transition from a unicellular to a multicellular organism. The receptors differ in affinity for cAMP and in the sequences of their C-terminal domains. In this study, we constitutively expressed cAR1, cAR2, and cAR3 as well as a series of chimeric and mutant receptors and assessed the capacity of each to mediate chemotaxis, activation of adenylyl cyclase and actin polymerization, and rescue the developmental defect of car1-/car3- cells. We found that various receptors and mutants sense different concentration ranges of cAMP but all can mediate identical responses during the aggregation stage of development. The responses displayed very similar kinetics, suggesting no major differences in regulatory properties attributable to the C-terminal domains. We speculate that switching of receptor subtypes during development enables the organism to respond to the changing concentrations of the chemoattractant and thereby program morphogenesis appropriately. PMID:9578623

  5. GabaB receptors activation in the NTS blocks the glycemic responses induced by carotid body receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lemus, Mónica; Montero, Sergio; Cadenas, José Luis; Lara, José Jesús; Tejeda-Chávez, Héctor Rafael; Alvarez-Buylla, Ramón; de Alvarez-Buylla, Elena Roces

    2008-08-18

    The carotid body receptors participate in glucose regulation sensing glucose levels in blood entering the cephalic circulation. The carotid body receptors information, is initially processed within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and elicits changes in circulating glucose and brain glucose uptake. Previous work has shown that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in NTS modulates respiratory reflexes, but the role of GABA within NTS in glucose regulation remains unknown. Here we show that GABA(B) receptor agonist (baclofen) or antagonists (phaclofen and CGP55845A) locally injected into NTS modified arterial glucose levels and brain glucose retention. Control injections outside NTS did not elicit these responses. In contrast, GABA(A) agonist and antagonist (muscimol or bicuculline) produced no significant changes in blood glucose levels. When these GABAergic drugs were applied before carotid body receptors stimulation, again, only GABA(B) agonist or antagonist significantly affected glycemic responses; baclofen microinjection significantly reduced the hyperglycemic response and brain glucose retention observed after carotid body receptors stimulation, while phaclofen produced the opposite effect, increasing significantly hyperglycemia and brain glucose retention. These results indicate that activation of GABA(B), but not GABA(A), receptors in the NTS modulates the glycemic responses after anoxic stimulation of the carotid body receptors, and suggest the presence of a tonic inhibitory mechanism in the NTS to avoid hyperglycemia.

  6. SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED DECLINE IN HEPATIC PEROXISOMAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES CORRESPONDS WITH DIMINISHED LEVELS OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA, BUT NOT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Aging is associated with alterations in hepatic peroxisomal metabolism and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenecity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Howev...

  7. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms. PMID:25330347

  8. Multitargeting of selected prostanoid receptors provides agents with enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenny W; Woodward, David F; Martos, Jose L; Cornell, Clive L; Carling, Robert W; Kingsley, Philip J; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    A polypharmacologic approach to prostanoid based anti-inflammatory therapeutics was undertaken in order to exploit both the anti- and proinflammatory properties attributed to the various prostanoid receptors. Multitargeting of selected prostanoid receptors yielded a prototype compound, compound 1 (AGN 211377), that antagonizes prostaglandin D2 receptors (DPs) DP1 (49) and DP2 (558), prostaglandin E2 receptors (EPs) EP1 (266) and EP4 (117), prostaglandin F2α receptor (FP) (61), and thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) (11) while sparing EP2, EP3, and prostaglandin I2 receptors (IPs); Kb values (in nanomoles) are given in parentheses. Compound 1 evoked a pronounced inhibition of cytokine/chemokine secretion from lipopolysaccharide or TNF-α stimulated primary human macrophages. These cytokine/chemokines included cluster of designation 40 receptor (CD40), epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating protein 78 (ENA-78), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2) (MCP-1), tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). In contrast, the inhibitory effects of most antagonists selective for a single receptor were modest or absent, and selective EP2 receptor blockade increased cytokine release in some instances. Compound 1 also showed clear superiority to the cyclooxygenase inhibitors diclofenac and rofecoxib. These findings reveal that blockade of multiple prostanoid receptors, with absent antagonism of EP2 and IP, may provide more effective anti-inflammatory activity than global suppression of prostanoid synthesis or highly selective prostanoid receptor blockade. These investigations demonstrate the first working example of prostanoid receptor polypharmacology for potentially safer and more effective anti-inflammatory therapeutics by blocking multiple proinflammatory receptors while sparing

  9. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.

  10. Activation of in vitro matured pig oocytes using activators of inositol triphosphate or ryanodine receptors.

    PubMed

    Petr, J; Urbánková, D; Tománek, M; Rozinek, J; Jílek, F

    2002-04-15

    In our study, we observed the activation of in vitro matured pig oocytes and their subsequent parthenogenetic cleavage after stimulation of ryanodine receptors (RyR) using ryanodine (Ry), caffeine or cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPri) or after stimulation of inositol triphosphate receptors (IP(3)R) using D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)). Heparin, a potent blocker of IP(3)R, prevented the activation of porcine oocytes using IP(3), but blockers of RyR (ruthenium red or procaine) prevented activation after stimulation by RyR and stimulation by IP(3)R using IP(3). The drugs were injected into oocytes matured to the stage of metaphase II and activation was determined by assessment of pronuclear formation. The activity of H1 kinase was determined and our results demonstrated a significant drop in H1 activity in the activated oocytes. The cleavage of parthenogenetic embryos progresses to more advanced stages after stimulation by IP(3)R than after stimulation by RyR. Our results could indicate that, in pig oocytes, the calcium released from IP(3)-sensitive stores triggers the calcium release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores, which is necessary for oocyte activation. The calmodulin inhibitors ophiobolin A and W7 reduce the activation of oocytes induced by stimulation of RyR or IP(3)R.

  11. Activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine receptors by taurine in preoptic hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Chun, Sang Woo; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2015-11-01

    Taurine is an essential amino-sulfonic acid having a fundamental function in the brain, participating in both cell volume regulation and neurotransmission. Using a whole cell voltage patch clamp technique, the taurine-activated neurotransmitter receptors in the preoptic hypothalamic area (PHA) neurons were investigated. In the first set of experiments, different concentrations of taurine were applied on PHA neurons. Taurine-induced responses were concentration-dependent. Taurine-induced currents were action potential-independent and sensitive to strychnine, suggesting the involvement of glycine receptors. In addition, taurine activated not only α-homomeric, but also αβ-heteromeric glycine receptors in PHA neurons. Interestingly, a low concentration of taurine (0.5mM) activated glycine receptors, whereas a higher concentration (3mM) activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in PHA neurons. These results suggest that PHA neurons are influenced by taurine and respond via glycine and GABAA receptors.

  12. Role of Receptors in Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Toxin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, Craig R.; Ellar, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis produces crystalline protein inclusions with insecticidal or nematocidal properties. These crystal (Cry) proteins determine a particular strain's toxicity profile. Transgenic crops expressing one or more recombinant Cry toxins have become agriculturally important. Individual Cry toxins are usually toxic to only a few species within an order, and receptors on midgut epithelial cells have been shown to be critical determinants of Cry specificity. The best characterized of these receptors have been identified for lepidopterans, and two major receptor classes have emerged: the aminopeptidase N (APN) receptors and the cadherin-like receptors. Currently, 38 different APNs have been reported for 12 different lepidopterans. Each APN belongs to one of five groups that have unique structural features and Cry-binding properties. While 17 different APNs have been reported to bind to Cry toxins, only 2 have been shown to mediate toxin susceptibly in vivo. In contrast, several cadherin-like proteins bind to Cry toxins and confer toxin susceptibility in vitro, and disruption of the cadherin gene has been associated with toxin resistance. Nonetheless, only a small subset of the lepidopteran-specific Cry toxins has been shown to interact with cadherin-like proteins. This review analyzes the interactions between Cry toxins and their receptors, focusing on the identification and validation of receptors, the molecular basis for receptor recognition, the role of the receptor in resistant insects, and proposed models to explain the sequence of events at the cell surface by which receptor binding leads to cell death. PMID:17554045

  13. Role of receptors in Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxin activity.

    PubMed

    Pigott, Craig R; Ellar, David J

    2007-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis produces crystalline protein inclusions with insecticidal or nematocidal properties. These crystal (Cry) proteins determine a particular strain's toxicity profile. Transgenic crops expressing one or more recombinant Cry toxins have become agriculturally important. Individual Cry toxins are usually toxic to only a few species within an order, and receptors on midgut epithelial cells have been shown to be critical determinants of Cry specificity. The best characterized of these receptors have been identified for lepidopterans, and two major receptor classes have emerged: the aminopeptidase N (APN) receptors and the cadherin-like receptors. Currently, 38 different APNs have been reported for 12 different lepidopterans. Each APN belongs to one of five groups that have unique structural features and Cry-binding properties. While 17 different APNs have been reported to bind to Cry toxins, only 2 have been shown to mediate toxin susceptibly in vivo. In contrast, several cadherin-like proteins bind to Cry toxins and confer toxin susceptibility in vitro, and disruption of the cadherin gene has been associated with toxin resistance. Nonetheless, only a small subset of the lepidopteran-specific Cry toxins has been shown to interact with cadherin-like proteins. This review analyzes the interactions between Cry toxins and their receptors, focusing on the identification and validation of receptors, the molecular basis for receptor recognition, the role of the receptor in resistant insects, and proposed models to explain the sequence of events at the cell surface by which receptor binding leads to cell death. PMID:17554045

  14. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors induces a PKC-dependent switch in AMPA receptor subtypes in mouse cerebellar stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; June Liu, Siqiong

    2007-09-01

    The repetitive activation of synaptic glutamate receptors can induce a lasting change in the number or subunit composition of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs). However, NMDA receptors that are present extrasynaptically can also be activated by a burst of presynaptic activity, and thus may be involved in the induction of synaptic plasticity. Here we show that the physiological-like activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs induces a lasting change in the synaptic current, by changing the subunit composition of AMPARs at the parallel fibre-to-cerebellar stellate cell synapse. This extrasynaptic NMDAR-induced switch in synaptic AMPARs from GluR2-lacking (Ca(2+)-permeable) to GluR2-containing (Ca(2+)-impermeable) receptors requires the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). These results indicate that the activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs by glutamate spillover is an important mechanism that detects the pattern of afferent activity and subsequently exerts a remote regulation of AMPAR subtypes at the synapse via a PKC-dependent pathway.

  15. Chronic activation of 5-HT4 receptors or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors improve memory performances.

    PubMed

    Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Hamidouche, Katia; Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Nee, Gerald; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Fabis, Frédéric; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine

    2015-10-15

    5-HT4 and 5-HT6 serotonergic receptors are located in brain structures involved in memory processes. Neurochemical and behavioural studies have demonstrated that acute activation of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) improves memory. To evaluate the potential of these two receptors as targets in the treatment of memory disorders encountered in several situations (ageing, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, etc.), it is necessary to assess whether their beneficial effects occur after chronic administration, and if such treatment induces adverse effects. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of chronic 5-HT4R or 5-HT6R modulation on recognition memory, and to observe the possible manifestation of side effects (modification of weight gain, locomotor activity or exploratory behaviour, etc.). Mice were treated for 14 days with a 5-HT4R partial agonist (RS-67333) or a 5-HT6R antagonist (SB-271046) at increasing doses. Memory performances, locomotor activity, and exploration were assessed. Both chronic 5-HT4R activation and 5-HT6R blockade extended memory traces in an object recognition test, and were not associated with any adverse effects in the parameters assessed. Chronic modulation of one or both of these receptors thus seems promising as a potential strategy for the treatment memory deficits.

  16. Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

  17. The role of ECL2 in CGRP receptor activation: a combined modelling and experimental approach

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Michael. J.; Watkins, Harriet A.; Taddese, Bruck; Karakullukcu, Z. Gamze; Barwell, James; Smith, Kevin J.; Hay, Debbie L.; Poyner, David R.; Reynolds, Christopher A.; Conner, Alex C.

    2013-01-01

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor is a complex of a calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), which is a family B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1. The role of the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CLR in binding CGRP and coupling to Gs was investigated using a combination of mutagenesis and modelling. An alanine scan of residues 271–294 of CLR showed that the ability of CGRP to produce cAMP was impaired by point mutations at 13 residues; most of these also impaired the response to adrenomedullin (AM). These data were used to select probable ECL2-modelled conformations that are involved in agonist binding, allowing the identification of the likely contacts between the peptide and receptor. The implications of the most likely structures for receptor activation are discussed. PMID:24047872

  18. Cannabinoid receptor activation shifts temporally engendered patterns of dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-05-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval duration--suggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55,212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner--suggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55,212-2. PMID:24345819

  19. Adipocyte insulin receptor activity maintains adipose tissue mass and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Max; Hudak, Carolyn S; Warren, Curtis R; Xia, Fang; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes follows a well-defined progressive pathogenesis, beginning with insulin resistance in metabolic tissues such as the adipose. Intracellular signaling downstream of insulin receptor activation regulates critical metabolic functions of adipose tissue, including glucose uptake, lipogenesis, lipolysis and adipokine secretion. Previous studies have used the aP2 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression in adipose tissue. Insulin receptor (IR) knockout mice created using this aP2-Cre strategy (FIRKO mice) were protected from obesity and glucose intolerance. Later studies demonstrated the promiscuity of the aP2 promoter, casting doubts upon the tissue specificity of aP2-Cre models. It is our goal to use the increased precision of the Adipoq promoter to investigate adipocyte-specific IR function. Towards this end we generated an adipocyte-specific IR knockout (AIRKO) mouse using an Adipoq-driven Cre recombinase. Here we report AIRKO mice are less insulin sensitive throughout life, and less glucose tolerant than wild-type (WT) littermates at the age of 16 weeks. In contrast to WT littermates, the insulin sensitivity of AIRKO mice is unaffected by age or dietary regimen. At any age, AIRKO mice are comparably insulin resistant to old or obese WT mice and have a significantly reduced lifespan. Similar results were obtained when these phenotypes were re-examined in FIRKO mice. We also found that the AIRKO mouse is protected from high-fat diet-induced weight gain, corresponding with a 90% reduction in tissue weight of major adipose depots compared to WT littermates. Adipose tissue mass reduction is accompanied by hepatomegaly and increased hepatic steatosis. These data indicate that adipocyte IR function is crucial to systemic energy metabolism and has profound effects on adiposity, hepatic homeostasis and lifespan. PMID:27246738

  20. Analysis of the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Liver Reveals Transcriptional Dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by h...

  1. Assays to measure the activation of membrane tyrosine kinase receptors: focus on cellular methods.

    PubMed

    Minor, Lisa K

    2003-09-01

    Many methods have been explored as means to measure the activation and inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptors, in vitro using the isolated kinase domain, and in living cells. Kinase activity has been measured in enzyme assays using a peptide substrate, but with different detection systems. These include the radioactive FlashPlate assay, the fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, the dissociation-enhance lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) and other formats. These methods have successfully identified inhibitors of receptor activity. Cell-based assays have recently emerged to measure receptor activation and inhibition. When membrane tyrosine kinase receptors become activated, they increase their state of phosphorylation. This phosphorylation may lead to an increase in tyrosine kinase-specific activity. Methods have been developed that take advantage of these properties. These include measuring the ligand-stimulated total tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor using a DELFIA or an ELISA assay, measuring ligand-stimulated enzyme activation of the receptor by quantifying enzyme activity, and dimerization of the activated receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Although cell-based assays are still in their infancy, these techniques may prove a valuable addition to the receptor screening strategy.

  2. E3 protein of bovine coronavirus is a receptor-destroying enzyme with acetylesterase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasak, R.; Luytjes, W.; Leider, J.; Spaan, W.; Palese, P.

    1988-12-01

    In addition to members of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, several coronaviruses have been shown to possess receptor-destroying activities. Purified bovine coronavirus (BCV) preparations have an esterase activity which inactivates O-acetylsialic acid-containing receptors on erythrocytes. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) completely inhibits this receptor-destroying activity of BCV, suggesting that the viral enzyme is a serine esterase. Treatment of purified BCV with (/sup 3/H)DFP and subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins revealed that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein was specifically phosphorylated. This finding suggests that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein. Furthermore, treatment of BCV with DFP dramatically reduced its infectivity in a plaque assay. It is assumed that the esterase activity of BCV is required in an early step of virus replication, possible during virus entry or uncoating.

  3. CB2 receptor activation ameliorates the proinflammatory activity in acute lung injury induced by paraquat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenning; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hongyu; Zheng, Qiang; Xiao, Li; Zhao, Min

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat, a widely used herbicide, is well known to exhibit oxidative stress and lung injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible underlying mechanisms of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) activation to ameliorate the proinflammatory activity induced by PQ in rats. JWH133, a CB2 agonist, was administered by intraperitoneal injection 1 h prior to PQ exposure. After PQ exposure for 4, 8, 24, and 72 h, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected to determine levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, and the arterial blood samples were collected for detection of PaO2 level. At 72 h after PQ exposure, lung tissues were collected to determine the lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, myeloperoxidase activity, lung histopathology, the protein expression level of CB2, MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK1/2), and NF-κBp65. After rats were pretreated with JWH133, PQ-induced lung edema and lung histopathological changes were significantly attenuated. PQ-induced TNF-α and IL-1β secretion in BALF, increases of PaO2 in arterial blood, and MPO levels in the lung tissue were significantly reduced. JWH133 could efficiently activate CB2, while inhibiting MAPKs and NF-κB activation. The results suggested that activating CB2 receptor exerted protective activity against PQ-induced ALI, and it potentially contributed to the suppression of the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways. PMID:24963491

  4. The Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 modulates ADAM13 metalloprotease activity

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Kaufmann, Lilian T.; Cousin, Hélène; Kleino, Iivari; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Alfandari, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells are a transient population of stem cells that originate at the border of the neural plate and the epidermis, and migrate ventrally to contribute to most of the facial structures including bones, cartilage, muscles and ganglia. ADAM13 is a cell surface metalloprotease that is essential for CNC cell migration. Here, we show in Xenopus laevis embryos that the Wnt receptor Fz4 binds to the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM13 and negatively regulates its proteolytic activity in vivo. Gain of Fz4 function inhibits CNC cell migration and can be rescued by gain of ADAM13 function. Loss of Fz4 function also inhibits CNC cell migration and induces a reduction of mature ADAM13, together with an increase in the ADAM13 cytoplasmic fragment that is known to translocate into the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We propose that Fz4 associates with ADAM13 during its transport to the plasma membrane to regulate its proteolytic activity. PMID:25616895

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Salman

    2010-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/ß and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

  6. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    PubMed

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma.

  7. Molecular Vibration-Activity Relationship in the Agonism of Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Hyun Keun

    2013-01-01

    The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands. PMID:24465242

  8. Characterization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa) -Independent Effects of PPARa Activators in the Rodent Liver: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Also Activates the Constitutive Activated Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) are thought to mediate their effects in rodents on hepatocyte growth and liver cancer through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor alpha (PPARa). Recent studies indicate that one such PPC, the plasticizer di2- et...

  9. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  10. Receptor mechanisms for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in isolated ovine umbilical vein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Dyer, D C

    1990-08-10

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-amphetamine (DOM) produced a concentration-dependent contraction in isolated umbilical veins obtained from fetal lambs within 2 weeks of term. Contractions to 5-HT were antagonized by ketanserin, mianserin and methiothepin with the dissociation constants (KB) being 2.17 +/- 0.36, 1.37 +/- 0.55 and 1.98 +/- 0.48 nM, respectively. The order of potency of serotonergic agonists in this tissue was: DOM greater than 5-HT greater than alpha-methyl-5-HT greater than 1(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) greater than m-trifluoromethyl-phenylpiperazine (TFMPP) greater than 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) = 2-methyl-5-HT. alpha-Methyl-5-HT was a full agonist compared to 5-HT. DOM possessed greater affinity but less efficacy than that of 5-HT. The affinities and efficacies of the other agonists studied were lower than those of 5-HT. Variation in the sensitivity and potency of agonists is primarily due to variations in their affinity for 5-HT receptors. Assessment of receptor occupancy vs. functional response demonstrated very little, if any, receptor reserve for 5-HT receptors in this tissue. Contractile responses to DOM, 8-OH-DPAT, mCPP and 2-methyl-5-HT were effectively blocked by ketanserin. The dissociation constants (KB) of ketanserin against these agonists were as follows: DOM, 2.78 +/- 0.85 nM; 8-OH-DPAT, 3.47 +/- 1.12 nM; mCPP, 1.45 +/- 0.51 nM; 2-methyl-5-HT, 1.99 +/- 0.74 nM. The dissociation constant of MDL 72222 (3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate) vs. 5-HT was 13833 nM. No antagonism by prazosin (10(-7) M) or yohimbine (10(-7) M) of the responses to 5-HT was observed. These results indicate that 5-HT2 receptors are present in the ovine umbilical vein. 5-HT3 receptors were not present in this tissue. Activation of alpha-adrenoceptors was not involved in the contractions to 5-HT.

  11. Transactivation Assays to Assess Canine and Rodent Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) and Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pinne, Marija; Ponce, Elsa; Raucy, Judy L.

    2016-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR/SXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) are nuclear receptors (NRs) involved in the regulation of many genes including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and transporters important in metabolism and uptake of both endogenous substrates and xenobiotics. Activation of these receptors can lead to adverse drug effects as well as drug-drug interactions. Depending on which nuclear receptor is activated will determine which adverse effect could occur, making identification important. Screening for NR activation by New Molecular Entities (NMEs) using cell-based transactivation assays is the singular high throughput method currently available for identifying the activation of a particular NR. Moreover, screening for species-specific NR activation can minimize the use of animals in drug development and toxicology studies. With this in mind, we have developed in vitro transactivation assays to identify compounds that activate canine and rat PXR and CAR3. We found differences in specificity for canine and rat PXR, with the best activator for canine PXR being 10 μM SR12813 (60.1 ± 3.1-fold) and for rat PXR, 10 μM dexamethasone (60.9 ± 8.4 fold). Of the 19 test agents examined, 10 and 9 significantly activated rat and canine PXR at varying degrees, respectively. In contrast, 5 compounds exhibited statistically significant activation of rat CAR3 and 4 activated the canine receptor. For canine CAR3, 50 μM artemisinin proved to be the best activator (7.3 ± 1.8 and 10.5 ± 2.2 fold) while clotrimazole (10 μM) was the primary activator of the rat variant (13.7 ± 0.8 and 26.9 ± 1.3 fold). Results from these studies demonstrated that cell-based transactivation assays can detect species-specific activators and revealed that PXR was activated by at least twice as many compounds as was CAR3, suggesting that there are many more agonists for PXR than CAR. PMID:27732639

  12. Direct Demonstration of Separate Receptors for Growth and Metabolic Activities of Insulin and Multiplication-stimulating Activity (an Insulinlike Growth Factor) Using Antibodies to the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    King, George L.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Rechler, Matthew M.; Nissley, S. Peter

    1980-01-01

    Insulin and such insulinlike growth factors as multiplication stimulating activity (MSA) are related polypeptides that have common biological activities. Both insulin and MSA produce acute metabolic responses (stimulation of glucose oxidation in isolated fat cells) as well as growth effects (stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultured fibroblasts). In addition, most cells have separate receptors for insulin and insulinlike growth factors, and both peptides have weaker affinity for each other's specific receptors than for their own. To determine, therefore, whether these effects are mediated by receptors for insulin, insulinlike growth factors, or both, we have selectively blocked insulin receptors with a specific antagonist, namely Fab fragments derived from naturally occurring antibodies to the insulin receptor. In rat adipocytes, 10 μg/ml of antireceptor Fab inhibited insulin binding by 90%, whereas it inhibited MSA binding <5%. The anti-insulin receptor Fab is without intrinsic biological activity, but acts as a competitive inhibitor of insulin receptors. Blockade of insulin receptors with Fab fragments produced a 30-fold rightward shift in the dose response for stimulation of glucose oxidation by both insulin and MSA. The dose-response curves for stimulation of oxidation by vitamin K5 and spermine, agents that stimulate glucose oxidation through noninsulin receptor pathways, were not affected by the blockade of insulin receptors with Fab antibody fragments. These data suggest that this acute metabolic effect of both insulin and MSA is mediated via the insulin receptor. In cultured human fibroblasts, 10 μg/ml of Fab inhibited insulin binding by 90% and MSA binding by 15%. In fibroblasts, however, blockade of the insulin receptor did not alter the dose response for stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA by either insulin or MSA. Furthermore, intact antireceptor antibody immunoglobulin (Ig)G, which produces multiple other insulinlike

  13. Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Promotes Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Vergarajauregui, Silvia; Miguel, Anitza San; Puertollano, Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Endocytic trafficking plays an important role in the regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To address if cellular kinases regulate EGFR internalization, we used anisomycin, a potent activator of kinase cascades in mammalian cells, especially the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase subtypes. Here, we report that activation of p38 MAP kinase by anisomycin is sufficient to induce internalization of EGFR. Anisomycin and EGF employ different mechanisms to promote EGFR endocytosis as anisomycin-induced internalization does not require tyrosine kinase activity or ubiquitination of the receptor. In addition, anisomycin treatment did not result in delivery and degradation of EGFR at lysosomes. Incubation with a specific inhibitor of p38, or depletion of endogenous p38 by small interfering RNAs, abolished anisomycin-induced internalization of EGFR while having no effect on transferrin endocytosis, indicating that the effect of p38 activation on EGFR endocytosis is specific. Interestingly, inhibition of p38 activation also abolished endocytosis of EGFR induced by UV radiation. Our results reveal a novel role for p38 in the regulation of EGFR endocytosis and suggest that stimulation of EGFR internalization by p38 might represent a general mechanism to prevent generation of proliferative or anti-apoptotic signals under stress conditions. PMID:16683917

  14. Pleiotropic Activities of Vitamin D Receptors - Adequate Activation for Multiple Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jackson W; Anderson, Paul H; Morris, Howard A

    2015-05-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear transcription factor, elicits physiological regulation of gene transcription following binding of its ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological activities of vitamin D contribute to regulation of plasma calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D, like other steroid hormone receptors, can regulate a diverse range of biological activities across many tissues. Such properties raise the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be detrimental to bone and muscular health, but also a risk factor for a number of adverse health outcomes including increased risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, immune system disorders and cancer. Advances in transcriptional research provide data not only on ligand-dependent activities of the VDR, but other activities of vitamin D extending to rapid modulation of intra-cellular signaling pathways as well as apparent ligand-independent interactions between the VDR and other transcriptionally active proteins. In this review, we detail the chief molecular activities of the VDR in regulating gene transcription, intracellular signaling and actions of VDR via binding to transcriptional regulating proteins. The breadth of biological activities attributed to vitamin D informs clinical biochemists and health care professionals on the implications of vitamin D deficiency for health. PMID:26224895

  15. NMDA receptor activation regulates sociability by its effect on mTOR signaling activity.

    PubMed

    Burket, Jessica A; Benson, Andrew D; Tang, Amy H; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2015-07-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is one example of a syndromic form of autism spectrum disorder associated with disinhibited activity of mTORC1 in neurons (e.g., cerebellar Purkinje cells). mTORC1 is a complex protein possessing serine/threonine kinase activity and a key downstream molecule in a signaling cascade beginning at the cell surface with the transduction of neurotransmitters (e.g., glutamate and acetylcholine) and nerve growth factors (e.g., Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor). Interestingly, the severity of the intellectual disability in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex may relate more to this metabolic disturbance (i.e., overactivity of mTOR signaling) than the density of cortical tubers. Several recent reports showed that rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, improved sociability and other symptoms in mouse models of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and autism spectrum disorder, consistent with mTORC1 overactivity playing an important pathogenic role. NMDA receptor activation may also dampen mTORC1 activity by at least two possible mechanisms: regulating intraneuronal accumulation of arginine and the phosphorylation status of a specific extracellular signal regulating kinase (i.e., ERK1/2), both of which are "drivers" of mTORC1 activity. Conceivably, the prosocial effects of targeting the NMDA receptor with agonists in mouse models of autism spectrum disorders result from their ability to dampen mTORC1 activity in neurons. Strategies for dampening mTORC1 overactivity by NMDA receptor activation may be preferred to its direct inhibition in chronic neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders.

  16. α(1D)-Adrenergic receptors constitutive activity and reduced expression at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    García-Sáinz, J Adolfo; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Medina, Luz Del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors are a heterogeneous family of the G protein-coupled receptors that mediate the actions of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Adrenergic receptors comprise three subfamilies (α(1), α(2), and β, with three members each) and the α(1D)-adrenergic receptor is one of the members of the α(1) subfamily with some interesting traits. The α(1D)-adrenergic receptor is difficult to express, seems predominantly located intracellularly, and exhibits constitutive activity. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the conditions and procedures used to determine changes in intracellular free calcium concentration which has been instrumental to define the constitutive activity of these receptors. Taking advantage of the fact that truncation of the first 79 amino acids of α(1D)-adrenergic receptors markedly increased their membrane expression, we were able to show that constitutive activity is present in receptors truncated at the amino and carboxyl termini, which indicates that such domains are dispensable for this action. Constitutive activity could be observed in cells expressing either the rat or human α(1D)-adrenergic receptor orthologs. Such constitutive activity has been observed in native rat arteries and we will discuss the possible functional implications that it might have in the regulation of blood pressure.

  17. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E. Univ. of California, Los Angeles )

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the {beta}-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. {beta}-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in {beta}-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic subtype. This BAT {beta}-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial {beta}-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability.

  18. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  19. Human macrophage activation. Modulation of mannosyl, fucosyl receptor activity in vitro by lymphokines, gamma and alpha interferons, and dexamethasone.

    PubMed Central

    Mokoena, T; Gordon, S

    1985-01-01

    We describe a sensitive assay to measure immune activation of human macrophages in cell culture. Freshly isolated blood monocytes from normal subjects lack the ability to endocytose and degrade mannosyl-terminated glycoconjugates via specific receptors, but acquired this activity after cultivation in autologous serum for approximately 3 d. Addition of specific antigen, purified protein derivative, or T cell mitogens to mononuclear cells prevented the appearance of macrophage mannosyl receptor activity and lymphokine, gamma-, and alpha-interferons selectively down-regulated receptor activity in monocyte-macrophage targets. The effects of antigen challenge and gamma-interferon on mannosyl receptors can be prevented by 10(-8) M dexamethasone. Dexamethasone also inhibited release of another macrophage activation marker, plasminogen activator, which was increased by both gamma- and alpha-interferons. These studies show that activation of human macrophages is regulated by opposing actions of lymphokines and glucocorticoids. PMID:2579101

  20. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a.

    PubMed

    Seredynski, Aurore L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2015-09-23

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER-mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. Significance statement: The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  1. The Role of Alpha-2 Adrenergic Receptors in Anti-ulcer Activity.

    PubMed

    Suleyman, Halis

    2012-04-01

    Although peptic ulcer disease has long been recognized, the proposed mechanisms of its etiopathogenesis change every year. This review shows that gastric ulcers have a significant relationship with alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. The aggravating factors of gastric ulcer formation have been reported to act by blocking alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, whereas drugs possessing anti-ulcer activity have been shown to ensure gastric protection by stimulating the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. The data derived from the literature indicate the likelihood that any drug or substance selectively stimulating the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors may possess anti-ulcer activity.

  2. Nicotine Activation of α4* Receptors: Sufficient for Reward, Tolerance, and Sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, Andrew R.; McKinney, Sheri L.; Nashmi, Raad; Schwarz, Johannes; Deshpande, Purnima; Labarca, Cesar; Whiteaker, Paul; Marks, Michael J.; Collins, Allan C.; Lester, Henry A.

    2004-11-01

    The identity of nicotinic receptor subtypes sufficient to elicit both the acute and chronic effects of nicotine dependence is unknown. We engineered mutant mice with α4 nicotinic subunits containing a single point mutation, Leu9' --> Ala9' in the pore-forming M2 domain, rendering α4* receptors hypersensitive to nicotine. Selective activation of α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with low doses of agonist recapitulates nicotine effects thought to be important in dependence, including reinforcement in response to acute nicotine administration, as well as tolerance and sensitization elicited by chronic nicotine administration. These data indicate that activation of α4* receptors is sufficient for nicotine-induced reward, tolerance, and sensitization.

  3. Down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 following chronic muscarinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, S D; Linseman, D A; Fisher, S K

    1998-04-01

    To determine whether prolonged activation of a phospholipase C-coupled receptor can lead to a down-regulation of its effector enzyme, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were incubated for 24 h with the muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine-M. Under these conditions, significant reductions (46-53%) in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density, G(alphaq/11) and phospholipase C-beta1 (but not the beta3-or gamma1 isoforms) were observed. These results suggest that a selective down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 may play a role in adaptation to chronic muscarinic receptor activation. PMID:9617763

  4. Selective glucocorticoid receptor-activating adjuvant therapy in cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sundahl, Nora; Clarisse, Dorien; Bracke, Marc; Offner, Fritz; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Beck, Ilse M.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects and glucocorticoid resistance cripple their chronic use, glucocorticoids form the mainstay therapy for acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, and play an important role in treatment protocols of both lymphoid malignancies and as adjuvant to stimulate therapy tolerability in various solid tumors. Glucocorticoid binding to their designate glucocorticoid receptor (GR), sets off a plethora of cell-specific events including therapeutically desirable effects, such as cell death, as well as undesirable effects, including chemotherapy resistance, systemic side effects and glucocorticoid resistance. In this context, selective GR agonists and modulators (SEGRAMs) with a more restricted GR activity profile have been developed, holding promise for further clinical development in anti-inflammatory and potentially in cancer therapies. Thus far, the research into the prospective benefits of selective GR modulators in cancer therapy limped behind. Our review discusses how selective GR agonists and modulators could improve the therapy regimens for lymphoid malignancies, prostate or breast cancer. We summarize our current knowledge and look forward to where the field should move to in the future. Altogether, our review clarifies novel therapeutic perspectives in cancer modulation via selective GR targeting. PMID:27713909

  5. Fracture healing in protease-activated receptor-2 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Kevin R; Stutz, Christopher M; Mignemi, Nicholas A; Cole, Heather; Murry, Matthew R; Nyman, Jeffry S; Hamm, Heidi; Schoenecker, Jonathan G

    2012-08-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) provides an important link between extracellular proteases and the cellular initiation of inflammatory responses. The effect of PAR-2 on fracture healing is unknown. This study investigates the in vivo effect of PAR-2 deletion on fracture healing by assessing differences between wild-type (PAR-2(+/+)) and knock-out (PAR-2(-/-)) mice. Unilateral mid-shaft femur fractures were created in 34 PAR-2(+/+) and 28 PAR-2(-/-) mice after intramedullary fixation. Histologic assessments were made at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-fracture (wpf), and radiographic (plain radiographs, micro-computed tomography (µCT)) and biomechanical (torsion testing) assessments were made at 7 and 10 wpf. Both the fractured and un-fractured contralateral femur specimens were evaluated. Polar moment of inertia (pMOI), tissue mineral density (TMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) were determined from µCT images, and callus diameter was determined from plain radiographs. Statistically significant differences in callus morphology as assessed by µCT were found between PAR-2(-/-) and PAR-2(+/+) mice at both 7 and 10 wpf. However, no significant histologic, plain radiographic, or biomechanical differences were found between the genotypes. The loss of PAR-2 was found to alter callus morphology as assessed by µCT but was not found to otherwise effect fracture healing in young mice.

  6. Is receptor oligomerization causally linked to activation of the EGF receptor kinase?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Transduction of a signal from an extracellular peptide hormone to produce an intracellular response is often mediated by a cell surface receptor, which is usually a glycoprotein. The secondary intracellular signal(s) generated after hormone binding to the receptor have been intensively studied. The nature of the primary signal generated by ligand binding to the receptor is understood less well in most cases. The particular case of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is analyzed, and evidence for or against two dissimilar models of primary signal transduction is reviewed. Evidence for the most widely accepted current model is found to be unconvincing. Evidence for the other model is substantial but indirect; a direct test of this model remains to be done.

  7. Peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor can modulate cardiac ryanodine receptor channel activity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

    PubMed Central

    Dulhunty, Angela F; Curtis, Suzanne M; Cengia, Louise; Sakowska, Magdalena; Casarotto, Marco G

    2004-01-01

    We show that peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor II-III loop alter cardiac RyR (ryanodine receptor) channel activity in a cytoplasmic Ca2+-dependent manner. The peptides were AC (Thr-793-Ala-812 of the cardiac dihydropyridine receptor), AS (Thr-671-Leu-690 of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor), and a modified AS peptide [AS(D-R18)], with an extended helical structure. The peptides added to the cytoplasmic side of channels in lipid bilayers at > or = 10 nM activated channels when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 100 nM, but either inhibited or did not affect channel activity when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 10 or 100 microM. Both activation and inhibition were independent of bilayer potential. Activation by AS, but not by AC or AS(D-R18), was reduced at peptide concentrations >1 mM in a voltage-dependent manner (at +40 mV). In control experiments, channels were not activated by the scrambled AS sequence (ASS) or skeletal II-III loop peptide (NB). Resting Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum was not altered by peptide AC, but Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release was depressed. Resting and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release were enhanced by both the native and modified AS peptides. NMR revealed (i) that the structure of peptide AS(D-R18) is not influenced by [Ca2+] and (ii) that peptide AC adopts a helical structure, particularly in the region containing positively charged residues. This is the first report of specific functional interactions between dihydropyridine receptor A region peptides and cardiac RyR ion channels in lipid bilayers. PMID:14678014

  8. IP receptor-dependent activation of PPAR{gamma} by stable prostacyclin analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Falcetti, Emilia; Flavell, David M.; Staels, Bart; Tinker, Andrew; Haworth, Sheila G.; Clapp, Lucie H. . E-mail: l.clapp@ucl.ac.uk

    2007-09-07

    Stable prostacyclin analogues can signal through cell surface IP receptors or by ligand binding to nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). So far these agents have been reported to activate PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{delta} but not PPAR{gamma}. Given PPAR{gamma} agonists and prostacyclin analogues both inhibit cell proliferation, we postulated that the IP receptor might elicit PPAR{gamma} activation. Using a dual luciferase reporter gene assay in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the IP receptor or empty vector, we found that prostacyclin analogues only activated PPAR{gamma} in the presence of the IP receptor. Moreover, the novel IP receptor antagonist, RO1138452, but not inhibitors of the cyclic AMP pathway, prevented activation. Likewise, the anti-proliferative effects of treprostinil observed in IP receptor expressing cells, were partially inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist, GW9662. We conclude that PPAR{gamma} is activated through the IP receptor via a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism and contributes to the anti-growth effects of prostacyclin analogues.

  9. Receptor activity modifying protein-3 mediates the protumorigenic activity of lysyl oxidase-like protein-2.

    PubMed

    Brekhman, Vera; Lugassie, Jennie; Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Sabo, Edmond; Kessler, Ofra; Smith, Victoria; Golding, Hana; Neufeld, Gera

    2011-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like protein-2 (LOXL2) induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promotes invasiveness. To understand the mechanisms involved, we examined the effect of LOXL2 overexpression in MCF-7 cells on gene expression. We found that LOXL2 up-regulated the expression of receptor activity modifying protein-3 (RAMP3). Expression of RAMP3 in MDA-MB-231 cells in which LOXL2 expression was inhibited restored vimentin expression, invasiveness, and tumor development. Inhibition of RAMP3 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells mimicked the effects produced by inhibition of LOXL2 expression and was accompanied by inhibition of p38 phosphorylation. LOXL2 overexpression in these cells did not restore invasiveness, suggesting that RAMP3 functions downstream to LOXL2. LOXL2 and RAMP3 are strongly coexpressed in human colon, breast, and gastric carcinomas but not in normal colon or gastric epithelial cells. RAMP3 associates with several G-protein-coupled receptors forming receptors for peptides, such as adrenomedullin and amylin. We hypothesized that RAMP3 could function as a transducer of autocrine signals induced by such peptides. However, the proinvasive effects of RAMP3 could not be abrogated following inhibition of the expression or activity of these peptides. Our experiments suggest that the protumorigenic effects of LOXL2 are partially mediated by RAMP3 and that RAMP3 inhibitors may function as antitumorigenic agents. -

  10. Nuclear factor RIP140 modulates transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Cavaillès, V; Dauvois, S; L'Horset, F; Lopez, G; Hoare, S; Kushner, P J; Parker, M G

    1995-01-01

    A conserved region in the hormone-dependent activation domain AF2 of nuclear receptors plays an important role in transcriptional activation. We have characterized a novel nuclear protein, RIP140, that specifically interacts in vitro with this domain of the estrogen receptor. This interaction was increased by estrogen, but not by anti-estrogens and the in vitro binding capacity of mutant receptors correlates with their ability to stimulate transcription. RIP140 also interacts with estrogen receptor in intact cells and modulates its transcriptional activity in the presence of estrogen, but not the anti-estrogen 4-hydroxytamoxifen. In view of its widespread expression in mammalian cells, RIP140 may interact with other members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors and thereby act as a potential co-activator of hormone-regulated gene transcription. Images PMID:7641693

  11. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of selective antagonists of glucagon receptor using QuaSAR descriptors.

    PubMed

    Manoj Kumar, Palanivelu; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Hari Narayana Moorthy, Narayana Subbiah; Trivedi, Piyush

    2006-11-01

    In the present paper, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach was applied to understand the affinity and selectivity of a novel series of triaryl imidazole derivatives towards glucagon receptor. Statistically significant and highly predictive QSARs were derived for glucagon receptor inhibition by triaryl imidazoles using QuaSAR descriptors of molecular operating environment (MOE) employing computer-assisted multiple regression procedure. The generated QSAR models revealed that factors related to hydrophobicity, molecular shape and geometry predominantly influences glucagon receptor binding affinity of the triaryl imidazoles indicating the relevance of shape specific steric interactions between the molecule and the receptor. Further, QSAR models formulated for selective inhibition of glucagon receptor over p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase of the compounds in the series highlights that the same structural features, which influence the glucagon receptor affinity, also contribute to their selective inhibition.

  12. Activation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors differentially resets baroreflex control of renal vs. adrenal sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2009-04-01

    The role of nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) A(2a) adenosine receptors in baroreflex mechanisms is controversial. Stimulation of these receptors releases glutamate within the NTS and elicits baroreflex-like decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), whereas inhibition of these receptors attenuates HR baroreflex responses. In contrast, stimulation of NTS A(2a) adenosine receptors increases preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (pre-ASNA), and the depressor and sympathoinhibitory responses are not markedly affected by sinoaortic denervation and blockade of NTS glutamatergic transmission. To elucidate the role of NTS A(2a) adenosine receptors in baroreflex function, we compared full baroreflex stimulus-response curves for HR, RSNA, and pre-ASNA (intravenous nitroprusside/phenylephrine) before and after bilateral NTS microinjections of selective adenosine A(2a) receptor agonist (CGS-21680; 2.0, 20 pmol/50 nl), selective A(2a) receptor antagonist (ZM-241385; 40 pmol/100 nl), and nonselective A(1) + A(2a) receptor antagonist (8-SPT; 1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/alpha-chloralose anesthetized rats. Activation of A(2a) receptors decreased the range, upper plateau, and gain of baroreflex-response curves for RSNA, whereas these parameters all increased for pre-ASNA, consistent with direct effects of the agonist on regional sympathetic activity. However, no resetting of baroreflex-response curves along the MAP axis occurred despite the marked decreases in baseline MAP. The antagonists had no marked effects on baseline variables or baroreflex-response functions. We conclude that the activation of NTS A(2a) adenosine receptors differentially alters baroreflex control of HR, RSNA, and pre-ASNA mostly via non-baroreflex mechanism(s), and these receptors have virtually no tonic action on baroreflex control of these sympathetic outputs.

  13. A common mechanism underlies stretch activation and receptor activation of TRPC6 channels

    PubMed Central

    Spassova, Maria A.; Hewavitharana, Thamara; Xu, Wen; Soboloff, Jonathan; Gill, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The TRP family of ion channels transduce an extensive range of chemical and physical signals. TRPC6 is a receptor-activated nonselective cation channel expressed widely in vascular smooth muscle and other cell types. We report here that TRPC6 is also a sensor of mechanically and osmotically induced membrane stretch. Pressure-induced activation of TRPC6 was independent of phospholipase C. The stretch responses were blocked by the tarantula peptide, GsMTx-4, known to specifically inhibit mechanosensitive channels by modifying the external lipid-channel boundary. The GsMTx-4 peptide also blocked the activation of TRPC6 channels by either receptor-induced PLC activation or by direct application of diacylglycerol. The effects of the peptide on both stretch- and diacylglycerol-mediated TRPC6 activation indicate that the mechanical and chemical lipid sensing by the channel has a common molecular mechanism that may involve lateral-lipid tension. The mechanosensing properties of TRPC6 channels highly expressed in smooth muscle cells are likely to play a key role in regulating myogenic tone in vascular tissue. PMID:17056714

  14. Quantitative impedimetric NPY-receptor activation monitoring and signal pathway profiling in living cells.

    PubMed

    te Kamp, Verena; Lindner, Ricco; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Krinke, Dana; Kostelnik, Katja B; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2015-05-15

    Label-free and non-invasive monitoring of receptor activation and identification of the involved signal pathways in living cells is an ongoing analytic challenge and a great opportunity for biosensoric systems. In this context, we developed an impedance spectroscopy-based system for the activation monitoring of NPY-receptors in living cells. Using an optimized interdigital electrode array for sensitive detection of cellular alterations, we were able for the first time to quantitatively detect the NPY-receptor activation directly without a secondary or enhancer reaction like cAMP-stimulation by forskolin. More strikingly, we could show that the impedimetric based NPY-receptor activation monitoring is not restricted to the Y1-receptor but also possible for the Y2- and Y5-receptor. Furthermore, we could monitor the NPY-receptor activation in different cell lines that natively express NPY-receptors and proof the specificity of the observed impedimetric effect by agonist/antagonist studies in recombinant NPY-receptor expressing cell lines. To clarify the nature of the observed impedimetric effect we performed an equivalent circuit analysis as well as analyzed the role of cell morphology and receptor internalization. Finally, an antagonist based extensive molecular signal pathway analysis revealed small alterations of the actin cytoskeleton as well as the inhibition of at least L-type calcium channels as major reasons for the observed NPY-induced impedance increase. Taken together, our novel impedance spectroscopy based NPY-receptor activation monitoring system offers the opportunity to identify signal pathways as well as for novel versatile agonist/antagonist screening systems for identification of novel therapeutics in the field of obesity and cancer.

  15. Comparative study on transcriptional activity of 17 parabens mediated by estrogen receptor α and β and androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoko; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Uramaru, Naoto; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2013-07-01

    The structure-activity relationships of parabens which are widely used as preservatives for transcriptional activities mediated by human estrogen receptor α (hERα), hERβ and androgen receptor (hAR) were investigated. Fourteen of 17 parabens exhibited hERα and/or hERβ agonistic activity at concentrations of ≤ 1 × 10(-5)M, whereas none of the 17 parabens showed AR agonistic or antagonistic activity. Among 12 parabens with linear alkyl chains ranging in length from C₁ to C₁₂, heptylparaben (C₇) and pentylparaben (C₅) showed the most potent ERα and ERβ agonistic activity in the order of 10(-7)M and 10(-8)M, respectively, and the activities decreased in a stepwise manner as the alkyl chain was shortened to C₁ or lengthened to C₁₂. Most parabens showing estrogenic activity exhibited ERβ-agonistic activity at lower concentrations than those inducing ERα-agonistic activity. The estrogenic activity of butylparaben was markedly decreased by incubation with rat liver microsomes, and the decrease of activity was blocked by a carboxylesterase inhibitor. These results indicate that parabens are selective agonists for ERβ over ERα; their interactions with ERα/β are dependent on the size and bulkiness of the alkyl groups; and they are metabolized by carboxylesterases, leading to attenuation of their estrogenic activity.

  16. Correlations between the activities of DNA polymerase alpha and the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, T J; Bollum, F J; Litwack, G

    1982-01-01

    Specific inhibitors and anti-DNA polymerase alpha IgG have been utilized to probe for similarities between cytoplasmic rat hepatic glucocorticoid receptors and DNA polymerase alpha [DNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), EC 2.7.7.7]. Rifamycin AF/013, an inhibitor of RNA and DNA polymerase activities, significantly inhibited the binding of activated [6,7-3H]-triamcinolone acetonide (TA) receptor complexes to DNA-cellulose. beta-Lapachone, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha and reverse transcriptase activities, inhibited the specific binding of [6,7-3H]TA when preincubated with unbound receptors. Aphidicolin, another DNA polymerase alpha inhibitor, failed to inhibit any of the glucocorticoid-receptor functions tested. Two specific anti-DNA polymerase alpha IgGs interfered with glucocorticoid receptor functions as measured by their ability to inhibit the binding of [6,7-3H]TA to unbound receptors (85% maximal inhibition) and, to a lesser extent, to inhibit the binding of activated [6,7-3H]TA receptor complexes to DNA-cellulose (50% maximal inhibition). The anti-DNA polymerase alpha IgG and beta-lapachone failed to affect the binding of tritiated estradiol, progesterone, or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone to their receptors in appropriate rat target tissues or the binding of [1,2-3H]hydrocortisone to serum transcortin. The most obvious interpretation of these data is that cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and DNA polymerase alpha share antigenic determinants. An alternative interpretation is that the polyclonal anti-DNA polymerase alpha antibody contains IgG molecules raised against calf thymus cytoplasmic activated glucocorticoid-receptor complexes that copurified with DNA polymerase alpha used as the antigen. Taken collectively, however, the antibody and inhibitor data suggest a relationship between DNA polymerase alpha and the glucocorticoid receptor. PMID:6812051

  17. Effects of primary metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants on transcriptional activity via human nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Van den Eede, Nele; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-03-14

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been used in a wide variety of applications and detected in several environmental matrices, including indoor air and dust. Continuous human exposure to these chemicals is of growing concern. In this study, the agonistic and/or antagonistic activities of 12 primary OPFR-metabolites against ten human nuclear receptors were examined using cell-based transcriptional assays, and compared to those of their parent compounds. As a result, 3-hydroxylphenyl diphenyl phosphate and 4-hydroxylphenyl diphenyl phosphate showed more potent estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ agonistic activity than did their parent, triphenyl phosphate (TPHP). In addition, these hydroxylated TPHP-metabolites also showed ERβ antagonistic activity at higher concentrations and exhibited pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonistic activity as well as androgen receptor (AR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonistic activities at similar levels to those of TPHP. Bis(2-butoxyethyl) 3'-hydroxy-2-butoxyethyl phosphate and 2-hydroxyethyl bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate act as PXR agonists at similar levels to their parent, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate. On the other hand, seven diester OPFR-metabolites and 1-hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate did not show any receptor activity. Taken together, these results suggest that hydroxylated TPHP-metabolites show increased estrogenicity compared to the parent compound, whereas the diester OPFR-metabolites may have limited nuclear receptor activity compared to their parent triester OPFRs.

  18. The activation of protease-activated receptor 1 mediates proliferation and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingyao; Luo, Jianchao; Wang, Tao; Ren, Jinghua; Hu, Kai; Wu, Gang

    2012-07-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) is a G-coupled membrane protein, which is involved in physiological and malignant invasion processes. It is activated by serine proteases such as thrombin through a unique form or by specific synthetic peptides. In this study, we determined the expression of PAR-1 in five nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines with different characteristics of invasiveness and metastasis, and found that the levels of PAR-1 expression were higher in invasive or metastatic cell lines than those in low invasive or metastatic ones. Of the five NPC cell lines, CNE1-LMP1 cells had the highest expression levels of PAR-1, which was mainly distributed at the membrane and in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Further study showed that the thrombin receptor synthetic activating peptide SFLLRN could stimulate the growth of CNE1-LMP1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, thrombin itself had a dual effect on the proliferation of NPC cells. Concentrations of thrombin in the range of 0.1-0.5 U/ml promoted cell growth, but concentrations higher than 0.5 U/ml impaired cell growth. Moreover, thrombin and SFLLRN also enhanced the invasive capabilities of CNE1-LMP1 cells in vitro, and this was partly due to enhancing the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our findings suggest that PAR-1 may contribute to the growth and invasive potential of NPC cells. PMID:22562397

  19. Plasmin Activation of Glial Cells through Protease-Activated Receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Greenidge, André R; Hall, Kiana R; Hambleton, Ian R; Thomas, Richelle; Monroe, Dougald M; Landis, R Clive

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether plasmin could induce morphological changes in human glial cells via PAR1. Human glioblastoma A172 cells were cultured in the presence of plasmin or the PAR1 specific activating hexapeptide, SFLLRN. Cells were monitored by flow cytometry to detect proteolytic activation of PAR1 receptor. Morphological changes were recorded by photomicroscopy and apoptosis was measured by annexinV staining. Plasmin cleaved the PAR1 receptor on glial cells at 5 minutes (P = 0.02). After 30 minutes, cellular processes had begun to retract from the basal substratum and by 4 hours glial cells had become detached. Similar results were obtained by generating plasmin de novo from plasminogen. Morphological transformation was blocked by plasmin inhibitors aprotinin or epsilon-aminocaproic acid (P = 0.03). Cell viability was unimpaired during early morphological changes, but by 24 hours following plasmin treatment 22% of glial cells were apoptotic. PAR1 activating peptide SFLLRN (but not inactive isomer FSLLRN) promoted analogous glial cell detachment (P = 0.03), proving the role for PAR1 in this process. This study has identified a plasmin/PAR1 axis of glial cell activation, linked to changes in glial cell morophology. This adds to our understanding of pathophysiological disease mechanisms of plasmin and the plasminogen system in neuroinjury. PMID:23431500

  20. Mechanisms linking depression co-morbid with obesity: An approach for serotonergic type 3 receptor antagonist as novel therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan

    2015-10-01

    Despite of the enormous research, therapeutic treatment for depression has always been a serious issue. Even though depression and obesity are individual abnormal health conditions, each act as a triggering factor for the other. Obese individuals are twice prone to develop depression than that of non-obese persons. The exact mechanism how obesity increases the risk for depression still remains an area of interest for research in neuropsychopharmacology. Depression and obesity share some common pathological pathways such as hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, dysregulation of oxidant/antioxidant system balance, higher level of inflammatory cytokines, leptin resistance, altered plasma glucose, insulin resistance, reduced neuronal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and decreased serotonergic neurotransmission in various regions of brain. The antidepressant-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists through allosteric modulation of serotonergic pathways is well evident from several research investigations belonging to our and some in other laboratories. Furthermore, serotonin regulates diet intake, leptin, corticosterone, inflammatory mechanisms, altered plasma glucose, insulin resistance and BDNF concentration in brain. The present review deals with various biological mechanisms involved in depression co-morbid with obesity and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists by modulation of serotonergic system as a therapeutic target for such co-morbid disorder.

  1. Activation of Melatonin Receptors Reduces Relapse-Like Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis. We examined potential antirelapse effect of the novel antidepressant drug agomelatine. Given that agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist we also tested the effects of melatonin itself and the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. All drugs reduced relapse-like drinking. Agomelatine and melatonin administered at the end of the light phase led to very similar changes on all measures of the post-abstinence drinking behavior, suggesting that effects of agomelatine on relapse-like behavior are mostly driven by its melatonergic activity. Both drugs caused a clear phase advance in the diurnal drinking pattern when compared with the control vehicle-treated group and a reduced frequency of approaches to alcohol bottles. Melatonin given at the onset of the light phase had no effect on the circadian phase and very small effects on alcohol consumption. We conclude that targeting the melatonergic system in alcohol-dependent individuals can induce a circadian phase advance, which may restore normal sleep architecture and reduce relapse behavior.

  2. Activation of Melatonin Receptors Reduces Relapse-Like Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis. We examined potential antirelapse effect of the novel antidepressant drug agomelatine. Given that agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist we also tested the effects of melatonin itself and the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. All drugs reduced relapse-like drinking. Agomelatine and melatonin administered at the end of the light phase led to very similar changes on all measures of the post-abstinence drinking behavior, suggesting that effects of agomelatine on relapse-like behavior are mostly driven by its melatonergic activity. Both drugs caused a clear phase advance in the diurnal drinking pattern when compared with the control vehicle-treated group and a reduced frequency of approaches to alcohol bottles. Melatonin given at the onset of the light phase had no effect on the circadian phase and very small effects on alcohol consumption. We conclude that targeting the melatonergic system in alcohol-dependent individuals can induce a circadian phase advance, which may restore normal sleep architecture and reduce relapse behavior. PMID:25994077

  3. Cost-effectiveness of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator in anemia

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Background Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are the mainstay of anemia therapy. Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) is a highly effective, long-acting ESA developed for once-monthly dosing. A multitude of clinical studies has evaluated the safety and efficiency of this treatment option for patients with renal anemia. In times of permanent financial pressure on health care systems, the cost-effectiveness of CERA should be of particular importance for payers and clinicians. Objective To critically analyze, from the nephrologists’ point of view, the published literature focusing on the cost-effectiveness of CERA for anemia treatment. Methods The detailed literature search covered electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase, as well as international conference abstract databases. Results Peer-reviewed literature analyzing the definite cost-effectiveness of CERA is scarce, and most of the available data originate from conference abstracts. Identified data are restricted to the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease. Although the majority of studies suggest a considerable cost advantage for CERA, the published literature cannot easily be compared. While time and motion studies clearly indicate that a switch to CERA could minimize health care staff time in dialysis units, the results of studies comparing direct costs are more ambivalent, potentially reflecting the differences between health care systems and variability between centers. Conclusion Analyzed data are predominantly insufficient; they miss clear evidence and have to thus be interpreted with great caution. In this day and age of financial restraints, results from well-designed, head-to-head studies with clearly defined endpoints have to prove whether CERA therapy can achieve cost savings without compromising anemia management. PMID:25050070

  4. Halogen bonding-enhanced electrochemical halide anion sensing by redox-active ferrocene receptors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jason Y C; Cunningham, Matthew J; Davis, Jason J; Beer, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The first examples of halogen bonding redox-active ferrocene receptors and their anion electrochemical sensing properties are reported. Halogen bonding was found to significantly amplify the magnitude of the receptor's metallocene redox-couple's voltammetric responses for halide sensing compared to their hydrogen bonding analogues in both acetonitrile and aqueous-acetonitrile solvent media.

  5. G-1-activated membrane estrogen receptors mediate increased contractility of the human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Maiti, K; Paul, J W; Read, M; Chan, E C; Riley, S C; Nahar, P; Smith, R

    2011-06-01

    Estrogens are key mediators of increased uterine contractility at labor. We sought to determine whether membrane-associated estrogen receptors, such as the recently described seven-transmembrane receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), mediated some of this effect. Using human myometrium obtained at term cesarean section before or after the onset of labor, we demonstrated the presence of GPR30 mRNA and protein using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. GPR30 receptor was localized to the cell membrane and often colocalized with calveolin-1. Using the specific estrogen membrane receptor agonist G-1 and myometrial explants, we showed that membrane receptor activation led to phosphorylation of MAPK and the actin-modifying small heat shock protein 27. Using myometrial strips incubated with G-1 or vehicle we demonstrated that estrogen membrane receptor activation increased the myometrial contractile response to oxytocin. These data suggest that activation of the plasma membrane estrogen receptor GPR30 likely participates in the physiology of the human myometrium during pregnancy and identifies it as a potential target to modify uterine activity. PMID:21427217

  6. Halogen bonding-enhanced electrochemical halide anion sensing by redox-active ferrocene receptors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jason Y C; Cunningham, Matthew J; Davis, Jason J; Beer, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The first examples of halogen bonding redox-active ferrocene receptors and their anion electrochemical sensing properties are reported. Halogen bonding was found to significantly amplify the magnitude of the receptor's metallocene redox-couple's voltammetric responses for halide sensing compared to their hydrogen bonding analogues in both acetonitrile and aqueous-acetonitrile solvent media. PMID:26289779

  7. A limited spectrum of mutations causes constitutive activation of the yeast alpha-factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Sommers, C M; Martin, N P; Akal-Strader, A; Becker, J M; Naider, F; Dumont, M E

    2000-06-13

    Activation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by binding of ligand is the initial event in diverse cellular signaling pathways. To examine the frequency and diversity of mutations that cause constitutive activation of one particular GPCR, the yeast alpha-factor receptor, we screened libraries of random mutations for constitutive alleles. In initial screens for mutant receptor alleles that exhibit signaling in the absence of added ligand, 14 different point mutations were isolated. All of these 14 mutants could be further activated by alpha-factor. Ten of the mutants also acquired the ability to signal in response to binding of desTrp(1)¿Ala(3)ălpha-factor, a peptide that acts as an antagonist toward normal alpha-factor receptors. Of these 10 mutants, at least eight alleles residing in the third, fifth, sixth, and seventh transmembrane segments exhibit bona fide constitutive signaling. The remaining alleles are hypersensitive to alpha-factor rather than constitutive. They can be activated by low concentrations of endogenous alpha-factor present in MATa cells. The strongest constitutively active receptor alleles were recovered multiple times from the mutational libraries, and extensive mutagenesis of certain regions of the alpha-factor receptor did not lead to recovery of any additional constitutive alleles. Thus, only a limited number of mutations is capable of causing constitutive activation of this receptor. Constitutive and hypersensitive signaling by the mutant receptors is partially suppressed by coexpression of normal receptors, consistent with preferential association of the G protein with unactivated receptors. PMID:10841771

  8. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Scarpace, P J; Baresi, L A; Morley, J E

    1987-12-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the beta-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the beta-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. beta-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [125I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed beta 1- and beta 2-type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in beta-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the beta 1-adrenergic subtype. This BAT beta-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. In contrast, food deprivation did not alter BAT beta-adrenergic receptor density. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. The ratio of isoproterenol-stimulated to forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity decreased in the sucrose-fed and cold-exposed rats but not in the food-deprived rats. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability. PMID:2827501

  9. PNRC: a proline-rich nuclear receptor coregulatory protein that modulates transcriptional activation of multiple nuclear receptors including orphan receptors SF1 (steroidogenic factor 1) and ERRalpha1 (estrogen related receptor alpha-1).

    PubMed

    Zhou, D; Quach, K M; Yang, C; Lee, S Y; Pohajdak, B; Chen, S

    2000-07-01

    PNRC (proline-rich nuclear receptor coregulatory protein) was identified using bovine SF1 (steroidogenic factor 1) as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening of a human mammary gland cDNA expression library. PNRC is unique in that it has a molecular mass of 35 kDa, significantly smaller than most of the coregulatory proteins reported so far, and it is proline-rich. PNRC's nuclear localization was demonstrated by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. In the yeast two-hybrid assays, PNRC interacted with the orphan receptors SF1 and ERRalpha1 in a ligand-independent manner. PNRC was also found to interact with the ligand-binding domains of all the nuclear receptors tested including estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor (PR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), retinoic acid receptor (RAR), and retinoid X receptor (RXR) in a ligand-dependent manner. Functional AF2 domain is required for nuclear receptors to bind to PNRC. Furthermore, in vitro glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assay was performed to demonstrate a direct contact between PNRC and nuclear receptors such as SF1. Coimmunoprecipitation experiment using Hela cells that express PNRC and ER was performed to confirm the interaction of PNRC and nuclear receptors in vivo in a ligand-dependent manner. PNRC was found to function as a coactivator to enhance the transcriptional activation mediated by SF1, ERR1 (estrogen related receptor alpha-1), PR, and TR. By examining a series of deletion mutants of PNRC using the yeast two-hybrid assay, a 23-amino acid (aa) sequence in the carboxy-terminal region, aa 278-300, was shown to be critical and sufficient for the interaction with nuclear receptors. This region is proline rich and contains a SH3-binding motif, S-D-P-P-S-P-S. Results from the mutagenesis study demonstrated that the two conserved proline (P) residues in this motif are crucial for PNRC to interact with the nuclear receptors. The exact 23

  10. Transcriptional integration of metabolism by the nuclear sterol-activated receptors LXR and FXR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are integrators of hormonal and nutritional signals, mediating changes to metabolic pathways within the body. Given that modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism has been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, a greater understanding of pathways that regulate metabolism in physiology and disease is crucial. The liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are activated by oxysterols and bile acids, respectively. Mounting evidence indicates that these nuclear receptors have essential roles, not only in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but also in the integration of sterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. PMID:22414897

  11. Transcriptional integration of metabolism by the nuclear sterol-activated receptors LXR and FXR.

    PubMed

    Calkin, Anna C; Tontonoz, Peter

    2012-03-14

    Nuclear receptors are integrators of hormonal and nutritional signals, mediating changes to metabolic pathways within the body. Given that modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism has been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, a greater understanding of pathways that regulate metabolism in physiology and disease is crucial. The liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are activated by oxysterols and bile acids, respectively. Mounting evidence indicates that these nuclear receptors have essential roles, not only in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but also in the integration of sterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism.

  12. Activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases by recombinant calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, N; Disa, J; Spielman, W S; Brooks, D P; Nambi, P; Aiyar, N

    2000-02-18

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a 37-amino-acid neuropeptide and a potent vasodilator. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide has been shown to have a number of effects in a variety of systems, the mechanisms of action and the intracellular signaling pathways, especially the regulation of mitogen-activated protien kinase (MAPK) pathway, is not known. In the present study we investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regulation of MAPKs in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with a recombinant porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Calcitonin gene-related peptide caused a significant dose-dependent increase in cAMP response and the effect was inhibited by calcitonin gene-related peptide(8-37), the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist. Calcitonin gene-related peptide also caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) activities, with apparently no significant change in cjun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase also stimulated ERK and P38 activities in these cells suggesting the invovement of cAMP in this process. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-stimulated ERK and P38 MAPK activities were inhibited significantly by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist, calcitonin gene-related peptide-(8-37) suggesting the involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Preincubation of the cells with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H89 [¿N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, hydrochloride¿] inhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated activation of ERK and p38 kinases. On the other hand, preincubation of the cells with wortmannin ¿[1S-(1alpha,6balpha,9abeta,11alpha, 11bbeta)]-11-(acetyloxy)-1,6b,7,8,9a,10,11, 11b-octahydro-1-(methoxymethyl)-9a,11b-dimethyl-3H-furo[4,3, 2-de]indeno[4,5-h]-2

  13. Analytical methodology for the profiling and characterization of androgen receptor active compounds in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Indiveri, Paolo; Horwood, Julia; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Arrebola, Juan P; Olea, Nicolas; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2014-08-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during foetal development has been proposed to cause reproductive dysfunctions in the neonate or later life. In order to support such studies, an analytical method was developed to profile the receptor mediated (anti)androgenic activities present in extracts of placenta samples. Placenta samples from women giving birth to healthy male neonates were extracted and fractionated by HPLC. Fractions containing androgen receptor (AR) activity were detected using an in vitro yeast-based human androgen receptor transcription screen. GC-MS analyses of receptor active fractions resulted in detection of chemical contaminants including antimicrobial and cosmetic compounds which exhibited AR antagonist activity in the yeast screen, and endogenously derived steroids which contributed to both the agonist and antagonistic activity in the samples. The bioassay-directed fractionation methodology developed in this study revealed the potential to identify mixtures of chemical contaminants that should be investigated for potential effects on the reproductive system.

  14. Allosteric activation of membrane-bound glutamate receptors using coordination chemistry within living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Kubota, Ryou; Michibata, Yukiko; Sakakura, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Numata, Tomohiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-10-01

    The controlled activation of proteins in living cells is an important goal in protein-design research, but to introduce an artificial activation switch into membrane proteins through rational design is a significant challenge because of the structural and functional complexity of such proteins. Here we report the allosteric activation of two types of membrane-bound neurotransmitter receptors, the ion-channel type and the G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors, using coordination chemistry in living cells. The high programmability of coordination chemistry enabled two His mutations, which act as an artificial allosteric site, to be semirationally incorporated in the vicinity of the ligand-binding pockets. Binding of Pd(2,2‧-bipyridine) at the allosteric site enabled the active conformations of the glutamate receptors to be stabilized. Using this approach, we were able to activate s