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Sample records for 5-ht3 receptor channel

  1. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  2. Bivalent Ligands for the Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which by virtue of its pentameric architecture, can be considered to be an intriguing example of intrinsically multivalent biological receptors. This paper describes a general design approach to the study of multivalency in this multimeric ion channel. Bivalent ligands for 5-HT3 receptor have been designed by linking an arylpiperazine moiety to probes showing different functional features. Both homobivalent and heterobivalent ligands have shown 5-HT3 receptor affinity in the nanomolar range, providing evidence for the viability of our design approach. Moreover, the high affinity shown by homobivalent ligands suggests that bivalency is a promising approach in 5-HT3 receptor modulation and provides the rational basis for applying the concepts of multivalency to the study of 5-HT3 receptor function. PMID:24900351

  3. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor: a novel neurodevelopmental target.

    PubMed

    Engel, Mareen; Smidt, Marten P; van Hooft, Johannes A

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), next to being an important neurotransmitter, recently gained attention as a key-regulator of pre- and postnatal development in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Several receptors for 5-HT are expressed in the developing brain including a ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor. Over the past years, evidence has been accumulating that 5-HT3 receptors are involved in the regulation of neurodevelopment by serotonin. Here, we review the spatial and temporal expression patterns of 5-HT3 receptors in the pre- and early postnatal rodent brain and its functional implications. First, 5-HT3 receptors are expressed on GABAergic interneurons in neocortex and limbic structures derived from the caudal ganglionic eminence. Mature inhibitory GABAergic interneurons fine-tune neuronal excitability and thus are crucial for the physiological function of the brain. Second, 5-HT3 receptors are expressed on specific glutamatergic neurons, Cajal-Retzius cells in the cortex and granule cells in the cerebellum, where they regulate morphology, positioning, and connectivity of the local microcircuitry. Taken together, the 5-HT3 receptor emerges as a potential key-regulator of network formation and function in the CNS, which could have a major impact on our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in which 5-HT plays a role.

  4. Local-anesthetic like inhibition of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 α-subunit by 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Van't Klooster, Mariet P; Foadi, Nilufar; Hage, Axel; Stoetzer, Carsten; Wegner, Florian; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Leffler, Andreas

    2016-10-15

    5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3 receptor) antagonists are administered for prevention and therapy of nausea and vomiting. Although regarded as safe therapeutics, they can also provoke arrhythmias by prolonging the QRS interval. However, the mechanisms mediating this cardiotoxicity are poorly understood. Here we investigated effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on the cardiac Na(+) channel Nav1.5. We explored the interaction of dolasetron, tropisetron, granisetron and ondansetron on the human α-subunit Nav1.5 heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Sodium currents were explored by means of whole-cell patch clamp recordings. All four substances inhibited the Nav1.5 in a concentration and state-dependent manner. Dolasetron displayed the lowest blocking efficacy, and tropisetron was the most potent blocker with a half maximum blocking concentration of 18µM for tonic block of inactivated channels. Tropisetron was also the most potent use-dependent inhibitor, and it also induced a strong open -channel block. Both tonic and use-dependent block by tropisetron were abbreviated on the local-anesthetic insensitive mutant Nav1.5-F1760A. Co-administration of tropisetron and the local anesthetic bupivacaine or the hypnotic propofol augmented inhibition of Nav1.5. Our data demonstrate that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists induce a local-anesthetic like inhibition of Nav1.5, and that they display different blocking efficacies. Reports on a relevant cardiotoxicity of dolasetron as opposed to other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists do not seem to correlate with a block of Nav1.5. As inhibition of Nav1.5 was enhanced by propofol and bupivacaine however, it is possible that a combined administration of Na(+) channel blockers and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists can provoke arrhythmias.

  5. Mode of action of peppermint oil and (-)-menthol with respect to 5-HT3 receptor subtypes: binding studies, cation uptake by receptor channels and contraction of isolated rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Heimes, Katharina; Hauk, Florian; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2011-05-01

    Peppermint oil (Mentha × piperita L. (Lamiaceae) has been shown to exert potent antiemetic properties, but its mode of action has not yet been elucidated. Among its active constituents (-)-menthol is the most important. Three different in vitro models were used to investigate the effects on 5-HT(3) receptors (serotonin receptor subtype): [(14)C]guanidinium influx into N1E-115 cells which express 5-HT(3) receptors, isotonic contractions of the isolated rat ileum and equilibrium competition binding studies using a radioactively labelled 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ([(3)H]GR65630) (3-(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)-1-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-propanone). Both peppermint oil and (-)-menthol inhibited [(14)C]guanidinium influx through 5-HT(3) receptor channels as well as contractions of the ileum induced by serotonin. Neither the peppermint oil nor (-)-menthol, however, was able to displace [(3)H]GR65630 from 5-HT(3) binding sites. It may be concluded that peppermint oil and (-)-menthol exert their antiemetic effect at least partly by acting on the 5-HT(3) receptor ion-channel complex, probably by binding to a modulatory site distinct from the serotonin binding site.

  6. Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug, inhibits 5-HT3 receptor currents in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Jung; Jeun, Seung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug widely used to treat epileptic seizures. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in combination with a fast drug application approach, we investigated the effects of lamotrigine on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3 receptors in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Co-application of lamotrigine (1~300 µM) resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in peak amplitude of currents induced by 3 µM of 5-HT for an IC50 value of 28.2±3.6 µM with a Hill coefficient of 1.2±0.1. These peak amplitude decreases were accompanied by the rise slope reduction. In addition, 5-HT3-mediated currents evoked by 1 mM dopamine, a partial 5-HT3 receptor agonist, were inhibited by lamotrigine co-application. The EC50 of 5-HT for 5-HT3 receptor currents were shifted to the right by co-application of lamotrigine without a significant change of maximal effect. Currents activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application in the presence of 1 min pretreatment of lamotrigine were similar to those activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application alone. Moreover, subsequent application of lamotrigine in the presence of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole, known to attenuate 5-HT3 receptor desensitization, inhibited 5-HT3 receptor currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The deactivation of 5-HT3 receptor was delayed by washing with an external solution containing lamotrigine. Lamotrigine accelerated the desensitization process of 5-HT3 receptors. There was no voltage-dependency in the inhibitory effects of lamotrigine on the 5-HT3 receptor currents. These results indicate that lamotrigine inhibits 5-HT3-activated currents in a competitive manner by binding to the open state of the channels and blocking channel activation or accelerating receptor desensitization. PMID:28280410

  7. Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug, inhibits 5-HT3 receptor currents in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Jung; Jeun, Seung Hyun; Sung, Ki-Wug

    2017-03-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug widely used to treat epileptic seizures. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in combination with a fast drug application approach, we investigated the effects of lamotrigine on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3 receptors in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Co-application of lamotrigine (1~300 µM) resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in peak amplitude of currents induced by 3 µM of 5-HT for an IC50 value of 28.2±3.6 µM with a Hill coefficient of 1.2±0.1. These peak amplitude decreases were accompanied by the rise slope reduction. In addition, 5-HT3-mediated currents evoked by 1 mM dopamine, a partial 5-HT3 receptor agonist, were inhibited by lamotrigine co-application. The EC50 of 5-HT for 5-HT3 receptor currents were shifted to the right by co-application of lamotrigine without a significant change of maximal effect. Currents activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application in the presence of 1 min pretreatment of lamotrigine were similar to those activated by 5-HT and lamotrigine co-application alone. Moreover, subsequent application of lamotrigine in the presence of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole, known to attenuate 5-HT3 receptor desensitization, inhibited 5-HT3 receptor currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The deactivation of 5-HT3 receptor was delayed by washing with an external solution containing lamotrigine. Lamotrigine accelerated the desensitization process of 5-HT3 receptors. There was no voltage-dependency in the inhibitory effects of lamotrigine on the 5-HT3 receptor currents. These results indicate that lamotrigine inhibits 5-HT3-activated currents in a competitive manner by binding to the open state of the channels and blocking channel activation or accelerating receptor desensitization.

  8. Menthol inhibits 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents.

    PubMed

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Shuba, Yaroslav; Al Kury, Lina; Sadek, Bassem; Howarth, Frank C; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-11-01

    The effects of alcohol monoterpene menthol, a major active ingredient of the peppermint plant, were tested on the function of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. 5-HT (1 μM)-evoked currents recorded by two-electrode voltage-clamp technique were reversibly inhibited by menthol in a concentration-dependent (IC50 = 163 μM) manner. The effects of menthol developed gradually, reaching a steady-state level within 10-15 minutes and did not involve G-proteins, since GTPγS activity remained unaltered and the effect of menthol was not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment. The actions of menthol were not stereoselective as (-), (+), and racemic menthol inhibited 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents to the same extent. Menthol inhibition was not altered by intracellular 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid injections and transmembrane potential changes. The maximum inhibition observed for menthol was not reversed by increasing concentrations of 5-HT. Furthermore, specific binding of the 5-HT3 antagonist [(3)H]GR65630 was not altered in the presence of menthol (up to 1 mM), indicating that menthol acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of the 5-HT3 receptor. Finally, 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents in acutely dissociated nodose ganglion neurons were also inhibited by menthol (100 μM). These data demonstrate that menthol, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, is an allosteric inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors.

  9. [Medical economics evaluation of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist drugs].

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Junpei; Hirano, Shigeki; Fukui, Aiko; Funabashi, Kazuaki; Deguchi, Yuko; Yamada, Susumu; Naito, Kazuyuki

    2010-10-01

    At Komaki City Hospital, the drug cost in connection with cancer chemotherapy was re-examined as part of improved management along with the introduction of DPC in July 2008. With due attention to the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, both the change from injections to oral drugs and the change from brand-name drugs to generic drugs were tried between July 2008 and June 2009. After that, in order to examine the economic impact of these changes, we investigated and analyzed the number of medications, the cost of medicine purchased, and the average drug cost per medication of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists between April 2008 and September 2009. As a result, the cost of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists purchased decreased greatly, and the impact of the improvement was mainly due to the change to oral drugs, and partially to the change to generic drugs. Therefore, from the viewpoint of hospital economic improvement in DPC, it was thought that the change to oral drugs(5-HT3 receptor antagonists)is given top priority.

  10. 5-Chloroindole: a potent allosteric modulator of the 5-HT3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Amy S; Batis, Nikolaos; Grafton, Gillian; Caputo, Francesca; Brady, Catherine A; Lambert, Jeremy J; Peters, John A; Gordon, John; Brain, Keith L; Powell, Andrew D; Barnes, Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel that is modulated allosterically by various compounds including colchicine, alcohols and volatile anaesthetics. However the positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) identified to date have low affinity, which hinders investigation because of non-selective effects at pharmacologically active concentrations. The present study identifies 5-chloroindole (Cl-indole) as a potent PAM of the 5-HT3 receptor. Experimental Approach 5-HT3 receptor function was assessed by the increase in intracellular calcium and single-cell electrophysiological recordings in HEK293 cells stably expressing the h5-HT3A receptor and also the mouse native 5-HT3 receptor that increases neuronal contraction of bladder smooth muscle. Key Results Cl-indole (1–100 μM) potentiated agonist (5-HT) and particularly partial agonist [(S)-zacopride, DDP733, RR210, quipazine, dopamine, 2-methyl-5-HT, SR57227A, meta chlorophenyl biguanide] induced h5-HT3A receptor-mediated responses. This effect of Cl-indole was also apparent at the mouse native 5-HT3 receptor. Radioligand-binding studies identified that Cl-indole induced a small (∼twofold) increase in the apparent affinity of 5-HT for the h5-HT3A receptor, whereas there was no effect upon the affinity of the antagonist, tropisetron. Cl-indole was able to reactivate desensitized 5-HT3 receptors. In contrast to its effect on the 5-HT3 receptor, Cl-indole did not alter human nicotinic α7 receptor responses. Conclusions and Implications The present study identifies Cl-indole as a relatively potent and selective PAM of the 5-HT3 receptor; such compounds will aid investigation of the molecular basis for allosteric modulation of the 5-HT3 receptor and may assist the discovery of novel therapeutic drugs targeting this receptor. Linked Articles Recent reviews on allosteric modulation can be found at: Kenakin, T (2013). New concepts in pharmacological efficacy at 7TM receptors: IUPHAR Review 2

  11. [5-HT3 receptor antagonist als analgetics in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Fiebich, B L; Stratz, T

    2006-10-01

    Various rheumatic diseases like fibromyalgia, systemic inflammatory rheumatic disorders and localized diseases, such as arthritides and activated arthroses, tendinopathies and periarthropathies, as well as trigger points can be improved considerably by treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron. Particularly in the latter group of diseases, local injections have done surprisingly rapid analgesic action. This effect matches that of local anesthetics, but lasts considerably longer and is comparable to local injections of local anesthetics combined with corticosteroids. The action of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists can be attributed to an antinociceptive effect that occurs at the same time as an antiphlogistic and probably also an immunosuppressive effect. Whereas an inhibited release of substance P from the nociceptors, and possibly some other neurokins as well, seems to be the most likely explanation for the antinociceptive action, the antiphlogistic effect is primarily due to an inhibited formation of various different phlogistic substances; in some conditions, like systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, for example, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may exert an immunosuppressive effect in addition to this.

  12. Quantitation of 5HT3 receptors in forebrain of serotonin transporter deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Mössner, R; Schmitt, A; Hennig, T; Benninghoff, J; Gerlach, M; Riederer, P; Deckert, J; Lesch, K P

    2004-01-01

    Mice deficient in the serotonin transporter (5HTT) display highly elevated extracellular 5HT levels. 5HT exerts ist effects via at least fourteen different cloned 5HT receptors located pre- and postsynaptically. In contrast to the other 5HT receptors, the 5HT3 receptor is a ionotropic receptor with ligand-gated cation channel function. Since G-protein-coupled 5HT receptors show extensive adaptive changes in 5HTT-deficient mice, we investigated whether 5HT3 receptors are also altered in these mice. Using quantitative autoradiography, we found that 5HT3 receptors are upregulated in frontal cortex (+46%), parietal cortex (+42%), and in stratum oriens of the CA3 region of the hippocampus (+18%) of 5HTT knockout mice. Changes in 5HT3 receptor mRNA expression, as determined by quantitative in situ hybridisation, were less pronounced. The adaptive changes of 5HT3 receptor expression constitute a part of the complex regulatory pattern of 5HT receptors in 5HTT knockout mice.

  13. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Drug Abuse and as a Target for Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Engleman, E.A.; Rodd, Z.A.; Bell, R.L.; Murphy, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse continue to be a major public health problem in the United States and other industrialized nations. Extensive preclinical research indicates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway and associated regions mediate the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse and natural rewards, such as food and sex. The serotonergic (5-HT) system, in concert with others neurotransmitter systems, plays a key role in modulating neuronal systems within the mesolimbic pathway. A substantial portion of this modulation is mediated by activity at the 5-HT3 receptor. The 5-HT3 receptor is unique among the 5-HT receptors in that it directly gates an ion channel inducing rapid depolarization that, in turn, causes the release of neurotransmitters and/or peptides. Preclinical findings indicate that antagonism of the 5-HT3 receptor in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens or amygdala reduces alcohol self-administration and/or alcohol-associated effects. Less is known about the effects of 5-HT3 receptor activity on the self-administration of other drugs of abuse or their associated effects. Clinical findings parallel the preclinical findings such that antagonism of the 5-HT3 receptor reduces alcohol consumption and some of its subjective effects. This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and pharmacology of 5-HT3 receptors, the role of these receptors in regulating DA neurotransmission in mesolimbic brain areas, and discusses data from animal and human studies implicating 5-HT3 receptors as targets for the development of new pharmacological agents to treat addictions. PMID:19128203

  14. The role of 5-HT3 receptors in drug abuse and as a target for pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Engleman, E A; Rodd, Z A; Bell, R L; Murphy, J M

    2008-11-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse continue to be a major public health problem in the United States and other industrialized nations. Extensive preclinical research indicates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway and associated regions mediate the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse and natural rewards, such as food and sex. The serotonergic (5-HT) system, in concert with others neurotransmitter systems, plays a key role in modulating neuronal systems within the mesolimbic pathway. A substantial portion of this modulation is mediated by activity at the 5-HT3 receptor. The 5-HT3 receptor is unique among the 5-HT receptors in that it directly gates an ion channel inducing rapid depolarization that, in turn, causes the release of neurotransmitters and/or peptides. Preclinical findings indicate that antagonism of the 5-HT3 receptor in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens or amygdala reduces alcohol self-administration and/or alcohol-associated effects. Less is known about the effects of 5-HT3 receptor activity on the self-administration of other drugs of abuse or their associated effects. Clinical findings parallel the preclinical findings such that antagonism of the 5-HT3 receptor reduces alcohol consumption and some of its subjective effects. This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and pharmacology of 5-HT3 receptors, the role of these receptors in regulating DA neurotransmission in mesolimbic brain areas, and discusses data from animal and human studies implicating 5-HT3 receptors as targets for the development of new pharmacological agents to treat addictions.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of photoaffinity probes that target the 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Jack, Thomas; Ruepp, Marc-David; Thompson, Andrew J; Mühlemann, Oliver; Lochner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT3 receptor is one of several ion channels responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Until now, it has been difficult to characterize transmembrane receptors with classical structural biology approaches like X-ray crystallography. The use of photoaffinity probes is an alternative approach to identify regions in the protein where small molecules bind. To this end, we present two photoaffinity probes based on granisetron, a well known antagonist of the 5-HT3 receptor. These new probes show nanomolar binding affinity for the orthosteric binding site. In addition, we investigated their reactivity using irradiation experiments.

  16. The Structure of the Mouse Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor in Lipid Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Castaño-Díez, Daniel; Deluz, Cédric; Hassaine, Gherici; Grasso, Luigino; Graf-Meyer, Alexandra; Vogel, Horst; Stahlberg, Henning

    2016-01-05

    The function of membrane proteins is best understood if their structure in the lipid membrane is known. Here, we determined the structure of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor inserted in lipid bilayers to a resolution of 12 Å without stabilizing antibodies by cryo electron tomography and subtomogram averaging. The reconstruction reveals protein secondary structure elements in the transmembrane region, the extracellular pore, and the transmembrane channel pathway, showing an overall similarity to the available X-ray model of the truncated 5-HT3 receptor determined in the presence of a stabilizing nanobody. Structural analysis of the 5-HT3 receptor embedded in a lipid bilayer allowed the position of the membrane to be determined. Interactions between the densely packed receptors in lipids were visualized, revealing that the interactions were maintained by the short horizontal helices. In combination with methodological improvements, our approach enables the structural analysis of membrane proteins in response to voltage and ligand gating.

  17. Seizure susceptibility alteration through 5-HT(3) receptor: modulation by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Gholipour, Taha; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Riazi, Kiarash; Ghaffarpour, Majid; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2010-01-01

    There is some evidence that epileptic seizures could be induced or increased by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) attenuation, while augmentation of serotonin functions within the brain (e.g. by SSRIs) has been reported to be anticonvulsant. This study was performed to determine the effect of selective 5-HT(3) channel/receptor antagonist granisetron and agonist SR57227 hydrochloride on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold in mice. The possible interaction of this effect with nitrergic system was also examined using the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and the NO precursor l-arginine. SR57227 (10mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the seizure threshold compared to control group, while high dose granisetron (10mg/kg, i.p.) proved proconvulsant. Co-administration of sub-effective doses of the 5-HT(3) agonist with l-NAME (5 and 60mg/kg, i.p., respectively) exerted a significant anticonvulsive effect, while sub-effective doses of granisetron (3mg/kg) was observed to have a proconvulsive action with the addition of l-arginine (75mg/kg, i.p.). Our data demonstrate that enhancement of 5-HT(3) receptor function results in as anticonvulsant effect in the PTZ-induced seizure model, and that selective antagonism at the 5-HT(3) receptor yields proconvulsive effects. Furthermore, the NO system may play a role in 5-HT(3) receptor function.

  18. Impact of intracellular domain flexibility upon properties of activated human 5-HT3 receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kozuska, J L; Paulsen, I M; Belfield, W J; Martin, I L; Cole, D J; Holt, A; Dunn, S M J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been proposed that arginine residues lining the intracellular portals of the homomeric 5-HT3A receptor cause electrostatic repulsion of cation flow, accounting for a single-channel conductance substantially lower than that of the 5-HT3AB heteromer. However, comparison of receptor homology models for wild-type pentamers suggests that salt bridges in the intracellular domain of the homomer may impart structural rigidity, and we hypothesized that this rigidity could account for the low conductance. Experimental Approach Mutations were introduced into the portal region of the human 5-HT3A homopentamer, such that putative salt bridges were broken by neutralizing anionic partners. Single-channel and whole cell currents were measured in transfected tsA201 cells and in Xenopus oocytes respectively. Computational simulations of protein flexibility facilitated comparison of wild-type and mutant receptors. Key Results Single-channel conductance was increased substantially, often to wild-type heteromeric receptor values, in most 5-HT3A mutants. Conversely, introduction of arginine residues to the portal region of the heteromer, conjecturally creating salt bridges, decreased conductance. Gating kinetics varied significantly between different mutant receptors. EC50 values for whole-cell responses to 5-HT remained largely unchanged, but Hill coefficients for responses to 5-HT were usually significantly smaller in mutants. Computational simulations suggested increased flexibility throughout the protein structure as a consequence of mutations in the intracellular domain. Conclusions and Implications These data support a role for intracellular salt bridges in maintaining the quaternary structure of the 5-HT3 receptor and suggest a role for the intracellular domain in allosteric modulation of cooperativity and agonist efficacy. Linked Article This article is commented on by Vardy and Kenakin, pp. 1614–1616 of volume 171 issue 7. To view this commentary

  19. L-type calcium channels contribute to 5-HT3-receptor-evoked CaMKIIα and ERK activation and induction of emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Tarun E; Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Wilson, Sean M; Darmani, Nissar A

    2015-05-15

    Activation of serotonergic 5-HT3 receptors by its selective agonist 2-methyl serotonin (2-Me-5-HT) induces vomiting, which is sensitive to selective antagonists of both 5-HT3 receptors (palonosetron) and L-type calcium channels (LTCC) (amlodipine or nifedipine). Previously we demonstrated that 5-HT3 receptor activation also causes increases in a palonosetron-sensitive manner in: i) intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, ii) attachment of calmodulin (CaM) to 5-HT3 receptor, and iii) phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Here, we investigate the role of the short-acting LTCC blocker nifedipine on 2-Me-5-HT-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) increase and on downstream intracellular emetic signaling, which have been shown to be coupled with 2-Me-5-HT׳s emetic effects in the least shrew. Using the cell-permeant Ca(2+) indicator fluo-4 AM, here we present evidence for the contribution of Ca(2+) influx through LTCCs (sensitive to nifedipine) in 2-Me-5-HT (1µM) -evoked rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in least shrew brainstem slices. Nifedipine pretreatment (10mg/kg, s.c.) also suppressed 2-Me-5-HT-evoked interaction of 5-HT3 receptors with CaM as well as phosphorylation of CaMKIIα and ERK1/2 in the least shrew brainstem, and 5-HT3 receptors -CaM colocalization in jejunum of the small intestine. In vitro exposure of isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine to 2-Me-5-HT (1µM) caused CaMKIIα phosphorylation, which was also abrogated by nifedipine pretreatment (0.1µM). In addition, pretreatment with the CaMKII inhibitor KN62 (10mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed emesis and also the activation of CaMKIIα, and ERK in brainstem caused by 2-Me-5-HT (5mg/kg, i.p.). This study provides further mechanistic explanation for our published findings that nifedipine can dose-dependently protect shrews from 2-Me-5-HT-induced vomiting.

  20. 5-HT3 receptors as important mediators of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. The first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been very effective in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis in the first 24 h postchemotherapy (acute emesis), but have not been as effective against delayed emesis (24-120 h postchemotherapy). Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a FDA approved antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters: dopamine at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonin at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for chemotherapy-induced emesis and nausea, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  1. Structure-activity relationships of quinoxaline-based 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptor-selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew J; Verheij, Mark H P; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline E; Lummis, Sarah C R; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, discriminating between homomeric 5-HT3A and heteromeric 5-HT3AB receptors was only possible with ligands that bind in the receptor pore. This study describes the first series of ligands that can discriminate between these receptor types at the level of the orthosteric binding site. During a recent fragment screen, 2-chloro-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinoxaline (VUF10166) was identified as a ligand that displays an 83-fold difference in [(3)H]granisetron binding affinity between 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors. Fragment hit exploration, initiated from VUF10166 and 3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinoxalin-2-ol, resulted in a series of compounds with higher affinity at either 5-HT3A or 5-HT3AB receptors. These ligands reveal that a single atom is sufficient to change the selectivity profile of a compound. At the extremes of the new compounds were 2-amino-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinoxaline, which showed 11-fold selectivity for the 5-HT3A receptor, and 2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinoxaline, which showed an 8.3-fold selectivity for the 5-HT3AB receptor. These compounds represent novel molecular tools for studying 5-HT3 receptor subtypes and could help elucidate their physiological roles.

  2. Downregulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor expression and enhanced 5-HT3 receptor antagonist-mediated improvement in fatigue-like behaviour in cholestatic rats.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H; Wang, H; le, T; Ho, W; Sharkey, K A; Swain, M G

    2008-03-01

    The serotonin neurotransmitter system, including the 5-HT(3) receptor, has been implicated in the genesis of fatigue in patients with liver disease. Therefore, we examined the possible role of 5-HT(3) receptors in cholestasis-associated fatigue. Rats were either bile duct resected (BDR) or sham resected and studied 10 days postsurgery. A significant decrease in hypothalamic 5-HT(3) receptor expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in BDR vs sham rats, coupled with increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover identified by an elevated 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) to 5-HT ratio in BDR vs sham rats. To examine fatigue-like behaviour, an activity meter was used. BDR rats exhibited significantly lower locomotor activity than did sham animals. Subcutaneous injection of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist tropisetron (0.1 mg kg(-1)) resulted in significantly increased locomotor activity in BDR rats compared to the activity in saline-treated controls, but was without effect in sham rats. However, a 10-fold higher dose of tropisetron significantly increased locomotor activity in both BDR and sham rats compared to saline-injected controls. These findings indicate that cholestasis in the rat is associated with increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover, decreased hypothalamic 5-HT(3) receptor expression, and enhanced sensitivity to locomotor activation induced by 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism, thereby implicating the 5-HT(3) receptor system in cholestasis associated fatigue.

  3. Building a 5-HT3A Receptor Expression Map in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Yoshihisa; Kondo, Makoto; Shimada, Shoichi

    2017-01-01

    Of the many serotonin receptors, the type 3 receptors (5-HT3R) are the only ionotropic ones, playing a key role in fast synaptic transmission and cognitive and emotional brain function through controlled neuronal excitation. To better understand the various functions of 5-HT3Rs, it is very important to know their expression pattern in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, many distributional studies have shown localized 5-HT3R expression in the brain and spinal cord. However, an accurate pattern of 5-HT3R expression in the CNS remains to be elucidated. To investigate the distribution of 5-HT3R in the mouse brain in detail, we performed immunofluorescent staining using 5-HT3AR-GFP transgenic mice. We found strong 5-HT3AR expression in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala; and partial expression in the pons, medulla, and spinal cord. Meanwhile, the thalamus, hypothalamus, and midbrain exhibited a few 5-HT3AR-expressing cells, and no expression was detected in the cerebellum. Further, double-immunostaining using neural markers confirmed that 5-HT3AR is expressed in GABAergic interneurons containing somatostatin or calretinin. In the present study, we built a 5-HT3AR expression map in the mouse brain. Our findings make significant contributions in elucidating the novel functions of 5-HT3R in the CNS. PMID:28276429

  4. Is All Radiation-Induced Emesis Ameliorated by 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    5 - HT3 receptor antagonists ;~// 9-72 Bernard M.I Rabin 0’) and Gregory L. Kingt2) -) Behavioral Sciences and 2 PhYSzo~o~y Dcpiarlrnvni . Arm,. ii - R...RY Exposing ferrets to gamuma rays or X-rays produces vomiting that can be attenuated by 5 - HT3 receptor antagonists and by subdiaphraqmatic vagotomy...Pretreating ferrets with serotonin type-3 ( 5 - HT3 ) receptor antagonists or performing bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy reliably attenuates the

  5. Interaction of Pyridostigmine with the 5-HT(3) Receptor Antagonist Ondansetron in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    5 - HT3 RECEPTOR - ANTAGONIST .ONDANSETRON IN GUINEA PIGS BR. Capacio, CE. Byers...apart. REFERENCES 1. Fozard JR. 5 -HT; The Enigma Variations. =JE, 8, 501-506 (December 1987). 2. Watling KJ. 5 - HT3 Receptor Agonists and Antagonists . In... 5 -HT receptor subtype three antagonists (5HT 3 ) such as the compound ondansetron (OND) have been identified as useful in the treatment of

  6. 5-HT3a Receptors Modulate Hippocampal Gamma Oscillations by Regulating Synchrony of Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Yoon, Kristopher; Ko, Ho; Jiao, Song; Ito, Wataru; Wu, Jian-Young; Yung, Wing-Ho; Lu, Bai; Morozov, Alexei

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-frequency oscillatory activity plays an important role in information integration across brain areas. Disruption in gamma oscillations is implicated in cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders, and 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) are suggested as therapeutic targets for cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Using a 5-HT3aR-EGFP transgenic mouse line and inducing gamma oscillations by carbachol in hippocampal slices, we show that activation of 5-HT3aRs, which are exclusively expressed in cholecystokinin (CCK)-containing interneurons, selectively suppressed and desynchronized firings in these interneurons by enhancing spike-frequency accommodation in a small conductance potassium (SK)-channel-dependent manner. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons therefore received diminished inhibitory input leading to increased but desynchronized firings of PV cells. As a consequence, the firing of pyramidal neurons was desynchronized and gamma oscillations were impaired. These effects were independent of 5-HT3aR-mediated CCK release. Our results therefore revealed an important role of 5-HT3aRs in gamma oscillations and identified a novel crosstalk among different types of interneurons for regulation of network oscillations. The functional link between 5-HT3aR and gamma oscillations may have implications for understanding the cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders.

  7. Influence of sodium substitutes on 5-HT-mediated effects at mouse 5-HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Barann, M; Schmidt, K; Göthert, M; Urban, B W; Bönisch, H

    2004-01-01

    The influence of sodium ion substitutes on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced flux of the organic cation [14C]guanidinium through the ion channel of the mouse 5-HT3 receptor and on the competition of 5-HT with the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist [3H]GR 65630 was studied, unless stated otherwise, in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. Under physiological conditions (135 mM sodium), 5-HT induced a concentration-dependent [14C]guanidinium influx with an EC50 (1.3 μM) similar to that in electrophysiological studies. The stepwise replacement of sodium by increasing concentrations of the organic cation hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium (choline) concentration dependently caused both a rightward shift of the 5-HT concentration–response curve and an increase in the maximum effect of 5-HT. Complete replacement of sodium resulted in a 34-fold lower potency of 5-HT and an almost two times higher maximal response. A low potency of 5-HT in choline buffer was also observed in other 5-HT3 receptor-expressing rodent cell lines (NG 108-15 or NCB 20). Replacement of Na+ by Li+ left the potency and maximal effects of 5-HT almost unchanged. Replacement by tris (hydroxymethyl) methylamine (Tris), tetramethylammonium (TMA) or N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) caused an increase in maximal response to 5-HT similar to that caused by choline. The potency of 5-HT was only slightly reduced by Tris, to a high degree decreased by TMA (comparable to the decrease by choline), but not influenced by NMDG. The potency of 5-HT in inhibiting [3H]GR65630 binding to intact cells was 35-fold lower when sodium was completely replaced by choline, but remained unchanged after replacement by NMDG. The results are compatible with the suggestion that choline competes with 5-HT for the 5-HT3 receptor; the increase in maximal response may be partly due to a choline-mediated delay of the 5-HT-induced desensitization. For studies of 5-HT-evoked [14C]guanidinium flux through 5-HT3 receptor channels, NMDG appears

  8. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-02

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response.

  9. The binding characteristics and orientation of a novel radioligand with distinct properties at 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Andrew J.; Verheij, Mark H.P.; Verbeek, Joost; Windhorst, Albert D.; de Esch, Iwan J.P.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2014-01-01

    VUF10166 (2-chloro-3-(4-methyl piperazin-1-yl)quinoxaline) is a ligand that binds with high affinity to 5-HT3 receptors. Here we synthesise [3H]VUF10166 and characterise its binding properties at 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors. At 5-HT3A receptors [3H]VUF10166 displayed saturable binding with a Kd of 0.18 nM. Kinetic measurements gave monophasic association (6.25 × 107 M−1 min−1) and dissociation (0.01 min−1) rates that yielded a similar Kd value (0.16 nM). At 5-HT3AB receptors two association (6.15 × 10−7, 7.23 M−1 min−1) and dissociation (0.024, 0.162 min−1) rates were seen, yielding Kd values (0.38 nM and 22 nM) that were consistent with values obtained in saturation (Kd = 0.74 nM) and competition (Ki = 37 nM) binding experiments respectively. At both receptor types, specific binding was inhibited by classical 5-HT3 receptor-selective orthosteric ligands (5-HT, allosetron, d-tubocurarine, granisetron, mCPBG, MDL72222, quipazine), but not by non-competitive antagonists (bilobalide, ginkgolide B, picrotoxin) or competitive ligands of other Cys-loop receptors (ACh, bicuculline, glycine, gabazine). To explore VUF10166 ligand–receptor interactions we used in silico modelling and docking, and tested the predictions using site directed mutagenesis. The data suggest that VUF10166 adopts a similar orientation to 5-HT3 receptor agonists bound in AChBP (varenicline) and 5HTBP (5-HT) crystal structures. PMID:25174552

  10. From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-12-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to Aβ-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-α level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications.

  11. Unraveling mechanisms underlying partial agonism in 5-HT3A receptors.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Jeremías; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2014-12-10

    Partial agonists have emerged as attractive therapeutic molecules. 2-Me-5HT and tryptamine have been defined as partial agonists of 5-HT3 receptors on the basis of macroscopic measurements. Because several mechanisms may limit maximal responses, we took advantage of the high-conductance form of the mouse serotonin type 3A (5-HT3A) receptor to understand their molecular actions. Individual 5-HT-bound receptors activate in long episodes of high open probability, consisting of groups of openings in quick succession. The activation pattern is similar for 2-Me-5HT only at very low concentrations since profound channel blockade takes place within the activating concentration range. In contrast, activation episodes are significantly briefer in the presence of tryptamine. Generation of a full activation scheme reveals that the fully occupied receptor overcomes transitions to closed preopen states (primed states) before opening. Reduced priming explains the partial agonism of tryptamine. In contrast, 2-Me-5HT is not a genuine partial agonist since priming is not dramatically affected and its low apparent efficacy is mainly due to channel blockade. The analysis also shows that the first priming step is the rate-limiting step and partial agonists require an increased number of priming steps for activation. Molecular docking suggests that interactions are similar for 5-HT and 2-Me-5HT but slightly different for tryptamine. Our study contributes to understanding 5-HT3A receptor activation, extends the novel concept of partial agonism within the Cys-loop family, reveals novel aspects of partial agonism, and unmasks molecular actions of classically defined partial agonists. Unraveling mechanisms underlying partial responses has implications in the design of therapeutic compounds.

  12. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers memantine, MRZ 2/579 and other amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes antagonise 5-HT(3) receptor currents in cultured HEK-293 and N1E-115 cell systems in a non-competitive manner.

    PubMed

    Rammes, G; Rupprecht, R; Ferrari, U; Zieglgänsberger, W; Parsons, C G

    2001-06-22

    The type 3 serotonin (5-HT(3)) receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel. In concentration-clamp experiments, we investigated the effects of the uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists memantine, amantadine and MRZ 2/579 on 5-HT receptors stabley expressed in HEK-293 cells and on native 5-HT(3) receptors in the N1E-115 cell line. All agents antagonized serotonin (10 microM)-induced inward currents with similar potency to that reported for NMDA receptors. This effect was characterized by inducing a pronounced receptor desensitization, and was probably non-competitive and voltage-independent. In contrast, (S)-ketamine was much weaker as an antagonist of 5-HT(3) receptors than NMDA receptors. Similar effects on 5-HT(3) receptors have been reported previously for a variety of anti-depressants and it is possible that the clinical anti-depressant effects reported for both memantine and amantadine are mediated, at least in part, by antagonistic effects at 5-HT(3) receptors.

  13. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT3A promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT3A mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μm 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μm ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μm m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Historically, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been described as a candidate neurotransmitter in the gustatory system and recent studies show that type III taste receptor cells release 5-HT in response to various taste stimuli. In the present study, we demonstrate that a subset of gustatory sensory neurons express functional

  14. Partial Agonism of 5-HT3 Receptors: A Novel Approach to the Symptomatic Treatment of IBS-D

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain, discomfort, and altered bowel habits, which have a significant impact on quality of life for approximately 10–20% of the population. IBS can be divided into three main types IBS-D (diarrhea predominant), IBS-C (constipation predominant), and mixed or alternating IBS. 5-HT3 receptor antagonism has proved to be an efficacious treatment option for IBS-D. For example, alosetron displays efficacy in the treatment of multiple symptoms, including abdominal pain, discomfort, urgency, stool frequency and consistency. However, significant constipation occurred in approximately 25% of patients, leading to withdrawal of up to 10% of patients in clinical trials. Targeting compounds with partial agonist activity at the 5-HT3 receptor represents a mechanistic departure from the classic 5-HT3 receptor antagonist approach and should result in agents that are applicable to a broader array of IBS patient populations. Attenuation of the activity of the ion channel without completely abolishing its function may control or normalize bowel function without leading to a total block associated with severe constipation. We have identified a new class of selective, orally active 5-HT3 receptor ligands with high 5-HT3 receptor affinity and low partial agonist activity currently in preclinical development that should offer a significant advantage over existing therapies. PMID:23342199

  15. Open probability of homomeric murine 5-HT3A serotonin receptors depends on subunit occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Mott, David D; Erreger, Kevin; Banke, Tue G; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2001-01-01

    The time course of macroscopic current responses of homomeric murine serotonin 5-HT3A receptors was studied in whole cells and excised membrane patches under voltage clamp in response to rapid application of serotonin. Serotonin activated whole cell currents with an EC50 value for the peak response of 2 μm and a Hill slope of 3.0 (n = 12), suggesting that the binding of at least three agonist molecules is required to open the channel. Homomeric 5-HT3A receptors in excised membrane patches had a slow activation time course (mean ±s.e.m. 10-90 % rise time 12.5 ± 1.6 ms; n = 9 patches) for 100 μm serotonin. The apparent activation rate was estimated by fitting an exponential function to the rising phase of responses to supramaximal serotonin to be 136 s−1. The 5-HT3A receptor response to 100 μm serotonin in outside-out patches (n = 19) and whole cells (n = 41) desensitized with a variable rate that accelerated throughout the experiment. The time course for desensitization was described by two exponential components (for patches τslow 1006 ± 139 ms, amplitude 31 % τfast 176 ± 25 ms, amplitude 69 %). Deactivation of the response following serotonin removal from excised membrane patches (n = 8) and whole cells (n = 29) was described by a dual exponential time course with time constants similar to those for desensitization (for patches τslow 838 ± 217 ms, 55 % amplitude; τfast 213 ± 44 ms, 45 % amplitude). In most patches (6 of 8), the deactivation time course in response to a brief 1-5 ms pulse of serotonin was similar to or slower than desensitization. This suggests that the continued presence of agonist can induce desensitization with a similar or more rapid time course than agonist unbinding. The difference between the time course for deactivation and desensitization was voltage independent over the range -100 to -40 mV in patches (n = 4) and -100 to +50 mV in whole cells (n = 4), suggesting desensitization of these receptors in the presence of

  16. Immunohistochemical characterization of 5-HT(3A) receptors in the Syrian hamster forebrain.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Maria; Ricci, Lesley A; Schwartzer, Jared J; Melloni, Richard H

    2010-05-06

    The Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) has been extensively used as an animal model to investigate neuronal networks underlying various behaviors where 5-HT(3A) receptors have been found to play a critical role. To date, however, there is no comprehensive description of the distribution of 5-HT(3A) receptors in the Syrian hamster brain. The current study examined the localization of 5-HT(3A) receptors across the neuraxis of the Syrian hamster forebrain using immunohistochemistry. Overall, 5-HT(3A) receptors were widely and heterogeneously distributed across the neuraxis of the Syrian hamster brain. Notably, the most intense 5-HT(3A) immunolabeling patterns were observed in the cerebral cortex and amygdala. In addition, high variability in receptor density and expression patterns (i.e., perikarya, fibers and/or neuropilar puncta) was observed within the majority of brain areas examined, indicating that the role this receptor has in the modulation of a particular neural function differs depending on brain region. In some regions (i.e., nucleus accumbens) differences in the immunolabeling pattern between rostral, medial and caudal portions were also observed, suggesting functional heterogeneity of this receptor within a single brain region. Together, these results and the localization of this receptor to brain areas involved in the regulation of sexual behavior, aggression, circadian rhythm, drug abuse and anxiety implicate 5-HT(3A) receptors in the modulation of various behaviors and neural functions in the Syrian hamster. Further, these results underscore the importance of evaluating 5-HT(3A) receptors as a pharmacological target for the treatment of various psychopathological disorders.

  17. The interaction of trichloroethanol with murine recombinant 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, D L; Hope, A G; Belelli, D; Lambert, J J; Peters, J A; Bentley, K R; Steward, L J; Chen, C Y; Barnes, N M

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of ethanol, chloral hydrate and trichloroethanol upon the 5-HT3 receptor have been investigated by use of electrophysiological techniques applied to recombinant 5-HT3 receptor subunits (5-HT3R-A or 5-HT3R-As) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Additionally, the influence of trichloroethanol upon the specific binding of [3H]-granisetron to membrane preparations of HEK 293 cells stably transfected with the murine 5-HT3R-As subunit and 5-HT3 receptors endogenous to NG 108-15 cell membranes was assessed. 2. Ethanol (30-300 mM), chloral hydrate (1-30 mM) and trichloroethanol (0.3-10 mM), produced a reversible, concentration-dependent, enhancement of 5-HT-mediated currents recorded from oocytes expressing either the 5-HT3R-A, or the 5-HT3R-As subunit. 3. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a parallel leftward shift of the 5-HT concentration-response curve, reducing the EC50 for 5-HT from 1 +/- 0.04 microM (n = 4) to 0.5 +/- 0.01 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A. A similar shift, from 2.1 +/- 0.05 microM (n = 11) to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microM (n = 4), was observed in oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-As subunit. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) had little or no effect upon the maximum current produced by 5-HT for either recombinant receptor. 4. Trichloroethanol (5 mM) similarly reduced the EC50 for 2-methyl-5-HT from 13 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) to 4.6 +/- 0.2 microM (n = 4) and from 15 +/- 2 microM (n = 4) to 5 +/- 0.4 microM (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. Additionally, trichloroethanol (5 mM) produced a clear enhancement of the maximal current to 2-methyl-5-HT (expressed as a percentage of the maximal current to 5-HT) from 63 +/- 0.7% (n = 4) to 101 +/- 1.6% (n = 4) and from 9 +/- 0.2% (n = 4) to 74 +/- 2% (n = 4) for oocytes expressing the 5-HT3R-A and 5-HT3R-As subunit respectively. 5. Trichloroethanol (2.5 mM) had no effect upon the Kd, or Bmax, of specific [3H]-granisetron binding to membrane homogenates of NG

  18. Role of central vagal 5-HT3 receptors in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N.

    2015-01-01

    Vagal neurocircuits are vitally important in the co-ordination and modulation of GI reflexes and homeostatic functions. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is critically important in the regulation of several of these autonomic gastrointestinal (GI) functions including motility, secretion and visceral sensitivity. While several 5-HT receptors are involved in these physiological responses, the ligand-gated 5-HT3 receptor appears intimately involved in gut-brain signaling, particularly via the afferent (sensory) vagus nerve. 5-HT is released from enterochromaffin cells in response to mechanical or chemical stimulation of the GI tract which leads to activation of 5-HT3 receptors on the terminals of vagal afferents. 5-HT3 receptors are also present on the soma of vagal afferent neurons, including GI vagal afferent neurons, where they can be activated by circulating 5-HT. The central terminals of vagal afferents also exhibit 5-HT3 receptors that function to increase glutamatergic synaptic transmission to second order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius within the brainstem. While activation of central brainstem 5-HT3 receptors modulates visceral functions, it is still unclear whether central vagal neurons, i.e., nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons themselves also display functional 5-HT3 receptors. Thus, activation of 5-HT3 receptors may modulate the excitability and activity of gastrointestinal vagal afferents at multiple sites and may be involved in several physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including distention- and chemical-evoked vagal reflexes, nausea, and vomiting, as well as visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26578870

  19. Method for individualized evaluation of antiemetic effect induced by 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hironori; Yokoyama, Haruko; Yoshimoto, Koichi; Nakajima, Akihiro; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Iwase, Osamu; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are widely used for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, though their antiemetic effects vary among patients. We investigated a method for evaluation of antiemetic effects in individual patients. We used the 5-HT3 receptor occupancy of serotonin for our evaluation, which was estimated based on the plasma concentration of granisetron and concentration of serotonin near the 5-HT3 receptor in the small intestine, obtained by measuring the urinary concentrations of granisetron and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/creatinine (Cre). The mean cumulative percent for urinary excretion of granisetron at 24 h after administration and coefficient of variation were 16.19 ± 6.30% and 38.91%, respectively. The time course of urinary concentration of 5-HIAA/Cre also varied among the patients. The value for 5-HT3 receptor occupancy of serotonin without granisetron was higher than that prior to administration (blank), thus most treated patients had the possibility of induced emesis. In contrast, that with granisetron was lower than the blank value, indicating that those treated patients would not develop emesis. Furthermore, the estimated 5-HT3 receptor occupancy of serotonin in the small intestine and actual individual patient condition corresponded well, showing the validity of our method. Our results suggest that it is possible to evaluate individual antiemetic effects by estimating the 5-HT3 receptor occupancy of serotonin in the small intestine based on plasma concentrations of granisetron and serotonin near the 5-HT3 receptor in the small intestine using noninvasive urine samples. This method of individual evaluation is considered to be useful and effective.

  20. The antimalarial drug proguanil is an antagonist at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Proguanil is an antimalarial prodrug that is metabolized to 4-chlorophenyl-1-biguanide (CPB) and the active metabolite cycloguanil (CG). These compounds are structurally related to meta-chlorophenyl biguanide (mCPBG), a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor agonist. Here we examine the effects of proguanil and its metabolites on the electrophysiology and ligand-binding properties of human 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor responses were reversibly inhibited by proguanil, with an IC50 of 1.81 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by a lack of voltage-dependence, Schild plot (Kb = 1.70 μM), and radioligand competition (Ki = 2.61 μM) with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist [(3)H]granisetron. Kinetic measurements (kon = 4.0 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) ; koff = 0.23 s(-1)) were consistent with a simple bimolecular reaction scheme with a Kb of 4.35 μM. The metabolites CG and CPB similarly inhibited 5-HT3 receptors as assessed by IC50 (1.48 and 4.36 μM, respectively), Schild plot (Kb = 2.97 and 11.4 μM), and radioligand competition (Ki = 4.89 and 0.41 μM). At higher concentrations, CPB was a partial agonist (EC50 = 14.1 μM; I/Imax = 0.013). These results demonstrate that proguanil competitively inhibits 5-HT3 receptors, with an IC50 that exceeds whole-blood concentrations following its oral administration. They may therefore be responsible for the occasional gastrointestinal side effects, nausea, and vomiting reported following its use. Clinical development of related compounds should therefore consider effects at 5-HT3 receptors as an early indication of possible unwanted gastrointestinal side effects.

  1. Key role of 5-HT3 receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii in cardiovagal stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Sévoz-Couche, Caroline; Brouillard, Charly

    2017-03-01

    Serotonin plays a modulatory role in central control of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) in the medulla is an area of viscerosomatic integration innervated by both central and peripheral serotonergic fibers. Influences from different origins therefore trigger the release of serotonin into the NTS and exert multiple influences on the ANS. This major influence on the ANS is also mediated by activation of several receptors in the NTS. In particular, the NTS is the central zone with the highest density of serotonin3 (5-HT3) receptors. In this review, we present evidence that 5-HT3 receptors in the NTS play a key role in one of the crucial homeostatic responses to acute and chronic stress: inhibitory modulation of the parasympathetic component of the ANS. The possible functional interactions of 5-HT3 receptors with GABAA and NK1 receptors in the NTS are also discussed.

  2. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of the structure and dynamics of 5-HT3 serotonin receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, M. Yu.; Popinako, A. V.; Prokopiev, G. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we investigated structure, dynamics and ion transportation in transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 serotonin receptor. High-resolution (0.35 nm) structure of the 5-HT3 receptor in complex with stabilizing nanobodies was determined by protein crystallography in 2014 (Protein data bank (PDB) code 4PIR). Transmembrane domain of the structure was prepared in complex with explicit membrane environment (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)) and solvent (TIP3P water model). Molecular dynamics protocols for simulation and stabilization of the transmembrane domain of the 5-HT3 receptor model were developed and 60 ns simulation of the structure was conducted in order to explore structural parameters of the system. We estimated the mean force profile for Na+ ions using umbrella sampling method.

  4. Palonosetron-5-HT3 Receptor Interactions As Shown by a Binding Protein Cocrystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Price, Kerry L; Lillestol, Reidun K; Ulens, Chris; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2016-12-21

    Palonosetron is a potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and an effective therapeutic agent against emesis. Here we identify the molecular determinants of compound recognition in the receptor binding site by obtaining a high resolution structure of palonosetron bound to an engineered acetylcholine binding protein that mimics the 5-HT3 receptor binding site, termed 5-HTBP, and by examining the potency of palonosetron in a range of 5-HT3 receptors with mutated binding site residues. The structural data indicate that palonosetron forms a tight and effective wedge in the binding pocket, made possible by its rigid tricyclic ring structure and its interactions with binding site residues; it adopts a binding pose that is distinct from the related antiemetics granisetron and tropisetron. The functional data show many residues previously shown to interact with agonists and antagonists in the binding site are important for palonosetron binding, and indicate those of particular importance are W183 (a cation-π interaction and a hydrogen bond) and Y153 (a hydrogen bond). This information, and the availability of the structure of palonosetron bound to 5-HTBP, should aid the development of novel and more efficacious drugs that act via 5-HT3 receptors.

  5. 5-HT3 receptors antagonists reduce serotonin-induced scratching in mice.

    PubMed

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Mansouri, Parvin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) acts as a pruritogen in humans and animals, but the mechanisms of action through that serotonin induces itch response have not been extensively discovered. In our study, we attempted to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptors in scratching behavior due to intradermal serotonin injection. Intradermal injection of serotonin (14.1-235 nmol/site) into the nape of the neck of mice was performed to elicit itch. Scratching behavior was evaluated by measuring the number of bouts during 60 min after injection. We evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal pretreatment with ondansetron and tropisetron (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg) on itch induced by serotonin. Also, intradermal ondansetron and tropisetron at doses 50, 100, and 200 nmol/site were concurrently administrated with serotonin. Serotonin produced a significant enhancement in scratching at dose 141 nmol/site. Concurrent administration of ondansetron (50, 100, and 200 nmol/site) and tropisetron (100 and 200 nmol/site) with serotonin reduced scratching activity compared to the animals that only received serotonin. Also, pretreatment with intraperitoneal ondansetron and tropisetron (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) 30 min before serotonin attenuated the itch response. We showed that the scratching induced by intradermal serotonin is mediated by 5-HT3 receptors subtype. It can be concluded that 5-HT3 may play a role in mediating serotonin-associated itch responses, and we introduce 5-HT3 receptors as possible targets for antipruritic agents.

  6. Comparative receptor mapping of serotoninergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 binding sites*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, María L.; Morcillo, María José; Benhamú, Bellinda; Rosado, María Luisa

    1997-11-01

    The clinical use of currently available drugs acting at the5-HT4 receptor has been hampered by their lack of selectivityover 5-HT3 binding sites. For this reason, there is considerableinterest in the medicinal chemistry of these serotonin receptor subtypes, andsignificant effort has been made towards the discovery of potent and selectiveligands. Computer-aided conformational analysis was used to characterizeserotoninergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptorrecognition. On the basis of the generally accepted model of the5-HT3 antagonist pharmacophore, we have performed a receptormapping of this receptor binding site, following the active analog approach(AAA) defined by Marshall. The receptor excluded volume was calculated as theunion of the van der Waals density maps of nine active ligands(pKi ≥ 8.9), superimposed in pharmacophoric conformations.Six inactive analogs (pKi < 7.0) were subsequently used todefine the essential volume, which in its turn can be used to define theregions of steric intolerance of the 5-HT3 receptor. Five activeligands (pKi ≥ 9.3) at 5-HT4 receptors wereused to construct an antagonist pharmacophore for this receptor, and todetermine its excluded volume by superimposition of pharmacophoricconformations. The volume defined by the superimposition of five inactive5-HT4 receptor analogs that possess the pharmacophoric elements(pKi ≤ 6.6) did not exceed the excluded volume calculated forthis receptor. In this case, the inactivity may be due to the lack of positiveinteraction of the amino moiety with a hypothetical hydrophobic pocket, whichwould interact with the voluminous substituents of the basic nitrogen ofactive ligands. The difference between the excluded volumes of both receptorshas confirmed that the main difference is indeed in the basic moiety. Thus,the 5-HT3 receptor can only accommodate small substituents inthe position of the nitrogen atom, whereas the 5-HT4 receptorrequires more voluminous groups. Also, the basic nitrogen is located at ca

  7. Serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists for the reduction of symptoms of low anterior resection syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Itagaki, Ryohei; Koda, Keiji; Yamazaki, Masato; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Kosugi, Chihiro; Hirano, Atsushi; Arimitsu, Hidehito; Shiragami, Risa; Yoshimura, Yukino; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT])3 receptor antagonists are effective for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), in which exaggerated intestinal/colonic hypermotility is often observed. Recent studies have suggested that the motility disorder, especially spastic hypermotility, seen in the neorectum following sphincter-preserving operations for rectal cancer may be the basis of the postoperative defecatory malfunction seen in these patients. We investigated the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in patients suffering from severe low anterior resection syndrome. Patients and methods A total of 25 male patients with complaints of uncontrollable urgency or fecal incontinence following sphincter-preserving operations were enrolled in this study. Defecatory status, assessed on the basis of incontinence score (0–20), urgency grade (0–3), and number of toilet visits per day, was evaluated using a questionnaire before and 1 month after the administration of the 5-HT3 antagonist ramosetron. Results All the parameters assessed improved significantly after taking ramosetron for 1 month. The effect was more prominent in cases whose anastomotic line was lower, ie, inside the anal canal. Defecatory function was better in patients who commenced ramosetron therapy within 6 months postoperatively, as compared to those who were not prescribed ramosetron for more than 7 months postoperatively. Conclusion These results suggest that 5-HT3 antagonists are effective for the treatment of low anterior resection syndrome, as in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The improvement in symptoms is not merely time dependent, but it is related to treatment with 5-HT3 antagonists. PMID:24648748

  8. The 5-HT3 receptor is essential for exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Shimada, S

    2015-11-01

    Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the 5-HT system has been suggested to have an important role in these exercise-induced neuronal effects. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, analysis of the 5-HT type 3A receptor subunit-deficient (htr3a(-/-)) mice revealed that lack of the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor resulted in loss of exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects, but not of learning enhancement. Furthermore, stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptor promoted neurogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the 5-HT3 receptor is the critical target of 5-HT action in the brain following exercise, and is indispensable for hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects induced by exercise. This is the first report of a pivotal 5-HT receptor subtype that has a fundamental role in exercise-induced morphological changes and psychological effects.

  9. Role of 5-HT3 Receptor on Food Intake in Fed and Fasted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingjin; Shao, Dongyuan; Luo, Yungang; Wang, Pu; Liu, Changhong; Zhang, Xingyi; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and 5-HT in the brain were examined after acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR-57227 alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Food intake was significantly inhibited within 3 h after acute treatment with SR 57227 in fasted mice but not fed mice, and this inhibition was blocked by ondansetron. Immunohistochemical study revealed that fasting-induced c-Fos expression was further enhanced by SR 57227 in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and this enhancement was also blocked by ondansetron. Furthermore, the fasting-induced downregulation of POMC expression in the hypothalamus and the TH expression in the brain stem was blocked by SR 57227 in the fasted mice, and this effect of SR 57227 was also antagonized by ondansetron. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of SR 57227 on the control of feeding behavior in fasted mice may be, at least partially, related to the c-Fos expression in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as POMC system in the hypothalamus and the TH system in the brain stem. PMID:25789930

  10. 5-HT3 receptor influences the washing phenotype and visual organization in obsessive-compulsive disorder supporting 5-HT3 receptor antagonists as novel treatment option.

    PubMed

    Lennertz, Leonhard; Wagner, Michael; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Franke, Petra E; Guttenthaler, Vera; Rampacher, Friederike; Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Vogeley, Andrea; Benninghoff, Jens; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Pukrop, Ralf; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Falkai, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Mössner, Rainald

    2014-01-01

    A role of the HTR3A-E genes in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be expected based on promising effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists as adjunctive treatment of OCD. We therefore genotyped six common coding or promoter variants within the HTR3A-E genes in a case-control-sample consisting of N=236 OCD patients and N=310 control subjects and in N=58 parent-child-trios. Given the heterogeneous OCD phenotype, we also investigated OCD symptom dimensions and cognitive endophenotypes in subsamples. OCD patients scoring high for the washing subtype were significantly more likely to carry the c.256G-allele of the HTR3E variant rs7627615 (p=0.0001) as compared to OCD patients low for this symptom dimension. Visual organization was impaired in OCD patients and unaffected relatives as compared to healthy control subjects and carriers of the HTR3E c.256G/c.256G-genotype performed significantly worse (p=0.007). The case-control analyses revealed a nominal significant association of the HTR3D variant rs1000592 (p.H52R) with OCD (p=0.029) which was also evident after combination of the case-control and the trio-results (p=0.024). In male subjects, the variant rs6766410 (p.N163K) located in the HTR3C was significantly associated with OCD (p=0.007). The association findings of the HTR3C and the HTR3E remained significant after correction for the number of variants investigated. These findings indicate a role of common variants of the HTR3A-E genes in OCD and OCD-related phenotypes and further support the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists as novel treatment options. The HTR3E gene is a novel candidate gene impacting on the individual expression of OC symptoms and OCD-related cognitive dysfunction.

  11. Theoretical evaluation of antiemetic effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for prevention of vomiting induced by cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hironori; Yokoyama, Haruko; Takayanagi, Risa; Yoshimoto, Koichi; Nakajima, Akihiro; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Iwase, Osamu; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2015-03-01

    5-HT(3) receptor antagonists are widely used as antiemetic agents in clinical setting, of which palonosetron, with a long elimination half life (t(1/2)), has recently become available. It is important to evaluate the concentration of serotonin when investigating the antiemetic effects of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, as those effects are not based solely on the t(1/2) value. We theoretically evaluated the antiemetic effects of three 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists (granisetron, azasetron, palonosetron) on cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting by estimating the time course of the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin. We estimated the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin in the small intestine, based on the time course of plasma concentration of each 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist and the time course of concentration of serotonin near the 5-HT(3) receptor in the small intestine after administration of cisplatin. The antiemetic effect of each 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist was evaluated based on the normal level of 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin. Our results suggest that an adequate antiemetic effect will be provided when a dose of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin is given to patients along with any single administration of granisetron, azasetron, or palonosetron at a usual dose. On the other hand, the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin was found to be significantly lower than normal for several days after administration of palonosetron, as compared to granisetron and azasetron, indicating that constipation may be induced. Our results show that granisetron, azasetron, and palonosetron each have an adequate antiemetic effect after administration of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin.

  12. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors by extrinsic duodenal afferents contribute to intestinal inhibition of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Helen E; Glatzle, Jorg; Robin, Carla; Meyer, James H; Phan, Thomas; Wong, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2003-03-01

    Intestinal perfusion with carbohydrates inhibits gastric emptying via vagal and spinal capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathways. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of 1) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors (5-HT(3)R) in mediating glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and 2) 5-HT(3)R expression in vagal and spinal afferents in innervating the duodenum. In awake rats fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulas, perfusion of the duodenum with glucose (50 and 100 mg) inhibited gastric emptying. Intestinal perfusion of mannitol inhibited gastric emptying only at the highest concentration (990 mosm/kgH(2)O). Pretreatment with the 5-HT(3)R antagonist tropisetron abolished both glucose- and mannitol-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. Retrograde labeling of visceral afferents by injection of dextran-conjugated Texas Red into the duodenal wall was used to identify extrinsic primary afferents. Immunoreactivity for 5-HT(3)R, visualized with an antibody directed to the COOH terminus of the rat 5-HT(3)R, was found in >80% of duodenal vagal and spinal afferents. These results show that duodenal extrinsic afferents express 5-HT(3)R and that the receptor mediates specific glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. These findings support the hypothesis that enterochromaffin cells in the intestinal mucosa release 5-HT in response to glucose, which activates 5-HT(3)R on afferent nerve terminals to evoke reflex changes in gastric motility. The primary glucose sensors of the intestine may be mucosal enterochromaffin cells.

  13. Inhibitory effects of dextrorotatory morphinans on the human 5-HT(3A) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes: Involvement of the N-terminal domain of the 5-HT(3A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hye; Shin, Tae-Joon; Kang, Jiyeon; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Lee, Joon-Hee; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2012-07-05

    We previously developed a series of dextromethorphan (DM, 3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan) analogs modified at positions 3 and 17 of the morphinan ring system. Recent reports have shown that DM attenuates abdominal pain caused by irritable bowel syndrome, and multidrug regimens that include DM prevent nausea/vomiting following cancer surgery. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of DM. Here, we investigated the effects of DM, 3 of its analogs (AM, 3-allyloxy-17-methoxymorphian; CM, 3-cyclopropyl-17-methoxymorphinan; and DF, 3-methyl-17-methylmorphinan), and 1 of its metabolites (HM, 3-methoxymorphinan) on the activity of the human 5-HT(3A) receptor channel expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, using the 2-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. We found that intra-oocyte injection of human 5-HT(3A) receptor cRNAs elicited an inward current (I(5-HT)) in the presence of 5-HT. Cotreatment with AM, CM, DF, DM, or HM inhibited I(5-HT) in a dose-dependent, voltage-independent, and reversible manner. The IC(50) values for AM, CM, DF, DM, and HM were 24.5±1.4, 21.5±4.2, 132.6±35.8, 181.3±23.5, and 191.3±31.5μM, respectively. The IC(50) values of AM and CM were 7-fold lower than that of DM, and mechanistic analysis revealed that DM, DF, HM, AM, and CM were competitive inhibitors of I(5-HT). Point mutations of Arg241 in the N-terminal, but not amino acids in the pore region, to other amino acid residues attenuated or abolished DM- and DM-analog-induced inhibition of I(5-HT). Together, these results demonstrated that dextrorotatory morphinans might regulate 5-HT(3A) receptor channel activity via interaction with its N-terminal domain.

  14. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist drugs in cancer chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Hiromasa; Takayama, Shinji; Shiokawa, Mitsuru; Inoue, Tadao

    2008-04-01

    Recently, ambulatory treatment centers (ATC) are markedly increasingboth in number and scale. It is therefore important to consolidate an efficient therapeutic system. A decrease in both treatment time and waitingtime leads to not only the improvement of the quality of life (QOL) for patients but also the efficient use of personnel and running costs for medical institutions by reducingthe bed occupation rate. In ATC, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used for high emetic risk patients. However, their high cost and prolonged treatment causes one of the problems in improvingthe efficiency of the therapeutic system when they are administered by intravenous infusion. Amongthe 4 types of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (injections) currently available in Japan, azasetron is the only drugthat is not designated as a powerful drug and that can be administered by bolus intravenous infusion. In this study, we investigated azasetron and granisetron from the standpoint of pharmacoeconomics with a simulation model using the results of clinical studies in Japan. Accordingto the results of cost-effectiveness analysis, therapeutic and time costs per patient for azasetron 10 mgand granisetron 2 mg (calculated in consideration of both medical institutions and patients) was 8,219 and 10,193 yen, respectively. This gap was attributable to the time loss due to the difference in administration methods. The result suggests that this time loss is more significant not only for patients but also for medical staff than the loss attributable to the drugcost. Furthermore, the bolus intravenous infusion of azasetron is considered superior to the non-bolus intravenous infusion of granisetron from a pharmacoeconomic standpoint. It is desirable to choose the appropriate administration method of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in various chemotherapy regimens for the purpose of reducingthe treatment time and promotingthe efficiency of the therapeutic system at ATCs.

  15. Molecular properties of psychopharmacological drugs determining non-competitive inhibition of 5-HT3A receptors.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Terfloth, Lothar; Bleich, Stefan; Wiltfang, Jens; Rupprecht, Rainer

    2009-06-01

    We developed a structure-property-activity relationship (SPAR)-model for psychopharmacological drugs acting as non-competitive 5-HT(3A) receptor antagonists by using a decision-tree learner provided by the RapidMiner machine learning tool. A single molecular descriptor, namely the molecular dipole moment per molecular weight (mu/MW), predicts whether or not a substance non-competitively antagonizes 5-HT-induced Na(+) currents. A low mu/MW is compatible with drug-cumulation in apolar lipid rafts. This study confirms that size-intensive descriptors allow the development of compact SPAR models.

  16. Serotonin enhances urinary bladder nociceptive processing via a 5-HT3 receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jason D; DeWitte, Cary; Ness, Timothy J; Robbins, Meredith T

    2015-09-14

    Serotonin from the descending pain modulatory pathway is critical to nociceptive processing. Its effects on pain modulation may either be inhibitory or facilitatory, depending on the type of pain and which receptors are involved. Little is known about the role of serotonergic systems in bladder nociceptive processing. These studies examined the effect of systemic administration of the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), on normal bladder and somatic sensation in rats. ELISA was used to quantify peripheral and central changes in serotonin and its major metabolite following 5-HTP administration, and the potential role of the 5-HT3 receptor on changes in bladder sensation elicited by 5-HTP was investigated. 5-HTP produced bladder hypersensitivity and somatic analgesia. The pro-nociceptive effect of 5-HTP was attenuated by intrathecal, but not systemic, ondansetron. Peripheral increases in serotonin, its metabolism and rate of turnover were detectable within 30min of 5-HTP administration. Significant enhancement of serotonin metabolism was observed centrally. These findings suggest that 5-HTP increases serotonin, which may then affect descending facilitatory systems to produce bladder hypersensitivity via activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors.

  17. 2-Amino-6-chloro-3,4-dihydroquinazoline: A novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with antidepressant character.

    PubMed

    Dukat, Małgorzata; Alix, Katie; Worsham, Jessica; Khatri, Shailesh; Schulte, Marvin K

    2013-11-01

    2-Amino-6-chloro-3,4-dihydroquinazoline HCl (A6CDQ, 4) binds at 5-HT3 serotonin receptors and displays antidepressant-like action in the mouse tail suspension test (TST). Empirically, 4 was demonstrated to be a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (two-electrode voltage clamp recordings using frog oocytes; IC50=0.26μM), and one that should readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier (logP=1.86). 5-HT3 receptor antagonists represent a potential approach to the development of new antidepressants, and 4 is an example of a structurally novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is active in a preclinical antidepressant model (i.e., the mouse TST).

  18. Toward Biophysical Probes for the 5-HT3 Receptor: Structure−Activity Relationship Study of Granisetron Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis and biological characterization of novel granisetron derivatives that are antagonists of the human serotonin (5-HT3A) receptor. Some of these substituted granisetron derivatives showed low nanomolar binding affinity and allowed the identification of positions on the granisetron core that might be used as attachment points for biophysical tags. A BODIPY fluorophore was appended to one such position and specifically bound to 5-HT3A receptors in mammalian cells. PMID:20146481

  19. Noncompetitive Inhibition of 5-HT3 Receptors by Citral, Linalool, and Eucalyptol Revealed by Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Barbosa, Roseli; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Citral, eucalyptol, and linalool are widely used as flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Here, we examined their effects on electrophysiological and binding properties of human 5-HT3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to account for random variance in the peak current response between oocytes. The oils caused an insurmountable inhibition of 5-HT-evoked currents (citral IC50 = 120 µM; eucalyptol = 258 µM; linalool = 141 µM) and did not compete with fluorescently labeled granisetron, suggesting a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Inhibition was not use-dependent but required a 30-second preapplication. Compound washout caused a slow (∼180 seconds) but complete recovery. Coapplication of the oils with bilobalide or diltiazem indicated they did not bind at the same locations as these channel blockers. Homology modeling and ligand docking predicted binding to a transmembrane cavity at the interface of adjacent subunits. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that an essential oil extracted from Lippia alba contained 75.9% citral. This inhibited expressed 5-HT3 receptors (IC50 = 45 µg ml(-1)) and smooth muscle contractions in rat trachea (IC50 = 200 µg ml(-1)) and guinea pig ileum (IC50 = 20 µg ml(-1)), providing a possible mechanistic explanation for why this oil has been used to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. These results demonstrate that citral, eucalyptol, and linalool inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, and their binding to a conserved cavity suggests a valuable target for novel allosteric modulators.

  20. Discovery of a novel allosteric modulator of 5-HT3 receptors: inhibition and potentiation of Cys-loop receptor signaling through a conserved transmembrane intersubunit site.

    PubMed

    Trattnig, Sarah M; Harpsøe, Kasper; Thygesen, Sarah B; Rahr, Louise M; Ahring, Philip K; Balle, Thomas; Jensen, Anders A

    2012-07-20

    The ligand-gated ion channels in the Cys-loop receptor superfamily mediate the effects of neurotransmitters acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and glycine. Cys-loop receptor signaling is susceptible to modulation by ligands acting through numerous allosteric sites. Here we report the discovery of a novel class of negative allosteric modulators of the 5-HT(3) receptors (5-HT(3)Rs). PU02 (6-[(1-naphthylmethyl)thio]-9H-purine) is a potent and selective antagonist displaying IC(50) values of ~1 μM at 5-HT(3)Rs and substantially lower activities at other Cys-loop receptors. In an elaborate mutagenesis study of the 5-HT(3)A receptor guided by a homology model, PU02 is demonstrated to act through a transmembrane intersubunit site situated in the upper three helical turns of TM2 and TM3 in the (+)-subunit and TM1 and TM2 in the (-)-subunit. The Ser(248), Leu(288), Ile(290), Thr(294), and Gly(306) residues are identified as important molecular determinants of PU02 activity with minor contributions from Ser(292) and Val(310), and we propose that the naphthalene group of PU02 docks into the hydrophobic cavity formed by these. Interestingly, specific mutations of Ser(248), Thr(294), and Gly(306) convert PU02 into a complex modulator, potentiating and inhibiting 5-HT-evoked signaling through these mutants at low and high concentrations, respectively. The PU02 binding site in the 5-HT(3)R corresponds to allosteric sites in anionic Cys-loop receptors, which emphasizes the uniform nature of the molecular events underlying signaling through the receptors. Moreover, the dramatic changes in the functional properties of PU02 induced by subtle changes in its binding site bear witness to the delicate structural discrimination between allosteric inhibition and potentiation of Cys-loop receptors.

  1. Involvement of 5-HT3 receptors in the action of vortioxetine in rat brain: Focus on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maurizio S; Sánchez, Connie; Celada, Pau; Artigas, Francesc

    2016-09-01

    The antidepressant vortioxetine is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibitor. Vortioxetine occupies all targets at high therapeutic doses and only SERT and 5-HT3-R at low doses. Vortioxetine increases extracellular monoamine concentrations in rat forebrain more than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and shows pro-cognitive activity in preclinical models. Given its high affinity for 5-HT3-R (Ki = 3.7 nM), selectively expressed in GABA interneurons, we hypothesized that vortioxetine may disinhibit glutamatergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission following 5-HT3-R blockade. Here we assessed vortioxetine effect on pyramidal neuron activity and extracellular 5-HT concentration using in vivo extracellular recordings of rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons and microdialysis in mPFC and ventral hippocampus (vHPC). Vortioxetine, but not escitalopram, increased pyramidal neuron discharge in mPFC. This effect was prevented by SR57227A (5-HT3-R agonist) and was mimicked by ondansetron (5-HT3-R antagonist) and by escitalopram/ondansetron combinations. In microdialysis experiments, ondansetron augmented the 5-HT-enhancing effect of escitalopram in mPFC and vHPC. Local ondansetron in vHPC augmented escitalopram effect, indicating the participation of intrinsic mechanisms. Since 5-HT neurons express GABAB receptors, we examined their putative involvement in controlling 5-HT release after 5-HT3-R blockade. Co-perfusion of baclofen (but not muscimol) reversed the increased 5-HT levels produced by vortioxetine and escitalopram/ondansetron combinations in vHPC. The present results suggest that vortioxetine increases glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in rat forebrain by blocking 5-HT3 receptors in GABA interneurons.

  2. Design and validation of a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence cell-based assay targeting the ligand-gated ion channel 5-HT3A.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Emilie; Wagner, Patrick; Plaisier, Fabrice; Schmitt, Martine; Durroux, Thierry; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Partiseti, Michel; Dupuis, Elodie; Bihel, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are considered as attractive protein targets in the search for new therapeutic agents. Nowadays, this strategy involves the capability to screen large chemical libraries. We present a new Tag-lite ligand binding assay targeting LGICs on living cells. This technology combines the use of suicide enzyme tags fused to channels of interest with homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) as the detection readout. Using the 5-HT3 receptor as system model, we showed that the pharmacology of the HALO-5HT3 receptor was identical to that of the native receptor. After validation of the assay by using 5-HT3 agonists and antagonists of reference, a pilot screen enabled us to identify azelastine, a well-known histamine H1 antagonist, as a potent 5-HT3 antagonist. This interesting result was confirmed with electrophysiological experiments. The method described here is easy to implement and could be applicable for other LGICs, opening new ways for the screening of chemical libraries.

  3. Functional evidence for the rapid desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on vagal afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) desensitize upon repeated exposure to selective agonists. BJR-mediated falls in heart rate, diastolic arterial blood pressure and cardiac output elicited by the 5-HT(3)-receptor agonists, phenylbiguanide (100 microg/kg, i.v.) or 2-methyl-5-HT (100 microg/kg, i.v.), progressively diminished upon repeated injection in conscious rats. The BJR responses elicited by 5-HT (40 microg/kg, i.v.) were markedly reduced in rats which had received the above injections of phenylbiguanide or 2-methyl-5-HT whereas the BJR responses elicited by L-S-nitrosocysteine (10 micromol/kg, i.v.) were similar before and after the injections of the 5-HT(3) receptor agonists. These findings suggest that tachyphylaxis to 5-HT(3) receptor agonists may be due to the desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents rather than the impairment of the central or peripheral processing of the BJR.

  4. Comparative Pharmacology and Guide to the Use of the Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Anthony L

    2016-12-01

    Since the introduction of the serotonin 5-hydroxy tryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists in the early 1990s, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post-discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) has decreased, yet continues to be a problem for the surgical patient. The clinical application of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists has helped define the approach and role of these antiemetics in the prevention and treatment of PONV and PDNV. Pharmacological and clinical differences exist among these medications resulting in corresponding differences in effectiveness, safety, optimal dosage, time of administration, and use as combination and rescue antiemetic therapy. The clinical application of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics has improved the prevention and treatment of PONV and PDNV. The most recent consensus guidelines for PONV published in 2014 outline the use of these antiemetics. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists play an important role to help prevent PONV and PDNV in perioperative care pathways such as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS). Comparisons and guidelines for use of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in relation to the risk for PONV and PDNV are reviewed.

  5. Roles of serotonin 5-HT3 receptor in the formation of dendrites and axons in the rat cerebral cortex: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Ohtani, Akiko; Onuki, Fumiaki; Natsume, Masaki; Li, Fei; Satou, Tomomi; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Senzaki, Kouji; Shiga, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor is an only ligand-gated ion channel among 14 serotonin receptors. Here, we examined the roles of the 5-HT(3) receptor in the formation of dendrites and axons, using a dissociation culture of embryonic rat cerebral cortex. Cortical neurons at embryonic day 16 were cultured for 4 days in the presence of a selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist with or without an antagonist. Neurons were then immunostained by antibodies against microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65. All cells expressed MAP2, whereas only limited number of cells expressed GAD65. From the immunoreactivity and the cell shape, we tentatively divided neurons into 3 types; GAD-positive multipolar, GAD-positive bipolar/tripolar and GAD-negative neurons. The total length of axons and dendrites, the number of primary dendrites and the dendritic branching of GAD-negative neurons were decreased by the agonist (10 or 100nM), most of which were reversed by the concomitant treatment of the antagonist. In contrast, no or little effect was observed on the formation of dendrites and axons of GAD-positive multipolar neurons, and the neurite formation of GAD-positive bipolar/tripolar neurons. The present study revealed differential roles of the 5-HT(3) receptor in the formation of dendrites and axons of subtypes of cortical neurons.

  6. Impact of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 1st generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs), and palonosetron, a 2nd generation 5-HT3 RA, are indicated for the prevention of chemotherapy (CT)-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with moderately (MEC) and highly emetogenic CT agents (HEC). This study explores the impact of step therapy policies requiring use of an older 5-HT3 RA before palonosetron on risk of CINV associated with hospital or emergency department (ED) admissions. Methods Patients who received cyclophosphamide post breast cancer (BC) surgery or who were diagnosed with lung cancer on carboplatin (LC-carboplatin) or cisplatin (LC-cisplatin) were selected from PharMetrics’ (IMS LifeLink) claims dataset (2005-2008). Patients were followed for 6 months from initial CT administration for CINV events identified through ICD-9-CM codes. Patients were grouped into those initiated with older, generic 5-HT3 RAs (ondansetron, granisetron, and dolasetron) and those initiated and maintained on palonosetron throughout study follow-up. CINV events and CINV days were analyzed using multivariate regressions controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results Eligible patients numbered 3,606 in BC, 4,497 in LC-carboplatin and 1,154 in LC-cisplatin cohorts, with 52%, 40%, and 34% in the palonosetron group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two 5-HT3 RA groups in age or Charlson Comorbidity Index among the two MEC cohorts (BC and LC-carboplatin). Among the LC-cisplatin cohort, palonosetron users were older with more males than the older 5-HT3 RA group (age: 60.1 vs. 61.3; males, 66.9% vs. 56.9%). Compared to the older 5-HT3 RAs, the palonosetron groups incurred 22%-51% fewer 5-HT3 RA pharmacy claims, had fewer patients with CINV events (3.5% vs. 5.5% in BC, 9.5% vs. 12.8% in LC-carboplatin, 16.4% vs. 21.7% in LC-cisplatin), and had lower risk for CINV events (odds ratios 0.62, 0.71, or 0.71, respectively; p < 0.05). The BC and LC

  7. Spatial orientation of the antagonist granisetron in the ligand-binding site of the 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; White, Michael M

    2005-08-01

    The serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT(3)R) is a member of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) superfamily. Like almost all membrane proteins, high-resolution structural data are unavailable for this class of receptors. We have taken advantage of the high degree of homology between LGICs and the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) from the freshwater snail Lymnea stagnalis, for which high-resolution structural data are available, to create a structural model for the extracellular (i.e., ligand-binding) domain of the 5-HT(3)R and to perform a series of ligand docking experiments to delineate the architecture of the ligand-binding site. Structural models were created using homology modeling with the AChBP as a template. Docking of the antagonist granisetron was carried out using a Lamarckian genetic algorithm to produce models of ligand-receptor complexes. Two energetically similar conformations of granisetron in the binding site were obtained from the docking simulations. In one model, the indazole ring of granisetron is near Trp90 and the tropane ring is near Arg92; in the other, the orientation is reversed. We used double-mutant cycle analysis to determine which of the two orientations is consistent with experimental data and found that the data are consistent with the model in which the indazole ring of granisetron interacts with Arg92 and the tropane ring interacts with Trp90. The combination of molecular modeling with double-mutant cycle analysis offers a powerful approach for the delineation of the architecture of the ligand-binding site.

  8. Effects of iodoproxyfan, a potent and selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, on alpha 2 and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Schlicker, E; Pertz, H; Bitschnau, H; Purand, K; Kathmann, M; Elz, S; Schunack, W

    1995-07-01

    We determined the affinity and/or potency of the novel H3 receptor antagonist iodoproxyfan at alpha 2 and 5-HT3 receptors. Iodoproxyfan and rauwolscine (a reference alpha 2 ligand) (i) monophasically displaced 3H-rauwolscine binding to rat brain cortex membranes (pKi 6.79 and 8.59); (ii) facilitated the electrically evoked tritium overflow from superfused mouse brain cortex slices preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline (pEC50 6.46 and 7.91) and (iii) produced rightward shifts of the concentration-response curve (CRC) of (unlabelled) noradrenaline for its inhibitory effect on the evoked overflow (pA2 6.65 and 7.88). In the guinea-pig ileum, iodoproxyfan 6.3 mumol/l failed to evoke a contraction by itself but depressed the maximum of the CRC of 5-hydroxytryptamine (pD'2 5.24). Tropisetron (a reference 5-HT3 antagonist) produced rightward shifts of the CRC of 5-hydroxytryptamine (pA2 7.84). In conclusion, the affinity/potency of iodoproxyfan at H3 receptors (range 8.3-9.7 [1]) exceeds that at alpha 2 receptors by at least 1.5 log units and that at 5-HT3 receptors by at least 3 log units.

  9. MDL72222, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, blocks MDMA's ability to establish a conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, E J; Reid, L D

    1991-06-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has previously been shown to produce a positive conditioned place preference (CPP) among rats. Here the effects of doses of a specific 5-HT3 antagonist, MDL72222, on MDMA's ability to produce a CPP were assessed. A dose of MDL72222 (0.03 mg/kg) blocked the establishment of a MDMA CPP. These results support the suggestions that compounds affecting the 5-HT3 receptor may be of particular interest in studying the pharmacology of self-administered drugs.

  10. Cation-pi interactions in ligand recognition by serotonergic (5-HT3A) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: the anomalous binding properties of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Beene, Darren L; Brandt, Gabriel S; Zhong, Wenge; Zacharias, Niki M; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2002-08-13

    A series of tryptophan analogues has been introduced into the binding site regions of two ion channels, the ligand-gated nicotinic acetylcholine and serotonin 5-HT(3A) receptors, using unnatural amino acid mutagenesis and heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. A cation-pi interaction between serotonin and Trp183 of the serotonin channel 5-HT(3A)R is identified for the first time, precisely locating the ligand-binding site of this receptor. The energetic contribution of the observed cation-pi interaction between a tryptophan and the primary ammonium ion of serotonin is estimated to be approximately 4 kcal/mol, while the comparable interaction with the quaternary ammonium of acetylcholine is approximately 2 kcal/mol. The binding mode of nicotine to the nicotinic receptor of mouse muscle is examined by the same technique and found to differ significantly from that of the natural agonist, acetylcholine.

  11. Subunit rotation models activation of serotonin 5-HT3AB receptors by agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksay, Gábor; Simonyi, Miklós; Bikádi, Zsolt

    2004-10-01

    The N-terminal extracellular regions of heterooligomeric 3AB-type human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT 3ABR) were modelled based on the crystal structure of snail acetylcholine binding protein AChBP. Stepwise rotation of subunit A by 5° was performed between -10° and 15° to mimic agonist binding and receptor activation. Anticlockwise rotation reduced the size of the binding cavity in interface AB and reorganised the network of hydrogen bonds along the interface. AB subunit dimers with different rotations were applied for docking of ligands with different efficacies: 5-HT, m-chlorophenylbiguanide, SR 57227, quinolinyl piperazine and lerisetron derivatives. All ligands were docked into the dimer with -10° rotation representing ligand-free, open binding cavities similarly, without pharmacological discrimination. Their ammonium ions were in hydrogen bonding distance to the backbone carbonyl of W183. Anticlockwise rotation and contraction of the binding cavity led to distinctive docking interactions of agonists with E129 and cation-π interactions of their ammonium ions. Side chains of several further amino acids participating in docking (Y143, Y153, Y234 and E236) are in agreement with the effects of point mutations in the binding loops. Our model postulates that 5-HT binds to W183 in a hydrophobic cleft as well as to E236 in a hydrophilic vestibule. Then it elicits anticlockwise rotation to draw in loop C via π-cation-π interactions of␣its ammonium ion with W183 and Y234. Finally, closure of the binding cavity might end in rebinding of 5-HT to E129 in the hydrophilic vestibule.

  12. Effects of repeated daily treatments with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist on dopamine neurotransmission and functional activity of 5-HT3 receptors within the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Thielen, Richard J; McBride, William J

    2006-06-01

    A previous study indicated that pretreatment with repeated daily injections of serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists subsequently reduced the effectiveness of the 5-HT3 antagonists to attenuate ethanol intake under 24-h free-choice conditions; one possibility to account for this is that the functional activity of the 5-HT3 receptor may have been altered by prior treatment with the antagonists. The present experiments were conducted to examine the effects of local perfusion of the 5-HT3 agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (CPBG) on the extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of adult male Wistar rats that had received repeated daily injections of the 5-HT3 antagonist, MDL 72222 (MDL). In vivo microdialysis was used to test the hypothesis that alterations in 5-HT3 receptor function have occurred with repeated antagonist injections. One group was given daily injections of MDL (1 mg/kg, s.c.) for 10 consecutive days (MDL group), and the other group was administered saline for 10 days (saline group). On the day after the last treatment, rats were implanted with a unilateral guide cannula aimed at either the ACB or VTA. Two days later, the microdialysis probe was inserted into the guide cannula; on the next day, microdialysis experiments were conducted to determine the extracellular levels of DA in the ACB or VTA. Local perfusion of CPBG (17.5, 35, 70 microM) in the ACB significantly stimulated DA release in the saline- and MDL-treated animals. In terms of percent baseline, the CPBG-stimulated DA release was higher in the MDL-treated group than in the saline-treated group in both the ACB and VTA; however, on the basis of the extracellular concentration, there were no significant differences in the ACB between the two groups. Using the no-net-flux microdialysis, it was determine that the basal extracellular concentration of DA in the ACB was approximately 60% lower in the MDL group than saline group; there

  13. Spinal 5-HT(3) receptor activation induces behavioral hypersensitivity via a neuronal-glial-neuronal signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ming; Miyoshi, Kan; Dubner, Ronald; Guo, Wei; Zou, Shiping; Ren, Ke; Noguchi, Koichi; Wei, Feng

    2011-09-07

    Recent studies indicate that the descending serotonin (5-HT) system from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in the brainstem and the 5-HT(3) receptor subtype in the spinal dorsal horn are involved in enhanced descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the 5-HT(3) receptor and its contribution to facilitation of pain remain unclear. In the present study, activation of spinal 5-HT(3) receptor by intrathecal injection of a selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR57227, induced spinal glial hyperactivity, neuronal hyperexcitability, and pain hypersensitivity in rats. We found that there was neuron-to-microglia signaling via chemokine fractalkine, microglia to astrocyte signaling via the cytokine IL-18, astrocyte to neuronal signaling by IL-1β, and enhanced activation of GluN (NMDA) receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. In addition, exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced descending pain facilitation was accompanied by upregulation of CD11b and GFAP expression in the spinal dorsal horn after microinjection in the RVM, and these events were significantly prevented by functional blockade of spinal 5-HT(3) receptors. Enhanced expression of spinal CD11b and GFAP after hindpaw inflammation was also attenuated by molecular depletion of the descending 5-HT system by intra-RVM Tph-2 shRNA interference. Thus, these findings offer new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms at the spinal level responsible for descending 5-HT-mediated pain facilitation during the development of persistent pain after tissue and nerve injury. New pain therapies should focus on prime targets of descending facilitation-induced glial involvement, and in particular the blocking of intercellular signaling transduction between neuron and glia.

  14. Spinal 5-HT3 receptor activation induces behavioral hypersensitivity via a neuronal-glial-neuronal signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ming; Miyoshi, Kan; Dubner, Ronald; Guo, Wei; Zou, Shiping; Ren, Ke; Noguchi, Koichi; Wei, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the descending serotonin (5-HT) system from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in brainstem and the 5-HT3 receptor subtype in the spinal dorsal horn are involved in enhanced descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor and its contribution to facilitation of pain remain unclear. In the present study, activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptor by intrathecal injection of a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR 57227 induced spinal glial hyperactivity, neuronal hyperexcitability and pain hypersensitivity in rats. We found that there was neuron-to-microglia signaling via chemokine fractalkine, microglia to astrocyte signaling via cytokine IL-18, astrocyte to neuronal signaling by IL-1β, and enhanced activation of GluN (NMDA) receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. In addition, exogenous BDNF-induced descending pain facilitation was accompanied with up-regulation of CD11b and GFAP expression in the spinal dorsal horn after microinjection in the RVM, which were significantly prevented by functional blockade of spinal 5-HT3 receptors. Enhanced expression of spinal CD11b and GFAP after hindpaw inflammation was also attenuated by molecular depletion of the descending 5-HT system by intra-RVM Tph-2 shRNA interference. Thus, these findings offer new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms at the spinal level responsible for descending 5-HT-mediated pain facilitation during the development of persistent pain after tissue and nerve injury. New pain therapies should focus on prime targets of descending facilitation-induced glial involvement, and in particular the blocking of intercellular signaling transduction between neuron and glia. PMID:21900561

  15. Blockade of 5-Ht3 receptors in the septal area increases Fos expression in selected brain areas.

    PubMed

    Urzedo-Rodrigues, Lilia S; Ferreira, Hilda S; Santana, Rejane Conceição; Luz, Carla Patrícia; Perrone, Camila F; Fregoneze, Josmara B

    2014-04-01

    Serotonin is widely distributed throughout the brain and is involved in a multiplicity of visceral, cognitive and behavioral responses. It has been previously shown that injections of different doses of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, into the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band complex (MS/vDB) induce a hypertensive response in rats. On the other hand, administration of m-CPBG, a 5-HT3 agonist, into the MS/vDB inhibits the increase of blood pressure during restraint stress. However, it is unclear which neuronal circuitry is involved in these responses. The present study investigated Fos immunoreactive nuclei (Fos-IR) in different brain areas following the blockade of 5-HT3 receptors located in the MS/vDB in sham and in sinoaortic denervated (SAD) rats. Ondansetron injection into the MS/vDB increases Fos-IR in different brain areas including the limbic system (central amygdala and ventral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis), hypothalamus (medial parvocellular parts of the paraventricular nucleus, anterodorsal preoptic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus), mesencephalon (ventrolateral periaqueductal gray region) and rhombencephalon (lateral parabrachial nucleus) in sham rats. Barodenervation results in higher Fos expression at the parvocellular and magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the central nucleus of amygdala, the locus coeruleus, the medial part of the nucleus of the solitary tract, the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the caudal ventrolateral medulla following 5-HT3receptor blockade in the MS/vDB. Based on the present results and previous data showing a hypertensive response to ondansetron injected into the MS/vDB, it is reasonable to suggest that 5-HT3receptors in the MS/vDB exert an inhibitory drive that may oscillate as a functional regulatory part of the complex central neuronal network participating in the control of blood pressure.

  16. Emesis and Defecations Induced by the 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) Receptor Anatagonist Zacopride in the Ferret

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-16

    and Defecations Induced by the 5 -Hydroxytryptamine ( 5 -HT 3) Receptor Antagonist Zacopride in the Ferret1 GREGORY L. KING Department of Physiology...benzamides and 5 -hydroxytryptamine ( 5 - Zacopride (4-amino-N-[ 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl]- 5 -chloro- HT:i) receptor antagonists are effective...prompted development of 5 - the dose-response properties of zacop -ide-induced emesis and HT, receptor antagonist antiemetics with limited gastric

  17. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Cellular Sequestration during Chronic Exposure Delays 5-HT3 Receptor Resensitization due to Its Subsequent Release*

    PubMed Central

    Hothersall, J. Daniel; Alexander, Amy; Samson, Andrew J.; Moffat, Christopher; Bollan, Karen A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic synapse is dynamically regulated by serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) with elevated levels leading to the down-regulation of the serotonin transporter and a variety of 5-HT receptors, including the 5-HT type-3 (5-HT3) receptors. We report that recombinantly expressed 5-HT3 receptor binding sites are reduced by chronic exposure to 5-HT (IC50 of 154.0 ± 45.7 μm, t½ = 28.6 min). This is confirmed for 5-HT3 receptor-induced contractions in the guinea pig ileum, which are down-regulated after chronic, but not acute, exposure to 5-HT. The loss of receptor function does not involve endocytosis, and surface receptor levels are unaltered. The rate and extent of down-regulation is potentiated by serotonin transporter function (IC50 of 2.3 ± 1.0 μm, t½ = 3.4 min). Interestingly, the level of 5-HT uptake correlates with the extent of down-regulation. Using TX-114 extraction, we find that accumulated 5-HT remains soluble and not membrane-bound. This cytoplasmically sequestered 5-HT is readily releasable from both COS-7 cells and the guinea pig ileum. Moreover, the 5-HT level released is sufficient to prevent recovery from receptor desensitization in the guinea pig ileum. Together, these findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of down-regulation where the chronic release of sequestered 5-HT prolongs receptor desensitization. PMID:25281748

  18. Synergistic antiemetic interactions between serotonergic 5-HT3 and tachykininergic NK1-receptor antagonists in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Amos, Barry; Alkam, Tursun

    2011-10-01

    Significant electrophysiological and biochemical findings suggest that receptor cross-talk occurs between serotonergic 5-HT(3)- and tachykininergic NK(1)-receptors in which co-activation of either receptor by ineffective doses of their corresponding agonists (serotonin (5-HT) or substance P (SP), respectively) potentiates the activity of the other receptor to produce a response. In contrast, selective blockade of any one of these receptors attenuates the increase in abdominal vagal afferent activity caused by either 5-HT or SP. This interaction has important implications in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) since 5-HT(3)- and NK(1)-receptor antagonists are the major classes of antiemetics used in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether the discussed interaction produces effects at the behavioral level in a vomit-competent species, the least shrew. Our results demonstrate that pretreatment with either a 5-HT(3) (tropisetron)- or an NK(1) (CP99,994)-receptor specific antagonist, attenuates vomiting caused by a selective agonist (2-methyl 5-HT or GR73632, respectively) of both emetic receptors. In addition, relative to each antagonist alone, their combined doses were 4-20 times more potent against vomiting caused by each emetogen. Moreover, combined sub-maximal doses of the agonists 2-methyl 5-HT and GR73632, produced 8-12 times greater number of vomits relative to each emetogen tested alone. However, due to large variability in vomiting caused by the combination doses, the differences failed to attain significance. The antiemetic dose-response curves of tropisetron against both emetogens were U-shaped probably because larger doses of this antagonist behave as a partial agonist. The data demonstrate that 5-HT(3)- and NK(1)-receptors cross-talk to produce vomiting, and that synergistic antiemetic effects occur when both corresponding antagonists are concurrently used against emesis caused by each

  19. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  20. Dynamic Expression of Serotonin Receptor 5-HT3A in Developing Sensory Innervation of the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, K. Elaine; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Sensory afferent signaling is required for normal function of the lower urinary tract (LUT). Despite the wide prevalence of bladder dysfunction and pelvic pain syndromes, few effective treatment options are available. Serotonin receptor 5-HT3A is a known mediator of visceral afferent signaling and has been implicated in bladder function. However, basic expression patterns for this gene and others among developing bladder sensory afferents that could be used to inform regenerative efforts aimed at treating deficiencies in pelvic innervation are lacking. To gain greater insight into the molecular characteristics of bladder sensory innervation, we conducted a thorough characterization of Htr3a expression in developing and adult bladder-projecting lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Using a transgenic Htr3a-EGFP reporter mouse line, we identified 5-HT3A expression at 10 days post coitus (dpc) in neural crest derivatives and in 12 dpc lumbosacral DRG. Using immunohistochemical co-localization we observed Htr3a-EGFP expression in developing lumbosacral DRG that partially coincides with neuropeptides CGRP and Substance P and capsaicin receptor TRPV1. A majority of Htr3a-EGFP+ DRG neurons also express a marker of myelinated Aδ neurons, NF200. There was no co-localization of 5-HT3A with the TRPV4 receptor. We employed retrograde tracing in adult Htr3a-EGFP mice to quantify the contribution of 5-HT3A+ DRG neurons to bladder afferent innervation. We found that 5-HT3A is expressed in a substantial proportion of retrograde traced DRG neurons in both rostral (L1, L2) and caudal (L6, S1) axial levels that supply bladder innervation. Most bladder-projecting Htr3a-EGFP+ neurons that co-express CGRP, Substance P, or TRPV1 are found in L1, L2 DRG, whereas Htr3a-EGFP+, NF200+ bladder-projecting neurons are from the L6, S1 axial levels. Our findings contribute much needed information regarding the development of LUT innervation and highlight the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor as

  1. The antiemetic 5-HT3 receptor antagonist Palonosetron inhibits substance P-mediated responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Camilo; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Stathis, Marigo; Alt, Jesse; Thomas, Ajit G; Cantoreggi, Sergio; Sebastiani, Silvia; Pietra, Claudio; Slusher, Barbara S

    2010-11-01

    Palonosetron is the only 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that substance P (SP), the endogenous ligand acting preferentially on neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors, not serotonin (5-HT), is the dominant mediator of delayed emesis. However, palonosetron does not bind to the NK-1 receptor. Recent data have revealed cross-talk between the NK-1 and 5HT(3) receptor signaling pathways; we postulated that if palonosetron differentially inhibited NK-1/5-HT(3) cross-talk, it could help explain its efficacy profile in delayed emesis. Consequently, we evaluated the effect of palonosetron, granisetron, and ondansetron on SP-induced responses in vitro and in vivo. NG108-15 cells were preincubated with palonosetron, granisetron, or ondansetron; antagonists were removed and the effect on serotonin enhancement of SP-induced calcium release was measured. In the absence of antagonist, serotonin enhanced SP-induced calcium-ion release. After preincubation with palonosetron, but not ondansetron or granisetron, the serotonin enhancement of the SP response was inhibited. Rats were treated with cisplatin and either palonosetron, granisetron, or ondansetron. At various times after dosing, single neuronal recordings from nodose ganglia were collected after stimulation with SP; nodose ganglia neuronal responses to SP were enhanced when the animals were pretreated with cisplatin. Palonosetron, but not ondansetron or granisetron, dose-dependently inhibited the cisplatin-induced SP enhancement. The results are consistent with previous data showing that palonosetron exhibits distinct pharmacology versus the older 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists and provide a rationale for the efficacy observed with palonosetron in delayed CINV in the clinic.

  2. Antiemetic effects of YM060, a potent and selective serotonin (5HT)3-receptor antagonist, in ferrets and dogs.

    PubMed

    Kamato, T; Miyata, K; Ito, H; Yuki, H; Yamano, M; Honda, K

    1991-11-01

    YM060, (R)-5-[(1-methyl-3-indolyl)carbonyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-benzimidazole hydrochloride, is a new serotonin (5HT)3-receptor antagonist. We examined the effects of YM060 on chemotherapeutic agent-, apomorphine- and copper sulfate-induced emesis. Intravenous YM060 potently prevented cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.v.)-induced emesis with ED50 values of 0.06 (0.05-0.07) micrograms/kg, i.v. in ferrets. Based on the ED50 values, YM060 was 300, 20 and 100 times more potent than ondansetron, granisetron and the S-isomer of YM060, respectively. The relative potencies of these drugs described above were similar to those in the previously reported 5HT3-receptor antagonism. YM060 given orally also potently inhibited cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.)- and cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced emesis in ferrets with ED50 values of 0.1 (0.09-0.11) and 0.02 (0.16-0.27) micrograms/kg, p.o., respectively. All tested 5HT3-receptor antagonists including YM060 failed to prevent apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced emesis in dogs and copper sulfate (1%, 10 ml, p.o.)-induced emesis in ferrets. Our data indicate that YM060 is a highly potent inhibitor of chemotherapeutic agent-induced emesis and that the antiemetic effect of YM060 may be depend on 5HT3-receptor antagonism.

  3. QoL evaluation of olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting comparing with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Tan, L; Zhang, H; Li, H; Liu, X; Yan, Z; Chen, J; Yang, H; Zhang, D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of olanzapine in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and improving the quality of life (QoL) of patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with cancer who received chemotherapy from January 2008 to August 2008 were enrolled, and they were randomised to receive olanzapine or a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. The patients completed a CINV questionnaire once daily on days 1-5 and a QoL questionnaire on days 0 and 6. The complete response (CR) rates for nausea (76.85% versus 46.2%) and vomiting (84.3% versus 67.6%) were significantly higher in the olanzapine group than in the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist group for delayed CINV but not for acute CINV. The CR rates for nausea (76.85% versus 44.44%) and vomiting (85.95% versus 67.59%) were also significantly higher in the olanzapine group for the 5 days post-chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, global health status, emotional functioning, and insomnia were improved in the olanzapine group but worsened in the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist group, whereas cognitive functioning and appetite loss were unchanged. Moreover, olanzapine significantly improved global health status, emotional functioning, social functioning, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, insomnia, and appetite loss. Olanzapine improved the QoL of patients with cancer during chemotherapy, in part by reducing the incidence of delayed CINV.

  4. Inhibition of temporomandibular joint input to medullary dorsal horn neurons by 5HT3 receptor antagonist in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Katagiri, Ayano; Rahman, Mostafeezur; Thompson, Randall; Bereiter, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated forced swim (FS) conditioning enhances nociceptive responses to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) stimulation in male and female rats. The basis for FS-induced TMJ hyperalgesia remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that serotonin 3 receptor (5HT3R) mechanisms contribute to enhanced TMJ nociception after FS, ovariectomized female rats were treated with estradiol and subjected to FS for three days. On day 4, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and TMJ-responsive neurons were recorded from superficial and deep laminae at the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical (Vc/C1–2) region and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the masseter muscle. Only Vc/C1–2 neurons activated by intra-TMJ injections of ATP were included for further analysis. Although neurons in both superficial and deep laminae were activated by ATP, only neurons in deep laminae displayed enhanced responses after FS. Local application of the 5HT3R antagonist, ondansetron (OND), at the Vc/C1–2 region reduced the ATP-evoked responses of neurons in superficial and deep laminae and reduced the EMG response in both sham and FS rats. OND also decreased the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in deep laminae and reduced the high threshold convergent cutaneous receptive field area of neurons in superficial and deep laminae in both sham and FS rats. These results revealed that central application of a 5HT3R antagonist, had widespread effects on the properties of TMJ-responsive neurons at the Vc/C1–2 region and on jaw muscle reflexes under sham and FS conditions. It is concluded that 5HT3R does not play a unique role in mediating stress-induced hyperalgesia related to TMJ nociception. PMID:25913635

  5. Inhibition of temporomandibular joint input to medullary dorsal horn neurons by 5HT3 receptor antagonist in female rats.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, K; Katagiri, A; Rahman, M; Thompson, R; Bereiter, D A

    2015-07-23

    Repeated forced swim (FS) conditioning enhances nociceptive responses to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) stimulation in female rats. The basis for FS-induced TMJ hyperalgesia remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that serotonin 3 receptor (5HT3R) mechanisms contribute to enhanced TMJ nociception after FS, ovariectomized female rats were treated with estradiol and subjected to FS for three days. On day 4, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and TMJ-responsive neurons were recorded from superficial and deep laminae at the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical (Vc/C1-2) region and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the masseter muscle. Only Vc/C1-2 neurons activated by intra-TMJ injections of ATP were included for further analysis. Although neurons in both superficial and deep laminae were activated by ATP, only neurons in deep laminae displayed enhanced responses after FS. Local application of the 5HT3R antagonist, ondansetron (OND), at the Vc/C1-2 region reduced the ATP-evoked responses of neurons in superficial and deep laminae and reduced the EMG response in both sham and FS rats. OND also decreased the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in deep laminae and reduced the high-threshold convergent cutaneous receptive field area of neurons in superficial and deep laminae in both sham and FS rats. These results revealed that central application of a 5HT3R antagonist, had widespread effects on the properties of TMJ-responsive neurons at the Vc/C1-2 region and on jaw muscle reflexes under sham and FS conditions. It is concluded that 5HT3R does not play a unique role in mediating stress-induced hyperalgesia related to TMJ nociception.

  6. The rapid recovery of 5-HT cell firing induced by the antidepressant vortioxetine involves 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Bétry, Cécile; Pehrson, Alan L; Etiévant, Adeline; Ebert, Bjarke; Sánchez, Connie; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2013-06-01

    The therapeutic effect of current antidepressant drugs appears after several weeks of treatment and a significant number of patients do not respond to treatment. Here, we report the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), a 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist, 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor, on rat 5-HT neurotransmission. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the dorsal raphe nucleus of anaesthetized rats, we assessed the acute and subchronic effects of vortioxetine and/or the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR57227 or the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist flesinoxan, on 5-HT neuronal firing activity. Using ex-vivo autoradiography, we correlated SERT occupancy and presumed 5-HT firing activity. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, was used as comparator. Importantly, the recovery of 5-HT neuronal firing was achieved after 1 d with vortioxetine and 14 d with fluoxetine. SR57227 delayed this recovery. In contrast, vortioxetine failed to alter the reducing action of 3 d treatment of flesinoxan. Acute dosing of vortioxetine inhibited neuronal firing activity more potently than fluoxetine. SR57227 prevented the suppressant effect of vortioxetine, but not of fluoxetine. In contrast, flesinoxan failed to modify the suppressant effect of vortioxetine acutely administered. Differently to fluoxetine, vortioxetine suppressed neuronal firing without saturating occupancy at the SERT. Vortioxetine produced a markedly faster recovery of 5-HT neuronal firing than fluoxetine. This is at least partly due to 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism of vortioxetine in association with its reduced SERT occupancy.

  7. The effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron on cocaine-induced conditioned taste aversions.

    PubMed

    Briscione, Maria A; Serafine, Katherine M; Merluzzi, Andrew P; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2013-04-01

    Although cocaine readily induces taste aversions, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. Recent work has shown that cocaine's actions on serotonin (5-HT) may be involved. To address this possibility, the present experiments examined a role of the specific 5-HT receptor, 5-HT3, in this effect given that it is implicated in a variety of behavioral effects of cocaine. This series of investigations first assessed the aversive effects of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron alone (Experiment 1). Specifically, in Experiment 1 male Sprague-Dawley rats were given repeated pairings of a novel saccharin solution and tropisetron (0, 0.056, 0.18 and 0.56mg/kg). Following this, a non-aversion-inducing dose of tropisetron (0.18mg/kg) was assessed for its ability to block aversions induced by a range of doses of cocaine (Experiment 2). Specifically, in Experiment 2 animals were given access to a novel saccharin solution and then injected with tropisetron (0 or 0.18mg/kg) followed by an injection of various doses of cocaine (0, 10, 18 and 32mg/kg). Cocaine induced dose-dependent taste aversions that were not blocked by tropisetron, suggesting that cocaine's aversive effects are not mediated by 5-HT, at least at this specific receptor subtype. At the intermediate dose of cocaine, aversions appeared to be potentiated, suggesting 5-HT3 may play a limiting role in cocaine's aversive effects. These data are discussed in the context of previous examinations of the roles of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in cocaine-induced aversions.

  8. Role of the 5HT3 Receptor in Alcohol Drinking and Aggression Using A Transgenic Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    F(1,35) = 33.85, P < 0.0005] and N5 generations [F(1,35) = 6.33, P < 0.017]. Interactions of background and transgene presence were found for N1 [F... interaction was found for the N5 generation as well [F(2,51) = 4.55, P < 0.15]. Figure 2. Contextual conditioning is influenced by 5-HT3 receptor...2,51) = 164.56, P < 0.0005] and transgene presence [F(1,51) = 51.66, P < 0.0005] were found, as was an interaction between background and transgene

  9. Contrasting effects of 5-HT3 receptor stimulation of the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmentum on food intake in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Wayne E; Lin, Peagan; Pierce-Messick, Zachary; Ilesanmi, Adeolu O; Clissold, Kara A

    2017-04-14

    Although serotonin (5-HT) signaling is known to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis, the roles of the 5-HT3 receptor in feeding processes have been elusive. 5-HT3 receptors are found throughout mesolimbic circuitry that promote feeding not only in response to hunger, but also to the palatable and rewarding properties of food. These experiments examined if stimulation or blockade of the 5-HT3 receptor of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) or ventral tegmentum affected food intake in the rat in response to hunger or the presence of a palatable diet. Rats (N=6-9/group) received bilateral injections of the 5-HT3 agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide hydrochloride (mCPBG; at 0.0, 10.0, or 20.0μg/0.5μl/side) or the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron hydrochloride (at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, or 5.0μg/0.5μl/side) into either the NAcc or the ventral tegmentum. NAcc 5-HT3 receptor stimulation significantly increased 2-h food intake in food-deprived animals offered rat chow and in a separate group of unrestricted rats offered a sweetened fat diet. In contrast to the feeding increase seen with NAcc treatments, stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors of the ventral tegmentum significantly reduced food and water intake in food-restricted animals; reductions of intake in non-restricted rats offered the palatable diet did not approach significance. Blockade of the 5-HT3 receptor had no effect on feeding in either brain region. These data support a functional role for serotonergic signaling in the mesolimbic pathway on motivated behavior, and demonstrate that 5-HT3 receptors differentially modulate food consumption in a region-dependent manner.

  10. A molecular dynamics approach to receptor mapping: application to the 5HT3 and beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Gouldson, P R; Winn, P J; Reynolds, C A

    1995-09-29

    A molecular dynamics-based approach to receptor mapping is proposed, based on the method of Rizzi (Rizzi, J. P.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 1990, 33, 2721). In Rizzi's method, the interaction energy between a series of drug molecules and probe atoms (which mimic functional groups on the receptor, such as hydrogen bond donors) was calculated. These interactions were calculated on a three-dimensional grid within a molecular mechanics parameters, were placed at these minima. The distances between the dummy atom sites were monitored during molecular dynamics simulations and plotted as distance distribution functions. Important distances within the receptor became apparent, as drugs with a common mode of binding share similar peaks in the distance distribution functions. In the case of specific 5HT3 ligands, the important donor--acceptor distance within the receptor has a range of ca. 7.9--8.9 A. In the case of specific beta 2-adrenergic ligands, the important donor--acceptor distances within the receptor lie between ca. 7--9 A and between 8 and 10 A. These distances distribution functions were used to assess three different models of the beta 2-adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor. The comparison of the distance distribution functions for the simulation with the actual donor--acceptor distances in the receptor models suggested that two of the three receptor models were much more consistent with the receptor-mapping studies. These receptor-mapping studies gave support for the use of rhodopsin, rather than the bacteriorhodopsin template, for modeling G-protein-coupled receptors but also sounded a warning that agreement with binding data from site-directed mutagenesis experiments does not necessarily validate a receptor model.

  11. [Effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on estramustine phosphate sodium (Estracyt)-induced emesis in ferrets].

    PubMed

    Higashioka, Masaya; Yamaguchi, Emi; Takatori, Shingo; Tanaka, Mitsushi; Kyoi, Takashi

    2010-07-01

    Estracyt(R) is an antimitotic drug used for the treatment of prostate cancer, and its most common adverse effects are nausea and vomiting. In this study, we investigated the effect of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, granisetron, on emesis induced in ferrets by estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP), the active ingredient of Estracyt. To clarify the mechanism of action of EMP-induced emesis, we also investigated the effect of EMP on the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the isolated rat ileum. EMP (3 mg/kg, per os) induced 75.3+/-10.2 retching episodes and 7.5+/-1.3 vomiting episodes during a 2-h observation period. The latency to the first emetic response was 58.0+/-13.5 min. Granisetron (0.1 mg/kg, per os) administered 1 h before the administration of EMP reduced the number of EMP-induced retching and vomiting episodes to 1.3+/-1.3 and 1.0+/-1.0, respectively, and prolonged the latency by a factor of almost two. EMP (10-5 and 10-4 M) increased 5-HT release from isolated rat ileum, and 10 -7 M granisetron almost completely inhibited the increase induced by 10-4 M EMP. These results suggest that EMP induces nausea and vomiting via 5-HT release from the ileum, and that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful to prevent gastrointestinal adverse effects that occur during treatment with Estracyt.

  12. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, blocks the development and expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Umathe, Sudhir N; Bhutada, Pravinkumar S; Raut, Vivek S; Jain, Nishant S; Mundhada, Yogita R

    2009-02-01

    Manipulation of the serotonergic system has been shown to alter ethanol sensitization. Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, reported to attenuate cocaine and methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization, but no reports are available on its role in ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization. Therefore, an attempt has been made to assess this issue by using an earlier used animal model of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization. Results indicated that ondansetron (0.25-1.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously) given before the challenge dose of ethanol (2.4 g/kg, intraperitoneally) injection, significantly and dose dependently attenuated the expression of sensitization. In addition, ondansetron (1.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously) given before ethanol injection on days 1, 4, 7, and 10 significantly blocked the development (days 1, 4, 7, and 10), and expression (day 15) of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of ethanol injection. Ondansetron had no effect per se on locomotor activity and did not affect blood ethanol levels. Therefore, the results raise the possibility that ondansetron blocked the development and expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization by acting on 5-HT3 receptors.

  13. Superagonist, Full Agonist, Partial Agonist, and Antagonist Actions of Arylguanidines at 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) Subunit A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Alix, Katie; Khatri, Shailesh; Mosier, Philip D; Casterlow, Samantha; Yan, Dong; Nyce, Heather L; White, Michael M; Schulte, Marvin K; Dukat, Małgorzata

    2016-11-16

    Introduction of minor variations to the substitution pattern of arylguanidine 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor ligands resulted in a broad spectrum of functionally-active ligands from antagonist to superagonist. For example, (i) introduction of an additional Cl-substituent(s) to our lead full agonist N-(3-chlorophenyl)guanidine (mCPG, 2; efficacy % = 106) yielded superagonists 7-9 (efficacy % = 186, 139, and 129, respectively), (ii) a positional isomer of 2, p-Cl analog 11, displayed partial agonist actions (efficacy % = 12), and (iii) replacing the halogen atom at the meta or para position with an electron donating OCH3 group or a stronger electron withdrawing (i.e., CF3) group resulted in antagonists 13-16. We posit based on combined mutagenesis, crystallographic, and computational analyses that for the 5-HT3 receptor, the arylguanidines that are better able to simultaneously engage the primary and complementary subunits, thus keeping them in close proximity, have greater agonist character while those that are deficient in this ability are antagonists.

  14. A 5-HT3 receptor antagonist potentiates the behavioral, neurochemical and electrophysiological actions of an SSRI antidepressant.

    PubMed

    Bétry, C; Overstreet, D; Haddjeri, N; Pehrson, A L; Bundgaard, C; Sanchez, C; Mørk, A

    2015-04-01

    More effective treatments for major depression are needed. We studied if the selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron can potentiate the antidepressant potential of the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine using behavioral, neurochemical and electrophysiological methods. Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, treated with ondansetron, and/or a sub-effective dose of paroxetine, were assessed in the forced swim test. The effects of an acute intravenous administration of each compound alone and in combination were evaluated with respect to 5-HT neuronal firing rate in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Effects of s.c. administration of the compounds alone and in combination on extracellular levels of 5-HT were assessed in the ventral hippocampus of freely moving rats by microdialysis. The results showed that ondansetron enhanced the antidepressant activity of paroxetine in the forced swim test. It partially prevented the suppressant effect of paroxetine on DRN 5-HT neuronal firing and enhanced the paroxetine-induced increase of hippocampal extracellular 5-HT release. These findings indicate that 5-HT3 receptor blockade potentiates the antidepressant effects of SSRIs. Since both paroxetine and ondansetron are used clinically, it might be possible to validate this augmentation strategy in depressed patients.

  15. Spinal 5-HT3 receptor mediates nociceptive effect on central neuropathic pain; possible therapeutic role for tropisetron

    PubMed Central

    Nasirinezhad, Farinaz; Hosseini, Marjan; Karami, Zohre; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Janzadeh, Autosa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test the analgesic effect of 5-HT-3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron, in a clip compression injury model of spinal cord pain in rats. Methods Four weeks post compression of the spinal cord at lumbar level, tropisetron was administered intrathecally at 100 μg and 150 μg dosages. Behavioral tests were assessed before administration. Fifteen minutes after injection, behavioral tests were repeated. Randall-Sellitto and plantar test was used for mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Mechanical and cold allodynia were evaluated by Von Frey filament and acetone droplets, respectively. The analgesic effect of tropisetron was compared with intrathecal administration of salicylate. Locomotor score was evaluated by Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test every week after spinal cord injury. Results Intrathecal administration of tropisetron, decreased hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, but not cold allodynia were observed after compression of the spinal cord. Conclusion Blockade of 5-HT-3 receptors by tropisetron at the spinal level induces an antinociceptive effect on chronic central neuropathic pain and suggests that this compound may have potential clinical utility for the management of central neuropathic pain, particularly in patients with hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia. PMID:26338446

  16. Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-mediated vomiting occurs via the activation of Ca2+/CaMKII-dependent ERK1/2 signaling in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weixia; Hutchinson, Tarun E; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) by 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, can induce vomiting. However, downstream signaling pathways for the induced emesis remain unknown. The 5-HT3R channel has high permeability to extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and upon stimulation allows increased Ca(2+) influx. We examined the contribution of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (Ca(2+)/CaMKIIα), interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling to 2-Me-5-HT-induced emesis in the least shrew. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found that 2-Me-5-HT augments intracellular Ca(2+) levels in brainstem slices and that the selective 5-HT3R antagonist palonosetron, can abolish the induced Ca(2+) signaling. Pre-treatment of shrews with either: i) amlodipine, an antagonist of L-type Ca(2+) channels present on the cell membrane; ii) dantrolene, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Ca2+-release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); iii) a combination of their less-effective doses; or iv) inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059); dose-dependently suppressed emesis caused by 2-Me-5-HT. Administration of 2-Me-5-HT also significantly: i) enhanced the interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin in the brainstem as revealed by immunoprecipitation, as well as their colocalization in the area postrema (brainstem) and small intestine by immunohistochemistry; and ii) activated CaMKIIα in brainstem and in isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These effects were suppressed by palonosetron. 2-Me-5-HT also activated ERK1/2 in brainstem, which was abrogated by palonosetron, KN93, PD98059, amlodipine, dantrolene, or a combination of amlodipine plus dantrolene. However, blockade of ER inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptors by 2-APB, had no significant effect on the discussed behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study

  17. Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor-Mediated Vomiting Occurs via the Activation of Ca2+/CaMKII-Dependent ERK1/2 Signaling in the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Weixia; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) by 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, can induce vomiting. However, downstream signaling pathways for the induced emesis remain unknown. The 5-HT3R channel has high permeability to extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and upon stimulation allows increased Ca2+ influx. We examined the contribution of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (Ca2+/CaMKIIα), interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling to 2-Me-5-HT-induced emesis in the least shrew. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found that 2-Me-5-HT augments intracellular Ca2+ levels in brainstem slices and that the selective 5-HT3R antagonist palonosetron, can abolish the induced Ca2+ signaling. Pre-treatment of shrews with either: i) amlodipine, an antagonist of L-type Ca2+ channels present on the cell membrane; ii) dantrolene, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Ca2+-release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); iii) a combination of their less-effective doses; or iv) inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059); dose-dependently suppressed emesis caused by 2-Me-5-HT. Administration of 2-Me-5-HT also significantly: i) enhanced the interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin in the brainstem as revealed by immunoprecipitation, as well as their colocalization in the area postrema (brainstem) and small intestine by immunohistochemistry; and ii) activated CaMKIIα in brainstem and in isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These effects were suppressed by palonosetron. 2-Me-5-HT also activated ERK1/2 in brainstem, which was abrogated by palonosetron, KN93, PD98059, amlodipine, dantrolene, or a combination of amlodipine plus dantrolene. However, blockade of ER inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptors by 2-APB, had no significant effect on the discussed behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study demonstrates

  18. Regulation of central noradrenergic activity by 5-HT(3) receptors located in the locus coeruleus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Jorge E; Mendiguren, Aitziber; Pineda, Joseba; Meana, J Javier

    2012-06-01

    A functional interaction between serotonergic and noradrenergic systems has been shown in the locus coeruleus (LC). Noradrenaline (NA) levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are dependent on the firing rate of LC neurons, which is controlled by α(2) adrenoceptors (α2ADR). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5-HT(3) receptors (5HT3R) in the modulation of central noradrenergic activity. We measured extracellular NA concentrations in the LC and PFC by dual-probe microdialysis in awake rats and the firing rate of LC neurons by electrophysiological techniques in vitro. Administration of the 5HT3R agonists SR57227 (1-100 μM) and m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 1-100 μM) into the LC increased NA in this nucleus (E(max) = 675 ± 121% and E(max) = 5575 ± 1371%, respectively) and decreased NA in the PFC (E(max) = -49 ± 6% and E(max) = -25 ± 11%, respectively). Administration of the 5HT3R antagonist Y25130 (50 μM) into LC attenuated SR57227 effect in the LC (E(max) = 323 ± 28%) and PFC (E(max) = -37 ± 7%). The α2ADR antagonist RS79948 (1 μM) blocked the SR57227 effect in the PFC but it did not change the effect in the LC (E(max) = 677 ± 202%). In electrophysiological assays, both mCPBG (1-10 μM) and SR57227 (1-10 μM) reduced the firing rate of about 50% of tested LC neurons (maximal effect = -37 ± 2% and -31 ± 4%, respectively); this effect was partially blocked by Y25130 (50 μM). Administration of RS79948 (1 μM) reversed the inhibition induced by mCPBG. Competition radioligand assays against [(3)H]UK14304 and [(3)H]RX821002 (α2ADR selective drugs) in the rat brain cortex showed a very weak affinity of SR57227 for α2ADR, whereas the affinity of mCPBG for α2ADR was 17-fold higher than that of SR57227 for α2ADR. The present results suggest that 5HT3R stimulate NA release in the LC, which promotes simultaneously a decrease in the firing rate of LC neurons through α2ADR and then a decrease

  19. Investigation of 5-HT3A receptor gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals who had been exposed to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahangari, Ghasem; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Mozafari, Sona; Majeidi, Ali; Deilami, Gholamreza Derkhshan

    2013-12-01

    The role of air pollution in exacerbation of allergic symptoms is well known. Several studies have shown the effect of air pollution on serotonergic system. The changes in serotonergic system could trigger several allergic symptoms. 5-HT(3A) is among serotonin receptors on the peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) as well as other cells. In the present study we compared the 5-HT(3A) gene expression in PBMCs of the asthmatic patients as well as individuals who had been exposed to the air pollution. Normal individuals were also included in the study as control for comparison of 5-HT(3A) gene expression. Following the synthesis of the cDNA using mRNA extracted from PBMCs the level of 5- HT(3A) gene expression was measured using real-time PCR. The results showed t a significant increase in the relative expression level of 5-HT(3A) receptor in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and individuals exposed to the air pollutants compared to normal controls. Our result indicates that significant increase in 5-HT(3A) receptor may contribute to the pathogenesis as well as allergic symptoms which resulted from air pollution.

  20. Contribution of Hippocampal 5-HT3 Receptors in Hippocampal Autophagy and Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses after a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhong-Min; Yang, Li-Hua; Cui, Rong; Ni, Gui-Lian; Wu, Feng-Tian; Liang, Yong

    2017-05-01

    One of the hypotheses about the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the dysfunction of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission. While certain 5-HT receptor subtypes are likely critical for the symptoms of PTSD, few studies have examined the role of 5-HT3 receptor in the development of PTSD, even though 5-HT3 receptor is critical for contextual fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior. Therefore, we hypothesized that stimulation of 5-HT3 receptor in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) could prevent hippocampal autophagy and the development of PTSD-like behavior in animals. To this end, we infused SR57227, selective 5-HT3 agonist, into the DH after a single prolonged stress (SPS) treatment in rats. Three weeks later, we evaluated the effects of this pharmacological treatment on anxiety-related behaviors and extinction of contextual fear memory. We also accessed hippocampal autophagy and the expression of 5-HT3A subunit, Beclin-1, LC3-I, and LC3-II in the DH. We found that SPS treatment did not alter anxiety-related behaviors but prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory, and such a behavioral phenomenon was correlated with increased hippocampal autophagy, decreased 5-HT3A expression, and increased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in the DH. Furthermore, intraDH infusions of SR57227 dose-dependently promoted the extinction of contextual fear memory, prevented hippocampal autophagy, and decreased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in the DH. These results indicated that 5-HT3 receptor in the hippocampus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of hippocampal autophagy, and is likely involved in the pathophysiology of PTSD.

  1. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel quinoxalin-2-carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the management of depression.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Pandey, Dilip Kumar; Bhatt, Shvetank; Yadav, Shushil Kumar

    2010-11-15

    A novel series of quinoxalin-2-carboxamides were designed based on the ligand-based approach, employing a three-point pharmacophore model; it consists of an aromatic residue and a linking carbonyl group and a basic nitrogen. The target new chemical entities were synthesized from the key intermediate, quinoxalin-2-carboxylic acid, by coupling it with various amines in the presence of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC·HCl) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt). The obtained compounds' structures were confirmed by spectral data. The target new chemical entities were evaluated for their 5-HT(3) receptor antagonisms in longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus preparation from guinea pig ileum against 5-HT(3) agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, which was expressed in the form of pA(2) value. All the synthesized compounds showed antagonism towards 5-HT(3) receptor; based on this result, a structure-activity relationship was derived, which reveals that the aromatic residue in 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists may have hydrophobic interaction with 5-HT(3) receptor. Regardless of their antagonistic potentials, all the synthesized molecules were screened for their anti-depressant potentials by using forced swim test in mice model; interestingly none of the tested compounds affect the locomotion of mice in the tested dose levels. Compounds with significant pA(2) values exhibited good anti-depressant-like activity as compared to the vehicle-treated group.

  2. Piperazine analogs of naphthyridine-3-carboxamides and indole-2-carboxamides: novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with antidepressant-like activity.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arghya K; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2015-01-01

    Series of piperazine analogs of naphthyridine-3-carboxamides and indole-2-carboxamides were designed using a ligand-based approach with consideration of the pharmacophoric requirements for 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The title carboxamides were synthesized using appropriate synthetic routes. Initially, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonistic activity of all the compounds was determined on isolated guinea pig ileum tissue against the 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, which was denoted in the form of pA2 values. The structure-activity relationship regarding the influence of the aromatic part and basic moiety as features in the 5-HT3 pharmacophore was derived. Among all the compounds screened, the piperazine derivatives of indole-2-carboxamide 13i and naphthyridine-3-carboxamide 8h exhibited prominent 5-HT3 receptor antagonism with pA2 values of 7.5 and 7.3, respectively. Subsequent investigation of the antidepressant activities of selected compounds in the mouse forced swim test (FST) led to the identification of the piperazine analogs of indole-2-carboxamide 13i and naphthyridine-3-carboxamide 8h as the most promising compounds. Both 13i and 8h demonstrated significant reduction in the duration of immobility as compared to the control. Importantly, none of the tested compounds affected the baseline locomotion of mice at the tested dose levels.

  3. Effects of 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists on gastrointestinal motor activity in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Hiroki; Mochiki, Erito; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Sutou, Toshinaga; Ogawa, Atsushi; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Ogata, Kyoichi; Fujii, Takaaki; Ohno, Tetsuro; Tsutsumi, Souichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonists on normal colonic motor activity in conscious dogs. METHODS: Colonic motor activity was recorded using a strain gauge force transducer in 5 dogs before and after 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonist administration. The force transducers were implanted on the serosal surfaces of the gastric antrum, terminal ileum, ileocecal sphincter and colon. Test materials or vehicle alone was administered as an intravenous bolus injection during a quiescent period of the whole colon in the interdigestive state. The effects of these receptor antagonists on normal gastrointestinal motor activity were analyzed. RESULTS: 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists had no contractile effect on the fasting canine terminal ileum. The 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists inhibited phase III of the interdigestive motor complex of the antrum and significantly inhibited colonic motor activity. In the proximal colon, the inhibitory effect was dose dependent. Dose dependency, however, was not observed in the distal colon. The 5-HT2B receptor antagonist had no contractile effect on normal colonic motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists inhibited normal colonic motor activity. The 5-HT2B receptor antagonist had no contractile effect on normal colonic motor activity. PMID:24151388

  4. Differential effects of a short-term high-fat diet in an animal model of depression in rats treated with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, the 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, and the SSRI, fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Sumaya, Isabel C; Bailey, Dee; Catlett, Susan L

    2016-05-01

    Investigation into the effects of a high-fat diet on depression in the context of 5-HT3 receptor function is important given 5-HT3 antagonism may represent a novel candidate for drug discovery. To more fully understand the relationship between the 5-HT3 receptor system, depression, and high-fat intake, our main interest was to study the short-term effects of a high-fat diet on the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, and the 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, as well as the SSRI, fluoxetine, in an animal model of depression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet (11% fat) or a high-fat diet (32.5% fat) for seven days then treated with either fluoxetine (10mg/kg, ip), ondansetron (1mg/kg, ip), 2-methyl-5-HT (3mg/kg, ip), fluoxetine+ondansetron or, 2-methyl-5-HT+ondansetron prior to the Forced Swim Test. In the standard diet group, treatment with the 5HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, served to significantly decrease time of immobility as compared to controls thus showing anti-depressive-like effects. Treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, served to enhance the anti-depressive like effects of the SSRI, fluoxetine, as treatment with both the SSRI and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist dramatically decreased immobility. Importantly, in the high-fat diet groups, a week of high-fat intake served to: 1) counteract the anti-depressive-like effect of the SSRI, fluoxetine, 2) reverse the anti-depressive-like effect of the 5HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT and 3) provide protection against the depressive-like effects induced by the Forced Swim Test as rats fed a high-fat diet displayed the lowest amounts of immobility. In the aggregate, these data suggest that both SSRIs and the 5HT3 receptor system are affected by short-term high-fat intake and that a short-term high-fat diet protects against depressive-like effects in an animal model of depression.

  5. P2X3 receptors induced inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Krimon, Suzy; Araldi, Dionéia; do Prado, Filipe César; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera; Oliveira-Fusaro, Maria Cláudia G; Parada, Carlos Amílcar

    2013-11-01

    It has been described that endogenous ATP via activation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors contributes to inflammatory nociception in different models, including the formalin injected in subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. In this study, we have evaluated whether TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, whose activation is essential to formalin-induced inflammatory nociception, are involved in the nociception induced by activation of P2X3 receptors on subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. We have also evaluated whether the activation of P2X3 receptors increases the susceptibility of primary afferent neurons to formalin action modulated by activation of TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptors. Nociceptive response intensity was measured by observing the rat's behavior and considering the number of times the animal reflexively raised its hind paw (flinches) in 60min. Local subcutaneous administration of the selective TRPA1, 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonists HC 030031, tropisetron and WAY 100,135, respectively, prevented the nociceptive responses induced by the administration in the same site of the non-selective P2X3 receptor agonist αβmeATP. Administration of the selective P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist A-317491 or pretreatment with oligonucleotides antisense against P2X3 receptor prevented the formalin-induced behavioral nociceptive responses during the first and second phases. Also, the co-administration of a subthreshold dose of αβmeATP with a subthreshold dose of formalin induced nociceptive behavior, which was prevented by local administration of tropisetron, HC 030031 or WAY 100, 135. These findings have demonstrated that the activation of P2X3 receptors induces inflammatory nociception modulated by TRPA1, 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors. Also, they suggest that inflammatory nociception is modulated by the release of endogenous ATP and P2X3 receptor activation, which in turn, increases primary afferent nociceptor susceptibility to the action of inflammatory

  6. Changes in characteristics of the specific binding of [3H]LY-278584, a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, on differentiated NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Kayoko; Imanishi, Takashi; Asano, Hajime; Funakami, Yoshinori; Wada, Tetsuyuki; Ichida, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    We have reported previously that the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ evoked by serotonin (5-HT) was significantly augmented in differentiated NG108-15 (NG) cells treated with dibutyryl cAMP and the enhanced response occurred via 5-HT3 receptors. We investigated changes in the characteristics for specific binding of [(3)H]LY-278584 (a specific antagonist of the 5-HT3 receptor) on membranes from differentiated NG cells. The results indicated that the K(d) and B(max) values for the specific binding to differentiated NG cells were significantly smaller and larger, respectively, than those for undifferentiated NG cells. The binding was significantly inhibited by 10 nM tropisetron, a specific 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, but not by any other types of 5-HT-receptor antagonists. These results suggested that the enhanced response by 5-HT in differentiated NG cells was due to both qualitative and quantitative changes in the 5-HT3 receptor.

  7. Spinal 5-HT3 receptors mediate descending facilitation and contribute to behavioral hypersensitivity via a reciprocal neuron-glial signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been recently recognized that the descending serotonin (5-HT) system from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in the brainstem and the 5-HT3 receptor subtype in the spinal dorsal horn are involved in enhanced descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor and its contribution to facilitation of pain remain unclear. Results In the present study, activation of spinal 5-HT3 receptors by intrathecal injection of a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR 57227 induced spinal glial hyperactivity, neuronal hyperexcitability and pain hypersensitivity in rats. We found that there was neuron-to-microglia signaling via the chemokine fractalkine, microglia to astrocyte signaling via cytokine IL-18, astrocyte to neuronal signaling by IL-1β, and enhanced activation of NMDA receptors in the spinal dorsal horn. Glial hyperactivation in spinal dorsal horn after hindpaw inflammation was also attenuated by molecular depletion of the descending 5-HT system by intra-RVM Tph-2 shRNA interference. Conclusions These findings offer new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms at the spinal level responsible for descending 5-HT-mediated pain facilitation during the development of persistent pain after tissue and nerve injury. New pain therapies should focus on prime targets of descending facilitation-induced glial involvement, and in particular the blocking of intercellular signaling transduction between neurons and glia. PMID:24913307

  8. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): blocking 5HT3 receptors enhances release of serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-10-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multiple pharmacologic modes of action at targets where serotonin neurons connect with other neurons. 5HT3 receptor antagonism is one of these actions, and this leads to increased release of norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), and serotonin (5HT) within various brain circuits.

  9. Role of 5-HT3 receptors in basal and K(+)-evoked dopamine release from rat olfactory tubercle and striatal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Zazpe, A; Artaiz, I; Del Río, J

    1994-01-01

    1. The present study was aimed at examining the role of 5-HT3 receptors in basal and depolarization-evoked dopamine release from rat olfactory tubercle and striatal slices. [3H]-dopamine ([3H]-DA) release was measured in both brain regions and endogenous dopamine release from striatal slices was also studied. 2. The selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist 2-methyl-5-HT (0.5-10 microM) produced a concentration-dependent increase in [3H]-DA efflux evoked by K+ (20 mM) from slices of rat olfactory tubercle. 1-Phenylbiguanide (PBG) and 5-HT also increased K(+)-evoked [3H]-DA efflux. 3. 5-HT (1-100 microM) increased in a concentration-dependent manner basal [3H]-DA release from olfactory tubercle and striatal slices as well as endogenous DA release from striatal slices. The selective 5-HT3 receptor agonists 2-methyl-5-HT and 1-phenylbiguanide were weaker releasing agents. In all cases, the release was Ca2+ independent and tetrodotoxin insensitive. 4. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists such as ondansetron, granisetron and tropisetron (0.2 microM) significantly blocked the enhanced K(+)-evoked [3H]-DA efflux from rat olfactory tubercle slices induced by 2-methyl-5HT. A ten fold higher concentration of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin was ineffective. 5. Much higher concentrations, up to 50 microM, of the same 5-HT3 receptor antagonists did not block the increase in basal [3H]-DA release from striatal or olfactory tubercle slices induced by 5-HT or the release of endogenous DA induced by 5-HT from striatal slices.2+ off PMID:7858893

  10. Design, synthesis and evaluation of antidepressant activity of novel 2-methoxy 1, 8 naphthyridine 3-carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Dhar, Arghya Kusum; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2014-05-01

    A series of novel 1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamides as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists were synthesized with an intention to explore the antidepressant activity of these compounds. The title carboxamides were designed using ligand-based approach keeping in consideration the structural requirement of the pharmacophore of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The compounds were synthesized using appropriate synthetic route from the starting material nicotinamide. 5-HT3 receptor antagonism of all the compounds, which was denoted in the form of pA2 value, was determined in longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus preparation from guinea-pig ileum against 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT. Compound 8g (2-methoxy-1, 8-naphthyridin-3-yl) (2-methoxy phenyl piperazine-1-yl) methanone was identified as the most active compound, which expressed a pA2 value of 7.67. The antidepressant activity of all the compounds was examined in mice model of forced swim test (FST); importantly, none of the compounds was found to cause any significant changes in the locomotor activity of mice at the tested dose levels. In FST, the compounds with considerably higher pA2 value exhibited promising antidepressant-like activity, whereas compounds with lower pA2 value did not show antidepressant-like activity as compared to the control group.

  11. [The effects of selective 5HT3 receptor blockade on physiological markers of abdominal pain in awake dogs].

    PubMed

    Panteleev, S S; Busygina, I I; Liubashina, O A

    2013-04-01

    In awake dogs, the visceromotor and cardioautonomic responses to the rectal balloon distension were studied before and after intravenous administration of a selective 5HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron. It was shown that balloon distension level up to 60 mmHg caused neither noticeable muscle responses nor substantial changes in heart rate. In turn, distending pressures of 80 mmHg and higher induced vigorous abdominal muscle contractions and tachycardia that were graded with increasing intensities of stimulation. Thus, the rectal stimulation with pressures 80 mmHg and more produced the changes in visceromotor and cardiovascular indices which could be considered as suitable indicators of visceral nociception in conscious animals. Based on monitoring of these physiological markers in a model of abdominal pain the dose-dependent antinociceptive effect of granisetron in awake dogs has been demonstrated for the first time. It was determined that granisetron in doses of 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg induced correspondingly 33.6 +/- 9.2, 58.0+/- 8.6 [see text] 76.7 +/- 5.5 % decrease in visceromotor response of dogs to nociceptive visceral stimulation. The effect occurred immediately after the drug administration and was lasting more than 90 min. In turn, the dose-dependent suppression of the rectal distension-induced tachycardia was less prominent and only observed during the initial period of granisetron action. The described model of abdominal pain in awake dogs might be useful for preclinical screening of new pharmacological substances, whereas the obtained data could contribute to the development of more efficient analgesics aimed in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  12. Antidepressant Potential of 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonist, N-n- propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n).

    PubMed

    Mahesh, R; Bhatt, S; Devadoss, T; Jindal, Ak; Gautam, Bk; Pandey, Dk

    2012-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-n-propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n). The compound '6n' with optimum log P and pA 2 value identified from a series of compounds synthesized in our laboratory was subjected to forced Swim Test (FST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.). The compound '6n' significantly reduced the duration of immobility in mice without affecting the baseline locomotion. Moreover, '6n' (2 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch responses in mice and '6n' at tested dose (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the reserpine-induced hypothermia in rats. In interaction studies of '6n' with various standard drugs/ligands using FST, '6n' (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, '6n' (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) influenced the effect of harmane (5 mg/ kg, i.p.) as well as reversed the effect of parthenolide (1 mg/kg, i.p.) by reducing the duration of immobility in FST. Furthermore, '6n' (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effect of bupropion (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) in TST. Chronic '6n' (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment attenuated the behavioral abnormalities in olfactory bulbectomized rats. In conclusion, these various findings reiterated the antidepressant-like effects of '6n' in behavioral models of depression.

  13. Antidepressant Potential of 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonist, N-n- propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n)

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, R; Bhatt, S; Devadoss, T; Jindal, AK; Gautam, BK; Pandey, DK

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-n-propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n). The compound ‘6n’ with optimum log P and pA2 value identified from a series of compounds synthesized in our laboratory was subjected to forced Swim Test (FST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.). The compound ‘6n’ significantly reduced the duration of immobility in mice without affecting the baseline locomotion. Moreover, ‘6n’ (2 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch responses in mice and ‘6n’ at tested dose (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the reserpine-induced hypothermia in rats. In interaction studies of ‘6n’ with various standard drugs/ligands using FST, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) influenced the effect of harmane (5 mg/ kg, i.p.) as well as reversed the effect of parthenolide (1 mg/kg, i.p.) by reducing the duration of immobility in FST. Furthermore, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effect of bupropion (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) in TST. Chronic ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment attenuated the behavioral abnormalities in olfactory bulbectomized rats. In conclusion, these various findings reiterated the antidepressant-like effects of ‘6n’ in behavioral models of depression. PMID:23493308

  14. The role of second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Lee S; Jacobs, Peter; Matsouka, Panagiota; Azevedo, Wellington; Pinto, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    Compared with solid tumor patients, those with hematological malignancies are at particular risk of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) because of their young age, exposure to highly-emetogenic induction, consolidation and salvage regimens, the high-dose conditioning regimens used before stem cell transplantation (SCT), and the heavy psychological burden of such treatments. In the absence of prophylaxis, around 75% of patients undergoing SCT experience delayed CINV. With first-generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, only about 20% are completely protected from nausea and vomiting, and this frequent and debilitating adverse event has not been fully addressed. In contrast to solid tumors, there are no internationally agreed guidelines for the prevention and treatment of CINV in hematological malignancies. Work on a consensus is urgently required. The second-generation 5-HT(3) antagonist palonosetron is highly effective in preventing CINV in patients with solid tumors. The extended half-life of this agent and its mechanisms of action including allosteric binding, positive cooperativity and 5-HT(3) receptor internalization, may make it particularly effective in controlling delayed CINV. Although controlled comparisons against first-generation 5HT(3) agents have not yet been conducted in the setting of SCT, available evidence suggests that palonosetron may prove beneficial in preventing CINV in high risk patients with hematological malignancies.

  15. Investigation of 5-HT3 receptor-triggered serotonin release from guinea-pig isolated colonic mucosa: a role of PYY-containing endocrine cell.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Shu-Ichi; Kojima, Ken; Fujita, Tomoe

    2017-03-15

    The effect of a 5-HT3 receptor-selective agonist SR57227A was investigated on the outflow of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from isolated muscle layer-free mucosal preparations of guinea-pig colon. The mucosal preparations were incubated in vitro and the outflow of 5-HT from these preparations was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. SR57227A (100μM) produced a tetrodotoxin-resistant and sustained increase in the outflow of 5-HT from the mucosal preparations. The SR57227A-evoked sustained 5-HT outflow was completely inhibited by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ramosetron (1μM). The neuropeptide Y1 receptor antagonist BIBO3304 (100nM) partially inhibited the SR57227A-evoked sustained 5-HT outflow, but the Y2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 (1μM) or the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) (1μM), showed a minimal effect on the SR57227A-evoked sustained 5-HT outflow. In the presence of BIBO3304 (100nM) and exendin-(9-39) (1μM), SR57227A (100μM) failed to produce a sustained increase in the outflow of 5-HT. The Y1 receptor agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-neuropeptide Y (10nM), but not GLP-1-(7-36) amide (100nM), produced a sustained increase in the outflow of 5-HT. We found that 5-HT3 receptor-triggered 5-HT release from guinea-pig colonic mucosa is mediated by the activation of 5-HT3 receptors located at endocrine cells (enterochromaffin cells and peptide YY (PYY)-containing endocrine cells). The activation of both Y1 and GLP-1 receptors appears to be required for the maintenance of 5-HT3 receptor-triggered 5-HT release. It is therefore considered that 5-HT3 receptors located at colonic mucosa play a crucial role in paracrine signaling between enterochromaffin cells and PYY-containing endocrine cells.

  16. On the role of brain 5-HT7 receptor in the mechanism of hypothermia: comparison with hypothermia mediated via 5-HT1A and 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Kondaurova, Elena M; Popova, Nina K

    2011-12-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of selective agonist of serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor LP44 (4-[2-(methylthio)phenyl]-N-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl)-1-pyperasinehexanamide hydrochloride; 10.3, 20.5 or 41.0 nmol) produced considerable hypothermic response in CBA/Lac mice. LP44-induced (20.5 nmol) hypothermia was significantly attenuated by the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970 (16.1 fmol, i.c.v.) pretreatment. At the same time, intraperitoneal administration of LP44 in a wide range of doses 1.0, 2.0 or 10.0 mg/kg (2.0, 4.0, 20.0 μmol/kg) did not cause considerable hypothermic response. These findings indicate the implication of central, rather than peripheral 5-HT(7) receptors in the regulation of hypothermia. The comparison of LP44-induced (20.5 nmol) hypothermic reaction in eight inbred mouse strains (DBA/2J, CBA/Lac, C57BL/6, BALB/c, ICR, AKR/J, C3H and Asn) was performed and a significant effect of genotype was found. In the same eight mouse strains, functional activity of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptors was studied. The comparison of hypothermic responses produced by 5-HT(7) receptor agonist LP44 (20.5 nmol, i.c.v.) and 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. (3.0 μmol/kg), 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-CPBG (40.0 nmol, i.c.v.) did not reveal considerable interstrain correlations between 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(3) receptor-induced hypothermia. The selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB 269970 (16.1 fmol, i.c.v.) failed to attenuate the hypothermic effect of 8-OH-DPAT 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. (3.0 μmol/kg) and m-CPBG (40.0 nmol, i.c.v.) indicating that the brain 5-HT(7) receptor is not involved in the hypothermic effects of 8-OH-DPAT or m-CPBG. The obtained results suggest that the central 5-HT(7) receptor plays an essential role in the mediation of thermoregulation independent of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(3) receptors.

  17. Dopamine neurotransmission is involved in the attenuating effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist MDL 72222 on acute methamphetamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji-Hoon; Nam, Yun-Sun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that 5-HT3 receptors are involved in the development and expression of methamphetamine (MAP)-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. In the present study, we further examined whether the dopaminergic system is involved in the attenuating effects of MDL 72222, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on acute MAP-induced locomotor hyperactivity. For this, we examined alterations of dopamine (DA) in the form of D1 receptor, D2 receptor, and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding labeled with [3H]SCH23390 for D1, [3H]raclopride for D2, and [3H]mazindol for DAT binding in the mouse brains with acute MAP exposure or pretreatment of MDL 72222 with MAP. No significant differences were detected in the D1 receptor, D2 receptor, or DAT binding between any of the groups studied. Interestingly, we found increased DA levels in the striatum following acute MAP exposure; these increased levels were reversed by pretreatment with MDL 72222, but did not affect 5-HT levels in the dorsal raphe. Overall, our results suggest that dopamine neurotransmission plays an important role in the attenuating effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist MDL 72222 on acute MAP-induced locomotor hyperactivity in mice.

  18. Wood creosote prevents CRF-induced motility via 5-HT3 receptors in proximal and 5-HT4 receptors in distal colon in rats.

    PubMed

    Ataka, Koji; Kuge, Tomoo; Fujino, Kazunori; Takahashi, Toku; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2007-05-30

    Wood creosote has been used as an herbal medicine against acute diarrhea caused by food poisoning and has an inhibitory effect on colonic motility and enterotoxin-induced ion secretion. Since no previous studies have examined the effects of wood creosote on stress-induced alteration of colonic motility, we examined the effects on the colonic motility altered by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is a key mediator in responses to stress. We recorded motor activity in proximal and distal colon of unrestrained conscious rats via two manometory catheters. The frequencies of phase III-like contraction and the % motor indices in both proximal and distal colon were measured. At the same time the number of fecal pellets excreted was counted. I.c.v. injection of CRF increased the motor activity in both proximal and distal colon, and these effects were completely antagonized by i.c.v. injection of a selective CRF type 1 antagonist but not by a CRF type 2 antagonist. Changes in colonic motility induced by CRF were reversed by intravenously administered wood creosote. Intraluminal administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron, or the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist SB 204070 blocked the increase in colonic motility induced by i.c.v. injection of CRF. Wood creosote prevented the increase in colonic motility induced by the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist SR57227A in the proximal colon, while it prevented the increase in colonic motility induced by the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist RS67506 in the distal colon. These results indicate that wood creosote prevents the increase in colonic motility induced by CRF via 5-HT(3) receptors in the proximal colon, and via 5-HT(4) receptors in the distal colon, suggesting that wood creosote might be useful to treat stress-induced diarrhea.

  19. Synergistic effect between prelimbic 5-HT3 and CB1 receptors on memory consolidation deficit in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats: An isobologram analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Mahmoodabadi, N; Nasehi, M; Emam Ghoreishi, M; Zarrindast, M-R

    2016-03-11

    The serotonergic system has often been defined as a neuromodulator system, and is specifically involved in learning and memory via its various receptors. Serotonin is involved in many of the same processes affected by cannabinoids. The present study investigated the influence of bilateral post-training intra-prelimbic (PL) administrations of serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine type-3 (5-HT3) receptor agents on arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) (cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist)-induced amnesia, using the step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) task to assess memory in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results indicated that sole intra-PL microinjection of ACPA (0.1 and 0.5 μg/rat) and 5-HT3 serotonin receptor agonist (m-Chlorophenylbiguanide hydrochloride, m-CPBG; 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 μg/rat) impaired, whereas Y-25130 (a selective 5-HT3 serotonin receptor antagonist; 0.001 and 0.01 and 0.1 μg/rat) did not alter IA memory consolidation, by itself. Moreover, intra-PL administration of subthreshold dose of m-CPBG (0.0005 μg/rat) potentiated, while Y-25130 (0. 1 μg/rat) restored ACPA-induced memory consolidation deficit. The isobologram analysis showed that there is a synergistic effect between ACPA and m-CPBG on memory consolidation deficit. These findings suggest that 5-HT3 receptor mechanism(s), at least partly, play(s) a role in modulating the effect of ACPA on memory consolidation in the PL area.

  20. Regulation of the 5-HT3A receptor-mediated current by alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ui Joung; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoo Jin; Nam, Joo Won; Bae, Hyunsu; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2010-09-01

    Four known alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates, i.e., methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (1), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (2), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (3), and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (4), were isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner (Nymphaeaceae) for the first time. The structures of the isolates were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and comparison with published values. The compounds were evaluated for their effects on the 5-HT-stimulated inward current (I(5-HT)) mediated by the human 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 enhanced the I(5-HT), but 4 reduced it. These results indicate that 4 is an inhibitor of the 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

  1. The effects of varenicline on sensory gating and exploratory behavior with pretreatment with nicotinic or 5-HT3A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kucinski, Aaron; Wersinger, Scott; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Becker, Chani; Lippiello, Pat; Bencherif, Merouane; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia smoke at high frequency relative to the general population. Despite the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, smoking among schizophrenic patients improves cognitive impairments not addressed or worsened by common neuroleptics. Varenicline, a nonselective neuronal nicotinic receptor (NNR) agonist and full agonist of 5-HT3A receptors, helps reduce smoking among schizophrenic patients. To determine whether varenicline also improves a cognitive symptom of schizophrenia, namely, impaired sensory gating, a transgenic mouse with schizophrenia, th-fgfr1(tk-), was used. Varenicline dose-dependently increased prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, a measure of sensory gating, in th-fgfr1(tk-) mice and normalized PPI deficits relative to nontransgenic controls. With the highest dose (10 mg/kg), however, there was a robust elevation of PPI and startle response, as well as reduced exploratory behavior in the open field and elevated plus maze. Pretreatment with the nonspecific NNR antagonist mecamylamine attenuated the exaggerated PPI response and, similar to the 5-HT3A receptor antagonist ondansetron, it prevented the reduction in exploratory behavior. Collectively, these results indicate that varenicline at low-to-moderate doses may be beneficial against impaired sensory gating in schizophrenia; however, higher doses may induce anxiogenic effects, which can be prevented with antagonists of NNRs or 5-HT3A receptors.

  2. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of [(11)C]Granisetron and [(18)F]Fluoropalonosetron as PET Probes for 5-HT3 Receptor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Mu, Linjing; Müller Herde, Adrienne; Rüefli, Pascal M; Sladojevich, Filippo; Milicevic Sephton, Selena; Krämer, Stefanie D; Thompson, Andrew J; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M; Lochner, Martin

    2016-11-16

    Serotonin-gated ionotropic 5-HT3 receptors are the major pharmacological targets for antiemetic compounds. Furthermore, they have become a focus for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and there is some evidence that pharmacological modulation of 5-HT3 receptors might alleviate symptoms of other neurological disorders. Highly selective, high-affinity antagonists, such as granisetron (Kytril) and palonosetron (Aloxi), belong to a family of drugs (the "setrons") that are well established for clinical use. To enable us to better understand the actions of these drugs in vivo, we report the synthesis of 8-fluoropalonosetron (15) that has a binding affinity (Ki = 0.26 ± 0.05 nM) similar to the parent drug (Ki = 0.21 ± 0.03 nM). We radiolabeled 15 by nucleophilic (18)F-fluorination of an unsymmetrical diaryliodonium palonosetron precursor and achieved the radiosynthesis of 1-(methyl-(11)C)-N-granisetron ([(11)C]2) through N-alkylation with [(11)C]CH3I, respectively. Both compounds [(18)F]15 (chemical and radiochemical purity >95%, specific activity 41 GBq/μmol) and [(11)C]2 (chemical and radiochemical purity ≥99%, specific activity 170 GBq/μmol) were evaluated for their utility as positron emission tomography (PET) probes. Using mouse and rat brain slices, in vitro autoradiography with both [(18)F]15 and [(11)C]2 revealed a heterogeneous and displaceable binding in cortical and hippocampal regions that are known to express 5-HT3 receptors at significant levels. Subsequent PET experiments suggested that [(18)F]15 and [(11)C]2 are of limited utility for the PET imaging of brain 5-HT3 receptors in vivo.

  3. Blockade of peripheral 5HT3 receptor attenuates the formalin-induced nocifensive behavior in persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation of rat.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Keiichiro; Imbe, Hiroki; Tashiro, Akimasa; Kumabe, Shunji; Senba, Emiko

    2004-09-02

    The role of peripheral 5HT3 receptors in the orofacial nocifensive behavior induced by the injection of formalin into masseter muscle was evaluated. The behavioral activities evoked by the formalin injection exhibited a biphasic response in the rats with or without temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation (CFA group or non-CFA group). The orofacial nocifensive behavioral activity was enhanced after TMJ inflammation. Systemic administration of tropisetron, 5HT3 receptor antagonist, reduced the nocifensive behavioral activities in the late phase of orofacial formalin test in CFA group, but not in non-CFA group. Local administration of tropisetron into the masseter muscle in CFA group, but not in non-CFA group also attenuated the behavioral activities in the late phase. Unexpectedly, low dose of local tropisetron reduced the nocifensive behavioral activities in the early phase of orofacial formalin test in CFA group. These data suggest that induction of TMJ inflammation causes the elevation of the orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities evoked by formalin injection into masseter muscle, and that peripheral 5HT3 receptors may play a critical role in nociception and the transmission of orofacial pain.

  4. Discovery of new anti-depressants from structurally novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonists: design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamides.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Pandey, Dilip Kumar; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2011-02-15

    A novel series of 3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamides were designed as per the pharmacophoric requirements of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist using ligand-based approach. The desired carboxamides were synthesized from the key intermediate, 3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxylic acid by coupling with appropriate amines in the presence of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC·HCl) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt). The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism was evaluated in longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus preparation from guinea pig ileum against 5-HT(3) agonist, 2-methy-5-HT, which was expressed in the form of pA(2) values. Compound 6h (3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-yl)(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methanone was found to be the most active compound, which expressed a pA(2) value of 7.7. In forced swim test, the compounds with higher pA(2) value exhibited good anti-depressant-like activity and compounds with lower pA(2) value failed to show activity as compared to the vehicle-treated group.

  5. Intrathecal nefopam-induced antinociception through activation of descending serotonergic projections involving spinal 5-HT7 but not 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Gon; Kim, Woong Mo; Kim, Joung Min; Bae, Hong-Beom; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-02-05

    We examined the involvement of spinal 5-HT(5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor 3(5-HT3R) and 7(5-HT7R) as well as the overall role of descending serotonergic projections in the analgesic effects of intrathecal(i.t.) nefopam for two rat models of formalin and paw incision test. I.t. nefopam produced an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner in both tests. Lesioning the spinal serotonergic projections using i.t. 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine(5,7-DHT) did not influence the intensity of allodynia in the paw incision test, but i.t. 5,7-DHT abolished the effect of nefopam. In the formain test, i.t. 5,7-DHT alone significantly diminished the flinches, but the effect of nefopam was not affected by i.t. 5,7-DHT. Antagonism study showed that i.t. 5-HT7R antagonist, SB269970 significantly blocked the antinociceptive effect of nefopam in both tests, but i.t. 5-HT3R antagonist, ondansetron has no influence on the effect of nefopam. The present study demonstrates that descending spinal serotonergic projections play a vital role in antinociceptive effect of i.t. nefopam in the paw incision test, but indeterminate in the formalin test. In both tests, the antinociceptive effect of i.t. nefopam involves the spinal 5-HT7R, but not 5-HT3R.

  6. Shuyu Capsules Relieve Premenstrual Syndrome Depression by Reducing 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR Expression in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Feng, Jizhen; Gao, Dongmei; Wang, Jieqiong; Song, Chunhong; Wei, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the Shuyu capsule on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression in a rat model of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) depression and on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and hippocampal neuron 5-HT3 channel current were investigated, to elucidate its mechanism of action against PMS depression. PMS depression model rats were divided into depression and Shuyu- and fluoxetine-treated groups, which were compared to control rats for frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and behavior. The depressed model rats displayed symptoms of depression, which were reduced in treated and normal control rats. Frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR levels were significantly higher in the model versus the control group and were significantly lower in the Shuyu group. As compared to control rats, the 5-HT3R channel current in the model group was significantly higher; the 5-HT3R channel current in hippocampal neurons treated with serum from Shuyu group rats was significantly lower than that in those treated with model group serum. Thus, PMS depression may be related to 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and increased 5-HT3 channel current. Shuyu capsules rectified abnormal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and 5-HT3 channel current changes in a rat model; this finding may provide insight into treating PMS depression. PMID:27725889

  7. In silico investigation into the interactions between murine 5-HT3 receptor and the principle active compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Lohning, Anna E; Marx, Wolfgang; Isenring, Liz

    2016-11-01

    Gingerols and shogaols are the primary non-volatile actives within ginger (Zingiber officinale). These compounds have demonstrated in vitro to exert 5-HT3 receptor antagonism which could benefit chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The site and mechanism of action by which these compounds interact with the 5-HT3 receptor is not fully understood although research indicates they may bind to a currently unidentified allosteric binding site. Using in silico techniques, such as molecular docking and GRID analysis, we have characterized the recently available murine 5-HT3 receptor by identifying sites of strong interaction with particular functional groups at both the orthogonal (serotonin) site and a proposed allosteric binding site situated at the interface between the transmembrane region and the extracellular domain. These were assessed concurrently with the top-scoring poses of the docked ligands and included key active gingerols, shogaols and dehydroshogaols as well as competitive antagonists (e.g. setron class of pharmacologically active drugs), serotonin and its structural analogues, curcumin and capsaicin, non-competitive antagonists and decoys. Unexpectedly, we found that the ginger compounds and their structural analogs generally outscored other ligands at both sites. Our results correlated well with previous site-directed mutagenesis studies in identifying key binding site residues. We have identified new residues important for binding the ginger compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the ginger compounds and their structural analogues possess a high binding affinity to both sites. Notwithstanding the limitations of such theoretical analyses, these results suggest that the ginger compounds could act both competitively or non-competitively as has been shown for palonosetron and other modulators of CYS loop receptors.

  8. A nanocomposite material formed by benzofulvene polymer nanoparticles loaded with a potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (CR3124)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, Andrea; Galeazzi, Simone; Zanardi, Iacopo; Travagli, Valter; Anzini, Maurizio; Mendichi, Raniero; Petralito, Stefania; Memoli, Adriana; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Peris, Walter; Giordani, Antonio; Makovec, Francesco; Fresta, Massimo; Vomero, Salvatore

    2010-03-01

    Poly- BF3a, a new hydrophobic polymer obtained by spontaneous polymerization of 1-methylene-3-phenyl-1 H-indene, was found to give nanoparticles characterized by favorable shape and dimensions. Poly- BF3a nanoparticles were loaded with CR3124, a potent 5HT3 antagonist, as a drug model by desolvation methods either in the absence or in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG1000) as a wetting agent. The SEM studies showed that the introduction of CR3124 into the preparation led to a variable degree of aggregation-cementation, which afforded a sort of nanocomposite material. In the absence of PEG1000, the drug molecule was found to stay in the amorphous state (DSC studies) when its percentage is not higher than 10% by weight. In vitro release experiments showed that the formation and stability of the dispersion as well as the drug release were remarkably affected by the presence of PEG1000, demonstrating its beneficial effect to the nanoparticle morphology and disaggregation.

  9. Fluvoxamine alleviates seizure activity and downregulates hippocampal GAP-43 expression in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice: role of 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Alhaj, Momen W; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-06-01

    Epilepsy has been documented to lead to many changes in the nervous system including cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. Neuronal loss and aberrant neuroplastic changes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus have been identified in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. Antiseizure activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been reported in several studies. In the current study, the protective effect of fluvoxamine against PTZ-kindling was investigated in terms of seizure scores, neuronal loss, and regulation of hippocampal neuroplasticity. Further, the role of 5-HT3 receptors was determined. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of PTZ (35 mg/kg) thrice weekly, for a total of 13 injections. One hundred male albino mice were allocated into 10 groups: (1) saline, (2) PTZ, (3) diazepam (1 mg/kg)+PTZ, (4-6) fluvoxamine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg)+PTZ, (7) ondansetron+fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg)+PTZ, (8) ondansetron+PTZ group, (9) ondansetron (2 mg/kg, i.p.)+saline, and (10) fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg)+saline. PTZ-kindled mice showed high seizure activity, hippocampal neuronal loss, and expression of growth-associated phosphoprotein (GAP-43) compared with saline-treated mice. Repeated administration of fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg) in PTZ-kindled mice suppressed seizure scores, protected against hippocampal neuronal loss, and downregulated GAP-43 expression, without producing any signs of the 5-HT syndrome in healthy rats. Importantly, pretreatment with a selective 5-HT3 receptor blocker (ondansetron) attenuated the aforementioned effects of fluvoxamine. In conclusion, the ameliorating effect of fluvoxamine on hippocampal neurons and neuroplasticity in PTZ-kindled mice was, at least in part, dependent on enhancement of hippocampal serotoninergic transmission at 5-HT3 receptors.

  10. 5HT3 receptor antagonist (ondansetron) reverses depressive behavior evoked by chronic unpredictable stress in mice: modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and brain serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2014-09-01

    Chronic stress is one of the major causes of depression, associated with behavioral and biochemical impairments. 5HT3 receptor antagonists (such as ondansetron) have shown alleviation of depressive symptomology in preclinical and in few clinical studies. However, their effects in chronic stress-induced depressive behavior and the underlying mechanism(s) are yet to be known. In the present study, the effects of a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron were evaluated in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-evoked depressive behavior. In addition, the possible mechanism was determined by measuring plasma corticosterone (CORT) as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis activity and serotonin levels in the discrete brain regions. Mice were subjected to a battery of unpredictable stressors for 28 days. Ondansetron (0.05, 0.1 and 1mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o.) were administered during the last 14 days (day 15-28th) of CUS testing paradigm. The results showed that the 4-week CUS produced significant depressive behavior in mice, which included increased despair effects in forced swim test (FST) and reward-related deficits in sucrose preference test. Biochemical assays demonstrated a significant increase in percentage of plasma CORT and decrease in percentage of serotonin levels in the discrete brain regions of CUS mice. Chronic ondansetron treatment, similar to that of positive control fluoxetine, significantly reversed despair effects in FST and reward-related deficits in sucrose preference test. In addition, ondansetron and fluoxetine treatments significantly increased percentage of serotonin levels in the measured brain regions and attenuated HPA-axis hyperactivity, as evidenced by low percentage of plasma CORT levels in CUS mice. These findings indicate the potential role of ondansetron (a 5HT3 receptor antagonist) in reversing CUS-induced depressive behavior, which is possibly mediated by its modulating effects on the HPA-axis and

  11. Safety of serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists in patients undergoing surgery and chemotherapy: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are a class of antiemetic medications often used to prevent nausea and vomiting among patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. However, recent studies suggest that these agents might be associated with increased cardiac harm. To examine this further, we are proposing to conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis on the comparative safety of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists among patients undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. Methods/Design Studies reporting one or more safety outcomes of interest for 5-HT3 receptor antagonists compared with each other, placebo, and/or other anti-emetic agents (for example, benzamides, phenothiazines, butyrophenones, antihistamines, and anticholinergics) among children and adult patients undergoing surgery or chemotherapy will be included. Our primary outcome of interest is arrhythmia. Our secondary outcomes include cardiac death, QT prolongation, PR prolongation, all-cause mortality, nausea, and vomiting. We will include experimental studies, quasi-experimental studies (namely controlled before-after and interrupted time series), and observational studies (namely cohort studies). We will not limit inclusion by publication status, time period, duration of follow-up or language of dissemination. Electronic databases (for example, MEDLINE, EMBASE) will be searched from inception onwards. These main searches will be supplemented by searching for difficult to locate and unpublished studies, such as dissertations, and governmental reports. The eligibility criteria will be pilot-tested and subsequently used to screen the literature search results by two reviewers in duplicate. A similar process will be followed for full-text screening, data abstraction, and risk of bias/methodological quality appraisal. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool will be used to appraise experimental and quasi-experimental studies, and cohort studies will be assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa

  12. Vortioxetine dose-dependently reverses 5-HT depletion-induced deficits in spatial working and object recognition memory: a potential role for 5-HT1A receptor agonism and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Jensen, Jesper Bornø; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that the investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, reversed 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits while escitalopram and duloxetine did not. The present report studied the effects of vortioxetine and the potential impact of its 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist properties on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits. Recognition and spatial working memory were assessed in the object recognition (OR) and Y-maze spontaneous alternation (SA) tests, respectively. 5-HT depletion was induced in female Long-Evans rats using 4-cholro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl (PCPA) and receptor occupancies were determined by ex vivo autoradiography. Rats were acutely dosed with vortioxetine, ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or flesinoxan (5-HT1A receptor agonist). The effects of chronic vortioxetine administration on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits were also assessed. 5-HT depletion reliably impaired memory performance in both the tests. Vortioxetine reversed PCPA-induced memory deficits dose-dependently with a minimal effective dose (MED) ≤0.1mg/kg (∼80% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR) and ≤3.0mg/kg (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 receptor occupancy: ∼15%, 60%, 95%) in SA. Ondansetron exhibited a MED ≤3.0μg/kg (∼25% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR), but was inactive in the SA test. Flesinoxan had a MED ≤1.0mg/kg (∼25% 5-HT1A receptor occupancy; SA); only 1.0mg/kg ameliorated deficits in the NOR. Chronic p.o. vortioxetine administration significantly improved memory performance in OR and occupied 95%, 66%, and 9.5% of 5-HT3, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. Vortioxetine's effects on SA performance may involve 5-HT1A receptor agonism, but not 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, whereas the effects on OR performance may involve 5-HT3 receptor antagonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism.

  13. Bidirectional amygdaloid control of neuropathic hypersensitivity mediated by descending serotonergic pathways acting on spinal 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Sagalajev, B; Bourbia, N; Beloushko, E; Wei, H; Pertovaara, A

    2015-04-01

    Amygdala is involved in processing of primary emotions and particularly its central nucleus (CeA) also in pain control. Here we studied mechanisms mediating the descending control of mechanical hypersensitivity by the CeA in rats with a peripheral neuropathy in the left hind limb. For drug administrations, the animals had a guide cannula in the right CeA and an intrathecal catheter or another guide cannula in the medullary raphe. Hypersensitivity was tested with monofilaments. Glutamate administration in the CeA produced a bidirectional effect on hypersensitivity that varied from an increase at a low-dose (9μg) to a reduction at high doses (30-100μg). The increase but not the reduction of hypersensitivity was prevented by blocking the amygdaloid NMDA receptor with a dose of MK-801 that alone had no effects. The glutamate-induced increase in hypersensitivity was reversed by blocking the spinal 5-HT3 receptor with ondansetron, whereas the reduction in hypersensitivity was reversed by blocking the spinal 5-HT1A receptor with WAY-100635. Both the increase and decrease of hypersensitivity induced by amygdaloid glutamate treatment were reversed by medullary administration of a 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, that presumably produced autoinhibition of serotonergic cell bodies in the medullary raphe. The results indicate that depending on the dose, glutamate in the CeA has a descending facilitatory or inhibitory effect on neuropathic pain hypersensitivity. Serotoninergic raphe neurons are involved in mediating both of these effects. Spinally, the 5-HT3 receptor contributes to the increase and the 5-HT1A receptor to the decrease of neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by amygdaloid glutamate.

  14. Effect of R3487/MEM3454, a novel nicotinic alpha7 receptor partial agonist and 5-HT3 antagonist on sustained attention in rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Kholdebarin, Ehsan; Brucato, Frederic H; Callahan, Patrick M; Lowe, David A; Levin, Edward D

    2009-03-17

    It is well established that nicotinic systems in the brain are critically involved in attentional processes in both animals and humans. The current study assessed the effects of a novel nicotinic alpha7 receptor partial agonist and 5-HT3 antagonist, R3487/MEM3454 (also referred to as R3487 or MEM 3454) on sustained attention in rats performing an operant visual signal detection task. The effects of R3487/MEM3454 were compared to those of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor/nicotinic alpha7 allosteric positive modulator galanthamine. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously with R3487/MEM3454 (0.03, 0.1, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg), galanthamine (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg) or vehicle 30 min before the attentional test. In the second study, the time-dependent effects of R3487/MEM3454 were assessed by injecting the compound (0.6 mg/kg, s.c.) at different pretreatment intervals (30, 60 or 90 min) before the start of the attentional task. Our results show a significant dose-effect for R3487/MEM3454 on percent hit accuracy performance without any significant alteration on percent correct rejection performance. In the time-dependent test, R3487/MEM3454 significantly increased the percent hit accuracy performance when animals were injected 60 min before the start of the attentional task. Administration of galanthamine failed to significantly increase percent hit accuracy performance and increasing the dose of galanthamine produced a decrease in percent correct rejection performance. The present findings with R3487/MEM3454 suggest that nicotinic alpha7 receptors and/or 5-HT3 receptors may play an important role in modulating sustained attention and that R3487/MEM3454 may have therapeutic potential in improving sustained attention in humans.

  15. X-ray analysis of the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on gastrointestinal motility in rats repeatedly treated with the antitumoral drug cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Vera, Gema; López-Pérez, Ana Esther; Martínez-Villaluenga, María; Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Abalo, Raquel

    2014-08-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is associated with the development of numerous adverse effects, including nausea, emesis and other alterations in gastrointestinal (GI) motility. The administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists has provided a clinical advance in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced vomiting but these drugs lose efficacy throughout chronic treatment. The effects of these drugs in experimental animals under chronic administration are not well known. Our aim was to study, using radiographic methods, the effect of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron on GI dysmotility induced in the rat by repeated cisplatin administration. First, invasive methods were used to select a dose of granisetron capable of reducing increased stomach weight due to acute cisplatin administration (6 mg/kg, ip). Second, rats received two intraperitoneal (ip) injections once a week for 4 weeks: granisetron (1 mg/kg, ip) or saline and, thirty min later, saline or cisplatin (2 mg/kg, ip). Body weight gain was measured throughout treatment. Radiological techniques were used to determine the acute (after first dose) and chronic (after last dose) effects of cisplatin and/or granisetron on GI motility. Repeated cisplatin-induced weight loss which granisetron did not prevent. Gastric emptying was delayed after the first cisplatin administration. Granisetron completely prevented this effect. After weekly administration, cisplatin-induced gastric dysmotility was enhanced and granisetron was not capable of completely preventing this effect. Granisetron prevents gastric emptying alterations, but its efficacy decreases throughout antineoplastic treatment. This might be due to the enhanced effect of cisplatin.

  16. Effect of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist 4i, in corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2015-04-01

    Stress in our daily life severely affects the normal physiology of the biological system. Dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the development of depression-like behavior, which remains under diagnosed and poorly treated. Exogenous corticosterone (CORT) administration has been demonstrated to develop a depression model, which has shown to mimic HPA-axis induced depression-like state in rodents. In the present study, the effect of a novel 5HT3 receptor, 4i was examined on CORT induced depression in mice. CORT (30mg/kg, subcutaneously) was given for 4-weeks to mice in control group, while mice in drug treated group were given 4i (0.5-1mg/kg, intraperitoneally)/fluoxetine (as a positive control, 10mg/kg), for the last 2-weeks of CORT dosing. Repeated CORT dosing caused depression-like behavior in mice as indicated by increased despair effects in forced swim test (FST) and anhedonia in sucrose preference test. In addition, CORT administration induced oxidative load in the brain with significant increase in pro-oxidant (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) markers and a substantial decline in anti-oxidant defense (catalase and reduced glutathione levels) system, indicating a direct effect of stress hormones in the induction of the brain oxidative damage. On the other hand, 4i and fluoxetine treatment reversed the CORT induced depressive-like deficits. Furthermore, 4i and fluoxetine prevented CORT induced oxidative brain insults, which may plausibly demonstrate one of the key mechanisms for antidepressant-like effects of the compounds. Thus, the study suggests that 5HT3 antagonist; 4i may be implicated as pharmacological intervention targeting depressive-like anomaly associated with HPA-axis dysregulation.

  17. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of tritium-labeled 1-methyl-N-(8-methyl-8-azabicyclo(3. 2. 1)oct-3-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxa mide, a useful radioligand for 5HT3 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.W.; Bloomquist, W.; Cohen, M.L.; Reid, L.R.; Schenck, K.; Wong, D.T. )

    1990-12-01

    The advent of potent, highly selective 5HT3 receptor antagonists has stimulated considerable interest in 5HT3 receptor mediated physiology and pharmacology. To permit detailed biochemical studies regarding interaction of the indazole class of serotonin (5HT) antagonists with 5HT3 receptors in multiple tissues, we synthesized 1-methyl-N-(8-methyl-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)oct-3-yl)-1H-indazole- 3-carboxamide (LY278584, compound 9) in high specific activity, tritium-labeled form. This radioligand was selected as a synthetic target because of its potency as a 5HT3-receptor antagonist, its selectivity for this receptor viz a viz other 5HT-receptor subtypes, and the ability to readily incorporate three tritia via the indazole N-CH3 substituent. Alkylation of N-(8-methyl-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)oct-3-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (8) with sodium hydride and tritium-labeled iodomethane, followed by HPLC purification, resulted in (3H)-9 with a radiochemical purity of 99% and a specific activity of 80.5 Ci/mmol. This radioligand bound with high affinity to a single class of saturable recognition sites in membranes isolated from cerebral cortex of rat brain. The Kd was 0.69 nM and the Bmax was 16.9 fmol/mg of protein. The specific binding was excellent, and accounted for 83-93% of total binding at concentrations of 2 nM or less. The potencies of known 5HT3-receptor antagonists as inhibitors of (3H)-9 binding correlated well with their pharmacological receptor affinities as antagonists of 5HT-induced decreases in heart rate and contraction of guinea pig ileum, suggesting the central recognition site for this radioligand may be extremely similar to or identical with peripheral 5HT3 receptors.

  18. Effects of serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on stress-induced colonic hyperalgesia and diarrhoea in rats: a comparative study with opioid receptor agonists, a muscarinic receptor antagonist and a synthetic polymer.

    PubMed

    Hirata, T; Keto, Y; Nakata, M; Takeuchi, A; Funatsu, T; Akuzawa, S; Sasamata, M; Miyata, K

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of serotonin (5-HT)3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs) including ramosetron, alosetron, and cilansetron on colonic nociceptive threshold in rats. Furthermore, we established a restraint stress-induced colonic hyperalgesia model in rats, and compared the inhibitory effects of 5-HT3RAs on restraint stress-induced colonic hyperalgesia and diarrhoea with those of loperamide, trimebutine, tiquizium and polycarbophil. The colonic nociceptive threshold was measured as the balloon pressure at the time the rat showed a nociceptive response during colonic distension by an intrarectally inserted balloon. Oral administration of ramosetron (3-30 microg kg(-1)), alosetron (30-300 microg kg(-1)), or cilansetron (30-300 microg kg(-1)) increased the colonic nociceptive threshold in a dose-dependent manner in non-stressed rats. Restraint stress for 1 h significantly decreased the colonic nociceptive threshold, but ramosetron (0.3-3 microg kg(-1)), alosetron (3-30 microg kg(-1)), cilansetron (3-30 microg kg(-1)) and trimebutine (100-1000 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited the decrease in the threshold. Loperamide (3-30 mg kg(-1)), tiquizium (100-1000 mg kg(-1)) and polycarbophil (1000 mg kg(-1)) did not affect the restraint stress-induced decrease in the colonic nociceptive threshold. All drugs tested in this study showed dose-dependent inhibition of restraint stress-induced diarrhoea in rats. These results indicate that, unlike existing antidiarrhoeal and spasmolytic agents, 5-HT3RAs have inhibitory effects on colonic nociception, and prevented restraint stress-induced both diarrhoea and hyperalgesia at almost the same doses in rats. This suggests that the 5-HT3RAs may be useful in ameliorating both colonic hyperalgesia and diarrhoea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  19. Antidepressant and anti-anxiety like effects of 4i (N-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl) quinoxalin-2-carboxamide), a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in acute and chronic neurobehavioral rodent models.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Thangaraj, Devadoss; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2014-07-15

    Depression and anxiety are the most debilitating mood disorders with poor therapeutic recovery rates. In the last decades, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been identified as potential agents for mood disorders. The current investigation focuses on evaluating the, antidepressant and anti-anxiety like effects of a novel 5-HT3 antagonist, 4i (N-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl) quinoxalin-2-carboxamide). Preliminary, in vitro 5-HT3 receptor binding affinity was performed in isolated longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus from the guinea pig ileum. Consequently, neurobehavioral effects of 4i in acute and chronic rodent models were evaluated. In addition, involvement of serotonergic system in the postulated effects of the compound was analyzed by in vivo assay. in vitro, 4i demonstrated high 5-HT3 receptor antagonistic activity (pA2, 7.6). in vivo acute study, 4i exhibited decreased duration of immobility in forced swim and tail suspension tests, and increased exploratory parameters as number and duration of nose-poking in hole board test and latency and time spent in aversive brightly illuminated light chamber in light-dark model. Moreover, in chronic model of depression, i.e., olfactory bulbectomy with behavioral deficits, 4i reversed depressive anhedonia in sucrose preference test and anxious hyperactive behavior in open field test in rats. Furthermore, synergistic effect of 4i with fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and inhibitory effect of 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (a 5-HT3 receptor agonist) revealed serotonergic modulation by 4i mediated 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, which was further confirmed by potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (a serotonin synthesis precursor) induced head twitch response. These findings suggest the potential antidepressant and anti-anxiety like effects of 4i, which may be related to the modulation of serotonergic system.

  20. Antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects of 4n, a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist using behaviour based rodent models.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Baldev; Jindal, Ankur; Pandey, Dilip Kumar; Bhatt, Shvetank; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan

    2012-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects of N-n-Butylquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (4n), a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, with an optimal log P (2.01) and pA2 value (7.3) greater than ondansetron (6.9) using rodent behavioural models of depression and anxiety. Acute treatment of 4n (1-4 mg/kg, ip) in mice produced antidepressant-like effect in forced swim test (FST) without affecting the baseline locomotion in actophotometer test in mice. 4n (2-4 mg/kg, ip) treatment also potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitch response in mice. Further, 4n (1-4 mg/kg, ip) treatment antagonized reserpine induced hypothermia in rats. Chronic treatment (14 days) with 4n (1-4 mg/kg) and paroxetine (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the behavioural anomalies induced by bilateral olfactory bulbectomy in rats in modified open field paradigm. An anxiogenic-like behaviour was induced by light alone as the stimulus using light-dark aversion test. 4n (2-4 mg/kg, ip) treatment significantly increased no. of transitions between dark and lit area and the time spent in the lit area. In conclusion, these preliminary investigations confirm that 4n exhibited antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects in rodent models of depression and anxiety.

  1. Acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron, reduces immobility in intact female rats exposed to the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Gabriela; Maswood, Sharmin

    2006-10-01

    The effects of tropisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, were evaluated in adult Fischer female rats exposed to the Forced Swim Test (FST). Rats selected on the days of proestrus or estrus was immersed in a cylinder of water for 2 consecutive days. Rats were exposed to the FST for 15 min on day 1 (pretest), followed by a 5-min session (test), 24 h later. The proestrous-estrous group consisted of rats that were exposed to the FST on their proestrous stage (pretest); then 24 h later the same rats were exposed to the FST on their estrous stage (test). Rats in the estrous-diestrous group were exposed to the FST on their estrous stage (pretest) and 24 h later on their diestrous stage (test). Rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline or 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg tropisetron 30 min prior to exposure to the cylinder on the test day. Immobility, swimming, and struggling behaviors were scored for 5 min. There was a significant decline in immobility after treatment with 2.0 mg/kg tropisetron in both groups. In addition, a significant decline in swimming was observed in the estrous rats (proestrous-estrous group) after treatment with 2.0 mg/kg tropisetron. There were no significant effects of tropisetron on struggling in any groups examined.

  2. Antidepressant-like effect of novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-n-butyl-3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (6p): An approach using rodent behavioral antidepressant tests

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Shvetank; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Jindal, Ankur Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant potential of N-n-butyl-3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (6p), a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in rodent behavioral models of depression. Materials and Methods: The compound 6p was examined in various behavioral models like forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mechanistic models [5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch and reserpine-induced hypothermia (RIH)], and in chronic surgery model-olfactory bulbectomy in rats. Results: Compound 6p (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited antidepressant-like effect in FST and TST after acute treatment without having an effect on baseline locomotor activity. Moreover, 6p (2 mg/kg, i.p.), potentiated the 5-HTP–induced head twitch responses in mice and inhibited the RIH in rats. Chronic treatment (14 days) with 6p (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o.) and paroxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats significantly reversed the behavioral anomalies induced by bilateral olfactory bulbectomy using open field exploration. Conclusion: The preliminary studies reveal that compound 6p exhibits antidepressant-like effect in behavioral rodent models of depression. PMID:24014909

  3. 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor-mediated facilitation of the emptying phase of the peristaltic reflex in the marmoset isolated ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, B. R.; Costall, B.; Naylor, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    .83 +/- 0.36 respectively in the presence of GR 113808 (30 nM). 6. In the presence of a high concentration of (10 microM) 5-methoxytryptamine the subsequent addition of 2-methyl-5-HT (3-10 microM) but not 5-methoxytryptamine (10 microM) facilitated peristalsis; the effect of 3 microM 2-methyl-5-HT was significantly decreased by 2 microM ondansetron. 7. It is concluded that the facilitation of the peristaltic reflex in the marmoset intestine induced by 5-HT at submicromolar concentrations involves a 5-HT4 receptor stimulation with an additional 5-HT3 receptor activation at higher concentrations. PMID:8732276

  4. Ondansetron reverses anti-hypersensitivity from clonidine in rats following peripheral nerve injury: Role of γ-amino butyric acid in α2-adrenoceptor and 5-HT3 serotonin receptor analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Kimura, Masafumi; Yoshizumi, Masaru; Hobo, Shotaro; Obata, Hideaki; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Monoaminergic pathways, impinging an α2-adrenoceptors and 5-HT3 serotonin receptors, modulate nociceptive transmission, but their mechanisms and interactions after neuropathic injury are unknown. Here we examine these interactions in rodents after nerve injury. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats following L5-L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) were used for either behavioral testing, in vivo microdialysis for γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine release, or synaptosome preparation for GABA release. Results Intrathecal administration of the α2-adrenoceptor agonist (clonidine) and 5-HT3 receptor agonist (chlorophenylbiguanide) reduced hypersensitivity in SNL rats via GABA receptor-mediated mechanisms. Clonidine increased GABA and acetylcholine release in vivo in the spinal cord of SNL rats but not in normal rats. Clonidine-induced spinal GABA release in SNL rats was blocked by α2-adrenergic and nicotinic cholinergic antagonists. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron decreased and chlorophenylbiguanide increased spinal GABA release in both normal and SNL rats. In synaptosomes from the spinal dorsal horn of SNL rats, pre-synaptic GABA release was increased by nicotinic agonists and decreased by muscarinic and α2-adrenergic agonists. Spinally administered ondansetron significantly reduced clonidine-induced anti-hypersensitivity and spinal GABA release in SNL rats. Conclusion These results suggest that spinal GABA contributes to anti-hypersensitivity from intrathecal α2-adrenergic and 5-HT3 receptor agonists in the neuropathic pain state, that cholinergic neuroplasticity after nerve injury is critical for α2-adrenoceptor-mediated GABA release, and that blockade of spinal 5-HT3 receptors reduces α2-adrenoceptor-mediated anti-hypersensitivity via reducing total GABA release. PMID:22722575

  5. Ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist reverses depression and anxiety-like behavior in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: possible implication of serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Kurhe, Yeshwant

    2014-12-05

    Increased prevalence and high comorbidity of depression-like mood disorders and diabetes have prompted investigation of new targets and potential contributing agents. There is considerable evidence supporting the inconsistent clinical efficacy and persistent undesirable effects of existing antidepressant therapy for depression associated with diabetes. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating the effect of ondansetron, a selective 5HT3 receptor antagonist in attenuating depression and anxiety-like behavior comorbid with diabetes. Experimentally, Swiss albino mice were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg). After 8 weeks, diabetic mice received a single dose of vehicle/ondansetron (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.)/fluoxetine (the positive control, 10 mg/kg p.o.) for 28 days. Thereafter, behavioral studies were conducted to test depression-like behavior using forced swim test (FST) and anxiety-like deficits using hole-board and light-dark tests, followed by biochemical estimation of serotonin content in discrete brain regions. The results demonstrated that, STZ-induced diabetic mice exhibited increased duration of immobility and decreased swimming behavior in FST, reduced exploratory behavior during hole-board test and increased aversion to brightly illuminated light area in light-dark test as compared to non-diabetic mice, while ondansetron (similar to fluoxetine) treatment significantly reversed the same. Biochemical assay revealed that ondansetron administration attenuated diabetes-induced neurochemical impairment of serotonin function, indicated by elevated serotonin levels in discrete brain regions of diabetic mice. Collectively, the data indicate that ondansetron may reverse depression and anxiety-like behavioral deficits associated with diabetes in mice and modulation of serotonergic activity may be a key mechanism of the compound.

  6. Spinal 5-HT1A, not the 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors, mediates descending serotonergic inhibition for late-phase mechanical allodynia of carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung Min; Jeong, Seong Wook; Yang, Jihoon; Lee, Seong Heon; Kim, Woon Mo; Jeong, Seongtae; Bae, Hong Beom; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-07-23

    Previous electrophysiological studies demonstrated a limited role of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3R), but facilitatory role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT1BR in spinal nociceptive processing of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. The release of spinal 5-HT was shown to peak in early-phase and return to baseline in late-phase of carrageenan inflammation. We examined the role of the descending serotonergic projections involving 5-HT1AR, 5-HT1BR, and 5-HT3R in mechanical allodynia of early- (first 4h) and late-phase (24h after) carrageenan-induced inflammation. Intrathecal administration of 5-HT produced a significant anti-allodynic effect in late-phase, but not in early-phase. Similarly, intrathecal 5-HT1AR agonist (8-OH-DPAT) attenuated the intensity of late-phase allodynia in a dose dependent fashion which was antagonized by 5-HT1AR antagonist (WAY-100635), but produced no effect on the early-phase allodynia. However, other agonists or antagonists of 5-HT1BR (CP-93129, SB-224289) and 5-HT3R (m-CPBG, ondansetron) did not produce any anti- or pro-allodynic effect in both early- and late- phase allodynia. These results suggest that spinal 5-HT1A, but not 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors mediate descending serotonergic inhibition on nociceptive processing of late-phase mechanical allodynia in carrageenan-induced inflammation.

  7. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of novel 2-(4-substituted piperazin-1-yl)1, 8 naphthyridine 3-carboxylic acids as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the management of depression.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arghya K; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Jindal, Ankur; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2014-12-01

    1, 8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid analogs were synthesized and found to possess potential 5-HT3 receptor antagonism as well as antidepressant-like activity. Initially, 5-HT3 receptor antagonism of all the compounds was determined in the form of pA2 value against agonist 2-methyl 5-HT in longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparation from guinea-pig ileum. Among all the compounds tested, compound 7a demonstrated most promising pA2 value of 7.6. Subsequently, all the compounds were evaluated for antidepressant activity using forced swim test and tail suspension test in mice. Compounds 7a, 7d, 7f, 7h, and 7i exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antidepressant-like activity as compound to vehicle-treated group. Importantly, none of the tested compound affected locomotor activity of mice at tested dose levels.

  8. Dual role of serotonin in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration: pro-ulcerogenic action via 5-HT3 receptors and anti-ulcerogenic action via 5-HT4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinichi; Matsuda, Narumi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Wada, Mai; Onimaru, Naoki; Yasuda, Masashi; Amagase, Kikuko; Horie, Syunji; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-09-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) exerts multiple physiological functions not only in the central and peripheral nervous systems but also in the gastrointestinal tract, and these multiple functions are accounted for by a variety of 5-HT receptor subtypes. We investigated the role of 5-HT in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions in mice, in relation to 5-HT receptor subtypes. A single oral administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg) provoked damage in the small intestine of mice 24 h later, and this response was prevented by pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (a 5-HT synthesis inhibitor). The administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron and ramosetron, dose-dependently reduced the severity of the intestinal lesions, whereas a high dose of GR113808 (a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist) significantly aggravated these lesions. In contrast, NAN-190 (a 5-HT1 receptor antagonist), ketanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), and SB269970 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist) had no effect on these lesions. Mosapride (a 5-HT4 receptor agonist) significantly reduced the severity of indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions, and this protective effect was totally prevented by either GR113808 or methyllycaconitine (an α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist). Indomethacin increased the activity of myeloperoxidase and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in the small intestine; these responses were significantly attenuated by ondansetron and mosapride. These findings suggest that endogenous 5-HT exerts a dual role in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions: pro-ulcerogenic action via 5-HT3 receptors and anti-ulcerogenic action via 5-HT4 receptors, and the latter effect via 5-HT4 receptors may be mediated by activation of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  9. Anti-depressant-like activity of a novel serotonin type-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist in rodent models of depression.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepali; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Bhatt, Shvetank; Gautam, Baldev; Jindal, Ankur; Pandey, Dilip; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan

    2011-08-01

    N-Cyclohexyl-3-methoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCM-13), a novel 5-HT3 antagonist identified from a series of compounds with higher pA2 (7.6) and good log P (2.91) value was screened in rodent models of depression such as forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), interaction studies with standard anti-depressants and confirmatory studies such as reversal of parthenolide induced depression and reserpine induced hypothermia. In FST (2 and 4 mg/kg) and TST (2 and 4 mg/kg), QCM-13 significantly reduced the duration of immobility in mice without affecting the base line locomotion. QCM-13 (2 and 4 mg/kg) was also found to have significant interaction with standard anti-depressants (fluoxetine and bupropion in FST and TST respectively). Further, reversal of parthenolide induced depression in mice and reserpine induced hypothermia in rat models indicate the serotonergic influence of QCM-13 for anti-depressant potential.

  10. Effect of acute and chronic treatment with QCF-3 (4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl) (quinoxalin-2-yl) methanone, a novel 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, in animal models of depression.

    PubMed

    Devadoss, Thangaraj; Pandey, Dilip K; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Yadav, Shushil K

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor is unique among the seven recognized serotonin receptor "families". The existence serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT(3)) in neuro-anatomical regions stimulated the research interest for novel therapeutic targets such as anxiety, depression, nociception and cognitive function. In the current study, (4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl) (quinoxalin-2-yl) methanone (QCF-3), a novel 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, with an optimal log P (the logarithm of the ratio of the concentrations of the un-ionized solute in the solvents is called log P) and significant pA2 value (is a negative logarithm of the molar concentration of antagonist required to reduce the effect of multiple dose agonist to that of single dose) was screened for its anti-depressant potential using rodent behavioral models of depression. Psycho-pharmacological investigations involved acute and chronic treatment (14 days) with QCF-3 and assessment of behavior during the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice and olfactory bulbectomised rats. A dose response study in mice revealed an initial anti-depressant-like effect of QCF-3 (0.5-4 mg/kg, ip) in the FST and TST. Interaction studies showed that QCF-3 (1 and 2 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the antidepressant action of fluoxetine and bupropion in the FST and TST, respectively. QCF-3 (1 and 2 mg/kg) potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitches response in mice and reversed reserpine-induced hypothermia in rats. Further, OBX rats exhibited behavioral anomalies in the open field and hyper-emotionality tests that were attenuated by chronic QCF-3 treatment. In conclusion, this behavioral study describes an antidepressant-like effect of QCF-3 in rodent behavioral models of depression.

  11. Importance of M2-M3 loop in governing properties of genistein at the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inferred from α7/5-HT3A chimera.

    PubMed

    Grønlien, Jens Halvard; Ween, Hilde; Thorin-Hagene, Kirsten; Cassar, Steven; Li, Jinhe; Briggs, Clark A; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Malysz, John

    2010-11-25

    Genistein and 5-hydroxyindole (5-HI) potentiate the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor current by primarily increasing peak amplitude, a property of type I α7 positive allosteric modulation. In this study, the effects of these two compounds were investigated at two different α7/5-HT(3) chimeras (chimera 1, comprising of extracellular α7 N-terminus fused to the remainder of 5-HT(3A), and chimera 2 containing an additional α7 encoded M2-M3 loop), and wild-type α7 and 5-HT(3A) receptors. Agonist-evoked responses, examined by expression of the chimeras in Xenopus laevis oocytes or HEK-293 cells, revealed that currents decayed slower and compounds {rank order: N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-282987)~2-(1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonan-4-yl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (NS6784)>acetylcholine>choline} were more potent in chimera 2 than chimera 1 or α7 receptors. In chimera 2, genistein and 5-HI potentiated agonist-evoked responses (EC(50): 4-5 μM for genistein and 300-500 μM for 5-HI) and at higher concentrations evoked current directly consistent with ago-allosteric modulation. At chimera 1 and 5-HT(3A) receptors, neither compound directly evoked any current and 5-HI, only at chimera 1, was able to potentiate agonist-evoked responses. Genistein and 5-HI did not inhibit the binding of the α7 agonist [(3)H](1S,4S)-2,2-dimethyl-5-(6-phenylpyridazin-3-yl)-5-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[2.2.1] heptane ([(3)H]A-585539) to rat brain or chimera 2. In summary, this study supports the role of the M2-M3 loop being critical for the positive allosteric effect of genistein, but not 5-HI, and in agonist-evoked response fine-tuning. The identification of distinct α7 receptor modulatory sites offers unique opportunities for developing CNS therapeutics and understanding its pharmacology.

  12. 2-(4-substituted piperazin-1-yl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acids: novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with anxiolytic-like activity in rodent behavioral models.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Dhar, Arghya Kusum; Jindal, Ankur; Bhatt, Shvetank

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anxiolytic potential of a series of novel carboxylic acid based 1,8 naphthyridines as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The pA2 values of all the compounds were determined against agonist 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine in longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus preparations from guinea pig ileum. Compounds with higher pA2 values, particularly those greater than ondansetron, a standard 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, and optimal log P values were screened in mice by using behavioral tests such as a light-dark (L/D) aversion test, elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and an open field test (OFT). In the L/D test, compounds 7a, 7b, 7d, 7e, and 7i (2 mg/kg body mass, intraperitoneal) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the latency time to leave the light compartment, total time spent in the light compartment, and the number of transitions between the light and dark compartments. Compounds 7a, 7d, 7f, 7h, and 7i (2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time spent in the open arms and the number of entries into the open arms in the EPM test. In addition, compounds 7a, 7d, 7e, 7f, and 7h (2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ambulation scores and the frequency of rearing in the OFT.

  13. Evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic 5-HT2A/C and 5-HT3 receptors in the antidepressant-like effect caused by oral administration of bis selenide in mice.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Cristiano R; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2010-03-17

    The present study investigated a possible antidepressant-like activity of bis selenide using two predictive tests for antidepressant effect on rodents: the forced swimming test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). Bis selenide (0.5-5 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased the immobility time in the mouse FST and TST. The anti-immobility effect of bis selenide (1 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA; 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis), ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist), and ondasentron (1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist). Pretreatment of mice with prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), propranolol (2 mg/kg, i.p., a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist), or WAY 100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) did not block the antidepressant-like effect of bis selenide (1 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST. Administration of bis selenide (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine (1 mg/kg), at subeffective doses, produced an antidepressant-like effect in the TST. Bis selenide did not alter Na(+) K(+) ATPase, MAO-A and MAO-B activities in whole brains of mice. Bis selenide produced an antidepressant-like effect in the mouse TST and FST, which may be related to the serotonergic system (5-HT(2A/2C) and 5-HT(3) receptors).

  14. Dual role of serotonin in the acquisition and extinction of reward-driven learning: involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Hocht, Christian; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano; Rapanelli, Maximiliano

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been proposed as a possible encoder of reward. Nevertheless, the role of this neurotransmitter in reward-based tasks is not well understood. Given that the major serotonergic circuit in the rat brain comprises the dorsal raphe nuclei and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and because the latter structure is involved in the control of complex behaviors and expresses 1A (5-HT1A), 2A (5-HT2A), and 3 (5-HT3) receptors, the aim was to study the role of 5-HT and of these receptors in the acquisition and extinction of a reward-dependent operant conditioning task. Long Evans rats were trained in an operant conditioning task while receiving fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg), tianeptine (serotonin reuptake enhancer, 10mg/kg), buspirone (5-HT1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg), risperidone (5-HT2A antagonist, 1mg/kg), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 2mg/kg) or vehicle. Then, animals that acquired the operant conditioning without any treatment were trained to extinct the task in the presence of the pharmacological agents. Fluoxetine impaired acquisition but improved extinction. Tianeptine administration induced the opposite effects. Buspirone induced a mild deficit in acquisition and had no effects during the extinction phase. Risperidone administration resulted in learning deficits during the acquisition phase, although it promoted improved extinction. Ondansetron treatment showed a deleterious effect in the acquisition phase and an overall improvement in the extinction phase. These data showed a differential role of 5-HT in the acquisition and extinction of an operant conditioning task, suggesting that it may have a dual function in reward encoding.

  15. Analysis of free ACh and 5-HT in milk from four different species and their bioactivity on 5-HT(3) and nACh receptors.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Limon, Agenor; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-07-25

    Milk is one of the most beneficial aliments and is highly recommended in normal conditions; however, in certain disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome, cow milk and dairy products worsen the gastric symptoms and their use is not recommended. Among the most recognized milk-induced gatrointestinal symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, which are processes controlled by cholinergic and serotonergic transmission. Whether the presence of bioavailable ACh and 5-HT in milk may contribute to normal peristalsis, or to the developing of these symptoms, is not known. In this work we attempt to determine whether the content of free ACh and 5-HT is of physiological significance in milk from four different species: cow (bovine), goat, camel and human. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify free ACh and 5-HT in milk, and activation of the serotonergic and cholinergic ionotropic receptors was investigated using electrophysiological experiments. Our principal hypothesis was that milk from these four species had sufficient free ACh and 5-HT to activate their correspondent receptors expressed in a heterologous system. Our results showed a more complex picture, in which free ACh and 5-HT and their ability to activate cholinergic and serotonergic receptors are not correlated. This work is a first step to elucidate whether 5-HT and ACh, at the concentrations present in the milk, can be associated to a direct function in the GI.

  16. Sleep Deprivation-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Brain Dysfunction are Exacerbated by Size-Related Exposure to Ag and Cu Nanoparticles. Neuroprotective Effects of a 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonist Ondansetron.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aruna; Muresanu, Dafin F; Lafuente, José V; Patnaik, Ranjana; Tian, Z Ryan; Buzoianu, Anca D; Sharma, Hari S

    2015-10-01

    Military personnel are often subjected to sleep deprivation (SD) during combat operations. Since SD is a severe stress and alters neurochemical metabolism in the brain, a possibility exists that acute or long-term SD will influence blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and brain pathology. This hypothesis was examined in young adult rats (age 12 to 14 weeks) using an inverted flowerpot model. Rats were placed over an inverted flowerpot platform (6.5 cm diameter) in a water pool where the water levels are just 3 cm below the surface. In this model, animals can go to sleep for brief periods but cannot achieve deep sleep as they would fall into water and thus experience sleep interruption. These animals showed leakage of Evans blue in the cerebellum, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, parietal, temporal, occipital, cingulate cerebral cortices, and brain stem. The ventricular walls of the lateral and fourth ventricles were also stained blue, indicating disruption of the BBB and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Breakdown of the BBB or the BCSFB fluid barrier was progressive in nature from 12 to 48 h but no apparent differences in BBB leakage were seen between 48 and 72 h of SD. Interestingly, rats treated with metal nanoparticles, e.g., Cu or Ag, showed profound exacerbation of BBB disruption by 1.5- to 4-fold, depending on the duration of SD. Measurement of plasma and brain serotonin showed a close correlation between BBB disruption and the amine level. Repeated treatment with the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (1 mg/kg, s.c.) 4 and 8 h after SD markedly reduced BBB disruption and brain pathology after 12 to 24 h SD but not following 48 or 72 h after SD. However, TiO2-nanowired ondansetron (1 mg/kg, s.c) in an identical manner induced neuroprotection in rats following 48 or 72 h SD. However, plasma and serotonin levels were not affected by ondansetron treatment. Taken together, our observations are the first to show that (i) SD could induce BBB

  17. Neuropharmacological evaluation of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (6g) on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced changes in behavioural and brain oxidative stress parameters in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Shvetank; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Jindal, Ankur; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Dhar, Arghya Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate a novel 5 HT3 receptor antagonist (6g) on chronic stress induced changes in behavioural and brain oxidative stress parameter in mice. A complicated relationship exists among stressful stimuli, body's reaction to stress and the onset of clinical depression. Chronic unpredictable stressors can produce a situation similar to human depression, and such animal models can be used for the preclinical evaluation of antidepressants. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a novel and potential 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)(3-methoxyquinoxalin-2-yl) methanone (6g) with good Log P (3.08) value and pA2(7.5) values, synthesized in our laboratory was investigated to study the effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced behavioural and biochemical alterations in mice. Mice were subjected to different stress paradigms daily for a period of 28 days to induce depressive-like behaviour. Results: The results showed that CUMS caused depression-like behaviour in mice, as indicated by the significant (P < 0.05) decrease in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity and increase in immobility the forced swim test. In addition, it was found that lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, whereas glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities decreased in brain tissue of CUMS-treated mice. ‘6g’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o., 21 days) and fluoxetine treatment (20 mg/kg, p.o., 21 days) significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the CUMS-induced behavioural (increased immobility period, reduced sucrose preference and decreased locomotor activity) and biochemical (increased lipid peroxidation; decreased glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities). However fluoxetine treatment (20 mg/kg, p.o., 21 days) significantly decreased the nitrite level in the brain while ‘6g’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o., 21 days) did not show significant (P < 0.05) effect on the

  18. Inhibitory effects of ramosetron, a potent and selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, on conditioned fear stress-induced abnormal defecation and normal defecation in rats: comparative studies with antidiarrheal and spasmolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takuya; Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Keto, Yoshihiro; Akuzawa, Shinobu; Sasamata, Masao; Miyata, Keiji

    2008-02-01

    We examined the effect of ramosetron, a potent serotonin (5-HT)(3)-receptor antagonist for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, on conditioned fear stress (CFS)-induced defecation and normal (non-stressed) defecation in rats and compared ramosetron with the antidiarrheal agent loperamide and the spasmolytic agents trimebutine and tiquizium. Ramosetron, loperamide, trimebutine, and tiquizium significantly inhibited CFS-induced defecation in a dose-dependent manner with ED(50) (95% confidence limit) values of 0.019 (0.01 - 0.028), 9.4 (4.0 - 22), 850 (520 - 2,400), and 300 (190 - 450) mg/kg, respectively. A significant effect of ramosetron on CFS-induced defecation appeared at 10 min after dosing and was sustained for 8 h. In contrast, loperamide, trimebutine, and tiquizium significantly inhibited CFS-induced defecation between 1 - 8, 1 - 4, and 1 - 8 h after administration, respectively. High doses of ramosetron did not affect normal defecation, whereas loperamide, trimebutine, and tiquizium significantly inhibited this process. In conclusion, ramosetron has potent, rapid-onset, and long-lasting inhibitory effects on CFS-induced defecation in rats, but does not influence normal defecation. The present findings indicate that ramosetron will be a useful therapeutic agent for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, showing greater efficacy and safety than other antidiarrheal and spasmolytic agents.

  19. Stimulation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors or 5-HT uptake inhibition: short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2007-11-22

    In order to determine whether short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) function in serial or parallel manner, serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) receptor agonists were tested in autoshaping task. Results show that control-vehicle animals were modestly but significantly mastering the autoshaping task as illustrated by memory scores between STM and LTM. Thus, post-training administration of 8-OHDPAT (agonist for 5-HT(1A/7) receptors) only at 0.250 and 0.500 mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. CGS12066 (agonist for 5-HT(1B)) produced biphasic affects, at 5.0 mg/kg impaired STM but at 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, respectively, improved or impaired LTM. DOI (agonist for 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors) dose-dependently impaired STM and, at 10.0 mg/kg only impaired LTM. Both, STM and LTM were impaired by either mCPP (mainly agonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) or mesulergine (mainly antagonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) lower dose. The 5-HT(3) agonist mCPBG at 1.0 impaired STM and its higher dose impaired both STM and LTM. RS67333 (partial agonist for 5-HT(4) receptors), at 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg facilitated both STM and LTM. The higher dose of fluoxetine (a 5-HT uptake inhibitor) improved both STM and LTM. Using as head-pokes during CS as an indirect measure of food-intake showed that of 30 memory changes, 21 of these were unrelated to the former. While some STM or LTM impairments can be attributed to decrements in food-intake, but not memory changes (either increase or decreases) produced by 8-OHDPAT, CGS12066, RS67333 or fluoxetine. Except for animals treated with DOI, mCPBG or fluoxetine, other groups treated with 5-HT agonists 6 h following autoshaping training showed similar LTM and unmodified CS-head-pokes scores.

  20. Systemic injection of p-chloroamphetamine eliminates the effect of the 5-HT3 compounds on learning.

    PubMed

    Hong, E; Meneses, A

    1996-04-01

    There is evidence that 5-HT3 antagonists enhance learning and memory; however, their mechanisms of action are unknown. The aim of the present work was to investigate further the role of 5-HT3 receptors involved in learning, using the specific 5-HT3 agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (mCPBG) and the 5-HT3 antagonists ondansetron and tropisetron. p-Chloroamphetamine (PCA) pretreatment was used to determine whether pre- or postsynaptic 5-HT3 receptors are involved in learning. The posttraining intraperitoneal (IP) injection of each drug was analyzed on a lever-press response on autoshaping, which is an associative learning task. The results showed that mCPBG impaired retention of the conditioned response (CR), whereas tropisetron and ondansetron improved it. In other animals, PCA alone did not affect CR but was able to block the effects of the 5-HT3 ligands. The present data suggest that the actions of 5-HT3 compounds could be due to their interaction with presynaptic 5-HT3 receptors.

  1. Structural, conformational, biochemical, and pharmacological study of some amides derived from 3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo [3.3.1] nonan-9-amine as potential 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M. J.; Huertas, R. M.; Gálvez, E.; Orjales, A.; Berisa, A.; Labeaga, L.; Garcia, A. G.; Uceda, G.; Server-Carrió, J.; Martinez-Ripoll, M.

    1995-12-01

    A series of amides derived from 3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo [3.3.1] nonan-9-amine have been synthesized and examined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and the crystal structure of 9-(2,4,6-trichlorobenzamido)-3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1] nonane hydrochloride ( 4a·HCl) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. These compounds adopt an almost perfect chair-chair conformation with the NCH 3 groups in equatorial position. This conformation is nearly the same as that observed for compound 4a in the solid state. From binding studies of compounds 4a-c, compound 4b demonstrated the ability to efficiently displace [ 3H]GR65630 bound to bovine brain area postrema membranes to an extent comparable to MDL 72222. In the von Bezold-Jarish reflex, compound 4b showed significant results at a dose of 25 mg Kg -1. It is shown for the first time that a series of compounds with a bispidine skeleton linked through an amide moiety to several aromatic rings, shows 5-HT 3 antagonistic profiles.

  2. Spinal 5-HT3AR contributes to BmK I-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jin; Jiao, Yun-Lu; Li, Zheng-Wei; Ji, Yong-Hua

    2015-06-25

    Subcutaneous injection of BmK I could be adopted to well establish a novel pain model. Moreover, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) receptor is involved in regulating animal pain-related behaviors. However, the underlying mechanism of 5-HT3R on BmK I-induced pain remains unclear. Animal behavioral testing, RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to yield the following results: first, intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of BmK I (10 μg) induced elevated mRNA and protein levels of 5-HT3AR in bilateral L4-L5 spinal cord; Second, intrathecal (i.t.) injection of ondansetron (a specific antagonist of 5-HT3AR) reduced spontaneous pain responses, attenuated unilateral thermal and bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity elicited by BmK I; Microglia could be activated by BmK I (i.pl.) in both sides of L4-L5 spinal cord, and this effect was reversed by intrathecal pre-treatment with 5-HT3AR antagonist. Meanwhile, the 5-HT3AR in L4-L5 spinal cord was almost co-localized with NeuN (a marker of nerve cell), but not co-expressed with Iba-1 (a marker of microglia). Finally, the expression level of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 was reduced by intrathecal pre-treatment with ondansetron. Our results indicate that both 5-HT3AR signaling pathway and microglia are activated in the process of induction and maintenance of BmK I-induced pain nociception. Meanwhile, our results suggest that the neuronal 5-HT3AR may communicate with microglia indirectly via CX3CL1 which is involved in regulating the BmK I-induced hyperalgesia and sensitization.

  3. Ethanol Stabilizes the Open State of Single 5-Hydroxytryptamine3A(QDA) Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg-Zadek, Paula L.

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol enhancement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3A receptor-mediated responses may have important consequences in the intoxicating and addictive properties of ethanol. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, ethanol-mediated enhancement of 5-HT3 receptor current has been proposed to occur due to stabilization of the open-channel state. It has not been possible to directly measure the open state of the channel due to the extremely low single-channel conductance of 5-HT3A channels. Recently, three arginine residues within the large intracellular loop of the 5-HT3A subunit were substituted by their equivalent residues (glutamine, aspartate, and alanine) of the 5-HT3B subunit to produce a 5-HT3A(QDA) subunit that forms functional homomeric channels exhibiting a measurable single-channel conductance. Using whole-cell rapid-agonist application techniques and the cell-attached single-channel recording configuration, we examined human 5-HT3A(QDA) receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The agonist sensitivity, macroscopic kinetics, and modulation by ethanol were similar between mutant and wild-type channels, suggesting the substitutions had not altered these channel structure-function properties. The open time histogram for single-channel events mediated by 5-HT3A(QDA) receptors in the presence of maximal 5-HT was best fit by three exponentials, but in the presence of ethanol a fourth open state was evident. In summary, the QDA substitution greatly enhanced single-channel conductance with little effect on 5-HT3A channel's kinetic properties and ethanol enhances agonist action on 5-HT3A receptors by inducing a new, long-lived open-channel state. Furthermore, the 5-HT3A(QDA) receptor appears to be suitable for pharmacological studies of 5-HT3A receptor modulation at a single-channel level. PMID:20200118

  4. Protective effects of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, N-n-butyl-3-methoxy quinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6o) against chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced behavioral changes and biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Shvetank; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Jindal, Ankur; Devadoss, Thangaraj

    2014-07-01

    Stimulation of high oxidative stress in the brain is considered as an important factor for neurotoxicity towards the pathophysiology of chronic stress-induced depression disorder. In the present research, a potential 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist N-n-butyl-3-methoxy quinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6o) having good Log P (2.60) and pA₂ (7.7) values was examined for its effect on the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model. In the current investigation mice were introduced to different stress procedures daily for a period of 28 days to induce a depressive-like behavior. The results show that CUMS caused a depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity and increase in immobility in the forced swim test (FST). Moreover, it was found that oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxide and nitrite levels were significantly increased, whereas, antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were decreased in the brain tissue of CUMS-subjected mice. "Compound 6o" (1 and 2 mg/kg, p.o.) and fluoxetine treatment (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 21 days altered the CUMS-induced behavioral (increased immobility period, reduced sucrose preference and decreased locomotor activity) and biochemical (increased lipid peroxide, increased brain nitrite; decreased GSH, SOD and CAT levels) alterations. Moreover normal mice treated with "compound 6o" (2 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a significant decrease in the duration of immobility in FST as compared to normal vehicle treated mice. In conclusion, "compound 6o" produced antidepressant-like effects in behavioral despair paradigm in chronically stressed mice by restoring antioxidant enzyme activity.

  5. Ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 antagonist, antagonizes methamphetamine-induced anorexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Ginawi, O T; Al-Majed, A A; Al-Suwailem, A K

    2005-03-01

    Effects of some selective serotonergic (5-HT) antagonists on methamphetamine-induced anorexia were investigated in male mice. The least possible dose of methamphetamine alone that caused significant anorectic activity was 11 micromolkg(-1), i.p. (2 mgkg(-1)). Various doses of some selective serotonergic receptor antagonists were administered half an hour before the above mentioned dose of methamphetamine. Methiothepin potentiated, whereas NAN-190, methysergide, mianserin and ondansetron antagonized methamphetamine-induced anorectic activity. The least possible doses of these antagonists which modified methamphetamine-induced anorexia were as follows: methiothepin (1.1 micromolkg(-1), i.p.), NAN-190 (4.2 micromolkg(-1), i.p.), methysergide (2.1 micromolkg(-1), i.p.), mianserin (3.3 micromolkg(-1), i.p.) and ondansetron (0.003 micromolkg(-1), i.p.). The serotonergic antagonists at the above mentioned doses did not modify the food intake of animals not treated with methamphetamine, except for methiothepin, which produced a significant reduction, and mianserin, which produced a significant increase in food intake. The results of the present study indicated that the anorectic activity induced by methamphetamine is related to the interactions of methamphetamine with 5-HT receptor. Since a very small dose (0.003 micromolkg(-1)) of ondansetron (the 5-HT(3) antagonist), as compared with the other antagonists used in this study, antagonized the anorexia induced by methamphetamine, the 5-HT(3) receptor is likely to be the site for this interaction.

  6. Fragment library screening reveals remarkable similarities between the G protein-coupled receptor histamine H₄ and the ion channel serotonin 5-HT₃A.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Mark H P; de Graaf, Chris; de Kloe, Gerdien E; Nijmeijer, Saskia; Vischer, Henry F; Smits, Rogier A; Zuiderveld, Obbe P; Hulscher, Saskia; Silvestri, Linda; Thompson, Andrew J; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline E; Lummis, Sarah C R; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2011-09-15

    A fragment library was screened against the G protein-coupled histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) and the ligand-gated ion channel serotonin 5-HT(3A) (5-HT(3A)R). Interestingly, significant overlap was found between H(4)R and 5-HT(3A)R hit sets. The data indicates that dual active H(4)R and 5 HT(3A)R fragments have a higher complexity than the selective compounds which has important implications for chemical genomics approaches. The results of our fragment-based library screening study illustrate similarities in ligand recognition between H(4)R and 5-HT(3A)R and have important consequences for selectivity profiling in ongoing drug discovery efforts on H(4)R and 5-HT(3A)R. The affinity profiles of our fragment screening studies furthermore match the chemical properties of the H(4)R and 5-HT(3A)R binding sites and can be used to define molecular interaction fingerprints to guide the in silico prediction of protein-ligand interactions and structure.

  7. Block of the delayed rectifier current (IK) by the 5-HT3 antagonists ondansetron and granisetron in feline ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    de Lorenzi, F G; Bridal, T R; Spinelli, W

    1994-10-01

    1. We investigated the effects of two 5-HT3 antagonists, ondansetron and granisetron, on the action potential duration (APD) and the delayed rectifier current (IK) of feline isolated ventricular myocytes. Whole-cell current and action potential recordings were performed at 37 degrees C with the patch clamp technique. 2. Ondansetron and granisetron blocked IK with a KD of 1.7 +/- 1.0 and 4.3 +/- 1.7 microM, respectively. At a higher concentration (30 microM), both drugs blocked the inward rectifier (IKl). 3. The block of IK was dependent on channel activation. Both drugs slowed the decay of IK tail currents and produced a crossover with the pre-drug current trace. These results are consistent with block and unblock from the open state of the channel. 4. Granisetron showed an intrinsic voltage-dependence as the block increased with depolarization. The equivalent voltage-dependency of block (delta) was 0.10 +/- 0.04, suggesting that granisetron blocks from the intracellular side at a binding site located 10% across the transmembrane electrical field. 5. Ondansetron (1 microM) and granisetron (3 microM) prolonged APD by about 30% at 0.5 Hz. The prolongation of APD by ondansetron was abolished at faster frequencies (3 Hz) showing reverse rate dependence. 6. In conclusion, the 5-HT3 antagonists, ondansetron and granisetron, are open state blockers of the ventricular delayed rectifier and show a clear class III action.

  8. Transcriptomic and anatomic parcellation of 5-HT3AR expressing cortical interneuron subtypes revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Sarah; Prados, Julien; Niquille, Mathieu; Cadilhac, Christelle; Markopoulos, Foivos; Gomez, Lucia; Tomasello, Ugo; Telley, Ludovic; Holtmaat, Anthony; Jabaudon, Denis; Dayer, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Cortical GABAergic interneurons constitute a highly diverse population of inhibitory neurons that are key regulators of cortical microcircuit function. An important and heterogeneous group of cortical interneurons specifically expresses the serotonin receptor 3A (5-HT3AR) but how this diversity emerges during development is poorly understood. Here we use single-cell transcriptomics to identify gene expression patterns operating in Htr3a-GFP+ interneurons during early steps of cortical circuit assembly. We identify three main molecular types of Htr3a-GFP+ interneurons, each displaying distinct developmental dynamics of gene expression. The transcription factor Meis2 is specifically enriched in a type of Htr3a-GFP+ interneurons largely confined to the cortical white matter. These MEIS2-expressing interneurons appear to originate from a restricted region located at the embryonic pallial–subpallial boundary. Overall, this study identifies MEIS2 as a subclass-specific marker for 5-HT3AR-containing interstitial interneurons and demonstrates that the transcriptional and anatomical parcellation of cortical interneurons is developmentally coupled. PMID:28134272

  9. Activation of serotonin 3 receptors changes in vivo auditory responses in the mouse inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Bohorquez, Alexander; Hurley, Laura M.

    2009-01-01

    Metabotropic serotonin receptors such as 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors shape the level, selectivity, and timing of auditory responses in the inferior colliculus (IC). Less is known about the effects of ionotropic 5-HT3 receptors, which are cation channels that depolarize neurons. In the current study, the influence of the 5-HT3 receptor on auditory responses in vivo was explored by locally iontophoresing a 5-HT3 receptor agonist and antagonists onto single neurons recorded extracellularly in mice. Three main findings emerge from these experiments. First, activation of the 5-HT3 receptor can either facilitate or suppress auditory responses, but response suppressions are not consistent with 5-HT3 effects on presynaptic GABAergic neurons. Both response facilitations and suppressions are less pronounced in neurons with high precision in response latency, suggesting functional differences in the role of receptor activation for different classes of neuron. Finally, the effects of 5-HT3 activation vary across repetition rate within a subset of single neurons, suggesting that the influence of receptor activation sometimes varies with the level of activity. These findings contribute to the view of the 5-HT3 receptor as an important component of the serotonergic infrastructure in the IC, with effects that are complex and neuron- selective. PMID:19236912

  10. Metal interactions with voltage- and receptor-activated ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Vijverberg, H P; Oortgiesen, M; Leinders, T; van Kleef, R G

    1994-01-01

    Effects of Pb and several other metal ions on various distinct types of voltage-, receptor- and Ca-activated ion channels have been investigated in cultured N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells. Experiments were performed using the whole-cell voltage clamp and single-channel patch clamp techniques. External superfusion of nanomolar to submillimolar concentrations of Pb causes multiple effects on ion channels. Barium current through voltage-activated Ca channels is blocked by micromolar concentrations of Pb, whereas voltage-activated Na current appears insensitive. Neuronal type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-activated ion current is blocked by nanomolar concentrations of Pb and this block is reversed at micromolar concentrations. Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-activated ion current is much less sensitive to Pb. In addition, external superfusion with micromolar concentrations of Pb as well as of Cd and aluminum induces inward current, associated with the direct activation of nonselective cation channels by these metal ions. In excised inside-out membrane patches of neuroblastoma cells, micromolar concentrations of Ca activate small (SK) and big (BK) Ca-activated K channels. Internally applied Pb activates SK and BK channels more potently than Ca, whereas Cd is approximately equipotent to Pb with respect to SK channel activation, but fails to activate BK channels. The results show that metal ions cause distinct, selective effects on the various types of ion channels and that metal ion interaction sites of ion channels may be highly selective for particular metal ions. PMID:7531139

  11. Differences in regional cerebral blood flow response to a 5HT3 antagonist in early- and late-onset cocaine-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Adinoff, Bryon; Devous, Michael D; Williams, Mark J; Harris, Thomas S; Best, Susan E; Dong, Hongyun; Zielinski, Tanya

    2014-03-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5HT3) receptors are important modulators of mesostriatal dopaminergic transmission and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cocaine reward, withdrawal and self-administration. In addition, the 5HT3 antagonist ondansetron is effective in treating early-onset, but not late-onset, alcohol-dependent subjects. To explore the role of 5HT3 receptor systems in cocaine addiction using functioning imaging, we administered ondansetron to 23 abstinent, treatment-seeking cocaine-addicted and 22 sex-, age- and race-matched healthy control participants. Differences between early- (first use before 20 years, n = 10) and late-onset (first use after 20 years, n = 10) cocaine-addicted subjects were also assessed. On two separate days, subjects were administered ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg intravenously over 15 minutes) or saline. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured following each infusion with single photon emission computed tomography. No significant rCBF differences between the cocaine-addicted and control participants were observed following ondansetron relative to saline. Early-onset subjects, however, showed increased (P < 0.001) right posterior parahippocampal rCBF following ondansetron. In contrast, late-onset subjects showed decreased rCBF following ondansetron in an overlapping region of the right parahippocampal/hippocampal gyrus. Early-onset subjects also displayed increased rCBF in the left anterior insula and subthalamic nucleus following ondansetron; late-onset subjects showed decreased rCBF in the right anterior insula. These findings suggest that the age of drug use onset is associated with serotonergic biosignatures in cocaine-addicted subjects. Further clarification of these alterations may guide targeted treatment with serotonergic medications similar to those successfully used in alcohol-dependent patients.

  12. Functional properties of a cloned 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptor subunit: comparison with native mouse receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hussy, N; Lukas, W; Jones, K A

    1994-01-01

    1. A comparative study of the whole-cell and single-channel properties of cloned and native mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine ionotropic receptors (5-HT3) was undertaken using mammalian cell lines expressing the cloned 5-HT3 receptor subunit A (5-HT3R-A), superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurones and N1E-115 cells. 2. No pharmacological difference was found in the sensitivity to the agonists 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT, or to the antagonists d-tubocurare and 3-tropanyl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate (MDL-72222). 3. Current-voltage (I-V) relationships of whole-cell currents showed inward rectification in the three preparations. Rectification was stronger both in cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit and in N1E-115 cells when compared with SCG neurones. 4. No clear openings could be resolved in 5-HT-activated currents in patches excised from cells expressing the 5-HT3R-A subunit or N1E-115 cells. Current fluctuation analysis of whole-cell and excised-patch records revealed a slope conductance of 0.4-0.6 pS in both preparations. Current-voltage relationships of these channels showed strong rectification that fully accounted for the whole-cell voltage dependence. 5. In contrast, single channels of about 10 pS were activated by 5-HT in patches excised from SCG neurones. The weak voltage dependence of their conductance did not account completely for the rectification of whole-cell currents. A lower unitary conductance (3.4 pS) was inferred from whole-cell noise analysis. 6. We conclude that the receptor expressed from the cloned cDNA is indistinguishable from the 5-HT3 receptor of N1E-115 cells, suggesting an identical structure for these two receptors. The higher conductance and different voltage dependence of the 5-HT3 receptor in SCG neurones might indicate the participation of an additional subunit in the structure of native ganglionic 5-HT3 receptors. Homo-oligomeric 5-HT3R-A channels may also be present as suggested by the lower conductance estimated by whole-cell noise analysis. PMID

  13. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-11-27

    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants.

  14. Competitive interaction of agonists and antagonists with 5-HT3 recognition sites in membranes of neuroblastoma cells labelled with (/sup 3/H)ICS 205-930

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, D.; Neijt, H.C.; Karpf, A.

    1989-01-01

    (3H)ICS 205-930 labelled 5-HT3 recognition sites in membranes prepared from murine neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells. Binding was rapid, reversible, saturable and stereoselective to an apparently homogeneous population of sites. Kinetic studies revealed that agonists and antagonists produced a monophasic dissociation reaction of (3H)ICS 205-930 from its recognition sites. The dissociation rate constant of the radioligand was similar whether the dissociation was induced by an agonist or an antagonist. Competition studies carried out with agonists and antagonists also suggested the presence of a homogeneous population of (3H)ICS 205-930 recognition sites. Competition curves were best fit for a 1 site model. (3H)ICS 205-930 binding sites displayed the pharmacological profile of a 5-HT3 receptor. The interactions of agonists and antagonists with (3H)ICS 205-930 recognition sites were apparently competitive in nature, as demonstrated in kinetic and equilibrium experiments. In saturation experiments carried out with (3H)ICS 205-930 in the presence and the absence of unlabelled agonists and antagonists, apparent Bmax values were not reduced whereas apparent Kd values were increased in the presence of competing ligands. There was a good agreement between apparent pKB values calculated for the competing ligands in saturation experiments and pKd values calculated from competition experiments. The present data demonstrate that (3H)ICS 205-930 labels a homogeneous population of sites at which agonists and antagonists interact competitively.

  15. Universality of receptor channel responses.

    PubMed

    Kardos, J; Nyikos, L

    2001-12-01

    Rate parameters estimated for neurotransmitter-gated receptor channel opening and receptor desensitization are classified according to their dependence on the temporal resolution of the techniques applied in the measurements. Because allosteric proteins constituting receptor channels impose restrictions on the types of model suitable to describe the dynamic response of channels to neurotransmitters, Markovian, non-linear or fractal dynamic models and their possible extension to receptor channel response in excitable membranes are discussed.

  16. Introduction to Thematic Minireview Series on Celebrating the Discovery of the Cysteine Loop Ligand-gated Ion Channel Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, F. Anne

    2012-01-01

    The year 2012 marks the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the Cys loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily of neurotransmitter receptors. This minireview series celebrates this with a series of articles reviewing current information for each of the family members, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, glycine receptors, GABAA receptors, serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors, and glutamate-gated chloride ion channels of proteasome invertebrate phyla. PMID:23038255

  17. Cloning and expression of ligand-gated ion-channel receptor L2 in central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Houtani, Takeshi; Munemoto, Yumi; Kase, Masahiko; Sakuma, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Tetsuo . E-mail: sugimoto@takii.kmu.ac.jp

    2005-09-23

    An orphan receptor of ligand-gated ion-channel type (L2, also termed ZAC according to the presence of zinc ion for channel activation) was identified by computer-assisted search programs on human genome database. The L2 protein shares partial homology with serotonin receptors 5HT3A and 5HT3B. We have cloned L2 cDNA derived from human caudate nucleus and characterized the exon-intron structure as follows: (1) The L2 protein has four transmembrane regions (M1-M4) and a long cytoplasmic loop between M3 and M4. (2) The sequence is conserved in species including chimpanzee, dog, cow, and opossum. (3) Nine exons form its protein-coding region and especially exon 5 corresponds to a disulfide bond region on the amino-terminal side. Our analysis using multiple tissue cDNA panels revealed that at least two splicing variants of L2 mRNA are present. The cDNA PCR amplification study revealed that L2 mRNA is expressed in tissues including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle while 5HT3A mRNA could be detected in brain, heart, placenta, lung, kidney, pancreas, and skeletal muscle, and 5HT3B mRNA in brain, kidney, and skeletal muscle, suggesting different significance in tissue expression of these receptors. Regional expression of L2 mRNA and protein was examined in brain. The RT-PCR studies confirmed L2 mRNA expression in hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and thalamus in adult brain. The L2 protein was immunolocalized by using antipeptide antibodies. Immunostained tissue sections revealed that L2-like immunoreactivity was dominantly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. We analyzed the expression of L2 protein in HEK293 cells using GFP fusion protein reporter system. Western blots revealed that L2 protein confers sugar chains on the extracellular side. In transfected HEK293 cells, cellular membranes and intracellular puncta were densely labeled with GFP, suggesting selective dispatch to the

  18. 5HT3 Antagonists versus Dexamethasone in the Prevention of PONV in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Meta-Analysis of RCTs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengmao; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Zhen; Ruan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background. 5HT3 antagonist, an antiemetic alternative to dexamethasone, is an effective drug for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Methods. PubMed and The Cochrane Library (from inception to June 2016) were searched for relevant RCTs (randomized controlled trials). Results. Seven trials, totaling 682 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis demonstrated that 5HT3 antagonist was as effective as dexamethasone in preventing PONV (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, [0.86, 1.45]; P = 0.40) within 24 hours of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and no significant heterogeneity was observed among the studies (I(2) = 0%; P = 0.98). During the early postoperative period (0-6 h), 5HT3 antagonists were superior to dexamethasone in reducing POV (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, [0.11, 0.93]; P = 0.04), while, in other postoperative stages (6-12 h, 12-24 h, and 0-24 h), it was not more effective in the prevention of POV than dexamethasone. And no significant difference was found in the prevention of PON between 5HT3 antagonists and dexamethasone at different postoperative periods (0-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-24 h, and 0-24 h). Conclusions. As a result, it is advisable to encourage 5HT3 antagonists as an alternative to dexamethasone for the prevention of PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  19. 5HT3 Antagonists versus Dexamethasone in the Prevention of PONV in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Meta-Analysis of RCTs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengmao; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Background. 5HT3 antagonist, an antiemetic alternative to dexamethasone, is an effective drug for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Methods. PubMed and The Cochrane Library (from inception to June 2016) were searched for relevant RCTs (randomized controlled trials). Results. Seven trials, totaling 682 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis demonstrated that 5HT3 antagonist was as effective as dexamethasone in preventing PONV (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, [0.86, 1.45]; P = 0.40) within 24 hours of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and no significant heterogeneity was observed among the studies (I2 = 0%; P = 0.98). During the early postoperative period (0–6 h), 5HT3 antagonists were superior to dexamethasone in reducing POV (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, [0.11, 0.93]; P = 0.04), while, in other postoperative stages (6–12 h, 12–24 h, and 0–24 h), it was not more effective in the prevention of POV than dexamethasone. And no significant difference was found in the prevention of PON between 5HT3 antagonists and dexamethasone at different postoperative periods (0–6 h, 6–12 h, 12–24 h, and 0–24 h). Conclusions. As a result, it is advisable to encourage 5HT3 antagonists as an alternative to dexamethasone for the prevention of PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27891523

  20. Role of the 5HT3 Receptor in Alcohol Drinking and Aggression Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    found for each N1 [F(1,35) = 56.0, P < 0.0005], N3, [F(1,35) = 33.85, P < 0.0005] and N5 6 generations [F(1,35) = 6.33, P < 0.017]. Interactions of...presence was also found for N1 [F(1,51) = 10.9, P < 0.003] and N5 [F(1,51) = 11.32, P < 0.001]. A background x transgene presence interaction was...0.0005] were found, as was an interaction between background and transgene presence [F(2,51) = 13.93, P < 0.0005]. For the measure of percent time spent

  1. Ryanodine receptors as leak channels.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Agustín; Ávila, Guillermo; Rueda, Angélica

    2014-09-15

    Ryanodine receptors are Ca(2+) release channels of internal stores. This review focuses on those situations and conditions that transform RyRs from a finely regulated ion channel to an unregulated Ca(2+) leak channel and the pathological consequences of this alteration. In skeletal muscle, mutations in either CaV1.1 channel or RyR1 results in a leaky behavior of the latter. In heart cells, RyR2 functions normally as a Ca(2+) leak channel during diastole within certain limits, the enhancement of this activity leads to arrhythmogenic situations that are tackled with different pharmacological strategies. In smooth muscle, RyRs are involved more in reducing excitability than in stimulating contraction so the leak activity of RyRs in the form of Ca(2+) sparks, locally activates Ca(2+)-dependent potassium channels to reduce excitability. In neurons the enhanced activity of RyRs is associated with the development of different neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Huntington diseases. It appears then that the activity of RyRs as leak channels can have both physiological and pathological consequences depending on the cell type and the metabolic condition.

  2. Influence of Polymorphisms in the HTR3A and HTR3B Genes on Experimental Pain and the Effect of the 5-HT3 Antagonist Granisetron

    PubMed Central

    Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter; Schalling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally if 5-HT3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) contribute to pain perception and efficacy of the 5-HT3-antagonist granisetron and sex differences. Sixty healthy participants were genotyped regarding HTR3A (rs1062613) and HTR3B (rs1176744). First, pain was induced by bilateral hypertonic saline injections (HS, 5.5%, 0.2 mL) into the masseter muscles. Thirty min later the masseter muscle on one side was pretreated with 0.5 mL granisetron (1 mg/mL) and on the other side with 0.5 mL placebo (isotonic saline) followed by another HS injection (0.2 mL). Pain intensity, pain duration, pain area and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed after each injection. HS evoked moderate pain, with higher intensity in the women (P = 0.023), but had no effect on PPTs. None of the SNPs influenced any pain variable in general, but compared to men, the pain area was larger in women carrying the C/C (HTR3A) (P = 0.015) and pain intensity higher in women with the A/C alleles (HTR3B) (P = 0.019). Pre-treatment with granisetron reduced pain intensity, duration and area to a lesser degree in women (P < 0.05), but the SNPs did not in general influence the efficacy of granisetron. Women carrying the C/T & T/T (HTR3A) genotype had less reduction of pain intensity (P = 0.041) and area (P = 0.005), and women with the C/C genotype (HTR3B) had less reduction of pain intensity (P = 0.030), duration (P = 0.030) and area compared to men (P = 0.017). In conclusion, SNPs did not influence experimental muscle pain or the effect of granisetron on pain variables in general, but there were some sex differences in pain variables that seem to be influenced by genotypes. However, due to the small sample size further research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:28002447

  3. Direct action and modulating effect of (+)- and (-)-nicotine on ion channels expressed in trigeminal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Lehmann, Ramona; Thiel, Ulrike; Ziemba, Paul M; Beltrán, Leopoldo R; Sherkheli, Muhammad A; Jeanbourquin, Philippe; Hugi, Alain; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter; Hatt, Hanns

    2014-04-05

    Nicotine sensory perception is generally thought to be mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors. However, recent data strongly support the idea that other receptors (e.g., transient receptor potential A1 channel, TRPA1) and other pathways contribute to the detection mechanisms underlying the olfactory and trigeminal cell response to nicotine flavor. This is in accordance with the reported ability of humans to discriminate between (+)- and (-)- nicotine enantiomers. To get a more detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular basis underlying the sensory perception of nicotine, we studied the activity of (+)- and (-)-nicotine on cultured murine trigeminal sensory neurons and on a range of heterologously expressed receptors. The human TRPA1 channel is activated by (-)-nicotine. In this work, we show that (+)-nicotine is also an activator of this channel. Pharmacological experiments using nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and transient receptor potential blockers revealed that trigeminal neurons express one or more unidentified receptors that are sensitive to (+)- and/or (-)-nicotine. Results also indicate that the presence of extracellular calcium ions is required to elicit trigeminal neuron responses to (+)- and (-)-nicotine. Results also show that both (+)-nicotine and (-)-nicotine can block 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor-mediated responses in recombinant expression systems and in cultured trigeminal neurons expressing 5-HT3 receptors. Our investigations broaden the spectra of receptors that are targets for nicotine enantiomers and give new insights into the physiological role of nicotine.

  4. AHR-16303B, a novel antagonist of 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, R.J.; Appell, K.C.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Proakis, A.G.; Nolan, J.C.; Walsh, D.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro methods were used to characterize AHR-16303B, a novel compound with antagonistic action at 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels. The 5-HT2 receptor-antagonistic properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)ketanserin binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes (IC50 = 165 nM); (b) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced foot edema in rats (minimum effective dose, (MED) = 0.32 mg/kg orally, p.o.); (c) 5-HT-induced vasopressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (ID50 = 0.18 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.), 1.8 mg/kg p.o.), (d) 5-HT-induced antidiuresis in rats (MED = 1 mg/kg p.o.), and (e) platelet aggregation induced by 5-HT + ADP (IC50 = 1.5 mM). The calcium antagonist properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)nimodipine binding to voltage-sensitive calcium channels on rabbit skeletal muscle membranes (IC50 = 15 nM), (b) KCl-stimulated calcium flux into cultured PC12 cells (IC50 = 81 nM), and (c) CaCl2-induced contractions of rabbit thoracic aortic strips (pA2 = 8.84). AHR-16303B had little or no effect on binding of radioligands to dopamine2 (DA2) alpha 1, alpha 2, H1, 5-HT1 alpha, beta 2, muscarinic M1, or sigma opioid receptors; had no effect on 5-HT3 receptor-mediated vagal bradycardia; and had only minor negative inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic effects on isolated guinea pig atria. In conscious SHR, 30 mg/kg p.o. AHR-16303B completely prevented the vasopressor responses to i.v. 5-HT, and decreased blood pressure (BP) by 24% 3 h after dosing.

  5. Transient Receptor Potential Channels in the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Scott; Brayden, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian genome encodes 28 distinct members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels, which exhibit varying degrees of selectivity for different ionic species. Multiple TRP channels are present in all cells and are involved in diverse aspects of cellular function, including sensory perception and signal transduction. Notably, TRP channels are involved in regulating vascular function and pathophysiology, the focus of this review. TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells participate in regulating contractility and proliferation, whereas endothelial TRP channel activity is an important contributor to endothelium-dependent vasodilation, vascular wall permeability, and angiogenesis. TRP channels are also present in perivascular sensory neurons and astrocytic endfeet proximal to cerebral arterioles, where they participate in the regulation of vascular tone. Almost all of these functions are mediated by changes in global intracellular Ca2+ levels or subcellular Ca2+ signaling events. In addition to directly mediating Ca2+ entry, TRP channels influence intracellular Ca2+ dynamics through membrane depolarization associated with the influx of cations or through receptor- or store-operated mechanisms. Dysregulation of TRP channels is associated with vascular-related pathologies, including hypertension, neointimal injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, pulmonary edema, and neurogenic inflammation. In this review, we briefly consider general aspects of TRP channel biology and provide an in-depth discussion of the functions of TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and perivascular cells under normal and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:25834234

  6. Anti-depressant like activity of N-n-butyl-3-methoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6o) a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Shvetank; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Jindal, Ankur

    2013-06-01

    The compound 6o (at 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, ip) with optimum log P and pA2 value, was subjected to forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The compound 6o significantly reduced the duration of immobility in mice without affecting the base line locomotion in actophotometer. Moreover, 6o (2 mg/kg, ip), potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch responses in mice and at 1 and 2 mg/kg, ip antagonized the reserpine-induced hypothermia (RIH) in rats. In interaction studies with various standard drugs/ligands using FST, 6o (1 and 2 mg/kg, ip) potentiated the anti-depressant effect fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, ip) and reversed the depressant effect of parthenolide (1 mg/kg, ip) by reducing the duration of immobility. Furthermore, 6o (1 and 2 mg/kg, ip) potentiated the effect of bupropion (10 mg/kg, ip) in TST. The behavioural anomalies of the olfactory bulbectomised (OBX) rats were augmented by chronic 6o (1 and 2 mg/kg) treatment as observed from the modified open field test (parameters: ambulation, rearing, fecal pellet). The results suggest that compound 6o exhibited anti-depressant like effect in rodent models of depression.

  7. Agonists block currents through acetylcholine receptor channels.

    PubMed Central

    Sine, S M; Steinbach, J H

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the effects of high concentrations of cholinergic agonists on currents through single acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channels on clonal BC3H1 cells. We find that raised concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh; above 300 microM) or carbamylcholine (Carb; above 1,000 microM) produce a voltage- and concentration-dependent reduction in the mean single-channel current. Raised concentrations of suberyldicholine (Sub; above 3 microM) produce a voltage- and concentration-dependent increase in the number of brief duration low-conductance interruptions of open-channel currents. These observations can be quantitatively described by a model in which agonist molecules enter and transiently occlude the ion-channel of the AChR. PMID:6478036

  8. Transient Receptor Potential Channels in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Basso, Lilian; Altier, Christophe

    2016-10-27

    Neuropathic pain caused by disease or dysfunction of the nervous system is one of the most difficult pain conditions to treat. Symptoms include a hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, processed by specialized nociceptors that constitute the first line of defence of the somatosensory system. The detection of these stimuli depends on the TRP ion channel family, which activates upon damaging pressure, extreme temperature, or toxic endogenous and exogenous chemicals. This review will summarize the current knowledge of the contribution of TRP channels, particularly the thermosensitive TRP, including TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels that play a central role in the sensitization of nociceptive transduction. We will discuss the pharmacology of these receptors and their relative success in preclinical and clinical studies.

  9. Anxiolytic-like effects observed in rats exposed to the elevated zero-maze following treatment with 5-HT2/5-HT3/5-HT4 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Rob; Duke, Aaron A.; Gilmore, Paula E.; Page, Deaglan; Bègue, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of administering selective 5-HT antagonists and agonists to rats tested in the elevated zero-maze (EZM) model of anxiety. The EZM paradigm has advantages over the elevated plus-maze (EPM) paradigm with respect to measuring anxiety, yet has been utilized less frequently. Three experiments were conducted each with a diazepam control (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg). In the first experiment, we administered the 5-HT2C antagonist RS 102221 (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg) and 5-HT2C agonist MK-212 (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg); in the second experiment, we administered the 5-HT3 antagonist Y-25130 (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) and 5-HT3 agonist SR 57227A (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), and in the third experiment, we administered the 5-HT4 antagonist RS 39604 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg/kg) and 5-HT4 agonist RS 67333 (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg). The administration of 5-HT2/3/4 subtype antagonists all generated behavioral profiles indicative of anxiolytic-like effects in the EZM, which was apparent from examination of both traditional and ethological measures. While little effect was observed from 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 agonists, the 5-HT4 agonist RS 67333 was found to produce a paradoxical anxiolytic-like effect similar to that produced by the 5-HT4 antagonist RS 39604. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings. PMID:24457553

  10. Arresting a Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channel

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Arun K.; Kim, Jihee; Ahn, Seungkirl; Xiao, Kunhong; Shenoy, Sudha K.; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    β-Arrestins, originally discovered to desensitize activated G protein-coupled receptors, (aka seven-transmembrane receptors, 7TMRs) also mediate 7TMR internalization and G protein-independent signaling via these receptors. More recently, several regulatory roles of β-arrestins for atypical 7TMRs and non-7TM receptors have emerged. Here, we uncover an entirely novel regulatory role of β-arrestins in cross-talk between the angiotensin receptor (AT1aR) and a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family, TRPV4. AT1aR and TRPV4 form a constitutive complex in the plasma membrane, and angiotensin stimulation leads to recruitment of β-arrestin 1 to this complex. Surprisingly, angiotensin stimulation results in ubiquitination of TRPV4, a process that requires β-arrestin 1, and subsequently to internalization and functional down-regulation of TRPV4. β-Arrestin 1 interacts with, and acts as an adaptor for AIP4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for TRPV4 ubiquitination. Thus, our data provide the first evidence of a functional link between β-arrestins and TRPV4 and uncovers an entirely novel mechanism to maintain appropriate intracellular Ca2+ concentration to avoid excessive Ca2+ signaling. PMID:20650893

  11. Inositol Trisphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Release Channels

    PubMed Central

    FOSKETT, J. KEVIN; WHITE, CARL; CHEUNG, KING-HO; MAK, DON-ON DANIEL

    2010-01-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3Rs) are a family of Ca2+ release channels localized predominately in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cell types. They function to release Ca2+ into the cytoplasm in response to InsP3 produced by diverse stimuli, generating complex local and global Ca2+ signals that regulate numerous cell physiological processes ranging from gene transcription to secretion to learning and memory. The InsP3R is a calcium-selective cation channel whose gating is regulated not only by InsP3, but by other ligands as well, in particular cytoplasmic Ca2+. Over the last decade, detailed quantitative studies of InsP3R channel function and its regulation by ligands and interacting proteins have provided new insights into a remarkable richness of channel regulation and of the structural aspects that underlie signal transduction and permeation. Here, we focus on these developments and review and synthesize the literature regarding the structure and single-channel properties of the InsP3R. PMID:17429043

  12. Dipicrylamine Modulates GABAρ1 Receptors through Interactions with Residues in the TM4 and Cys-Loop Domains.

    PubMed

    Limon, Agenor; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Ruiz, Jorge M Reyes; Miledi, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Dipicrylamine (DPA) is a commonly used acceptor agent in Förster resonance energy transfer experiments that allows the study of high-frequency neuronal activity in the optical monitoring of voltage in living cells. However, DPA potently antagonizes GABAA receptors that contain α1 and β2 subunits by a mechanism which is not clearly understood. In this work, we aimed to determine whether DPA modulation is a general phenomenon of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs), and whether this modulation depends on particular amino acid residues. For this, we studied the effects of DPA on human homomeric GABAρ1, α7 nicotinic, and 5-HT3A serotonin receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results indicate that DPA is an allosteric modulator of GABAρ1 receptors with an IC50 of 1.6 µM, an enhancer of α7 nicotinic receptors at relatively high concentrations of DPA, and has little, if any, effect on 5-HT3A receptors. DPA antagonism of GABAρ1 was strongly enhanced by preincubation, was slightly voltage-dependent, and its washout was accelerated by bovine serum albumin. These results indicate that DPA modulation is not a general phenomenon of LGICs, and structural differences between receptors may account for disparities in DPA effects. In silico modeling of DPA docking to GABAρ1, α7 nicotinic, and 5-HT3A receptors suggests that a hydrophobic pocket within the Cys-loop and the M4 segment in GABAρ1, located at the extracellular/membrane interface, facilitates the interaction with DPA that leads to inhibition of the receptor. Functional examinations of mutant receptors support the involvement of the M4 segment in the allosteric modulation of GABAρ1 by DPA.

  13. Predicted structure of the extracellular region of ligand-gated ion-channel receptors shows SH2-like and SH3-like domains forming the ligand-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Gready, J. E.; Ranganathan, S.; Schofield, P. R.; Matsuo, Y.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast synaptic neurotransmission is mediated by ligand-gated ion-channel (LGIC) receptors, which include receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, glycine, and glutamate. LGICs are pentamers with extracellular ligand-binding domains and form integral membrane ion channels that are selective for cations (acetylcholine and serotonin 5HT3 receptors) or anions (GABAA and glycine receptors and the invertebrate glutamate-binding chloride channel). They form a protein superfamily with no sequence similarity to any protein of known structure. Using a 1D-3D structure mapping approach, we have modeled the extracellular ligand-binding domain based on a significant match with the SH2 and SH3 domains of the biotin repressor structure. Refinement of the model based on knowledge of the large family of SH2 and SH3 structures, sequence alignments, and use of structure templates for loop building, allows the prediction of both monomer and pentamer models. These are consistent with medium-resolution electron microscopy structures and with experimental structure/function data from ligand-binding, antibody-binding, mutagenesis, protein-labeling and subunit-linking studies, and glycosylation sites. Also, the predicted polarity of the channel pore calculated from electrostatic potential maps of pentamer models of superfamily members is consistent with known ion selectivities. Using the glycine receptor alpha 1 subunit, which forms homopentamers, the monomeric and pentameric models define the agonist and antagonist (strychnine) binding sites to a deep crevice formed by an extended loop, which includes the invariant disulfide bridge, between the SH2 and SH3 domains. A detailed binding site for strychnine is reported that is in strong agreement with known structure/function data. A site for interaction of the extracellular ligand-binding domain with the activation of the M2 transmembrane helix is also suggested. PMID:9144769

  14. 5-HT2 receptor blockade exhibits 5-HT vasodilator effects via nitric oxide, prostacyclin and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat renal vasculature.

    PubMed

    García-Pedraza, J A; García, M; Martín, M L; Rodríguez-Barbero, A; Morán, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether orally sarpogrelate (selective 5-HT2 antagonist) treatment (30 mg/kg/day; 14 days) could modify 5-HT renal vasoconstrictor responses, characterizing 5-HT receptors and mediator mechanisms involved in serotonergic responses in the in situ autoperfused rat kidney. Intra-arterial (i.a.) injections of 5-HT (0.00000125 to 0.1 μg/kg) decreased renal perfusion pressure (RPP) but did not affect the mean blood pressure (MBP). i.a. agonists 5-CT (5-HT1/7), CGS-12066B (5-HT1B), L-694,247 (5-HT1D) or AS-19 (5-HT7) mimicked renal 5-HT vasodilator effect. However, neither 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A) nor 1-phenylbiguanide (5-HT3) modified RPP. Moreover: (i) GR-55562 (5-HT1B antagonist) and L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase [NOS] inhibitor) blocked CGS-12066B-induced vasodilator response, (ii) LY310762 (5-HT1D antagonist) and indomethacin (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor) blocked L-694,247-induced vasodilator response; (iii) SB-258719 (5-HT7 antagonist) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker) blocked AS-19-induced vasodilator response; and (iv) 5-HT- or 5-CT-elicited renal vasodilation was significantly blocked by the mixture of GR-55562 + LY310762 + SB-258719. Furthermore, eNOS and iNOS proteins and prostacyclin levels are overexpressed in sarpogrelate-treated rats. Our data suggest that 5-HT exerts renal vasodilator effect in the in situ autoperfused sarpogrelate-treated rat kidney, mediated by 5-HT1D, 5-HT1B and 5-HT7 receptors, involving cyclooxygenase-derived prostacyclin, nitric oxide synthesis/release and ATP-sensitive K+ channels, respectively.

  15. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced tachycardia in the pig: possible involvement of a new type of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Bom, A. H.; Duncker, D. J.; Saxena, P. R.; Verdouw, P. D.

    1988-01-01

    1. The mechanism of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced tachycardia is species-dependent and is mediated directly or indirectly either by '5-HT1-like' (cat), 5-HT2 (rat, dog) or 5-HT3 (rabbit) receptors, or by an action similar to tyramine (guinea-pig). The present investigation is devoted to the analysis of the positive chronotropic effect of 5-HT in the pentobarbitone-anaesthetized pig. 2. Intravenous bolus injections of 5-HT (3, 10 and 30 micrograms kg-1) in pigs resulted in dose-dependent increases in heart rate of 24 +/- 2, 38 +/- 3 and 51 +/- 3 beats min-1, respectively (n = 39). Topical application of a high concentration of 5-HT (150 micrograms kg-1 in 5 ml) on the right atrium was also followed by tachycardia (38 +/- 6 beats min-1, n = 4). 3. A number of drugs which antagonize responses mediated by different 5-HT receptors--phenoxybenzamine, methiothepin, metergoline, methysergide and mesulergine ('5-HT1-like' and 5-HT2 receptors), ketanserin, cyproheptadine, pizotifen and mianserin (5-HT2 receptors), and MDL 72222 and ICS 205-930 (5-HT3 receptors)--did not attenuate the chronotropic responses to 5-HT. 4. The 5-HT-induced tachycardia was also not affected by antagonists at alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors, muscarinic, nicotinic, histamine and dopamine receptors, and calcium channels. 5. Selective inhibitors of 5-HT-uptake, indalpine and fluvoxamine, themselves increased porcine heart rate and facilitated 5-HT-induced tachycardia both in magnitude and in duration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3370393

  16. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect neither the function of other ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels and acetylcholinesterase, nor β-amyloid content.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Ravazzini, Federica; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Feuerbach, Dominik; Boffi, Juan C; Draczkowski, Piotr; Montag, Dirk; Brown, Brandon M; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Puia, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The activity of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), including 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), 3-furan-2-yl-N-o-tolylacrylamide (PAM-3), and 3-furan-2-yl-N-phenylacrylamide (PAM-4), was tested on a variety of ligand- [i.e., human (h) α7, rat (r) α9α10, hα3-containing AChRs, mouse (m) 5-HT3AR, and several glutamate receptors (GluRs)] and voltage-gated (i.e., sodium and potassium) ion channels, as well as on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and β-amyloid (Aβ) content. The functional results indicate that PAM-2 inhibits hα3-containing AChRs (IC50=26±6μM) with higher potency than that for NR1aNR2B and NR1aNR2A, two NMDA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 affects neither the activity of m5-HT3ARs, GluR5/KA2 (a kainate-sensitive GluR), nor AChE, and PAM-4 does not affect agonist-activated rα9α10 AChRs. Relevant clinical concentrations of PAM-2-4 do not inhibit Nav1.2 and Kv3.1 ion channels. These PAMs slightly enhance the activity of GluR1 and GluR2, two AMPA-sensitive GluRs. PAM-2 does not change the levels of Aβ42 in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model (i.e., 5XFAD). The molecular docking and dynamics results using the hα7 model suggest that the active sites for PAM-2 include the intrasubunit (i.e., PNU-120596 locus) and intersubunit sites. These results support our previous study showing that these PAMs are selective for the α7 AChR, and clarify that the procognitive/promnesic/antidepressant activity of PAM-2 is not mediated by other targets.

  17. Allosterism and Structure in Thermally Activated Transient Receptor Potential Channels.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Poblete, Horacio; Miño-Galaz, Germán; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramón

    2016-07-05

    The molecular sensors that mediate temperature changes in living organisms are a large family of proteins known as thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. These membrane proteins are polymodal receptors that can be activated by cold or hot temperatures, depending on the channel subtype, voltage, and ligands. The stimuli sensors are allosterically coupled to a pore domain, increasing the probability of finding the channel in its ion conductive conformation. In this review we first discuss the allosteric coupling between the temperature and voltage sensor modules and the pore domain, and then discuss the thermodynamic foundations of thermo-TRP channel activation. We provide a structural overview of the molecular determinants of temperature sensing. We also posit an anisotropic thermal diffusion model that may explain the large temperature sensitivity of TRP channels. Additionally, we examine the effect of several ligands on TRP channel function and the evidence regarding their mechanisms of action.

  18. Redox regulation of the ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel.

    PubMed

    Zissimopoulos, S; Lai, F A

    2006-11-01

    The RyR (ryanodine receptor)/calcium release channel contains a number of highly reactive thiol groups that endow it with redox sensitivity. In general, oxidizing conditions favour channel opening, while reducing conditions have the opposite effect. Thiol modification affects the channel sensitivity to its principal effectors, Ca2+, Mg2+ and ATP, and alters RyR protein interactions. Here, we give a brief account of the major findings and prevailing views in the field.

  19. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-07-02

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel's ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators.

  20. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel’s ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  1. TRPV channels as thermosensory receptors in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyosang; Caterina, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels are critical contributors to normal pain and temperature sensation and therefore represent attractive targets for pain therapy. When these channels were first discovered, most attention was focused on their potential contributions to direct thermal activation of peripheral sensory neurons. However, recent anatomical, physiological, and behavioral studies have provided evidence that TRPV channels expressed in skin epithelial cells may also contribute to thermosensation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review these studies and speculate on possible communication mechanisms from cutaneous epithelial cells to sensory neurons.

  2. Glutamate Receptor Ion Channels: Structure, Regulation, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wollmuth, Lonnie P.; McBain, Chris J.; Menniti, Frank S.; Vance, Katie M.; Ogden, Kevin K.; Hansen, Kasper B.; Yuan, Hongjie; Myers, Scott J.; Dingledine, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor family encodes 18 gene products that coassemble to form ligand-gated ion channels containing an agonist recognition site, a transmembrane ion permeation pathway, and gating elements that couple agonist-induced conformational changes to the opening or closing of the permeation pore. Glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and are localized on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. These receptors regulate a broad spectrum of processes in the brain, spinal cord, retina, and peripheral nervous system. Glutamate receptors are postulated to play important roles in numerous neurological diseases and have attracted intense scrutiny. The description of glutamate receptor structure, including its transmembrane elements, reveals a complex assembly of multiple semiautonomous extracellular domains linked to a pore-forming element with striking resemblance to an inverted potassium channel. In this review we discuss International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology glutamate receptor nomenclature, structure, assembly, accessory subunits, interacting proteins, gene expression and translation, post-translational modifications, agonist and antagonist pharmacology, allosteric modulation, mechanisms of gating and permeation, roles in normal physiological function, as well as the potential therapeutic use of pharmacological agents acting at glutamate receptors. PMID:20716669

  3. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors at the Single-Channel Level.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, Cecilia; Sine, Steven M

    2017-03-05

    Over the past four decades, the patch clamp technique and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors have established an enduring partnership. Like all good partnerships, each partner has proven significant in its own right, while their union has spurred innumerable advances in life science research. A member and prototype of the superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, the nACh receptor is a chemo-electric transducer, binding nerve-released ACh and rapidly opening its channel to cation flow to elicit cellular excitation. A subject of a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the patch clamp technique provides unprecedented resolution of currents through single ion channels in their native cellular environments. Here, focusing on muscle and α7 nACh receptors, we describe the extraordinary contribution of the patch clamp technique toward understanding how they activate in response to neurotransmitter, how subtle structural and mechanistic differences among nACh receptor subtypes translate into significant physiological differences, and how nACh receptors are being exploited as therapeutic drug targets.

  4. Capsaicin receptor: TRPV1 a promiscuous TRP channel.

    PubMed

    Pingle, S C; Matta, J A; Ahern, G P

    2007-01-01

    TRPV1, the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers. The receptor has a diverse tissue distribution, with high expression in sensory neurons. TRPV1 is a nonselective cation channel with significant permeability to calcium, protons, and large polyvalent cations. It is the most polymodal TRP channel, being activated by numerous stimuli, including heat, voltage, vanilloids, lipids, and protons/cations. TRPV1 acts as a molecular integrator of physical and chemical stimuli in peripheral nociceptor terminals and plays a critical role in thermal inflammatory hyperalgesia. In addition, TRPV1 may regulate a variety of physiological functions in different organ systems. Various second messenger systems regulate TRPV1 activity, predominantly by serine-threonine phosphorylation. In this review, we provide a concise summary of the information currently available about this channel.

  5. Single acetylcholine receptor channel currents recorded at high hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, S H; Stühmer, W; Conti, F

    1987-01-01

    A technique for performing patch-clamp experiments under high hydrostatic (oil) pressure is described. The method allows the transfer of whole cell or membrane patches in a recording configuration into a pressure vessel, where pressure can be increased up to 60 MPa (approximately equal to 600 bar). We have studied in this way the pressure dependence of single acetylcholine receptor channels in excised "outside-out" membrane patches from cultured rat muscle cells. In the range of 0.1 to 60 MPa the open channel conductance in 140 mM NaCl solutions did not vary by more than 2%, which implies that the translocation of sodium ions through the channel pore does not involve steps with significant activation volumes. At high acetylcholine concentrations (20 microM) bursts of single-channel activity allowed measurements of the mean open and mean closed times of the channel. Pressurization to 40 MPa increased both mean open and mean closed times giving apparent activation volumes of about 59 and 139 A3, respectively. This implies a net volume increase of 80 A3, associated with the transition from the agonist-free state to the open state of the channel, which may be partially associated with the agonist-binding step. All the observed pressure effects were reversible. The activation volumes for the gating of acetylcholine receptor channels are comparable to those of sodium and potassium channels in the squid giant axon, suggesting that there is some basic common mechanism in the operation of ion-channel proteins. Images PMID:2437577

  6. Integration of transient receptor potential canonical channels with lipids

    PubMed Central

    Beech, D J

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are the canonical (C) subset of the TRP proteins, which are widely expressed in mammalian cells. They are thought to be primarily involved in determining calcium and sodium entry and have wide-ranging functions that include regulation of cell proliferation, motility and contraction. The channels are modulated by a multiplicity of factors, putatively existing as integrators in the plasma membrane. This review considers the sensitivities of TRPC channels to lipids that include diacylglycerols, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, lysophospholipids, oxidized phospholipids, arachidonic acid and its metabolites, sphingosine-1-phosphate, cholesterol and some steroidal derivatives and other lipid factors such as gangliosides. Promiscuous and selective lipid sensing have been detected. There appear to be close working relationships with lipids of the phospholipase C and A2 enzyme systems, which may enable integration with receptor signalling and membrane stretch. There are differences in the properties of each TRPC channel that are further complicated by TRPC heteromultimerization. The lipids modulate activity of the channels or insertion in the plasma membrane. Lipid microenvironments and intermediate sensing proteins have been described that include caveolae, G protein signalling, SEC14-like and spectrin-type domains 1 (SESTD1) and podocin. The data suggest that lipid sensing is an important aspect of TRPC channel biology enabling integration with other signalling systems. PMID:21624095

  7. A pentasymmetric open channel blocker for Cys-loop receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Carta, Valentina; Pangerl, Michael; Baur, Roland; Puthenkalam, Roshan; Ernst, Margot; Trauner, Dirk; Sigel, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA receptors) are chloride ion channels composed of five subunits, mediating fast synaptic and tonic inhibition in the mammalian brain. These receptors show near five-fold symmetry that is most pronounced in the second trans-membrane domain M2 lining the Cl- ion channel. To take advantage of this inherent symmetry, we screened a variety of aromatic anions with matched symmetry and found an inhibitor, pentacyanocyclopentdienyl anion (PCCP-) that exhibited all characteristics of an open channel blocker. Inhibition was strongly dependent on the membrane potential. Through mutagenesis and covalent modification, we identified the region α1V256-α1T261 in the rat recombinant GABAA receptor to be important for PCCP- action. Introduction of positive charges into M2 increased the affinity for PCCP- while PCCP- prevented the access of a positively charged molecule into M2. Interestingly, other anion selective cys-loop receptors were also inhibited by PCCP-, among them the Drosophila RDL GABAA receptor carrying an insecticide resistance mutation, suggesting that PCCP- could serve as an insecticide.

  8. Signaling by purinergic receptors and channels in the pituitary gland

    PubMed Central

    Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; He, Mu-Lan; Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Balik, Ales; Zemkova, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine 5′-triphosphate is frequently released by cells and acts as an agonist for G protein-coupled P2Y receptors and ligand-gated P2X cationic channels in numerous tissues. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors. In the pituitary gland, adenosine 5′-triphosphate is released from the endings of magnocellular hypothalamic neurons and by anterior pituitary cells through pathway(s) that are still not well characterized. This gland also expresses several members of each family of purinergic receptors. P2X and adenosine receptors are co-expressed in the somata and nerve terminals of vasopressin-releasing neurons as well as in some secretory pituitary cells. P2X receptors stimulate electrical activity and modulate InsP3-dependent calcium release from intracellular stores, whereas adenosine receptors terminate electrical activity. Calcium-mobilizing P2Y receptors are predominantly expressed in non-secretory cells of the anterior and posterior pituitary. PMID:19467293

  9. Receptor for protons: First observations on Acid Sensing Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Krishtal, Oleg

    2015-07-01

    The history of ASICs began in 1980 with unexpected observation. The concept of highly selective Na(+) current gated by specific receptors for protons was not easily accepted. It took 16 years to get these receptor/channels cloned and start a new stage in their investigation. "The receptor for protons" became ASIC comprising under this name a family of receptor/channels ubiquitous for mammalian nervous system, both peripheral and central. The role of ASICs as putative nociceptors was suggested almost immediately after their discovery. This role subsequently was proven in many forms of pain-related phenomena. Many other functions of ASICs have been also found or primed for speculations both in physiology and in disease. Despite the width of field and strength of efforts, numerous basic questions are to be answered before we understand how the local changes in pH in the nervous tissue transform into electric and messenger signaling via ASICs as transducers. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Nervous System'.

  10. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Yosuke; Szallasi, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are important mediators of sensory signals with marked effects on cellular functions and signalling pathways. Indeed, mutations in genes encoding TRP channels are the cause of several inherited diseases in humans (the so-called ‘TRP channelopathies’) that affect the cardiovascular, renal, skeletal and nervous systems. TRP channels are also promising targets for drug discovery. The initial focus of research was on TRP channels that are expressed on nociceptive neurons. Indeed, a number of potent, small-molecule TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPA1 antagonists have already entered clinical trials as novel analgesic agents. There has been a recent upsurge in the amount of work that expands TRP channel drug discovery efforts into new disease areas such as asthma, cancer, anxiety, cardiac hypertrophy, as well as obesity and metabolic disorders. A better understanding of TRP channel functions in health and disease should lead to the discovery of first-in-class drugs for these intractable diseases. With this review, we hope to capture the current state of this rapidly expanding and changing field. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24102319

  11. The transient receptor potential family of ion channels.

    PubMed

    Nilius, Bernd; Owsianik, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) multigene superfamily encodes integral membrane proteins that function as ion channels. Members of this family are conserved in yeast, invertebrates and vertebrates. The TRP family is subdivided into seven subfamilies: TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPM (melastatin), TRPP (polycystin), TRPML (mucolipin), TRPA (ankyrin) and TRPN (NOMPC-like); the latter is found only in invertebrates and fish. TRP ion channels are widely expressed in many different tissues and cell types, where they are involved in diverse physiological processes, such as sensation of different stimuli or ion homeostasis. Most TRPs are non-selective cation channels, only few are highly Ca2+ selective, some are even permeable for highly hydrated Mg2+ ions. This channel family shows a variety of gating mechanisms, with modes of activation ranging from ligand binding, voltage and changes in temperature to covalent modifications of nucleophilic residues. Activated TRP channels cause depolarization of the cellular membrane, which in turn activates voltage-dependent ion channels, resulting in a change of intracellular Ca2+ concentration; they serve as gatekeeper for transcellular transport of several cations (such as Ca2+ and Mg2+), and are required for the function of intracellular organelles (such as endosomes and lysosomes). Because of their function as intracellular Ca2+ release channels, they have an important regulatory role in cellular organelles. Mutations in several TRP genes have been implicated in diverse pathological states, including neurodegenerative disorders, skeletal dysplasia, kidney disorders and pain, and ongoing research may help find new therapies for treatments of related diseases.

  12. Multiple 5-HT receptors in the guinea-pig superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, C. J.; Newberry, N. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have studied the pharmacology of the depolarization by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) of the guinea-pig isolated superior cervical ganglion (SCG) using the grease-gap technique. We studied the effects of selective and non-selective antagonists on the responses to 5-HT and other 5-HT receptor agonists. 2. We have extended the pharmacology of the 5-HT3 receptor in this preparation by studying the effects of granisetron, BRL 46470 and mianserin on the concentration-response curve (CRC) to 2-methyl-5-HT. As with other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, these compounds exhibited a lower affinity for guinea-pig 5-HT3 receptors than for rat 5-HT3 receptors. 3. We have confirmed that low concentrations of 5-HT (< or = 1 microM) mediate ketanserin-sensitive responses and higher concentrations of 5-HT also recruit 5-HT3 receptors. The responses to low concentrations of 5-HT were antagonized by low concentrations of ketanserin, spiperone, mianserin, DOI and LSD indicating probably mediation by 5-HT2A receptors. At high concentrations, the hallucinogen, DOI, but not LSD, evoked a ketanserin-sensitive depolarization. 4. Although mianserin could bind to the 5-HT2A receptors in this preparation, we could not demonstrate a down-regulation of depolarizations evoked by these receptors after a 10 day oral treatment with mianserin (10 mg kg-1, daily). 5. 5-Carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) evoked a prolonged depolarization. Although high concentrations of 5-CT (> or = microM) appeared to activate 5-HT2A receptors, lower concentrations of 5-CT evoked a response with a distinct pharmacology. After studying the action of 20 selective and non-selective 5-HT receptor ligands we believe that this response may be mediated by a novel receptor; but its pharmacology is closest to that of receptors in the 5-HT2 receptor family. Like 5-CT, 5-HT (3-300 microM) could evoke an LSD-sensitive response in the presence of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron

  13. Transient Receptor Potential Channels as Targets for Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To date, 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been cloned and characterized. They are grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of their amino acid sequence homology: TRP Ankyrin (TRPA), TRP Canonical (TRPC), TRP Melastatin (TRPM), TRP Mucolipin (TRPML), TRP Polycystin (TRPP), and TRP Vanilloid (TRPV). Most of the TRP channels are nonselective cation channels expressed on the cell membrane and exhibit variable permeability ratios for Ca2+ versus Na+. They mediate sensory functions (such as vision, nociception, taste transduction, temperature sensation, and pheromone signaling) and homeostatic functions (such as divalent cation flux, hormone release, and osmoregulation). Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the specific roles of these TRP channels and their activation mechanisms. In this Review, the emphasis will be on the activation of TRP channels by phytochemicals that are claimed to exert health benefits. Recent findings complement the anecdotal evidence that some of these phytochemicals have specific receptors and the activation of which is responsible for the physiological effects. Now, the targets for these phytochemicals are being unveiled; a specific hypothesis can be proposed and tested experimentally to infer a scientific validity of the claims of the health benefits. The broader and pressing issues that have to be addressed are related to the quantities of the active ingredients in a given preparation, their bioavailability, metabolism, adverse effects, excretion, and systemic versus local effects. PMID:24926802

  14. TRP channel cannabinoid receptors in skin sensation, homeostasis, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Caterina, Michael J

    2014-11-19

    In the skin, cannabinoid lipids, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are capable of regulating numerous sensory, homeostatic, and inflammatory events. Although many of these effects are mediated by metabotropic cannabinoid receptors, a growing body of evidence has revealed that multiple members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family can act as "ionotropic cannabinoid receptors". Furthermore, many of these same TRP channels are intimately involved in cutaneous processes that include the initiation of pain, temperature, and itch perception, the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis, the regulation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and the modulation of dermatitis. Ionotropic cannabinoid receptors therefore represent potentially attractive targets for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids to treat sensory and dermatological diseases. Furthermore, the interactions between neurons and other cell types that are mediated by cutaneous ionotropic cannabinoid receptors are likely to be recapitulated during physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system and elsewhere, making the skin an ideal setting in which to dissect general complexities of cannabinoid signaling.

  15. SPINAL CORD MECHANISMS MEDIATING BEHAVIORAL HYPERALGESIA INDUCED BY NEUROKININ-1 TACHYKININ RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN THE ROSTRAL VENTROMEDIAL MEDULLA

    PubMed Central

    Lagraize, S. C.; Guo, W.; Yang, K.; Wei, F.; Ren, K.; Dubner, R.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperalgesia in animal injury models is linked to activation of descending raphespinal modulatory circuits originating in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). A neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist microinjected into the RVM before or after inflammation produced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) resulted in an attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia. A transient (acute) or a continuous infusion of Substance P (SP) microinjected into the RVM of non-inflamed animals led to similar pain hypersensitivity. Intrathecal pretreatment or post-treatment of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (Y-25130 or ondansetron) blocked the SP-induced hyperalgesia. The SP-induced hyperalgesia was both GABAA and NMDA receptor-dependent after pre- and post-treatment with selective antagonists at the spinal level. A microinjection of SP into the RVM also led to increased NMDA NR1 receptor subunit phosphorylation in spinal cord tissue. The GABAA receptor-mediated hyperalgesia involved a shift in the anionic gradient in dorsal horn nociceptive neurons and an increase in phosphorylated NKCC1 protein (isoform of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter). Following a low dose of SP infused into the RVM, intrathecal muscimol (GABAA agonist) increased SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, phosphorylated NKCC1 protein expression, and NMDA NR1 subunit phosphorylation in the spinal cord. The thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by intrathecal gabazine, the GABAA receptor antagonist, and MK-801, the NMDA receptor channel blocker. These findings indicate that NK-1 receptors in the RVM are involved in SP-induced thermal hyperalgesia, this hyperalgesia is 5-HT3-receptor dependent at the spinal level, and involves the functional interaction of spinal GABAA and NMDA receptors. PMID:20888891

  16. Transient receptor potential M3 channels are ionotropic steroid receptors in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Thomas F J; Loch, Sabine; Lambert, Sachar; Straub, Isabelle; Mannebach, Stefanie; Mathar, Ilka; Düfer, Martina; Lis, Annette; Flockerzi, Veit; Philipp, Stephan E; Oberwinkler, Johannes

    2008-12-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are renowned for their ability to sense diverse chemical stimuli. Still, for many members of this large and heterogeneous protein family it is unclear how their activity is regulated and whether they are influenced by endogenous substances. On the other hand, steroidal compounds are increasingly recognized to have rapid effects on membrane surface receptors that often have not been identified at the molecular level. We show here that TRPM3, a divalent-permeable cation channel, is rapidly and reversibly activated by extracellular pregnenolone sulphate, a neuroactive steroid. We show that pregnenolone sulphate activates endogenous TRPM3 channels in insulin-producing beta cells. Application of pregnenolone sulphate led to a rapid calcium influx and enhanced insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. Our results establish that TRPM3 is an essential component of an ionotropic steroid receptor enabling unanticipated crosstalk between steroidal and insulin-signalling endocrine systems.

  17. Differential effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a representative flavonoid, is a compound of low molecular weight found in various colored plants and vegetables. Quercetin shows a wide range of neuropharmacological activities. In fact, quercetin naturally exists as monomer-(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) (Rham1), dimer-(Rutin), or trimer-glycosides [quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside)] (Rham2) at carbon-3 in fruits and vegetables. The carbohydrate components are removed after ingestion into gastrointestinal systems. The role of the glycosides attached to quercetin in the regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid class C (GABAC) receptor channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity by expressing human GABAC alone in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique and also compared the effects of quercetin glycosides with quercetin. We found that GABA-induced inward current (I GABA ) was inhibited by quercetin or quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were concentration-dependent and reversible in the order of Rutin ≈ quercetin ≈ Rham 1 > Rham 2. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were noncompetitive and membrane voltage-insensitive. These results indicate that quercetin and its glycosides regulate GABAC receptor channel activity through interaction with a different site from that of GABA, and that the number of carbohydrate attached to quercetin might play an important role in the regulation of GABAC receptor channel activity.

  18. Subunit-dependent effects of nickel on NMDA receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Carla; Gavazzo, Paola

    2003-10-07

    Nickel (Ni2+) is a transition metal that affects different neuronal ionic channels. We investigated its effects on glutamate channels of the NMDA-type in the presence of saturating concentration of glutamate or NMDA (50 microM), in 0 external Mg and in the continuous presence of saturating glycine (30 microM). In neonatal rat cerebellar granule cells, Ni2+ inhibited the current evoked by NMDA at -60 mV with an IC50 close to 40 microM. The inhibition was weakly voltage-dependent and the current at +40 mV was inhibited with IC50=86 microM. Wash out of the metal unmasked a stimulatory effect which persisted for a few seconds. In HEK293 cells transiently transfected with recombinant NR1a-NR2A receptors, Ni2+ inhibited the current elicited by glutamate with an IC50=52 microM at -60 mV and 90 microM at +40 mV. In HEK293 expressing NR1a-NR2B receptors, 0.1-100 microM Ni2+ caused a potentiation of the current, with EC50=4 microM, while with 300 microM, a voltage-dependent block became apparent (IC50=170 microM). As previously reported, the current through both classes of recombinant receptors was steeply dependent on external pH, and in both cases the protonic block had an IC50 close to pH 7.2. Application of Ni2+ showed that stimulation of NR1a-NR2B receptor channels was dependent on external pH, while voltage-independent inhibition of NR1a-NR2A was less sensitive to pH change. These results indicate that Ni2+ has multiple and complex effects on NMDA channels, which are largely dependent on the NR2 subunit.

  19. TRP Channel Cannabinoid Receptors in Skin Sensation, Homeostasis, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the skin, cannabinoid lipids, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are capable of regulating numerous sensory, homeostatic, and inflammatory events. Although many of these effects are mediated by metabotropic cannabinoid receptors, a growing body of evidence has revealed that multiple members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family can act as “ionotropic cannabinoid receptors”. Furthermore, many of these same TRP channels are intimately involved in cutaneous processes that include the initiation of pain, temperature, and itch perception, the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis, the regulation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and the modulation of dermatitis. Ionotropic cannabinoid receptors therefore represent potentially attractive targets for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids to treat sensory and dermatological diseases. Furthermore, the interactions between neurons and other cell types that are mediated by cutaneous ionotropic cannabinoid receptors are likely to be recapitulated during physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system and elsewhere, making the skin an ideal setting in which to dissect general complexities of cannabinoid signaling. PMID:24915599

  20. Receptors and Channels Targeted by Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that non-endogenous compounds that target CB1 and/or CB2 receptors possess therapeutic potential for the clinical management of an ever growing number of disorders. Just a few of these disorders are already treated with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or nabilone, both CB1/CB2 receptor agonists, and there is now considerable interest in expanding the clinical applications of such agonists and also in exploiting CB2-selective agonists, peripherally restricted CB1/CB2 receptor agonists and CB1/CB2 antagonists and inverse agonists as medicines. Already, numerous cannabinoid receptor ligands have been developed and their interactions with CB1 and CB2 receptors well characterized. This review describes what is currently known about the ability of such compounds to bind to, activate, inhibit or block non-CB1, non-CB2 G protein-coupled receptors such as GPR55, transmitter gated channels, ion channels and nuclear receptors in an orthosteric or allosteric manner. It begins with a brief description of how each of these ligands interacts with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. PMID:20166927

  1. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Y; Matsunami, H

    2009-03-01

    Humans have 5 basic taste sensations: sweet, bitter, sour, salty, and umami (taste of 1-amino acids). Among 33 genes related to transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, 3--including TRP-melastatin 5 (TRPM5), polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 (PKD1L3), and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 (PKD2L1)--are specifically and abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells. TRP-melastatin 5 is co-expressed with taste receptors T1Rs and T2Rs, and functions as a common downstream component in sweet, bitter, and umami taste signal transduction. In contrast, polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 are co-expressed in distinct subsets of taste receptor cells not expressing TRP-melastatin 5. In the heterologous expression system, cells expressing both polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 responded to sour stimuli, showing a unique "off-response" property. Genetic ablation of poly-cystic kidney disease-2-like 1-expressing cells resulted in elimination of gustatory nerve response to sour stimuli, indicating that cells expressing polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 function as sour taste detectors. These results suggest that polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3/polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 may play a significant role, possibly as taste receptors, in sour taste sensation.

  2. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    PubMed

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds.

  3. Tunable Calcium Current through TRPV1 Receptor Channels*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Samways, Damien S. K.; Khakh, Baljit S.; Egan, Terrance M.

    2008-01-01

    TRPV1 receptors are polymodal cation channels that open in response to diverse stimuli including noxious heat, capsaicin, and protons. Because Ca2+ is vital for TRPV1 signaling, we sought to precisely measure its contribution to TRPV1 responses and discovered that the Ca2+ current was tuned by the mode of activation. Using patch clamp photometry, we found that the fraction of the total current carried by Ca2+ (called the Pf%) was significantly smaller for TRPV1 currents evoked by protons than for those evoked by capsaicin. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we discovered that the smaller Pf% was due to protonation of three acidic amino acids (Asp646, Glu648, and Glu651) that are located in the mouth of the pore. Thus, in keeping with recent reports of time-dependent changes in the ionic permeability of some ligand-gated ion channels, we now show for the first time that the physiologically important Ca2+ current of the TRPV1 receptor is also dynamic and depends on the mode of activation. This current is significantly smaller when the receptor is activated by a change in pH, owing to atomic scale interactions of H+ and Ca2+ with the fixed negative charge of side chains in the pore. PMID:18775990

  4. Activation and Regulation of Purinergic P2X Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Yan, Zonghe; Obsil, Tomas; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ATP-gated nonselective cation channels (P2XRs) can be composed of seven possible subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7. Each subunit contains a large ectodomain, two transmembrane domains, and intracellular N and C termini. Functional P2XRs are organized as homomeric and heteromeric trimers. This review focuses on the binding sites involved in the activation (orthosteric) and regulation (allosteric) of P2XRs. The ectodomains contain three ATP binding sites, presumably located between neighboring subunits and formed by highly conserved residues. The detection and coordination of three ATP phosphate residues by positively charged amino acids are likely to play a dominant role in determining agonist potency, whereas an AsnPheArg motif may contribute to binding by coordinating the adenine ring. Nonconserved ectodomain histidines provide the binding sites for trace metals, divalent cations, and protons. The transmembrane domains account not only for the formation of the channel pore but also for the binding of ivermectin (a specific P2X4R allosteric regulator) and alcohols. The N- and C- domains provide the structures that determine the kinetics of receptor desensitization and/or pore dilation and are critical for the regulation of receptor functions by intracellular messengers, kinases, reactive oxygen species and mercury. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in a closed state provides a major advance in the understanding of this family of receptor channels. We will discuss data obtained from numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments accumulated during the last 15 years with reference to the crystal structure, allowing a structural interpretation of the molecular basis of orthosteric and allosteric ligand actions. PMID:21737531

  5. Classification of Na channel receptors specific for various scorpion toxins.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, K P; Watt, D D; Lazdunski, M

    1983-04-01

    1. The specific binding to rat brain synaptosomes of a radiolabelled derivative of toxin II from the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus could be prevented by toxins III and IV, but not by toxin V or variants 1-3, from the venom of Centruroides sculpturatus. 2. The specific binding of a similar derivative of toxin II from Androctonus australis Hector was not affected by any of the toxins from Centruroides sculpturatus. 3. There is biochemical evidence for only two distinct classes of Na channel receptors specific for known scorpion toxins.

  6. Emerging models of glutamate receptor ion channel structure and function.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Mark L

    2011-10-12

    Excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain is mediated by ligand-gated ion channels (iGluRs) activated by glutamate. Distinct from other neurotransmitter receptors, the extracellular domains of iGluRs are loosely packed assemblies with two clearly distinct layers, each of which has both local and global 2-fold axes of symmetry. By contrast, the iGluR transmembrane segments have 4-fold symmetry and share a conserved pore loop architecture found in tetrameric voltage-gated ion channels. The striking layered architecture of iGluRs revealed by the 3.6 Å resolution structure of an AMPA receptor homotetramer likely arose from gene fusion events that occurred early in evolution. Although this modular design has greatly facilitated biophysical and structural studies on individual iGluR domains, and suggested conserved mechanisms for iGluR gating, recent work is beginning to reveal unanticipated diversity in the structure, allosteric regulation, and assembly of iGluR subtypes.

  7. The antiallodynic action target of intrathecal gabapentin: Ca2+ channels, KATP channels or N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Yang, Jia-Rung; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2006-01-01

    Gabapentin is a novel analgesic whose mechanism of action is not known. We investigated in a postoperative pain model whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels, N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and Ca2+ channels are involved in the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal gabapentin. Mechanical allodynia was induced by a paw incision in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Withdrawal thresholds to von Frey filament stimulation near the incision site were measured before and after incision and after intrathecal drug administration. The antiallodynic effect of gabapentin (100 mug) was not affected by intrathecal pretreatment with antagonists of K(ATP) channels, NMDA receptors or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors. K(ATP) channel openers and GABA(A) receptor agonist, per se, had little effect on the postincision allodynic response. The Ca2+ channel blocker of N-type (omega-conotoxin GVIA, 0.1-3 microg), but not of P/Q-type (omega-agatoxin IVA), L-type (verapamil, diltiazem or nimodipine), or T-type (mibefradil), attenuated the incision-induced allodynia, as did gabapentin. Both the antiallodynic effects of gabapentin and omega-conotoxin GVIA were attenuated by Bay K 8644, an L-type Ca2+ channel activator. These results provide correlative evidence to support the contention that N-type Ca2+ channels, but not K(ATP) channels or NMDA or GABA(A) receptors, might be involved in the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal gabapentin.

  8. Voltage-gated sodium channel modulation by sigma-receptors in cardiac myocytes and heterologous systems.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Molly; Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Riemer, Logan; Ramos-Serrano, Andrea; Ruoho, Arnold E; Jackson, Meyer B

    2009-05-01

    The sigma-receptor, a broadly distributed integral membrane protein with a novel structure, is known to modulate various voltage-gated K(+) and Ca(2+) channels through a mechanism that involves neither G proteins nor phosphorylation. The present study investigated the modulation of the heart voltage-gated Na(+) channel (Na(v)1.5) by sigma-receptors. The sigma(1)-receptor ligands [SKF-10047 and (+)-pentazocine] and sigma(1)/sigma(2)-receptor ligands (haloperidol and ditolylguanidine) all reversibly inhibited Na(v)1.5 channels to varying degrees in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells and COS-7 cells, but the sigma(1)-receptor ligands were less effective in COS-7 cells. The same four ligands also inhibited Na(+) current in neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes. In sigma(1)-receptor knockout myocytes, the sigma(1)-receptor-specific ligands were far less effective in modulating Na(+) current, but the sigma(1)/sigma(2)-receptor ligands modulated Na(+) channels as well as in wild type. Photolabeling with the sigma(1)-receptor photoprobe [(125)I]-iodoazidococaine demonstrated that sigma(1)-receptors were abundant in heart and HEK-293 cells, but scarce in COS-7 cells. This difference was consistent with the greater efficacy of sigma(1)-receptor-specific ligands in HEK-293 cells than in COS-7 cells. sigma-Receptors modulated Na(+) channels despite the omission of GTP and ATP from the patch pipette solution. sigma-Receptor-mediated inhibition of Na(+) current had little if any voltage dependence and produced no change in channel kinetics. Na(+) channels represent a new addition to the large number of voltage-gated ion channels modulated by sigma-receptors. The modulation of Na(v)1.5 channels by sigma-receptors in the heart suggests an important pathway by which drugs can alter cardiac excitability and rhythmicity.

  9. Modulation of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channels (Review).

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Terutaka

    2010-01-01

    Ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors, RyRs) play a crucial role in the mobilization of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) during the excitation-contraction coupling of muscle cells. In skeletal muscle, depolarization of transverse tubules activates the RyR, whereas in cardiac muscle, a Ca2+ influx through an L-type Ca2+ channel activates the RyR. The RyR is also activated by caffeine, a low concentration (<10 µM) of ryanodine or cyclic ADP-ribose. RyR activity is inhibited by Mg2+, ruthenium red, or higher concentrations (≥100 µM) of ryanodine. The activity of RyR channels is modulated by phosphorylation and by associated proteins, including calmodulin (CaM), calsequestrin (CSQ) and FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs). In muscle cells, apoCaM (Ca2+-free CaM) activates the RyR channel, and Ca2+ CaM (Ca2+-bound CaM) inhibits the channel. CSQ can bind approximately 40 moles of Ca2+/mole of CSQ in the SR lumen of muscle cells, and interacts functionally with RyR protein. When the RyR is stimulated, Ca2+ released from the lumen is dissociated from the CSQ- Ca2+ complex. A 12-kDa or 12.6-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12 or FKBP12.6, respectively) is associated with RyR protein. When FKBP12 or FKBP12.6 is dissociated from the FKBP-RyR complex, the RyR is modulated (activated). Phosphorylation of the RyR by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II modulates the channel. PKA phosphorylation of the RyR on the skeletal and cardiac muscle SR dissociates FKBP12 or FKBP12.6 from the RyR complex. This review deals with the modulation mechanisms of RyR proteins by associated proteins and phosphorylation.

  10. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Structure and Function and Response to Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Dani, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the "Cys-loop" superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that includes GABAA, glycine, and serotonin (5-HT3) receptors. There are 16 homologous mammalian nAChR subunits encoded by a multigene family. These subunits combine to form many different nAChR subtypes with various expression patterns, diverse functional properties, and differing pharmacological characteristics. Because cholinergic innervation is pervasive and nAChR expression is extremely broad, practically every area of the brain is impinged upon by nicotinic mechanisms. This review briefly examines the structural and functional properties of the receptor/channel complex itself. The review also summarizes activation and desensitization of nAChRs by the low nicotine concentrations obtained from tobacco. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure and the structural characteristics of channel gating has reached an advanced stage. Likewise, the basic functional properties of the channel also are reasonably well understood. It is these receptor/channel properties that underlie the participation of nAChRs in nearly every anatomical region of the mammalian brain.

  11. Structural Studies of GABAA Receptor Binding Sites: Which Experimental Structure Tells us What?

    PubMed Central

    Puthenkalam, Roshan; Hieckel, Marcel; Simeone, Xenia; Suwattanasophon, Chonticha; Feldbauer, Roman V.; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Ernst, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Atomic resolution structures of cys-loop receptors, including one of a γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA receptor) subtype, allow amazing insights into the structural features and conformational changes that these pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) display. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of more than 30 cys-loop receptor structures of homologous proteins that revealed several allosteric binding sites not previously described in GABAA receptors. These novel binding sites were examined in GABAA receptor homology models and assessed as putative candidate sites for allosteric ligands. Four so far undescribed putative ligand binding sites were proposed for follow up studies based on their presence in the GABAA receptor homology models. A comprehensive analysis of conserved structural features in GABAA and glycine receptors (GlyRs), the glutamate gated ion channel, the bacterial homologs Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) and Gloeobacter violaceus GLIC, and the serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor was performed. The conserved features were integrated into a master alignment that led to improved homology models. The large fragment of the intracellular domain that is present in the structure of the 5-HT3 receptor was utilized to generate GABAA receptor models with a corresponding intracellular domain fragment. Results of mutational and photoaffinity ligand studies in GABAA receptors were analyzed in the light of the model structures. This led to an assignment of candidate ligands to two proposed novel pockets, candidate binding sites for furosemide and neurosteroids in the trans-membrane domain were identified. The homology models can serve as hypotheses generators, and some previously controversial structural interpretations of biochemical data can be resolved in the light of the presented multi-template approach to comparative modeling. Crystal and cryo-EM microscopic structures of the closest homologs that were solved in different conformational

  12. Lead inhibition of NMDA channels in native and recombinant receptors.

    PubMed

    Gavazzo, P; Gazzoli, A; Mazzolini, M; Marchetti, C

    2001-10-08

    NMDA channels are key targets for lead (Pb2+) neurotoxicity and Pb2+-induced inhibition of NMDA current is age- and subunit-dependent. In rat cerebellar granule cells maintained in high KCl, glycine affinity as well as sensitivity to ifenprodil change significantly with the days in vitro, indicating a reduction of NR2B subunit expression. Pb2+ blocked NMDA current with IC50 approximately 4 microM and this effect decreased significantly during the second week in vitro. In Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing recombinant NR1-NR2A, NR1-NR2B or NR1-NR2C receptors, Pb2+ inhibited glutamate-activated currents with IC50 of 3.3, 2.5 and 4.7 microM respectively. These data indicate that Pb2+ action is dependent on subunit composition and suggest that down-regulation of the NR2B subunit is correlated to a diminished sensitivity to Pb2+ inhibition.

  13. Efficacy and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists in irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yurong; Xiong, Wenjie; Shen, Xiaoxue; Jiang, Ling; Lin, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Aim We assessed the efficacy and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonists in adults with non-constipated irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). Methods We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults with non-constipated IBS or IBS-D that compared 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with placebo or other conventional treatment. Dichotomous symptom data were pooled to obtain the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for improving global IBS symptoms, abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits, or stool consistency symptoms after therapy, and adverse events, including constipation. Meta- analysis was performed with Mantel Haenszel method using Revman 5.3 software. Results We included 21 RCTs; 16 were high quality (Jadad score ≥ 4). The pooled RR of global IBS symptoms improved by 5-HT3 receptor antagonists versus placebo or mebeverine was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.43–1.71); alosetron, ramosetron, and cilansetron had similar treatment effects. The pooled RR of abdominal pain relieved by 5-HT3 receptor antagonists versus placebo was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.26–1.39). The pooled RR showed that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists improved abnormal bowel habits or stool consistency symptoms (RR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33, 1.99). The pooled RR of adverse events following 5-HT3 receptor antagonist treatment was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.22). Subgroup analysis indicated that alosetron had a high rate of adverse effects (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.25); adverse events following ramosetron treatment were not statistically significantly different. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists were likelier to cause constipation: the pooled RR of constipation developing with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist versus placebo was 3.71 (95% CI: 2.98–4.61). However, constipation was likelier in patients with non-constipated IBS after taking 5-HT3 receptor antagonists than in patients with IBS-D only

  14. Substituted 2-Aminopyrimidines Selective for α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Activation and Association with Acetylcholine Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Camacho Hernandez, Gisela Andrea; Bendiks, Larissa; Kohs, Larissa; Cornejo-Bravo, Jose Manuel; Harel, Michal; Finn, M G; Taylor, Palmer

    2017-03-15

    Through studies with ligand binding to the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), we previously identified a series of 4,6-substituted 2-aminopyrimidines that associate with this soluble surrogate of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in a cooperative fashion, not seen for classical nicotinic agonists and antagonists. To examine receptor interactions of this structural family on ligand-gated ion channels, we employed HEK cells transfected with cDNAs encoding three requisite receptor subtypes: α7-nAChR, α4β2-nAChR, and a serotonin receptor (5-HT3AR), along with a fluorescent reporter. Initial screening of a series of over 50 newly characterized 2-aminopyrimidines with affinity for AChBP showed only two to be agonists on the α7-nAChR below 10 μM concentration. Their unique structural features were incorporated into design of a second subset of 2-aminopyrimidines yielding several congeners that elicited α7 activation with EC50 values of 70 nM and Kd values for AChBP in a similar range. Several compounds within this series exhibit specificity for the α7-nAChR, showing no activation or antagonism of α4β2-nAChR or 5-HT3AR at concentrations up to 10 μM, while others were weaker antagonists (or partial agonists) on these receptors. Analysis following cocrystallization of four ligand complexes with AChBP show binding at the subunit interface, but with an orientation or binding pose that differs from classical nicotinic agonists and antagonists and from the previously analyzed set of 2-aminopyrimidines that displayed distinct cooperative interactions with AChBP. Orientations of aromatic side chains of these complexes are distinctive, suggesting new modes of binding at the agonist-antagonist site and perhaps an allosteric action for heteromeric nAChRs.

  15. Neurotransmitter Receptors and Their Ionic Channels as Targets for Drugs and Toxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-06

    binding site and/or noncompetitively via its allosteric sites. Drugs acting on the latter sites included amantadine and perhydrohistrionicotoxin, which...channel conformation of the ACh-receptor. Fixamples are H12MT (Albuquerque - et al., 1974), PCP (Albuquerque et al., 1980), amantadine (Tai et al., 1978...receptor’s channel in a closed conformation. -- We found that amantadine , PCP and HI h bound t t the receptorts open- as well as closed-channel

  16. Pre-synaptic GABA receptors inhibit glutamate release through GIRK channels in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Ladera, Carolina; del Carmen Godino, María; José Cabañero, María; Torres, Magdalena; Watanabe, Masahiko; Luján, Rafael; Sánchez-Prieto, José

    2008-12-01

    Neuronal G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels mediate the slow inhibitory effects of many neurotransmitters post-synaptically. However, no evidence exists that supports that GIRK channels play any role in the inhibition of glutamate release by GABA(B) receptors. In this study, we show for the first time that GABA(B) receptors operate through two mechanisms in nerve terminals from the cerebral cortex. As shown previously, GABA(B) receptors reduces glutamate release and the Ca(2+) influx mediated by N-type Ca(2+) channels in a mode insensitive to the GIRK channel blocker tertiapin-Q and consistent with direct inhibition of this voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel. However, by means of weak stimulation protocols, we reveal that GABA(B) receptors also reduce glutamate release mediated by P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels, and that these responses are reversed by the GIRK channel blocker tertiapin-Q. Consistent with the functional interaction between GABA(B) receptors and GIRK channels at nerve terminals we demonstrate by immunogold electron immunohistochemistry that pre-synaptic boutons of asymmetric synapses co-express GABA(B) receptors and GIRK channels, thus suggesting that the functional interaction of these two proteins, found at the post-synaptic level, also occurs at glutamatergic nerve terminals.

  17. Reversible block of the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor by protamine, a heparin antidote.

    PubMed

    Koulen, P; Ehrlich, B E

    2000-07-01

    Channel activity of the calcium release channel from skeletal muscle, ryanodine receptor type 1, was measured in the presence and absence of protamine sulfate on the cytoplasmic side of the channel. Single-channel activity was measured after incorporating channels into planar lipid bilayers. Optimally and suboptimally calcium-activated calcium release channels were inactivated by the application of protamine to the cytoplasmic side of the channel. Recovery of channel activity was not observed while protamine was present. The addition of protamine bound to agarose beads did not change channel activity, implying that the mechanism of action involves an interaction with the ryanodine receptor rather than changes in the bulk calcium concentration of the medium. The block of channel activity by protamine could be reversed either by removal by perfusion with buffer or by the addition of heparin to the cytoplasmic side of the channel. Microinjection of protamine into differentiated C(2)C(12) mouse muscle cells prevented caffeine-induced intracellular calcium release. The results suggest that protamine acts on the ryanodine receptor in a similar but opposite manner from heparin and that protamine can be used as a potent, reversible inhibitor of ryanodine receptor activity.

  18. Incorporation of acetylcholine receptors and Cl- channels in Xenopus oocytes injected with Torpedo electroplaque membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Marsal, J; Tigyi, G; Miledi, R

    1995-01-01

    A method was developed to transplant assembled nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AcChoRs) and Cl- channels from the electric organ of Torpedo to the membrane of Xenopus oocytes. Membrane vesicles from Torpedo electroplaques were injected into the oocytes and, within a few hours, the oocyte membrane acquired AcChoRs and Cl- channels. The mechanism of expression of these receptors and channels is very different from that which follows the injection of mRNA, since the appearance of receptors after membrane injection does not require de novo protein synthesis or N-glycosylation. This, and other controls, indicate that the foreign receptor-bearing membranes fuse with the oocyte membrane and cause the appearance of functional receptors and channels. All this makes the Xenopus oocyte an even more powerful tool for studies of the structure and function of membrane proteins. PMID:7761478

  19. A pharmacological analysis of serotonergic receptors: effects of their activation of blockade in learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-02-01

    1. The authors have tested several 5-HT selective agonists and antagonists (5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4), an uptake inhibitor and 5-HT depletors in the autoshaping learning task. 2. The present work deals with the receptors whose stimulation increases or decreases learning. 3. Impaired consolidation of learning was observed after the presynaptic activation of 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 or the blockade of postsynaptic 5-HT2C/2B receptors. 4. In contrast, an improvement occurred after the presynaptic activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, and the blockade of presynaptic 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. 5. The blockade of postsynaptic 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptors and 5-HT inhibition of synthesis and its depletion did no alter learning by themselves. 6. The present data suggest that multiple pre- and postsynaptic serotonergic receptors are involved in the consolidation of learning. 7. Stimulation of most 5-HT receptors increases learning, however, some of 5-HT subtypes seem to limit the data storage. 8. Furthermore, the role of 5-HT receptors in learning seem to require an interaction with glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic neurotransmission systems.

  20. Combined single channel and single molecule detection identifies subunit composition of STIM1-activated transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels.

    PubMed

    Asanov, Alexander; Sampieri, Alicia; Moreno, Claudia; Pacheco, Jonathan; Salgado, Alfonso; Sherry, Ryan; Vaca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Depletion of intracellular calcium ion stores initiates a rapid cascade of events culminating with the activation of the so-called Store-Operated Channels (SOC) at the plasma membrane. Calcium influx via SOC is essential in the initiation of calcium-dependent intracellular signaling and for the refilling of internal calcium stores, ensuring the regeneration of the signaling cascade. In spite of the significance of this evolutionary conserved mechanism, the molecular identity of SOC has been the center of a heated controversy spanning over the last 20 years. Initial studies positioned some members of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel superfamily of channels (with the more robust evidence pointing to TRPC1) as a putative SOC. Recent evidence indicates that Stromal Interacting Molecule 1 (STIM1) activates some members from the TRPC family of channels. However, the exact subunit composition of TRPC channels remains undetermined to this date. To identify the subunit composition of STIM1-activated TRPC channels, we developed novel method, which combines single channel electrophysiological measurements based on the patch clamp technique with single molecule fluorescence imaging. We termed this method Single ion Channel Single Molecule Detection technique (SC-SMD). Using SC-SMD method, we have obtained direct evidence of the subunit composition of TRPC channels activated by STIM1. Furthermore, our electrophysiological-imaging SC-SMD method provides evidence at the molecular level of the mechanism by which STIM1 and calmodulin antagonize to modulate TRPC channel activity.

  1. sigma Receptor activation blocks potassium channels and depresses neuroexcitability in rat intracardiac neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongling; Cuevas, Javier

    2005-06-01

    The sigma receptors have been implicated in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, and sigma-1 receptor transcripts have been found in parasympathetic intracardiac neurons. However, the cellular function of sigma-1 receptors in these cells remains to be determined. Effects of sigma receptor activation on voltage-activated K(+) channels and action potential firing were studied in isolated intracardiac neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques. Activation of sigma receptors reversibly blocked delayed outwardly rectifying potassium channels, large conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels, and the M-current with maximal inhibition >80%. The inhibition of K(+) channels by sigma ligands was dose-dependent, and the rank order potency of (+)-pentazocine > ibogaine > 1,3-di-O-tolyguanidin (DTG) suggests that the effect is mediated by sigma-1 receptor activation. Preincubation of neurons with the irreversible sigma receptor antagonist metaphit blocked DTG-induced inhibition of K(+) channels, confirming that the effect is mediated by sigma receptor activation. Although bath application of sigma ligands depolarized intracardiac neurons, the number of action potentials fired by the cells in response to depolarizing current pulses was decreased in the presence of these drugs. Neither dialysis of the neurons nor application of intracellular 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) trilithium salt inhibited the effect of sigma receptors on K(+) channels, which suggests that the signal transduction pathway does not involve a diffusible cytosolic second messenger or a G protein. Together, these data suggest that sigma-1 receptors are directly coupled to K(+) channels in intracardiac neurons. Furthermore, activation of sigma-1 receptors depresses the excitability of intracardiac neurons and is thus likely to block parasympathetic input to the heart.

  2. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na/sup +/ channel interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-12

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na/sup +/ channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) (G-protein(s)). These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of (/sup 3/H)batrachotoxin to Na/sup +/ channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na/sup +/ channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na/sup +/channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na/sup +/ channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na/sup +/ channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues.

  3. Functional Coupling of Ca2+ Channels and Ryanodine Receptors in Cardiac Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sham, James S. K.; Cleemann, Lars; Morad, Martin

    1995-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, dihydropyridine receptors are functionally coupled to ryanodine receptors of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in triadic or diadic junctional complexes. In cardiac muscle direct physical or functional couplings have not been demonstrated. We have tested the hypothesis of functional coupling of L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in rat cardiac myocytes by comparing the efficacies of Ca2+ in triggering Ca2+ release when the ion enters the cell via the Ca2+ channels or the Na^+/Ca2+ exchanger. Ca2+ transported through the Ca2+ channels was 20-160 times more effective than Ca2+ influx via the Na^+/Ca2+ exchanger in gating Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, suggesting privileged communication between Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors. In support of this hypothesis we found that Ca2+ channels were inactivated by Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, even though the myoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations were buffered with 10 mM EGTA. The data thus suggest privileged cross signaling between the dihydropyridine and ryanodine receptors such that Ca2+ flux through either the Ca2+ channel or the ryanodine receptor alters the gating kinetics of the other channel.

  4. Domain-based identification and analysis of glutamate receptor ion channels and their relatives in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ger, Mao-Feng; Rendon, Gloria; Tilson, Jeffrey L; Jakobsson, Eric

    2010-10-06

    Voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels are used in eukaryotic organisms for the purpose of electrochemical signaling. There are prokaryotic homologues to major eukaryotic channels of these sorts, including voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels, Ach-receptor and glutamate-receptor channels. The prokaryotic homologues have been less well characterized functionally than their eukaryotic counterparts. In this study we identify likely prokaryotic functional counterparts of eukaryotic glutamate receptor channels by comprehensive analysis of the prokaryotic sequences in the context of known functional domains present in the eukaryotic members of this family. In particular, we searched the nonredundant protein database for all proteins containing the following motif: the two sections of the extracellular glutamate binding domain flanking two transmembrane helices. We discovered 100 prokaryotic sequences containing this motif, with a wide variety of functional annotations. Two groups within this family have the same topology as eukaryotic glutamate receptor channels. Group 1 has a potassium-like selectivity filter. Group 2 is most closely related to eukaryotic glutamate receptor channels. We present analysis of the functional domain architecture for the group of 100, a putative phylogenetic tree, comparison of the protein phylogeny with the corresponding species phylogeny, consideration of the distribution of these proteins among classes of prokaryotes, and orthologous relationships between prokaryotic and human glutamate receptor channels. We introduce a construct called the Evolutionary Domain Network, which represents a putative pathway of domain rearrangements underlying the domain composition of present channels. We believe that scientists interested in ion channels in general, and ligand-gated ion channels in particular, will be interested in this work. The work should also be of interest to bioinformatics researchers who are interested in the use

  5. A Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channel in Chlamydomonas Shares Key Features with Sensory Transduction-Associated TRP Channels in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Darraz, Luis; Cabezas, Deny; Colenso, Charlotte K.; Alegría-Arcos, Melissa; Bravo-Moraga, Felipe; Varas-Concha, Ignacio; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Madrid, Rodolfo; Brauchi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Sensory modalities are essential for navigating through an ever-changing environment. From insects to mammals, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are known mediators for cellular sensing. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile single-celled freshwater green alga that is guided by photosensory, mechanosensory, and chemosensory cues. In this type of alga, sensory input is first detected by membrane receptors located in the cell body and then transduced to the beating cilia by membrane depolarization. Although TRP channels seem to be absent in plants, C. reinhardtii possesses genomic sequences encoding TRP proteins. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a C. reinhardtii version of a TRP channel sharing key features present in mammalian TRP channels associated with sensory transduction. In silico sequence-structure analysis unveiled the modular design of TRP channels, and electrophysiological experiments conducted on Human Embryonic Kidney-293T cells expressing the Cr-TRP1 clone showed that many of the core functional features of metazoan TRP channels are present in Cr-TRP1, suggesting that basic TRP channel gating characteristics evolved early in the history of eukaryotes. PMID:25595824

  6. From The Cover: Microtransplantation of functional receptors and channels from the Alzheimer's brain to frog oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miledi, R.; Dueñas, Z.; Martinez-Torres, A.; Kawas, C. H.; Eusebi, F.

    2004-02-01

    About a decade ago, cell membranes from the electric organ of Torpedo and from the rat brain were transplanted to frog oocytes, which thus acquired functional Torpedo and rat neurotransmitter receptors. Nevertheless, the great potential that this method has for studying human diseases has remained virtually untapped. Here, we show that cell membranes from the postmortem brains of humans that suffered Alzheimer's disease can be microtransplanted to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes. We show also that these postmortem membranes carry neurotransmitter receptors and voltage-operated channels that are still functional, even after they have been kept frozen for many years. This method provides a new and powerful approach to study directly the functional characteristics and structure of receptors, channels, and other membrane proteins of the Alzheimer's brain. This knowledge may help in understanding the basis of Alzheimer's disease and also help in developing new treatments. -aminobutyric acid receptors | sodium channels | calcium channels | postmortem brain

  7. Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channels Control Thermoregulatory Behaviour in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Murray, Shauna A.

    2007-01-01

    Biological functions are governed by thermodynamics, and animals regulate their body temperature to optimise cellular performance and to avoid harmful extremes. The capacity to sense environmental and internal temperatures is a prerequisite for the evolution of thermoregulation. However, the mechanisms that enable ectothermic vertebrates to sense heat remain unknown. The recently discovered thermal characteristics of transient receptor potential ion channels (TRP) render these proteins suitable to act as temperature sensors. Here we test the hypothesis that TRPs are present in reptiles and function to control thermoregulatory behaviour. We show that the hot-sensing TRPV1 is expressed in a crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), an agamid (Amphibolurus muricatus) and a scincid (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii) lizard, as well as in the quail and zebrafinch (Coturnix chinensis and Poephila guttata). The TRPV1 genes from all reptiles form a unique clade that is delineated from the mammalian and the ancestral Xenopus sequences by an insertion of two amino acids. TRPV1 and the cool-sensing TRPM8 are expressed in liver, muscle (transversospinalis complex), and heart tissues of the crocodile, and have the potential to act as internal thermometer and as external temperatures sensors. Inhibition of TRPV1 and TRPM8 in C. porosus abolishes the typically reptilian shuttling behaviour between cooling and heating environments, and leads to significantly altered body temperature patterns. Our results provide the proximate mechanism of thermal selection in terrestrial ectotherms, which heralds a fundamental change in interpretation, because TRPs provide the mechanism for a tissue-specific input into the animals' thermoregulatory response. PMID:17356692

  8. Structure-Driven Pharmacology of Transient Receptor Potential Channel Vanilloid 1.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Caceres-Molina, Javier; Sepulveda, Romina V; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramon

    2016-09-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal receptor that mediates the flux of cations across the membrane in response to several stimuli, including heat, voltage, and ligands. The best known agonist of TRPV1 channels is capsaicin, the pungent component of "hot" chili peppers. In addition, peptides found in the venom of poisonous animals, along with the lipids phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate, lysophosphatidic acid, and cholesterol, bind to TRPV1 with high affinity to modulate channel gating. Here, we discuss the functional evidence regarding ligand-dependent activation of TRPV1 channels in light of structural data recently obtained by cryoelectron microscopy. This review focuses on the mechanistic insights into ligand binding and allosteric gating of TRPV1 channels and the relevance of accurate polymodal receptor biophysical characterization for drug design in novel pain therapies.

  9. Expression-dependent pharmacology of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E.; Pless, Stephan A.; Schwarz, Stephan K.W.; Ahern, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 channels are polymodal sensors of noxious stimuli and integral players in thermosensation, inflammation and pain signaling. It has been shown previously that under prolonged stimulation, these channels show dynamic pore dilation, providing a pathway for large and otherwise relatively impermeant molecules. Further, we have shown recently that these nonselective cation channels, when activated by capsaicin, are potently and reversibly blocked by external application of quaternary ammonium compounds and local anesthetics. Here we describe a novel phenomenon in transient receptor potential channel pharmacology whereby their expression levels in Xenopus laevis oocytes, as assessed by the magnitude of macroscopic currents, are negatively correlated with extracellular blocker affinity: small current densities give rise to nanomolar blockade by quaternary ammoniums and this affinity decreases linearly as current density increases. Possible mechanisms to explain these data are discussed in light of similar observations in other channels and receptors. PMID:23428812

  10. Optical control of trimeric P2X receptors and acid-sensing ion channels.

    PubMed

    Browne, Liam E; Nunes, João P M; Sim, Joan A; Chudasama, Vijay; Bragg, Laricia; Caddick, Stephen; North, R Alan

    2014-01-07

    P2X receptors are trimeric membrane proteins that function as ion channels gated by extracellular ATP. We have engineered a P2X2 receptor that opens within milliseconds by irradiation at 440 nm, and rapidly closes at 360 nm. This requires bridging receptor subunits via covalent attachment of 4,4'-bis(maleimido)azobenzene to a cysteine residue (P329C) introduced into each second transmembrane domain. The cis-trans isomerization of the azobenzene pushes apart the outer ends of the transmembrane helices and opens the channel in a light-dependent manner. Light-activated channels exhibited similar unitary currents, rectification, calcium permeability, and dye uptake as P2X2 receptors activated by ATP. P2X3 receptors with an equivalent mutation (P320C) were also light sensitive after chemical modification. They showed typical rapid desensitization, and they could coassemble with native P2X2 subunits in pheochromocytoma cells to form light-activated heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors. A similar approach was used to open and close human acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are also trimers but are unrelated in sequence to P2X receptors. The experiments indicate that the opening of the permeation pathway requires similar and substantial movements of the transmembrane helices in both P2X receptors and ASICs, and the method will allow precise optical control of P2X receptors or ASICs in intact tissues.

  11. Peripheral and spinal 5-HT receptors participate in cholestatic itch and antinociception induced by bile duct ligation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Wang, Xue-Long; Huang, Ya; Chen, Li-Hua; Cheng, Ruo-Xiao; Zhou, Feng-Ming; Guo, Ran; Li, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Although 5-HT has been implicated in cholestatic itch and antinociception, two common phenomena in patients with cholestatic disease, the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes are unclear. Herein, we investigated the roles of 5-HT receptors in itch and antinociception associated with cholestasis, which was induced by common bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. 5-HT-induced enhanced scratching and antinociception to mechanical and heat stimuli were demonstrated in BDL rats. 5-HT level in the skin and spinal cord was significantly increased in BDL rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3A, 5-HT5B, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 were up-regulated in peripheral nervous system and 5-HT1A, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT3A were down-regulated in the spinal cord of BDL rats. Intradermal 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor agonists induced scratching in BDL rats, whereas 5-HT3 agonist did not induce scratching in sham rats. 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 agonists or antagonists suppressed itch in BDL rats. 5-HT1A agonist attenuated, but 5-HT1A antagonist enhanced antinociception in BDL rats. 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 agonists or antagonists attenuated antinociception in BDL rats. Our data suggested peripheral and central 5-HT system dynamically participated in itch and antinociception under cholestasis condition and targeting 5-HT receptors may be an effective treatment for cholestatic itch. PMID:27824106

  12. Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric

    2012-10-24

    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

  13. A model of the closed form of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor m2 channel pore.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanguk; Chamberlain, Aaron K; Bowie, James U

    2004-08-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel in the postsynaptic membrane. It is composed of five homologous subunits, each of which contributes one transmembrane helix--the M2 helix--to create the channel pore. The M2 helix from the delta subunit is capable of forming a channel by itself. Although a model of the receptor was recently proposed based on a low-resolution, cryo-electron microscopy density map, we found that the model does not explain much of the other available experimental data. Here we propose a new model of the M2 channel derived solely from helix packing and symmetry constraints. This model agrees well with experimental results from solid-state NMR, chemical reactivity, and mutagenesis experiments. The model depicts the channel pore, the channel gate, and the residues responsible for cation specificity.

  14. Ethanol and Mesolimbic Serotonin/Dopamine Interactions Via 5-HT1B Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    5 - HT3 receptor antagonist antagonized systemic ethanol- induced increases of DA release in the VTA [10] or the NACC [9]. Moreover, the...experiments with a selective 5 -HT1B receptor antagonist such as SB 216641 are required to strengthen this conclusion. The future experiments will be... receptor antagonist ), but not BRL 15572 (a 5 -HT1D/1A receptor antagonist ) or WAY 100635 (a 5 -HT1A receptor antagonist ). Administration

  15. Principal pathway coupling agonist binding to channel gating in nicotinic receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Yong; Sine, Steven M.

    2005-11-01

    Synaptic receptors respond to neurotransmitters by opening an intrinsic ion channel in the final step in synaptic transmission. How binding of the neurotransmitter is conveyed over the long distance to the channel remains a central question in neurobiology. Here we delineate a principal pathway that links neurotransmitter binding to channel gating by using a structural model of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor at 4-Å resolution, recordings of currents through single receptor channels and determinations of energetic coupling between pairs of residues. We show that a pair of invariant arginine and glutamate residues in each receptor α-subunit electrostatically links peripheral and inner β-sheets from the binding domain and positions them to engage with the channel. The key glutamate and flanking valine residues energetically couple to conserved proline and serine residues emerging from the top of the channel-forming α-helix, suggesting that this is the point at which the binding domain triggers opening of the channel. The series of interresidue couplings identified here constitutes a primary allosteric pathway that links neurotransmitter binding to channel gating.

  16. Physical basis of apparent pore-dilation of ATP-activated P2X receptor channels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mufeng; Toombes, Gilman E S; Silberberg, Shai D; Swartz, Kenton J

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity of ion channels is fundamental for their roles in electrical and chemical signaling, and ion homeostasis. Although most ion channels exhibit stable ion selectivity, the prevailing view for purinergic P2X receptor channels, transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) channels and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) is that their ion conduction pores dilate upon prolonged activation. We investigated this mechanism in P2X receptors and found that the hallmark shift in equilibrium potential observed with prolonged channel activation does not result from pore dilation, but from time-dependent alterations in the concentration of intracellular ions. We derived a physical model to calculate ion concentration changes during patch-clamp recordings, which validates our experimental findings and provides a quantitative guideline for effectively controlling ion concentration. Our results have fundamental implications for understanding ion permeation and gating in P2X receptor channels, and more broadly for using patch-clamp techniques to study ion channels and neuronal excitability. PMID:26389841

  17. Allosteric modulation of ATP-gated P2X receptor channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Seven mammalian purinergic receptor subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7, and several spliced forms of these subunits have been cloned. When heterologously expressed, these cDNAs encode ATP-gated non-selective cation channels organized as trimers. All activated receptors produce cell depolarization and promote Ca2+ influx through their pores and indirectly by activating voltage-gated calcium channels. However, the biophysical and pharmacological properties of these receptors differ considerably, and the majority of these subunits are also capable of forming heterotrimers with other members of the P2X receptor family, which confers further different properties. These channels have three ATP binding domains, presumably located between neighboring subunits, and occupancy of at least two binding sites is needed for their activation. In addition to the orthosteric binding sites for ATP, these receptors have additional allosteric sites that modulate the agonist action at receptors, including sites for trace metals, protons, neurosteroids, reactive oxygen species and phosphoinositides. The allosteric regulation of P2X receptors is frequently receptor-specific and could be a useful tool to identify P2X members in native tissues and their roles in signaling. The focus of this review is on common and receptor-specific allosteric modulation of P2X receptors and the molecular base accounting for allosteric binding sites. PMID:21639805

  18. Cannabinoid receptor agonists modulate calcium channels in rat retinal Müller cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Li, Q; Wang, S-Y; Gao, F; Qian, W-J; Li, F; Ji, M; Sun, X-H; Miao, Y; Wang, Z

    2016-01-28

    While activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) regulates a variety of retinal neuronal functions by modulating ion channels in these cells, effect of activated cannabinoid receptors on Ca(2+) channels in retinal Müller cells is still largely unknown. In the present work we show that three subunits of T-type Ca(2+) channels, CaV3.1, CaV3.2 and CaV3.3, as well as one subunit of L-type Ca(2+) channels, CaV1.2, were expressed in rat Müller cells by immunofluorescent staining. Consistently, nimodipine- and mibefradil-sensitive Na(+) currents through L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels could be recorded electrophysiologically. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 significantly suppressed Ca(2+) channel currents, mainly the T-type one, in acutely isolated rat Müller cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 3.98μM. The WIN55212-2 effect was not blocked by AM251/SR141716, specific CB1R antagonists. Similar suppression of the currents was observed when anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors, were applied. Moreover, even though CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) were expressed in rat Müller cells, the effects of WIN55212-2 and 2-AG on Ca(2+) channel currents were not blocked by AM630, a selective CB2R antagonist. However, the effect of AEA could be partially rescued by AM630. These results suggest that WIN55212-2 and 2-AG receptor-independently suppressed the Ca(2+) channel currents in Müller cells, while AEA suppressed the currents partially through CB2Rs. The existence of receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms suggests that cannabinoids may modulate Müller cell functions through multiple pathways.

  19. Molecular size of different neurotoxin receptors on the voltage-sensitive Na+ channel.

    PubMed

    Barhanin, J; Schmid, A; Lombet, A; Wheeler, K P; Lazdunski, M; Ellory, J C

    1983-01-25

    Measurements were made of the molecular sizes of two distinct receptors on the Na+ channel in rat brain synaptosomes that are specific for different neurotoxins. Radiation inactivation of the binding of radiolabeled derivatives of the toxins was consistent with Mr = 260,000 for the tetrodotoxin receptor and Mr = 266,000 for the receptor specific for two scorpion toxins, toxin II from Centruroides suffusus suffusus and toxin gamma from Tityus serrulatus serrulatus. Covalent cross-linking of the latter to its receptor similarly indicated Mr = 270,000. It seems most likely that these two distinct receptors reside on the same molecule.

  20. Transient Activation of GABAB Receptors Suppresses SK Channel Currents in Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Estep, Chad M.; Galtieri, Daniel J.; Zampese, Enrico; Goldberg, Joshua A.; Brichta, Lars; Greengard, Paul; Surmeier, D. James

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are richly innervated by GABAergic neurons. The postsynaptic effects of GABA on SNc DA neurons are mediated by a mixture of GABAA and GABAB receptors. Although activation of GABAA receptors inhibits spike generation, the consequences of GABAB receptor activation are less well characterized. To help fill this gap, perforated patch recordings were made from young adult mouse SNc DA neurons. Sustained stimulation of GABAB receptors hyperpolarized SNc DA neurons, as previously described. However, transient stimulation of GABAB receptors by optical uncaging of GABA did not; rather, it reduced the opening of small-conductance, calcium-activated K+ (SK) channels and increased the irregularity of spiking. This modulation was attributable to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A. Thus, because suppression of SK channel activity increases the probability of burst spiking, transient co-activation of GABAA and GABAB receptors could promote a pause-burst pattern of spiking. PMID:28036359

  1. Recombinant nicotinic receptors, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, do not resemble native rat sympathetic ganglion receptors in single-channel behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sivilotti, L G; McNeil, D K; Lewis, T M; Nassar, M A; Schoepfer, R; Colquhoun, D

    1997-04-01

    1. In order to establish the subunit composition of neuronal nicotinic receptors in rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG), their single-channel properties were compared with those of recombinant receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using outside-out excised patch recording. 2. The mean main conductance of SCG channels from adult and 1-day-old rats was 34.8 and 36.6 pS, respectively. Less frequent openings to lower conductances occurred both as isolated bursts and as events connected to the main level by direct transitions. There was considerable interpatch variability in the values of the lower conductances. 3. Nicotinic receptors from oocytes expressing alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta4 subunits had chord conductances lower than that of SCG neurones (22 pS for alpha3beta4 and 29 pS for alpha4beta4). 4. Prolonged recording from both native and recombinant channels was precluded by 'run-down', i.e. channel activity could be elicited for only a few minutes after excision. Nevertheless, SCG channel openings were clearly seen to occur as short bursts (slowest component, 38 ms), whereas recombinant channels opened in very prolonged bursts of activity, the major component being the slowest (480 ms). 5. Addition of the alpha5 subunit to the alpha3beta4 pair produced channels with a higher conductance than those observed after injection of the pair alone (24.9 vs. 22 pS), suggesting incorporation of alpha5 into the channel. Addition of the beta2 subunit did not change alpha3beta4 single-channel properties. In one out of fourteen alpha3alpha5beta4 patches, both ganglion-like, high conductance, short burst openings and recombinant-type, low conductance, slow burst openings were observed. 6. Channels produced by expression in Xenopus oocytes of neuronal nicotinic subunits present in rat SCG as a rule differ from native ganglion receptors in single-channel conductance and gross kinetics. While it is possible that an essential nicotinic subunit remains to be cloned, it is perhaps

  2. The opioid peptide dynorphin directly blocks NMDA receptor channels in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Gu, Y; Huang, L Y

    1995-01-01

    1. The actions of dynorphin on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) responses were examined in acutely dissociated trigeminal neurons in rat. Whole-cell and single-channel currents were recorded using the patch clamp technique. 2. Dynorphins reduced NMDA-activated currents (INMDA). The IC50 was 0.25 microM for dynorphin (1-32), 1.65 microM for dynorphin (1-17) and 1.8 microM for dynorphin (1-13). 3. The blocking action of dynorphin is voltage independent. 4. The inhibitory action of dynorphin cannot be blocked by high concentration of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, nor by the specific kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). 5. Single-channel analyses indicate that dynorphin reduces the fraction of time the channel is open without altering the channel conductance. 6. We propose that dynorphin acts directly on NMDA receptors. PMID:7537820

  3. Surface charge potentiates conduction through the cardiac ryanodine receptor channel

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Single channel currents through cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channels were measured in very low levels of current carrier (e.g., 1 mM Ba2+). The hypothesis that surface charge contributes to these anomalously large single channel currents was tested by changing ionic strength and surface charge density. Channel identity and sidedness was pharmacologically determined. At low ionic strength (20 mM Cs+), Cs+ conduction in the lumen-->myoplasm (L-->M) direction was significantly greater than in the reverse direction (301.7 +/- 92.5 vs 59.8 +/- 38 pS, P < 0.001; mean +/- SD, t test). The Cs+ concentration at which conduction reached half saturation was asymmetric (32 vs 222 mM) and voltage independent. At high ionic strength (400 mM Cs+), conduction in both direction saturated at 550 +/- 32 pS. Further, neutralization of carboxyl groups on the lumenal side of the channel significantly reduced conduction (333.0 +/- 22.5 vs 216.2 +/- 24.4 pS, P < 0.002). These results indicate that negative surface charge exists near the lumenal mouth of the channel but outside the electric field of the membrane. In vivo, this surface charge may potentiate conduction by increasing the local Ca2+ concentration and thus act as a preselection filter for this poorly selective channel. PMID:8035165

  4. Peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor can modulate cardiac ryanodine receptor channel activity and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release.

    PubMed Central

    Dulhunty, Angela F; Curtis, Suzanne M; Cengia, Louise; Sakowska, Magdalena; Casarotto, Marco G

    2004-01-01

    We show that peptide fragments of the dihydropyridine receptor II-III loop alter cardiac RyR (ryanodine receptor) channel activity in a cytoplasmic Ca2+-dependent manner. The peptides were AC (Thr-793-Ala-812 of the cardiac dihydropyridine receptor), AS (Thr-671-Leu-690 of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor), and a modified AS peptide [AS(D-R18)], with an extended helical structure. The peptides added to the cytoplasmic side of channels in lipid bilayers at > or = 10 nM activated channels when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 100 nM, but either inhibited or did not affect channel activity when the cytoplasmic [Ca2+] was 10 or 100 microM. Both activation and inhibition were independent of bilayer potential. Activation by AS, but not by AC or AS(D-R18), was reduced at peptide concentrations >1 mM in a voltage-dependent manner (at +40 mV). In control experiments, channels were not activated by the scrambled AS sequence (ASS) or skeletal II-III loop peptide (NB). Resting Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum was not altered by peptide AC, but Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release was depressed. Resting and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release were enhanced by both the native and modified AS peptides. NMR revealed (i) that the structure of peptide AS(D-R18) is not influenced by [Ca2+] and (ii) that peptide AC adopts a helical structure, particularly in the region containing positively charged residues. This is the first report of specific functional interactions between dihydropyridine receptor A region peptides and cardiac RyR ion channels in lipid bilayers. PMID:14678014

  5. Subunit-specific mechanisms and proton sensitivity of NMDA receptor channel block.

    PubMed

    Dravid, Shashank M; Erreger, Kevin; Yuan, Hongjie; Nicholson, Katherine; Le, Phuong; Lyuboslavsky, Polina; Almonte, Antoine; Murray, Ernest; Mosely, Cara; Barber, Jeremy; French, Adam; Balster, Robert; Murray, Thomas F; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2007-05-15

    We have compared the potencies of structurally distinct channel blockers at recombinant NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B, NR1/NR2C and NR1/NR2D receptors. The IC50 values varied with stereochemistry and subunit composition, suggesting that it may be possible to design subunit-selective channel blockers. For dizocilpine (MK-801), the differential potency of MK-801 stereoisomers determined at recombinant NMDA receptors was confirmed at native receptors in vitro and in vivo. Since the proton sensor is tightly linked both structurally and functionally to channel gating, we examined whether blocking molecules that interact in the channel pore with the gating machinery can differentially sense protonation of the receptor. Blockers capable of remaining trapped in the pore during agonist unbinding showed the strongest dependence on extracellular pH, appearing more potent at acidic pH values that promote channel closure. Determination of pK(a) values for channel blockers suggests that the ionization of ketamine but not of other blockers can influence its pH-dependent potency. Kinetic modelling and single channel studies suggest that the pH-dependent block of NR1/NR2A by (-)MK-801 but not (+)MK-801 reflects an increase in the MK-801 association rate even though protons reduce channel open probability and thus MK-801 access to its binding site. Allosteric modulators that alter pH sensitivity alter the potency of MK-801, supporting the interpretation that the pH sensitivity of MK-801 binding reflects the changes at the proton sensor rather than a secondary effect of pH. These data suggest a tight coupling between the proton sensor and the ion channel gate as well as unique subunit-specific mechanisms of channel block.

  6. Role of transient receptor potential and acid-sensing ion channels in peripheral inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    White, John P M; Cibelli, Mario; Rei Fidalgo, Antonio; Paule, Cleoper C; Noormohamed, Faruq; Urban, Laszlo; Maze, Mervyn; Nagy, Istvan

    2010-03-01

    Pain originating in inflammation is the most common pathologic pain condition encountered by the anesthesiologist whether in the context of surgery, its aftermath, or in the practice of pain medicine. Inflammatory agents, released as components of the body's response to peripheral tissue damage or disease, are now known to be collectively capable of activating transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4, transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1, and acid-sensing ion channels, whereas individual agents may activate only certain of these ion channels. These ionotropic receptors serve many physiologic functions-as, indeed, do many of the inflammagens released in the inflammatory process. Here, we introduce the reader to the role of these ionotropic receptors in mediating peripheral pain in response to inflammation.

  7. State-dependent block of Na+ channels by articaine via the local anesthetic receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ging Kuo; Calderon, Joanna; Jaw, Shiow-Jiin; Wang, Sho-Ya

    2009-05-01

    Articaine is widely used as a local anesthetic (LA) in dentistry, but little is known regarding its blocking actions on Na+ channels. We therefore examined the state-dependent block of articaine first in rat skeletal muscle rNav1.4 Na+ channels expressed in Hek293t cells. Articaine exhibited a weak block of resting rNav1.4 Na+ channels at -140 mV with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 378 +/- 26 microM (n = 5). The affinity was higher for inactivated Na+ channels measured at -70 mV with an IC50 value of 40.6 +/- 2.7 microM (n = 5). The open-channel block by articaine was measured using inactivation-deficient rNav1.4 Na+ channels with an IC50 value of 15.8 +/- 1.5 microM (n = 5). Receptor mapping demonstrated that articaine interacted strongly with a D4S6 phenylalanine residue, which is known to form a part of the LA receptor. Thus the block of rNav1.4 Na+ channels by articaine is via the conserved LA receptor in a highly state-dependent manner, with a ranking order of open (23.9x) > inactivated (9.3x) > resting (1x) state. Finally, the open-channel block by articaine was likewise measured in inactivation-deficient hNav1.7 and rNav1.8 Na+ channels, with IC(50) values of 8.8 +/- 0.1 and 22.0 +/- 0.5 microM, respectively (n = 5), indicating that the high-affinity open-channel block by articaine is indeed preserved in neuronal Na+ channel isoforms.

  8. Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels in corneal tissue layers and cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Valtink, Monika; Takayoshi, Sumioka; Okada, Yuka; Miyajima, Masayasu; Saika, Shizuya; Reinach, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    We here provide a brief summary of the characteristics of transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) identified in corneal tissue layers and cells. In general, TRPs are nonselective cation channels which are Ca(2+) permeable. Most TRPs serve as thermosensitive molecular sensors (thermo-TRPs). Based on their functional importance, the possibilities are described for drug-targeting TRP activity in a clinical setting. TRPs are expressed in various tissues of the eye including both human corneal epithelial and endothelial layers as well as stromal fibroblasts and stromal nerve fibers. TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) heat receptor, also known as capsaicin receptor, along with TRP melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) cold receptor, which is also known as menthol receptor, are prototypes of the thermo-TRP family. The TRPV1 functional channel is the most investigated TRP channel in these tissues, owing to its contribution to maintaining tissue homeostasis as well as eliciting wound healing responses to injury. Other thermo-TRP family members identified in these tissues are TRPV2, 3 and 4. Finally, there is the TRP ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) cold receptor. All of these thermo-TRPs can be activated within specific temperature ranges and transduce such inputs into chemical and electrical signals. Although several recent studies have begun to unravel complex roles for thermo-TRPs such as TRPV1 in corneal layers and resident cells, additional studies are needed to further elucidate their roles in health and disease.

  9. Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channel Function in Sensory Transduction and Cellular Signaling Cascades Underlying Visceral Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Dafne; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Talavera, Karel; Wouters, Mira M

    2017-04-06

    Visceral hypersensitivity is an important mechanism underlying increased abdominal pain perception in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease in remission. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood, recent studies described upregulation and altered functions of nociceptors and their signaling pathways in aberrant visceral nociception, in particular the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family. A variety of TRP channels are present in the gastrointestinal tract (TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, TRPM2, TRPM5 and TRPM8) and modulation of their function by increased activation or sensitization (decreased activation threshold) or altered expression in visceral afferents, have been reported in visceral hypersensitivity. TRP channels directly detect or transduce osmotic, mechanical, thermal and chemosensory stimuli. In addition, pro-inflammatory mediators released in tissue damage or inflammation can activate receptors of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily leading to TRP channel sensitization and activation, which amplify pain and neurogenic inflammation. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on the functional roles of neuronal TRP channels in visceral hypersensitivity and discuss the signaling pathways that underlie TRP channel modulation. We propose that a better understanding of TRP channels and their modulators may facilitate the development of more selective and effective therapies to treat visceral hypersensitivity.

  10. Sequential phosphorylation mediates receptor- and kinase-induced inhibition of TREK-1 background potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Murbartián, Janet; Lei, Qiubo; Sando, Julianne J; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2005-08-26

    Background potassium channels determine membrane potential and input resistance and serve as prominent effectors for modulatory regulation of cellular excitability. TREK-1 is a two-pore domain background K+ channel (KCNK2, K2P2.1) that is sensitive to a variety of physicochemical and humoral factors. In this work, we used a recombinant expression system to show that activation of G alpha(q)-coupled receptors leads to inhibition of TREK-1 channels via protein kinase C (PKC), and we identified a critical phosphorylation site in a key regulatory domain that mediates inhibition of the channel. In HEK 293 cells co-expressing TREK-1 and either the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR1) or the Orexin receptor (Orx1R), agonist stimulation induced robust channel inhibition that was suppressed by a bisindolylmaleimide PKC inhibitor but not by a protein kinase A blocker ((R(p))-cAMP-S). Channel inhibition by agonists or by direct activators of PKC (phorbol dibutyrate) and PKA (forskolin) was disrupted not only by alanine or aspartate mutations at an identified PKA site (Ser-333) in the C terminus, but also at a more proximal regulatory site in the cytoplasmic C terminus (Ser-300); S333A and S300A mutations enhanced basal TREK-1 current, whereas S333D and S300D substitutions mimicked phosphorylation and strongly diminished currents. When studied in combination, TREK-1 current density was enhanced in S300A/S333D but reduced in S300D/S333A mutant channels. Channel mutants were expressed and appropriately targeted to cell membranes. Together, these data support a sequential phosphorylation model in which receptor-induced kinase activation drives modification at Ser-333 that enables subsequent phosphorylation at Ser-300 to inhibit TREK-1 channel activity.

  11. Broad-spectrum antiemetic efficacy of the L-type calcium channel blocker amlodipine in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2014-05-01

    The dihydropyridine l-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channel blockers nifedipine and amlodipine reduce extracellular Ca(2+) entry into cells. They are widely used for the treatment of hypertensive disorders. We have recently demonstrated that extracellular Ca(2+) entry via l-type Ca(2+) channels is involved in emesis and that nifedipine has broad-spectrum antiemetic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy of the longer-acting l-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, amlodipine. Fully effective emetic doses of diverse emetogens such as the l-type Ca(2+) channel agonist (FPL 64176) as well as selective and/or nonselective agonists of serotonergic 5-HT3 (e.g. 5-HT or 2-Me-5-HT)-, dopamine D2 (e.g. apomorphine or quinpirole)-, cholinergic M1 (e.g. pilocarpine or McN-A343)- and tachykininergic NK1 (e.g. GR73632)-receptors, were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in the least shrew to induce vomiting. The broad-spectrum antiemetic potential of amlodipine was evaluated against these emetogens. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of amlodipine (0.5-10mg/kg) attenuated in a dose-dependent and potent manner both the frequency and percentage of shrews vomiting in response to intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of FPL 64176 (10mg/kg), 5-HT (5mg/kg), 2-Me-5-HT (5mg/kg), apomorphine (2mg/kg), quinpirole (2mg/kg), pilocarpine (2mg/kg), McN-A343 (2mg/kg), or GR73632 (5mg/kg). A combination of non-effective doses of amlodipine (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist palonosetron (0.05 mg/kg, s.c.) was more effective against FPL 64176-induced vomiting than their corresponding doses tested alone. Amlodipine by itself suppressed the frequency of acute cisplatin (10mg/kg, i.p)-induced vomiting in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, a combination of a non-effective dose of amlodipine (1mg/kg) potentiated the antiemetic efficacy of a semi-effective dose of palonosetron (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) against acute vomiting caused by cisplatin. We confirm that influx of

  12. NompC TRP channel is essential for Drosophila sound receptor function.

    PubMed

    Effertz, Thomas; Wiek, Robert; Göpfert, Martin C

    2011-04-12

    The idea that the NompC TRPN1 channel is the Drosophila transducer for hearing has been challenged by remnant sound-evoked nerve potentials in nompC nulls. We now report that NompC is essential for the function of Drosophila sound receptors and that the remnant nerve potentials of nompC mutants are contributed by gravity/wind receptor cells. Ablating the sound receptors reduces the amplitude and sensitivity of sound-evoked nerve responses, and the same effects ensued from mutations in nompC. Ablating the sound receptors also suffices to abolish mechanical amplification, which arises from active receptor motility, is linked to transduction, and also requires NompC. Calcium imaging shows that the remnant nerve potentials in nompC mutants are associated with the activity of gravity/wind receptors and that the sound receptors of the mutants fail to respond to sound. Hence, Drosophila sound receptors require NompC for mechanical signal detection and amplification, demonstrating the importance of this transient receptor potential channel for hearing and reviving the idea that the fly's auditory transducer might be NompC.

  13. An N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor channel blocker with neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Kwok-Keung; Blondelle, Sylvie E.; Ostresh, John M.; Houghten, Richard A.; Montal, Mauricio

    2001-01-01

    Excitotoxicity, resulting from sustained activation of glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype, is considered to play a causative role in the etiology of ischemic stroke and several neurodegenerative diseases. The NMDA receptor is therefore a target for the development of neuroprotective agents. Here, we identify an N-benzylated triamine (denoted as NBTA) as a highly selective and potent NMDA-receptor channel blocker selected by screening a reduced dipeptidomimetic synthetic combinatorial library. NBTA blocks recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with a mean IC50 of 80 nM; in contrast, it does not block GluR1, a glutamate receptor of the non-NMDA subtype. The blocking activity of NBTA on NMDA receptors exhibits the characteristics of an open-channel blocker: (i) no competition with agonists, (ii) voltage dependence, and (iii) use dependence. Significantly, NBTA protects rodent hippocampal neurons from NMDA receptor, but not kainate receptor-mediated excitotoxic cell death, in agreement with its selective action on the corresponding recombinant receptors. Mutagenesis data indicate that the N site, a key asparagine on the M2 transmembrane segment of the NR1 subunit, is the main determinant of the blocker action. The results highlight the potential of this compound as a neuroprotectant. PMID:11248110

  14. Expression of Caenorhabditis elegans neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Miledi, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Injection of Caenorhabditis elegans polyA RNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the expression of neurotransmitter receptors that generated some unique responses, including ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors as well as receptors that coupled to G proteins, such as those to octopamine, norepinephrine, and angiotensin, which activated the oocyte’s own phosphatidylinositol system and calcium-gated chloride channels. The oocytes also expressed chloride-conducting glutamate receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and voltage-operated calcium channels. Unexpectedly, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), dopamine, GABA, and kainate did not generate ionic currents, suggesting that the corresponding receptors were not expressed or were not functional in the oocytes. The use of X. laevis oocytes for expressing worm RNA demonstrates that there are many molecular components whose role remains to be clarified in the nematode. Among them are the nature of the endogenous agonists for the octopamine and angiotensin receptors and the subunits that compose the ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors and the norepinephrine receptors that couple to the phosphoinositide cascade. PMID:16549772

  15. Vector-averaged gravity does not alter acetylcholine receptor single channel properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitstetter, R.; Gruener, R.

    1994-01-01

    To examine the physiological sensitivity of membrane receptors to altered gravity, we examined the single channel properties of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), in co-cultures of Xenopus myocytes and neurons, to vector-averaged gravity in the clinostat. This experimental paradigm produces an environment in which, from the cell's perspective, the gravitational vector is "nulled" by continuous averaging. In that respect, the clinostat simulates one aspect of space microgravity where the gravity force is greatly reduced. After clinorotation, the AChR channel mean open-time and conductance were statistically not different from control values but showed a rotation-dependent trend that suggests a process of cellular adaptation to clinorotation. These findings therefore suggest that the ACHR channel function may not be affected in the microgravity of space despite changes in the receptor's cellular organization.

  16. Receptor-mediated glutamate release from volume sensitive channels in astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Takahiro; Kang, Jian; Jaiswal, Jyoti K.; Simon, Sanford M.; Lin, Jane H.-C.; Yu, Yufei; Li, Yuxing; Yang, Jay; Dienel, Gerald; Zielke, H. Ronald; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2005-11-01

    Several lines of work have shown that astrocytes release glutamate in response to receptor activation, which results in a modulation of local synaptic activity. Astrocytic glutamate release is Ca2+-dependent and occurs in conjunction with exocytosis of glutamate containing vesicles. However, astrocytes contain a millimolar concentration of cytosolic glutamate and express channels permeable to small anions, such as glutamate. Here, we tested the idea that astrocytes respond to receptor stimulation by dynamic changes in cell volume, resulting in volume-sensitive channel activation, and efflux of cytosolic glutamate. Confocal imaging and whole-cell recordings demonstrated that astrocytes exhibited a transient Ca2+-dependent cell volume increase, which activated glutamate permeable channels. HPLC analysis revealed that glutamate was released in conjunction with other amino acid osmolytes. Our observations indicate that volume-sensitive channel may constitute a previously uncharacterized target for modulation of astrocyte-neuronal interactions. electrophysiology | exocytosis | neurotransmitters | osmolarity | synapses

  17. A transient receptor potential-like channel mediates synaptic transmission in rod bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yin; Heimel, J. Alexander; Kamermans, Maarten; Peachey, Neal S.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Nawy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    On bipolar cells are connected to photoreceptors via a sign-inverting synapse. At this synapse, glutamate binds to a metabotropic receptor which couples to the closure of a cation-selective transduction channel. The molecular identity of both the receptor and the G protein are known, but the identity of the transduction channel has remained elusive. Here we show that the transduction channel in mouse rod bipolar cells, a subtype of On bipolar cell, is likely to be a member of the TRP family of channels. To evoke a transduction current, the metabotropic receptor antagonist LY341495 was applied to the dendrites of cells that were bathed in a solution containing the mGluR6 agonists L-AP4 or glutamate. The transduction current was suppressed by ruthenium red and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and SB-366791. Furthermore, focal application of the TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and anandamide evoked a transduction-like current. The capsaicin-evoked and endogenous transduction current displayed prominent outward rectification, a property of the TRPV1 channel. To test the possibility that the transduction channel is TRPV1, we measured rod bipolar cell function in the TRPV1-/-mouse. The ERG b-wave, a measure of On bipolar cell function, as well as the transduction current and the response to TRPV1 agonists were normal, arguing against a role for TRPV1. However, ERG measurements from mice lacking TRPM1 receptors, another TRP channel implicated in retinal function, revealed the absence of a b-wave. Our results suggest that a TRP-like channel, possibly TRPM1, is essential for synaptic function in On bipolar cells. PMID:19439586

  18. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:26913144

  19. Single-particle cryo-EM of the ryanodine receptor channel in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:25844145

  20. Transient receptor potential melastatin 3 is a phosphoinositide-dependent ion channel.

    PubMed

    Badheka, Doreen; Borbiro, Istvan; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-07-01

    Phosphoinositides are emerging as general regulators of the functionally diverse transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been reported to positively regulate many TRP channels, but in several cases phosphoinositide regulation is controversial. TRP melastatin 3 (TRPM3) is a heat-activated ion channel that is also stimulated by chemical agonists, such as pregnenolone sulfate. Here, we used a wide array of approaches to determine the effects of phosphoinositides on TRPM3. We found that channel activity in excised inside-out patches decreased over time (rundown), an attribute of PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels. Channel activity could be restored by application of either synthetic dioctanoyl (diC8) or natural arachidonyl stearyl (AASt) PI(4,5)P2. The PI(4,5)P2 precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) was less effective at restoring channel activity. TRPM3 currents were also restored by MgATP, an effect which was inhibited by two different phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase inhibitors, or by pretreatment with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzyme, indicating that MgATP acted by generating phosphoinositides. In intact cells, reduction of PI(4,5)P2 levels by chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases or a voltage-sensitive 5'-phosphatase inhibited channel activity. Activation of PLC via muscarinic receptors also inhibited TRPM3 channel activity. Overall, our data indicate that TRPM3 is a phosphoinositide-dependent ion channel and that decreasing PI(4,5)P2 abundance limits its activity. As all other members of the TRPM family have also been shown to require PI(4,5)P2 for activity, our data establish PI(4,5)P2 as a general positive cofactor of this ion channel subfamily.

  1. Regulation of synaptic signalling by postsynaptic, non-glutamate receptor ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Bloodgood, Brenda L; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2008-01-01

    Activation of glutamatergic synapses onto pyramidal neurons produces a synaptic depolarization as well as a buildup of intracellular calcium (Ca2+). The synaptic depolarization propagates through the dendritic arbor and can be detected at the soma with a recording electrode. Current influx through AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) provides the depolarizing drive, and the amplitudes of synaptic potentials are generally thought to reflect the number and properties of these receptors at each synapse. In contrast, synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients are limited to the spine containing the active synapse and result primarily from Ca2+ influx through NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Here we review recent studies that reveal that both synaptic depolarizations and spine head Ca2+ transients are strongly regulated by the activity of postsynaptic, non-glutamate receptor ion channels. In hippocampal pyramidal neurons, voltage- and Ca2+-gated ion channels located in dendritic spines open as downstream consequences of glutamate receptor activation and act within a complex signalling loop that feeds back to regulate synaptic signals. Dynamic regulation of these ion channels offers a powerful mechanism of synaptic plasticity that is independent of direct modulation of glutamate receptors. PMID:18096597

  2. Insights into the channel gating of P2X receptors from structures, dynamics and small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Yu, Ye

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors, as ATP-gated non-selective trimeric ion channels, are permeable to Na+, K+ and Ca2+. Comparing with other ligand-gated ion channel families, P2X receptors are distinct in their unique gating properties and pathophysiological roles, and have attracted attention as promising drug targets for a variety of diseases, such as neuropathic pain, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and thrombus. Several small molecule inhibitors for distinct P2X subtypes have entered into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the gating mechanism of P2X remain unsolved. The structural determinations of P2X receptors at the resting and ATP-bound open states revealed that P2X receptor gating is a cooperative allosteric process involving multiple domains, which marks the beginning of the post-structure era of P2X research at atomic level. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure-function relationship of P2X receptors, depict the whole picture of allosteric changes during the channel gating, and summarize the active sites that may contribute to new strategies for developing novel allosteric drugs targeting P2X receptors. PMID:26725734

  3. Do cysteine residues regulate transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel protein expression?

    PubMed

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina; Förste, Nora; Wittstock, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine (HC) or acetylcysteine (ACC) affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patients with chronic renal failure had significantly elevated HC levels and TRPC6 mRNA expression levels in monocytes compared with control subjects. We further observed that administration of HC or ACC significantly increased TRPC6 channel protein expression compared with control conditions. We, therefore, hypothesize that cysteine residues increase TRPC6 channel protein expression in humans.

  4. Biophysical analysis of thermosensitive TRP channels with a special focus on the cold receptor TRPM8

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquel-Ursulaez, Willy; Moldenhauer, Hans; Castillo, Juan Pablo; Latorre, Ramón; Alvarez, Osvaldo

    2015-01-01

    Mammals maintain homeostatic control of their body temperature. Therefore, these organisms are expected to have adaptations that confer the ability to detect and react to both self and ambient temperature. Temperature-activated ion channels have been discovered to be the primary molecular determinants of thermosensation. The most representative group of these determinants constitutes members of the transient receptor potential superfamily, TRP, which are activated by either low or high temperatures covering the whole range of physiologically relevant temperatures. This review makes a critical assessment of existing analytical methods of temperature-activated TRP channel mechanisms using the cold-activated TRPM8 channel as a paradigm. PMID:27227023

  5. Energetic Contributions to Channel Gating of Residues in the Muscle Nicotinic Receptor β1 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Akk, Gustav; Eaton, Megan; Li, Ping; Zheng, Steven; Lo, Joshua; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2013-01-01

    In the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family, transmitter binds in the extracellular domain and conformational changes result in channel opening in the transmembrane domain. In the muscle nicotinic receptor and other heteromeric members of the family one subunit does not contribute to the canonical agonist binding site for transmitter. A fundamental question is whether conformational changes occur in this subunit. We used records of single channel activity and rate-equilibrium free energy relationships to examine the β1 (non-ACh-binding) subunit of the muscle nicotinic receptor. Mutations to residues in the extracellular domain have minimal effects on the gating equilibrium constant. Positions in the channel lining (M2 transmembrane) domain contribute strongly and relatively late during gating. Positions thought to be important in other subunits in coupling the transmitter-binding to the channel domains have minimal effects on gating. We conclude that the conformational changes involved in channel gating propagate from the binding-site to the channel in the ACh-binding subunits and subsequently spread to the non-binding subunit. PMID:24194945

  6. Vanilloid receptor-related osmotically activated channel (VR-OAC), a candidate vertebrate osmoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, Wolfgang; Choe, Yong; Martí-Renom, Marc A.; Bell, Andrea M.; Denis, Charlotte S.; Šali, Andrej; Hudspeth, A. J.; Friedman, Jeffrey M.; Heller, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The detection of osmotic stimuli is essential for all organisms, yet few osmoreceptive proteins are known, none of them in vertebrates. By employing a candidate-gene approach based on genes encoding members of the TRP superfamily of ion channels, we cloned cDNAs encoding the vanilloid receptor-related osmotically activated channel (VR-OAC) from the rat, mouse, human, and chicken. This novel cation-selective channel is gated by exposure to hypotonicity within the physiological range. In the central nevous system, the channel is expressed neurons of the circumventricular organs, neurosensory cells responsive to systemic osmotic pressure. The channel also occurs in other neurosensory cells, including inner-ear hair cells, sensory neurons, and Merkel cells. PMID:11081638

  7. Vanilloid receptor-related osmotically activated channel (VR-OAC), a candidate vertebrate osmoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Liedtke, W; Choe, Y; Martí-Renom, M A; Bell, A M; Denis, C S; Sali, A; Hudspeth, A J; Friedman, J M; Heller, S

    2000-10-27

    The detection of osmotic stimuli is essential for all organisms, yet few osmoreceptive proteins are known, none of them in vertebrates. By employing a candidate-gene approach based on genes encoding members of the TRP superfamily of ion channels, we cloned cDNAs encoding the vanilloid receptor-related osmotically activated channel (VR-OAC) from the rat, mouse, human, and chicken. This novel cation-selective channel is gated by exposure to hypotonicity within the physiological range. In the central nervous system, the channel is expressed in neurons of the circumventricular organs, neurosensory cells responsive to systemic osmotic pressure. The channel also occurs in other neurosensory cells, including inner-ear hair cells, sensory neurons, and Merkel cells.

  8. [Molecular dynamics simulations of migration of ions and molecules through the acetylcholine receptor channel].

    PubMed

    Shaĭtan, K V; Li, A; Tershkina, K B; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic model of the channel of an acetylcholine receptor in a closed state has been proposed. The channel is formed by five a-helices of subunit M2 and stabilized by the cyclic hydrocarbon (CH2)105. The migration of charged and unchanged van der Waals particles with a diameter of 7.72 A equivalent to the diameter of a hydrated sodium ion has been studied. The migration occurred by the action of external force applied to the complex along the channel axis. In the closed state, the inhibition of ions is due to two components: electrostatic interaction and steric constraints. The van der Waals channel gate is formed by residues 13'-A-Val255, B-Val261, C-Val269, D-Val255, and E-Ile264, and the negatively changed residues occurring in the upper part of the channel have a great effect on ion selectivity.

  9. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/intermediate levels of SERT occupancy, vortioxetine affected rapid eye movement (REM) sleep differently than paroxetine. Here we investigated clinically meaningful doses (80–90% SERT occupancy) of vortioxetine and paroxetine on sleep-EEG in rats to further elucidate the serotoninergic receptor mechanisms mediating this difference. Cortical EEG, electromyography (EMG), and locomotion were recorded telemetrically for 10 days, following an acute dose, from rats receiving vortioxetine-infused chow or paroxetine-infused water and respective controls. Sleep stages were manually scored into active wake, quiet wake, and non-REM or REM sleep. Acute paroxetine or vortioxetine delayed REM onset latency (ROL) and decreased REM episodes. After repeated administration, vortioxetine yielded normal sleep-wake rhythms while paroxetine continued to suppress REM. Paroxetine, unlike vortioxetine, increased transitions from non-REM to wake, suggesting fragmented sleep. Next, we investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptors in eliciting these differences. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron significantly reduced paroxetine’s acute effects on ROL, while the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A significantly increased vortioxetine’s acute effect on ROL. Overall, our data are consistent with the clinical findings that vortioxetine impacts REM sleep differently than paroxetine, and suggests a role for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism in mitigating these differences. PMID:26174134

  10. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 2, pharmacological interactions in rodents suggest a role of serotonin-3 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Steven C; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Westrich, Ligia; Pehrson, Alan L; Sanchez, Connie

    2015-10-01

    Antidepressants often disrupt sleep. Vortioxetine, a multimodal antidepressant acting through serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibition, 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1A receptor agonism, had fewer incidences of sleep-related adverse events reported in depressed patients. In the accompanying paper a polysomnographic electroencephalography (sleep-EEG) study of vortioxetine and paroxetine in healthy subjects indicated that at low/intermediate levels of SERT occupancy, vortioxetine affected rapid eye movement (REM) sleep differently than paroxetine. Here we investigated clinically meaningful doses (80-90% SERT occupancy) of vortioxetine and paroxetine on sleep-EEG in rats to further elucidate the serotoninergic receptor mechanisms mediating this difference. Cortical EEG, electromyography (EMG), and locomotion were recorded telemetrically for 10 days, following an acute dose, from rats receiving vortioxetine-infused chow or paroxetine-infused water and respective controls. Sleep stages were manually scored into active wake, quiet wake, and non-REM or REM sleep. Acute paroxetine or vortioxetine delayed REM onset latency (ROL) and decreased REM episodes. After repeated administration, vortioxetine yielded normal sleep-wake rhythms while paroxetine continued to suppress REM. Paroxetine, unlike vortioxetine, increased transitions from non-REM to wake, suggesting fragmented sleep. Next, we investigated the role of 5-HT3 receptors in eliciting these differences. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron significantly reduced paroxetine's acute effects on ROL, while the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A significantly increased vortioxetine's acute effect on ROL. Overall, our data are consistent with the clinical findings that vortioxetine impacts REM sleep differently than paroxetine, and suggests a role for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism in mitigating these differences.

  11. The diversity of GABAA receptors. Pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of GABAA channel subtypes.

    PubMed

    Hevers, W; Lüddens, H

    1998-08-01

    The amino acid gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) prevails in the CNS as an inhibitory neurotransmitter that mediates most of its effects through fast GABA-gated Cl(-)-channels (GABAAR). Molecular biology uncovered the complex subunit architecture of this receptor channel, in which a pentameric assembly derived from five of at least 17 mammalian subunits, grouped in the six classes alpha, beta, gamma, delta, sigma and epsilon, permits a vast number of putative receptor isoforms. The subunit composition of a particular receptor determines the specific effects of allosterical modulators of the GABAARs like benzodiazepines (BZs), barbiturates, steroids, some convulsants, polyvalent cations, and ethanol. To understand the physiology and diversity of GABAARs, the native isoforms have to be identified by their localization in the brain and by their pharmacology. In heterologous expression systems, channels require the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits in order to mimic the full repertoire of native receptor responses to drugs, with the BZ pharmacology being determined by the particular alpha and gamma subunit variants. Little is known about the functional properties of the beta, delta, and epsilon subunit classes and only a few receptor subtype-specific substances like loreclezole and furosemide are known that enable the identification of defined receptor subtypes. We will summarize the pharmacology of putative receptor isoforms and emphasize the characteristics of functional channels. Knowledge of the complex pharmacology of GABAARs might eventually enable site-directed drug design to further our understanding of GABA-related disorders and of the complex interaction of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms in neuronal processing.

  12. Manganese inhibits NMDA receptor channel function: implications to psychiatric and cognitive effects.

    PubMed

    Guilarte, Tomás R; Chen, Ming-Kai

    2007-11-01

    Humans exposed to excess levels of manganese (Mn(2+)) express psychiatric problems and deficits in attention and learning and memory. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on molecular mechanisms by which Mn(2+) produces such effects. We now report that Mn(2+) is a potent inhibitor of [(3)H]-MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor channel in rat neuronal membrane preparations. The inhibition of [(3)H]-MK-801 to the NMDA receptor channel by Mn(2+) was activity-dependent since Mn(2+) was a more potent inhibitor in the presence of the NMDA receptor co-agonists glutamate and glycine (K(i)=35.9+/-3.1 microM) than in their absence (K(i)=157.1+/-6.5 microM). We also show that Mn(2+) is a NMDA receptor channel blocker since its inhibition of [(3)H]-MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor channel is competitive in nature. That is, Mn(2+) significantly increased the affinity constant (K(d)) with no significant effect on the maximal number of [(3)H]-MK-801 binding sites (B(max)). Under stimulating conditions, Mn(2+) was equipotent in inhibiting [(3)H]-MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors expressed in neuronal membrane preparations from different brain regions. However, under basal, non-stimulated conditions, Mn(2+) was more potent in inhibiting NMDA receptors in the cerebellum than other brain regions. We have previously shown that chronic Mn(2+) exposure in non-human primates increases Cu(2+), but not zinc or iron concentrations in the basal ganglia [Guilarte TR, Chen M-K, McGlothan JL, Verina T, Wong DF, Zhou Y, Alexander M, Rohde CA, Syversen T, Decamp E, Koser AJ, Fritz S, Gonczi H, Anderson DW, Schneider JS. Nigrostriatal dopamine system dysfunction and subtle motor deficits in manganese-exposed non-human primates. Exp Neurol 2006a;202:381-90]. Therefore, we also tested the inhibitory effects of Cu(2+) on [(3)H]-MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor channel. The data shows that Cu(2+) in the presence of glutamate and glycine is a more potent inhibitor of the NMDA receptor than Mn(2

  13. Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels and transient receptor potential channels activate pathological hypertrophy signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Wang, Fang; Wang, Wei; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Zhang, Hongyu; Kubo, Hajime; Berretta, Remus M.; Barr, Larry A.; Molkentin, Jeffrey D.; Houser, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Common cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and myocardial infarction require that myocytes develop greater than normal force to maintain cardiac pump function. This requires increases in [Ca2+]. These diseases induce cardiac hypertrophy and increases in [Ca2+] are known to be an essential proximal signal for activation of hypertrophic genes. However, the source of “hypertrophic” [Ca2+] is not known and is the topic of this study. The role of Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCC), T-type Ca2+ channels (TTCC) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels on the activation of Calcineurin (Cn) – Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) signaling and myocyte hypertrophy was studied. Neonatal rat (NRVMs) and adult feline (AFVM) ventricular myocytes were infected with an adenovirus containing NFAT-GFP, to determine factors that could induce NFAT nuclear translocation. Four millimolar Ca2+ or pacing induced NFAT nuclear translocation. This effect was blocked by Cn inhibitors. In NRVMs Nifedipine (Nif, LTCC antagonist) blocked high Ca2+-induced NFAT nuclear translocation while SKF-96365 (TRP channel antagonist) and Nickel (Ni, TTCC antagonist) were less effective. The relative potency of these antagonists against Ca2+ induced NFAT nuclear translocation (Nif>SKF-96365>Ni) was similar to their effects on Ca2+ transients and the LTCC current. Infection of NRVM with viruses containing TRP channels also activated NFAT-GFP nuclear translocation and caused myocyte hypertrophy. TRP effects were reduced by SKF-96365, but were more effectively antagonized by Nif. These experiments suggest that Ca2+ influx through LTCCs is the primary source of Ca2+ to activate Cn-NFAT signaling in NRVMs and AFVMs. While TRP channels cause hypertrophy, they appear to do so through a mechanism involving Ca2+ entry via LTCCs. PMID:22921230

  14. Main ion channels and receptors associated with visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Rocha, Heraldo Arcela; Dantas, Bruna Priscilla Vasconcelos; Rolim, Thaísa Leite; Costa, Bagnólia Araújo; de Medeiros, Arnaldo Correia

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a very frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and alteration of bowel habits. The IBS physiopathology is extremely complex. Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal pain in both in vitro and in vivo models of this functional disorder. In order to obtain a general view of the participation of the main ion channels and receptors regarding the visceral hypersensitivity in the IBS and to describe their chemical structure, a literature review was carried out. A bibliographical research in the following electronic databases: Pubmed and Virtual Library in Health (BVS) was fulfilled by using the search terms “ion channels” “or” “receptors” “and” “visceral hypersensitivity” “or” “visceral nociception” “and” “irritable bowel syndrome”. Original and review articles were considered for data acquisition. The activation of the ATP ion-gated channels, voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and calcium (Cav) channels, as well as the activation of protease-activated receptors (PAR2), transient receptor potential vanilloide-1, serotonin, cannabinoids and cholecystokinin are involved in the genesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS. The involvement of ion channels and receptors concerning visceral hypersensitivity is noteworthy in IBS models. PMID:24976114

  15. Reconstitution of Purified Acetylcholine Receptors with Functional Ion Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, N.; Anholt, R.; Lindstrom, J.; Montal, M.

    1980-05-01

    Acetylcholine receptor, solubilized and purified from Torpedo californica electric organ under conditions that preserve the activity of its ion channel, was reconstituted into vesicles of soybean lipid by the cholate-dialysis technique. The reconstituted vesicles were then spread into monolayers at an air-water interface and planar bilayers were subsequently formed by apposition of two monolayers. Addition of carbamoylcholine caused an increase in membrane conductance that was transient and relaxed spontaneously to the base level (i.e., became desensitized). The response to carbamoylcholine was dose dependent and competitively inhibited by curare. Fluctuations of membrane conductance corresponding to the opening and closing of receptor channels were observed. Fluctuation analysis indicated a single-channel conductance of 16± 3 pS (in 0.1 M NaCl) with a mean channel open time estimated to be 35± 5 ms. Thus, purified acetylcholine receptor reconstituted into lipid bilayers exhibited the pharmacological specificity, activation, and desensitization properties expected of this receptor in native membranes.

  16. Characterization of additional novel immune type receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mining of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) expressed sequence tag databases identified seven new novel immune type receptors (IpNITRs). These differed in sequence, but not structure, from previously described IpNITR1-11. IpNITR12a, 12b, 13 and 14, encode proteins containing a single variable (V...

  17. Ion channels, ion channel receptors, and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, I M; Christianson, J A

    2016-11-01

    Ion channels are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal system and regulate nearly every aspect of digestion, including fluid secretion and absorption, motility, and visceral sensitivity. It is therefore not surprising that in the setting of functional bowel disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ion channels are often altered in terms of expression level and function and are a target of pharmacological intervention. This is particularly true of their role in driving abdominal pain through visceral hypersensitivity (VH), which is the main reason IBS patients seek medical care. In the study by Scanzi et al., in the current issue of this journal, they provide evidence that the T-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav ) Cav 3.2 is upregulated in human IBS patients, and is necessary for the induction of an IBS-like disease state in mice. In this mini-review, we will discuss the contribution of specific ion channels to VH in IBS, both in human patients and rodent models. We will also discuss how Cav 3.2 may play a role as an integrator of multiple environmental stimuli contributing toward VH.

  18. Inhibition of calcium channels by neurokinin receptor and signal transduction in hamster submandibular ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Endoh, T; Suzuki, T

    1999-04-16

    Both substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are known as neurotransmitters of the submandibular ganglion (SMG) neurons. SP released from collaterals of the sensory nerves also regulates the excitability of SMG neurons. It has recently been shown that neurokinins (NK) inhibit calcium channels in various neurons. In this study, the effects of NK on voltage-dependent calcium channel current (I(Ca)) in SMG cells were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording method. NK-1 receptor agonist and SP caused inhibition of I(Ca) in SMG cells in a dose-dependent manner. NK-1 receptor agonist inhibited L-, N- and P/Q-type I(Ca) components. GDP-beta-S included in the pipette solution reduced the NK-1 receptor agonist-induced inhibition of I(Ca). In addition, NK-1 receptor agonist-induced inhibition of I(Ca) was reduced by stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) but not cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The results provided evidence for a signal transduction pathway in which calcium channel inhibition by NK receptors required activation of G-protein and PKC-affected step phosphorylation in SMG neurons.

  19. Serotonin-3 receptors in the posterior ventral tegmental area regulate ethanol self-administration of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Oster, Scott M; Toalston, Jamie E; Pommer, Tylene J; McBride, William J; Murphy, James M

    2010-05-01

    Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 ([5-hydroxy tryptamine] 5-HT(3)) receptors in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers (Coulbourn Instruments, Allentown, PA) were used to examine the effects of seven consecutive bilateral microinfusions of ICS 205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (vol/vol) ethanol self-administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the fourth session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25, and 1.25 microg) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition postinjection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the three highest doses (0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 microg) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; after the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Microinfusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% wt/v) self-administration. Microinfusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT(3) receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA.

  20. Identification of Functionally Critical Residues in the Channel Domain of Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Bhanumathy, Cunnigaiper; da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.; Joseph, Suresh K.

    2012-01-01

    We have combined alanine mutagenesis and functional assays to identify amino acid residues in the channel domain that are critical for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel function. The residues selected were highly conserved in all three IP3R isoforms and were located in the cytosolic end of the S6 pore-lining helix and proximal portion of the C-tail. Two adjacent hydrophobic amino acids (Ile-2588 and Ile-2589) at the putative cytosolic interface of the S6 helix inactivated channel function and could be candidates for the channel gate. Of five negatively charged residues mutated, none completely eliminated channel function. Of five positively charged residues mutated, only one inactivated the channel (Arg-2596). In addition to the previously identified role of a pair of cysteines in the C-tail (Cys-2610 and Cys-2613), a pair of highly conserved histidines (His-2630 and His-2635) were also essential for channel function. Expression of the H2630A and H2635A mutants (but not R2596A) produced receptors with destabilized interactions between the N-terminal fragment and the channel domain. A previously unrecognized association between the cytosolic C-tail and the TM 4,5-loop was demonstrated using GST pulldown assays. However, none of the mutations in the C-tail interfered with this interaction or altered the ability of the C-tail to assemble into dimers. Our present findings and recent information on IP3R structure from electron microscopy and crystallography are incorporated into a revised model of channel gating. PMID:23086950

  1. Single-Channel Current Through Nicotinic Receptor Produced by Closure of Binding Site C-Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hailong; Cheng, Xiaolin; McCammon, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the initial coupling of agonist binding to channel gating of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor using targeted molecular-dynamics (TMD) simulation. After TMD simulation to accelerate closure of the C-loops at the agonist binding sites, the region of the pore that passes through the cell membrane expands. To determine whether the structural changes in the pore result in ion conduction, we used a coarse-grained ion conduction simulator, Biology Boltzmann transport Monte Carlo, and applied it to two structural frames taken before and after TMD simulation. The structural model before TMD simulation represents the channel in the proposed resting state, whereas the model after TMD simulation represents the channel in the proposed active state. Under external voltage biases, the channel in the active state was permeable to cations. Our simulated ion conductance approaches that obtained experimentally and recapitulates several functional properties characteristic of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Thus, closure of the C-loop triggers a structural change in the channel sufficient to account for the open channel current. This approach of applying Biology Boltzmann transport Monte Carlo simulation can be used to further investigate the binding to gating transduction mechanism and the structural bases for ion selection and translocation.

  2. Interaction with Dopamine D2 Receptor Enhances Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Channel 1 at the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Meredith A.; Kabbani, Nadine; Paspalas, Constantinos D.; Levenson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Receptor signaling is mediated by direct protein interaction with various types of cytoskeletal, adapter, effector, and additional receptor molecules. In brain tissue and in cultured neurons, activation of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) has been found to impact cellular calcium signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we have uncovered a direct physical interaction between the D2R and the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) subtypes 1, 4 and 5. The TRPC/D2R interaction was further validated by GST-pulldown assays and coimmunoprecipitation from mammalian brain. Ultrastructural analysis of TRPC1 and D2R expression indicates colocalization of the two proteins within the cell body and dendrites of cortical neurons. In cultured cells, expression of D2Rs was found to increase expression of TRPC1 at the cell surface by 50%. These findings shed new light on the constituents of the D2R signalplex, and support the involvement of D2Rs in cellular calcium signaling pathways via a novel link to TRPC channels. PMID:18261457

  3. Pore architecture and ion sites in acid-sensing ion channels and P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Eric B; Kawate, Toshimitsu; Gouaux, Eric

    2009-07-30

    Acid-sensing ion channels are proton-activated, sodium-selective channels composed of three subunits, and are members of the superfamily of epithelial sodium channels, mechanosensitive and FMRF-amide peptide-gated ion channels. These ubiquitous eukaryotic ion channels have essential roles in biological activities as diverse as sodium homeostasis, taste and pain. Despite their crucial roles in biology and their unusual trimeric subunit stoichiometry, there is little knowledge of the structural and chemical principles underlying their ion channel architecture and ion-binding sites. Here we present the structure of a functional acid-sensing ion channel in a desensitized state at 3 A resolution, the location and composition of the approximately 8 A 'thick' desensitization gate, and the trigonal antiprism coordination of caesium ions bound in the extracellular vestibule. Comparison of the acid-sensing ion channel structure with the ATP-gated P2X(4) receptor reveals similarity in pore architecture and aqueous vestibules, suggesting that there are unanticipated yet common structural and mechanistic principles.

  4. Ca2+ channel inhibition by endomorphins via the cloned mu-opioid receptor expressed in NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Mima, H; Morikawa, H; Fukuda, K; Kato, S; Shoda, T; Mori, K

    1997-12-11

    Endomorphin-1 and -2, recently isolated endogenous peptides specific for the mu-opioid receptor, inhibited Ca2+ channel currents with EC50 of 6 and 9 nM, respectively, in NG108-15 cells transformed to express the cloned rat mu-opioid receptor. On the other hand, they elicited no response in nontransfected NG108-15 cells. It is concluded that endomorphin-1 and -2 induce Ca2+ channel inhibition by selectively activating the mu-opioid receptor.

  5. Kainate receptor pore‐forming and auxiliary subunits regulate channel block by a novel mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Aurousseau, Mark R. P.; Musgaard, Maria; Biggin, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Kainate receptor heteromerization and auxiliary subunits, Neto1 and Neto2, attenuate polyamine ion‐channel block by facilitating blocker permeation.Relief of polyamine block in GluK2/GluK5 heteromers results from a key proline residue that produces architectural changes in the channel pore α‐helical region.Auxiliary subunits exert an additive effect to heteromerization, and thus relief of polyamine block is due to a different mechanism.Our findings have broad implications for work on polyamine block of other cation‐selective ion channels. Abstract Channel block and permeation by cytoplasmic polyamines is a common feature of many cation‐selective ion channels. Although the channel block mechanism has been studied extensively, polyamine permeation has been considered less significant as it occurs at extreme positive membrane potentials. Here, we show that kainate receptor (KAR) heteromerization and association with auxiliary proteins, Neto1 and Neto2, attenuate polyamine block by enhancing blocker permeation. Consequently, polyamine permeation and unblock occur at more negative and physiologically relevant membrane potentials. In GluK2/GluK5 heteromers, enhanced permeation is due to a single proline residue in GluK5 that alters the dynamics of the α‐helical region of the selectivity filter. The effect of auxiliary proteins is additive, and therefore the structural basis of polyamine permeation and unblock is through a different mechanism. As native receptors are thought to assemble as heteromers in complex with auxiliary proteins, our data identify an unappreciated impact of polyamine permeation in shaping the signalling properties of neuronal KARs and point to a structural mechanism that may be shared amongst other cation‐selective ion channels. PMID:26682513

  6. Coregulation of calcium channels and beta-adrenergic receptors in cultured chick embryo ventricular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.D. )

    1989-09-01

    To examine mechanisms whereby the abundance of functional Ca channels may be regulated in excitable tissue, Ca channel number was estimated by binding of the dihydropyridine (DHP) antagonist {sup 3}H (+)PN200-110 to monolayers of intact myocytes from chick embryo ventricle. Beta adrenergic receptor properties were studied in cultured myocytes using ({sup 3}H)CGP12177, an antagonist ligand. Physiological correlates for alterations in DHP binding site number included {sup 45}Ca uptake and contractile response to (+)BAYk 8644, a specific L-type Ca channel activator. All binding and physiological determinations were performed in similar intact cell preparations under identical conditions. 4-h exposure to 1 microM isoproterenol reduced cell surface beta-adrenergic receptor number from 44 +/- 3 to 17 +/- 2 fmol/mg (P less than 0.05); DHP binding sites declined in number from 113 +/- 25 to 73 +/- 30 fmol/mg (P less than 0.03). When protein kinase A was activated by a non-receptor-dependent mechanism, DHP binding declined similarly to 68% of control. Exposure to diltiazem, a Ca channel antagonist, for 18-24 h had no effect on number of DHP binding sites. After 4-h isoproterenol exposure, {sup 45}Ca uptake stimulated by BAYk 8644 declined from 3.3 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg to 2.9 +/- 0.3 nmol/mg (P less than 0.01) and BAYk 8644-stimulated increase in amplitude of contraction declined from 168 +/- 7 to 134 +/- 11% (P = 0.02). Thus, elevation of (cAMP) in myocytes is associated with a time-dependent decline in Ca channel abundance as estimated by DHP binding and a decline in physiological responses that are in part dependent on abundance of Ca channels. Binding of a directly acting Ca channel antagonist for 18-24 h does not modulate the number of DHP binding sites.

  7. The L-, N-, and T-type triple calcium channel blocker benidipine acts as an antagonist of mineralocorticoid receptor, a member of nuclear receptor family.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Hiromichi; Hirayama, Kazunori; Yoda, Nobuyuki; Sasaki, Katsutoshi; Kitayama, Tetsuya; Kusaka, Hideaki; Matsubara, Masahiro

    2010-06-10

    Aldosterone-induced activation of mineralocorticoid receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor family, results in increased tissue damage such as vascular inflammation and cardiac and perivascular fibrosis. Benidipine, a long-lasting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, is used for hypertension and angina. Benidipine exhibits pleiotropic pharmacological features such as renoprotective and cardioprotective effects through triple blockade of L-, N-, and T-type calcium channels. However, the mechanism of additional beneficial effects on end-organ damage is poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of benidipine and other calcium channel blockers on aldosterone-induced mineralocorticoid receptor activation using luciferase reporter assay system. Benidipine showed more potent activity than efonidipine, amlodipine, or azelnidipine. Benidipine depressed the response to higher concentrations of aldosterone, whereas pretreatment of eplerenone, a steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, did not. Binding studies using [(3)H] aldosterone indicated that benidipine and other calcium channel blockers competed for binding to mineralocorticoid receptor. Benidipine and other calcium channel blockers showed antagonistic activity on Ser810 to Leu mutant mineralocorticoid receptor, which is identified in patients with early-onset hypertension. On the other hand, eplerenone partially activated the mutant. Results of analysis using optical isomers of benidipine indicated that inhibitory effect of aldosterone-induced mineralocorticoid receptor activation was independent of its primary blockade of calcium channels. These results suggested that benidipine directly inhibits aldosterone-induced mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and the antagonistic activity might contribute to the drug's pleiotropic pharmacological features.

  8. Taste receptors and gustatory associated G proteins in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sen; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Li, Ning; Li, Qi; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-03-01

    Taste sensation plays a pivotal role in nutrient identification and acquisition. This is particularly true for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) that live in turbid waters with limited visibility. This biological process is mainly mediated by taste receptors expressed in taste buds that are distributed in several organs and tissues, including the barbels and skin. In the present study, we identified a complete repertoire of taste receptor and gustatory associated G protein genes in the channel catfish genome. A total of eight taste receptor genes were identified, including five type I and three type II taste receptor genes. Their genomic locations, phylogenetic relations, orthologies and expression were determined. Phylogenetic and collinear analyses provided understanding of the evolution dynamics of this gene family. Furthermore, the motif and dN/dS analyses indicated that selection pressures of different degrees were imposed on these receptors. Additionally, four genes of gustatory associated G proteins were also identified. It was indicated that expression patterns of catfish taste receptors and gustatory associated G proteins across organs mirror the distribution of taste buds across organs. Finally, the expression comparison between catfish and zebrafish organs provided evidence of potential roles of catfish skin and gill involved in taste sensation.

  9. Voltage-gated calcium channels function as Ca2+-activated signaling receptors.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Daphne

    2014-02-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are transmembrane cell surface proteins responsible for multifunctional signals. In response to voltage, VGCCs trigger synaptic transmission, drive muscle contraction, and regulate gene expression. Voltage perturbations open VGCCs enabling Ca(2+) binding to the low affinity Ca(2+) binding site of the channel pore. Subsequent to permeation, Ca(2+) targets selective proteins to activate diverse signaling pathways. It is becoming apparent that the Ca(2+)-bound channel triggers secretion in excitable cells and drives contraction in cardiomyocytes prior to Ca(2+) permeation. Here, I highlight recent data implicating receptor-like function of the Ca(2+)-bound channel in converting external Ca(2+) into an intracellular signal. The two sequential mechanistic perspectives of VGCC function are discussed in the context of the prevailing and long-standing current models of depolarization-evoked secretion and cardiac contraction.

  10. [Intracellular calcium channels, hormone receptors and intercellular calcium waves].

    PubMed

    Tordjmann, T; Tran, D; Berthon, B; Jacquemin, E; Guillon, G; Combettes, L; Claret, M

    1998-01-01

    The hormone-mediated intercellular Ca2+ waves were analyzed in multiplets of rat hepatocytes by video imaging of fura2 fluorescence. These multicellular systems are composed of groups of several cells (doublets to quintuplets) issued from the liver cell plate, a one cell-thick cord of about 20 hepatocytes long between portal and centrolobular veins. When the multiplets were homogeneously bathed with the glycogenolytic agonists vasopressin, noradrenaline, angiotensin II and ATP, they showed highly organized Ca2+ signals. Surprisingly, for a given agonist, the primary rises in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) originated invariably in the same hepatocyte, then was propagated in a sequential manner to the nearest connected cells (cell 2, then 3, cell 4 in a quadruplet, for example). The sequential activation of the cells appeared to be an intrinsic property of multiplets of rat hepatocytes. The same sequence was observed at each train of oscillations occurring between cells. The order of [Ca2+]i responses was modified neither by repeated additions of hormones nor by the hormonal dose. The mechanical disruption of an intermediate cell did not prevent the activation of the next cell. These results suggest that each hepatocyte in the multiplet displays its own sensitivity to the hormone and that a gradient of sensitivity between each cell could be responsible for directing the intercellular Ca2+ wave. To test this hypothesis, we selectively isolated rat hepatocytes from periportal (PP) and perivenous (PV) areas of the liver cell plate. Periportal (PP) and perivenous (PV) rat hepatocyte suspensions were loaded with quin2/AM and hormonal responses were studied in a spectrofluorimeter. Noradrenaline, angiotensin II, and vasopressin-induced [Ca2+]i rises were greater in PV than in PP hepatocytes. In contrast, PP cells were more responsive than PV cells to ATP. The function of the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R) was also studied by measuring the InsP3-mediated 45Ca2+ release

  11. Antagonist action of progesterone at σ-receptors in the modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Molly; Fontanilla, Dominique; Mavlyutov, Timur; Ruoho, Arnold E; Jackson, Meyer B

    2011-02-01

    σ-Receptors are integral membrane proteins that have been implicated in a number of biological functions, many of which involve the modulation of ion channels. A wide range of synthetic ligands activate σ-receptors, but endogenous σ-receptor ligands have proven elusive. One endogenous ligand, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), has been shown to act as a σ-receptor agonist. Progesterone and other steroids bind σ-receptors, but the functional consequences of these interactions are unclear. Here we investigated progesterone binding to σ(1)- and σ(2)-receptors and evaluated its effect on σ-receptor-mediated modulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Progesterone binds both σ-receptor subtypes in liver membranes with comparable affinities and blocks photolabeling of both subtypes in human embryonic kidney 293 cells that stably express the human cardiac Na(+) channel Na(v)1.5. Patch-clamp recording in this cell line tested Na(+) current modulation by the σ-receptor ligands ditolylguanidine, PB28, (+)SKF10047, and DMT. Progesterone inhibited the action of these ligands to varying degrees, and some of these actions were reduced by σ(1)-receptor knockdown with small interfering RNA. Progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by drugs was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ(2)-receptors. By contrast, progesterone inhibition of channel modulation by DMT was consistent with stronger antagonism of σ(1)-receptors. Progesterone binding to σ-receptors blocks σ-receptor-mediated modulation of a voltage-gated ion channel, and this novel membrane action of progesterone may be relevant to changes in brain and cardiovascular function during endocrine transitions.

  12. Modulation of calcium channels by taurine acting via a metabotropic-like glycine receptor.

    PubMed

    Albiñana, E; Sacristán, S; Martín del Río, R; Solís, J M; Hernández-Guijo, J M

    2010-11-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the central nervous system, where it displays several functions. However, its molecular targets remain unknown. It is well known that taurine can activate GABA-A and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, which increases a chloride conductance. In this study, we describe that acute application of taurine induces a dose-dependent inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels in chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medullae. This taurine effect was not explained by the activation of either GABA-A, GABA-B or strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. Interestingly, glycine mimicked the modulatory action exerted by taurine on calcium channels, although the acute application of glycine did not elicit any ionic current in these cells. Additionally, the modulation of calcium channels exerted by both taurine and glycine was prevented by the intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S. Thus, the modulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels by taurine seems to be mediated by a metabotropic-like glycinergic receptor coupled to G-protein activation in a membrane delimited pathway.

  13. Channel opening by anesthetics and GABA induces similar changes in the GABAA receptor M2 segment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ayelet; Bali, Moez; Horenstein, Jeffrey; Akabas, Myles H

    2007-05-01

    For many general anesthetics, their molecular basis of action involves interactions with GABA(A) receptors. Anesthetics produce concentration-dependent effects on GABA(A) receptors. Low concentrations potentiate submaximal GABA-induced currents. Higher concentrations directly activate the receptors. Functional effects of anesthetics have been characterized, but little is known about the conformational changes they induce. We probed anesthetic-induced conformational changes in the M2 membrane-spanning, channel-lining segment using disulfide trapping between engineered cysteines. Previously, we showed that oxidation by copper phenanthroline in the presence of GABA of the M2 6' cysteine mutants, alpha(1)T261Cbeta(1)T256C and alpha(1)beta(1)T256C resulted in formation of an intersubunit disulfide bond between the adjacent beta-subunits that significantly increased the channels' spontaneous open probability. Oxidation in GABA's absence had no effect. We examined the effect on alpha(1)T261Cbeta(1)T256C and on alpha(1)beta(1)T256C of oxidation by copper phenanthroline in the presence of potentiating and directly activating concentrations of the general anesthetics propofol, pentobarbital, and isoflurane. Oxidation in the presence of potentiating concentration of anesthetics had little effect. Oxidation in the presence of directly activating anesthetic concentrations significantly increased the channels' spontaneous open probability. We infer that activation by anesthetics and GABA induces a similar conformational change at the M2 segment 6' position that is related to channel opening.

  14. Intersubunit Physical Couplings Fostered By The Left Flipper Domain Facilitate Channel Opening Of P2X4 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Sun, Liang-Fei; Cui, Wen-Wen; Zhao, Wen-Shan; Ma, Xue-Fei; Li, Bin; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yang; Hu, You-Min; Huang, Li-Dong; Cheng, Xiao-Yang; Li, Lingyong; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Tian, Yun; Yu, Ye

    2017-03-16

    P2X receptors are ATP-gated trimeric channels with important roles in diverse pathophysiological functions. A detailed understanding of the mechanism underlying the gating process of these receptors is thus fundamentally important and may open new therapeutic avenues. The left flipper (LF) domain of P2X receptors is a flexible loop structure and its coordinated motions together with the dorsal fin (DF) domain are crucial for the channel gating of the P2X receptors. However, the mechanism underlying the crucial role of the LF domain in the channel gating remains obscure. Here, we propose that the ATP-induced allosteric changes of the LF domain enable it to foster intersubunit physical couplings among the DF and two lower body domains, which is pivotal for the channel gating of P2X4 receptors. Metadynamics analysis indicated that these newly established intersubunit couplings correlate well with the ATP-bound open state of the receptors. Moreover, weakening or strengthening these physical interactions with engineered intersubunit metal bridges remarkably decreased or increased the open probability of the receptors, respectively. Further disulfide crosslinking and covalent modification confirmed that the intersubunit physical couplings among the DF and two lower body domains fostered by the LF domain at the open state act as an integrated structural element that is stringently required for the channel gating of P2X4 receptors. Our observations provide new mechanistic insights into P2X receptor activation and will stimulate development of new allosteric modulators of P2X receptors.

  15. Transient receptor potential channels function as a coincidence signal detector mediating phosphatidylserine exposure.

    PubMed

    Harper, Matthew T; Londoño, Juan E Camacho; Quick, Kathryn; Londoño, Julia Camacho; Flockerzi, Veit; Philipp, Stephan E; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Freichel, Marc; Poole, Alastair W

    2013-06-25

    Blood platelet aggregation must be tightly controlled to promote clotting at injury sites but avoid inappropriate occlusion of blood vessels. Thrombin, which cleaves and activates Gq-coupled protease-activated receptors, and collagen-related peptide, which activates the receptor glycoprotein VI, stimulate platelets to aggregate and form thrombi. Coincident activation by these two agonists synergizes, causing the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface, which is a marker of cell death in many cell types. Phosphatidylserine exposure is also essential to produce additional thrombin on platelet surfaces, which contributes to thrombosis. We found that activation of either thrombin receptors or glycoprotein VI alone produced a calcium signal that was largely dependent only on store-operated Ca(2+) entry. In contrast, experiments with platelets from knockout mice showed that the presence of both ligands activated nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential C (TRPC) family, TRPC3 and TRPC6. These channels principally allowed entry of Na(+), which coupled to reverse-mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange to allow calcium influx and thereby contribute to Ca(2+) signaling and phosphatidylserine exposure. Thus, TRPC channels act as coincidence detectors to coordinate responses to multiple signals in cells, thereby indirectly mediating in platelets an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations and exposure of prothrombotic phosphatidylserine.

  16. Bromoenol Lactone Inhibits Voltage-Gated Ca2+ and Transient Receptor Potential Canonical ChannelsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Saikat; Berwick, Zachary C.; Bartlett, Paula J.; Kumar, Sanjay; Thomas, Andrew P.; Sturek, Michael; Tune, Johnathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Circulating hormones stimulate the phospholipase Cβ (PLC)/Ca2+ influx pathway to regulate numerous cell functions, including vascular tone. It was proposed previously that Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2)-dependent store-operated Ca2+ influx channels mediate hormone-induced contractions in isolated arteries, because bromoenol lactone (BEL), a potent irreversible inhibitor of iPLA2, inhibited such contractions. However, the effects of BEL on other channels implicated in mediating hormone-induced vessel contractions, specifically voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV1.2) and transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels, have not been defined clearly. Using isometric tension measurements, we found that thapsigargin-induced contractions were ∼34% of those evoked by phenylephrine or KCl. BEL completely inhibited not only thapsigargin- but also phenylephrine- and KCl-induced ring contractions, suggesting that CaV1.2 and receptor-operated TRPC channels also may be sensitive to BEL. Therefore, we investigated the effects of BEL on heterologously expressed CaV1.2 and TRPC channels in human embryonic kidney cells, a model system that allows probing of individual protein function without interference from other signaling elements of native cells. We found that low micromolar concentrations of BEL inhibited CaV1.2, TRPC5, TRPC6, and heteromeric TRPC1–TRPC5 channels in an iPLA2-independent manner. BEL also attenuated PLC activity, suggesting that the compound may inhibit TRPC channel activity in part by interfering with an initial PLC-dependent step required for TRPC channel activation. Conversely, BEL did not affect endogenous voltage-gated K+ channels in human embryonic kidney cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that iPLA2-dependent store-operated Ca2+ influx channels and iPLA2-independent hormone-operated TRPC channels can serve as smooth muscle depolarization triggers to activate CaV1.2 channels and to regulate vascular tone. PMID:21795434

  17. Evidence for Novel Pharmacological Sensitivities of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Swarna; Churgin, Matthew A.; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Greenberg, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, is a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions globally. Praziquantel (PZQ), the only drug currently available for treatment and control, is largely ineffective against juvenile worms, and reports of PZQ resistance lend added urgency to the need for development of new therapeutics. Ion channels, which underlie electrical excitability in cells, are validated targets for many current anthelmintics. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of non-selective cation channels. TRP channels play key roles in sensory transduction and other critical functions, yet the properties of these channels have remained essentially unexplored in parasitic helminths. TRP channels fall into several (7–8) subfamilies, including TRPA and TRPV. Though schistosomes contain genes predicted to encode representatives of most of the TRP channel subfamilies, they do not appear to have genes for any TRPV channels. Nonetheless, we find that the TRPV1-selective activators capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX) induce dramatic hyperactivity in adult worms; capsaicin also increases motility in schistosomula. SB 366719, a highly-selective TRPV1 antagonist, blocks the capsaicin-induced hyperactivity in adults. Mammalian TRPA1 is not activated by capsaicin, yet knockdown of the single predicted TRPA1-like gene (SmTRPA) in S. mansoni effectively abolishes capsaicin-induced responses in adult worms, suggesting that SmTRPA is required for capsaicin sensitivity in these parasites. Based on these results, we hypothesize that some schistosome TRP channels have novel pharmacological sensitivities that can be targeted to disrupt normal parasite neuromuscular function. These results also have implications for understanding the phylogeny of metazoan TRP channels and may help identify novel targets for new or repurposed therapeutics. PMID:26655809

  18. Temperature and voltage coupling to channel opening in transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8).

    PubMed

    Raddatz, Natalia; Castillo, Juan P; Gonzalez, Carlos; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon

    2014-12-19

    Expressed in somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel activated by cold, voltage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and menthol. Although TRPM8 channel gating has been characterized at the single channel and macroscopic current levels, there is currently no consensus regarding the extent to which temperature and voltage sensors couple to the conduction gate. In this study, we extended the range of voltages where TRPM8-induced ionic currents were measured and made careful measurements of the maximum open probability the channel can attain at different temperatures by means of fluctuation analysis. The first direct measurements of TRPM8 channel temperature-driven conformational rearrangements provided here suggest that temperature alone is able to open the channel and that the opening reaction is voltage-independent. Voltage is a partial activator of TRPM8 channels, because absolute open probability values measured with fully activated voltage sensors are less than 1, and they decrease as temperature rises. By unveiling the fast temperature-dependent deactivation process, we show that TRPM8 channel deactivation is well described by a double exponential time course. The fast and slow deactivation processes are temperature-dependent with enthalpy changes of 27.2 and 30.8 kcal mol(-1). The overall Q10 for the closing reaction is about 33. A three-tiered allosteric model containing four voltage sensors and four temperature sensors can account for the complex deactivation kinetics and coupling between voltage and temperature sensor activation and channel opening.

  19. Investigations of the contribution of a putative glycine hinge to ryanodine receptor channel gating.

    PubMed

    Euden, Joanne; Mason, Sammy A; Viero, Cedric; Thomas, N Lowri; Williams, Alan J

    2013-06-07

    Ryanodine receptor channels (RyR) are key components of striated muscle excitation-contraction coupling, and alterations in their function underlie both inherited and acquired disease. A full understanding of the disease process will require a detailed knowledge of the mechanisms and structures involved in RyR function. Unfortunately, high-resolution structural data, such as exist for K(+)-selective channels, are not available for RyR. In the absence of these data, we have used modeling to identify similarities in the structural elements of K(+) channel pore-forming regions and postulated equivalent regions of RyR. This has identified a sequence of residues in the cytosolic cavity-lining transmembrane helix of RyR (G(4864)LIIDA(4869) in RyR2) analogous to the glycine hinge motif present in many K(+) channels. Gating in these K(+) channels can be disrupted by substitution of residues for the hinge glycine. We investigated the involvement of glycine 4864 in RyR2 gating by monitoring properties of recombinant human RyR2 channels in which this glycine is replaced by residues that alter gating in K(+) channels. Our data demonstrate that introducing alanine at position 4864 produces no significant change in RyR2 function. In contrast, function is altered when glycine 4864 is replaced by either valine or proline, the former preventing channel opening and the latter modifying both ion translocation and gating. Our studies reveal novel information on the structural basis of RyR gating, identifying both similarities with, and differences from, K(+) channels. Glycine 4864 is not absolutely required for channel gating, but some flexibility at this point in the cavity-lining transmembrane helix is necessary for normal RyR function.

  20. Characterization of ryanodine receptor type 1 single channel activity using "on-nucleus" patch clamp.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Larry E; Groom, Linda A; Dirksen, Robert T; Yule, David I

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we provide the first description of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) expressed in a native membrane using the on-nucleus configuration of the patch clamp technique. A stable cell line expressing rabbit RyR1 was established (HEK-RyR1) using the FLP-in 293 cell system. In contrast to untransfected cells, RyR1 expression was readily demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in HEK-RyR1 cells. In addition, the RyR1 agonists 4-CMC and caffeine activated Ca(2+) release that was inhibited by high concentrations of ryanodine. On nucleus patch clamp was performed in nuclei prepared from HEK-RyR1 cells. Raising the [Ca(2+)] in the patch pipette resulted in the appearance of a large conductance cation channel with well resolved kinetics and the absence of prominent subconductance states. Current versus voltage relationships were ohmic and revealed a chord conductance of ∼750pS or 450pS in symmetrical 250mM KCl or CsCl, respectively. The channel activity was markedly enhanced by caffeine and exposure to ryanodine resulted in the appearance of a subconductance state with a conductance ∼40% of the full channel opening with a Po near unity. In total, these properties are entirely consistent with RyR1 channel activity. Exposure of RyR1 channels to cyclic ADP ribose (cADPr), nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) or dantrolene did not alter the single channel activity stimulated by Ca(2+), and thus, it is unlikely these molecules directly modulate RyR1 channel activity. In summary, we describe an experimental platform to monitor the single channel properties of RyR channels. We envision that this system will be influential in characterizing disease-associated RyR mutations and the molecular determinants of RyR channel modulation.

  1. Temperature and Voltage Coupling to Channel Opening in Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8)*♦

    PubMed Central

    Raddatz, Natalia; Castillo, Juan P.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Expressed in somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca2+-permeable cation channel activated by cold, voltage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and menthol. Although TRPM8 channel gating has been characterized at the single channel and macroscopic current levels, there is currently no consensus regarding the extent to which temperature and voltage sensors couple to the conduction gate. In this study, we extended the range of voltages where TRPM8-induced ionic currents were measured and made careful measurements of the maximum open probability the channel can attain at different temperatures by means of fluctuation analysis. The first direct measurements of TRPM8 channel temperature-driven conformational rearrangements provided here suggest that temperature alone is able to open the channel and that the opening reaction is voltage-independent. Voltage is a partial activator of TRPM8 channels, because absolute open probability values measured with fully activated voltage sensors are less than 1, and they decrease as temperature rises. By unveiling the fast temperature-dependent deactivation process, we show that TRPM8 channel deactivation is well described by a double exponential time course. The fast and slow deactivation processes are temperature-dependent with enthalpy changes of 27.2 and 30.8 kcal mol−1. The overall Q10 for the closing reaction is about 33. A three-tiered allosteric model containing four voltage sensors and four temperature sensors can account for the complex deactivation kinetics and coupling between voltage and temperature sensor activation and channel opening. PMID:25352597

  2. Acetylcholine receptor channels are present in undifferentiated satellite cells but not in embryonic myoblasts in culture.

    PubMed

    Cossu, G; Eusebi, F; Grassi, F; Wanke, E

    1987-09-01

    The expression and the physiological properties of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) of mononucleated myogenic cells, isolated from either embryonic or adult muscle of the mouse, have been investigated using the gigaohm seal patch-clamp technique in combination with immunocytochemistry (with an anti-myosin antibody) and alpha-bungarotoxin binding techniques. Undifferentiated (myosin-negative) embryonic myoblasts, grown either in mass culture or under clonal conditions, were found to be unresponsive to ACh and did not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. On the contrary, undifferentiated satellite cells (from adult muscle) exhibited channels activated by ACh and alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites similar to those observed in differentiated (myosin-positive) embryonic myoblasts and myotubes. Two classes of ACh-activated channels with different opening frequencies were identified. The major class of channels had a conductance of about 42 pS and mean open time of 3.1-8.2 msec. The minor class of channels had smaller conductance (about 17 pS) and similar open time. During differentiation, the conductance of the two channels did not change significantly, while channel lifetime became shorter in myotubes derived from satellite cells but not in myotubes derived from embryonic myoblasts. The relative proportion of small over large channels was significantly larger in embryonic than in adult myogenic cells.

  3. Transient receptor potential canonical channels are essential for chemotactic migration of human malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bomben, Valerie C; Turner, Kathryn L; Barclay, Tia-Tabitha C; Sontheimer, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The majority of malignant primary brain tumors are gliomas, derived from glial cells. Grade IV gliomas, Glioblastoma multiforme, are extremely invasive and the clinical prognosis for patients is dismal. Gliomas utilize a number of proteins and pathways to infiltrate the brain parenchyma including ion channels and calcium signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the localization and functional relevance of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels in glioma migration. We show that gliomas are attracted in a chemotactic manner to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Stimulation with EGF results in TRPC1 channel localization to the leading edge of migrating D54MG glioma cells. Additionally, TRPC1 channels co-localize with the lipid raft proteins, caveolin-1 and β-cholera toxin, and biochemical assays show TRPC1 in the caveolar raft fraction of the membrane. Chemotaxis toward EGF was lost when TRPC channels were pharmacologically inhibited or by shRNA knockdown of TRPC1 channels, yet without affecting unstimulated cell motility. Moreover, lipid raft integrity was required for gliomas chemotaxis. Disruption of lipid rafts not only impaired chemotaxis but also impaired TRPC currents in whole cell recordings and decreased store-operated calcium entry as revealed by ratiomeric calcium imaging. These data indicated that TRPC1 channel association with lipid rafts is essential for glioma chemotaxis in response to stimuli, such as EGF.

  4. Hypernitrosylated ryanodine receptor calcium release channels are leaky in dystrophic muscle.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Andrew M; Reiken, Steven; Carlson, Christian; Mongillo, Marco; Liu, Xiaoping; Rothman, Lisa; Matecki, Stefan; Lacampagne, Alain; Marks, Andrew R

    2009-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and early death resulting from dystrophin deficiency. Loss of dystrophin results in disruption of a large dystrophin glycoprotein complex, leading to pathological calcium (Ca2+)-dependent signals that damage muscle cells. We have identified a structural and functional defect in the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel, in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy that contributes to altered Ca2+ homeostasis in dystrophic muscles. RyR1 isolated from mdx skeletal muscle showed an age-dependent increase in S-nitrosylation coincident with dystrophic changes in the muscle. RyR1 S-nitrosylation depleted the channel complex of FKBP12 (also known as calstabin-1, for calcium channel stabilizing binding protein), resulting in 'leaky' channels. Preventing calstabin-1 depletion from RyR1 with S107, a compound that binds the RyR1 channel and enhances the binding affinity of calstabin-1 to the nitrosylated channel, inhibited sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak, reduced biochemical and histological evidence of muscle damage, improved muscle function and increased exercise performance in mdx mice. On the basis of these findings, we propose that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak via RyR1 due to S-nitrosylation of the channel and calstabin-1 depletion contributes to muscle weakness in muscular dystrophy, and that preventing the RyR1-mediated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak may provide a new therapeutic approach.

  5. Local anaesthetics transiently block currents through single acetylcholine-receptor channels.

    PubMed Central

    Neher, E; Steinbach, J H

    1978-01-01

    1. Single channel currents through acetylcholine receptor channels (ACh channels) were recorded at chronically denervated frog muscle extrajunctional membranes in the absence and presence of the lidocaine derivatives QX-222 and QX-314. 2. The current wave forms due to the opening and closing of single ACh channels (activated by suberyldicholine) normally are square pulses. These single pulses appear to be chopped into bursts of much shorter pulses, when the drug QX-222 is present in addition to the agonist. 3. The mean duration of the bursts is comparable to or longer than the normal channel open time, and increases with increasing drug concentration. 4. The duration of the short pulses within a burst decreases with increasing drug concentration. 5. It is concluded that drug molecules reversibly block open end-plate channels and that the flickering within a burst represents this fast, repeatedly occurring reaction. 6. The voltage dependence of the reaction rates involved, suggested that the site of the blocking reaction is in the centre of the membrane, probably inside the ionic channel. PMID:306437

  6. Expression of transient receptor potential channels in the ependymal cells of the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kwang Deog; Lee, Kyu-Seok; Lee, Won Taek; Hur, Mi-Sun; Kim, Ho-Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in providing brain tissue with a stable internal environment as well as in absorbing mechanical and thermal stresses. From its initial composition, derived from the amniotic fluid trapped by the closure of neuropores, CSF is modified by developing and differentiating ependymal cells lining the ventricular surface or forming the choroid plexus. Its osmolarity and ionic composition brings about a change through the action of many channels expressed on the ependymal cells. Some newly discovered transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are known to be expressed in the choroid plexus ependyma. To detect additional TRP channel expression, immunohistochemical screening was performed at the choroid plexus of 13-, 15-, 17-, and 19-day embryos, using antibodies against TRPV1, TRPV3, and TRPA1, and the expression was compared with those in the adult TRP channels. The level of TRP channel expression was higher in the choroid plexus which suggests more active functioning of TRP channels in the developing choroid plexus than the ventricular lining ependyma in the 15- and 17-day embryos. All the expression of TRP channels decreased at the 19th day of gestation. TRPA1 was expressed at a higher level than TRPV1 and TRPV3 in almost all stages in both the choroid plexus and ventricular lining epithelium. The highest level of TRPV1 and TRPV3 expression was observed in association with the glycogen deposits in the cytoplasm of the choroid plexus ependymal cells of the 15- and 17-day embryos.

  7. Mechanism of ivermectin facilitation of human P2X4 receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Priel, Avi; Silberberg, Shai D

    2004-03-01

    Ivermectin (IVM), a widely used antiparasitic agent in human and veterinary medicine, was recently shown to augment macroscopic currents through rat P2X(4) receptor channels. In the present study, the effects of IVM on the human P2X(4) (hP2X(4)) receptor channel stably transfected in HEK293 cells were investigated by recording membrane currents using the patch clamp technique. In whole-cell recordings, IVM (< or =10 microM) applied from outside the cell (but not from inside) increased the maximum current activated by ATP, and slowed the rate of current deactivation. These two phenomena likely result from the binding of IVM to separate sites. A higher affinity site (EC(50) 0.25 microM) increased the maximal current activated by saturating concentrations of ATP without significantly changing the rate of current deactivation or the EC(50) and Hill slope of the ATP concentration-response relationship. A lower affinity site (EC(50) 2 microM) slowed the rate of current deactivation, and increased the apparent affinity for ATP. In cell-attached patch recordings, P2X(4) receptor channels exhibited complex kinetics, with multiple components in both the open and shut distributions. IVM (0.3 microM) increased the number of openings per burst, without significantly changing the mean open or mean shut time within a burst. At higher concentrations (1.5 microM) of IVM, two additional open time components of long duration were observed that gave rise to long-lasting bursts of channel activity. Together, the results suggest that the binding of IVM to the higher affinity site increases current amplitude by reducing channel desensitization, whereas the binding of IVM to the lower affinity site slows the deactivation of the current predominantly by stabilizing the open conformation of the channel.

  8. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

  9. Modelling and simulation of ion channels: applications to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Sansom, M S; Adcock, C; Smith, G R

    1998-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations with experimentally derived restraints have been used to develop atomic models of M2 helix bundles forming the pore-lining domains of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and related ligand-gated ion channels. M2 helix bundles have been used in microscopic simulations of the dynamics and energetics of water and ions within an ion channel. Translational and rotational motion of water are restricted within the pore, and water dipoles are aligned relative to the pore axis by the surrounding helix dipoles. Potential energy profiles for translation of a Na+ ion along the pore suggest that the protein and water components of the interaction energy exert an opposing effect on the ion, resulting in a relatively flat profile which favors cation permeation. Empirical conductance calculations based on a pore radius profile suggest that the M2 helix model is consistent with a single channel conductance of ca. 50 pS. Continuum electrostatics calculations indicate that a ring of glutamate residues at the cytoplasmic mouth of the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor M2 helix bundle may not be fully ionized. A simplified model of the remainder of the channel protein when added to the M2 helix bundle plays a significant role in enhancing the ion selectivity of the channel.

  10. The inhibition of release by mGlu7 receptors is independent of the Ca2+ channel type but associated to GABAB and adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Martín, Ricardo; Ladera, Carolina; Bartolomé-Martín, David; Torres, Magdalena; Sánchez-Prieto, José

    2008-09-01

    Neurotransmitter release is inhibited by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) through signalling pathways that are negatively coupled to Ca2+ channels and adenylyl cyclase. Through Ca2+ imaging and immunocytochemistry, we have recently shown that adenosine A1, GABAB and the metabotropic glutamate type 7 receptors coexist in a subset of cerebrocortical nerve terminals. As these receptors inhibit glutamate release through common intracellular signalling pathways, their co-activation occluded each other responses. Here we have addressed whether the occlusion of receptor responses is restricted to the glutamate release mediated by N-type Ca2+ channels by analysing this process in nerve terminals from mice lacking the alpha1B subunit (Cav 2.2) of these channels. We found that glutamate release from cerebrocortical nerve terminals without these channels, in which release relies exclusively on P/Q type Ca2+ channels, is not modulated by mGlu7 receptors. Furthermore, there is no occlusion of the release inhibition by GABAB and adenosine A1. Hence, in the cerebrocortical preparation, these three receptors only appear to coexist in N-type channel containing nerve terminals. In contrast, in hippocampal nerve terminals lacking this subunit, where mGlu7 receptors modulate glutamate release via P/Q type channels, the occlusion of inhibitory responses by co-stimulation of adenosine A1, GABAB and mGlu7 receptors was observed. Thus, occlusion of the responses by the three GPCRs is independent of the Ca2+ channel type but rather, it is associated to functional mGlu7 receptors.

  11. Activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptor by gintonin inhibits Kv1.2 channel activity: involvement of tyrosine kinase and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase α.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Rhee, Jeehae; Chung, Chihye; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2013-08-26

    Gintonin is a novel ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand. The primary action of gintonin is to elicit a transient increase in [Ca(2+)]i via activation of LPA receptor subtypes. Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels play important roles in synaptic transmission in nervous systems. The previous reports have shown that Kv channels can be regulated by Gαq/11 protein-coupled receptor ligands. In the present study, we examined the effects of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes after injection of RNA encoding the human Kv1.2 α subunit. Gintonin treatment inhibited Kv1.2 channel activity in reversible and concentration-dependent manners. The inhibitory effect of gintonin on Kv1.2 channel activity was blocked by active phospholipase C inhibitor, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, and intracellular Ca(2+) chelator. The co-expression of active receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase α (RPTPα) with Kv1.2 channel greatly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity, but attenuation was not observed with catalytically inactive RPTPα. Furthermore, neither genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nor site-directed mutation of a tyrosine residue (Y132 to Y132F), which is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase of the N-terminal of the Kv1.2 channel α subunit, significantly attenuated gintonin-mediated inhibition of Kv1.2 channel activity. These results indicate that the gintonin-mediated Kv1.2 channel regulation involves the dual coordination of both tyrosine kinase and RPTPα coupled to this receptor. Finally, gintonin-mediated regulation of Kv1.2 channel activity might explain one of the modulations of gintonin-mediated neuronal activities in nervous systems.

  12. Serotonin receptor modulators in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Mohammad; Lackner, Jeffrey M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the pathophysiology and clinical role of serotonin receptor modulators used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin is an important monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the initiation of peristaltic and secretory refl exes, and in modulation of visceral sensations. Several serotonin receptor subtypes have been characterized, of which 5HT3, 5HT4, and 5HT1b are the most important for GI function. 5HT4 agonists (eg, tegaserod) potentiate peristalsis initiated by 5HT1 receptor stimulation. 5HT4 agonists are therefore useful in constipation predominant form of IBS and in chronic constipation. 5HT3 antagonists (Alosetron and Cilansetron) prevent the activation of 5HT3 receptors on extrinsic afferent neurons and can decrease the visceral pain associated with IBS. These agents also retard small intestinal and colonic transit, and are therefore useful in diarrhea-predominant IBS. Tegaserod has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo controlled trials to relieve global IBS symptoms as well as individual symptoms of abdominal discomfort, number of bowel movements and stool consistency. Several randomized, controlled trials have shown that alosetron relieves pain, improves bowel function, and provides global symptom improvement in women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, ischemic colitis and severe complications of constipation have been major concerns leading to voluntary withdrawal of Alosetron from the market followed by remarketing with a comprehensive risk management program. PMID:18728719

  13. A functional tandem between transient receptor potential canonical channels 6 and calcium-dependent chloride channels in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Johanna; Dannhoffer, Luc; Antigny, Fabrice; Vachel, Laura; Jayle, Christophe; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline

    2015-10-15

    TRPC6 plays important human physiological functions, notably in artery and arterioles constriction, in regulation of vascular volume and in bronchial muscle constriction. It is implicated in pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and seems to play a role in cancer development. Previously, we identified Guanabenz, an α2-adrenergic agonist used for hypertension treatment (Wytensin®), as an activator of calcium-dependent chloride channels (CaCC) in human Cystic Fibrosis (CF) nasal epithelial cells by transiently increasing [Ca2+]i via an influx of extracellular Ca2+. In this study, using assays to measure chloride channel activity, we show that guanabenz is an activator of CaCC in freshly dissociated human bronchial epithelial cells from three CF patients with various genotypes (F508del/F508del, F508del/R1066C, F508del/H1085R). We further characterised the effect of guanabenz and show that it is independent of α-adrenergic receptors, is inhibited by the TRPC family inhibitor SKF-96365 but not by the TRPV family inhibitor ruthenium red. Using western-blotting, Ca2+ measurements and iodide efflux assay, we found that TRPC1 siRNA has no effect on guanabenz induced responses whereas TRPC6 siRNA prevented the guanabenz-dependent Ca2+ influx and the CaCC-dependent activity stimulated by guanabenz. In conclusion, we show that TRPC6 channel is pivotal for the activation of CaCC by guanabenz through a α2-adrenergic-independent pathway in human airway epithelial cells. We suggest propose a functional coupling between TRPC6 and CaCC and guanabenz as a potential TRPC6 activator for exploring TRPC6 and CaCC channel functions and corresponding channelopathies.

  14. Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) Channel and Neurogenic Inflammation in Pathogenesis of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hang; Li, ShuZhuang

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and it affects 300 million people worldwide. However, our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie asthma remains limited. Recent studies have suggested that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), one of the transient receptor potential cation channels, may be involved in airway inflammation in asthma. The present review discusses the relationship between TRPA1 and neurogenic inflammation in asthma, hoping to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of airway inflammation in asthma. PMID:27539812

  15. Mapping domains and mutations on the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor channel.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jean H; Zorzato, Francesco; Clarke, Nigel F; Treves, Susan

    2012-11-01

    The skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor isoform 1 (RyR1) is a calcium release channel involved in excitation-contraction coupling, the process whereby an action potential is translated to a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signal that activates muscle contraction. Dominant and recessive mutations in RYR1 cause a range of muscle disorders, including malignant hyperthermia and several forms of congenital myopathies. Many aspects of disease pathogenesis in ryanodinopathies remain uncertain, particularly for those myopathies due to recessive mutations. A thorough understanding of the ryanodine receptor macromolecular complex and its interactions with proteins and small molecular modulators is an essential starting point from which to investigate disease mechanisms.

  16. Ion permeation properties of the glutamate receptor channel in cultured embryonic Drosophila myotubes.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H; Ciani, S; Kidokoro, Y

    1994-01-01

    Ion permeation properties of the glutamate receptor channel in cultured myotubes of Drosophila embryos were studied using the inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Lowering the NaCl concentration in the bath (intracellular solution), while maintaining that of the external solution constant, caused a shift of the reversal potential in the positive direction, thus indicating a higher permeability of the channel to Na+ than to Cl- (PCl/PNa < 0.04), and suggesting that the channel is cation selective. With 145 mM Na+ on both sides of the membrane, the single-channel current-voltage relation was almost linear in the voltage range between -80 and +80 mV, the conductance showing some variability in the range between 140 and 170 pS. All monovalent alkali cations tested, as well as NH4+, permeated the channel effectively. Using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation for the reversal potential, the permeability ratios with respect to Na+ were estimated to be: 1.32 for K+, 1.18 for NH4+, 1.15 for Rb+, 1.09 for Cs+, and 0.57 for Li+. Divalent cations, i.e. Mg2+ and Ca2+, in the external solution depressed not only the inward but also the outward Na+ currents, although reversal potential measurements indicated that both ions have considerably higher permeabilities than Na+ (PMg/PNa = 2.31; PCa/PNa = 9.55). The conductance-activity relation for Na+ was described by a hyperbolic curve. The maximal conductance was about 195 pS and the half-saturating activity 45 mM. This result suggests that Na+ ions bind to sites in the channel. All data were fitted by a model based on the Eyring's reaction rate theory, in which the receptor channel is a one-ion pore with three energy barriers and two internal sites. PMID:7519261

  17. Transient receptor potential melastatin 1: a hair cell transduction channel candidate.

    PubMed

    Gerka-Stuyt, John; Au, Adrian; Peachey, Neal S; Alagramam, Kumar N

    2013-01-01

    Sound and head movements are perceived through sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Mounting evidence indicates that this process is initiated by the opening of mechanically sensitive calcium-permeable channels, also referred to as the mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels, reported to be around the tips of all but the tallest stereocilia. However, the identity of MET channel remains elusive. Literature suggests that the MET channel is a non-selective cation channel with a high Ca(2+) permeability and ~100 picosiemens conductance. These characteristics make members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily likely candidates for this role. One of these candidates is the transient receptor potential melastatin 1 protein (TRPM1), which is expressed in various cells types within the cochlea of the mouse including the hair cells. Recent studies demonstrate that mutations in the TRPM1 gene underlie the inherited retinal disease complete congenital stationary night blindness in humans and depolarizing bipolar cell dysfunction in the mouse retina, but auditory function was not assessed. Here we investigate the role of Trpm1 in hearing and as a possible hair cell MET channel using mice homozygous for the null allele of Trpm1 (Trpm1(-/-)) or a missense mutation in the pore domain of TRPM1 (Trpm1(tvrm27/tvrm27)). Hearing thresholds were evaluated in adult (4-5 months old) mice with auditory-evoked brain stem responses. Our data shows no statistically significant difference in hearing thresholds in Trpm1(-/-) or Trpm1(tvrm27/tvrm27) mutants compared to littermate controls. Further, none of the mutant mice showed any sign of balance disorder, such as head bobbing or circling. These data suggest that TRPM1 is not essential for development of hearing or balance and it is unlikely that TRPM1 is a component of the hair cell MET channel.

  18. Functional calcium release channel formed by the carboxyl-terminal portion of ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, M B; Zhao, J; Takeshima, H; Ma, J

    1997-01-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is one of the key proteins involved in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in skeletal muscle, where it functions as a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. RyR consists of a single polypeptide of approximately 560 kDa normally arranged in a homotetrameric structure, which contains a carboxyl (C)-terminal transmembrane domain and a large amino (N)-terminal cytoplasmic domain. To test whether the carboxyl-terminal portion of RyR is sufficient to form a Ca2+ release channel, we expressed the full-length (RyR-wt) and C-terminal (RyR-C, approximately 130 kDa) RyR proteins in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, and measured their Ca2+ release channel functions in planar lipid bilayer membranes. The single-channel properties of RyR-wt were found to be similar to those of RyR from skeletal muscle SR. The RyR-C protein forms a cation-selective channel that shares some of the channel properties with RyR-wt, including activation by cytoplasmic Ca2+ and regulation by ryanodine. Unlike RyR-wt, which exhibits a linear current-voltage relationship and inactivates at millimolar Ca2+, the channels formed by RyR-C display significant inward rectification and fail to close at high cytoplasmic Ca2+. Our results show that the C-terminal portion of RyR contains structures sufficient to form a functional Ca2+ release channel, but the N-terminal portion of RyR also affects the ion-conduction and calcium-dependent regulation of the Ca2+ release channel. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:9284301

  19. Photoaffinity labeling of alpha- and beta- scorpion toxin receptors associated with rat brain sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Darbon, H; Jover, E; Couraud, F; Rochat, H

    1983-09-15

    Azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin II from Centruroides suffusus suffusus, a beta-toxin, and azido nitrophenylaminoacetyl [125I]iodo derivative of toxin V from Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus, an alpha-toxin, have been covalently linked after binding to their receptor sites that are related to the voltage sensitive sodium channel present in rat brain synaptosomes. Both derivatives labeled two polypeptides of 253000 +/- 20000 and 35000 +/- 2000 mol. wt. Labeling was blocked for each derivative by a large excess of the corresponding native toxin but no cross inhibition was obtained. These results suggest that both alpha - and beta - scorpion toxin receptors are located on or near the same two membrane polypeptides which may be part of the voltage dependent sodium channel.

  20. Selenoprotein N is required for ryanodine receptor calcium release channel activity in human and zebrafish muscle.

    PubMed

    Jurynec, Michael J; Xia, Ruohong; Mackrill, John J; Gunther, Derrick; Crawford, Thomas; Flanigan, Kevin M; Abramson, Jonathan J; Howard, Michael T; Grunwald, David Jonah

    2008-08-26

    Mutations affecting the seemingly unrelated gene products, SepN1, a selenoprotein of unknown function, and RyR1, the major component of the ryanodine receptor intracellular calcium release channel, result in an overlapping spectrum of congenital myopathies. To identify the immediate developmental and molecular roles of SepN and RyR in vivo, loss-of-function effects were analyzed in the zebrafish embryo. These studies demonstrate the two proteins are required for the same cellular differentiation events and are needed for normal calcium fluxes in the embryo. SepN is physically associated with RyRs and functions as a modifier of the RyR channel. In the absence of SepN, ryanodine receptors from zebrafish embryos or human diseased muscle have altered biochemical properties and have lost their normal sensitivity to redox conditions, which likely accounts for why mutations affecting either factor lead to similar diseases.

  1. Channel gating of the glycine receptor changes accessibility to residues implicated in receptor potentiation by alcohols and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Ingrid A; Mascia, Maria Paola; Trudell, James R; Harris, R Adron

    2004-08-06

    The glycine receptor is a target for both alcohols and anesthetics, and certain amino acids in the alpha1 subunit transmembrane segments (TM) are critical for drug effects. Introducing larger amino acids at these positions increases the potency of glycine, suggesting that introducing larger residues, or drug molecules, into the drug-binding cavity facilitates channel opening. A possible mechanism for these actions is that the volume of the cavity expands and contracts during channel opening and closing. To investigate this hypothesis, mutations for amino acids in TM1 (I229C) and TM2 (G256C, T259C, V260C, M263C, T264C, S267C, S270C) and TM3 (A288C) were individually expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The ability of sulfhydryl-specific alkyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS) compounds of different lengths to covalently react with introduced cysteines in both the closed and open states of the receptor was determined. S267C was accessible to short chain (C3-C8) MTS in both open and closed states, but was only accessible to longer chain (C10-C16) MTS compounds in the open state. Reaction with S267C was faster in the open state. I229C and A288C showed state-dependent reaction with MTS only in the presence of agonist. M263C and S270C were also accessible to MTS labeling. Mutated residues more intracellular than M263C did not react, indicating a floor of the cavity. These data demonstrate that the conformational changes accompanying channel gating increase accessibility to amino acids critical for drug action in TM1, TM2, and TM3, which may provide a mechanism by which alcohols and anesthetics can act on glycine (and likely other) receptors.

  2. Regulation of Ca(V)2 calcium channels by G protein coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Gerald W; Currie, Kevin P M

    2013-07-01

    Voltage gated calcium channels (Ca²⁺ channels) are key mediators of depolarization induced calcium influx into excitable cells, and thereby play pivotal roles in a wide array of physiological responses. This review focuses on the inhibition of Ca(V)2 (N- and P/Q-type) Ca²⁺-channels by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which exerts important autocrine/paracrine control over synaptic transmission and neuroendocrine secretion. Voltage-dependent inhibition is the most widespread mechanism, and involves direct binding of the G protein βγ dimer (Gβγ) to the α1 subunit of Ca(V)2 channels. GPCRs can also recruit several other distinct mechanisms including phosphorylation, lipid signaling pathways, and channel trafficking that result in voltage-independent inhibition. Current knowledge of Gβγ-mediated inhibition is reviewed, including the molecular interactions involved, determinants of voltage-dependence, and crosstalk with other cell signaling pathways. A summary of recent developments in understanding the voltage-independent mechanisms prominent in sympathetic and sensory neurons is also included. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels.

  3. The transient receptor potential channel TRPA1: from gene to pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Nilius, Bernd; Appendino, Giovanni; Owsianik, Grzegorz

    2012-11-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 channel (TRPA1), is a member of the large TRP family of ion channels, and functions as a Ca(2+) permeable non-selective cation channel in many different cell processes, ranging from sensory to homeostatic tasks. TRPA1 is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. The only mammalian TRPA subfamily member, TRPA1, is widely expressed in neuronal (e.g. sensory dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia neurons)- and in non-neuronal cells (e.g. epithelial cells, hair cells). It exhibits 14-19 amino-(N-)terminal ankyrin repeats, an unusual structural feature. The TRPA1 channel is activated by noxious cold (<17 °C) as well as by a plethora of chemical compounds that includes not only electrophilic compounds and oxidants that can modify, in an alkylative or oxidative fashion, nucleophilic cysteine residues in the channel's N-terminus, but also compounds that do not covalently bind to the channel proteins (e.g. menthol, nifedipin). Based on localization and functional properties, TRPA1 is considered a key player in acute and chronic (neuropathic) pain and inflammation. Moreover, its role in the (patho)physiology of nearly all organ systems is anticipated, and will be discussed along with the potential of TRPA1 as a drug target for the management of various pathological conditions.

  4. Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel PKA phosphorylation: a critical mediator of heart failure progression.

    PubMed

    Wehrens, Xander H T; Lehnart, Stephan E; Reiken, Steven; Vest, John A; Wronska, Anetta; Marks, Andrew R

    2006-01-17

    Defective regulation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium release channel, required for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart, has been linked to cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. For example, diastolic calcium "leak" via RyR2 channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum has been identified as an important factor contributing to impaired contractility in heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death. In patients with heart failure, chronic activation of the "fight or flight" stress response leads to protein kinase A (PKA) hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser-2808. PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 Ser-2808 reduces the binding affinity of the channel-stabilizing subunit calstabin2, resulting in leaky RyR2 channels. We developed RyR2-S2808A mice to determine whether Ser-2808 is the functional PKA phosphorylation site on RyR2. Furthermore, mice in which the RyR2 channel cannot be PKA phosphorylated were relatively protected against the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Taken together, these data show that PKA phosphorylation of Ser-2808 on the RyR2 channel appears to be a critical mediator of progressive cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction.

  5. Direct inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel by dopamine and (+)-SKF38393.

    PubMed

    Castro, N G; de Mello, M C; de Mello, F G; Aracava, Y

    1999-04-01

    1. Dopamine is known to modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the retina and in several brain regions by activating specific G-protein-coupled receptors. We have examined the possibility of a different type of mechanism for this modulation, one involving direct interaction of dopamine with ionotropic glutamate receptors. 2. Ionic currents induced by fast application of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were recorded under whole-cell patch-clamp in cultured striatal, thalamic and hippocampal neurons of the rat and in retinal neurons of the chick. Dopamine at concentrations above 100 microM inhibited the NMDA response in all four neuron types, exhibiting an IC50 of 1.2 mM in hippocampal neurons. The time course of this inhibition was fast, developing in less than 100 ms. 3. The D1 receptor agonist (+)-SKF38393 mimicked the effect of dopamine, with an IC50 of 58.9 microM on the NMDA response, while the enantiomer (-)-SKF38393 was ineffective at 50 microM. However, the D1 antagonist R(+)-SCH23390 did not prevent the inhibitory effect of (+)-SKF38393. 4. The degree of inhibition by dopamine and (+)-SKF38393 depended on transmembrane voltage, increasing 2.7 times with a hyperpolarization of about 80 mV. The voltage-dependent block by dopamine was also observed in the presence of MgCl2 1 mM. 5. Single-channel recordings showed that the open times of NMDA-gated channels were shortened by (+)-SKF38393. 6. These data suggested that the site to which the drugs bound to produce the inhibitory effect was distinct from the classical D1-type dopamine receptor sites, possibly being located inside the NMDA channel pore. It is concluded that dopamine and (+)-SKF38393 are NMDA channel ligands.

  6. Direct inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel by dopamine and (+)-SKF38393

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Newton G; de Mello, Maria Christina F; de Mello, Fernando G; Aracava, Yasco

    1999-01-01

    Dopamine is known to modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the retina and in several brain regions by activating specific G-protein-coupled receptors. We have examined the possibility of a different type of mechanism for this modulation, one involving direct interaction of dopamine with ionotropic glutamate receptors.Ionic currents induced by fast application of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were recorded under whole-cell patch-clamp in cultured striatal, thalamic and hippocampal neurons of the rat and in retinal neurons of the chick. Dopamine at concentrations above 100 μM inhibited the NMDA response in all four neuron types, exhibiting an IC50 of 1.2 mM in hippocampal neurons. The time course of this inhibition was fast, developing in less than 100 ms.The D1 receptor agonist (+)-SKF38393 mimicked the effect of dopamine, with an IC50 of 58.9 μM on the NMDA response, while the enantiomer (−)-SKF38393 was ineffective at 50 μM. However, the D1 antagonist R(+)-SCH23390 did not prevent the inhibitory effect of (+)-SKF38393.The degree of inhibition by dopamine and (+)-SKF38393 depended on transmembrane voltage, increasing 2.7 times with a hyperpolarization of about 80 mV. The voltage-dependent block by dopamine was also observed in the presence of MgCl2 1 mM.Single-channel recordings showed that the open times of NMDA-gated channels were shortened by (+)-SKF38393.These data suggested that the site to which the drugs bound to produce the inhibitory effect was distinct from the classical D1-type dopamine receptor sites, possibly being located inside the NMDA channel pore. It is concluded that dopamine and (+)-SKF38393 are NMDA channel ligands. PMID:10372829

  7. A novel muscarinic receptor-independent mechanism of KCNQ2/3 potassium channel blockade by Oxotremorine-M.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Ruud; Reed, Hannah; Clarke, Sophie; Sher, Emanuele

    2016-11-15

    Inhibition of KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channels by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors has been well established, and the ion currents through these channels have been long known as M-currents. We found that this cross-talk can be reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes by co-transfection of human recombinant muscarinic M1 receptors and KCNQ2/3 potassium channels. Application of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist Oxotremorine-methiodide (Oxo-M) between voltage pulses to activate KCNQ2/3 channels caused inhibition of the subsequent KCNQ2/3 responses. This effect of Oxo-M was blocked by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. We also found that KCNQ2/3 currents were inhibited when Oxo-M was applied during an ongoing KCNQ2/3 response, an effect that was not blocked by atropine, suggesting that Oxo-M inhibits KCNQ2/3 channels directly. Indeed, also in oocytes that were transfected with only KCNQ2/3 channels, but not with muscarinic M1 receptors, Oxo-M inhibited the KCNQ2/3 response. These results show that besides the usual muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated inhibition, Oxo-M also inhibits KCNQ2/3 channels by a direct mechanism. We subsequently tested xanomeline, which is a chemically distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, and oxotremorine, which is a close analogue of Oxo-M. Both compounds inhibited KCNQ2/3 currents via activation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors but, in contrast to Oxo-M, they did not directly inhibit KCNQ2/3 channels. Xanomeline and oxotremorine do not contain a positively charged trimethylammonium moiety that is present in Oxo-M, suggesting that such a charged moiety could be a crucial component mediating this newly described direct inhibition of KCNQ2/3 channels.

  8. Non-classical mechanism of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor channel block by fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Barygin, Oleg I; Komarova, Margarita S; Tikhonova, Tatiana B; Tikhonov, Denis B

    2015-04-01

    Antidepressants have many targets in the central nervous system. A growing body of data demonstrates the influence of antidepressants on glutamatergic neurotransmission. In the present work, we studied the inhibition of native Ca(2+)-permeable and Ca(2+)-impermeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in rat brain neurons by fluoxetine. The Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were weakly affected. The IC50 value for the inhibition of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in giant striatal interneurons was 43 ± 7 μM. The inhibition of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors was voltage dependent, suggesting deep binding in the pore. However, the use dependence of fluoxetine action differed markedly from that of classical AMPA receptor open-channel blockers. Moreover, fluoxetine did not compete with other channel blockers. In contrast to fluoxetine, its membrane-impermeant quaternary analog demonstrated all of the features of channel inhibition typical for open-channel blockers. It is suggested that fluoxetine reaches the binding site through a hydrophobic access pathway. Such a mechanism of block is described for ligands of sodium and calcium channels, but was never found in AMPA receptors. Molecular modeling suggests binding of fluoxetine in the subunit interface; analogous binding was proposed for local anesthetics in closed sodium channels and for benzothiazepines in calcium channels.

  9. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise. PMID:25605289

  10. Lipids as regulators of the activity of transient receptor potential type V1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2005-08-19

    After 7 years from its cloning, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel remains the sole membrane receptor mediating the pharmacological effects of the hot chilli pepper pungent component, capsaicin, and of the Euphorbia toxin, resiniferatoxin. Yet, this ion channel represents one of the most complex examples of how the activity of a protein can be regulated. Among the several chemicophysical stimuli that can modulate TRPV1 permeability to cations, endogenous lipids appear to play a major role, either as allosteric effectors or as direct agonists, or both. Furthermore, the capability of some mediators, such as the endocannabinoid anandamide, or the eicosanoid precursors 12- and 5-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acids, to activate TRPV1 receptors provides a striking example of the "site-dependent" and "metabolic" functional plasticity, respectively, typical of bioactive lipids. In this article, the multi-faceted and most recently discovered aspects of TRPV1 regulation are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the interaction between these membrane channels and some lipid molecules.

  11. Micromolar-affinity benzodiazepine receptors regulate voltage-sensitive calcium channels in nerve terminal preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Taft, W C; DeLorenzo, R J

    1984-01-01

    Benzodiazepines in micromolar concentrations significantly inhibit depolarization-sensitive Ca2+ uptake in intact nerve-terminal preparations. Benzodiazepine inhibition of Ca2+ uptake is concentration dependent and stereospecific. Micromolar-affinity benzodiazepine receptors have been identified and characterized in brain membrane and shown to be distinct from nanomolar-affinity benzodiazepine receptors. Evidence is presented that micromolar, and not nanomolar, benzodiazepine binding sites mediate benzodiazepine inhibition of Ca2+ uptake. Irreversible binding to micromolar benzodiazepine binding sites also irreversibly blocked depolarization-dependent Ca2+ uptake in synaptosomes, indicating that these compounds may represent a useful marker for identifying the molecular components of Ca2+ channels in brain. Characterization of benzodiazepine inhibition of Ca2+ uptake demonstrates that these drugs function as Ca2+ channel antagonists, because benzodiazepines effectively blocked voltage-sensitive Ca2+ uptake inhibited by Mn2+, Co2+, verapamil, nitrendipine, and nimodipine. These results indicate that micromolar benzodiazepine binding sites regulate voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in brain membrane and suggest that some of the neuronal stabilizing effects of micromolar benzodiazepine receptors may be mediated by the regulation of Ca2+ conductance. PMID:6328498

  12. Micromolar-Affinity Benzodiazepine Receptors Regulate Voltage-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Nerve Terminal Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taft, William C.; Delorenzo, Robert J.

    1984-05-01

    Benzodiazepines in micromolar concentrations significantly inhibit depolarization-sensitive Ca2+ uptake in intact nerve-terminal preparations. Benzodiazepine inhibition of Ca2+ uptake is concentration dependent and stereospecific. Micromolar-affinity benzodiazepine receptors have been identified and characterized in brain membrane and shown to be distinct from nanomolar-affinity benzodiazepine receptors. Evidence is presented that micromolar, and not nanomolar, benzodiazepine binding sites mediate benzodiazepine inhibition of Ca2+ uptake. Irreversible binding to micromolar benzodiazepine binding sites also irreversibly blocked depolarization-dependent Ca2+ uptake in synaptosomes, indicating that these compounds may represent a useful marker for identifying the molecular components of Ca2+ channels in brain. Characterization of benzodiazepine inhibition of Ca2+ uptake demonstrates that these drugs function as Ca2+ channel antagonists, because benzodiazepines effectively blocked voltage-sensitive Ca2+ uptake inhibited by Mn2+, Co2+, verapamil, nitrendipine, and nimodipine. These results indicate that micromolar benzodiazepine binding sites regulate voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in brain membrane and suggest that some of the neuronal stabilizing effects of micromolar benzodiazepine receptors may be mediated by the regulation of Ca2+ conductance.

  13. Transient receptor potential channels in sensory neurons are targets of the antimycotic agent clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Meseguer, Victor; Karashima, Yuji; Talavera, Karel; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Donovan-Rodríguez, Tansy; Viana, Felix; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas

    2008-01-16

    Clotrimazole (CLT) is a widely used drug for the topical treatment of yeast infections of skin, vagina, and mouth. Common side effects of topical CLT application include irritation and burning pain of the skin and mucous membranes. Here, we provide evidence that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in primary sensory neurons underlie these unwanted effects of CLT. We found that clinically relevant CLT concentrations activate heterologously expressed TRPV1 and TRPA1, two TRP channels that act as receptors of irritant chemical and/or thermal stimuli in nociceptive neurons. In line herewith, CLT stimulated a subset of capsaicin-sensitive and mustard oil-sensitive trigeminal neurons, and evoked nocifensive behavior and thermal hypersensitivity with intraplantar injection in mice. Notably, CLT-induced pain behavior was suppressed by the TRPV1-antagonist BCTC [(N-(-4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorpyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carboxamide)] and absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. In addition, CLT inhibited the cold and menthol receptor TRPM8, and blocked menthol-induced responses in capsaicin- and mustard oil-insensitive trigeminal neurons. The concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) of inward TRPM8 current was approximately 200 nM, making CLT the most potent known TRPM8 antagonist and a useful tool to discriminate between TRPM8- and TRPA1-mediated responses. Together, our results identify TRP channels in sensory neurons as molecular targets of CLT, and offer means to develop novel CLT preparations with fewer unwanted sensory side effects.

  14. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise.

  15. Sodium channel activation augments NMDA receptor function and promotes neurite outgrowth in immature cerebrocortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    George, Joju; Dravid, Shashank M.; Prakash, Anand; Xie, Jun; Peterson, Jennifer; Jabba, Sairam V.; Baden, Daniel G.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    A range of extrinsic signals, including afferent activity, affect neuronal growth and plasticity. Neuronal activity regulates intracellular Ca2+ and activity-dependent calcium signaling has been shown to regulate dendritic growth and branching (Konur and Ghosh, 2005). NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase signaling cascades has moreover been demonstrated to regulate neurite/axonal outgrowth (Wayman et al., 2004). We used a sodium channel activator, brevetoxin (PbTx-2), to explore the relationship between intracellular [Na+] and NMDAR-dependent development. PbTx-2 alone, at a concentration of 30 nM, did not affect Ca2+ dynamics in DIV-2 cerebrocortical neurons; however, this treatment robustly potentiated NMDA-induced Ca2+ influx. The 30 nM PbTx-2 treatment produced a maximum [Na+]i of 16.9 ± 1.5 mM representing an increment of 8.8 ± 1.8 mM over basal. The corresponding membrane potential change produced by 30 nM PbTx-2 was modest and therefore insufficient to relieve the voltage-dependent Mg2+ block of NMDARs. To unambiguously demonstrate the enhancement of NMDA receptor function by PbTx-2, we recorded single-channel currents from cell-attached patches. PbTx-2 treatment was found to increase both the mean open time and open probability of NMDA receptors. These effects of PbTx-2 on NMDA receptor function were dependent on extracellular Na+ and activation of Src kinase. The functional consequences of PbTx-2-induced enhancement of NMDAR function were evaluated in immature cerebrocortical neurons. PbTx-2 concentrations between 3 and 300 nM enhanced neurite outgrowth. Voltage-gated sodium channel activators may accordingly represent a novel pharmacologic strategy to regulate neuronal plasticity through an NMDA receptor and Src family kinase-dependent mechanism. PMID:19279266

  16. Sustained calcium entry through P2X nucleotide receptor channels in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zsembery, Akos; Boyce, Amanda T; Liang, Lihua; Peti-Peterdi, János; Bell, P Darwin; Schwiebert, Erik M

    2003-04-11

    Purinergic receptor stimulation has potential therapeutic effects for cystic fibrosis (CF). Thus, we explored roles for P2Y and P2X receptors in stably increasing [Ca(2+)](i) in human CF (IB3-1) and non-CF (16HBE14o(-)) airway epithelial cells. Cytosolic Ca(2+) was measured by fluorospectrometry using the fluorescent dye Fura-2/AM. Expression of P2X receptor (P2XR) subtypes was assessed by immunoblotting and biotinylation. In IB3-1 cells, ATP and other P2Y agonists caused only a transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i) derived from intracellular stores in a Na(+)-rich environment. In contrast, ATP induced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) that had transient and sustained components in a Na(+)-free medium; the sustained plateau was potentiated by zinc or increasing extracellular pH. Benzoyl-benzoyl-ATP, a P2XR-selective agonist, increased [Ca(2+)](i) only in Na(+)-free medium, suggesting competition between Na(+) and Ca(2+) through P2XRs. Biochemical evidence showed that the P2X(4) receptor is the major subtype shared by these airway epithelial cells. A role for store-operated Ca(2+) channels, voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, or Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in the ATP-induced sustained Ca(2+) signal was ruled out. In conclusion, these data show that epithelial P2X(4) receptors serve as ATP-gated calcium entry channels that induce a sustained increase in [Ca(2+)](i). In airway epithelia, a P2XR-mediated Ca(2+) signal may have therapeutic benefit for CF.

  17. Intracellular postsynaptic cannabinoid receptors link thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors to TRPC-like channels in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Kolaj, M; Renaud, L P

    2015-12-17

    postsynaptic currents, suggesting presynaptic CB receptors are not involved in this situation. Collectively, the data imply that activation of TRH receptors in these midline thalamic neurons engages novel signaling pathways that include postsynaptic intracellular CB1 and CB2 receptors in the activation of TRPC4/5-like channels.

  18. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Their Link with Cardio/Cerebro-Vascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiong; Liu, Hui-Xia; Shen, Kuo; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-03-10

    The canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) constitute a series of nonselective cation channels with variable degrees of Ca²⁺ selectivity. TRPCs consist of seven mammalian members, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7, which are further divided into four subtypes, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC4/5, and TRPC3/6/7. These channels take charge of various essential cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, and dysfunction. This review, organized into seven main sections, will provide an overview of current knowledge about the underlying pathogenesis of TRPCs in cardio/cerebrovascular diseases, including hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular ischemia reperfusion injury. Collectively, TRPCs could become a group of drug targets with important physiological functions for the therapy of human cardio/cerebro-vascular diseases.

  19. When a TRP goes bad: transient receptor potential channels in addiction.

    PubMed

    Wescott, Seth A; Rauthan, Manish; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2013-03-19

    Drug addiction is a psychiatric disease state, wherein a drug is impulsively and compulsively self-administered despite negative consequences. This repeated administration results in permanent changes to nervous system physiology and architecture. The molecular pathways affected by addictive drugs are complex and inter-dependent on each other. Recently, various new proteins and protein families have been discovered to play a role in drug abuse. Emerging players in this phenomenon include TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) family channels, which are primarily known to function in sensory systems. Several TRP family channels identified in both vertebrates and invertebrates are involved in psychostimulant-induced plasticity, suggesting their involvement in drug dependence. This review summarizes various observations, both from studies in humans and other organisms, which support a role for these channels in the development of drug-related behaviors.

  20. Mapping of scorpion toxin receptor sites at voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Gurevitz, Michael

    2012-09-15

    Scorpion alpha and beta toxins interact with voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) at two pharmacologically distinct sites. Alpha toxins bind at receptor site-3 and inhibit channel inactivation, whereas beta toxins bind at receptor site-4 and shift the voltage-dependent activation toward more hyperpolarizing potentials. The two toxin classes are subdivided to distinct pharmacological groups according to their binding preferences and ability to compete for the receptor sites at Na(v) subtypes. To elucidate the toxin-channel surface of interaction at both receptor sites and clarify the molecular basis of varying toxin preferences, an efficient bacterial system for their expression in recombinant form was established. Mutagenesis accompanied by toxicity, binding and electrophysiological assays, in parallel to determination of the three-dimensional structure using NMR and X-ray crystallography uncovered a bipartite bioactive surface in toxin representatives of all pharmacological groups. Exchange of external loops between the mammalian brain channel rNa(v)1.2a and the insect channel DmNa(v)1 highlighted channel regions involved in the varying sensitivity to assorted toxins. In parallel, thorough mutagenesis of channel external loops illuminated points of putative interaction with the toxins. Amino acid substitutions at external loops S1-S2 and S3-S4 of the voltage sensor module in domain II of rNa(v)1.2a had prominent impact on the activity of the beta-toxin Css4 (from Centruroides suffusus suffusus), and substitutions at external loops S1-S2 and S3-S4 of the voltage sensor module in domain IV affected the activity of the alpha-toxin Lqh2 (from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus). Rosetta modeling of toxin-Na(v) interaction using the voltage sensor module of the potassium channel as template raises commonalities in the way alpha and beta toxins interact with the channel. Css4 interacts with rNa(v)1.2a at a crevice between S1-S2 and S3-S4 transmembrane segments in domain

  1. A thermodynamic framework for understanding temperature sensing by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels.

    PubMed

    Clapham, David E; Miller, Christopher

    2011-12-06

    The exceptionally high temperature sensitivity of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channels is the molecular basis of hot and cold sensation in sensory neurons. The laws of thermodynamics dictate that opening of these specialized TRP channels must involve an unusually large conformational standard-state enthalpy, ΔH(o): positive ΔH(o) for heat-activated and negative ΔH(o) for cold-activated TRPs. However, the molecular source of such high-enthalpy changes has eluded neurobiologists and biophysicists. Here we offer a general, unifying mechanism for both hot and cold activation that recalls long-appreciated principles of protein folding. We suggest that TRP channel gating is accompanied by large changes in molar heat capacity, ΔC(P). This postulate, along with the laws of thermodynamics and independent of mechanistic detail, leads to the conclusion that hot- and cold-sensing TRPs operate by identical conformational changes.

  2. The M-channel blocker linopirdine is an agonist of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Neacsu, Cristian; Babes, Alexandru

    2010-01-01

    Linopirdine is a well known blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels from the Kv7 (or KCNQ) family that generate the so called M current in mammalian neurons. Kv7 subunits are also expressed in pain-sensing neurons in dorsal root ganglia, in which they modulate neuronal excitability. In this study we demonstrate that linopirdine acts as an agonist of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1), another ion channel expressed in nociceptors and involved in pain signaling. Linopirdine induces increases in intracellular calcium concentration in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing TRPV1, but not TRPA1 and TRPM8 or in wild-type HEK293 cells. Linopirdine also activates an inward current in TRPV1-expressing HEK293 cells that is almost completely blocked by the selective TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. At low concentrations linopirdine sensitizes both recombinant and native TRPV1 channels to heat, in a manner that is not prevented by the Kv7-channel opener flupirtine. Taken together, these results indicate that linopirdine exerts an excitatory action on mammalian nociceptors not only through inhibition of the M current but also through activation of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1.

  3. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Peter D.; Gallos, George; Xu, Dingbang; Zhang, Yi; Emala, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component of the pathophysiology of asthma. Taurine, an agonist of glycine receptor chloride (GlyR Cl−) channels, was found to relax contracted ASM, which led us to question whether functional GlyR Cl− channels are expressed in ASM. Messenger RNA for β (GLRB), α1 (GLRA1), α2 (GLRA2), and α4 (GLRA4) subunits were found in human (Homo sapiens) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) tracheal smooth muscle. Immunoblotting confirmed the protein expression of GLRA1 and GLRB subunits in ASM. Electrical activity of cultured human ASM cells was assessed using a fluorescent potentiometric dye and electrophysiological recordings. Glycine increased current and significantly increased fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner. The GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine significantly blocked the effects of glycine on potentiometric fluorescence in ASM cells. Guinea pig airway ring relaxation of ACh-induced contractions by isoproterenol was significantly left-shifted in the presence of glycine. This effect of glycine was blocked by pretreatment with the GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine. Glycine treatment during tachykinin- and acetylcholine-induced contractions significantly decreased the maintenance of muscle force compared to control. GlyR Cl− channels are expressed on ASM and regulate smooth muscle force and offer a novel target for therapeutic relaxation of ASM.—Yim, P. D., Gallos, G., Xu, D., Zhang, Y., Emala, C. W. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle. PMID:21282206

  4. Secondary Structure and Gating Rearrangements of Transmembrane Segments in Rat P2X4 Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Silberberg, Shai D.; Chang, Tsg-Hui; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2005-01-01

    P2X receptors are cation selective channels that are activated by extracellular nucleotides. These channels are likely formed by three identical or related subunits, each having two transmembrane segments (TM1 and TM2). To identify regions that undergo rearrangement during gating and to probe their secondary structure, we performed tryptophan scanning mutagenesis on the two putative TMs of the rat P2X4 receptor channel. Mutant channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, concentration–response relationships constructed for ATP, and the EC50 estimated by fitting the Hill equation to the data. Of the 22 mutations in TM1 and 24 in TM2, all but one in TM1 and seven in TM2 result in functional channels. Interestingly, the majority of the functional mutants display an increased sensitivity to ATP, and in general these perturbations are more pronounced for TM2 when compared with TM1. For TM1 and for the outer half of TM2, the perturbations are consistent with these regions adopting α-helical secondary structures. In addition, the greatest perturbations in the gating equilibrium occur for mutations near the outer ends of both TM1 and TM2. Surface biotinylation experiments reveal that all the nonfunctional mutants traffic to the surface membrane at levels comparable to the WT channel, suggesting that these mutations likely disrupt ion conduction or gating. Taken together, these results suggest that the outer parts of TM1 and TM2 are helical and that they move during activation. The observation that the majority of nonconducting mutations are clustered toward the inner end of TM2 suggests a critical functional role for this region. PMID:15795310

  5. Channel Gating Dependence on Pore Lining Helix Glycine Residues in Skeletal Muscle Ryanodine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yingwu; Xu, Le; Mowrey, David D; Mendez Giraldez, Raul; Wang, Ying; Pasek, Daniel A; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Meissner, Gerhard

    2015-07-10

    Type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1s) release Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate skeletal muscle contraction. The role of RyR1-G4934 and -G4941 in the pore-lining helix in channel gating and ion permeation was probed by replacing them with amino acid residues of increasing side chain volume. RyR1-G4934A, -G4941A, and -G4941V mutant channels exhibited a caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release response in HEK293 cells and bound the RyR-specific ligand [(3)H]ryanodine. In single channel recordings, significant differences in the number of channel events and mean open and close times were observed between WT and RyR1-G4934A and -G4941A. RyR1-G4934A had reduced K(+) conductance and ion selectivity compared with WT. Mutations further increasing the side chain volume at these positions (G4934V and G4941I) resulted in reduced caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release in HEK293 cells, low [(3)H]ryanodine binding levels, and channels that were not regulated by Ca(2+) and did not conduct Ca(2+) in single channel measurements. Computational predictions of the thermodynamic impact of mutations on protein stability indicated that although the G4934A mutation was tolerated, the G4934V mutation decreased protein stability by introducing clashes with neighboring amino acid residues. In similar fashion, the G4941A mutation did not introduce clashes, whereas the G4941I mutation resulted in intersubunit clashes among the mutated isoleucines. Co-expression of RyR1-WT with RyR1-G4934V or -G4941I partially restored the WT phenotype, which suggested lessening of amino acid clashes in heterotetrameric channel complexes. The results indicate that both glycines are important for RyR1 channel function by providing flexibility and minimizing amino acid clashes.

  6. Sphingosylphosphocholine modulates the ryanodine receptor/calcium-release channel of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Betto, R; Teresi, A; Turcato, F; Salviati, G; Sabbadini, R A; Krown, K; Glembotski, C C; Kindman, L A; Dettbarn, C; Pereon, Y; Yasui, K; Palade, P T

    1997-01-01

    Sphingosylphosphocholine (SPC) modulates Ca2+ release from isolated cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes; 50 microM SPC induces the release of 70 80% of the accumulated calcium. SPC release calcium from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor, since the release is inhibited by the ryanodine receptor channel antagonists ryanodine. Ruthenium Red and sphingosine. In intact cardiac myocytes, even in the absence of extracellular calcium. SPC causes a rise in diastolic Ca2+, which is greatly reduced when the sarcoplasmic reticulum is depleted of Ca2+ by prior thapsigargin treatment. SPC action on the ryanodine receptor is Ca(2+)-dependent. SPC shifts to the left the Ca(2+)-dependence of [3H]ryanodine binding, but only at high pCa values, suggesting that SPC might increase the sensitivity to calcium of the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release mechanism. At high calcium concentrations (pCa 4.0 or lower), where [3H]ryanodine binding is maximally stimulated, no effect of SPC is observed. We conclude that SPC releases calcium from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes by activating the ryanodine receptor and possibly another intracellular Ca(2+)-release channel, the sphingolipid Ca(2+)-release-mediating protein of endoplasmic reticulum (SCaMPER) [Mao, Kim, Almenoff, Rudner, Kearney and Kindman (1996) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. U.S.A 93, 1993-1996], which we have identified for the first time in cardiac tissue. PMID:9078280

  7. Differences in the expression of transient receptor potential channel V1, transient receptor potential channel A1 and mechanosensitive two pore-domain K+ channels between the lumbar splanchnic and pelvic nerve innervations of mouse urinary bladder and colon.

    PubMed

    La, J H; Schwartz, E S; Gebhart, G F

    2011-07-14

    The bladder and distal colon are innervated by lumbar splanchnic (LSN) and pelvic nerves (PN) whose axons arise from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons at thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) spinal levels, respectively. In an attempt to understand the molecular basis of differences between LSN and PN mechanosensitive afferents, we analyzed the gene expression of two potentially counteracting ion channel groups involved in mechanosensation, transient receptor potential channels (TRPV1 and TRPA1) and mechanosensitive two pore-domain K(+) (K(2P)) channels (TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK), in TL and LS DRG neurons innervating mouse bladder or distal colon. The proportion of TRPV1-expressing cells (41∼61%) did not differ between TL and LS neurons innervating bladder or colon. TRPA1 was seldom detected in bladder LS neurons whereas it was expressed in 64∼66% of bladder TL, colon TL and colon LS neurons. Coexpression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was frequent. TREK-1-expressing cells were more prevalent in LS than TL ganglia in both bladder- and colon-DRG neurons. All three K(2P) channels were detected more frequently in TRPV1-positive neurons in TL ganglia. More than half of TL neurons expressing only TRPA1 were devoid of any of the three K(2P) channels, whereas all TL neurons expressing both TRPA1 and TRPV1 expressed at least one of the K(2P) channels. These results reveal clear differences between LSN and PN sensory pathways in TRPA1 and TREK-1 gene expression and in the gene expression of K(2P) channels in TRPV1-expressing neurons. This study further documents heterogeneity of visceral afferents based on combinations of the five channels examined.

  8. Transient receptor potential ion channels in primary sensory neurons as targets for novel analgesics.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Valente, J; Andreou, A P; Urban, L; Nagy, I

    2014-05-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion in novel findings relating to the molecules involved in mediating the sensation of pain in humans. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels emerged as the greatest group of molecules involved in the transduction of various physical stimuli into neuronal signals in primary sensory neurons, as well as, in the development of pain. Here, we review the role of TRP ion channels in primary sensory neurons in the development of pain associated with peripheral pathologies and possible strategies to translate preclinical data into the development of effective new analgesics. Based on available evidence, we argue that nociception-related TRP channels on primary sensory neurons provide highly valuable targets for the development of novel analgesics and that, in order to reduce possible undesirable side effects, novel analgesics should prevent the translocation from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane and the sensitization of the channels rather than blocking the channel pore or binding sites for exogenous or endogenous activators.

  9. Ca sup 2+ channel blockers interact with. alpha. sub 2 -adrenergic receptors in rabbit ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Homaidan, F.R.; Donowitz, M.; Wicks, J.; Cusolito, S.; El Sabban, M.E.; Weiland, G.A.; Sharp, G.W.G. Tufts Univ. School of Medicine and New England Medical Center Hospital, Boston, MA )

    1988-04-01

    An interaction between Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers and {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors has been demonstrated in rabbit ileum by studying the effect of clonidine on active electrolyte transport, under short-circuited conditions, in the presence and absence of several Ca{sup 2+} channel blocking agents. Clonidine, verapamil, diltiazem, cadmium, and nitrendipine all decrease short-circuit current and stimulate NaCl absorption to different extents with clonidine having the largest effect. Exposure to verapamil, diltiazem, and cadmium inhibited the effects of clonidine on transport, whereas nitrendipine had no such effect. Verapamil, diltiazem, and cadmium, but not nitrendipine, also decreased the specific binding of ({sup 3}H){alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic agents to a preparation of ileal basolateral membranes explaining the observed decrease in the transport effects of clonidine. The effective concentrations of the Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers that inhibited the effects of clonidine on transport were fairly similar to the concentrations needed to inhibit its specific binding. The displacement of clonidine by calcium channel blockers is ascribed to a nonspecific effect of these agents, although the possibility that their effects are exerted via their binding to the calcium channels is not excluded.

  10. Transient receptor potential channel A1 and noxious cold responses in rat cutaneous nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Dunham, J P; Leith, J L; Lumb, B M; Donaldson, L F

    2010-02-17

    The role of transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) in noxious cold sensation remains unclear. Some data support the hypothesis that TRPA1 is a transducer of noxious cold whilst other data contest it. In this study we investigated the role of TRPA1 in cold detection in cutaneous nociceptors in vivo using complementary experimental approaches. We used noxious withdrawal reflex electromyography, and single fibre recordings in vivo, to test the hypothesis that TRPA1-expressing primary afferents mediate noxious cold responses in anaesthetised rats. TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists sensitise their cognate receptors to heat and cold stimuli respectively. Herein we show that the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde applied to the skin in anaesthetised rats did not sensitise noxious cold evoked hind limb withdrawal. In contrast, cinnamaldehyde did sensitise the C fibre-mediated noxious heat withdrawal, indicated by a significant drop in the withdrawal temperature. TRPA1 agonist thus sensitised the noxious reflex withdrawal to heat, but not cold. Thermal stimuli also sensitise transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to agonist. Activity evoked by capsaicin in teased primary afferent fibres showed a significant positive correlation with receptive field temperature, in both normal and Freund's complete adjuvant-induced cutaneous inflammation. Altering the temperature of the receptive field did not modulate TRPA1 agonist evoked-activity in cutaneous primary afferents, in either normal or inflamed skin. In addition, block of the TRPA1 channel with Ruthenium Red did not inhibit cold evoked activity in either cinnamaldehyde sensitive or insensitive cold responsive nociceptors. In cinnamaldehyde-sensitive-cold-sensitive afferents, although TRPA1 agonist-evoked activity was totally abolished by Ruthenium Red, cold evoked activity was unaffected by channel blockade. We conclude that these results do not support the hypothesis that TRPA1-expressing cutaneous afferents play an important

  11. Transient receptor potential channel A1 and noxious cold responses in rat cutaneous nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, J.P.; Leith, J.L.; Lumb, B.M.; Donaldson, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The role of transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) in noxious cold sensation remains unclear. Some data support the hypothesis that TRPA1 is a transducer of noxious cold whilst other data contest it. In this study we investigated the role of TRPA1 in cold detection in cutaneous nociceptors in vivo using complementary experimental approaches. We used noxious withdrawal reflex electromyography, and single fibre recordings in vivo, to test the hypothesis that TRPA1-expressing primary afferents mediate noxious cold responses in anaesthetised rats. TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists sensitise their cognate receptors to heat and cold stimuli respectively. Herein we show that the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde applied to the skin in anaesthetised rats did not sensitise noxious cold evoked hind limb withdrawal. In contrast, cinnamaldehyde did sensitise the C fibre-mediated noxious heat withdrawal, indicated by a significant drop in the withdrawal temperature. TRPA1 agonist thus sensitised the noxious reflex withdrawal to heat, but not cold. Thermal stimuli also sensitise transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to agonist. Activity evoked by capsaicin in teased primary afferent fibres showed a significant positive correlation with receptive field temperature, in both normal and Freund's complete adjuvant-induced cutaneous inflammation. Altering the temperature of the receptive field did not modulate TRPA1 agonist evoked-activity in cutaneous primary afferents, in either normal or inflamed skin. In addition, block of the TRPA1 channel with Ruthenium Red did not inhibit cold evoked activity in either cinnamaldehyde sensitive or insensitive cold responsive nociceptors. In cinnamaldehyde-sensitive–cold-sensitive afferents, although TRPA1 agonist-evoked activity was totally abolished by Ruthenium Red, cold evoked activity was unaffected by channel blockade. We conclude that these results do not support the hypothesis that TRPA1-expressing cutaneous afferents play an important

  12. Inhibitory effect of positively charged triazine antagonists of prokineticin receptors on the transient receptor vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Byun, Joon Seok; Sohn, Joo Mi; Lee, Jae Yeol; Vázquez-Romero, Ana; Garrido, Maria; Messeguer, Angel; Zhang, Fang-Xiong; Zamponi, Gerald W; Deplano, Alessandro; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Balboni, Gianfranco; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    Four positively charged compounds, previously shown to produce analgesic activity by interacting with prokineticin receptor or T-type calcium channels, were tested for their ability to inhibit capsaicin-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) in HEK-293 cells stably transfected with the human recombinant TRPV1, with the goal of identifying novel TRPV1 open-pore inhibitors. KYS-05090 showed the highest potency as a TRPV1 antagonist, even higher than that of the open-pore triazine inhibitor 8aA. The latter showed quite remarkable agonist/desensitizer activity at the rat recombinant TRPM8 channel. The activity of KYS-05090 and the other compounds was selective because none of these compounds was able to modulate the rat TRPA1 channel. Open-pore inhibitors of TRPV1 may be a new class of multi-target analgesics with lesser side effects, such as loss of acute pain sensitivity and hyperthermia, than most TRPV1 antagonists developed so far.

  13. Cross-talk and co-trafficking between rho1/GABA receptors and ATP-gated channels.

    PubMed

    Boué-Grabot, Eric; Emerit, Michel B; Toulmé, Estelle; Séguéla, Philippe; Garret, Maurice

    2004-02-20

    Gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) and ATP ionotropic receptors represent two structurally and functionally different classes of neurotransmitter-gated channels involved in fast synaptic transmission. We demonstrate here that, when the inhibitory rho1/GABA and the excitatory P2X2 receptor channels are co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, activation of one channel reduces the currents mediated by the other one. This reciprocal inhibitory cross-talk is a receptor-mediated phenomenon independent of agonist cross-modulation, membrane potential, direction of ionic flux, or channel densities. Functional interaction is disrupted when the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of P2X2 is deleted or in competition experiments with minigenes coding for the C-terminal domain of P2X2 or the main intracellular loop of rho1 subunits. We also show a physical interaction between P2X2 and rho1 receptors expressed in oocytes and the co-clustering of these receptors in transfected hippocampal neurons. Co-expression with P2X2 induces retargeting and recruitment of mainly intracellular rho1/GABA receptors to surface clusters. Therefore, molecular and functional cross-talk between inhibitory and excitatory ligand-gated channels may regulate synaptic strength both by activity-dependent current occlusion and synaptic receptors co-trafficking.

  14. Fundamental Gating Mechanism of Nicotinic Receptor Channel Revealed by Mutation Causing a Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Long; Ohno, Kinji; Milone, Margherita; Brengman, Joan M.; Evoli, Amelia; Batocchi, Anna-Paola; Middleton, Lefkos T.; Christodoulou, Kyproula; Engel, Andrew G.; Sine, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the genetic and kinetic defects in a congenital myasthenic syndrome due to the mutation εA411P in the amphipathic helix of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ε subunit. Myasthenic patients from three unrelated families are either homozygous for εA411P or are heterozygous and harbor a null mutation in the second ε allele, indicating that εA411P is recessive. We expressed human AChRs containing wild-type or A411P ε subunits in 293HEK cells, recorded single channel currents at high bandwidth, and determined microscopic rate constants for individual channels using hidden Markov modeling. For individual wild-type and mutant channels, each rate constant distributes as a Gaussian function, but the spread in the distributions for channel opening and closing rate constants is greatly expanded by εA411P. Prolines engineered into positions flanking residue 411 of the ε subunit greatly increase the range of activation kinetics similar to εA411P, whereas prolines engineered into positions equivalent to εA411 in β and δ subunits are without effect. Thus, the amphipathic helix of the ε subunit stabilizes the channel, minimizing the number and range of kinetic modes accessible to individual AChRs. The findings suggest that analogous stabilizing structures are present in other ion channels, and possibly allosteric proteins in general, and that they evolved to maintain uniformity of activation episodes. The findings further suggest that the fundamental gating mechanism of the AChR channel can be explained by a corrugated energy landscape superimposed on a steeply sloped energy well. PMID:10962020

  15. Antibody probe study of Ca2+ channel regulation by interdomain interaction within the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Parness, Jerome; Ikemoto, Noriaki

    2004-01-01

    N-terminal and central domains of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), where many reported malignant hyperthermia (MH) mutations are localized, represent putative channel regulatory domains. Recent domain peptide (DP) probe studies led us to the hypothesis that these domains interact to stabilize the closed state of channel (zipping), while weakening of domain-domain interactions (unzipping) by mutation de-stabilizes the channel, making it leaky to Ca2+ or sensitive to the agonists of RyR1. As shown previously, DP1 (N-terminal domain peptide) and DP4 (central domain peptide) produced MH-like channel activation/sensitization effects, presumably by peptide binding to sites critical to stabilizing domain-domain interactions and resultant loss of conformational constraints. Here we report that polyclonal anti-DP1 and anti-DP4 antibodies also produce MH-like channel activation and sensitization effects as evidenced by about 4-fold enhancement of high affinity [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR1 and by a significant left-shift of the concentration-dependence of activation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release by polylysine. Fluorescence quenching experiments demonstrate that the accessibility of a DP4-directed, conformationally sensitive fluorescence probe linked to the RyR1 N-terminal domain is increased in the presence of domain-specific antibodies, consistent with the view that these antibodies produce unzipping of interacting domains that are of hindered accessibility to the surrounding aqueous environment. Our results suggest that domain-specific antibody binding induces a conformational change resulting in channel activation, and are consistent with the hypothesis that interacting N-terminal and central domains are intimately involved in the regulation of RyR1 channel function. PMID:15027895

  16. Sigma-1 receptors modulate neonatal Nav1.5 ion channels in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Aydar, Ebru; Stratton, Dan; Fraser, Scott P; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A; Palmer, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate a possible functional connection between sigma-1 receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in human breast cancer cells. The hypothesis was that sigma-1 drugs could alter the metastatic properties of breast cancer cells via the VGSC. Evidence was found for expression of sigma-1 receptor and neonatal Nav1.5 (nNav1.5) expression in both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Sigma-1 drugs (SKF10047 and dimethyltryptamine) did not affect cell proliferation or migration but significantly reduced adhesion to the substrate. Silencing sigma-1 receptor expression by siRNA similarly reduced the adhesion. Blocking nNav1.5 activity with a polyclonal antibody (NESOpAb) targeting an extracellular region of nNav1.5 also reduced the adhesion in both cell lines. Importantly, the results of combined treatments with NESOpAb and a sigma-1 drug or sigma-1 siRNA suggested that both treatments targeted the same mechanism. The possibility was tested, therefore, that the sigma-1 receptor and the nNav1.5 channel formed a physical, functional complex. This suggestion was supported by the results of co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore, application of sigma-1 drugs to the cells reduced the surface expression of nNav1.5 protein, which could explain how sigma-1 receptor activation could alter the metastatic behaviour of breast cancer cells. Overall, these results are consistent with the idea of a sigma-1 protein behaving like either a "chaperone" or a regulatory subunit associated with nNav1.5.

  17. Modulation of nociceptive ion channels and receptors via protein-protein interactions: implications for pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Rouwette, Tom; Avenali, Luca; Sondermann, Julia; Narayanan, Pratibha; Gomez-Varela, David; Schmidt, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In the last 2 decades biomedical research has provided great insights into the molecular signatures underlying painful conditions. However, chronic pain still imposes substantial challenges to researchers, clinicians and patients alike. Under pathological conditions, pain therapeutics often lack efficacy and exhibit only minimal safety profiles, which can be largely attributed to the targeting of molecules with key physiological functions throughout the body. In light of these difficulties, the identification of molecules and associated protein complexes specifically involved in chronic pain states is of paramount importance for designing selective interventions. Ion channels and receptors represent primary targets, as they critically shape nociceptive signaling from the periphery to the brain. Moreover, their function requires tight control, which is usually implemented by protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Indeed, manipulation of such PPIs entails the modulation of ion channel activity with widespread implications for influencing nociceptive signaling in a more specific way. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modulating ion channels and receptors via their PPI networks in the pursuit of relieving chronic pain. Moreover, we critically discuss the potential of targeting PPIs for developing novel pain therapies exhibiting higher efficacy and improved safety profiles. PMID:26039491

  18. Insulin Excites Anorexigenic Proopiomelanocortin Neurons via Activation of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Zhang, Chunguang; Borgquist, Amanda; Nestor, Casey C; Smith, Arik W.; Bosch, Martha A.; Ku, Stephen; Wagner, Edward J.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are vital anorexigenic neurons. Although both the leptin receptor and insulin receptor are coupled to activation of phosphatidylinositide3-kinase (PI3K) in POMC neurons, they are thought to have disparate actions on POMC excitability. Using whole-cell recording and selective pharmacological tools, we have found that similar to leptin, purified insulin depolarized POMC, and adjacent kisspeptin neurons via activation of TRPC5 channels, which are highly expressed in these neurons. In contrast, insulin hyperpolarized and inhibited NPY/AgRP neurons via activation of KATP channels. Moreover, Zn2+, which is found in insulin formulations at nanomolar concentrations, inhibited POMC neurons via activation of KATP channels. Finally as predicted, insulin given intracerebroventrically robustly inhibited food intake and activated c-fos expression in arcuate POMC neurons. Our results show that purified insulin excites POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which we propose is a major mechanism by which insulin regulates energy homeostasis. PMID:24703699

  19. Functional unit size of the neurotoxin receptors on the voltage-dependent sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Angelides, K J; Nutter, T J; Elmer, L W; Kempner, E S

    1985-03-25

    Radiation inactivation was used in situ to determine the functional unit sizes of the neurotoxin receptors of the voltage-dependent sodium channel from rat brain. Frozen or lyophilized synaptosomes were irradiated with high energy electrons generated by a linear accelerator and assayed for [3H]saxitoxin, 125I-Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (alpha-scorpion toxin), 125I-Centruroides suffusus suffusus (beta-scorpion toxin), and batrachotoxinin-A 20 alpha-[3H]benzoate binding activity. The functional unit size of the neurotoxin receptors determined in situ by target analysis are 220,000 for saxitoxin, 263,000 for alpha-scorpion toxin, and 45,000 for beta-scorpion toxin. Analysis of the inactivation curve for batrachotoxinin-A 20 alpha-benzoate binding to the channel yields two target sizes of Mr approximately 287,000 (50%) and approximately 51,000 (50%). The results are independent of the purity of the membrane preparation. Comparison of the radiation inactivation data with the protein composition of the rat brain sodium channel indicates that there are at least two functional components.

  20. Calcium channel receptor sites for (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 in coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Kimura, R; Harada, Y; Nakayama, K

    1990-01-01

    The receptor sites for 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca++ channel antagonists in porcine coronary artery were identified and characterized by a binding assay using (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 as a radioligand. Specific (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding in porcine coronary artery was saturable, reversible and of high affinity (Kd = 0.24 nM) and it showed a pharmacological specificity as well as stereoselectivity which characterized the receptor sites for DHP Ca++ channel antagonists. DHP antagonists competed for the (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding in order: PN 200-110 greater than mepirodipine greater than nisoldipine greater than nicardipine greater than nitrendipine greater than nimodipine greater than nifedipine greater than (-)-PN 200-110. (+)-PN 200-110 was approximately 140 times as potent as the (-)-isomer. The potencies (PKi) of these eight DHP Ca++ channel antagonists in competing for (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding sites in porcine coronary artery correlated well with their pharmacological potencies. Specific (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding in the coronary artery was enhanced by d-cis-diltiazem and was inhibited incompletely by verapamil and D-600. In EDTA-pretreated coronary artery, the maximal number of binding sites for specific (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding was reduced (80%) markedly, and it was restored to the untreated level by the addition of Ca++ and Mg++.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. A polycystin-type transient receptor potential (Trp) channel that is activated by ATP

    PubMed Central

    Traynor, David

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT ATP and ADP are ancient extra-cellular signalling molecules that in Dictyostelium amoebae cause rapid, transient increases in cytosolic calcium due to an influx through the plasma membrane. This response is independent of hetero-trimeric G-proteins, the putative IP3 receptor IplA and all P2X channels. We show, unexpectedly, that it is abolished in mutants of the polycystin-type transient receptor potential channel, TrpP. Responses to the chemoattractants cyclic-AMP and folic acid are unaffected in TrpP mutants. We report that the DIF morphogens, cyclic-di-GMP, GABA, glutamate and adenosine all induce strong cytoplasmic calcium responses, likewise independently of TrpP. Thus, TrpP is dedicated to purinergic signalling. ATP treatment causes cell blebbing within seconds but this does not require TrpP, implicating a separate purinergic receptor. We could detect no effect of ATP on chemotaxis and TrpP mutants grow, chemotax and develop almost normally in standard conditions. No gating ligand is known for the human homologue of TrpP, polycystin-2, which causes polycystic kidney disease. Our results now show that TrpP mediates purinergic signalling in Dictyostelium and is directly or indirectly gated by ATP. PMID:28011630

  2. Mathematical modelling of non-stationary fluctuation analysis for studying channel properties of synaptic AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Benke, T A; Lüthi, A; Palmer, M J; Wikström, M A; Anderson, W W; Isaac, J T; Collingridge, G L

    2001-12-01

    1. The molecular properties of synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors are an important factor determining excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Changes in the number (N) or single-channel conductance (gamma) of functional AMPA receptors may underlie synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These parameters have been estimated using non-stationary fluctuation analysis (NSFA). 2. The validity of NSFA for studying the channel properties of synaptic AMPA receptors was assessed using a cable model with dendritic spines and a microscopic kinetic description of AMPA receptors. Electrotonic, geometric and kinetic parameters were altered in order to determine their effects on estimates of the underlying gamma. 3. Estimates of gamma were very sensitive to the access resistance of the recording (R(A)) and the mean open time of AMPA channels. Estimates of gamma were less sensitive to the distance between the electrode and the synaptic site, the electrotonic properties of dendritic structures, recording electrode capacitance and background noise. Estimates of gamma were insensitive to changes in spine morphology, synaptic glutamate concentration and the peak open probability (P(o)) of AMPA receptors. 4. The results obtained using the model agree with biological data, obtained from 91 dendritic recordings from rat CA1 pyramidal cells. A correlation analysis showed that R(A) resulted in a slowing of the decay time constant of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by approximately 150 %, from an estimated value of 3.1 ms. R(A) also greatly attenuated the absolute estimate of gamma by approximately 50-70 %. 5. When other parameters remain constant, the model demonstrates that NSFA of dendritic recordings can readily discriminate between changes in gamma vs. changes in N or P(o). Neither background noise nor asynchronous activation of multiple synapses prevented reliable

  3. Tuning the allosteric regulation of artificial muscarinic and dopaminergic ligand-gated potassium channels by protein engineering of G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Christophe J.; Revilloud, Jean; Caro, Lydia N.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Trouchet, Amandine; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Nieścierowicz, Katarzyna; Sapay, Nicolas; Crouzy, Serge; Vivaudou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels enable intercellular transmission of action potential through synapses by transducing biochemical messengers into electrical signal. We designed artificial ligand-gated ion channels by coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the Kir6.2 potassium channel. These artificial channels called ion channel-coupled receptors offer complementary properties to natural channels by extending the repertoire of ligands to those recognized by the fused receptors, by generating more sustained signals and by conferring potassium selectivity. The first artificial channels based on the muscarinic M2 and the dopaminergic D2L receptors were opened and closed by acetylcholine and dopamine, respectively. We find here that this opposite regulation of the gating is linked to the length of the receptor C-termini, and that C-terminus engineering can precisely control the extent and direction of ligand gating. These findings establish the design rules to produce customized ligand-gated channels for synthetic biology applications. PMID:28145461

  4. Serotonin receptor 3A controls interneuron migration into the neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Sahana; Niquille, Mathieu; Hurni, Nicolas; Limoni, Greta; Frazer, Sarah; Chameau, Pascal; van Hooft, Johannes A.; Vitalis, Tania; Dayer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal excitability has been shown to control the migration and cortical integration of reelin-expressing cortical interneurons (INs) arising from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), supporting the possibility that neurotransmitters could regulate this process. Here we show that the ionotropic serotonin receptor 3A (5-HT3AR) is specifically expressed in CGE-derived migrating interneurons and upregulated while they invade the developing cortex. Functional investigations using calcium imaging, electrophysiological recordings and migration assays indicate that CGE-derived INs increase their response to 5-HT3AR activation during the late phase of cortical plate invasion. Using genetic loss-of-function approaches and in vivo grafts, we further demonstrate that the 5-HT3AR is cell autonomously required for the migration and proper positioning of reelin-expressing CGE-derived INs in the neocortex. Our findings reveal a requirement for a serotonin receptor in controlling the migration and laminar positioning of a specific subtype of cortical IN. PMID:25409778

  5. Nicotinic receptor M3 transmembrane domain: position 8' contributes to channel gating.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, María José; Rayes, Diego; Spitzmaul, Guillermo; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2002-08-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a pentamer of homologous subunits with composition alpha(2)(beta)(epsilon)(delta) in adult muscle. Each subunit contains four transmembrane domains (M1-M4). Position 8' of the M3 domain is phenylalanine in all heteromeric alpha subunits, whereas it is a hydrophobic nonaromatic residue in non-alpha subunits. Given this peculiar conservation pattern, we studied its contribution to muscle nAChR activation by combining mutagenesis with single-channel kinetic analysis. Construction of nAChRs carrying different numbers of phenylalanine residues at 8' reveals that the mean open time decreases as a function of the number of phenylalanine residues. Thus, all subunits contribute through this position independently and additively to the channel closing rate. The impairment of channel opening increases when the number of phenylalanine residues at 8' increases from two (wild-type nAChR) to five. The gating equilibrium constant of the latter mutant nAChR is 13-fold lower than that of the wild-type nAChR. The replacement of (alpha)F8', (beta)L8', (delta)L8', and (epsilon)V8' by a series of hydrophobic amino acids reveals that the structural bases of the observed kinetic effects are nonequivalent among subunits. In the alpha subunit, hydrophobic amino acids at 8' lead to prolonged channel lifetimes, whereas they lead either to normal kinetics (delta and epsilon subunits) or impaired channel gating (beta subunit) in the non-alpha subunits. The overall results indicate that 8' positions of the M3 domains of all subunits contribute to channel gating.

  6. Effects of ginger and its pungent constituents on transient receptor potential channels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Soo; Hong, Chan Sik; Lee, Sang Weon; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-12-01

    Ginger extract is used as an analeptic in herbal medicine and has been reported to exert antioxidant effects. Transient receptor potential (TRP) canonical 5 (TRPC5), TRP cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7; melastatin 7), and TRP cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1; ankyrin 1) are non-selective cation channels that are modulated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequently control various cellular processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ginger and its pungent constituents modulate these channels and exert antioxidant effects. It was found that TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents were modulated by ginger extract and by its pungent constituents, [6]-gingerol, zingerone and [6]-shogaol. In particular, [6]-shogaol markedly and dose-dependently inhibited TRPC5 currents with an IC50 of value of ~18.3 µM. Furthermore, the strong dose-dependent activation of TRPA1 currents by [6]-shogaol was abolished by A‑967079 (a selective TRPA1 inhibitor). However, ginger extract and its pungent constituents had no effect on TRPM7 currents. These results suggest the antioxidant effects of ginger extract and its pungent constituents are mediated through TRPC5 and TRPA1, and that [6]-shogaol is predominantly responsible for the regulation of TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents by ginger extract.

  7. Natural product modulators of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as potential anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Sieglitz, Florian; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L

    2016-11-07

    Treatment of cancer is a significant challenge in clinical medicine, and its research is a top priority in chemical biology and drug discovery. Consequently, there is an urgent need for identifying innovative chemotypes capable of modulating unexploited drug targets. The transient receptor potential (TRPs) channels persist scarcely explored as targets, despite intervening in a plethora of pathophysiological events in numerous diseases, including cancer. Both agonists and antagonists have proven capable of evoking phenotype changes leading to either cell death or reduced cell migration. Among these, natural products entail biologically pre-validated and privileged architectures for TRP recognition. Furthermore, several natural products have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on TRP biology. In this Tutorial Review we focus on selected natural products, e.g. capsaicinoids, cannabinoids and terpenes, by highlighting challenges and opportunities in their use as starting points for designing natural product-inspired TRP channel modulators. Importantly, the de-orphanization of natural products as TRP channel ligands may leverage their exploration as viable strategy for developing anticancer therapies. Finally, we foresee that TRP channels may be explored for the selective pharmacodelivery of cytotoxic payloads to diseased tissues, providing an innovative platform in chemical biology and molecular medicine.

  8. The molecular architecture of dihydropyrindine receptor/L-type Ca2+ channel complex

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongli; Wang, Zhao; Wei, Risheng; Fan, Guizhen; Wang, Qiongling; Zhang, Kaiming; Yin, Chang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), an L-type Ca2+ channel complex, plays an essential role in muscle contraction, secretion, integration of synaptic input in neurons and synaptic transmission. The molecular architecture of DHPR complex remains elusive. Here we present a 15-Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the skeletal DHPR/L-type Ca2+ channel complex. The DHPR has an asymmetrical main body joined by a hook-like extension. The main body is composed of a “trapezoid” and a “tetrahedroid”. Homologous crystal structure docking and site-specific antibody labelling revealed that the α1 and α2 subunits are located in the “trapezoid” and the β subunit is located in the “tetrahedroid”. This structure revealed the molecular architecture of a eukaryotic Ca2+ channel complex. Furthermore, this structure provides structural insights into the key elements of DHPR involved in physical coupling with the RyR/Ca2+ release channel and shed light onto the mechanism of excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:25667046

  9. Single Ryanodine Receptor Channel Basis of Caffeine's Action on Ca2+ Sparks

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Maura; Zima, Aleksey V.; Nani, Alma; Diaz-Sylvester, Paula L.; Copello, Julio A.; Ramos-Franco, Josefina; Blatter, Lothar A.; Fill, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) is a widely used pharmacological agonist of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) Ca2+ release channel. It is also a well-known stimulant that can produce adverse side effects, including arrhythmias. Here, the action of caffeine on single RyR2 channels in bilayers and Ca2+ sparks in permeabilized ventricular cardiomyocytes is defined. Single RyR2 caffeine activation depended on the free Ca2+ level on both sides of the channel. Cytosolic Ca2+ enhanced RyR2 caffeine affinity, whereas luminal Ca2+ essentially scaled maximal caffeine activation. Caffeine activated single RyR2 channels in diastolic quasi-cell-like solutions (cytosolic MgATP, pCa 7) with an EC50 of 9.0 ± 0.4 mM. Low-dose caffeine (0.15 mM) increased Ca2+ spark frequency ∼75% and single RyR2 opening frequency ∼150%. This implies that not all spontaneous RyR2 openings during diastole are associated with Ca2+ sparks. Assuming that only the longest openings evoke sparks, our data suggest that a spark may result only when a spontaneous single RyR2 opening lasts >6 ms. PMID:21320437

  10. The sorting receptor Rer1 controls Purkinje cell function via voltage gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Valkova, Christina; Liebmann, Lutz; Krämer, Andreas; Hübner, Christian A.; Kaether, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Rer1 is a sorting receptor in the early secretory pathway that controls the assembly and the cell surface transport of selected multimeric membrane protein complexes. Mice with a Purkinje cell (PC) specific deletion of Rer1 showed normal polarization and differentiation of PCs and normal development of the cerebellum. However, PC-specific loss of Rer1 led to age-dependent motor deficits in beam walk, ladder climbing and gait. Analysis of brain sections revealed a specific degeneration of PCs in the anterior cerebellar lobe in old animals. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated severe deficits in spontaneous action potential generation. Measurements of resurgent currents indicated decreased surface densities of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav), but not changes in individual channels. Analysis of mice with a whole brain Rer1-deletion demonstrated a strong down-regulation of Nav1.6 and 1.1 in the absence of Rer1, whereas protein levels of the related Cav2.1 and of Kv3.3 and 7.2 channels were not affected. The data suggest that Rer1 controls the assembly and transport of Nav1.1 and 1.6, the principal sodium channels responsible for recurrent firing, in PCs. PMID:28117367

  11. Bidirectional effects of hydrogen sulfide via ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and transient receptor potential A1 channels in RIN14B cells.

    PubMed

    Ujike, Ayako; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Ito, Shigeo

    2015-10-05

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) reportedly acts as a gasotransmitter because it mediates various cellular responses through several ion channels including ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels and transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channels. H2S can activate both KATP and TRPA1 channels at a similar concentration range. In a single cell expressing both channels, however, it remains unknown what happens when both channels are simultaneously activated by H2S. In this study, we examined the effects of H2S on RIN14B cells that express both KATP and TRPA1 channels. RIN14B cells showed several intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) responses to NaHS (300 µM), an H2S donor, i.e., inhibition of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations (37%), inhibition followed by [Ca(2+)]i increase (24%), and a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)]i (25%). KATP channel blockers, glibenclamide or tolbutamide, abolished any inhibitory effects of NaHS and enhanced NaHS-mediated [Ca(2+)]i increases, which were inhibited by extracellular Ca(2+) removal, HC030031 (a TRPA1 antagonist), and disulfide bond-reducing agents. NaHS induced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from RIN14B cells, which was also inhibited by TRPA1 antagonists. These results indicate that H2S has both inhibitory and excitatory effects by opening KATP and TRPA1 channels, respectively, in RIN14B cells, suggesting potential bidirectional modulation of secretory functions.

  12. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Li; Yan Liu, Dao; Ma, Li Qun; Luo, Zhi Dan; Cao, Ting Bing; Zhong, Jian; Yan, Zhen Cheng; Wang, Li Juan; Zhao, Zhi Gang; Zhu, Shan Jun; Schrader, Mark; Thilo, Florian; Zhu, Zhi Ming; Tepel, Martin

    2007-04-13

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect of TRPV1 on cytosolic calcium was determined fluorometrically in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and in human visceral fat tissue. Adipogenesis in stimulated 3T3-L1-preadipocytes was determined by oil red O-staining of intracellular lipid droplets, triglyceride levels, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and expression of fatty acid synthase. Long-term feeding experiments were undertaken in wild-type mice and TRPV1 knockout mice. We detected TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans. In vitro, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin dose-dependently induced calcium influx and prevented the adipogenesis in stimulated 3T3-L1-preadipocytes. RNA interference knockdown of TRPV1 in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes attenuated capsaicin-induced calcium influx, and adipogenesis in stimulated 3T3-L1-preadipocytes was no longer prevented. During regular adipogenesis TRPV1 channels were downregulated which was accompanied by a significant and time-dependent reduction of calcium influx. Compared with lean counterparts in visceral adipose tissue from obese db/db and ob/ob mice, and from obese human male subjects we observed a reduced TRVP1 expression. The reduced TRPV1 expression in visceral adipose tissue from obese humans was accompanied by reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx. The oral administration of capsaicin for 120 days prevented obesity in male wild type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice assigned to high fat diet. We conclude that the activation of TRPV1 channels by capsaicin prevented adipogenesis and obesity.

  13. Molecular pharmacology of the calcium channel: evidence for subtypes, multiple drug-receptor sites, channel subunits, and the development of a radioiodinated 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel label, (/sup 125/I)iodipine

    SciTech Connect

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.; Goll, A.; Rombusch, M.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled Ca2+ antagonists (1,4-dihydropyridines, verapamil, and D-cis-diltiazem) were used to study voltage-operated Ca2+ channels in different excitable tissues. The concept of three subtypes of Ca2+ channels, represented by brain, heart, and skeletal-muscle isoreceptors for 1,4-dihydropyridines, is developed. The three subtypes are characterized by a variety of criteria. Despite the biochemical differences between the subtypes, they have the same Mr in situ by target-size analysis (Mr approximately equal to 180,000, when evaluated by (/sub 3/H)nimodipine). The concept of the metalloprotein nature of the channel and the interaction of channel drugs with the Me2+ binding sites of the ionic pore is demonstrated. Distinct but interacting drug-receptor sites of the Ca2+ channel are found by direct labeling as well as indirectly by drug competition studies. The authors distinguish between the 1,4-dihydropyridine site, the verapamil site, and the D-cis-diltiazem site. Each receptor site can exist in high and low-affinity state; the distribution of receptor sites in these states is regulated by temperature, ions, and drugs. The concept of intrinsic activity of drugs to stabilize the high-affinity state is exemplified for the 1,4-dihydropyridines. A change in the channel architecture is induced by binding of D-cis-diltiazem to its drug receptor site. This is proven by target-size analysis of the channel in situ. Partially purified t-tubule membranes from skeletal muscle are an extremely rich source of Ca2+ channel drug-receptor sites. The stoichiometry was determined in this preparation and found to be four verapamil:two 1,4-dihydropyridine:one D-cis-diltiazem site. A novel Ca2+ channel probe, (/sup 125/I)iodipine (2,200 Ci/mmol), was synthetized, and the properties of this ligand are presented.

  14. Ion access pathway to the transmembrane pore in P2X receptor channels

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Janice L.; Li, Mufeng; Silberberg, Shai D.

    2011-01-01

    P2X receptors are trimeric cation channels that open in response to the binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a large extracellular domain. The x-ray structure of the P2X4 receptor from zebrafish (zfP2X4) receptor reveals that the extracellular vestibule above the gate opens to the outside through lateral fenestrations, providing a potential pathway for ions to enter and exit the pore. The extracellular region also contains a void at the central axis, providing a second potential pathway. To investigate the energetics of each potential ion permeation pathway, we calculated the electrostatic free energy by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation along each of these pathways in the zfP2X4 crystal structure and a homology model of rat P2X2 (rP2X2). We found that the lateral fenestrations are energetically favorable for monovalent cations even in the closed-state structure, whereas the central pathway presents strong electrostatic barriers that would require structural rearrangements to allow for ion accessibility. To probe ion accessibility along these pathways in the rP2X2 receptor, we investigated the modification of introduced Cys residues by methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents and constrained structural changes by introducing disulfide bridges. Our results show that MTS reagents can permeate the lateral fenestrations, and that these become larger after ATP binding. Although relatively small MTS reagents can access residues in one of the vestibules within the central pathway, no reactive positions were identified in the upper region of this pathway, and disulfide bridges that constrain movements in that region do not prevent ion conduction. Collectively, these results suggest that ions access the pore using the lateral fenestrations, and that these breathe as the channel opens. The accessibility of ions to one of the chambers in the central pathway likely serves a regulatory function. PMID:21624948

  15. Evolution of Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: Pro-Loop Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jaiteh, Mariama; Taly, Antoine; Hénin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ubiquitous neurotransmitter receptors in Bilateria, with a small number of known prokaryotic homologues. Here we describe a new inventory and phylogenetic analysis of pLGIC genes across all kingdoms of life. Our main finding is a set of pLGIC genes in unicellular eukaryotes, some of which are metazoan-like Cys-loop receptors, and others devoid of Cys-loop cysteines, like their prokaryotic relatives. A number of such “Cys-less” receptors also appears in invertebrate metazoans. Together, those findings draw a new distribution of pLGICs in eukaryotes. A broader distribution of prokaryotic channels also emerges, including a major new archaeal taxon, Thaumarchaeota. More generally, pLGICs now appear nearly ubiquitous in major taxonomic groups except multicellular plants and fungi. However, pLGICs are sparsely present in unicellular taxa, suggesting a high rate of gene loss and a non-essential character, contrasting with their essential role as synaptic receptors of the bilaterian nervous system. Multiple alignments of these highly divergent sequences reveal a small number of conserved residues clustered at the interface between the extracellular and transmembrane domains. Only the “Cys-loop” proline is absolutely conserved, suggesting the more fitting name “Pro loop” for that motif, and “Pro-loop receptors” for the superfamily. The infered molecular phylogeny shows a Cys-loop and a Cys-less clade in eukaryotes, both containing metazoans and unicellular members. This suggests new hypotheses on the evolutionary history of the superfamily, such as a possible origin of the Cys-loop cysteines in an ancient unicellular eukaryote. Deeper phylogenetic relationships remain uncertain, particularly around the split between bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. PMID:26986966

  16. Further analysis of counterion permeation through anion-selective glycine receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Barry, Peter H; Sugiharto, Silas; Lewis, Trevor M; Moorhouse, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    The functional role of ion channels, which allow counterion permeation, depends critically on their relative anion-cation relative selectivity. From whole-cell patch clamp reversal potential measurements under dilution potential conditions, we have already shown that anion-cation permeabilities of anion-selective wild-type (WT) and mutant (with larger pore diameter) glycine receptor (GlyR) channels in the presence of Li(+), Na(+) and Cs(+) counterions, were inversely correlated with the equivalent hydration diameter of the counterion, with chloride-cation permeability increasing as counterion equivalent hydration diameter increased with respect to the channel minimum pore diameter. Corrected for liquid junction potentials (LJPs; using ion activities), the previous chloride-cation permeabilities for the alkali cations were 23.4 (Li(+)), 10.9 (Na(+)) and 5.0 (Cs(+)) for the smaller WT channel. Further analysis to incorporate an initial offset potential correction, to fully allow for slight differences between internal cell composition and external control salt solution, changed the above permeability ratios to 30.6 (Li(+)), 11.8 (Na(+)) and 5.0 (Cs(+)), adding enhanced support for the inverse correlation between anion-to-counterion permeability ratio and equivalent hydrated counterion diameter relative to channel pore diameter (erroneously ignoring LJPs reduces each permeability ratio to about 4). Also, new direct measurements of LJPs (for NaCl and LiCl salt dilutions) using a 3M KCl-agar reference salt bridge (with freshly-cut end for each solution composition change) have shown excellent agreement with calculated LJPs (using ion activities), validating calculated LJP values. We continue to suggest that counterion cations permeate with chloride ions as neutral pairs.

  17. Cholinergic and ghrelinergic receptors and KCNQ channels in the medial PFC regulate the expression of palatability

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Marc A.; Amarante, Linda M.; Swanson, Kyra; Laubach, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key brain region for the control of consummatory behavior. Neuronal activity in this area is modulated when rats initiate consummatory licking and reversible inactivations eliminate reward contrast effects and reduce a measure of palatability, the duration of licking bouts. Together, these data suggest the hypothesis that rhythmic neuronal activity in the mPFC is crucial for the control of consummatory behavior. The muscarinic cholinergic system is known to regulate membrane excitability and control low-frequency rhythmic activity in the mPFC. Muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) act through KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channels, which have recently been linked to the orexigenic peptide ghrelin. To understand if drugs that act on KCNQ channels within the mPFC have effects on consummatory behavior, we made infusions of several muscarinic drugs (scopolamine, oxotremorine, physostigmine), the KCNQ channel blocker XE-991, and ghrelin into the mPFC and evaluated their effects on consummatory behavior. A consistent finding across all drugs was an effect on the duration of licking bouts when animals consume solutions with a relatively high concentration of sucrose. The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine reduced bout durations, both systemically and intra-cortically. By contrast, the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine, the KCNQ channel blocker XE-991, and ghrelin all increased the durations of licking bouts when infused into the mPFC. Our findings suggest that cholinergic and ghrelinergic signaling in the mPFC, acting through KCNQ channels, regulates the expression of palatabi