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Sample records for 5-ht4 receptor agonist

  1. Effects of 5-HT4 receptor agonists and antagonists in learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-03-01

    In the present work, the effects of pre- or post-training (ip) injection of BIMU1 and BIMU8 (5-HT4 agonists) were figured out in the autoshaping learning task. Furthermore, the post-training effects of these agonists after treatment with SDZ 205-557 and GR 125487D (5-HT4 antagonists) or p-Chloroamphetamine (PCA) were also explored. Animals were individually trained in a lever-press response on the autoshaping task and 24 hours later were tested. The results showed that pre-training injection of BIMU1 (5 20 mg/Kg) or BIMU8 (20 mg/Kg) increased the CR; in contrast, the post-training administration of BIMU1 (10-20 mg/Kg) or BIMU8 (5 and 20 mg/Kg) decreased it. Further experiments revealed that the post-training injections of SDZ 205-557 (1.0-10.0 mg/Kg) or GR 125487D (0.39-1.56 mg/Kg) by themselves did not alter the CR. When BIMU1 or BIMU8 was administered to rats pretreated with SDZ 205-557 (10 mg/Kg) or GR 125487D (0.78 mg/Kg), the decrement induced by 5-HT4 the agonists was reversed; in contrast, the administration of PCA failed to modify the CR or the agonist-induced responses. The findings showed that the pre-training stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors enhanced the acquisition of CR, while, post-training activation of 5-HT4 receptors, impaired the consolidation of learning. The latter effect was not altered by PCA pretreatment. The data show that 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the acquisition and consolidation of learning. It seems that postsynaptic 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the latter effect.

  2. Modulation of hippocampal excitability by 5-HT4 receptor agonists persists in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J P; Brown, J T; Richardson, J C; Medhurst, A D; Sehmi, S S; Calver, A R; Randall, A D

    2004-01-01

    5-HT(4) receptors are widely distributed in both peripheral and central nervous systems where they couple, via a G-protein, to the activation of adenylate cyclase. In the brain, the highest 5-HT(4) receptor densities are found in the limbic system, including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. It has been suggested that activation of these receptors may be of therapeutic benefit in diseases that produce cognitive deficits such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that the 5-HT(4) agonist, Zacopride, can increase population spike amplitude recorded in region CA1 of rat hippocampal slices in a cyclic AMP (cAMP)/cAMP-dependent protein kinase A-dependent manner. We report here that the 5-HT(4) agonist, Prucalopride, and the 5-HT(4) partial agonist, SL65.0155, produce a similar effect in rat hippocampal slices and that the specific 5-HT(4) antagonist, GR113808, blocks these effects. To investigate the potential use of 5-HT(4) agonists in the treatment of AD, Prucalopride was applied to hippocampal slices from a transgenic mouse line that overexpresses the Abeta peptide. Despite the deficit in synaptic transmission present in these mice, the percentage increase of the CA1 population spike induced by Prucalopride was the same as that observed in wild-type mice. These data support 5-HT(4) receptors as a target for cognitive enhancement and suggest that a partial agonist would be sufficient to produce benefits, while reducing potential peripheral side effects. In addition, we show that 5-HT(4) receptors remain functional in the presence of excess Abeta peptide and may therefore be a useful target in AD.

  3. Pharmacological profile of DA-6886, a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic motor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Kang Hun; Park, Hyun Min; Sung, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sunghak; Im, Weonbin

    2014-07-15

    DA-6886, the gastrointestinal prokinetic benzamide derivative is a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist being developed for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). The purpose of this study was to characterize in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of DA-6886. We used various receptor binding assay, cAMP accumulation assay, organ bath experiment and colonic transit assay in normal and chemically constipated mice. DA-6886 exhibited high affinity and selectivity to human 5-HT4 receptor splice variants, with mean pKi of 7.1, 7.5, 7.9 for the human 5-HT4a, 5-HT4b and 5-HT4d, respectively. By contrast, DA-6886 did not show significant affinity for several receptors including dopamine D2 receptor, other 5-HT receptors except for 5-HT2B receptor (pKi value of 6.2). The affinity for 5-HT4 receptor was translated into functional agonist activity in Cos-7 cells expressing 5-HT4 receptor splice variants. Furthermore, DA-6886 induced relaxation of the rat oesophagus preparation (pEC50 value of 7.4) in a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist-sensitive manner. The evaluation of DA-6886 in CHO cells expressing hERG channels revealed that it inhibited hERG channel current with an pIC50 value of 4.3, indicating that the compound was 1000-fold more selective for the 5-HT4 receptor over hERG channels. In the normal ICR mice, oral administration of DA-6886 (0.4 and 2mg/kg) resulted in marked stimulation of colonic transit. Furthermore, in the loperamide-induced constipation mouse model, 2mg/kg of DA-6886 significantly improved the delay of colonic transit, similar to 10mg/kg of tegaserod. Taken together, DA-6886 is a highly potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic transit in mice, which might be therapeutic agent having a favorable safety profile in the treatment of gastrointestinal motor disorders such as IBS-C and chronic constipation.

  4. The Pharmacology of TD-8954, a Potent and Selective 5-HT4 Receptor Agonist with Gastrointestinal Prokinetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, David T.; Armstrong, Scott R.; Vickery, Ross G.; Tsuruda, Pamela R.; Campbell, Christina B.; Richardson, Carrie; McCullough, Julia L.; Daniels, Oranee; Kersey, Kathryn; Li, Yu-Ping; Kim, Karl H. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of TD-8954, a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist. TD-8954 had high affinity (pKi = 9.4) for human recombinant 5-HT4(c) (h5-HT4(c)) receptors, and selectivity (>2,000-fold) over all other 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors and non-5-HT receptors, ion channels, enzymes and transporters tested (n = 78). TD-8954 produced an elevation of cAMP in HEK-293 cells expressing the h5-HT4(c) receptor (pEC50 = 9.3), and contracted the guinea pig colonic longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparation (pEC50 = 8.6). TD-8954 had moderate intrinsic activity in the in vitro assays. In conscious guinea pigs, subcutaneous administration of TD-8954 (0.03–3 mg/kg) increased the colonic transit of carmine red dye, reducing the time taken for its excretion. Following intraduodenal dosing to anesthetized rats, TD-8954 (0.03–10 mg/kg) evoked a dose-dependent relaxation of the esophagus. Following oral administration to conscious dogs, TD-8954 (10 and 30 μg/kg) produced an increase in contractility of the antrum, duodenum, and jejunum. In a single ascending oral dose study in healthy human subjects, TD-8954 (0.1–20 mg) increased bowel movement frequency and reduced the time to first stool. It is concluded that TD-8954 is a potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist in vitro, with robust in vivo stimulatory activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of guinea pigs, rats, dogs, and humans. TD-8954 may have clinical utility in patients with disorders of reduced GI motility. PMID:21687517

  5. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of new 5-HT4 receptor agonists: application as amyloid cascade modulators and potential therapeutic utility in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Russo, Olivier; Cachard-Chastel, Marthe; Rivière, Céline; Giner, Mireille; Soulier, Jean-Louis; Berthouze, Magali; Richard, Tristan; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Sicsic, Sames; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Berque-Bestel, Isabelle

    2009-04-23

    Serotonin 5-HT(4) receptor (5-HT(4)R) agonists are of particular interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease because of their ability to ameliorate cognitive deficits and to modulate production of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). However, despite the range of 5-HT(4)R agonists synthesized to date, potent and selective 5-HT(4)R agonists are still lacking. In the present study, two libraries of molecules based on the scaffold of ML10302, a highly specific and partial 5-HT(4)R agonist, were efficiently prepared by parallel supported synthesis and their binding affinities and agonist activities evaluated. Furthermore, we showed that, in vivo, the two best candidates exhibited neuroprotective activity by increasing the level of the soluble form of the amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) in the cortex and hippocampus of mice. Interestingly, one of these compounds could also inhibit Abeta fibril formation in vitro.

  6. Acquisition, Retention, and Recall of Memory After Injection of RS67333, a 5-HT4 Receptor Agonist, Into the Nucleus Basalis Magnocellularis of the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Orsetti, Marco; Dellarole, Anna; Ferri, Simona; Ghi, Piera

    2003-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT4 subtype receptor is predominantly localized into anatomical structures linked to memory and cognition. A few experimental studies report that the acute systemic administration of selective 5-HT4 agonists has ameliorative effects on memory performance, and that these effects are reversed by contemporary administration of 5-HT4 receptor antagonists. To verify whether this procognitive action occurs via the activation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM)-cortical pathways, we examined the effects of RS67333, a selective partial agonist of the 5-HT4 receptor, on rat performance in a place recognition task upon local administration of the drug into the NBM area. The intra-NBM administration of RS67333 enhances the acquisition (200–500 ng/0.5 μL) and the consolidation (40–200 ng/0.5 μL) of the place recognition memory. These effects are reversed by pretreatment with the selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist RS39604 (300 ng/0.5μL). Conversely, the recall of memory is not affected by the 5-HT4 agonist. Our results indicate that 5-HT4 receptors located within the NBM may play a role in spatial memory and that the procognitive effect of RS67333 is due, at least in part, to the potentiation of the activity of cholinergic NBM-cortical pathways. PMID:14557615

  7. Radiosynthesis and preclinical evaluation of [11C]prucalopride as a potential agonist PET ligand for the 5-HT4 receptor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serotonin 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4-R) agonists are potential therapeutic agents for enterokinetic and cognitive disorders and are marketed for treatment of constipation. The aim of this study was to develop an agonist positron emission tomography (PET) ligand in order to label the active G-protein coupled 5-HT4-R in peripheral and central tissues. For this purpose prucalopride, a high-affinity selective 5-HT4-R agonist, was selected. Methods [11C]Prucalopride was synthesized from [11C]methyl triflate and desmethyl prucalopride, and its LogDoct,pH7.4 was determined. Three distinct studies were performed with administration of IV [11C]prucalopride in male rats: (1) The biodistribution of radioactivity was measured ex vivo; (2) the kinetics of radioactivity levels in brain regions and peripheral organs was assessed in vivo under baseline conditions and following pre-treatment with tariquidar, a P-glycoprotein efflux pump inhibitor; and (3) in vivo stability of [11C]prucalopride was checked ex vivo in plasma and brain extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results [11C]Prucalopride was synthesized in optimised conditions with a yield of 21% ± 4% (decay corrected) and a radiochemical purity (>99%), its LogDoct,pH7.4 was 0.87. Ex vivo biodistribution studies with [11C]prucalopride in rats showed very low levels of radioactivity in brain (maximal 0.13% ID·g−1) and ten times higher levels in certain peripheral tissues. The PET studies confirmed very low brain levels of radioactivity under baseline conditions; however, it was increased three times after pre-treatment with tariquidar. [11C]Prucalopride was found to be very rapidly metabolised in rats, with no parent compound detectable in plasma and brain extracts at 5 and 30 min following IV administration. Analysis of levels of radioactivity in peripheral tissues revealed a distinct PET signal in the caecum, which was reduced following tariquidar pre-treatment. The latter is in line with the

  8. Chronic 5-HT4 receptor agonist treatment restores learning and memory deficits in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression.

    PubMed

    Darcet, Flavie; Gardier, Alain M; David, Denis J; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-11

    Cognitive disturbances are often reported as serious invalidating symptoms in patients suffering from major depression disorders (MDD) and are not fully corrected by classical monoaminergic antidepressant drugs. If the role of 5-HT4 receptor agonists as cognitive enhancers is well established in naïve animals or in animal models of cognitive impairment, their cognitive effects in the context of stress need to be examined. Using a mouse model of anxiety/depression (CORT model), we reported that a chronic 5-HT4 agonist treatment (RS67333, 1.5mg/kg/day) restored chronic corticosterone-induced cognitive deficits, including episodic-like, associative and spatial learning and memory impairments. On the contrary, a chronic monoaminergic antidepressant drug treatment with fluoxetine (18mg/kg/day) only partially restored spatial learning and memory deficits and had no effect in the associative/contextual task. These results suggest differential mechanisms underlying cognitive effects of these drugs. Finally, the present study highlights 5-HT4 receptor stimulation as a promising therapeutic mechanism to alleviate cognitive symptoms related to MDD.

  9. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Camilleri, M; Chang, L; Chey, W D; Galligan, J J; Lacy, B E; Müller-Lissner, S; Quigley, E M M; Schuurkes, J; Maeyer, J H; Stanghellini, V

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The nonselective 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cisapride and tegaserod have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Aim To perform a systematic review of the safety profile, particularly cardiovascular, of 5-HT4 agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders, and a nonsystematic summary of their pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Methods Articles reporting data on cisapride, clebopride, prucalopride, mosapride, renzapride, tegaserod, TD-5108 (velusetrag) and ATI-7505 (naronapride) were identified through a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Toxfile. Abstracts from UEGW 2006–2008 and DDW 2008–2010 were searched for these drug names, and pharmaceutical companies approached to provide unpublished data. Results Retrieved articles on pharmacokinetics, human pharmacodynamics and clinical data with these 5-HT4 agonists, are reviewed and summarised nonsystematically. Articles relating to cardiac safety and tolerability of these agents, including any relevant case reports, are reported systematically. Two nonselective 5-HT4 agonists had reports of cardiovascular AEs: cisapride (QT prolongation) and tegaserod (ischaemia). Interactions with, respectively, the hERG cardiac potassium channel and 5-HT1 receptor subtypes have been suggested to account for these effects. No cardiovascular safety concerns were reported for the newer, selective 5-HT4 agonists prucalopride, velusetrag, naronapride, or for nonselective 5-HT4 agonists with no hERG or 5-HT1 affinity (renzapride, clebopride, mosapride). Conclusions 5-HT4 agonists for GI disorders differ in chemical structure and selectivity for 5-HT4 receptors. Selectivity for 5-HT4 over non-5-HT4 receptors may influence the agent's safety and overall risk–benefit profile. Based on available evidence, highly selective 5-HT4 agonists may offer improved safety to treat patients with impaired GI motility. PMID:22356640

  10. Randomized clinical trial: effect of the 5-HT4 receptor agonist revexepride on reflux parameters in patients with persistent reflux symptoms despite PPI treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tack, J; Zerbib, F; Blondeau, K; des Varannes, S B; Piessevaux, H; Borovicka, J; Mion, F; Fox, M; Bredenoord, A J; Louis, H; Dedrie, S; Hoppenbrouwers, M; Meulemans, A; Rykx, A; Thielemans, L; Ruth, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately, 20–30% of patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) experience persistent symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). These patients may have underlying dysmotility; therefore, targeting gastric motor dysfunction in addition to acid inhibition may represent a new therapeutic avenue. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacodynamic effect of the prokinetic agent revexepride (a 5-HT4 receptor agonist) in patients with GERD who have persistent symptoms despite treatment with a PPI. Methods This was a phase II, exploratory, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study in patients with GERD who experienced persistent symptoms while taking a stable dose of PPIs (http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01370863). Patients were randomized to either revexepride (0.5 mg, three times daily) or matching placebo for 4 weeks. Reflux events and associated characteristics were assessed by pH/impedance monitoring and disease symptoms were assessed using electronic diaries and questionnaires. Key Results In total, 67 patients were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences between study arms in the number, the mean proximal extent or the bolus clearance times of liquid-containing reflux events. Changes from baseline in the number of heartburn, regurgitation, and other symptom events were minimal for each treatment group and no clear trends were observed. Conclusions & Inferences No clear differences were seen in reflux parameters between the placebo and revexepride groups. PMID:25530111

  11. Mosapride, a selective serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist, and alogliptin, a selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exert synergic effects on plasma active GLP-1 levels and glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacologic stimulation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors increased plasma active glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels independent of feeding, and that pharmacologic stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors and pharmacologic inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 exerted synergic effects on plasma active GLP-1 levels and glucose tolerance in mice.

  12. Isolation of the serotoninergic 5-HT4(e) receptor from human heart and comparative analysis of its pharmacological profile in C6-glial and CHO cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mialet, Jeanne; Berque-Bestel, Isabelle; Eftekhari, Pierre; Gastineau, Monique; Giner, Mireille; Dahmoune, Yamina; Donzeau-Gouge, Patrick; Hoebeke, Johan; Langlois, Michel; Sicsic, Sames; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Lezoualc'h, Frank

    2000-01-01

    RT–PCR technique was used to clone the human 5-HT4(e) receptor (h5-HT4(e)) from heart atrium. We showed that this h5-HT4(e) receptor splice variant is restricted to brain and heart atrium. Recombinant h5-HT4(e) receptor was stably expressed in CHO and C6-glial cell lines at 347 and 88 fmol mg−1 protein, respectively. Expression of h5-HT4(e) receptors at the cell membrane was confirmed by immunoblotting. The receptor binding profile, determined by competition with [3H]-GR113808 of a number of 5-HT4 ligands, was consistent with that previously reported for other 5-HT4 receptor isoforms. Surprisingly, we found that the rank order of potencies (EC50) of 5-HT4 agonists obtained from adenylyl cyclase functional assays was inversely correlated to their rank order of affinities (Ki) obtained from binding assays. Furthermore, EC50 values for 5-HT, renzapride and cisapride were 2 fold lower in C6-glial cells than in CHO cells. ML10302 and renzapride behaved like partial agonists on the h5-HT4(e) receptor. These results are in agreement with the reported low efficacy of the these two compounds on L-type Ca2+ currents and myocyte contractility in human atrium. A constitutive activity of the h5-HT4(e) receptor was observed in CHO cells in the absence of any 5-HT4 ligand and two 5-HT4 antagonists, GR113808 and ML10375, behaved as inverse agonists. These data show that the h5-HT4(e) receptor has a pharmacological profile which is close to the native h5-HT4 receptor in human atrium with a functional potency which is dependent on the cellular context in which the receptor is expressed. PMID:10683202

  13. Roles of the serotonin 5-HT4 receptor in dendrite formation of the rat hippocampal neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kozono, Naoki; Ohtani, Akiko; Shiga, Takashi

    2017-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in various aspects of hippocampal development, although the specific roles of 5-HT receptors are poorly understood. We investigated the roles of 5-HT receptors in the dendrite formation of hippocampal neurons. We focused on the 5-HT4 receptor, which is coupled with Gs protein, and compared the effects with those of the Gi-coupled 5-HT1A receptor. Neurons from rat hippocampi at embryonic day 18 were dissociated and treated for 4 days with the 5-HT4 receptor agonist BIMU8 or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH DPAT. The formation of primary dendrites and dendrite branching were promoted by BIMU8, whereas the dendrite branching was inhibited by 8-OH DPAT. BIMU8-induced promotion of dendrite formation was neutralized by concomitant treatment with the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, confirming the specific actions of the 5-HT4 receptor. We then examined the signaling mechanisms underlying the actions of the 5-HT4 receptor by using a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The BIMU8-induced promotion of dendrite formation was reversed partially by the PKA inhibitor, suggesting involvement of PKA signaling downstream of the 5-HT4 receptor. Finally, we examined the contribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the promotion of dendrite formation by BIMU8. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that BIMU8 increased the BDNF mRNA expression and that treatment of cultured neurons with the TrkB antagonist reversed the BIMU8-induced increase in dendrite formation. In summary, the present study suggests a novel role for the 5-HT4 receptor in facilitation of dendrite formation in which intracellular signaling of PKA and the BDNF-TrkB system may be involved.

  14. Modifications of 5-HT4 receptor expression in rat brain during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Manuel-Apolinar, L; Rocha, L; Pascoe, D; Castillo, E; Castillo, C; Meneses, A

    2005-04-25

    Pharmacological evidence indicates a specific role of 5-HT(4) receptors on memory function. These receptors are members of G-protein-coupled 7-transmembrane domain receptor superfamily, are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, and are heterogeneously located in some structures important for memory, such as the hippocampus and cortical regions. To further clarify 5-HT(4) receptors' role in memory, the expression of these receptors in passive (P3) untrained and autoshaping (A3) trained (3 sessions) adult (3 months) and old (P9 or A9; 9 months) male rats was determined by autoradiography. Adult trained (A3) rats showed a better memory respect to old trained (A9). Using [(3)H] GR113808 as ligand (0.2 nM specific activity 81 Ci/mmol) for 5-HT(4) receptor expression, 29 brain areas were analyzed, 16 areas of A3 and 17 of A9 animals displayed significant changes. The medial mammillary nucleus of A3 group showed diminished 5-HT(4) receptor expression, and in other 15 brain areas of A3 or 10 of A9 animals, 5-HT(4) receptors were increased. Thus, for A3 rats, 5-HT(4) receptors were augmented in olfactory lobule, caudate putamen, fundus striatum, CA2, retrosplenial, frontal, temporal, occipital, and cingulate cortex. Also, 5-HT(4) receptors were increased in olfactory tubercule, hippocampal CA1, parietal, piriform, and cingulate cortex of A9. However, hippocampal CA2 and CA3 areas, and frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex of A9 rats, expressed less 5-HT(4) receptors. These findings suggest that serotonergic activity, via 5-HT(4) receptors in hippocampal, striatum, and cortical areas, mediates memory function and provides further evidence for a complex and regionally specific regulation over 5-HT receptor expression during memory formation.

  15. 5-HT4 receptor-mediated neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the enteric nervous system of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min-Tsai; Kuan, Yung-Hui; Wang, Jingwen; Hen, René; Gershon, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Although the mature enteric nervous system (ENS) has been shown to retain stem cells, enteric neurogenesis has not previously been demonstrated in adults. The relative number of enteric neurons in wild-type (WT) mice and those lacking 5-HT4 receptors (KO) was found to be similar at birth; however, the abundance of ENS neurons increased during the first 4 months after birth in WT but not KO littermates. Enteric neurons subsequently decreased in both WT and KO but at 12 months were significantly more numerous in WT. We tested the hypothesis that stimulation of the 5-HT4 receptor promotes enteric neuron survival and/or neurogenesis. In vitro, 5-HT4 agonists increased enteric neuronal development/survival, decreased apoptosis, and activated CREB. In vivo, in WT but not KO mice, 5-HT4 agonists induced bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into cells that expressed markers of neurons (HuC/D, doublecortin), neural precursors (Sox10, nestin, Phox2b), or stem cells (Musashi-1). This is the first demonstration of adult enteric neurogenesis; our results suggest that 5-HT4 receptors are required postnatally for ENS growth and maintenance. PMID:19657021

  16. Identification and functional characterisation of 5-HT4 receptor in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianming; Yang, Zhen; Zhou, Naiming; Sun, Lina; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that controls a variety of sensory and motor functions through 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs). The 5-HT4R subfamily is linked to Gs proteins, which activate adenylyl cyclases (ACs), and is involved in many responses in peripheral organs. In this study, the 5-HT4R from Apostichopus japonicus (Aj5-HT4R) was identified and characterised. The cloned full-length Aj5-HT4R cDNA is 1,544 bp long and contains an open reading frame 1,011 bp in length encoding 336 amino acid proteins. Bioinformatics analysis of the Aj5-HT4R protein indicated this receptor was a member of class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Further experiments using Aj5-HT4R-transfected HEK293 cells demonstrated that treatment with 5-HT triggered a significant increase in intracellular cAMP level in a dose-dependent manner and induced a rapid internalisation of Aj5-HT4R fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (Aj5-HT4R-EGFP) from the cell surface into the cytoplasm. In addition, the transcriptional profiles of Aj5-HT4R in aestivating A. japonicas and phosphofructokinase (AjPFK) in 5-HT administrated A. japonicus have been analysed by real-time PCR assays. Results have led to a basic understanding of Aj5-HT4R in A. japonicus, and provide a foundation for further exploration of the cell signaling and regulatory functions of this receptor. PMID:28059140

  17. Autoantibodies against serotoninergic 5-HT(4) receptor in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Breidert, M; Wördehoff, S; Hansen, A; Eftekhari, P

    2012-01-01

    Serotoninergic 5-HT(4) receptors have been detected in several tissues including the heart. An autoimmune mechanism may underline the pathogenesis of heart failure. The aim of this work was to look for autoantibodies to the 5-HT(4) receptor in patients with heart failure. We looked for the presence of autoantibodies against 5-HT(4) receptor as well as angiotensin II type (AT1), β(1)-adrenoceptor, and muscarinic M2 receptors in the sera of 176 patients with heart failure (female: n=96, male: n=80) and in 108 controls (female: n=69; male: n=39). The prevalence of 5-HT(4) receptor autoantibodies was 18.8% (n=33) in the group of patients with heart failure and 4.6% (n=5) in the control group (p<0.002). The prevalence of autoantibodies against AT1 was 1.7 (n=3), β(1)-adrenoreceptor 0.6 (n=1), and muscarinic-receptor M2 4.2 (n=5). Female patients with diabetes and heart failure had a positive trend (p=0.07) to the presence of 5-HT(4) receptor autoantibodies. In the group of female heart failure patients we found a significant correlation with the presence of coronary heart disease (p=0.05). The clinical relevance of 5-HT(4) receptor autoantibodies has to be further studied. The prevalence of 5-HT(4) receptor autoantibodies was highly significant in patients with chronic heart failure. It was also a significant correlation between these autoantibodies and the female subgroup with coronary heart disease. It is conceivable that the increased prevalence of autoantibodies against the 5-HT(4) receptor in patients with heart failure is more than just an epiphenomenon.

  18. Activity-dependent bidirectional regulation of GABAA receptor channels by the 5-HT4 receptor-mediated signalling in rat prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Flores-Hernandez, Jorge; Feng, Jian; Yan, Zhen

    2002-01-01

    Emerging evidence has implicated a potential role for 5-HT4 receptors in cognition and anxiolysis. One of the main target structures of 5-HT4 receptors on ‘cognitive and emotional’ pathways is the prefrontal cortex (PFC). As GABAergic signalling plays a key role in regulating PFC functions, we examined the effect of 5-HT4 receptors on GABAA receptor channels in PFC pyramidal neurons. Application of 5-HT4 receptor agonists produced either an enhancement or a reduction of GABA-evoked currents in PFC neurons, which are both mediated by anchored protein kinase A (PKA). Although PKA phosphorylation of GABAA receptor β3 or β1 subunits leads to current enhancement or reduction respectively in heterologous expression systems, we found that β3 and β1 subunits are co-expressed in PFC pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, altering PKA activation levels can change the direction of the dual effect, switching enhancement to reduction and vice versa. In addition, increased neuronal activity in PFC slices elevated the PKA activation level, changing the enhancing effect of 5-HT4 receptors on the amplitude of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) to a reduction. These results suggest that 5-HT4 receptors can modulate GABAergic signalling bidirectionally, depending on the basal PKA activation levels that are determined by neuronal activity. This modulation provides a unique and flexible mechanism for 5-HT4 receptors to dynamically regulate synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in the PFC network. PMID:11986365

  19. 5HT4 agonists inhibit interferon-gamma-induced MHC class II and B7 costimulatory molecules expression on cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zeinstra, Esther M; Wilczak, Nadine; Wilschut, Jan C; Glazenburg, Lisa; Chesik, Daniel; Kroese, Frans G M; De Keyser, Jacques

    2006-10-01

    A failure of tight control of MHC class II expression on astrocytes may play a role in the development of autoimmune responses in multiple sclerosis. The 5-HT(4) serotonin receptor agonists cisapride and prucalopride, at concentrations between 10(-10) M and 10(-8) M, reduced interferon-gamma-induced MHC class II immunostaining in cultured astrocytes derived from newborn Wistar rats by approximately 50-60%. The magnitude of MHC class II inhibition by 5-HT(4) agonists was comparable to that of interferon-beta. The alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor agonist phenylephrine was without effect. Cisapride (10(-9) M) also prevented interferon-gamma-induced B7-1 and B7-2 immunostaining. Our results suggest that 5-HT(4) agonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple sclerosis by inhibiting the up-regulation of immune responsiveness of astrocytes in the central nervous system.

  20. 3D Pharmacophore, hierarchical methods, and 5-HT4 receptor binding data.

    PubMed

    Varin, Thibault; Saettel, Nicolas; Villain, Jonathan; Lesnard, Aurelien; Dauphin, François; Bureau, Ronan; Rault, Sylvain

    2008-10-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine subtype-4 (5-HT(4)) receptors have stimulated considerable interest amongst scientists and clinicians owing to their importance in neurophysiology and potential as therapeutic targets. A comparative analysis of hierarchical methods applied to data from one thousand 5-HT(4) receptor-ligand binding interactions was carried out. The chemical structures were described as chemical and pharmacophore fingerprints. The definitions of indices, related to the quality of the hierarchies in being able to distinguish between active and inactive compounds, revealed two interesting hierarchies with the Unity (1 active cluster) and pharmacophore fingerprints (4 active clusters). The results of this study also showed the importance of correct choice of metrics as well as the effectiveness of a new alternative of the Ward clustering algorithm named Energy (Minimum E-Distance method). In parallel, the relationship between these classifications and a previously defined 3D 5-HT(4) antagonist pharmacophore was established.

  1. 5-HT4 Receptors Constitutively Promote the Non-Amyloidogenic Pathway of APP Cleavage and Interact with ADAM10

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the amyloidogenic pathway, amyloid precursor protein (APP) can be cleaved by α-secretases, producing soluble and neuroprotective APP alpha (sAPPα) (nonamyloidogenic pathway) and thus preventing the generation of pathogenic amyloid-β. However, the mechanisms regulating APP cleavage by α-secretases remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that expression of serotonin type 4 receptors (5-HT4Rs) constitutively (without agonist stimulation) induced APP cleavage by the α-secretase ADAM10 and the release of neuroprotective sAPPα in HEK-293 cells and cortical neurons. This effect was independent of cAMP production. Interestingly, we demonstrated that 5-HT4 receptors physically interacted with the mature form of ADAM10. Stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors by an agonist further increased sAPPα secretion, and this effect was mediated by cAMP/Epac signaling. These findings describe a new mechanism whereby a GPCR constitutively stimulates the cleavage of APP by α-secretase and promotes the nonamyloidogenic pathway of APP processing. PMID:23336052

  2. 5-HT4 receptor agonism in the five-choice serial reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Hille, Christopher; Bate, Simon; Davis, John; Gonzalez, Maria I

    2008-12-16

    5-HT4 agonists are currently being developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and have previously been demonstrated to improve cognitive performance in a variety of tests but none that specifically test attention. Here we characterise the 5-HT4 partial agonist SL65.0155 compared to the reference drug, nicotine, in a test that is used to measure attention in rats, the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). SL65.0155 (0.1 or 1 mg/kg s.c) and nicotine (0.2 mg/kg s.c.) were tested in protocols using fixed or variable stimulus durations. SL65.0155 improved performance by virtue of reducing incorrect responses and increasing % correct trials. Perseverative responses were reduced by SL65.0155, and latency during incorrect trials was increased following treatment with 0.1 mg/kg SL65.0155. Nicotine, as previously reported, improved performance in several parameters in the 5CSRTT, including response latencies, errors of omission and correct responses in both the baseline and variable stimulus protocol. These data suggest 5-HT4 agonists may have beneficial effects on attention and thereby may be useful for the treatment of cognitive deficits.

  3. Comparative receptor mapping of serotoninergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 binding sites*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, María L.; Morcillo, María José; Benhamú, Bellinda; Rosado, María Luisa

    1997-11-01

    The clinical use of currently available drugs acting at the5-HT4 receptor has been hampered by their lack of selectivityover 5-HT3 binding sites. For this reason, there is considerableinterest in the medicinal chemistry of these serotonin receptor subtypes, andsignificant effort has been made towards the discovery of potent and selectiveligands. Computer-aided conformational analysis was used to characterizeserotoninergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptorrecognition. On the basis of the generally accepted model of the5-HT3 antagonist pharmacophore, we have performed a receptormapping of this receptor binding site, following the active analog approach(AAA) defined by Marshall. The receptor excluded volume was calculated as theunion of the van der Waals density maps of nine active ligands(pKi ≥ 8.9), superimposed in pharmacophoric conformations.Six inactive analogs (pKi < 7.0) were subsequently used todefine the essential volume, which in its turn can be used to define theregions of steric intolerance of the 5-HT3 receptor. Five activeligands (pKi ≥ 9.3) at 5-HT4 receptors wereused to construct an antagonist pharmacophore for this receptor, and todetermine its excluded volume by superimposition of pharmacophoricconformations. The volume defined by the superimposition of five inactive5-HT4 receptor analogs that possess the pharmacophoric elements(pKi ≤ 6.6) did not exceed the excluded volume calculated forthis receptor. In this case, the inactivity may be due to the lack of positiveinteraction of the amino moiety with a hypothetical hydrophobic pocket, whichwould interact with the voluminous substituents of the basic nitrogen ofactive ligands. The difference between the excluded volumes of both receptorshas confirmed that the main difference is indeed in the basic moiety. Thus,the 5-HT3 receptor can only accommodate small substituents inthe position of the nitrogen atom, whereas the 5-HT4 receptorrequires more voluminous groups. Also, the basic nitrogen is located at ca

  4. 5-HT induces cAMP production in crypt colonocytes at a 5-HT4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F C; Smith, E H; Kellum, J M

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that both 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) induce chloride efflux from crypt colonocytes in the rat distal colon; antagonist studies suggest that the 5-HT response is mediated primarily by the 5-HT4 receptor. Since this receptor is known to be positively coupled to adenylate cyclase, we postulated that 5-HT should induce generation of cAMP, which should be inhibited by 5-HT4 antagonists. Method. Mucosal cells from rat distal colon were taken by a sequential calcium chelation technique for enrichment of crypt cells. Cytokeratin stains demonstrated that >99% of cells were colonocytes. [3H]Thymidine uptake studies demonstrate a fivefold increased incorporation in this cell preparation compared to earlier fractions. 3-Isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX, 100 microM) was added to all cell suspensions in order to prevent cAMP metabolism. Cell suspensions were incubated for 2 min at 37 degreesC with different concentrations of 5-HT (n = 7). cAMP was measured by enzyme immunoassay. In another series of experiments, 5-HT (0.3 microM) stimulation of cAMP was similarly measured in the presence and absence of 5-HT receptor antagonists: 10 microM 5-HTP-DP (5-HT1P; n = 4), 0.1 microM ketanserin (5-HT2A; n = 4), 0.3 microM ondansetron (5-HT3; n = 4), 3 microM tropisetron (5-HT3 and 5-HT4; n = 4), and 10 nM GR-113808 (5-HT4; n = 5). Results. 5-HT produced a dose-dependent increase in cAMP. The increase was significant at concentrations >/=0.3 microM when compared to cells incubated with IBMX alone. In the second series of experiment, 5-HT-induced generation of cAMP at a dose of 0.3 microM was significantly inhibited in the presence of GR-113808 and tropisetron. Conclusion. 5-HT acts at a 5-HT4 receptor to induce production of cAMP in rat distal crypt colonocytes.

  5. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding.

    PubMed

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Jensen, Peter Steen; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2016-04-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well as BPAQ physical aggression (P = 0.025). No main effect of global 5-HT4R on trait aggression or impulsivity was found in the mixed gender sample, but there was evidence for sex interaction effects in the relationship between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ physical aggression. In conclusion we found that low cerebral 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4R binding were associated with high trait aggression in males, but not in females.

  6. The effects of CA1 5HT4 receptors in MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Tabatabaie, Maryam; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-02-05

    In this study, the effects of 5-HT4 receptors of the CA1 on MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion were examined. One-trial step-down method was used to assess memory retention and then, the hole-board method to assess exploratory behaviors. The results showed that post-training intra-CA1 administration of RS67333 (62.5 and 625 ng/mouse) and RS23597 (1 and 10 ng/mouse) decreased memory consolidation, but it did not alter head-dip counts, head-dip latency and locomotor activity. Similarly, MK801 (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse) decreased memory consolidation, but had no effect on head-dip counts and head-dip latency. Interestingly, it increased locomotor activity. The results also showed that post-training intra-CA1 injection of a sub-threshold dose of RS67333 (6.25 ng/mouse) or RS23597 (0.1 ng/mouse) could heighten MK801 induced amnesia and decrease locomotor activity, but it did not alter head-dip counts and head-dip latency. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the CA1 5-HT4 receptors are involved in MK801-induced amnesia and hyperlocomotion.

  7. Exploration of the ligand binding site of the human 5-HT(4) receptor by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Mialet, J; Dahmoune, Y; Lezoualc'h, F; Berque-Bestel, I; Eftekhari, P; Hoebeke, J; Sicsic, S; Langlois, M; Fischmeister, R

    2000-06-01

    Among the five human 5-HT(4) (h5-HT(4)) receptor isoforms, the h5-HT(4(a)) receptor was studied with a particular emphasis on the molecular interactions involved in ligand binding. For this purpose, we used site-directed mutagenesis of the transmembrane domain. Twelve mutants were constructed with a special focus on the residue P4.53 of helix IV which substitutes in h5-HT(4) receptors the highly conserved S residue among the rhodopsin family receptors. The mutated receptors were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. Ligand binding or competition studies with two h5-HT(4) receptor agonists, serotonin and ML10302 and two h5-HT(4) receptor antagonists, [(3)H]-GR113808 and ML10375 were performed on wild type and mutant receptors. Functional activity of the receptors was evaluated by measuring the ability of serotonin to stimulate adenylyl cyclase. Ligand binding experiments revealed that [(3)H]-GR113808 did not bind to mutants P4.53A, S5.43A, F6.51A, Y7.43A and to double mutant F6.52V/N6.55L. On the other hand mutations D3.32N, S5.43A and Y7.43A appeared to promote a dramatic decrease of h5-HT(4(a)) receptor functional activity. From these studies, S5.43 and Y7.43 clearly emerged as common anchoring sites to antagonist [(3)H]-GR113808 and to serotonin. According to these results, we propose ligand-receptor complex models with serotonin and [(3)H]-GR113808. For serotonin, three interaction points were selected including ionic interaction with D3.32, a stabilizing interaction of this ion pair by Y7.43 and a hydrogen bond with S5.43. [(3)H]-GR113808 was also docked, based on the same type of interactions with S5.43 and D3.32: the proposed model suggested a possible role of P4.53 in helix IV structure allowing the involvement of a close hydrophobic residue, W4.50, in a hydrophobic pocket for hydrophobic interactions with the indole ring of [(3)H]-GR113808.

  8. Wood creosote prevents CRF-induced motility via 5-HT3 receptors in proximal and 5-HT4 receptors in distal colon in rats.

    PubMed

    Ataka, Koji; Kuge, Tomoo; Fujino, Kazunori; Takahashi, Toku; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2007-05-30

    Wood creosote has been used as an herbal medicine against acute diarrhea caused by food poisoning and has an inhibitory effect on colonic motility and enterotoxin-induced ion secretion. Since no previous studies have examined the effects of wood creosote on stress-induced alteration of colonic motility, we examined the effects on the colonic motility altered by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is a key mediator in responses to stress. We recorded motor activity in proximal and distal colon of unrestrained conscious rats via two manometory catheters. The frequencies of phase III-like contraction and the % motor indices in both proximal and distal colon were measured. At the same time the number of fecal pellets excreted was counted. I.c.v. injection of CRF increased the motor activity in both proximal and distal colon, and these effects were completely antagonized by i.c.v. injection of a selective CRF type 1 antagonist but not by a CRF type 2 antagonist. Changes in colonic motility induced by CRF were reversed by intravenously administered wood creosote. Intraluminal administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron, or the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist SB 204070 blocked the increase in colonic motility induced by i.c.v. injection of CRF. Wood creosote prevented the increase in colonic motility induced by the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist SR57227A in the proximal colon, while it prevented the increase in colonic motility induced by the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist RS67506 in the distal colon. These results indicate that wood creosote prevents the increase in colonic motility induced by CRF via 5-HT(3) receptors in the proximal colon, and via 5-HT(4) receptors in the distal colon, suggesting that wood creosote might be useful to treat stress-induced diarrhea.

  9. 5-HT4-Receptors Modulate Induction of Long-Term Depression but Not Potentiation at Hippocampal Output Synapses in Acute Rat Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Wawra, Matthias; Fidzinski, Pawel; Heinemann, Uwe; Mody, Istvan; Behr, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The subiculum is the principal target of CA1 pyramidal cells and mediates hippocampal output to various cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. The majority of subicular pyramidal cells are burst-spiking neurons. Previous studies indicated that high frequency stimulation in subicular burst-spiking cells causes presynaptic NMDA-receptor dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) whereas low frequency stimulation induces postsynaptic NMDA-receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD). In the present study, we investigate the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 (5-HT4) receptor activation and blockade on both forms of synaptic plasticity in burst-spiking cells. We demonstrate that neither activation nor block of 5-HT4 receptors modulate the induction or expression of LTP. In contrast, activation of 5-HT4 receptors facilitates expression of LTD, and block of the 5-HT4 receptor prevents induction of short-term depression and LTD. As 5-HT4 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1), 5-HT4 receptors might modulate PKA activity through AC1. Since LTD is blocked in the presence of 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, our data are consistent with 5-HT4 receptor activation by ambient serotonin or intrinsically active 5-HT4 receptors. Our findings provide new insight into aminergic modulation of hippocampal output. PMID:24505387

  10. Behavioral effects of D3 receptor inhibition and 5-HT4 receptor activation on animals undergoing chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Abboussi, Oualid; Said, Nadia; Fifel, Karim; Lakehayli, Sara; Tazi, Abdelouahhab; El Ganouni, Soumaya

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence results in long-lasting behavioral deficits that match some symptomatologic aspects of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the reversibility of the emotional and the cognitive effects of chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence, via subsequent modulation of the serotoninergic 5-HT4 and dopaminergic D3 receptors. RS67333 as a 5-HT4 agonist and U-99194A as a D3 antagonist were administered separately at 1 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, and in combination at 0.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg to adult animals undergoing chronic treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) during adolescence. Animals were tested for anxiety-like behavior and episodic-like memory in the open field and novel object recognition tests respectively 30 minutes after the last drug administration. Chronic WIN55,212-2 treated animals exhibited a lasting disruption of episodic memory and increased anxiety levels. The effect on episodic-like memory were partially restored by acute administration of RS67333 and U-99194A and completely by administration of both drugs in combination at lower doses. However, only RS67333 (20 mg/kg) improved the anxiogenic-like effect of WIN55,212-2. These findings give further support that chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence may be used as an animal model for schizophrenia, and highlight D3 and 5-HT4 receptors as potential targets for an enhanced treatment of the cognitive aspect of this disease.

  11. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)4 receptors in post mortem human brain tissue: distribution, pharmacology and effects of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, G P; Mason, S L; Meldrum, A; De Keczer, S; Parnes, H; Eglen, R M; Wong, E H

    1995-01-01

    1. The distribution, pharmacology and effects of neurodegenerative diseases on 5-HT4 receptors in human brain have been characterized in vitro. 2. The 5-HT4 receptor in post mortem human brain tissue was specifically labelled with [3H]-GR 113808. In human putamen, this ligand labelled a homogeneous population of sites, with an apparent affinity (-log Kd) of 10.1 and a density (Bmax) of 5.73 fmol mg-1 tissue. The pharmacology of this site was characterized by use of a series of displacing ligands, and the following rank order of apparent affinities (with mean +/- s.d. -log Ki values in parentheses) was generated: GR113808 (10.05 +/- 0.04) > SDZ 205,557 (8.65 +/- 0.08) > DAU 6285 (7.95 +/- 0.04) > BIMU-1 (7.81 +/- 0.06) > DAU 6215 (7.42 +/- 0.23) > tropisetron (7.39 +/- 0.23) > 5-HT (7.32 +/- 1.00) > BIMU-8 (7.25 +/- 0.04) > (R)-zacopride (5.82 +/- 0.04). The Hill coefficients were not significantly different from unity, consistent with an interaction at a single site. A comparison of the affinities of these compounds with those obtained from guinea-pig striatum indicated no evidence of species differences. 3. The regional distribution of 5-HT4 receptors was assessed by determining the density of binding sites for [3H]-GR 113808.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7780656

  12. Differences in the Control of Secondary Peristalsis in the Human Esophagus: Influence of the 5-HT4 Receptor versus the TRPV1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chih-Hsun; Lei, Wei-Yi; Hung, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Orr, William C.; Fabio, Pace; Chen, Chien-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acute administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist, mosapride or esophageal infusion of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin promotes secondary peristalsis. We aimed to investigate whether acute esophageal instillation of capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce or administration of mosapride has different effects on the physiological characteristics of secondary peristalsis. Methods Secondary peristalsis was induced with mid-esophageal air injections in 14 healthy subjects. We compared the effects on secondary peristalsis subsequent to capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce (pure capsaicin, 0.84 mg) or 40 mg oral mosapride. Results The threshold volume for generating secondary peristalsis during slow air distensions was significantly decreased with capsaicin infusion compared to mosapride (11.6 ± 1.0 vs. 14.1 ± 0.8 mL, P = 0.02). The threshold volume required to produce secondary peristalsis during rapid air distension was also significantly decreased with capsaicin infusion (4.6 ± 0.5 vs. 5.2 ± 0.6 mL, P = 0.02). Secondary peristalsis was noted more frequently in response to rapid air distension after capsaicin infusion than mosapride (80% [60–100%] vs. 65% [5–100%], P = 0.04). Infusion of capsaicin or mosapride administration didn’t change any parameters of primary or secondary peristalsis. Conclusions Esophageal infusion with capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce suspension does create greater mechanosensitivity as measured by secondary peristalsis than 5-HT4 receptor agonist mosapride. Capsaicin-sensitive afferents appear to be more involved in the sensory modulation of distension-induced secondary peristalsis. PMID:27438088

  13. In vitro enhanced differentiation of neural networks in ES gut-like organ from mouse ES cells by a 5-HT4-receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Miyako; Misawa, Hiromi; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Kawahara, Isao; Goto, Kei; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Obata, Koji; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2011-03-25

    Using an embryoid body (EB) culture system, we developed a functional organ-like cluster, a "gut", from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (ES gut). Each ES gut exhibited various types of spontaneous movements. In these spontaneously contracting ES guts, dense distributions of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) (c-kit, a transmembrane receptor that has tyrosine kinase activity, positive cells; gut pacemaker cells) and smooth muscle cells were discernibly identified, but enteric neural networks were not identified. In the present study, we succeeded in forming dense enteric neural networks by a 5-HT(4)-receptor (SR4) agonist, mosapride citrate (1-10 μM) added only during EB formation. Addition of an SR4-antagonist, GR113808 (10 μM) abolished the SR4-agonist-induced formation of enteric neural networks. The SR4-agonist (1 μM) up-regulated the expression of mRNA of SR4 and the SR4-antagonist abolished this upregulation. 5-HT per se exerted similar effects to those of SR4-agonist, though less potent. These results suggest SR4-agonist differentiated enteric neural networks, mediated via activation of SR4 in the ES gut.

  14. The peptidic antidepressant spadin interacts with prefrontal 5-HT(4) and mGluR(2) receptors in the control of serotonergic function.

    PubMed

    Moha ou Maati, Hamid; Bourcier-Lucas, Céline; Veyssiere, Julie; Kanzari, Ameni; Heurteaux, Catherine; Borsotto, Marc; Haddjeri, Nasser; Lucas, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the mechanism of action of spadin, a putative fast-acting peptidic antidepressant (AD) and a functional blocker of the K(+) TREK-1 channel, in relation with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-dorsal raphé (DRN) serotonergic (5-HT) neurons connectivity. Spadin increased 5-HT neuron firing rate by 113%, an augmentation abolished after electrolytic lesion of the mPFC. Among the few receptor subtypes known to modulate TREK-1, the stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors and the blockade of mGluR2/3 ones both activated 5-HT impulse flow, effects also suppressed by mPFC lesion. The combination of spadin with the 5-HT4 agonist RS 67333 paradoxically reduced 5-HT firing, an effect reversed by acutely administering the 5-HT1A agonist flesinoxan. It also had a robust synergetic effect on the expression of Zif268 within the DRN. Together, these results strongly suggest that 5-HT neurons underwent a state of depolarization block, and that the mechanisms underlying the influences exerted by spadin and RS 67333 are additive and independent from each other. In contrast, the mGluR2/3 antagonist LY 341495 occluded the effect of spadin, showing that it likely depends on mPFC TREK-1 channels coupled to mGluR2/3 receptors. These in vivo electrophysiological data were confirmed by in vitro Ca(2+) cell imaging performed in cultured cortical neurons. Altogether, our results indicate that spadin, as a natural compound, constitutes a very good candidate to explore the "glutamatergic path" of fast-acting AD research. In addition, they provide the first evidence of 5-HT depolarization block, showing that the combination of 5-HT activators for strategies of AD augmentation should be performed with extreme caution.

  15. Dual role of serotonin in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration: pro-ulcerogenic action via 5-HT3 receptors and anti-ulcerogenic action via 5-HT4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinichi; Matsuda, Narumi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Wada, Mai; Onimaru, Naoki; Yasuda, Masashi; Amagase, Kikuko; Horie, Syunji; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-09-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) exerts multiple physiological functions not only in the central and peripheral nervous systems but also in the gastrointestinal tract, and these multiple functions are accounted for by a variety of 5-HT receptor subtypes. We investigated the role of 5-HT in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions in mice, in relation to 5-HT receptor subtypes. A single oral administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg) provoked damage in the small intestine of mice 24 h later, and this response was prevented by pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (a 5-HT synthesis inhibitor). The administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron and ramosetron, dose-dependently reduced the severity of the intestinal lesions, whereas a high dose of GR113808 (a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist) significantly aggravated these lesions. In contrast, NAN-190 (a 5-HT1 receptor antagonist), ketanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), and SB269970 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist) had no effect on these lesions. Mosapride (a 5-HT4 receptor agonist) significantly reduced the severity of indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions, and this protective effect was totally prevented by either GR113808 or methyllycaconitine (an α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist). Indomethacin increased the activity of myeloperoxidase and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in the small intestine; these responses were significantly attenuated by ondansetron and mosapride. These findings suggest that endogenous 5-HT exerts a dual role in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions: pro-ulcerogenic action via 5-HT3 receptors and anti-ulcerogenic action via 5-HT4 receptors, and the latter effect via 5-HT4 receptors may be mediated by activation of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  16. Long-term treatment with fluoxetine induces desensitization of 5-HT4 receptor-dependent signalling and functionality in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Rebeca; Valdizán, Elsa M; Mostany, Ricardo; Pazos, Angel; Castro, Elena

    2009-08-01

    The mode of action of antidepressant drugs may be related to mechanisms of monoamines receptor adaptation, including serotonin 5-HT(4) receptor subtypes. Here we investigated the effects of repeated treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine for 21 days (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o., once daily) on the sensitivity of 5-HT(4) receptors by using receptor autoradiography, adenylate cyclase assays and extracellular recording techniques in rat brain. Fluoxetine treatment decreased the density of 5-HT(4) receptor binding in the CA1 field of hippocampus as well as in several areas of the striatum over the doses of 5-10 mg/kg. In a similar way, we found a significant lower response to zacopride-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the fluoxetine 10 mg/kg/day treated group. Furthermore, post-synaptic 5-HT(4) receptor activity in hippocampus-measured as the excitatory action of zacopride in the pyramidal cells of CA1 evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation was attenuated in rats treated with both doses of fluoxetine. Taken together, these results support the concept that a net decrease in the signalization pathway of 5-HT(4) receptors occurs after chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment: this effect may underlie the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs.

  17. Evaluation in Monkey of Two Candidate PET Radioligands, [11C]RX-1 and [18F]RX-2, for Imaging Brain 5-HT4 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    LOHITH, TALAKAD G.; XU, RONG; TSUJIKAWA, TETSUYA; MORSE, CHERYL L.; ANDERSON, KACEY B.; GLADDING, ROBERT L.; ZOGHBI, SAMI S.; FUJITA, MASAHIRO; INNIS, ROBERT B.; PIKE, VICTOR W.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin subtype-4 (5-HT4) receptor, which is known to be involved physiologically in learning and memory, and pathologically in Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety and other neuropsychiatric disorders – has few radioligands readily available for imaging in vivo. We have previously reported two novel 5-HT4 receptor radioligands, namely [methoxy-11C](1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl 4-amino-3-methoxybenzoate; [11C]RX-1) and the [18F]3-fluoromethoxy analog ([18F]RX-2), and in this study we evaluated them by PET in rhesus monkey. Brain scans were performed at baseline, receptor preblock or displacement conditions using SB 207710, a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, on the same day for [11C]RX-1 and on different days for [18F]RX-2. Specific-to-nondisplaceable ratio (BPND) was measured with the simplified reference tissue model from all baseline scans. To determine specific binding, total distribution volume (VT) was also measured in some monkeys by radiometabolite-corrected arterial input function after ex vivo inhibition of esterases from baseline and blocked scans. Both radioligands showed moderate to high peak brain uptake of radioactivity (2–6 SUV). Regional BPND values were in the rank order of known 5-HT4 receptor distribution with a trend for higher BPND values from [18F]RX-2. One-tissue compartmental model provided good fits with well identified VT values for both radioligands. In the highest 5-HT4 receptor density region, striatum, 50–60% of total binding was specific. The VT in receptor-poor cerebellum reached stable values by about 60 min for both radioligands indicating little influence of radiometabolites on brain signal. In conclusion, both [11C]RX-1 and [18F]RX-2 showed positive attributes for PET imaging of brain 5-HT4 receptors, validating the radioligand design strategy. PMID:25088028

  18. Mediation of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced tachycardia in the pig by the putative 5-HT4 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, C. M.; den Boer, M. O.; Heiligers, J. P.; Saxena, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    Intravenous bolus injections of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 3, 10 and 30 micrograms kg-1), 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-T; 3, 10 and 30 micrograms kg-1), renzapride (BRL 24924; 3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms kg-1) and isoprenaline (0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 micrograms kg-1) to anaesthetized pigs increased heart rate by, respectively, 22 +/- 3, 44 +/- 3 and 65 +/- 4 beats min-1 (5-HT; n = 17); 12 +/- 1, 26 +/- 2 and 44 +/- 4 beats min-1 (5-MeO-T; n = 15), 5 +/- 2, 11 +/- 2, 18 +/- 4 and 37 +/- 5 beats min-1 (renzapride; n = 8) and 17 +/- 2, 46 +/- 3 and 75 +/- 3 beats min-1 (isoprenaline; n = 13). The responses to 5-HT, 5-MeO-T and renzapride were antagonized by ICS 205-930 (1 and 3 mg kg-1, i.v.), which did not modify the increases in heart rate by isoprenaline. Renzapride showed tachyphylaxis and attenuated the responses to 5-HT. These findings indicate that 5-HT elicits tachycardia in the pig by acting on a novel receptor, either similar or identical to the 5-HT4 receptor identified in mouse brain colliculi. PMID:2207493

  19. Effects of 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists on gastrointestinal motor activity in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Hiroki; Mochiki, Erito; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Sutou, Toshinaga; Ogawa, Atsushi; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Ogata, Kyoichi; Fujii, Takaaki; Ohno, Tetsuro; Tsutsumi, Souichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonists on normal colonic motor activity in conscious dogs. METHODS: Colonic motor activity was recorded using a strain gauge force transducer in 5 dogs before and after 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonist administration. The force transducers were implanted on the serosal surfaces of the gastric antrum, terminal ileum, ileocecal sphincter and colon. Test materials or vehicle alone was administered as an intravenous bolus injection during a quiescent period of the whole colon in the interdigestive state. The effects of these receptor antagonists on normal gastrointestinal motor activity were analyzed. RESULTS: 5-HT2B, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists had no contractile effect on the fasting canine terminal ileum. The 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists inhibited phase III of the interdigestive motor complex of the antrum and significantly inhibited colonic motor activity. In the proximal colon, the inhibitory effect was dose dependent. Dose dependency, however, was not observed in the distal colon. The 5-HT2B receptor antagonist had no contractile effect on normal colonic motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists inhibited normal colonic motor activity. The 5-HT2B receptor antagonist had no contractile effect on normal colonic motor activity. PMID:24151388

  20. Synthesis, structure-affinity relationships, and radiolabeling of selective high-affinity 5-HT4 receptor ligands as prospective imaging probes for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Hong, Jinsoo; Morse, Cheryl L; Pike, Victor W

    2010-10-14

    In a search for high-affinity receptor ligands that might serve for development as radioligands for the imaging of brain 5-HT(4) receptors in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET), structural modifications were made to the high-affinity 5-HT(4) antagonist (1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl 8-amino-7-iodo-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxine-5-carboxylate (1, SB 207710). These modifications were made mainly on the aryl side of the ester bond to permit possible rapid labeling of the carboxylic acid component with a positron emitter, either carbon-11 (t(1/2) = 20.4 min) or fluorine-18 (t(1/2) = 109.7 min), and included (i) replacement of the iodine atom with a small substituent such as nitrile, methyl, or fluoro, (ii) methylation of the 8-amino group, (iii) opening of the dioxan ring, and (iv) alteration of the length of the N-alkyl goup. High-affinity ligands were discovered for recombinant human 5-HT(4) receptors with amenability to labeling with a positron emitter and potential for development as imaging probes. The ring-opened radioligand, (([methoxy-(11)C]1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl 4-amino-3-methoxybenzoate; [(11)C]13), showed an especially favorable array of properties for future evaluation as a PET radioligand for brain 5-HT(4) receptors.

  1. Synthesis, Structure-affinity Relationships and Radiolabeling of Selective High-affinity 5-HT4 Receptor Ligands as Prospective Imaging Probes for PET

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Hong, Jinsoo; Morse, Cheryl L.; Pike, Victor W.

    2010-01-01

    In a search for high-affinity receptor ligands that might serve for development as radioligands for the imaging of brain 5-HT4 receptors in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET), structural modifications were made to the high-affinity 5-HT4 antagonist, (1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl 8-amino-7-iodo-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxine-5-carboxylate (1, SB 207710). These modifications were made mainly on the aryl side of the ester bond to permit possible rapid labeling of the carboxylic acid component with a positron-emitter, either carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.4 min) or fluorine-18 (t1/2 = 109.7 min), and included, i) replacement of the iodine atom with a small substituent such as nitrile, methyl or fluoro, ii) methylation of the 8-amino group, iii) opening of the dioxan ring, and iv) alteration of the length of the N-alkyl goup. High-affinity ligands were discovered for recombinant human 5-HT4 receptors with amenability to labeling with a positron-emitter and potential for development as imaging probes. The ring-opened radioligand, (([methoxy-11C]1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl 4-amino-3-methoxybenzoate; [11C]13), showed an especially favorable array of properties for future evaluation as a PET radioligand for brain 5-HT4 receptors. PMID:20812727

  2. 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor-mediated facilitation of the emptying phase of the peristaltic reflex in the marmoset isolated ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Tuladhar, B. R.; Costall, B.; Naylor, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    .83 +/- 0.36 respectively in the presence of GR 113808 (30 nM). 6. In the presence of a high concentration of (10 microM) 5-methoxytryptamine the subsequent addition of 2-methyl-5-HT (3-10 microM) but not 5-methoxytryptamine (10 microM) facilitated peristalsis; the effect of 3 microM 2-methyl-5-HT was significantly decreased by 2 microM ondansetron. 7. It is concluded that the facilitation of the peristaltic reflex in the marmoset intestine induced by 5-HT at submicromolar concentrations involves a 5-HT4 receptor stimulation with an additional 5-HT3 receptor activation at higher concentrations. PMID:8732276

  3. A Hybrid Structural Approach to Analyze Ligand Binding by the Serotonin Type 4 Receptor (5-HT4)*

    PubMed Central

    Padayatti, Pius S.; Wang, Liwen; Gupta, Sayan; Orban, Tivadar; Sun, Wenyu; Salom, David; Jordan, Steven R.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Chance, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid structural methods have been used in recent years to understand protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions where high resolution crystallography or NMR data on the protein of interest has been limited. For G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), high resolution structures of native structural forms other than rhodopsin have not yet been achieved; gaps in our knowledge have been filled by creative crystallography studies that have developed stable forms of receptors by multiple means. The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a key GPCR-based signaling molecule affecting many physiological manifestations in humans ranging from mood and anxiety to bowel function. However, a high resolution structure of any of the serotonin receptors has not yet been solved. Here, we used structural mass spectrometry along with theoretical computations, modeling, and other biochemical methods to develop a structured model for human serotonin receptor subtype 4(b) in the presence and absence of its antagonist GR125487. Our data confirmed the overall structure predicted by the model and revealed a highly conserved motif in the ligand-binding pocket of serotonin receptors as an important participant in ligand binding. In addition, identification of waters in the transmembrane region provided clues as to likely paths mediating intramolecular signaling. Overall, this study reveals the potential of hybrid structural methods, including mass spectrometry, to probe physiological and functional GPCR-ligand interactions with purified native protein. PMID:23378516

  4. Synthesis and structure-affinity relationships of selective high-affinity 5-HT(4) receptor antagonists: application to the design of new potential single photon emission computed tomography tracers.

    PubMed

    Dubost, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Noé; Fossey, Christine; Magnelli, Rosa; Butt-Gueulle, Sabrina; Ballandonne, Céline; Caignard, Daniel H; Dulin, Fabienne; Sopkova de-Oliveira Santos, Jana; Millet, Philippe; Charnay, Yves; Rault, Sylvain; Cailly, Thomas; Fabis, Frederic

    2012-11-26

    The work described herein aims at finding new potential ligands for the brain imaging of 5-HT(4) receptors (5-HT(4)Rs) using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Starting from the nonsubstituted phenanthridine compound 4a, exhibiting a K(i) value of 51 nM on the 5-HT(4)R, we explored the structure-affinity in this series. We found that substitution in position 4 of the tricycle with a fluorine atom gave the best result. Introduction of an additional nitrogen atom inside the tricyclic framework led to an increase of both the affinity and selectivity for 5-HT(4)R, suggesting the design of the antagonist 4v, exhibiting a high affinity of 0.04 nM. Several iodinated analogues were then synthesized as potential SPECT tracers. The iodinated compound 11d was able to displace the reference radioiodinated 5-HT(4)R antagonist (1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl-8-amino-7-iodo[(123)I]-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxine-5-carboxylate {[(123)I]1, [(123)I]SB 207710} both in vitro and in vivo in brain. Compound 11d was radiolabeled with [(125)I]iodine, providing a potential SPECT candidate for brain imaging of 5-HT(4)R.

  5. Further characterization, by use of tryptamine and benzamide derivatives, of the putative 5-HT4 receptor mediating tachycardia in the pig.

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, C. M.; den Boer, M. O.; Heiligers, J. P.; Saxena, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. It has recently been shown that the tachycardic response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the anaesthetized pig, being mimicked by 5-methoxytryptamine and renzapride and blocked by high doses of ICS 205-930, is mediated by the putative 5-HT4 receptor. In the present investigation we have further characterized this receptor. 2. Intravenous bolus injections of the tryptamine derivatives, 5-HT (3, 10 and 30 micrograms kg-1), 5-methoxytryptamine (3, 10 and 30 micrograms kg-1) and alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-methyl-5-HT; 3, 10, 30 and 100 micrograms kg-1), resulted in dose-dependent increases in heart rate of, respectively, 25 +/- 2, 48 +/- 3 and 68 +/- 3 beats min-1 (5-HT; n = 35); 15 +/- 1, 32 +/- 2 and 57 +/- 3 beats min-1 (5-methoxytryptamine; n = 30); 6 +/- 4, 18 +/- 6, 34 +/- 6 and 64 +/- 11 beats min-1 (alpha-methyl-5-HT; n = 3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043916

  6. Stimulation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors or 5-HT uptake inhibition: short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2007-11-22

    In order to determine whether short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) function in serial or parallel manner, serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) receptor agonists were tested in autoshaping task. Results show that control-vehicle animals were modestly but significantly mastering the autoshaping task as illustrated by memory scores between STM and LTM. Thus, post-training administration of 8-OHDPAT (agonist for 5-HT(1A/7) receptors) only at 0.250 and 0.500 mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. CGS12066 (agonist for 5-HT(1B)) produced biphasic affects, at 5.0 mg/kg impaired STM but at 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, respectively, improved or impaired LTM. DOI (agonist for 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors) dose-dependently impaired STM and, at 10.0 mg/kg only impaired LTM. Both, STM and LTM were impaired by either mCPP (mainly agonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) or mesulergine (mainly antagonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) lower dose. The 5-HT(3) agonist mCPBG at 1.0 impaired STM and its higher dose impaired both STM and LTM. RS67333 (partial agonist for 5-HT(4) receptors), at 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg facilitated both STM and LTM. The higher dose of fluoxetine (a 5-HT uptake inhibitor) improved both STM and LTM. Using as head-pokes during CS as an indirect measure of food-intake showed that of 30 memory changes, 21 of these were unrelated to the former. While some STM or LTM impairments can be attributed to decrements in food-intake, but not memory changes (either increase or decreases) produced by 8-OHDPAT, CGS12066, RS67333 or fluoxetine. Except for animals treated with DOI, mCPBG or fluoxetine, other groups treated with 5-HT agonists 6 h following autoshaping training showed similar LTM and unmodified CS-head-pokes scores.

  7. Synthesis and Structure-Affinity Relationships of Selective High-Affinity 5-HT4 Receptor Antagonists: Application to the Design of New Potential Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Dubost, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Noé; Fossey, Christine; Magnelli, Rosa; Butt-Gueulle, Sabrina; Ballandonne, Céline; Caignard, Daniel H.; Dulin, Fabienne; de-Oliveira Santos, Jana Sopkova; Millet, Philippe; Charnay, Yves; Rault, Sylvain; Cailly, Thomas; Fabis, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The work described herein aims at finding new potential ligands for the brain imaging of 5-HT4 receptors using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Starting from the non-substituted phenanthridine compound 4a exhibiting a Ki value of 51 nM on 5-HT4R, we explored structure-affinity in this series. We found that substitution in position 4 of the tricycle with a fluorine atom gave the best result. Introduction of an additional nitrogen atom inside the tricyclic framework led to increase both the affinity and the selectivity for 5-HT4R suggesting the design of the antagonist 4v exhibiting a high affinity of 0.04 nM. Several iodinated analogues were then synthesized as potential SPECT tracers. The iodinated compound 11d was able to displace the reference radioiodinated 5-HT4R antagonist (1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl-8-amino-7-iodo[123I]-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxine-5-carboxylate ([123I]1, [123I]SB 207710) both in vitro and in vivo in brain. Compound 11d was radiolabeled with [125I]iodine, providing a potential SPECT candidate for brain imaging of 5-HT4R. PMID:23102207

  8. 5-HT4 receptor mediated facilitation of the emptying phase of the peristaltic reflex in the guinea-pig isolated ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Costall, B.; Naylor, R. J.; Tuladhar, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The influence of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on the emptying phase (circular muscle contraction) of the peristaltic reflex was investigated in the guinea-pig isolated ileum. 2. The effect of drug application to the serosal surface was measured as the changes in threshold pressure required to trigger the peristaltic reflex and the interval between the peristaltic strokes. A facilitation or inhibition of peristalsis was defined as a reduction or increase in threshold pressure respectively. 3. Peristalsis was not modified by the inclusion of methysergide (1 microM) and/or ondansetron (2 microM) in the bathing medium. 5-HT (0.1-1.0 microM) caused a facilitation of the peristaltic reflex; the response curve to 5-HT was not altered by the presence of methysergide (1 microM) and ondansetron (2 microM). 4. In the presence of methysergide (1 microM) plus ondansetron (2 microM), 5-HT (7.36 +/- 0.06), 5-methoxytryptamine (7.01 +/- 0.17), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5.43 +/- 0.06), renzapride (6.09 +/- 0.17), (S)-zacopride (5.99 +/- 0.11), (R)-zacopride (5.61 +/- 0.13) and metoclopramide (4.8 +/- 0.65) caused a concentration-related facilitation of the peristaltic reflex, the pEC50 values (mean +/- s.e.mean) being shown in parentheses. 2-Methyl-5-HT was ineffective up to 10 microM. 5. The administration of SDZ 205-557 (1 microM) alone failed to modify the peristaltic reflex, but caused a parallel dextral shift in the concentration-effect curve to 5-HT (apparent pKB 7.38 +/- 0.30). It failed to modify the effect of acetylcholine to enhance the peristaltic reflex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8306103

  9. The 5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor agonists prucalopride and PRX-03140 increase acetylcholine and histamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex and the power of stimulated hippocampal θ oscillations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David E; Drummond, Elena; Grimwood, Sarah; Sawant-Basak, Aarti; Miller, Emily; Tseng, Elaine; McDowell, Laura L; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle A; Fisher, Katherine E; Rubitski, David M; Stutzman-Engwall, Kim J; Nelson, Robin T; Horner, Weldon E; Gorczyca, Roxanne R; Hajos, Mihaly; Siok, Chester J

    2012-06-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(4) receptor agonists reportedly stimulate brain acetylcholine (ACh) release, a property that might provide a new pharmacological approach for treating cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the binding affinities, functional activities, and effects on neuropharmacological responses associated with cognition of two highly selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonists, prucalopride and 6,7-dihydro-4-hydroxy-7-isopropyl-6-oxo-N-[3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl]thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxamide (PRX-03140). In vitro, prucalopride and PRX-03140 bound to native rat brain 5-HT(4) receptors with K(i) values of 30 nM and 110 nM, respectively, and increased cAMP production in human embryonic kidney-293 cells expressing recombinant rat 5-HT(4) receptors. In vivo receptor occupancy studies established that prucalopride and PRX-03140 were able to penetrate the brain and bound to 5-HT(4) receptors in rat brain, achieving 50% receptor occupancy at free brain exposures of 330 nM and 130 nM, respectively. Rat microdialysis studies revealed that prucalopride maximally increased ACh and histamine levels in the prefrontal cortex at 5 and 10 mg/kg, whereas PRX-03140 significantly increased cortical histamine levels at 50 mg/kg, failing to affect ACh release at doses lower than 150 mg/kg. In combination studies, donepezil-induced increases in cortical ACh levels were potentiated by prucalopride and PRX-03140. Electrophysiological studies in rats demonstrated that both compounds increased the power of brainstem-stimulated hippocampal θ oscillations at 5.6 mg/kg. These findings show for the first time that the 5-HT(4) receptor agonists prucalopride and PRX-03140 can increase cortical ACh and histamine levels, augment donepezil-induced ACh increases, and increase stimulated-hippocampal θ power, all neuropharmacological parameters consistent with potential positive effects on cognitive processes.

  10. [Melatonin receptor agonist].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland and is involved in the regulation of human sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms. The melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus play a pivotal role in the sleep-wake regulation. Based on the fact that MT1 receptors are involved in human sleep onset process, melatonin receptor agonists have been developed to treat insomnia. In this article, we first reviewed functions of melatonin receptors with special reference to MT1 and MT2, and properties and clinical application of melatonin receptor agonists as hypnotics.

  11. Anxiolytic-like effects observed in rats exposed to the elevated zero-maze following treatment with 5-HT2/5-HT3/5-HT4 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Rob; Duke, Aaron A.; Gilmore, Paula E.; Page, Deaglan; Bègue, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of administering selective 5-HT antagonists and agonists to rats tested in the elevated zero-maze (EZM) model of anxiety. The EZM paradigm has advantages over the elevated plus-maze (EPM) paradigm with respect to measuring anxiety, yet has been utilized less frequently. Three experiments were conducted each with a diazepam control (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg). In the first experiment, we administered the 5-HT2C antagonist RS 102221 (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg) and 5-HT2C agonist MK-212 (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg); in the second experiment, we administered the 5-HT3 antagonist Y-25130 (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) and 5-HT3 agonist SR 57227A (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), and in the third experiment, we administered the 5-HT4 antagonist RS 39604 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg/kg) and 5-HT4 agonist RS 67333 (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg). The administration of 5-HT2/3/4 subtype antagonists all generated behavioral profiles indicative of anxiolytic-like effects in the EZM, which was apparent from examination of both traditional and ethological measures. While little effect was observed from 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 agonists, the 5-HT4 agonist RS 67333 was found to produce a paradoxical anxiolytic-like effect similar to that produced by the 5-HT4 antagonist RS 39604. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings. PMID:24457553

  12. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  13. Muscimol as an ionotropic GABA receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Graham A R

    2014-10-01

    Muscimol, a psychoactive isoxazole from Amanita muscaria and related mushrooms, has proved to be a remarkably selective agonist at ionotropic receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historic overview highlights the discovery and development of muscimol and related compounds as a GABA agonist by Danish and Australian neurochemists. Muscimol is widely used as a ligand to probe GABA receptors and was the lead compound in the development of a range of GABAergic agents including nipecotic acid, tiagabine, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, (Gaboxadol(®)) and 4-PIOL.

  14. Corepressors of agonist-bound nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, Igor; Aneskievich, Brian J.

    2007-09-15

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) rely on coregulator proteins to modulate transcription of target genes. NR coregulators can be broadly subdivided into coactivators which potentiate transcription and corepressors which silence gene expression. The prevailing view of coregulator action holds that in the absence of agonist the receptor interacts with a corepressor via the corepressor nuclear receptor (CoRNR, 'corner') box motifs within the corepressor. Upon agonist binding, a conformational change in the receptor causes the shedding of corepressor and the binding of a coactivator which interacts with the receptor via NR boxes within the coregulator. This view was challenged with the discovery of RIP140 which acts as a NR corepressor in the presence of agonist and utilizes NR boxes. Since then a number of other corepressors of agonist-bound NRs have been discovered. Among them are LCoR, PRAME, REA, MTA1, NSD1, and COPR1 Although they exhibit a great diversity of structure, mechanism of repression and pathophysiological function, these corepressors frequently have one or more NR boxes and often recruit histone deacetylases to exert their repressive effects. This review highlights these more recently discovered corepressors and addresses their potential functions in transcription regulation, disease pharmacologic responses and xenobiotic metabolism.

  15. Dopamine receptor agonists, partial agonists and psychostimulant addiction.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, L; Koob, G F

    1994-10-01

    Despite the epidemic growth of psychostimulant addiction over the past years, few pharmacological means of intervention are available to date for clinical treatment. This is of importance since the withdrawal syndrome that follows abstinence from drugs such as cocaine and the amphetamines is characterized, among other symptoms, by intense craving for the abused drug, and this is considered a critical factor leading into relapse of drug use. In this article, Luigi Pulvirenti and George Koob focus on the modulatory role shown by drugs acting at the dopamine receptor on the various phases of psychostimulant dependence in preclinical models and in human studies, and suggest that a class of compounds with partial agonist properties at the dopamine receptor may have therapeutic potential.

  16. Regulation of membrane cholecystokinin-2 receptor by agonists enables classification of partial agonists as biased agonists.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Rémi; Masri, Bernard; Escrieut, Chantal; Foucaud, Magali; Cordelier, Pierre; Fourmy, Daniel

    2011-02-25

    Given the importance of G-protein-coupled receptors as pharmacological targets in medicine, efforts directed at understanding the molecular mechanism by which pharmacological compounds regulate their presence at the cell surface is of paramount importance. In this context, using confocal microscopy and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we have investigated internalization and intracellular trafficking of the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) in response to both natural and synthetic ligands with different pharmacological features. We found that CCK and gastrin, which are full agonists on CCK2R-induced inositol phosphate production, rapidly and abundantly stimulate internalization. Internalized CCK2R did not rapidly recycle to plasma membrane but instead was directed to late endosomes/lysosomes. CCK2R endocytosis involves clathrin-coated pits and dynamin and high affinity and prolonged binding of β-arrestin1 or -2. Partial agonists and antagonists on CCK2R-induced inositol phosphate formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation did not stimulate CCK2R internalization or β-arrestin recruitment to the CCK2R but blocked full agonist-induced internalization and β-arrestin recruitment. The extreme C-terminal region of the CCK2R (and more precisely phosphorylatable residues Ser(437)-Xaa(438)-Thr(439)-Thr(440)-Xaa(441)-Ser(442)-Thr(443)) were critical for β-arrestin recruitment. However, this region and β-arrestins were dispensable for CCK2R internalization. In conclusion, this study allowed us to classify the human CCK2R as a member of class B G-protein-coupled receptors with regard to its endocytosis features and identified biased agonists of the CCK2R. These new important insights will allow us to investigate the role of internalized CCK2R·β-arrestin complexes in cancers expressing this receptor and to develop new diagnosis and therapeutic strategies targeting this receptor.

  17. Agonists block currents through acetylcholine receptor channels.

    PubMed Central

    Sine, S M; Steinbach, J H

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the effects of high concentrations of cholinergic agonists on currents through single acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channels on clonal BC3H1 cells. We find that raised concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh; above 300 microM) or carbamylcholine (Carb; above 1,000 microM) produce a voltage- and concentration-dependent reduction in the mean single-channel current. Raised concentrations of suberyldicholine (Sub; above 3 microM) produce a voltage- and concentration-dependent increase in the number of brief duration low-conductance interruptions of open-channel currents. These observations can be quantitatively described by a model in which agonist molecules enter and transiently occlude the ion-channel of the AChR. PMID:6478036

  18. Fates of endocytosed somatostatin sst2 receptors and associated agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, J A; Kaur, R; Dodgeon, I; Edwardson, J M; Humphrey, P P

    1998-01-01

    Somatostatin agonists are rapidly and efficiently internalized with the somatostatin sst2 receptor. The fate of internalized agonists and receptors is of critical importance because the rate of ligand recycling back to the cell surface can limit the amount of radioligand accumulated inside the cells, whereas receptor recycling might be of vital importance in providing the cell surface with dephosphorylated, resensitized receptors. Furthermore the accumulation of radioisotope-conjugated somatostatin agonists inside cancer cells resulting from receptor-mediated internalization has been used as a treatment for cancers that overexpress somatostatin receptors. In the present study, radio-iodinated agonists at the sst2 somatostatin receptor were employed to allow quantitative analysis of the fate of endocytosed agonist. After endocytosis, recycling back to the cell surface was the main pathway for both 125I-labelled somatostatin-14 (SRIF-14) and the more stable agonist 125I-labelled cyclo(N-Me-Ala-Tyr-d-Trp-Lys-Abu-Phe) (BIM-23027; Abu stands for aminobutyric acid), accounting for 75-85% of internalized ligand when re-endocytosis of radioligand was prevented. We have shown that there is a dynamic cycling of both somatostatin agonist ligands and receptors between the cell surface and internal compartments both during agonist treatment and after surface-bound agonist has been removed, unless steps are taken to prevent the re-activation of receptors by recycled agonist. Internalization leads to increased degradation of 125I-labelled SRIF-14 but not 125I-labelled BIM-23027. The concentration of recycled agonist accumulating in the extracellular medium was sufficient to re-activate the receptor, as measured both by the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase and the recovery of surface receptor number after internalization. PMID:9820803

  19. Investigation of the mechanism of agonist and inverse agonist action at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Lin, Hong; Strange, Philip G

    2004-05-01

    This study investigated, for the D2 dopamine receptor, the relation between the ability of agonists and inverse agonists to stabilise different states of the receptor and their relative efficacies. Ki values for agonists were determined in competition versus the binding of the antagonist [3H]spiperone. Competition data were fitted best by a two-binding site model (with the exception of bromocriptine, for which a one-binding site model provided the best fit) and agonist affinities for the higher (Kh) (G protein-coupled) and lower affinity (Kl) (G protein-uncoupled) sites determined. Ki values for agonists were also determined in competition versus the binding of the agonist [3H]N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) to provide a second estimate of Kh. Maximal agonist effects (Emax) and their potencies (EC50) were determined from concentration-response curves for agonist stimulation of guanosine-5'-O-(3-[32S]thiotriphosphate) ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding. The ability of agonists to stabilise the G protein-coupled state of the receptor (Kl/Kh determined from ligand-binding assays) did not correlate with either of two measures of relative efficacy (relative Emax, Kl/EC50) of agonists determined in [35S]GTPgammaS-binding assays, when the data for all of the compounds tested were analysed. For a subset of compounds, however, there was a relation between Kl/Kh and Emax. Competition-binding data versus [3H]spiperone and [3H]NPA for a range of inverse agonists were fitted best by a one-binding site model. Ki values for the inverse agonists tested were slightly lower in competition versus [3H]NPA compared to [3H]spiperone. These data do not provide support for the idea that inverse agonists act by binding preferentially to the ground state of the receptor.

  20. Discovery of G Protein-Biased EP2 Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To identify G protein-biased and highly subtype-selective EP2 receptor agonists, a series of bicyclic prostaglandin analogues were designed and synthesized. Structural hybridization of EP2/4 dual agonist 5 and prostacyclin analogue 6, followed by simplification of the ω chain enabled us to discover novel EP2 agonists with a unique prostacyclin-like scaffold. Further optimization of the ω chain was performed to improve EP2 agonist activity and subtype selectivity. Phenoxy derivative 18a showed potent agonist activity and excellent subtype selectivity. Furthermore, a series of compounds were identified as G protein-biased EP2 receptor agonists. These are the first examples of biased ligands of prostanoid receptors. PMID:26985320

  1. Quantifying agonist activity at G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Frederick J; Suga, Hinako; Griffin, Michael T

    2011-12-26

    When an agonist activates a population of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), it elicits a signaling pathway that culminates in the response of the cell or tissue. This process can be analyzed at the level of a single receptor, a population of receptors, or a downstream response. Here we describe how to analyze the downstream response to obtain an estimate of the agonist affinity constant for the active state of single receptors. Receptors behave as quantal switches that alternate between active and inactive states (Figure 1). The active state interacts with specific G proteins or other signaling partners. In the absence of ligands, the inactive state predominates. The binding of agonist increases the probability that the receptor will switch into the active state because its affinity constant for the active state (K(b)) is much greater than that for the inactive state (K(a)). The summation of the random outputs of all of the receptors in the population yields a constant level of receptor activation in time. The reciprocal of the concentration of agonist eliciting half-maximal receptor activation is equivalent to the observed affinity constant (K(obs)), and the fraction of agonist-receptor complexes in the active state is defined as efficacy (ε) (Figure 2). Methods for analyzing the downstream responses of GPCRs have been developed that enable the estimation of the K(obs) and relative efficacy of an agonist. In this report, we show how to modify this analysis to estimate the agonist K(b) value relative to that of another agonist. For assays that exhibit constitutive activity, we show how to estimate K(b) in absolute units of M(-1). Our method of analyzing agonist concentration-response curves consists of global nonlinear regression using the operational model. We describe a procedure using the software application, Prism (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA). The analysis yields an estimate of the product of K(obs) and a parameter proportional to efficacy (

  2. The structural basis for agonist and partial agonist action on a β(1)-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Warne, Tony; Moukhametzianov, Rouslan; Baker, Jillian G; Nehmé, Rony; Edwards, Patricia C; Leslie, Andrew G W; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Tate, Christopher G

    2011-01-13

    β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate intracellular G proteins upon binding catecholamine agonist ligands such as adrenaline and noradrenaline. Synthetic ligands have been developed that either activate or inhibit βARs for the treatment of asthma, hypertension or cardiac dysfunction. These ligands are classified as either full agonists, partial agonists or antagonists, depending on whether the cellular response is similar to that of the native ligand, reduced or inhibited, respectively. However, the structural basis for these different ligand efficacies is unknown. Here we present four crystal structures of the thermostabilized turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) β(1)-adrenergic receptor (β(1)AR-m23) bound to the full agonists carmoterol and isoprenaline and the partial agonists salbutamol and dobutamine. In each case, agonist binding induces a 1 Å contraction of the catecholamine-binding pocket relative to the antagonist bound receptor. Full agonists can form hydrogen bonds with two conserved serine residues in transmembrane helix 5 (Ser(5.42) and Ser(5.46)), but partial agonists only interact with Ser(5.42) (superscripts refer to Ballesteros-Weinstein numbering). The structures provide an understanding of the pharmacological differences between different ligand classes, illuminating how GPCRs function and providing a solid foundation for the structure-based design of novel ligands with predictable efficacies.

  3. Histamine H3-receptor inverse agonists as novel antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Ito, Chihiro

    2009-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) that is resistant to treatment with dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists may involve changes other than those in the dopaminergic system. Recently, histamine (HA), which regulates arousal and cognitive functions, has been suggested to act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Four HA receptors-H1, H2, H3, and H4-have been identified. Our recent basic and clinical studies revealed that brain HA improved the symptoms of SZ. The H3 receptor is primarily localized in the central nervous system, and it acts not only as a presynaptic autoreceptor that modulates the HA release but also as a presynaptic heteroreceptor that regulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as monoamines and amino acids. H3-receptor inverse agonists have been considered to improve cognitive functions. Many atypical antipsychotics are H3-receptor antagonists. Imidazole-containing H3-receptor inverse agonists inhibit not only cytochrome P450 but also hERG potassium channels (encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene). Several imidazole H3-receptor inverse agonists also have high affinity for H4 receptors, which are expressed at high levels in mast cells and leukocytes. Clozapine is an H4-receptor agonist; this agonist activity may be related to the serious side effect of agranulocytosis caused by clozapine. Therefore, selective non-imidazole H3-receptor inverse agonists can be considered as novel antipsychotics that may improve refractory SZ.

  4. Octopaminergic agonists for the cockroach neuronal octopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa

    2003-01-01

    The compounds 1-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione and 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine showed the almost same activity as octopamine in stimulating adenylate cyclase of cockroach thoracic nervous system among 70 octopamine agonists, suggesting that only these compounds are full octopamine agonists and other compounds are partial octopamine agonists. The quantitative structure-activity relationship of a set of 22 octopamine agonists against receptor 2 in cockroach nervous tissue, was analyzed using receptor surface modeling. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. A receptor surface model was generated using some subset of the most active structures and the results provided useful information in the characterization and differentiation of octopaminergic receptor.

  5. Agonist pharmacology of two Drosophila GABA receptor splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, A. M.; Sattelle, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. The Drosophila melanogaster gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunits, RDLac and DRC 17-1-2, form functional homo-oligomeric receptors when heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The subunits differ in only 17 amino acids, principally in regions of the N-terminal domain which determine agonist pharmacology in vertebrate ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors. A range of conformationally restricted GABA analogues were tested on the two homo-oligomers and their agonists pharmacology compared with that of insect and vertebrate iontropic GABA receptors. 2. The actions of GABA, isoguvacine and isonipecotic acid on RDLac and DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers were compared, by use of two-electrode voltage-clamp. All three compounds were full agonists of both receptors, but were 4-6 fold less potent agonists of DRC 17-1-2 homo-oligomers than of RDLac. However, the relative potencies of these agonists on each receptor were very similar. 3. A more complete agonist profile was established for RDLac homo-oligomers. The most potent agonists of these receptors were GABA, muscimol and trans-aminocrotonic acid (TACA), which were approximately equipotent. RDLac homo-oligomers were fully activated by a range of GABA analogues, with the order of potency: GABA > ZAPA ((Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]prop-2-enoic acid) > isoguvacine > imidazole-4-acetic acid > or = isonipecotic acid > or = cis-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) > beta-alanine. 3-Aminopropane sulphonic acid (3-APS), a partial agonist of RDLac homo-oligomers, was the weakest agonist tested and 100 fold less potent than GABA. 4. SR95531, an antagonist of vertebrate GABAA receptors, competitively inhibited the GABA responses of RDLac homo-oligomers, which have previously been found to insensitive to bicuculline. However, its potency (IC50 500 microM) was much reduced when compared to GABAA receptors. 5. The agonist pharmacology of Drosophila RDLac homo-oligomers exhibits aspects of the characteristic pharmacology of

  6. Novel antagonists of serotonin-4 receptors: synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrrolothienopyrazines.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Stéphane; Lepailleur, Alban; Bureau, Ronan; Butt-Gueulle, Sabrina; Lelong-Boulouard, Véronique; Duchatelle, Pascal; Boulouard, Michel; Dumuis, Aline; Daveu, Cyril; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Pfeiffer, Bruno; Dauphin, François; Rault, Sylvain

    2009-03-15

    Based on the definition of a 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist pharmacophore, a series of pyrrolo[1,2-a]thieno[3,2-e] and pyrrolo[1,2-a]thieno[2,3-e] pyrazine derivatives were designed, prepared, and evaluated to determine the properties necessary for high-affinity binding to 5-HT(4) receptors. The compounds were synthesized by substituting the chlorine atom of the pyrazine ring with various N-alkyl-4-piperidinylmethanolates. They were evaluated in binding assays with [(3)H]GR113808 (1) as the 5-HT(4) receptor radioligand. The affinity values (K(i) or inhibition percentages) were affected by both the substituent on the aromatic ring and the substituent on the lateral piperidine chain. A methyl group on the tricyclic ring produced a marked increase in affinity while an N-propyl or N-butyl group gave compounds with nanomolar affinities. Among the most potent ligands, 34d was selected for further pharmacological studies and evaluated in vivo. This compound acts as an antagonist/weak partial agonist in COS-7 cells stably expressing the 5-HT(4(a)) receptor and is of great interest as a peripheral antinociceptive agent.

  7. Serotonergic agonists behave as partial agonists at the dopamine D2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Rinken, A; Ferré, S; Terasmaa, A; Owman, C; Fuxe, K

    1999-02-25

    RAT dopamine D2short receptors expressed in CHO cells were characterized by activation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding. There were no significant differences between the maximal effects seen in activation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding caused by dopaminergic agonists, but the effects of 5-HT, 8OH-DPAT and 5-methoxytryptamine amounted to 47 +/- 7%, 43 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 7% of the dopamine effect, respectively. The dopaminergic antagonist (+)butaclamol inhibited activations of both types of ligands with equal potency (pA2 = 8.9 +/- 0.1), indicating that only one type of receptor is involved. In competition with [3H]raclopride binding, dopaminergic agonists showed 53 +/- 2% of the binding sites in the GTP-dependent high-affinity state, whereas 5-HT showed only 20 +/- 3%. Taken together, the results indicate that serotonergic agonists behave as typical partial agonists for D2 receptors with potential antiparkinsonian activity.

  8. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs.

  9. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs.

  10. Anti-nociception mediated by a κ opioid receptor agonist is blocked by a δ receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, A M W; Roberts, K W; Pradhan, A A; Akbari, H A; Walwyn, W; Lutfy, K; Carroll, F I; Cahill, C M; Evans, C J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The opioid receptor family comprises four structurally homologous but functionally distinct sub-groups, the μ (MOP), δ (DOP), κ (KOP) and nociceptin (NOP) receptors. As most opioid agonists are selective but not specific, a broad spectrum of behaviours due to activation of different opioid receptors is expected. In this study, we examine whether other opioid receptor systems influenced KOP-mediated antinociception. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used a tail withdrawal assay in C57Bl/6 mice to assay the antinociceptive effect of systemically administered opioid agonists with varying selectivity at KOP receptors. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to analyse the interactions of the other opioid receptors in modulating KOP-mediated antinociception. KEY RESULTS Etorphine, a potent agonist at all four opioid receptors, was not anti-nociceptive in MOP knockout (KO) mice, although etorphine is an efficacious KOP receptor agonist and specific KOP receptor agonists remain analgesic in MOP KO mice. As KOP receptor agonists are aversive, we considered KOP-mediated antinociception might be a form of stress-induced analgesia that is blocked by the anxiolytic effects of DOP receptor agonists. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with the DOP antagonist, naltrindole (10 mg·kg−1), unmasked etorphine (3 mg·kg−1) antinociception in MOP KO mice. Further, in wild-type mice, KOP-mediated antinociception by systemic U50,488H (10 mg·kg−1) was blocked by pretreatment with the DOP agonist SNC80 (5 mg·kg−1) and diazepam (1 mg·kg−1). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Systemic DOP receptor agonists blocked systemic KOP antinociception, and these results identify DOP receptor agonists as potential agents for reversing stress-driven addictive and depressive behaviours mediated through KOP receptor activation. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles

  11. Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors related to the Drosophila Toll protein. TLR activation alerts the immune system to microbial products and initiates innate and adaptive immune responses. The naturally powerful immunostimulatory property of TLR agonists can be exploited for active immunotherapy against cancer. Antitumor activity has been demonstrated in several cancers, and TLR agonists are now undergoing extensive clinical investigation. This review discusses recent advances in the field and highlights potential opportunities for the clinical development of TLR agonists as single agent immunomodulators, vaccine adjuvants and in combination with conventional cancer therapies. PMID:20563267

  12. Agonist-receptor-arrestin, an alternative ternary complex with high agonist affinity.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V V; Pals-Rylaarsdam, R; Benovic, J L; Hosey, M M; Onorato, J J

    1997-11-14

    The rapid decrease of a response to a persistent stimulus, often termed desensitization, is a widespread biological phenomenon. Signal transduction by numerous G protein-coupled receptors appears to be terminated by a strikingly uniform two-step mechanism, most extensively characterized for the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m2 mAChR), and rhodopsin. The model predicts that activated receptor is initially phosphorylated and then tightly binds an arrestin protein that effectively blocks further G protein interaction. Here we report that complexes of beta2AR-arrestin and m2 mAChR-arrestin have a higher affinity for agonists (but not antagonists) than do receptors not complexed with arrestin. The percentage of phosphorylated beta2AR in this high affinity state in the presence of full agonists varied with different arrestins and was enhanced by selective mutations in arrestins. The percentage of high affinity sites also was proportional to the intrinsic activity of an agonist, and the coefficient of proportionality varies for different arrestin proteins. Certain mutant arrestins can form these high affinity complexes with unphosphorylated receptors. Mutations that enhance formation of the agonist-receptor-arrestin complexes should provide useful tools for manipulating both the efficiency of signaling and rate and specificity of receptor internalization.

  13. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation.

  14. GABA receptor agonists: pharmacological spectrum and therapeutic actions.

    PubMed

    Bartholini, G

    1985-01-01

    From the data discussed in this review it appears that GABA receptor agonists exhibit a variety of actions in the central nervous system, some of which are therapeutically useful (Table V). GABA receptor agonists, by changing the firing rate of the corresponding neurons accelerate noradrenaline turnover without changes in postsynaptic receptor density and diminish serotonin liberation with an up-regulation of 5HT2 receptors. These effects differ from those of tricyclic antidepressants which primarily block monoamine re-uptake and cause down-regulation of beta-adrenergic and 5HT2 receptors. The GABA receptor agonist progabide has been shown to exert an antidepressant action which is indistinguishable from that of imipramine in patients with major affective disorders. The fact that: (a) GABA receptor agonists and tricyclic antidepressants affect noradrenergic and serotonergic transmission differently; and (b) tricyclic antidepressants alter GABA-related parameters challenges the classical monoamine hypothesis of depression and suggests that GABA-mediated mechanisms play a role in mood disorders. Decreases in cellular excitability produced by GABAergic stimulation leads to control of seizures in practically all animal models of epilepsy. GABA receptor agonists have a wide spectrum as they antagonize not only seizures which are dependent on decreased GABA synaptic activity but also convulsant states which are apparently independent of alterations in GABA-mediated events. These results in animals are confirmed in a wide range of human epileptic syndromes. GABA receptor agonists decrease dopamine turnover in the basal ganglia and antagonize neuroleptic-induced increase in dopamine release. On repeated treatment, progabide prevents or reverses the neuroleptic-induced up-regulation of dopamine receptors in the rat striatum and antagonizes the concomitant supersensitivity to dopaminomimetics. Behaviorally, GABA receptor agonists diminish the stereotypies induced by

  15. Serotonin receptor modulators in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Mohammad; Lackner, Jeffrey M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the pathophysiology and clinical role of serotonin receptor modulators used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin is an important monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the initiation of peristaltic and secretory refl exes, and in modulation of visceral sensations. Several serotonin receptor subtypes have been characterized, of which 5HT3, 5HT4, and 5HT1b are the most important for GI function. 5HT4 agonists (eg, tegaserod) potentiate peristalsis initiated by 5HT1 receptor stimulation. 5HT4 agonists are therefore useful in constipation predominant form of IBS and in chronic constipation. 5HT3 antagonists (Alosetron and Cilansetron) prevent the activation of 5HT3 receptors on extrinsic afferent neurons and can decrease the visceral pain associated with IBS. These agents also retard small intestinal and colonic transit, and are therefore useful in diarrhea-predominant IBS. Tegaserod has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo controlled trials to relieve global IBS symptoms as well as individual symptoms of abdominal discomfort, number of bowel movements and stool consistency. Several randomized, controlled trials have shown that alosetron relieves pain, improves bowel function, and provides global symptom improvement in women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, ischemic colitis and severe complications of constipation have been major concerns leading to voluntary withdrawal of Alosetron from the market followed by remarketing with a comprehensive risk management program. PMID:18728719

  16. Estrogen receptor agonists for attenuation of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Haque, Azizul; Banik, Naren L.; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Ray, Swapan K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent results from laboratory investigations and clinical trials indicate important roles for estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from noxious consequences of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative processes in several CNS disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes, which drive the resident neuroinflammatory response. During neurodegenerative processes, activated microglia and astrocytes cause deleterious effects on surrounding neurons. The inhibitory activity of ER agonists on microglia activation might be a beneficial therapeutic option for delaying the onset or progression of neurodegenerative injuries and diseases. Recent studies suggest that ER agonists can provide neuroprotection by modulation of cell survival mechanisms, synaptic reorganization, regenerative responses to axonal injury, and neurogenesis process. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions of ER agonists are mediated mainly via two ERs known as ERα and ERβ. Although some studies have suggested that ER agonists may be deleterious to some neuronal populations, the potential clinical benefits of ER agonists for augmenting cognitive function may triumph over the associated side effects. Also, understanding the modulatory activities of ER agonists on inflammatory pathways will possibly lead to the development of selective anti-inflammatory molecules with neuroprotective roles in different CNS disorders such as SCI, MS, PD, and AD in humans. Future studies should be concentrated on finding the most plausible molecular pathways for enhancing protective functions of ER agonists in treating neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative injuries and diseases in the CNS. PMID:25245209

  17. Opioid receptor agonists reduce brain edema in stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, Hezhen; Shah, Kaushik; Karamyan, Vardan T; Abbruscato, Thomas J

    2011-04-06

    Cerebral edema is a leading cause of mortality in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to assess a non-selective opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, in decreasing reducing brain edema formation using both in vitro and in vivo models of stroke. For the in situ model of ischemia, hippocampal slices were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions and we observed that hippocampal water content was increased, compared to normoxia. Treatment with the mu agonist, Tyr-D-Ala', N-CH, -Phe4, Glyol-Enkephalin (DAMGO), delta opioid agonists, D-pen(2), D-phe(5) enkephalin (DPDPE), and kappa agonist, U50 488, all significantly decreased brain slice water gain. Interestingly, the non-selective agonist, biphalin, exhibited a statistically significant (P<0.01) greater effect in decreasing water content in OGD-exposed hippocampal slices, compared with mu, delta, and kappa selective opioid agonists. Moreover, biphalin exhibited anti-edematous effects in a dose responsive manner. The non-selective opioid antagonist, naloxone, returned the water content nearly back to original OGD values for all opioid agonist treatments, supporting that these effects were mediated by an opioid receptor pathway. Furthermore, biphalin significantly decreased edema (53%) and infarct (48%) ratios, and neuronal recovery from stroke, compared with the vehicle-treated groups in a 12h permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of focal ischemia. Biphalin also significantly decreased the cell volume increase in primary neuronal cells exposed to OGD condition. These data suggest that opioid receptor activation may provide neuroprotection during stroke and further investigations are needed in the development of novel opioid agonist as efficacious treatments for brain ischemia.

  18. Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2009-02-01

    Medicines that activate cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor are already in the clinic. These are Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) and Sativex (Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabidiol). The first two of these medicines can be prescribed to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marinol can also be prescribed to stimulate appetite, while Sativex is prescribed for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic treatment for adult patients with advanced cancer. One challenge now is to identify additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a number of potential clinical applications for such agonists are mentioned in this review. A second challenge is to develop strategies that will improve the efficacy and/or the benefit-to-risk ratio of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. This review focuses on five strategies that have the potential to meet either or both of these objectives. These are strategies that involve: (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier; (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue; (iii) targeting up-regulated cannabinoid receptors; (iv) targeting cannabinoid CB(2) receptors; or (v) 'multi-targeting'. Preclinical data that justify additional research directed at evaluating the clinical importance of each of these strategies are also discussed.

  19. Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2009-01-01

    Medicines that activate cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor are already in the clinic. These are Cesamet® (nabilone), Marinol® (dronabinol; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and Sativex® (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabidiol). The first two of these medicines can be prescribed to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marinol® can also be prescribed to stimulate appetite, while Sativex® is prescribed for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic treatment for adult patients with advanced cancer. One challenge now is to identify additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a number of potential clinical applications for such agonists are mentioned in this review. A second challenge is to develop strategies that will improve the efficacy and/or the benefit-to-risk ratio of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. This review focuses on five strategies that have the potential to meet either or both of these objectives. These are strategies that involve: (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier; (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue; (iii) targeting up-regulated cannabinoid receptors; (iv) targeting cannabinoid CB2 receptors; or (v) ‘multi-targeting’. Preclinical data that justify additional research directed at evaluating the clinical importance of each of these strategies are also discussed. PMID:19226257

  20. Melatonin receptor agonists: new options for insomnia and depression treatment.

    PubMed

    Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco

    2011-12-01

    The circadian nature of melatonin (MLT) secretion, coupled with the localization of MLT receptors to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has led to numerous studies of the role of MLT in modulation of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms in humans. Although much more needs to be understood about the various functions exerted by MLT and its mechanisms of action, three therapeutic agents (ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT, and agomelatine) are already in use, and MLT receptor agonists are now appearing as new promising treatment options for sleep and circadian-rhythm related disorders. In this review, emphasis has been placed on medicinal chemistry strategies leading to MLT receptor agonists, and on the evidence supporting therapeutic efficacy of compounds undergoing clinical evaluation. A wide range of clinical trials demonstrated that ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT and tasimelteon have sleep-promoting effects, providing an important treatment option for insomnia and transient insomnia, even if the improvements of sleep maintenance appear moderate. Well-documented effects of agomelatine suggest that this MLT agonist offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of depression, combining efficacy with a favorable side effect profile. Despite a large number of high affinity nonselective MLT receptor agonists, only limited data on MT₁ or MT₂ subtype-selective compounds are available up to now. Administration of the MT₂-selective agonist IIK7 to rats has proved to decrease NREM sleep onset latency, suggesting that MT₂ receptor subtype is involved in the acute sleep-promoting action of MLT; rigorous clinical studies are needed to demonstrate this hypothesis. Further clinical candidates based on selective activation of MT₁ or MT₂ receptors are expected in coming years.

  1. Once-weekly glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-07-01

    The once-weekly glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (QW GLP1RA) represent a major advancement in diabetes pharmaco-therapeutics. This review describes the basic, clinical, and comparative pharmacology of this novel class of drugs. It highlights the clinical placement and posology of these drugs.

  2. Functional selectivity of dopamine D1 receptor agonists in regulating the fate of internalized receptors *

    PubMed Central

    Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Griffith, Adam; Oloff, Scott; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Brown, Justin T.; Goddard, William A.; Mailman, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that D1 agonists can cause functionally selective effects when the endpoints of receptor internalization and adenylate cyclase activation are compared. The present study was designed to probe the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor further by testing the hypothesis that structurally dissimilar agonists with efficacies at these endpoints that equal or exceed those of dopamine would differ in ability to influence receptor fate after internalization, a functional endpoint largely unexplored for the D1 receptor. We selected two novel agonists of therapeutic interest that meet these criteria (the isochroman A-77636, and the isoquinoline dinapsoline), and compared the fates of the D1 receptor after internalization in response to these two compounds with that of dopamine. We found that dopamine caused the receptor to be rapidly recycled to the cell surface within 1 h of removal. Conversely, A-77636 caused the receptor to be retained intracellularly up to 48 h after agonist removal. Most surprisingly, the D1 receptor recovered to the cell surface 48 h after removal of dinapsoline. Taken together, these data indicate that these agonists target the D1 receptor to different intracellular trafficking pathways, demonstrating that the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor is operative for cellular events that are temporally downstream of immediate receptor activation. We hypothesize that these differential effects result from interactions of the synthetic ligands with aspects of the D1 receptor that are distal from the ligand binding domain. PMID:17067639

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of antagonist and agonist interactions with dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Duarte, E P; Oliveira, C R; Carvalho, A P

    1988-03-01

    The binding of [3H]spiperone to dopamine D-2 receptors and its inhibition by antagonists and agonists were examined in microsomes derived from the sheep caudate nucleus, at temperatures between 37 and 1 degree C, and the thermodynamic parameters of the binding were evaluated. The affinity of the receptor for the antagonists, spiperone and (+)-butaclamol, decreased as the incubation temperature decreased; the affinity for haloperidol did not further decrease at temperatures below 15 degrees C. The binding of the antagonists was associated with very large increases in entropy, as expected for hydrophobic interactions. The enthalpy and entropy changes associated with haloperidol binding were dependent on temperature, in contrast to those associated with spiperone and (+)-butaclamol. The magnitude of the entropy increase associated with the specific binding of the antagonists did not correlate with the degree of lipophilicity of these drugs. The data suggest that, in addition to hydrophobic forces, other forces are also involved in the antagonist-dopamine receptor interactions, and that a conformational change of the receptor could occur when the antagonist binds. Agonist binding data are consistent with a two-state model of the receptor, a high-affinity state (RH) and a low-affinity state (RL). The affinity of dopamine binding to the RH decreased with decreasing temperatures below 20 degrees C, whereas the affinity for the RL increased at low temperatures. In contrast, the affinity of apomorphine for both states of receptor decreased as the temperature decreased from 30 to 8 degrees C. A clear distinction between the energetics of high-affinity and low-affinity agonist binding was observed. The formation of the high-affinity complex was associated with larger increases in enthalpy and entropy than the interaction with the low-affinity state was. The results suggest that the interaction of the receptor with the G-proteins, induced or stabilized by the binding of

  4. A pharmacological analysis of serotonergic receptors: effects of their activation of blockade in learning.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1997-02-01

    1. The authors have tested several 5-HT selective agonists and antagonists (5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4), an uptake inhibitor and 5-HT depletors in the autoshaping learning task. 2. The present work deals with the receptors whose stimulation increases or decreases learning. 3. Impaired consolidation of learning was observed after the presynaptic activation of 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 or the blockade of postsynaptic 5-HT2C/2B receptors. 4. In contrast, an improvement occurred after the presynaptic activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, and the blockade of presynaptic 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT3 receptors. 5. The blockade of postsynaptic 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptors and 5-HT inhibition of synthesis and its depletion did no alter learning by themselves. 6. The present data suggest that multiple pre- and postsynaptic serotonergic receptors are involved in the consolidation of learning. 7. Stimulation of most 5-HT receptors increases learning, however, some of 5-HT subtypes seem to limit the data storage. 8. Furthermore, the role of 5-HT receptors in learning seem to require an interaction with glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic neurotransmission systems.

  5. Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonist, anandamide.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, J; Felder, C C

    1998-05-01

    Cannabinoids are a class of compound found in marijuana which have been known for their therapeutic and psychoactive properties for at least 4000 years. Isolation of the active principle in marijuana, delta9-THC, provided the lead structure in the development of highly potent congeners which were used to probe for the mechanism of marijuana action. Cannabinoids were shown to bind to selective binding sites in brain tissue thereby regulating second messenger formation. Such studies led to the cloning of three cannabinoid receptor subtypes, CB1, CB2, and CB1A all of which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled plasma membrane receptors. Analogous to the discovery of endogenous opiates, isolation of cannabinoid receptors provided the appropriate tool to isolate an endogenous cannabimimetic eicosanoid, anandamide, from porcine brain. Recent studies indicate that anandamide is a member of a family of fatty acid ethanolamides that may represent a novel class of lipid neurotransmitters. This review discusses recent progress in cannabinoid research with a focus on the receptors for delta9-THC, their coupling to second messenger responses, and the endogenous lipid cannabimimetic, anandamide.

  6. Covalent agonists for studying G protein-coupled receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Weichert, Dietmar; Kruse, Andrew C.; Manglik, Aashish; Hiller, Christine; Zhang, Cheng; Hübner, Harald; Kobilka, Brian K.; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Structural studies on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) provide important insights into the architecture and function of these important drug targets. However, the crystallization of GPCRs in active states is particularly challenging, requiring the formation of stable and conformationally homogeneous ligand-receptor complexes. Native hormones, neurotransmitters, and synthetic agonists that bind with low affinity are ineffective at stabilizing an active state for crystallogenesis. To promote structural studies on the pharmacologically highly relevant class of aminergic GPCRs, we here present the development of covalently binding molecular tools activating Gs-, Gi-, and Gq-coupled receptors. The covalent agonists are derived from the monoamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, and histamine, and they were accessed using a general and versatile synthetic strategy. We demonstrate that the tool compounds presented herein display an efficient covalent binding mode and that the respective covalent ligand-receptor complexes activate G proteins comparable to the natural neurotransmitters. A crystal structure of the β2-adrenoreceptor in complex with a covalent noradrenaline analog and a conformationally selective antibody (nanobody) verified that these agonists can be used to facilitate crystallogenesis. PMID:25006259

  7. Dopamine receptor agonists for protection and repair in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Bonini, Sara A; Cenini, Giovanna; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Uberti, Daniela; Memo, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine agonists have been usually used as adjunctive therapy for the cure of Parkinson's disease. It is generally believed that treatment with these drugs is symptomatic rather than curative and it does not stop or delay the progression of neuronal degeneration. However, several dopamine agonists of the D2-receptor family have recently been shown to possess neuroprotective properties in different in vitro and in vivo experimental Parkinson's disease models. Here we summarize some recent molecular evidences underlining the wide pharmacological spectrum of dopamine agonists currently used for treating Parkinson's disease patients. In particular, the mechanism of action of different dopamine agonists does not always appear to be restricted to the stimulation of selective dopamine receptor subtypes since at least some of these drugs are endowed with antioxidant, antiapoptotic or neurotrophic properties. These neuroprotective activities are molecule-specific and may contribute to the clinical efficacy of these drugs for the treatment of chronic and progressive neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative injury and/or protein misfolding and aggregation exert a primary role.

  8. Receptors and Channels Targeted by Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that non-endogenous compounds that target CB1 and/or CB2 receptors possess therapeutic potential for the clinical management of an ever growing number of disorders. Just a few of these disorders are already treated with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or nabilone, both CB1/CB2 receptor agonists, and there is now considerable interest in expanding the clinical applications of such agonists and also in exploiting CB2-selective agonists, peripherally restricted CB1/CB2 receptor agonists and CB1/CB2 antagonists and inverse agonists as medicines. Already, numerous cannabinoid receptor ligands have been developed and their interactions with CB1 and CB2 receptors well characterized. This review describes what is currently known about the ability of such compounds to bind to, activate, inhibit or block non-CB1, non-CB2 G protein-coupled receptors such as GPR55, transmitter gated channels, ion channels and nuclear receptors in an orthosteric or allosteric manner. It begins with a brief description of how each of these ligands interacts with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. PMID:20166927

  9. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K.

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors agonists (GLP1 RA).

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-10-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors agonists (GLP1RA) are a relatively new class of drugs, used for management of type 2 diabetes. This review studies the characteristics of these drugs, focusing upon their mechanism of action, intra-class differences, and utility in clinical practice. It compares them with other incretin based therapies, the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, and predicts future developments in the use of these molecules, while highlighting the robust indications for the use of these drugs.

  11. Impact of efficacy at the μ-opioid receptor on antinociceptive effects of combinations of μ-opioid receptor agonists and cannabinoid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2014-11-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), enhance the antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists, which suggests that combining cannabinoids with opioids would improve pain treatment. Combinations with lower efficacy agonists might be preferred and could avoid adverse effects associated with large doses; however, it is unclear whether interactions between opioids and cannabinoids vary across drugs with different efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists alone and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists were studied in rhesus monkeys (n = 4) using a warm water tail withdrawal procedure. Etorphine, fentanyl, morphine, buprenorphine, nalbuphine, Δ(9)-THC, and CP 55,940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol) each increased tail withdrawal latency. Pretreatment with doses of Δ(9)-THC (1.0 mg/kg) or CP 55,940 (0.032 mg/kg) that were ineffective alone shifted the fentanyl dose-effect curve leftward 20.6- and 52.9-fold, respectively, and the etorphine dose-effect curve leftward 12.4- and 19.6-fold, respectively. Δ(9)-THC and CP 55,940 shifted the morphine dose-effect curve leftward only 3.4- and 7.9-fold, respectively, and the buprenorphine curve only 5.4- and 4.1-fold, respectively. Neither Δ(9)-THC nor CP 55,940 significantly altered the effects of nalbuphine. Cannabinoid receptor agonists increase the antinociceptive potency of higher efficacy opioid receptor agonists more than lower efficacy agonists; however, because much smaller doses of each drug can be administered in combinations while achieving adequate pain relief and that other (e.g., abuse-related) effects of opioids do not appear to be enhanced by cannabinoids, these results provide additional support for combining opioids with cannabinoids to treat pain.

  12. Differential opioid agonist regulation of the mouse mu opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Blake, A D; Bot, G; Freeman, J C; Reisine, T

    1997-01-10

    Mu opioid receptors mediate the analgesia induced by morphine. Prolonged use of morphine causes tolerance development and dependence. To investigate the molecular basis of tolerance and dependence, the cloned mouse mu opioid receptor with an amino-terminal epitope tag was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and the effects of prolonged opioid agonist treatment on receptor regulation were examined. In HEK 293 cells the expressed mu receptor showed high affinity, specific, saturable binding of radioligands and a pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Pretreatment (1 h, 3 h, or overnight) of cells with 1 microM morphine or [D-Ala2MePhe4,Gly(ol)5]enkephalin (DAMGO) resulted in no apparent receptor desensitization, as assessed by opioid inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels. In contrast, the morphine and DAMGO pretreatments (3 h) resulted in a 3-4-fold compensatory increase in forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. The opioid agonists methadone and buprenorphine are used in the treatment of addiction because of a markedly lower abuse potential. Pretreatment of mu receptor-expressing HEK 293 cells with methadone or buprenorphine abolished the ability of opioids to inhibit adenylyl cyclase. No compensatory increase in forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation was found with methadone or buprenorphine; these opioids blocked the compensatory effects observed with morphine and DAMGO. Taken together, these results indicate that methadone and buprenorphine interact differently with the mouse mu receptor than either morphine or DAMGO. The ability of methadone and buprenorphine to desensitize the mu receptor and block the compensatory rise in forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation may be an underlying mechanism by which these agents are effective in the treatment of morphine addiction.

  13. Role of nicotine receptor partial agonists in tobacco cessation

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Nivedita; Chand, Prabhat; Murthy, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    One in three adults in India uses tobacco, a highly addictive substance in one or other form. In addition to prevention of tobacco use, offering evidence-based cessation services to dependent tobacco users constitutes an important approach in addressing this serious public health problem. A combination of behavioral methods and pharmacotherapy has shown the most optimal results in tobacco dependence treatment. Among currently available pharmacological agents, drugs that preferentially act on the α4 β2-nicotinic acetyl choline receptor like varenicline and cytisine appear to have relatively better cessation outcomes. These drugs are in general well tolerated and have minimal drug interactions. The odds of quitting tobacco use are at the very least doubled with the use of partial agonists compared with placebo and the outcomes are also superior when compared to nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion. The poor availability of partial agonists and specifically the cost of varenicline, as well as the lack of safety data for cytisine has limited their use world over, particularly in developing countries. Evidence for the benefit of partial agonists is more robust for smoking rather than smokeless forms of tobacco. Although more studies are needed to demonstrate their effectiveness in different populations of tobacco users, present literature supports the use of partial agonists in addition to behavioral methods for optimal outcome in tobacco dependence. PMID:24574554

  14. Angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibodies and hypertension: preeclampsia and beyond.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Kellems, Rodney E

    2013-06-21

    Hypertensive disorders are life-threatening diseases with high morbidity and mortality, affecting billions of individuals worldwide. A multitude of underlying conditions may contribute to hypertension, thus the need for a plethora of treatment options to identify the approach that best meets the needs of individual patients. A growing body of evidence indicates that (1) autoantibodies that bind to and activate the major angiotensin II type I (AT₁) receptor exist in the circulation of patients with hypertensive disorders, (2) these autoantibodies contribute to disease pathophysiology, (3) antibody titers correlate to the severity of the disease, and (4) efforts to block or remove these pathogenic autoantibodies have therapeutic potential. These autoantibodies, termed AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies have been extensively characterized in preeclampsia, a life-threatening hypertensive condition of pregnancy. As reviewed here, these autoantibodies cause symptoms of preeclampsia when injected into pregnant mice. Somewhat surprisingly, these auto antibodies also appear in 3 animal models of preeclampsia. However, the occurrence of AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies is not restricted to pregnancy. These autoantibodies are prevalent among kidney transplant recipients who develop severe transplant rejection and malignant hypertension during the first week after transplantation. AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies are also highly abundant among a group of patients with essential hypertension that are refractory to standard therapy. More recently these autoantibodies have been seen in patients with the autoimmune disease, systemic sclerosis. These 3 examples extend the clinical impact of AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies beyond pregnancy. Research reviewed here raises the intriguing possibility that preeclampsia and other hypertensive conditions are autoimmune diseases characterized by the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies that activate the major angiotensin receptor, AT₁. These

  15. Interaction of a radiolabeled agonist with cardiac muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Harden, T.K.; Meeker, R.B.; Martin, M.W.

    1983-12-01

    The interaction of a radiolabeled muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, (methyl-/sup 3/H)oxotremorine acetate ((/sup 3/H)OXO), with a washed membrane preparation derived from rat heart, has been studied. In binding assays at 4 degrees C, the rate constants for association and dissociation of (/sup 3/H)OXO were 2 X 10(7) M-1 min-1 and 5 X 10(-3) min-1, respectively, Saturation binding isotherms indicated that binding was to a single population of sites with a Kd of approximately 300 pM. The density of (/sup 3/H)OXO binding sites (90-100 fmol/mg of protein) was approximately 75% of that determined for the radiolabeled receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate. Both muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)OXO with high affinity and Hill slopes of approximately one. Guanine nucleotides completely inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)OXO. This effect was on the maximum binding (Bmax) of (/sup 3/H)OXO with no change occurring in the Kd; the order of potency for five nucleotides was guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio-triphosphate) greater than 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate greater than GTP greater than or equal to guanosine/diphosphate greater than GMP. The (/sup 3/H)OXO-induced interaction of muscarinic receptors with a guanine nucleotide binding protein was stable to solubilization. That is, membrane receptors that were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)OXO could be solubilized with digitonin, and the addition of guanine nucleotides to the soluble, (/sup 3/H)OXO-labeled complex resulted in dissociation of (/sup 3/H)OXO from the receptor. Pretreatment of membranes with relatively low concentrations of N-ethylmaleimide inhibited (/sup 3/H)OXO binding by 85% with no change in the Kd of (/sup 3/H)OXO, and with no effect on (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding.

  16. GLP-1 receptor agonist-induced polyarthritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Maria Luisa; Monami, Matteo; Sati, Lavinia; Marchionni, Niccolò; Di Bari, Mauro; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2014-08-01

    Occasional cases of bilateral, symmetrical, seronegative polyarthritis have been reported in patients treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (Crickx et al. in Rheumatol Int, 2013). We report here a similar case observed during treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist. A 42-year-old man with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin 1,500 mg/day and liraglutide 1.8 mg/day. After 6 months from the beginning of treatment, the patient complained of bilateral arthralgia (hands, feet, ankles, knees, and hips). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytes were increased. Rheumatoid factor, anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody, antinuclear antibodies, anti-Borrelia, and burgdorferi antibodies were all negative, and myoglobin and calcitonin were normal. Liraglutide was withdrawn, and the symptoms completely disappeared within 1 week, with normalization of ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, and leukocytes. Previously described cases of polyarthritis associated with DPP4 inhibitors had been attributed to a direct effect of the drugs on inflammatory cells expressing the enzyme. The present case, occurred during treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonists, suggests a possibly different mechanism, mediated by GLP-1 receptor stimulation, which deserved further investigation.

  17. Antidepressant-like Effects of δ Opioid Receptor Agonists in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Recently, δ opioid receptor agonists have been proposed to be attractive targets for the development of novel antidepressants. Several studies revealed that single treatment of δ opioid receptor agonists produce antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test, which is one of the most popular animal models for screening antidepressants. In addition, subchronic treatment with δ opioid receptor agonists has been shown to completely attenuate the hyperemotional responses found in olfactory bulbectomized rats. This animal model exhibits hyperemotional behavior that may mimic the anxiety, aggression, and irritability found in depressed patients, suggesting that δ opioid receptor agonists could be effective in the treatment of these symptoms in depression. On the other hand, prototype δ opioid receptor agonists produce convulsive effects, which limit their therapeutic potential and clinical development. In this review, we presented the current knowledge regarding the antidepressant-like effects of δ opioid receptor agonists, which include some recently developed drugs lacking convulsive effects. PMID:23449756

  18. Agonist Derived Molecular Probes for A2A Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Jarvis, Michael F.; Williams, Michael; Hutchison, Alan J.; Barrington, William W.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine agonist 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) was recently reported to be selective for the A2A adenosine receptor subtype, which mediates its hypotensive action. To investigate structurelactivity relationships at a distal site, CGS21680 was derivatized using a functionalized congener approach. The carboxylic group of CGS21680 has been esterified to form a methyl ester, which was then treated with ethylenediamine to produce an amine congener. The amine congener was an intermediate for acylation reactions, in which the reactive acyl species contained a reported group, or the precursor for such. For radioiodination, derivatives of p-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 2-thiophenylacetic, and p-aminophenylacetic acids were prepared. The latter derivative (PAPA-APEC) was iodinated electrophilically using [125I]iodide resulting in a radioligand which was used for studies of competition of binding to striatal A, adenosine receptors in bovine brain. A biotin conjugate and an aryl sulfonate were at least 350-fold selective for A, receptors. For spectroscopic detection, a derivative of the stable free radical tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) was prepared. For irreversible inhibition of receptors, meta- and para-phenylenediisothiocyanate groups were incorporated in the analogs. We have demonstrated that binding at A2A receptors is relatively insensitive to distal structural changes at the 2-position, and we report high affinity molecular probes for receptor characterization by radioactive, spectroscopic and affinity labelling methodology. PMID:2561548

  19. Pregnane X receptor agonists impair postprandial glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rysä, J; Buler, M; Savolainen, M J; Ruskoaho, H; Hakkola, J; Hukkanen, J

    2013-06-01

    We conducted a randomized, open, placebo-controlled crossover trial to investigate the effects of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonist rifampin on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 healthy volunteers. The subjects were administered 600 mg rifampin or placebo once daily for 7 days, and OGTT was performed on the eighth day. The mean incremental glucose and insulin areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC(incr)) increased by 192% (P = 0.008) and 45% (P = 0.031), respectively. The fasting glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, were not affected. The glucose AUC(incr) during OGTT was significantly increased in rats after 4-day treatment with pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN), an agonist of the rat PXR. The hepatic level of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) mRNA was downregulated by PCN. In conclusion, both human and rat PXR agonists elicited postprandial hyperglycemia, suggesting a detrimental role of PXR activation on glucose tolerance.

  20. Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the ah receptor.

    PubMed

    Bohonowych, Jessica E S; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T; Denison, Michael S

    2008-04-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [(3)H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed.

  1. Newspapers and Newspaper Ink Contain Agonists for the Ah Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bohonowych, Jessica E. S.; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Denison, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed. PMID:18203687

  2. β‐Arrestin 2 dependence of δ opioid receptor agonists is correlated with alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, T; Sansuk, K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose δ Opioid receptor agonists are being developed as potential treatments for depression and alcohol use disorders. This is particularly interesting as depression is frequently co‐morbid with alcohol use disorders. Yet we have previously shown that δ receptor agonists range widely in their ability to modulate alcohol intake; certain δ receptor agonists actually increase alcohol consumption in mice. We propose that variations in β‐arrestin 2 recruitment contribute to the differential behavioural profile of δ receptor agonists. Experimental Approach We used three diarylmethylpiperazine‐based non‐peptidic δ receptor selective agonists (SNC80, SNC162 and ARM390) and three structurally diverse δ receptor agonists (TAN‐67, KNT127 and NIH11082). We tested these agonists in cAMP and β‐arrestin 2 recruitment assays and a behavioural assay of alcohol intake in male C57BL/6 mice. We used β‐arrestin 2 knockout mice and a model of depression‐like behaviour to further study the role of β‐arrestin 2 in δ receptor pharmacology. Key Results All six tested δ receptor agonists were full agonists in the cAMP assay but displayed distinct β‐arrestin 2 recruitment efficacy. The efficacy of δ receptor agonists to recruit β‐arrestin 2 positively correlated with their ability to increase alcohol intake (P < 0.01). The effects of the very efficacious recruiter SNC80 on alcohol intake, alcohol place preference and depression‐like behaviour were β‐arrestin 2‐dependent. Conclusions and Implications Our finding that δ receptor agonists that strongly recruit β‐arrestin 2 can increase alcohol intake carries important ramifications for drug development of δ receptor agonists for treatment of alcohol use disorders and depressive disorders. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society PMID:26507558

  3. New Small Molecule Agonists to the Thyrotropin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M. Rejwan; Ma, Risheng; David, Martine; Morshed, Syed A.; Ohlmeyer, Michael; Felsenfeld, Dan P.; Lau, Zerlina; Mezei, Mihaly; Davies, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Novel small molecular ligands (SMLs) to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) have potential as improved molecular probes and as therapeutic agents for the treatment of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer. Methods To identify novel SMLs to the TSHR, we developed a transcription-based luciferase-cAMP high-throughput screening system and we screened 48,224 compounds from a 100K library in duplicate. Results We obtained 62 hits using the cut-off criteria of the mean±three standard deviations above the baseline. Twenty molecules with the greatest activity were rescreened against the parent CHO-luciferase cell for nonspecific activation, and we selected two molecules (MS437 and MS438) with the highest potency for further study. These lead molecules demonstrated no detectible cross-reactivity with homologous receptors when tested against luteinizing hormone (LH)/human chorionic gonadotropin receptor and follicle stimulating hormone receptor–expressing cells. Molecule MS437 had a TSHR-stimulating potency with an EC50 of 13×10−8 M, and molecule MS438 had an EC50 of 5.3×10−8 M. The ability of these small molecule agonists to bind to the transmembrane domain of the receptor and initiate signal transduction was suggested by their activation of a chimeric receptor consisting of an LHR ectodomain and a TSHR transmembrane. Molecular modeling demonstrated that these molecules bound to residues S505 and E506 for MS438 and T501 for MS437 in the intrahelical region of transmembrane helix 3. We also examined the G protein activating ability of these molecules using CHO cells co-expressing TSHRs transfected with luciferase reporter vectors in order to measure Gsα, Gβγ, Gαq, and Gα12 activation quantitatively. The MS437 and MS438 molecules showed potent activation of Gsα, Gαq, and Gα12 similar to TSH, but neither the small molecule agonists nor TSH showed activation of the Gβγ pathway. The small molecules MS437 and MS438 also showed upregulation of

  4. [Safety and tolerability of GLP-1 receptor agonists].

    PubMed

    Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1ra) are a new group of drugs with a glucose-lowering action due to their incretin effect. The GLP-1 receptor is expressed in various human tissues, which could be related to the pleiotropic effects of human GLP-1, as well as to the adverse effects described in patients treated with GLP-1ra. The risk of hypoglycaemia is low, which is one of the main considerations in the safety of this family of compounds and is also important to patients with diabetes. The most frequent adverse effect is nausea, which usually occurs at the start of treatment and is transient in 20-60% of affected patients. This article also reviews the information available on antibody formation, the potential effect on the thyroid gland, and the controversial association between this group of drugs with pancreatitis and cancer.

  5. [Safety and tolerability of GLP-1 receptor agonists].

    PubMed

    Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1ra) are a new group of drugs with a glucose-lowering action due to their incretin effect. The GLP-1 receptor is expressed in various human tissues, which could be related to the pleiotropic effects of human GLP-1, as well as to the adverse effects described in patients treated with GLP-1ra. The risk of hypoglycaemia is low, which is one of the main considerations in the safety of this family of compounds and is also important to patients with diabetes. The most frequent adverse effect is nausea, which usually occurs at the start of treatment and is transient in 20-60% of affected patients. This article also reviews the information available on antibody formation, the potential effect on the thyroid gland, and the controversial association between this group of drugs with pancreatitis and cancer.

  6. Can the sigma-1 receptor agonist fluvoxamine prevent schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2009-12-01

    In the past decade there has been increasing interest in the potential benefit of early pharmacological intervention in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia show nonpsychotic and nonspecific prodromal symptoms (e.g., depression and cognitive deficits) for several years preceding the onset of frank psychosis. Several studies have demonstrated that medication with atypical antipsychotic drugs in people with prodromal symptoms may reduce the risk of subsequent transition to schizophrenia. Furthermore, a naturalistic treatment study in young people with prodromal symptoms demonstrated that medication with antidepressants could prevent the development of psychosis. Although the sample in this study was small, the results were striking. Some antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), had high to moderate affinities at the endoplasmic reticulum protein sigma-1 receptors, which are implicated in neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity. Among all antidepressants, fluvoxamine was the most potent sigma-1 receptor agonist. Since the effects of fluroxaming were antagonized by the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. Based on the role of sigma-1 receptors in the pathophysiology of cognition and depression, the author would like to propose a hypothesis that SSRIs (e.g., fluvoxamine) with sigma-1 receptor agonism may reduce the risk of subsequent transition to schizophrenia.

  7. Therapeutic applications of TRAIL receptor agonists in cancer and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    TRAIL/Apo-2L is a member of the TNF superfamily first described as an apoptosis-inducing cytokine in 1995. Similar to TNF and Fas ligand, TRAIL induces apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner following TRAIL death receptor trimerization. Because tumor cells were shown to be particularly sensitive to this cytokine while normal cells/tissues proved to be resistant along with being able to synthesize and release TRAIL, it was rapidly appreciated that TRAIL likely served as one of our major physiologic weapons against cancer. In line with this, a number of research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies have attempted to exploit the ability of TRAIL to kill cancer cells by developing recombinant forms of TRAIL or TRAIL receptor agonists (e.g., receptor-specific mAb) for therapeutic purposes. In this review article we will describe the biochemical pathways used by TRAIL to induce different cell death programs. We will also summarize the clinical trials related to this pathway and discuss possible novel uses of TRAIL-related therapies. In recent years, the physiological importance of TRAIL has expanded beyond being a tumoricidal molecule to one critical for a number of clinical settings — ranging from infectious disease and autoimmunity to cardiovascular anomalies. We will also highlight some of these conditions where modulation of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system may be targeted in the future. PMID:26343199

  8. Agonist photoaffinity label for the. beta. -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Resek, J.F.; Ruoho, A.E.

    1987-05-01

    An iodinated photosensitive derivative of norepinephrine, N-(p-azido-m-iodophenethylamidoisobutyryl)norepinephrine (NAIN), has been synthesized and characterized. Carrier-free radioiodinated NAIN ((/sup 125/I)-NAIN) was used at 1-2 x 10/sup -9/ M to photoaffinity label the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in guinea pig lung membranes. SDS-PAGE analysis of (-)-alprenolol (10/sup -5/M) protectable (/sup 125/I)-NAIN labeling showed the same molecular weight polypeptide (65 kDa) that was specifically derivatized with the antagonist photolabel, (/sup 125/I)-IABP. Specific labeling of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor with (/sup 125/I)-NAIN was dependent on the presence of MgCl/sub 2/ and the absence of guanyl nucleotide. GTP..gamma..S (10/sup -4/ M) abolished specific receptor labeling by (/sup 125/I)-NAIN. N-ethylmaleimide (2 mm) in the presence of (/sup 125/I)-NAIN protected against the guanyl nucleotide effect. These data are consistent with photolabeling by (/sup 125/I)-NAIN while the agonist, receptor, and GTP binding protein are in a high affinity complex.

  9. Primary Macrophage Chemotaxis Induced by Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonists Occurs Independently of the CB2 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lewis; Christou, Ivy; Kapellos, Theodore S; Buchan, Alice; Brodermann, Maximillian H; Gianella-Borradori, Matteo; Russell, Angela; Iqbal, Asif J; Greaves, David R

    2015-06-02

    Activation of CB2 has been demonstrated to induce directed immune cell migration. However, the ability of CB2 to act as a chemoattractant receptor in macrophages remains largely unexplored. Using a real-time chemotaxis assay and a panel of chemically diverse and widely used CB2 agonists, we set out to examine whether CB2 modulates primary murine macrophage chemotaxis. We report that of 12 agonists tested, only JWH133, HU308, L-759,656 and L-759,633 acted as macrophage chemoattractants. Surprisingly, neither pharmacological inhibition nor genetic ablation of CB2 had any effect on CB2 agonist-induced macrophage chemotaxis. As chemotaxis was pertussis toxin sensitive in both WT and CB2(-/-) macrophages, we concluded that a non-CB1/CB2, Gi/o-coupled GPCR must be responsible for CB2 agonist-induced macrophage migration. The obvious candidate receptors GPR18 and GPR55 could not mediate JWH133 or HU308-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement or JWH133-induced β-arrestin recruitment in cells transfected with either receptor, demonstrating that neither are the unidentified GPCR. Taken together our results conclusively demonstrate that CB2 is not a chemoattractant receptor for murine macrophages. Furthermore we show for the first time that JWH133, HU308, L-759,656 and L-759,633 have off-target effects of functional consequence in primary cells and we believe that our findings have wide ranging implications for the entire cannabinoid field.

  10. Primary Macrophage Chemotaxis Induced by Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonists Occurs Independently of the CB2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lewis; Christou, Ivy; Kapellos, Theodore S.; Buchan, Alice; Brodermann, Maximillian H.; Gianella-Borradori, Matteo; Russell, Angela; Iqbal, Asif J.; Greaves, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of CB2 has been demonstrated to induce directed immune cell migration. However, the ability of CB2 to act as a chemoattractant receptor in macrophages remains largely unexplored. Using a real-time chemotaxis assay and a panel of chemically diverse and widely used CB2 agonists, we set out to examine whether CB2 modulates primary murine macrophage chemotaxis. We report that of 12 agonists tested, only JWH133, HU308, L-759,656 and L-759,633 acted as macrophage chemoattractants. Surprisingly, neither pharmacological inhibition nor genetic ablation of CB2 had any effect on CB2 agonist-induced macrophage chemotaxis. As chemotaxis was pertussis toxin sensitive in both WT and CB2-/- macrophages, we concluded that a non-CB1/CB2, Gi/o-coupled GPCR must be responsible for CB2 agonist-induced macrophage migration. The obvious candidate receptors GPR18 and GPR55 could not mediate JWH133 or HU308-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement or JWH133-induced β-arrestin recruitment in cells transfected with either receptor, demonstrating that neither are the unidentified GPCR. Taken together our results conclusively demonstrate that CB2 is not a chemoattractant receptor for murine macrophages. Furthermore we show for the first time that JWH133, HU308, L-759,656 and L-759,633 have off-target effects of functional consequence in primary cells and we believe that our findings have wide ranging implications for the entire cannabinoid field. PMID:26033291

  11. Is there a justification for classifying GLP-1 receptor agonists as basal and prandial?

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Inka; Pérez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Several GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently available for treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. Based on their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile, these drugs are classified as short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists (exenatide and lixisenatide) or long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists (exenatide-LAR, liraglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide). In clinical practice, they are also classified as basal or prandial GLP-1 receptor agonists to differentiate between patients who would benefit more from one or another based on characteristics such as previous treatment and the predominance of fasting or postprandial hyperglycemia. In the present article we examine available data on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the various GLP-1 agonists and compare their effects with respect to the main parameters used to evaluate glycemic control. The article also analyzes whether the differences between the different GLP-1 agonists justify their classification as basal or prandial.

  12. Novel selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists (SEGRAs) with a covalent warhead for long-lasting inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ryabtsova, Oksana; Joossens, Jurgen; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Augustyns, Koen; De Winter, Hans

    2016-10-15

    The synthesis and in vitro properties of six analogues of the selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist GSK866, bearing a warhead for covalent linkage to the glucocorticoid receptor, is described.

  13. Identification of Determinants Required for Agonistic and Inverse Agonistic Ligand Properties at the ADP Receptor P2Y12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Philipp; Ritscher, Lars; Dong, Elizabeth N.; Hermsdorf, Thomas; Cöster, Maxi; Wittkopf, Doreen; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The ADP receptor P2Y12 belongs to the superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its activation triggers platelet aggregation. Therefore, potent antagonists, such as clopidogrel, are of high clinical relevance in prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events. P2Y12 displays an elevated basal activity in vitro, and as such, inverse agonists may be therapeutically beneficial compared with antagonists. Only a few inverse agonists of P2Y12 have been described. To expand this limited chemical space and improve understanding of structural determinants of inverse agonist-receptor interaction, this study screened a purine compound library for lead structures using wild-type (WT) human P2Y12 and 28 constitutively active mutants. Results showed that ATP and ATP derivatives are agonists at P2Y12. The potency at P2Y12 was 2-(methylthio)-ADP > 2-(methylthio)-ATP > ADP > ATP. Determinants required for agonistic ligand activity were identified. Molecular docking studies revealed a binding pocket for the ATP derivatives that is bordered by transmembrane helices 3, 5, 6, and 7 in human P2Y12, with Y105, E188, R256, Y259, and K280 playing a particularly important role in ligand interaction. N-Methyl-anthraniloyl modification at the 3′-OH of the 2′-deoxyribose leads to ligands (mant-deoxy-ATP [dATP], mant-deoxy-ADP) with inverse agonist activity. Inverse agonist activity of mant-dATP was found at the WT human P2Y12 and half of the constitutive active P2Y12 mutants. This study showed that, in addition to ADP and ATP, other ATP derivatives are not only ligands of P2Y12 but also agonists. Modification of the ribose within ATP can result in inverse activity of ATP-derived ligands. PMID:23093496

  14. Biased signaling by peptide agonists of protease activated receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Kok, W Mei; Lim, Junxian; Wu, Kai-Chen; Liu, Ligong; Hill, Timothy A; Suen, Jacky Y; Fairlie, David P

    2017-02-07

    Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is associated with metabolism, obesity, inflammatory, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, pain, cancer and other diseases. The extracellular N-terminus of PAR2 is a common target for multiple proteases, which cleave it at different sites to generate different N-termini that activate different PAR2-mediated intracellular signaling pathways. There are no synthetic PAR2 ligands that reproduce the same signaling profiles and potencies as proteases. Structure-activity relationships here for 26 compounds spanned a signaling bias over 3 log units, culminating in three small ligands as biased agonist tools for interrogating PAR2 functions. DF253 (2f-LAAAAI-NH2) triggered PAR2-mediated calcium release (EC50 2 μM) but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation (EC50 > 100 μM) in CHO cells transfected with hPAR2. AY77 (Isox-Cha-Chg-NH2) was a more potent calcium-biased agonist (EC50 40 nM, Ca2+; EC50 2 μM, ERK1/2), while its analogue AY254 (Isox-Cha-Chg-A-R-NH2) was an ERK-biased agonist (EC50 2 nM, ERK1/2; EC50 80 nM, Ca2+). Signaling bias led to different functional responses in human colorectal carcinoma cells (HT29). AY254, but not AY77 or DF253, attenuated cytokine-induced caspase 3/8 activation, promoted scratch-wound healing and induced IL-8 secretion, all via PAR2-ERK1/2 signaling. Different ligand components were responsible for different PAR2 signaling and functions, clues that can potentially lead to drugs that modulate different pathway-selective cellular and physiological responses.

  15. Benzodiazepine agonist and inverse agonist actions on GABAA receptor-operated chloride channels. II. Chronic effects of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, K.J.; Harris, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Mice were made tolerant to and dependent on ethanol by administration of a liquid diet. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-dependent uptake of 36Cl- by mouse cortical microsacs was used to study the actions of benzodiazepine (BZ) agonists and inverse agonists. Chronic exposure to ethanol attenuated the ability of a BZ agonist, flunitrazepam, to augment muscimol-stimulated uptake of 36Cl- and enhanced the actions of BZ inverse agonists, Ro15-4513 (ethyl-8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,4)-benzodiazepine - 3-carboxylate) and DMCM (methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate), to inhibit GABAA receptor-operated chloride channels. Augmentation of chloride flux by pentobarbital was not reduced by chronic ethanol exposure. Attenuation of flunitrazepam efficacy was transient and returned to control levels within 6 to 24 hr after withdrawal from ethanol, but increased sensitivity to Ro15-4513 was observed as long as 8 days after withdrawal. Chronic exposure to ethanol did not alter (3H)SR 95531 (2-(3'-carbethoxy-2'propyl)-3-amino-6-p-methoxyphenylpyridazinium bromide) binding to low-affinity GABAA receptors or muscimol stimulation of chloride flux; and did not alter (3H)Ro15-4513 or (3H)flunitrazepam binding to central BZ receptors or allosteric modulation of this binding by muscimol (i.e., muscimol-shift). These results suggest that chronic exposure to ethanol reduces coupling between BZ agonist sites and the chloride channel, and may be responsible for the development of cross-tolerance between ethanol and BZ agonists. In contrast, coupling between BZ inverse agonist sites and the chloride channel is increased.

  16. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates ILC2-dependent airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Suzuki, Yuzo; Patel, Nisheel; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Aron, Jennifer L.; Maazi, Hadi; Chen, Lin; Akbari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory disorder that is associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and driven by Th2 cytokine secretion. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and contribute to the development of AHR. Here, we show that ILC2s express the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is thought to have an anti-inflammatory role in several inflammatory diseases. We show that engagement of a specific agonist with α7nAChR on ILC2s reduces ILC2 effector function and represses ILC2-dependent AHR, while decreasing expression of ILC2 key transcription factor GATA-3 and critical inflammatory modulator NF-κB, and reducing phosphorylation of upstream kinase IKKα/β. Additionally, the specific α7nAChR agonist reduces cytokine production and AHR in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that α7nAChR expressed by ILC2s is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ILC2-mediated asthma. PMID:27752043

  17. Trial Watch: Toll-like receptor agonists in oncological indications.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Fernando; Vacchelli, Erika; Obrist, Florine; Eggermont, Alexander; Galon, Jérôme; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Cremer, Isabelle; Henrik Ter Meulen, Jan; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of enzymatically inactive, single membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a wide panel of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Besides constituting a crucial component of the innate immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens, TLRs appear to play a major role in anticancer immunosurveillance. In line with this notion, several natural and synthetic TLR ligands have been intensively investigated for their ability to boost tumor-targeting immune responses elicited by a variety of immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic interventions. Three of these agents are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or equivalent regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients: the so-called bacillus Calmette-Guérin, monophosphoryl lipid A, and imiquimod. However, the number of clinical trials testing the therapeutic potential of both FDA-approved and experimental TLR agonists in cancer patients is stably decreasing, suggesting that drug developers and oncologists are refocusing their interest on alternative immunostimulatory agents. Here, we summarize recent findings on the use of TLR agonists in cancer patients and discuss how the clinical evaluation of FDA-approved and experimental TLR ligands has evolved since the publication of our first Trial Watch dealing with this topic.

  18. Agonistic behavior in males and females: effects of an estrogen receptor beta agonist in gonadectomized and gonadally intact mice

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Amy E. Clipperton; Cragg, Cheryl L.; Wood, Alexis J.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Summary Affiliative and agonistic social interactions are mediated by gonadal hormones. Research with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) or beta (ERβ) knockout (KO) mice show that long-term inactivation of ERα decreases, while inactivation of ERβ increases, male aggression. Opposite effects were found in female αERKO and βERKO mice. The role of acute activation of ERα or ERβ in the agonistic responses of adult non-KO mice is unknown. We report here the effects of the ERβ selective agonist WAY-200070 on agonistic and social behavior in gonadally intact and gonadectomized (gonadex) male and female CD-1 mice towards a gonadex, same-sex intruder. All 15 min resident-intruder tests were videotaped for comprehensive behavioral analysis. Separate analyses assessed: 1) effects of WAY-200070 on each sex and gonadal condition; 2) differences between sexes, and between gonadally intact and gonadex mice, in untreated animals. Results show that in gonadally intact male and female mice WAY-200070 increased agonistic behaviors such as pushing down and aggressive grooming, while leaving attacks unaffected. In untreated mice, males attacked more than females, and gonadex animals showed less agonistic behavior than same-sex, gonadally intact mice. Overall, our detailed behavioral analysis suggested that in gonadally intact male and female mice, ERβ mediates patterns of agonistic behavior that are not directly involved in attacks. This suggests that specific aspects of aggressive behavior are acutely mediated by ERβ in adult mice. Our results also showed that, in resident-intruder tests, female mice spend as much time in intrasexual agonistic interactions as males, but use agonistic behaviors that involve extremely low levels of direct attacks. This non-attack aggression in females is increased by acute activation of ERβ. Thus, acute activation of ERβ similarly mediates agonistic behavior in adult male and female CD-1 mice. PMID:20129736

  19. Crystal Structures of the Nuclear Receptor, Liver Receptor Homolog 1, Bound to Synthetic Agonists.

    PubMed

    Mays, Suzanne G; Okafor, C Denise; Whitby, Richard J; Goswami, Devrishi; Stec, Józef; Flynn, Autumn R; Dugan, Michael C; Jui, Nathan T; Griffin, Patrick R; Ortlund, Eric A

    2016-12-02

    Liver receptor homolog 1 (NR5A2, LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear hormone receptor that regulates diverse biological processes, including metabolism, proliferation, and the resolution of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Although preclinical and cellular studies demonstrate that LRH-1 has great potential as a therapeutic target for metabolic diseases and cancer, development of LRH-1 modulators has been difficult. Recently, systematic modifications to one of the few known chemical scaffolds capable of activating LRH-1 failed to improve efficacy substantially. Moreover, mechanisms through which LRH-1 is activated by synthetic ligands are entirely unknown. Here, we use x-ray crystallography and other structural methods to explore conformational changes and receptor-ligand interactions associated with LRH-1 activation by a set of related agonists. Unlike phospholipid LRH-1 ligands, these agonists bind deep in the pocket and do not interact with residues near the mouth nor do they expand the pocket like phospholipids. Unexpectedly, two closely related agonists with similar efficacies (GSK8470 and RJW100) exhibit completely different binding modes. The dramatic repositioning is influenced by a differential ability to establish stable face-to-face π-π-stacking with the LRH-1 residue His-390, as well as by a novel polar interaction mediated by the RJW100 hydroxyl group. The differing binding modes result in distinct mechanisms of action for the two agonists. Finally, we identify a network of conserved water molecules near the ligand-binding site that are important for activation by both agonists. This work reveals a previously unappreciated complexity associated with LRH-1 agonist development and offers insights into rational design strategies.

  20. Basal Insulin Use With GLP-1 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah L; Trujillo, Jennifer M

    2016-08-01

    IN BRIEF The combination of basal insulin and a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist is becoming increasingly common and offers several potential benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical studies have demonstrated improved glycemic control and low risks of hypoglycemia and weight gain with the combination, which provides a safe and effective alternative to basal-bolus insulin with less treatment burden. Fixed-ratio combination products that administer both agents in a single injection are in the pipeline and will offer additional options for clinicians and patients. This review focuses on the rationale for, clinical evidence on, and implications of using this combination of therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Recent advances in the development of farnesoid X receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Elizabeth J.; Lindor, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors expressed in high amounts in body tissues that participate in bilirubin metabolism including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. Bile acids (BAs) are the natural ligands of the FXRs. FXRs regulate the expression of the gene encoding for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis. In addition, FXRs play a critical role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin sensitivity. FXRs also modulate live growth and regeneration during liver injury. Preclinical studies have shown that FXR activation protects against cholestasis-induced liver injury. Moreover, FXR activation protects against fatty liver injury in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and improved hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a 6α-ethyl derivative of the natural human BA chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is the first-in-class selective FXR agonist that is ~100-fold more potent than CDCA. Preliminary human clinical trials have shown that OCA is safe and effective. In a phase II clinical trial, administration of OCA was well-tolerated, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced markers of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In two clinical trials of OCA in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a progressive cholestatic liver disease, OCA significantly reduced serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, an important disease marker that correlates well with clinical outcomes of patients with PBC. Together, these studies suggest that FXR agonists could potentially be used as therapeutic tools in patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty and cholestatic liver diseases. Larger and Longer-term studies are currently ongoing. PMID:25705637

  2. Combining a GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin: study evidence and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Carris, Nicholas W; Taylor, James R; Gums, John G

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus require multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Considering this and the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the need for effective combination therapy is pressing. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Though both classes of medication are exclusively injectable, which may cause initial hesitation from providers, evidence for their combined use is substantial. This review summarizes the theoretical benefit, supporting evidence, and implementation of a combined basal insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonist regimen. Basal insulin added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) without weight gain or significantly increased hypoglycemia. A GLP-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin reduces HbA1c and body weight. Compared with the addition of meal-time insulin to basal insulin, a GLP-1 receptor agonist produces similar or greater reduction in HbA1c, weight loss instead of weight gain, and less hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events are common with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially during initiation and titration. However, combination with basal insulin is not expected to augment expected adverse events that come with using a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Basal insulin can be added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist with a slow titration to target goal fasting plasma glucose. In patients starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dose of basal insulin should be decreased by 20 % in patients with an HbA1c ≤8 %. The evidence from 15 randomized prospective studies supports the combined use of a GLP-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin in a broad range of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

  3. The dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 effectively increases eye blinking count in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Manato; Kiyoshi, Akihiko; Murai, Takeshi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Ikejiri, Masaru; Ogi, Yuji; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2016-03-01

    Eye blinking is a spontaneous behavior observed in all mammals, and has been used as a well-established clinical indicator for dopamine production in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Tourette syndrome [1,2]. Pharmacological studies in humans and non-human primates have shown that dopamine agonists/antagonists increase/decrease eye blinking rate. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have recently attracted a great deal of attention as suitable experimental animals in the psychoneurological field due to their more developed prefrontal cortex than rodents, easy handling compare to other non-human primates, and requirement for small amounts of test drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dopamine D1-4 receptors agonists on eye blinking in common marmosets. Our results show that the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 and the non-selective dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine significantly increased common marmosets eye blinking count, whereas the dopamine D2 agonist (+)-PHNO and the dopamine D3 receptor agonist (+)-PD-128907 produced somnolence in common marmosets resulting in a decrease in eye blinking count. The dopamine D4 receptor agonists PD-168077 and A-41297 had no effect on common marmosets' eye blinking count. Finally, the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 39166 completely blocked apomorphine-induced increase in eye blinking count. These results indicate that eye blinking in common marmosets may be a useful tool for in vivo screening of novel dopamine D1 receptor agonists as antipsychotics.

  4. Functional efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor agonists is positively correlated to their receptor residence time

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The adenosine A2A receptor belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is a promising therapeutic target. Traditionally, the discovery of novel agents for the A2A receptor has been guided by their affinity for the receptor. This parameter is determined under equilibrium conditions, largely ignoring the kinetic aspects of the ligand-receptor interaction. The aim of this study was to assess the binding kinetics of A2A receptor agonists and explore a possible relationship with their functional efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We set up, validated and optimized a kinetic radioligand binding assay (a so-called competition association assay) at the A2A receptor from which the binding kinetics of unlabelled ligands were determined. Subsequently, functional efficacies of A2A receptor agonists were determined in two different assays: a novel label-free impedance-based assay and a more traditional cAMP determination. KEY RESULTS A simplified competition association assay yielded an accurate determination of the association and dissociation rates of unlabelled A2A receptor ligands at their receptor. A correlation was observed between the receptor residence time of A2A receptor agonists and their intrinsic efficacies in both functional assays. The affinity of A2A receptor agonists was not correlated to their functional efficacy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study indicates that the molecular basis of different agonist efficacies at the A2A receptor lies within their different residence times at this receptor. PMID:22324512

  5. GABAB receptor agonist baclofen improves methamphetamine-induced cognitive deficit in mice.

    PubMed

    Arai, Sawako; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Ibi, Daisuke; Nagai, Taku; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-05

    In this study, we investigated the effects of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor agonists on the methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in mice. Repeated treatment with methamphetamine at a dose of 1 mg/kg for 7 days induced an impairment of recognition memory. Baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist, ameliorated the repeated methamphetamine-induced cognitive impairment, although gaboxadol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, had no significant effect. GABA(B) receptors may constitute a putative new target in treating cognitive deficits in patients suffering from schizophrenia, as well as methamphetamine psychosis.

  6. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  7. Metabolism of a serotonin-4 receptor partial agonist 4-{4-[4-tetrahydrofuran-3-yloxy)-benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yloxymethyl]-piperidin-1-ylmethyl}-tetrahydropyran-4-ol (TBPT): identification of an unusual pharmacologically active cyclized oxazolidine metabolite in human.

    PubMed

    Sawant-Basak, Aarti; Coffman, Karen J; Walker, Gregory S; Ryder, Tim F; Tseng, Elaine; Miller, Emily; Lee, Carlos; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle A; Wong, John W; Brodney, Michael A; Rapp, Tracey; Obach, R Scott

    2013-09-01

    4-{4-[4-Tetrahydrofuran-3-yloxy)-benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yloxymethyl]-piperidin-1-ylmethyl}-tetrahydropyran-4-ol (PF-4995274, TBPT) is a new agent that is a partial agonist of the human serotonin-4 (5-HT4) receptor and is under investigation for neurological disorders. Metabolism of TBPT was examined in vitro in human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes. Metabolites were also identified in the plasma of healthy human subjects in a phase 1 clinical study. Human-derived metabolite profiles were compared with corresponding profiles obtained in laboratory animal species. There were two major routes of metabolism in vitro: N-dealkylation of the methyltetrahydropyran moiety (M1) and hydroxylation at the seven position of the benzisoxazole moiety (M4). These were also observed in human plasma; however, in that matrix, the major metabolite was an unusual cyclized oxazolidine entity (M2). M2 was proposed to be formed via generation of an intermediate 4° iminium ion on the piperidine ring followed by spontaneous cyclization by attack of the β-hydroxyl substituent of the tetrahydropyran ring to form a cyclized oxazolidine product. An authentic standard of the metabolite was generated using a methylene-blue-sensitized photochemical oxidation reaction as well as microbial transformation. Further investigation of this metabolite showed that it also possessed 5-HT4 agonism activity similar to the parent. The metabolite was 150-fold more highly protein bound in human plasma than TBPT, which is consistent with its presence as a major circulating metabolite while being only a minor metabolite in in vitro systems. Overall, this illustrates the importance of understanding the complex dispositional properties of a pharmacologically active metabolite.

  8. Cardiovascular selectivity of adenosine receptor agonists in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Gerencer, R. Z.; Finegan, B. A.; Clanachan, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    1. In order to determine the relevance of adenosine (Ado) receptor classification obtained from in vitro methods to the cardiovascular actions of Ado agonists in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA, 400 fold A1-selective), 5'-N-ethyl-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA, A1 approximately A2) and 2-phenylaminoadenosine (PAA, 5 fold A2-selective) were compared in open-chest, fentanyl-pentobarbitone anaesthetized dogs. 2. Graded doses of CHA (10 to 1000 micrograms kg-1), NECA (0.5 to 100 micrograms kg-1) or PAA (0.1 to 20 micrograms kg-1) were administered intravenously and changes in haemodynamics and myocardial contractility were assessed 10 min following each dose. The effects of graded infusions of AMP (200 to 1000 micrograms kg-1 min-1) were also evaluated. 3. AMP and each of the Ado analogues (NECA > PAA > CHA) increased the systemic vascular conductance index (SVCI) in a dose-dependent manner and reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP). At doses causing similar increases in SVCI, these agonists caused (i) similar reflex increases in heart rate (HR) and cardiac index (CI) and decreases in AV conduction interval (AVi) and (ii) similar increases in coronary vascular conductance (CVC). 4. After cardiac autonomic blockade with atropine (0.2 mg kg-1) and propranolol (1 mg kg-1), AMP, CHA and PAA still increased SVCI and CVC and decreased MAP. CHA and PAA had no marked effects on HR, CI or AVi. As in the absence of cardiac autonomic blockade, equieffective vasodilator doses of CHA and PAA had identical effects on CVC, CI and AVi.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1467827

  9. Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein suppresses agonist-driven CB1 receptor internalization and regulates receptor replenishment in an agonist-biased manner.

    PubMed

    Blume, Lawrence C; Leone-Kabler, Sandra; Luessen, Deborah J; Marrs, Glen S; Lyons, Erica; Bass, Caroline E; Chen, Rong; Selley, Dana E; Howlett, Allyn C

    2016-11-01

    Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a) is a CB1 receptor (CB1 R) distal C-terminus-associated protein that modulates CB1 R signaling via G proteins, and CB1 R down-regulation but not desensitization (Blume et al. [2015] Cell Signal., 27, 716-726; Smith et al. [2015] Mol. Pharmacol., 87, 747-765). In this study, we determined the involvement of CRIP1a in CB1 R plasma membrane trafficking. To follow the effects of agonists and antagonists on cell surface CB1 Rs, we utilized the genetically homogeneous cloned neuronal cell line N18TG2, which endogenously expresses both CB1 R and CRIP1a, and exhibits a well-characterized endocannabinoid signaling system. We developed stable CRIP1a-over-expressing and CRIP1a-siRNA-silenced knockdown clones to investigate gene dose effects of CRIP1a on CB1 R plasma membrane expression. Results indicate that CP55940 or WIN55212-2 (10 nM, 5 min) reduced cell surface CB1 R by a dynamin- and clathrin-dependent process, and this was attenuated by CRIP1a over-expression. CP55940-mediated cell surface CB1 R loss was followed by a cycloheximide-sensitive recovery of surface receptors (30-120 min), suggesting the requirement for new protein synthesis. In contrast, WIN55212-2-mediated cell surface CB1 Rs recovered only in CRIP1a knockdown cells. Changes in CRIP1a expression levels did not affect a transient rimonabant (10 nM)-mediated increase in cell surface CB1 Rs, which is postulated to be as a result of rimonabant effects on 'non-agonist-driven' internalization. These studies demonstrate a novel role for CRIP1a in agonist-driven CB1 R cell surface regulation postulated to occur by two mechanisms: 1) attenuating internalization that is agonist-mediated, but not that in the absence of exogenous agonists, and 2) biased agonist-dependent trafficking of de novo synthesized receptor to the cell surface.

  10. Intrinsic Relative Activities of Opioid Agonists in Activating Gα proteins and Internalizing Receptor: Differences between Human and Mouse Receptors

    PubMed Central

    DiMattio, Kelly M.; Ehlert, Frederick J.; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators recently identified biased opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [35S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi−G) and receptor internalization (RAi−I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi−G − Log RAi−I, RAi−G/RAi−I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1–17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed. PMID:26057692

  11. Effects of 5-HT receptor agonists on depolarization-induced [3H]-noradrenaline release in rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex.

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, C.; Warnke, P.; Stangl, A. P.; Feuerstein, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The present study attempted to determine whether noradrenaline (NA) release in rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex is modulated by presynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors. 2. Slices of rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex, loaded with [3H]-noradrenaline ([3H]-NA) were superfused and the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor ligands on electrically evoked [3H]-NA release were investigated. 3. In rabbit hippocampus, 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 32 microM) and 2-CH3-5-HT (32 microM) increased [3H]-NA release elicited with 360 pulses/3 Hz. Facilitation of transmitter release was not influenced by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron but was prevented by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, rauwolscine. When autoinhibition was avoided by stimulating the tissue with 4 pulses/100 Hz (pseudo-one pulse-(POP) stimulation), 2-CH3-5-HT decreased evoked transmitter release, whereas 5-HT and 5-CT had no effect. Inhibition caused by 2-CH3-5-HT was not affected by tropisetron but counteracted by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor ligands, clonidine and rauwolscine. Inhibition caused by clonidine was diminished in the presence of 5-CT or 2-CH3-5-HT. 4. In human neocortex, [3H]-NA release elicited with 360 pulses/3 Hz was increased by 10 microM 5-HT and 32 microM 5-CT, whereas 2-CH3-5-HT was ineffective. [3H]-NA release evoked with a modified POP stimulation (2 bursts of 4 pulses/100 Hz, 3.5 min apart) was not affected by 2-CH3-5-HT or 5-CT. 5. The present results indicate that 5-HT, 2-CH3-5-HT and 5-CT can act on presynaptic alpha 2-autoreceptors as partial agonists (2-CH3-5-HT; in rabbit hippocampal tissue) or antagonists (5-HT and 5-CT; in tissue of rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex). Furthermore the existence of autoinhibition dictates whether these drugs cause facilitation of release, inhibition or have no effect. PMID:8528558

  12. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists.

    PubMed

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z

    2017-01-03

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca(2+) entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor ifenprodil reduced NMDA-activated currents, but had no effect on the mechanically induced Ca(2+) influx. Extracellular Mg(2+) at 2 mM did not significantly affect the shear induced Ca(2+) influx, but at 10 mM it produced significant inhibition. Patch clamp experiments showed mechanical activation of NMDAR and inhibition by MK-801. The mechanical sensitivity of NMDARs may play a role in the normal physiology of fluid flow in the glymphatic system and it has obvious relevance to TBI.

  13. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists

    PubMed Central

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K.; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z.

    2017-01-01

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca2+ entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor ifenprodil reduced NMDA-activated currents, but had no effect on the mechanically induced Ca2+ influx. Extracellular Mg2+ at 2 mM did not significantly affect the shear induced Ca2+ influx, but at 10 mM it produced significant inhibition. Patch clamp experiments showed mechanical activation of NMDAR and inhibition by MK-801. The mechanical sensitivity of NMDARs may play a role in the normal physiology of fluid flow in the glymphatic system and it has obvious relevance to TBI. PMID:28045032

  14. Identification of diarylsulfonamides as agonists of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120).

    PubMed

    Sparks, Steven M; Chen, Grace; Collins, Jon L; Danger, Dana; Dock, Steven T; Jayawickreme, Channa; Jenkinson, Stephen; Laudeman, Christopher; Leesnitzer, M Anthony; Liang, Xi; Maloney, Patrick; McCoy, David C; Moncol, David; Rash, Vincent; Rimele, Thomas; Vulimiri, Padmaja; Way, James M; Ross, Sean

    2014-07-15

    The exploration of a diarylsulfonamide series of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120) agonists is described. This work led to the identification of selective FFA4 agonist 8 (GSK137647A) and selective FFA4 antagonist 39. The in vitro profile of compounds 8 and 39 is presented herein.

  15. Desensitization of functional µ-opioid receptors increases agonist off-rate.

    PubMed

    Williams, John T

    2014-07-01

    Desensitization of µ-opioid receptors (MORs) develops over 5-15 minutes after the application of some, but not all, opioid agonists and lasts for tens of minutes after agonist removal. The decrease in function is receptor selective (homologous) and could result from 1) a reduction in receptor number or 2) a decrease in receptor coupling. The present investigation used photolysis of two caged opioid ligands to examine the kinetics of MOR-induced potassium conductance before and after MOR desensitization. Photolysis of a caged antagonist, carboxynitroveratryl-naloxone (caged naloxone), blocked the current induced by a series of agonists, and the time constant of decline was significantly decreased after desensitization. The increase in the rate of current decay was not observed after partial blockade of receptors with the irreversible antagonist, β-chlornaltrexamine (β-CNA). The time constant of current decay after desensitization was never more rapid than 1 second, suggesting an increased agonist off-rate rather than an increase in the rate of channel closure downstream of the receptor. The rate of G protein-coupled K(+) channel (GIRK) current activation was examined using photolysis of a caged agonist, carboxynitrobenzyl-tyrosine-[Leu(5)]-enkephalin. After acute desensitization or partial irreversible block of MORs with β-CNA, there was an increase in the time it took to reach a peak current. The decrease in the rate of agonist-induced GIRK conductance was receptor selective and dependent on receptor number. The results indicate that opioid receptor desensitization reduced the number of functional receptor and that the remaining active receptors have a reduced agonist affinity.

  16. Identification of Ecdysone Hormone Receptor Agonists as a Therapeutic Approach for Treating Filarial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mhashilkar, Amruta S.; Vankayala, Sai L.; Liu, Canhui; Kearns, Fiona; Mehrotra, Priyanka; Tzertzinis, George; Palli, Subba R.; Woodcock, H. Lee; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A homologue of the ecdysone receptor has previously been identified in human filarial parasites. As the ecdysone receptor is not found in vertebrates, it and the regulatory pathways it controls represent attractive potential chemotherapeutic targets. Methodology/ Principal Findings Administration of 20-hydroxyecdysone to gerbils infected with B. malayi infective larvae disrupted their development to adult stage parasites. A stable mammalian cell line was created incorporating the B. malayi ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain, its heterodimer partner and a secreted luciferase reporter in HEK293 cells. This was employed to screen a series of ecdysone agonist, identifying seven agonists active at sub-micromolar concentrations. A B. malayi ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain was developed and used to study the ligand-receptor interactions of these agonists. An excellent correlation between the virtual screening results and the screening assay was observed. Based on both of these approaches, steroidal ecdysone agonists and the diacylhydrazine family of compounds were identified as a fruitful source of potential receptor agonists. In further confirmation of the modeling and screening results, Ponasterone A and Muristerone A, two compounds predicted to be strong ecdysone agonists stimulated expulsion of microfilaria and immature stages from adult parasites. Conclusions The studies validate the potential of the B. malayi ecdysone receptor as a drug target and provide a means to rapidly evaluate compounds for development of a new class of drugs against the human filarial parasites. PMID:27300294

  17. Fluorescence characteristics of hydrophobic partial agonist probes of the cholecystokinin receptor.

    PubMed

    Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Pinon, Delia I; Miller, Laurence J

    2006-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopic studies are powerful tools for the evaluation of receptor structure and the dynamic changes associated with receptor activation. Here, we have developed two chemically distinct fluorescent probes of the cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor by attaching acrylodan or a nitrobenzoxadiazole moiety to the amino terminus of a partial agonist CCK analogue. These two probes were able to bind to the CCK receptor specifically and with high affinity, and were able to elicit only submaximal intracellular calcium responses typical of partial agonists. The fluorescence characteristics of these probes were compared with those previously reported for structurally-related full agonist and antagonist probes. Like the previous probes, the partial agonist probes exhibited longer fluorescence lifetimes and increased anisotropy when bound to the receptor than when free in solution. The receptor-bound probes were not easily quenched by potassium iodide, suggesting that the fluorophores were protected from the extracellular aqueous milieu. The fluorescence characteristics of the partial agonist probes were quite similar to those of the analogous full agonist probes and quite distinct from the analogous antagonist probes. These data suggest that the partially activated conformational state of this receptor is more closely related to its fully active state than to its inactive state.

  18. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Reveals Distinct Agonist/Partial Agonist Receptor Dynamics within the intact Vitamin D Receptor/Retinoid X Receptor Heterodimer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Chalmers, Michael J.; Stayrook, Keith R.; Burris, Lorri L.; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D.; Pascal, Bruce D.; Burris, Thomas P.; Dodge, Jeffery A.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Regulation of nuclear receptor (NR) activity is driven by alterations in the conformational dynamics of the receptor upon ligand binding. Previously we demonstrated that hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) can be applied to determine novel mechanism of action of PPARγ ligands and in predicting tissue specificity of selective estrogen receptor modulators. Here we applied HDX to probe the conformational dynamics of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) upon binding its natural ligand 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), and two analogs, alfacalcidol and ED-71. Comparison of HDX profiles from ligands in complex with the LBD with full-length receptor bound to its cognate receptor retinoid X receptor (RXR) revealed unique receptor dynamics that could not be inferred from static crystal structures. These results demonstrate that ligands modulate the dynamics of the heterodimer interface as well as providing insight into the role of AF-2 dynamics in the action of VDR partial agonists. PMID:20947021

  19. Regulation of adiponectin receptor 1 in human hepatocytes by agonists of nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus; Weigert, Johanna; Schaeffler, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas; Kirchner, Stefan; Laberer, Sabine; Schoelmerich, Juergen; Buechler, Christa . E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2005-09-02

    The adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been identified to mediate the insulin-sensitizing effects of adiponectin. Although AdipoR2 was suggested to be the main receptor for this adipokine in hepatocytes, AdipoR1 protein is highly abundant in primary human hepatocytes and hepatocytic cell lines. Nuclear receptors are main regulators of lipid metabolism and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} and {gamma}, retinoid X receptor (RXR), and liver X receptor (LXR) by specific ligands may influence AdipoR1 abundance. AdipoR1 protein is neither altered by RXR or LXR agonists nor by pioglitazone. In contrast, fenofibric acid reduces AdipoR1 whereas hepatotoxic troglitazone upregulates AdipoR1 protein in HepG2 cells. Taken together this work shows for the first time that AdipoR1 protein is expressed in human hepatocytes but that it is not a direct target gene of nuclear receptors. Elevated AdipoR1 induced by hepatotoxic troglitazone may indicate a role of this receptor in adiponectin-mediated beneficial effects in liver damage.

  20. Electrophysiological perspectives on the therapeutic use of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; Trocmé-Thibierge, Caryn; Guendisch, Daniela; Al Rubaiy, Shehd Abdullah Abbas; Bloom, Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    Partial agonist therapies rely variously on two hypotheses: the partial agonists have their effects through chronic low-level receptor activation or the partial agonists work by decreasing the effects of endogenous or exogenous full agonists. The relative significance of these activities probably depends on whether acute or chronic effects are considered. We studied nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to test a model for the acute interactions between acetylcholine (ACh) and weak partial agonists. Data were best-fit to a basic competition model that included an additional factor for noncompetitive inhibition. Partial agonist effects were compared with the nAChR antagonist bupropion in prolonged bath application experiments that were designed to mimic prolonged drug exposure typical of therapeutic drug delivery. A primary effect of prolonged application of nicotine was to decrease the response of all nAChR subtypes to acute applications of ACh. In addition, nicotine, cytisine, and varenicline produced detectable steady-state activation of α4β2* [(α4)(2)(β2)(3), (α4)(3)(β2)(2), and (α4)(2)(β2)(2)α5)] receptor subtypes that was not seen with other test compounds. Partial agonists produced no detectable steady-state activation of α7 nAChR, but seemed to show small potentiation of ACh-evoked responses; however, "run-up" of α7 ACh responses was also sometimes observed under control conditions. Potential off-target effects of the partial agonists therefore included the modulation of α7 responses by α4β2 partial agonists and decreases in α4β2* responses by α7-selective agonists. These data indicate the dual effects expected for α4β2* partial agonists and provide models and insights for utility of partial agonists in therapeutic development.

  1. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors

    PubMed Central

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Na+ in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na+-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na+ sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na+ increased cell surface [3H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na+ by Cs+ or NH4+ inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na+ over Cs+. Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations. PMID:27138239

  2. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Taka-Aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-05-03

    Reducing Na(+) in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na(+)-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na(+) sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na(+) increased cell surface [(3)H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na(+) by Cs(+) or NH4(+) inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na(+) over Cs(+). Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations.

  3. Potent achiral agonists of the ghrelin (growth hormone secretagogue) receptor. Part I: Lead identification.

    PubMed

    Heightman, Tom D; Scott, Jackie S; Longley, Mark; Bordas, Vincent; Dean, David K; Elliott, Richard; Hutley, Gail; Witherington, Jason; Abberley, Lee; Passingham, Barry; Berlanga, Manuela; de Los Frailes, Maite; Wise, Alan; Powney, Ben; Muir, Alison; McKay, Fiona; Butler, Sharon; Winborn, Kim; Gardner, Christopher; Darton, Jill; Campbell, Colin; Sanger, Gareth

    2007-12-01

    High throughput screening combined with efficient datamining and parallel synthesis led to the discovery of a novel series of indolines showing potent in vitro ghrelin receptor agonist activity and acceleration of gastric emptying in rats.

  4. Trial Watch: Immunostimulation with Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Kristina; Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Cremer, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Špíšek, Radek; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating preclinical evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists efficiently boost tumor-targeting immune responses (re)initiated by most, if not all, paradigms of anticancer immunotherapy. Moreover, TLR agonists have been successfully employed to ameliorate the efficacy of various chemotherapeutics and targeted anticancer agents, at least in rodent tumor models. So far, only three TLR agonists have been approved by regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients. Moreover, over the past decade, the interest of scientists and clinicians in these immunostimulatory agents has been fluctuating. Here, we summarize recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of TLR agonists for cancer therapy.

  5. Trial Watch: Immunostimulation with Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Kristina; Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Cremer, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Špíšek, Radek; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating preclinical evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists efficiently boost tumor-targeting immune responses (re)initiated by most, if not all, paradigms of anticancer immunotherapy. Moreover, TLR agonists have been successfully employed to ameliorate the efficacy of various chemotherapeutics and targeted anticancer agents, at least in rodent tumor models. So far, only three TLR agonists have been approved by regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients. Moreover, over the past decade, the interest of scientists and clinicians in these immunostimulatory agents has been fluctuating. Here, we summarize recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of TLR agonists for cancer therapy. PMID:27141345

  6. Agonist-Specific Recruitment of Arrestin Isoforms Differentially Modify Delta Opioid Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Perroy, Julie; Walwyn, Wendy M.; Smith, Monique L.; Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Bana, Alia; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-specific recruitment of arrestins facilitates functional selectivity of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here, we describe agonist-selective recruitment of different arrestin isoforms to the delta opioid receptor in mice. A high-internalizing delta opioid receptor agonist (SNC80) preferentially recruited arrestin 2 and, in arrestin 2 knock-outs (KOs), we observed a significant increase in the potency of SNC80 to inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased acute tolerance. In contrast, the low-internalizing delta agonists (ARM390, JNJ20788560) preferentially recruited arrestin 3 with unaltered behavioral effects in arrestin 2 KOs. Surprisingly, arrestin 3 KO revealed an acute tolerance to these low-internalizing agonists, an effect never observed in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we examined delta opioid receptor–Ca2+ channel coupling in dorsal root ganglia desensitized by ARM390 and the rate of resensitization was correspondingly decreased in arrestin 3 KOs. Live-cell imaging in HEK293 cells revealed that delta opioid receptors are in pre-engaged complexes with arrestin 3 at the cell membrane and that ARM390 strengthens this membrane interaction. The disruption of these complexes in arrestin 3 KOs likely accounts for the altered responses to low-internalizing agonists. Together, our results show agonist-selective recruitment of arrestin isoforms and reveal a novel endogenous role of arrestin 3 as a facilitator of resensitization and an inhibitor of tolerance mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agonists that bind to the same receptor can produce highly distinct signaling events and arrestins are a major mediator of this ligand bias. Here, we demonstrate that delta opioid receptor agonists differentially recruit arrestin isoforms. We found that the high-internalizing agonist SNC80 preferentially recruits arrestin 2 and knock-out (KO) of this protein results in increased efficacy of SNC80. In contrast, low-internalizing agonists (ARM390 and JNJ20788560

  7. Synthesis of quinolinomorphinan-4-ol derivatives as δ opioid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Ida, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Toru; Hirayama, Shigeto; Fujii, Hideaki; Osa, Yumiko; Imai, Masayuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Kanemasa, Toshiyuki; Kato, Akira; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2012-01-15

    The previously reported morphinan derivative SN-28 showed high selectivity and agonist activity for the δ opioid receptor. In the course of examining the structure-activity relationship of SN-28 derivatives, the derivatives with the 4-hydroxy group (SN-24, 26, 27) showed higher selectivities for the δ receptor over the μ receptor than the corresponding SN-28 derivatives with the 3-hydroxy group (SN-11, 23, 28). Derivatives with the 4-hydroxy group showed potent agonist activities for the δ receptor in the [(35)S]GTPγS binding assay. Although the 17-cyclopropylmethyl derivative (SN-11) with a 3-hydroxy group showed the lowest selectivity for the δ receptor among the morphinan derivatives, the agonist activity toward the δ receptor was the most potent for candidates with the 3-hydroxy group.

  8. The discovery of biaryl carboxamides as novel small molecule agonists of the motilin receptor.

    PubMed

    Westaway, Susan M; Brown, Samantha L; Conway, Elizabeth; Heightman, Tom D; Johnson, Christopher N; Lapsley, Kate; Macdonald, Gregor J; MacPherson, David T; Mitchell, Darren J; Myatt, James W; Seal, Jon T; Stanway, Steven J; Stemp, Geoffrey; Thompson, Mervyn; Celestini, Paolo; Colombo, Andrea; Consonni, Alessandra; Gagliardi, Stefania; Riccaboni, Mauro; Ronzoni, Silvano; Briggs, Michael A; Matthews, Kim L; Stevens, Alexander J; Bolton, Victoria J; Boyfield, Izzy; Jarvie, Emma M; Stratton, Sharon C; Sanger, Gareth J

    2008-12-15

    Optimisation of urea (5), identified from high throughput screening and subsequent array chemistry, has resulted in the identification of pyridine carboxamide (33) which is a potent motilin receptor agonist possessing favourable physicochemical and ADME profiles. Compound (33) has demonstrated prokinetic-like activity both in vitro and in vivo in the rabbit and therefore represents a promising novel small molecule motilin receptor agonist for further evaluation as a gastroprokinetic agent.

  9. Rational design of orally-active, pyrrolidine-based progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott K.; Washburn, David G.; Frazee, James S.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Hoang, Tram H.; Lapinski, Leahann; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Glace, Lindsay E.; Trizna, Walter; Williams, Shawn P.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Laping, Nicholas J.

    2010-09-03

    Using the X-ray crystal structure of an amide-based progesterone receptor (PR) partial agonist bound to the PR ligand binding domain, a novel PR partial agonist class containing a pyrrolidine ring was designed. Members of this class of N-alkylpyrrolidines demonstrate potent and highly selective partial agonism of the progesterone receptor, and one of these analogs was shown to be efficacious upon oral dosing in the OVX rat model of estrogen opposition.

  10. Effects of an intrathecally administered benzodiazepine receptor agonist, antagonist and inverse agonist on morphine-induced inhibition of a spinal nociceptive reflex.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J. L.; Pieri, L.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of an intrathecally administered benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) agonist (midazolam, up to 50 micrograms), antagonist (flumazenil, Ro 15-1788, 5 micrograms) and inverse agonist (Ro 19-4603, 15 micrograms) on nociception and on morphine-induced antinociception were studied in rats. 2. By themselves, none of these compounds significantly altered pain threshold. 3. The BZR agonist midazolam enhanced the morphine-induced antinociceptive effect whereas the antagonist flumazenil did not alter it. In contrast, the BZR inverse agonist Ro 19-4603 decreased the morphine-induced antinociceptive effect. 4. Naloxone (1 mg kg-1 i.p.) completely reversed all these effects. 5. These results demonstrate that BZR agonists and inverse agonists are able to affect, by allosteric up- or down-modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA)-receptors, the transmission of nociceptive information at the spinal cord level, when this transmission is depressed by mu-opioid receptor activation. PMID:2898960

  11. CB(1) receptor allosteric modulators display both agonist and signaling pathway specificity.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Gemma L; Horswill, James G; Anavi-Goffer, Sharon; Reggio, Patricia H; Bolognini, Daniele; Abood, Mary E; McAllister, Sean; Strange, Phillip G; Stephens, Gary J; Pertwee, Roger G; Ross, Ruth A

    2013-02-01

    We have previously identified allosteric modulators of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor (Org 27569, PSNCBAM-1) that display a contradictory pharmacological profile: increasing the specific binding of the CB(1) receptor agonist [(3)H]CP55940 but producing a decrease in CB(1) receptor agonist efficacy. Here we investigated the effect one or both compounds in a broad range of signaling endpoints linked to CB(1) receptor activation. We assessed the effect of these compounds on CB(1) receptor agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding, inhibition, and stimulation of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and β-arrestin recruitment. We also investigated the effect of these allosteric modulators on CB(1) agonist binding kinetics. Both compounds display ligand dependence, being significantly more potent as modulators of CP55940 signaling as compared with WIN55212 and having little effect on [(3)H]WIN55212 binding. Org 27569 displays biased antagonism whereby it inhibits: agonist-induced guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) binding, simulation (Gα(s)-mediated), and inhibition (Gα(i)-mediated) of cAMP production and β-arrestin recruitment. In contrast, it acts as an enhancer of agonist-induced ERK phosphorylation. Alone, the compound can act also as an allosteric agonist, increasing cAMP production and ERK phosphorylation. We find that in both saturation and kinetic-binding experiments, the Org 27569 and PSNCBAM-1 appeared to influence only orthosteric ligand maximum occupancy rather than affinity. The data indicate that the allosteric modulators share a common mechanism whereby they increase available high-affinity CB(1) agonist binding sites. The receptor conformation stabilized by the allosterics appears to induce signaling and also selectively traffics orthosteric agonist signaling via the ERK phosphorylation pathway.

  12. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, compared to subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists for stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Islam, Mohammad R; Karamyan, Vardan T; Abbruscato, Thomas J

    2015-06-03

    To meet the challenge of identification of new treatments for stroke, this study was designed to evaluate a potent, nonselective opioid receptor (OR) agonist, biphalin, in comparison to subtype selective OR agonists, as a potential neuroprotective drug candidate using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Our in vitro approach included mouse primary neuronal cells that were challenged with glutamate and hypoxic/aglycemic (H/A) conditions. We observed that 10nM biphalin, exerted a statistically significant neuroprotective effect after glutamate challenge, compared to all selective opioid agonists, according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, 10nM biphalin provided superior neuroprotection after H/A-reoxygenation compared to selective opioid agonists in all cases. Our in vitro investigations were supported by in vivo studies which indicate that the nonselective opioid agonist, biphalin, achieves enhanced neuroprotective potency compared to any of the selective opioid agonists, evidenced by reduced edema and infarct ratios. Reduction of edema and infarction was accompanied by neurological improvement of the animals in two independent behavioral tests. Collectively these data strongly suggest that concurrent agonist stimulation of mu, kappa and delta ORs with biphalin is neuroprotective and superior to neuroprotection by activation of any single OR subtype.

  13. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, compared to subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists for stroke treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Islam, Mohammad R; Karamyan, Vardan T.; Abbruscato, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    To meet the challenge of identification of new treatments for stroke, this study was designed to evaluate a potent, nonselective opioid receptor (OR) agonist, biphalin, in comparison to subtype selective OR agonists, as a potential neuroprotective drug candidate using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Our in vitro approach included mouse primary neuronal cells that were challenged with glutamate and hypoxic/aglycemic (H/A) conditions. We observed that 10 nM biphalin, exerted a statistically significant neuroprotective effect after glutamate challenge, compared to all selective opioid agonists, according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, 10 nM biphalin provided superior neuroprotection after H/A-reoxygenation compared to selective opioid agonists in all cases. Our in vitro investigations were supported by in vivo studies which indicate that the nonselective opioid agonist, biphalin, achieves enhanced neuroprotective potency compared to any of the selective opioid agonists, evidenced by reduced edema and infarct ratios. Reduction of edema and infarction was accompanied by neurological improvement of the animals in two independent behavioral tests. Collectively these data strongly suggest that concurrent agonist stimulation of mu, kappa and delta ORs with biphalin is neuroprotective and superior to neuroprotection by activation of any single OR subtype. PMID:25801116

  14. The therapeutic potential of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists as analgesics without abuse liability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ann P; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2013-02-20

    Although mu opioid (MOP) receptor agonists are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in the clinic, the side effects of MOP agonists such as abuse liability limit their value as a medication. Research to identify novel analgesics without adverse effects is pivotal to advance the health care of humans. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, the fourth opioid receptor subtype, mediates distinctive actions in nonhuman primates which suggests the possibility that activity at this receptor may result in strong analgesia in the absence of virtually all of the side effects associated with MOP agonists. The present review highlights the recent progress of pharmacological studies of NOP-related ligands in primates. Selective NOP agonists, either peptidic or nonpeptidic, produce full analgesia in various assays in primates, when delivered systemically or intrathecally. Yet small molecule NOP agonists do not serve as reinforcers, indicating a lack of abuse liability. Given that NOP agonists have low abuse liability and that coactivation of NOP and MOP receptors produces synergistic antinociception, it is worth developing bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands. The outcomes of these studies and recent developments provide new perspectives to establish a translational bridge for understanding the biobehavioral functions of NOP receptors in primates and for facilitating the development of NOP-related ligands as a new generation of analgesics without abuse liability in humans.

  15. Use-dependent inhibition of P2X3 receptors by nanomolar agonist.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Emily B; Brink, Thaddeus S; Bergson, Pamela; Voigt, Mark M; Cook, Sean P

    2005-08-10

    P2X3 receptors desensitize within 100 ms of channel activation, yet recovery from desensitization requires several minutes. The molecular basis for this slow rate of recovery is unknown. We designed experiments to test the hypothesis that this slow recovery is attributable to the high affinity (< 1 nM) of desensitized P2X3 receptors for agonist. We found that agonist binding to the desensitized state provided a mechanism for potent inhibition of P2X3 current. Sustained applications of 0.5 nM ATP inhibited > 50% of current to repetitive applications of P2X3 agonist. Inhibition occurred at 1000-fold lower agonist concentrations than required for channel activation and showed strong use dependence. No inhibition occurred without previous activation and desensitization. Our data are consistent with a model whereby inhibition of P2X3 by nanomolar [agonist] occurs by the rebinding of agonist to desensitized channels before recovery from desensitization. For several ATP analogs, the concentration required to inhibit P2X3 current inversely correlated with the rate of recovery from desensitization. This indicates that the affinity of the desensitized state and recovery rate primarily depend on the rate of agonist unbinding. Consistent with this hypothesis, unbinding of [32P]ATP from desensitized P2X3 receptors mirrored the rate of recovery from desensitization. As expected, disruption of agonist binding by site-directed mutagenesis increased the IC50 for inhibition and increased the rate of recovery.

  16. Yawning and locomotor behavior induced by dopamine receptor agonists in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Min; Collins, Gregory T; Paul, Noel M; Grundt, Peter; Newman, Amy H; Xu, Ming; Grandy, David K; Woods, James H; Katz, Jonathan L

    2010-05-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) agonist-induced yawning in rats seems to be mediated by DA D3 receptors, and low doses of several DA agonists decrease locomotor activity, an effect attributed to presynaptic D2 receptors. Effects of several DA agonists on yawning and locomotor activity were examined in rats and mice. Yawning was reliably produced in rats, and by the cholinergic agonist, physostigmine, in both the species. However, DA agonists were ineffective in producing yawning in Swiss-Webster or DA D2R and DA D3R knockout or wild-type mice. The drugs significantly decreased locomotor activity in rats at one or two low doses, with activity returning to control levels at higher doses. In mice, the drugs decreased locomotion across a 1000-10 000-fold range of doses, with activity at control levels (U-91356A) or above control levels [(+/-)-7-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin HBr, quinpirole] at the highest doses. Low doses of agonists decreased locomotion in all mice except the DA D2R knockout mice, but were not antagonized by DA D2R or D3R antagonists (L-741 626, BP 897, or PG01037). Yawning does not provide a selective in-vivo indicator of DA D3R agonist activity in mice. Decreases in mouse locomotor activity by the DA agonists seem to be mediated by D2 DA receptors.

  17. Prolonging Survival of Corneal Transplantation by Selective Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Min; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yang; Han, Gencheng; Jia, Liang; Wang, Liqiang; Lei, Tian; Huang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most used therapy for eye disorders. Although the cornea is somewhat an immune privileged organ, immune rejection is still the major problem that reduces the success rate. Therefore, effective chemical drugs that regulate immunoreactions are needed to improve the outcome of corneal transplantations. Here, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) selective agonist was systematically evaluated in mouse allogeneic corneal transplantation and compared with the commonly used immunosuppressive agents. Compared with CsA and the non-selective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist FTY720, the S1P1 selective agonist can prolong the survival corneal transplantation for more than 30 days with a low immune response. More importantly, the optimal dose of the S1P1 selective agonist was much less than non-selective S1P receptor agonist FTY720, which would reduce the dose-dependent toxicity in drug application. Then we analyzed the mechanisms of the selected S1P1 selective agonist on the immunosuppression. The results shown that the S1P1 selective agonist could regulate the distribution of the immune cells with less CD4+ T cells and enhanced Treg cells in the allograft, moreover the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-10 unregulated which can reduce the immunoreactions. These findings suggest that S1P1 selective agonist may be a more appropriate immunosuppressive compound to effectively prolong mouse allogeneic corneal grafts survival. PMID:25216235

  18. The atypical dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 83959 induces striatal Fos expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Wirtshafter, David; Osborn, Catherine V

    2005-12-28

    The effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists are often presumed to result from an activation of adenylyl cyclase, but dopamine D1 receptors may also be linked to other signal transduction cascades and the relative importance of these various pathways is currently unclear. SKF 83959 is an agonist at dopamine D1 receptors linked to phospholipase C, but has been reported to be an antagonist at receptors linked to adenylyl cyclase. The current report demonstrates that SKF 83959 induces pronounced, nonpatchy, expression of the immediate-early gene product Fos in the striatum of intact rats which can be converted to a patchy pattern by pretreatment with the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole. In rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions SKF 83959 induces strong behavioral rotation and a greatly potentiated Fos response. All of the responses to SKF 83959, in both intact and dopamine-depleted animals, can be blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. In intact subjects, SKF 83959 induced Fos expression less potently than the standard dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 82958, but the two drugs were approximately equipotent in deinnervated animals. These results demonstrate for the first time that possession of full efficacy at dopamine D1 receptors linked to adenylyl cyclase is not a necessary requirement for the induction of striatal Fos expression in intact animals and suggest that alternative signal transduction pathways may play a role in dopamine agonist induced Fos expression, especially in dopamine-depleted subjects.

  19. Metabolic mapping of A3 adenosine receptor agonist MRS5980

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Tosh, Dilip K.; Tanaka, Naoki; Wang, Haina; Krausz, Kristopher W.; O'Connor, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    (1S,2R,3S,4R,5S)-4-(2-((5-Chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethynyl)-6-(methylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydroxy-N-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-carboxamide (MRS5980) is an A3AR selective agonist containing multiple receptor affinity- and selectivity-enhancing modifications and a therapeutic candidate drug for many inflammatory diseases. Metabolism-related poor pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicities are a major reason of drug R&D failure. Metabolomics with UPLC-MS was employed to profile the metabolism of MRS5980 and MRS5980-induced disruption of endogenous compounds. Recombinant drug-metabolizing enzymes screening experiment were used to determine the enzymes involved in MRS5980 metabolism. Analysis of lipid metabolism-related genes was performed to investigate the reason for MRS5980-induced lipid metabolic disorders. Unsupervised principal components analysis separated the control and MRS5980 treatment group in feces, urine, and liver samples, but not in bile and serum. The major ions mainly contributing to the separation for feces and urine were oxidized MRS5980, glutathione (GSH) conjugates and cysteine conjugate (degradation product of the GSH conjugates) of MRS5980. The major ions contributing to the group separation of liver samples were phosphatidylcholines. In vitro incubation experiments showed the major involvement of CYP3A enzymes in the oxidative metabolism of MRS5980 and direct GSH reactivity of MRS5980. The electrophilic attack by MRS5980 is a minor pathway and did not alter GSH levels in liver or liver histology, and thus may be of minor clinical consequence. Gene expression analysis further showed decreased expression of PC biosynthetic genes choline kinase a and b, which further accelerated conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholines through increasing the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3. These data will be useful to guide rational design of drugs targeting A3AR, considering efficacy, metabolic elimination, and

  20. Metabolic mapping of A3 adenosine receptor agonist MRS5980.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Tosh, Dilip K; Tanaka, Naoki; Wang, Haina; Krausz, Kristopher W; O'Connor, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-09-15

    (1S,2R,3S,4R,5S)-4-(2-((5-Chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethynyl)-6-(methylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydroxy-N-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-carboxamide (MRS5980) is an A3AR selective agonist containing multiple receptor affinity- and selectivity-enhancing modifications and a therapeutic candidate drug for many inflammatory diseases. Metabolism-related poor pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicities are a major reason for drug R&D failure. Metabolomics with UPLC-MS was employed to profile the metabolism of MRS5980 and MRS5980-induced disruption of endogenous compounds. Recombinant drug-metabolizing enzymes screening experiment were used to determine the enzymes involved in MRS5980 metabolism. Analysis of lipid metabolism-related genes was performed to investigate the reason for MRS5980-induced lipid metabolic disorders. Unsupervised principal components analysis separated the control and MRS5980 treatment groups in feces, urine, and liver samples, but not in bile and serum. The major ions mainly contributing to the separation of feces and urine were oxidized MRS5980, glutathione (GSH) conjugates and cysteine conjugate (degradation product of the GSH conjugates) of MRS5980. The major ions contributing to the group separation of liver samples were phosphatidylcholines. In vitro incubation experiments showed the involvement of CYP3A enzymes in the oxidative metabolism of MRS5980 and direct GSH reactivity of MRS5980. The electrophilic attack by MRS5980 is a minor pathway and did not alter GSH levels in liver or liver histology, and thus may be of minor clinical consequence. Gene expression analysis further showed decreased expression of PC biosynthetic genes choline kinase a and b, which further accelerated conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholines through increasing the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3. These data will be useful to guide rational design of drugs targeting A3AR, considering efficacy, metabolic elimination, and

  1. A molecular characterization of the agonist binding site of a nematode cys-loop GABA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kaji, Mark D; Kwaka, Ariel; Callanan, Micah K; Nusrat, Humza; Desaulniers, Jean-Paul; Forrester, Sean G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cys-loop GABA receptors represent important targets for human chemotherapeutics and insecticides and are potential targets for novel anthelmintics (nematicides). However, compared with insect and mammalian receptors, little is known regarding the pharmacological characteristics of nematode Cys-loop GABA receptors. Here we have investigated the agonist binding site of the Cys-loop GABA receptor UNC-49 (Hco-UNC-49) from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Experimental Approach We used two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology to measure channel activation by classical GABA receptor agonists on Hco-UNC-49 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, along with site-directed mutagenesis and in silico homology modelling. Key Results The sulphonated molecules P4S and taurine had no effect on Hco-UNC-49. Other classical Cys-loop GABAA receptor agonists tested on the Hco-UNC-49B/C heteromeric channel had a rank order efficacy of GABA > trans-4-aminocrotonic acid > isoguvacine > imidazole-4-acetic acid (IMA) > (R)-(−)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [R(−)-GABOB] > (S)-(+)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [S(+)-GABOB] > guanidinoacetic acid > isonipecotic acid > 5-aminovaleric acid (DAVA) (partial agonist) > β-alanine (partial agonist). In silico ligand docking revealed some variation in binding between agonists. Mutagenesis of a key serine residue in binding loop C to threonine had minimal effects on GABA and IMA but significantly increased the maximal response to DAVA and decreased twofold the EC50 for R(−)- and S(+)-GABOB. Conclusions and Implications The pharmacological profile of Hco-UNC-49 differed from that of vertebrate Cys-loop GABA receptors and insect resistance to dieldrin receptors, suggesting differences in the agonist binding pocket. These findings could be exploited to develop new drugs that specifically target GABA receptors of parasitic nematodes. PMID:25850584

  2. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor full agonists in rats trained to discriminate SKF 38393.

    PubMed

    Gleason, S D; Witkin, J M

    2004-02-01

    Although the dopaminergic pharmacology of the D1 receptor full agonists, dinapsoline, dihydrexidine and the prodrug ABT-431 have been studied, no information is available on the ability of these agonists to substitute for the D1 agonist SKF 38393 in rats trained to discriminate this compound from vehicle. The present study was designed to characterize the potential D1 discriminative stimulus effects of these compounds. The selective dopamine D1-receptor agonists dihydrexidine [(+/-)-trans-10,11-dihydroxy-5,6,6a,7,8,12b-hexahydrobenzo[a] phenanthridine hydrochloride], ABT-431 [(-)-trans-9,10-diacetyloxy-2-propyl-4,5,5a,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-thia-5-azacyclopent-1-ena[c]phenanthrene hydrochloride], the diacetyl prodrug derivative of A-86929, and dinapsoline [9-dihydroxy-2,3,7,11b-tetrahydro-1H-naph[1,2,3-de]isoquinoline] were studied in rats trained to discriminate racemic SKF 38393 [(+/-)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol], a selective D1 receptor partial agonist from vehicle. All of the agonists substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of SKF 38393. The rank order of potency for substitution was ABT-431 > dinapsoline > dihydrexidine > SKF 38393. The D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, blocked the discriminative stimulus effects of SKF 38393. The D3/D2-receptor agonist PD 128,907 [S(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]-benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol] did not substitute up to doses that produced profound rate-suppressant effects. Thus, consistent with their D1 receptor pharmacology, the full D1-receptor agonists substituted completely for the discriminative stimulus of SKF 38393.

  3. Contamination with retinoic acid receptor agonists in two rivers in the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nakama, Koki; Sawada, Kazuko; Watanabe, Taro; Takagi, Mai; Sei, Kazunari; Yang, Min; Hirotsuji, Junji; Hu, Jianying; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the agonistic activity against human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha in the Lake Biwa-Yodo River and the Ina River in the Kinki region of Japan. To accomplish this, a yeast two-hybrid assay was used to elucidate the spatial and temporal variations and potential sources of RARalpha agonist contamination in the river basins. RARalpha agonistic activity was commonly detected in the surface water samples collected along two rivers at different periods, with maximum all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) equivalents of 47.6 ng-atRA/L and 23.5 ng-atRA/L being observed in Lake Biwa-Yodo River and Ina River, respectively. The results indicated that RARalpha agonists are always present and widespread in the rivers. Comparative investigation of RARalpha and estrogen receptor alpha agonistic activities at 20 stations along each river revealed that the spatial variation pattern of RARalpha agonist contamination was entirely different from that of the estrogenic compound contamination. This suggests that the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants, a primary source of estrogenic compounds, seemed not to be the cause of RARalpha agonist contamination in the rivers. Fractionation using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directed by the bioassay found two bioactive fractions from river water samples, suggesting the presence of at least two RARalpha agonists in the rivers. Although a trial conducted to identify RARalpha agonists in the major bioactive fraction was not completed as part of this study, comparison of retention times in HPLC analysis and quantification with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major causative contaminants responsible for the RARalpha agonistic activity were not RAs (natural RAR ligands) and 4-oxo-RAs, while 4-oxo-RAs were identified as the major RAR agonists in sewage in Beijing, China. These findings suggest that there are unknown RARalpha agonists with high

  4. Selection of multiple agonist antibodies from intracellular combinatorial libraries reveals that cellular receptors are functionally pleiotropic.

    PubMed

    Yea, Kyungmoo; Xie, Jia; Zhang, Hongkai; Zhang, Wei; Lerner, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this perspective is to build on the unexpected outcomes of previous laboratory experiments using antibody agonists to raise questions concerning how activation of a given receptor can be involved in inducing differentiation of cells along different pathways some of which may even derive from different lineages. While not yet answered, the question illustrates how the advent of agonists not present in nature may give a different dimension to the important problem of signal transduction. Thus, if one studies a natural agonist-receptor system one can learn details about its signal transduction pathway. However, if one has a set of orthogonal agonists, one may learn about the yet undiscovered potential of the system that, in the end, may necessitate refinements to the currently used models. Thus, we wonder why receptors conventionally linked to a given pathway induce a different pattern of differentiation when agonized in another way.

  5. Pramipexole Derivatives as Potent and Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonists with Improved Human Microsomal Stability

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng; Levant, Beth; Li, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Ting; Wen, Bo; Luo, Ruijuan; Sun, Duxin

    2014-01-01

    We report herein the synthesis and evaluation of a series of new pramipexole derivatives as highly potent and selective dopamine-3 (D3) receptor agonists. A number of these new compounds bind to the D3 receptor with subnanomolar affinities and show excellent selectivity (>10,000) for the D3 receptor over the D1 and D2 receptors. Compound 23 for example, binds to the D3 receptor with a Ki value of 0.53 nM and shows a selectivity of >20,000 over the D2 receptor and the D1 receptor in the binding assays using a rat brain preparation. It has excellent stability in human liver microsomes and in vitro functional assays showed it to be a full agonist for the human D3 receptor. PMID:25338762

  6. [Effects of agonists and antagonists of benzodiazepine, GABA and NMDA receptors, on caffeine-induced seizures in mice].

    PubMed

    Inano, S

    1992-08-01

    In mice, tonic convulsive seizure induced by intravenous administration of caffeine (adenosine A1, A2 receptors antagonist) was significantly potentiated by any one of L-PIA (adenosine A1 receptor agonist), NECA (adenosine A2 receptor agonist) and 2-ClAd (adenosine A1, A2 receptors agonist). The caffeine-induced seizure was unaffected by diazepam (benzodiazepine receptor agonist), but was inhibited by Ro 15-1788 (antagonist or partial agonist). beta-DMCM (antagonist or inverse agonist) increased the seizure. Muscimol (GABA-a receptor agonist), baclofen (GABA-b receptor agonist) and AOAA (GABA transaminase inhibitor) did not show significant effect on caffeine-induced convulsion. Bicuculline (GABA-a receptor antagonist) and picrotoxin (chloride channel blocker) significantly potentiated the convulsion at the doses which did not induce it. Caffeine-induced convulsion was potentiated by NMDA with its non-convulsive dose. CPP (competitive NMDA receptor antagonist) and MK-801 (non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist) significantly inhibited the seizures. These results suggest that caffeine-induced seizure is not caused by blockade of adenosine receptors. Caffeine may act to beta-carboline sensitive benzodiazepine receptor (Type 1) which has no linkage with GABA-a receptor. Furthermore, it is implied that caffeine plays some role at NMDA receptor calcium ion channel complex.

  7. Identification of New Agonists and Antagonists of the Insect Odorant Receptor Co-Receptor Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sisi; Luetje, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insects detect attractive and aversive chemicals using several families of chemosensory receptors, including the OR family of olfactory receptors, making these receptors appealing targets for the control of insects. Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, comprised of at least one common subunit (the odorant receptor co-receptor subunit, Orco) and at least one variable odorant specificity subunit. Each of the many ORs of an insect species is activated or inhibited by an unique set of odorants that interact with the variable odorant specificity subunits, making the development of OR directed insect control agents complex and laborious. However, several N-,2-substituted triazolothioacetamide compounds (VUAA1, VU0450667 and VU0183254) were recently shown to act directly on the highly conserved Orco subunit, suggesting that broadly active compounds can be developed. We have explored the chemical space around the VUAA1 structure in order to identify new Orco ligands. Principal Findings We screened ORs from several insect species, using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and an electrophysiological assay, with a panel of 22 compounds structurally related to VUAA1. By varying the nitrogen position in the pyridine ring and altering the moieties decorating the phenyl ring, we identified two new agonists and a series of competitive antagonists. Screening smaller compounds, similar to portions of the VUAA1 structure, also yielded competitive antagonists. Importantly, we show that Orco antagonists inhibit odorant activation of ORs from several insect species. Detailed examination of one antagonist demonstrated inhibition to be through a non-competitive mechanism. Conclusions A similar pattern of agonist and antagonist sensitivity displayed by Orco subunits from different species suggests a highly conserved binding site structure. The susceptibility to inhibition of odorant activation by Orco antagonism is conserved across disparate insect species

  8. Biperiden enhances L-DOPA methyl ester and dopamine D(l) receptor agonist SKF-82958 but antagonizes D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist rotigotine antihemiparkinsonian actions.

    PubMed

    Domino, Edward F; Ni, Lisong

    2008-12-03

    The effects of biperiden (0, 100, and 320 microg/kg), a selective muscarinic M(1)/M(4) receptor cholinergic antagonist, were studied alone and in combination with those of L-DOPA methyl ester (16.7 mg/kg), a selective dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF-82958 (74.8 microg/kg), or a selective D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist rotigotine (32 microg/kg) on circling behavior in MPTP induced hemiparkinsonian monkeys. The doses selected were given i.m. in approximately equieffective doses to produce contraversive circling. Biperiden alone with 5% dextrose vehicle produced a slight increase in contraversive circling in a dose related manner. When combined with L-DOPA methyl ester, it enhanced contraversive circling and decreased ipsiversive circling. When biperiden was combined with SKF-82958, contraversive circling also was enhanced and ipsiversive circling decreased. Exactly the opposite was observed with the combination of biperiden and rotigotine. The results indicate a dramatic difference in effects of a prototypic muscarinic M(1)/M(4) receptor cholinergic antagonist in combination with prototypic full dopamine D(1) or D(2)/D(3) receptor agonists. Biperiden interactions with L-DOPA methyl ester were more predominantly D(l) than D(2)/D(3) receptor-like in this animal model of hemiparkinsonism.

  9. GABAB receptor-positive modulators: enhancement of GABAB receptor agonist effects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C

    2010-10-01

    In vivo effects of GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators suggest that they have therapeutic potential for treating central nervous system disorders such as anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Although these effects generally are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABA(B) receptors, such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro. The present study was aimed at further examining the in vivo positive modulatory properties of the GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl) phenol (CGP7930) and (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF). Both compounds enhanced loss of righting induced by baclofen in mice. However, CGP7930 was less effective and rac-BHFF was less potent for enhancing loss of righting induced by γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), which, like baclofen, has GABA(B) receptor agonist properties. In contrast with baclofen- and GHB-induced loss of righting, the hypothermic effects of baclofen and GHB were not enhanced by rac-BHFF but were enhanced by CGP7930 only at doses that produced hypothermia when given alone. CGP7930-induced hypothermia was not attenuated by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348), at doses that blocked baclofen-induced hypothermia, and was not increased by the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, at doses that increased the hypothermic effects of baclofen and GHB. The results provide evidence that CGP7930 and rac-BHFF act in vivo as positive modulators at GABA(B) receptors mediating loss of righting, but not at GABA(B) receptors mediating hypothermia. Conceivably, CGP7930, but not rac-BHFF, acts as an allosteric agonist at these latter receptors. Taken together, the results provide further evidence of pharmacologically distinct GABA(B) receptor subtypes, possibly allowing for a more selective therapeutic interference with the GABA(B) system.

  10. Biased agonists of the kappa opioid receptor suppress pain and itch without causing sedation or dysphoria

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Tarsis F.; Morgenweck, Jenny; Kim, Susy A.; Rose, Jamie H.; Locke, Jason L.; Schmid, Cullen L.; Zhou, Lei; Stahl, Edward L.; Cameron, Michael D.; Scarry, Sarah M.; Aubé, Jeffrey; Jones, Sara R.; Martin, Thomas J.; Bohn, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Agonists targeting the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) have been promising therapeutic candidates because of their efficacy for treating intractable itch and relieving pain. Unlike typical opioid narcotics, KOR agonists do not produce euphoria or lead to respiratory suppression or overdose. However, they do produce dysphoria and sedation, side effects that have precluded their clinical development as therapeutics. KOR signaling can be fine-tuned to preferentially activate certain pathways over others, such that agonists can bias signaling so that the receptor signals through G proteins rather than other effectors such as βarrestin2. We evaluated a newly developed G protein signaling–biased KOR agonist in preclinical models of pain, pruritis, sedation, dopamine regulation, and dysphoria. We found that triazole 1.1 retained the antinociceptive and antipruritic efficacies of a conventional KOR agonist, yet it did not induce sedation or reductions in dopamine release in mice, nor did it produce dysphoria as determined by intracranial self-stimulation in rats. These data demonstrated that biased agonists may be used to segregate physiological responses downstream of the receptor. Moreover, the findings suggest that biased KOR agonists may present a means to treat pain and intractable itch without the side effects of dysphoria and sedation and with reduced abuse potential. PMID:27899527

  11. Ascorbic acid enables reversible dopamine receptor /sup 3/H-agonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Leff, S.; Sibley, D.R.; Hamblin, M.; Creese, I.

    1981-11-16

    The effects of ascorbic acid on dopaminergic /sup 3/H-agonist receptor binding were studied in membrane homogenates of bovine anterior pituitary and caudate, and rat striatum. In all tissues virtually no stereospecific binding (defined using 1uM (+)butaclamol) of the /sup 3/H-agonists N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA), apomorphine, or dopamine could be demonstrated in the absence of ascorbic acid. Although levels of total /sup 3/H-agonist binding were three to five times greater in the absence than in the presence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, the increased binding was entirely non-stereospecific. Greater amounts of dopamine-inhibitable /sup 3/H-NPA binding could be demonstrated in the absence of 0.1% ascorbic acid, but this measure of ''specific binding'' was demonstrated not to represent dopamine receptor binding since several other catecholamines and catechol were equipotent with dopamine and more potent than the dopamine agonist (+/-)amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) in inhibiting this binding. High levels of dopamine-displaceable /sup 3/H-agonist binding were detected in fresh and boiled homogenates of cerebellum, an area of brain which receives no dopaminergic innervation, further demonstrating the non-specific nature of /sup 3/H-agonist binding in the absence of ascorbic acid. These studies emphasize that under typical assay conditions ascorbic acid is required in order to demonstrate reversible and specific /sup 3/H-agonist binding to dopamine receptors.

  12. Superagonist, Full Agonist, Partial Agonist, and Antagonist Actions of Arylguanidines at 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) Subunit A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Alix, Katie; Khatri, Shailesh; Mosier, Philip D; Casterlow, Samantha; Yan, Dong; Nyce, Heather L; White, Michael M; Schulte, Marvin K; Dukat, Małgorzata

    2016-11-16

    Introduction of minor variations to the substitution pattern of arylguanidine 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor ligands resulted in a broad spectrum of functionally-active ligands from antagonist to superagonist. For example, (i) introduction of an additional Cl-substituent(s) to our lead full agonist N-(3-chlorophenyl)guanidine (mCPG, 2; efficacy % = 106) yielded superagonists 7-9 (efficacy % = 186, 139, and 129, respectively), (ii) a positional isomer of 2, p-Cl analog 11, displayed partial agonist actions (efficacy % = 12), and (iii) replacing the halogen atom at the meta or para position with an electron donating OCH3 group or a stronger electron withdrawing (i.e., CF3) group resulted in antagonists 13-16. We posit based on combined mutagenesis, crystallographic, and computational analyses that for the 5-HT3 receptor, the arylguanidines that are better able to simultaneously engage the primary and complementary subunits, thus keeping them in close proximity, have greater agonist character while those that are deficient in this ability are antagonists.

  13. Coupling between agonist and chloride ionophore sites of the GABA(A) receptor: agonist/antagonist efficacy of 4-PIOL.

    PubMed

    Rabe, H; Picard, R; Uusi-Oukari, M; Hevers, W; Lüddens, H; Korpi, E R

    2000-12-15

    Eight gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mimetics were tested on their ability to differentiate native GABA(A) receptor subtypes present in various rat brain regions. In rat brain cryostat sections, little regional variations by the agonistic actions of muscimol, thiomuscimol, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, piperidine-4-sulphonic acid, taurine and beta-alanine on [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding to GABA(A) receptor channels were found. They were very similar to those found for GABA itself and indicated no direct correlation with single subunit distributions for any of these compounds. Only the low-efficacy GABA mimetic 5-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-3-ol (4-PIOL) acted like a weak partial agonist or antagonist depending on the brain area. As the cerebellar granule cell layer was relatively insensitive to both modes of action, we tested 4-PIOL in recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 (widespread major subtype) and alpha6beta2gamma2 (cerebellar granule cell restricted) receptors where it had different effects on GABA-modulated [35S]TBPS binding and on electrophysiological responses. 4-PIOL may thus serve as a potential lead for receptor subtype selective compounds.

  14. Functional receptor coupling to Gi is a mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization of the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Tepe, N M; Liggett, S B

    2000-01-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) couples to Gs activating adenylyl cyclase (AC) and increasing cAMP. Such signaling undergoes desensitization with continued agonist exposure. Beta2AR also couple to Gi after receptor phosphorylation by the cAMP dependent protein kinase A, but the efficiency of such coupling is not known. Given the PKA dependence of beta2AR-Gi coupling, we explored whether this may be a mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization. HEK293 cells were transfected to express beta2AR or beta2AR and Gialpha2, and then treated with vehicle or the agonist isoproterenol to evoke agonist-promoted beta2AR desensitization. Membrane AC activities showed that Gialpha2 overexpression decreased basal levels, but the fold-stimulation of the AC over basal by agonist was not altered. However, with treatment of the cells with isoproterenol prior to membrane preparation, a marked decrease in agonist-stimulated AC was observed with the cells overexpressing Gialpha2. In the absence of such overexpression, beta2AR desensitization was 23+/-7%, while with 5-fold Gialpha2 overexpression desensitization was 58+/-5% (p<0.01, n=4). The effect of Gi on desensitization was receptor-specific, in that forskolin responses were not altered by G(i)alpha2 overexpression. Thus, acquired beta2AR coupling to Gi is an important mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization, and pathologic conditions that increase Gi levels contribute to beta2AR dysfunction.

  15. GABAergic involvement in motor effects of an adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist in mice.

    PubMed

    Khisti, R T; Chopde, C T; Abraham, E

    2000-04-03

    Adenosine A(2A) agonists are known to induce catalepsy and inhibit dopamine mediated motor hyperactivity. An antagonistic interaction between adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors is known to regulate GABA-mediated neurotransmission in striatopallidal neurons. Stimulation of adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors has been shown to increase and inhibit GABA release respectively in pallidal GABAergic neurons. However, the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the motor effects of adenosine A(2A) receptors is not yet known. Therefore in the present study the effect of GABAergic agents on adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist (NECA- or CGS 21680) induced catalepsy and inhibition of amphetamine elicited motor hyperactivity was examined. Pretreatment with GABA, the GABA(A) agonist muscimol or the GABA(B) agonist baclofen potentiated whereas the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline attenuated NECA- or CGS 21680-induced catalepsy. However, the GABA(B) antagonists phaclophen and delta-aminovaleric acid had no effect. Administration of NECA or CGS 21680 not only reduced spontaneous locomotor activity but also antagonized amphetamine elicited motor hyperactivity. These effects of NECA and CGS 21680 were potentiated by GABA or muscimol and antagonized by bicuculline. These findings provide behavioral evidence for the role of GABA in the motor effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists. Activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors increases GABA release which could reduce dopaminergic tone and induce catalepsy or inhibit amphetamine mediated motor hyperactivity.

  16. Agonist and antagonist protect sulfhydrals in the binding site of the D-1 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, A.; Kebabian, J.W.; Fishman, P.H.

    1986-05-01

    An iodinated compound (/sup 125/I)-SCH 23982 (8-iodo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine-7-ol) has been characterized as a specific, high affinity (Kd = 0.7 nM) ligand for the D-1 dopamine receptor. The ligand binding site of the D-1 receptor in rat striatum was inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) in a time and concentration dependent manner. The inactivation was rapid and irreversible with a 70% net loss of binding sites. Scatchard analysis of binding to NEM-treated tissue showed a decrease both in receptor number and in radioligand affinity. The remaining receptors retained their selectivity for stereoisomers of both agonist and antagonist. Receptor occupancy by either a D-1 specific agonist or antagonist protected in a dose dependent manner the binding sites from inactivation by NEM; the agonist was more effective than the antagonist. The agonist high affinity site, however, was abolished in the absence or presence of protective compound, presumably because of inactivation of the GTP-binding component of adenylate cyclase. In this regard, there was a total loss of agonist- and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity after NEM treatment. The authors conclude that the D-1 dopamine receptor contains NEM-sensitive sulfhydral group(s) at or near the vicinity of the ligand binding site.

  17. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: Nonglycemic Clinical Effects in Weight Loss and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Donna; Acosta, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Obective Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for treatment of type 2 diabetes since they mimic the actions of native GLP-1 on pancreatic islet cells, stimulating insulin release, while inhibiting glucagon release, in a glucose-dependent manner. The observation of weight loss has led to exploration of their potential as antiobesity agents, with liraglutide 3.0 mg day−1 approved for weight management in the US on December 23, 2014, and in the EU on March 23, 2015. This review examines the potential nonglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify preclinical and clinical evidence on nonglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Results GLP-1 receptors are distributed widely in a number of tissues in humans, and their effects are not limited to the well-recognized effects on glycemia. Nonglycemic effects include weight loss, which is perhaps the most widely recognized nonglycemic effect. In addition, effects on the cardiovascular, neurologic, and renal systems and on taste perception may occur independently of weight loss. Conclusions GLP-1 receptor agonists may provide other nonglycemic clinical effects besides weight loss. Understanding these effects is important for prescribers in using GLP-1 receptor agonists for diabetic patients, but also if approved for chronic weight management. PMID:25959380

  18. Insights into differential modulation of receptor function by hinge region using novel agonistic lutropin receptor and inverse agonistic thyrotropin receptor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ritankar; Railkar, Reema; Dighe, Rajan R

    2012-03-23

    We report two antibodies, scFv 13B1 and MAb PD1.37, against the hinge regions of LHR and TSHR, respectively, which have similar epitopes but different effects on receptor function. While neither of them affected hormone binding, with marginal effects on hormone response, scFv 13B1 stimulated LHR in a dose-dependent manner, whereas MAb PD1.37 acted as an inverse agonist of TSHR. Moreover, PD1.37 could decrease the basal activity of hinge region CAMs, but had varied effects on those present in ECLs, whereas 13B1 was refractory to any CAMs in LHR. Using truncation mutants and peptide phage display, we compared the differential roles of the hinge region cysteine box-2/3 as well as the exoloops in the activation of these two homologus receptors.

  19. Agonist signalling properties of radiotracers used for imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) agonist radiopharmaceuticals are considered superior to antagonists to detect dopamine release, e.g. induced by amphetamines. Agonists bind preferentially to the high-affinity state of the dopamine D2R, which has been proposed as the reason why agonists are more sensitive to detect dopamine release than antagonist radiopharmaceuticals, but this theory has been challenged. Interestingly, not all agonists similarly activate the classic cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP) and the ?-arrestin-2 pathway, some stimulate preferentially one of these pathways; a phenomenon called biased agonism. Because these pathways can be affected separately by pathologies or drugs (including dopamine releasers), it is important to know how agonist radiotracers act on these pathways. Therefore, we characterized the intracellular signalling of the well-known D2/3R agonist radiopharmaceuticals NPA and PHNO and of several novel D2/3R agonists. Methods cAMP accumulation and ?-arrestin-2 recruitment were measured on cells expressing human D2R. Results All tested agonists showed (almost) full agonism in both pathways. Conclusions The tested D2/3R agonist radiopharmaceuticals did not exhibit biased agonism in vitro. Consequently, it is likely that drugs (including psychostimulants like amphetamines) and/or pathologies that influence the cAMP and/or the ?-arrestin-2 pathway may influence the binding of these radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:25977878

  20. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: Cannabinoid Receptor Inverse Agonists with Differential CB1 and CB2 Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Lirit N.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Prather, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer and osteoporosis. Interestingly, tamoxifen and newer classes of SERMs also exhibit cytotoxic effects in cancers devoid of ERs, indicating a non-estrogenic mechanism of action. Indicative of a potential ER-independent target, reports demonstrate that tamoxifen binds to cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) with affinity in the low μM range and acts as an inverse agonist. To identify cannabinoids with improved pharmacological properties relative to tamoxifen, and further investigate the use of different SERM scaffolds for future cannabinoid drug development, this study characterized the affinity and activity of SERMs in newer structural classes at CBRs. Fourteen SERMs from five structurally distinct classes were screened for binding to human CBRs. Compounds from four of five SERM classes examined bound to CBRs. Subsequent studies fully characterized CBR affinity and activity of one compound from each class. Ospemifine (a triphenylethylene) selectively bound to CB1Rs, while bazedoxifine (an indole) bound to CB2Rs with highest affinity. Nafoxidine (a tetrahydronaphthalene) and raloxifene (RAL; a benzothiaphene) bound to CB1 and CB2Rs non-selectively. All four compounds acted as inverse agonists at CB1 and CB2Rs, reducing basal G-protein activity with IC50 values in the nM to low μM range. Ospemifine, bazedoxifene and RAL also acted as inverse agonists to elevate basal intracellular cAMP levels in intact CHO-hCB2 cells. The four SERMs examined also acted as CB1 and CB2R antagonists in the cAMP assay, producing rightward shifts in the concentration-effect curve of the CBR agonist CP-55,940. In conclusion, newer classes of SERMs exhibit improved pharmacological characteristics (e.g., in CBR affinity and selectivity) relative to initial studies with tamoxifen, and thus suggest that different SERM scaffolds may be useful for development of safe and selective drugs acting

  1. Transgenic silkworms expressing human insulin receptors for evaluation of therapeutically active insulin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Ishii, Kenichi; Miyaguchi, Wataru; Horie, Ryo; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Tatematsu, Ken-ichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-12

    We established a transgenic silkworm strain expressing the human insulin receptor (hIR) using the GAL4/UAS system. Administration of human insulin to transgenic silkworms expressing hIR decreased hemolymph sugar levels and facilitated Akt phosphorylation in the fat body. The decrease in hemolymph sugar levels induced by injection of human insulin in the transgenic silkworms expressing hIR was blocked by co-injection of wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor. Administration of bovine insulin, an hIR ligand, also effectively decreased sugar levels in the transgenic silkworms. These findings indicate that functional hIRs that respond to human insulin were successfully induced in the transgenic silkworms. We propose that the humanized silkworm expressing hIR is useful for in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic activities of insulin receptor agonists.

  2. Analysis of the agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M. I.; Harper, D.; Smith, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) was characterized in the rabbit isolated aorta preparation. 2. Fenoldopam was an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor with lower affinity and efficacy than the naturally occurring agonist 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Fenoldopam had an affinity (pKA) of 5.84 +/- 0.04 and efficacy (tau) of 0.57 +/- 0.04, whereas 5-HT had a pKA of 6.65 +/- 0.12 and tau of 2.66 +/- 0.41. 3. The constrictor effects of fenoldopam and 5-HT were competitively antagonized by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin, with pKB values of 8.81 +/- 0.11 and 8.83 +/- 0.10 respectively. 4. Prior incubation with fenoldopam produced a concentration-related rightward shift of a subsequent 5-HT concentration-response curve. This inhibition was specific for 5-HT since constrictor responses to angiotensin II were unaffected. 5. This study indicates that the D1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam, acts as an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor, but with an affinity and efficacy less than that of the naturally occurring agonist, 5-HT. PMID:1361397

  3. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  4. A Novel Method for Screening Adenosine Receptor Specific Agonists for Use in Adenosine Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Karlie R.; Choi, Uimook; Gao, Ji-Liang; Thompson, Robert D.; Rodman, Larry E.; Malech, Harry L.; Kang, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Agonists that target the A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors have potential to be potent treatment options for a number of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Because each of these adenosine receptors plays a distinct role throughout the body, obtaining highly specific receptor agonists is essential. Of these receptors, the adenosine A2AR and A2BR share many sequence and structural similarities but highly differ in their responses to inflammatory stimuli. Our laboratory, using a combination of specially developed cell lines and calcium release analysis hardware, has created a new and faster method for determining specificity of synthetic adenosine agonist compounds for the A2A and A2B receptors in human cells. A2A receptor expression was effectively removed from K562 cells, resulting in the development of a distinct null line. Using HIV-lentivector and plasmid DNA transfection, we also developed A2A and A2B receptor over-expressing lines. As adenosine is known to cause changes in intracellular calcium levels upon addition to cell culture, calcium release can be determined in these cell lines upon compound addition, providing a functional readout of receptor activation and allowing us to isolate the most specific adenosine agonist compounds. PMID:28317879

  5. Characterizing novel metabolic pathways of melatonin receptor agonist agomelatine using metabolomic approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agomelatine (AGM), an analog of melatonin, is a potential agonist at melatonin receptors 1/2 and a selective antagonist at 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors. AGM is widely used for the treatment of major depressive episodes in adults. However, multiple adverse effects associated with AGM have been re...

  6. Sigma-1 receptor agonists as therapeutic drugs for cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of patients with neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and psychotic depression. The drugs currently used to treat cognitive impairment have significant limitations, ensuring that the search for more effective therapies remains active. Endoplasmic reticulum protein sigma-1 receptors are unique binding sites in the brain that exert a potent effect on multiple neurotransmitter systems. Accumulating evidence suggests that sigma-1 receptors play a role in both the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, and the mechanistic action of some therapeutic drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), donepezil and neurosteroids. Among SSRIs, fluvoxamine, a potent sigma-1 receptor agonist, has the highest affinity at sigma-1 receptors. Sigma-1 receptor agonists greatly potentiate nerve-growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, an effect that is antagonized by treatment with the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. Furthermore, phencyclidine (PCP)-induced cognitive impairment, associated with animal models of schizophrenia is significantly improved by sub-chronic administration of sigma-1 receptor agonists such as fluvoxamine, SA4503 (cutamesine) and donepezil. This effect is antagonized by co-administration of NE-100. A positron emission tomography (PET) study using the specific sigma-1 receptor ligand [11C]SA4503 demonstrates that fluvoxamine and donepezil bind to sigma-1 receptors in the healthy human brain. In clinical studies, some sigma-1 receptor agonists, including fluvoxamine, donepezil and neurosteroids, improve cognitive impairment and clinical symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review the recent findings on sigma-1 receptor agonists as potential therapeutic drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and psychotic depression.

  7. γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is not an agonist of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Connelly, William M; Errington, Adam C; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound and a drug used clinically to treat the symptoms of narcolepsy. GHB is known to be an agonist of GABAB receptors with millimolar affinity, but also binds with much higher affinity to another site, known as the GHB receptor. While a body of evidence has shown that GHB does not bind to GABAA receptors widely, recent evidence has suggested that the GHB receptor is in fact on extrasynaptic α4β1δ GABAA receptors, where GHB acts as an agonist with an EC50 of 140 nM. We investigated three neuronal cell types that express a tonic GABAA receptor current mediated by extrasynaptic receptors: ventrobasal (VB) thalamic neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells and striatal medium spiny neurons. Using whole-cell voltage clamp in brain slices, we found no evidence that GHB (10 µM) induced any GABAA receptor mediated current in these cell types, nor that it modulated inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, a high concentration of GHB (3 mM) was able to produce a GABAB receptor mediated current, but did not induce any other currents. These results suggest either that GHB is not a high affinity agonist at native α4β1δ receptors, or that these receptors do not exist in classical areas associated with extrasynaptic currents.

  8. Development of selective agonists and antagonists of P2Y receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Andrei A.; de Castro, Sonia; Harden, T. Kendall; Ko, Hyojin

    2008-01-01

    Although elucidation of the medicinal chemistry of agonists and antagonists of the P2Y receptors has lagged behind that of many other members of group A G protein-coupled receptors, detailed qualitative and quantitative structure–activity relationships (SARs) were recently constructed for several of the subtypes. Agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors are now known. Selective nonnucleotide antagonists were reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, and P2Y13 receptors. At the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors, nucleotide agonists (5′-diphosphate derivatives) were converted into antagonists of nanomolar affinity by altering the phosphate moieties, with a focus particularly on the ribose conformation and substitution pattern. Nucleotide analogues with conformationally constrained ribose-like rings were introduced as selective receptor probes for P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors. Screening chemically diverse compound libraries has begun to yield new lead compounds for the development of P2Y receptor antagonists, such as competitive P2Y12 receptor antagonists with antithrombotic activity. Selective agonists for the P2Y4, P2Y11, and P2Y13 receptors and selective antagonists for P2Y4 and P2Y14 receptors have not yet been identified. The P2Y14 receptor appears to be the most restrictive of the class with respect to modification of the nucleobase, ribose, and phosphate moieties. The continuing process of ligand design for the P2Y receptors will aid in the identification of new clinical targets. PMID:18600475

  9. The effects of the 5-HT(6) receptor agonist EMD and the 5-HT(7) receptor agonist AS19 on memory formation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Perez-Garcia, G; Liy-Salmeron, G; Flores-Galvez, D; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2008-12-16

    Growing evidence indicates that 5-hydrohytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediate learning and memory. Particularly interesting are 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors, which are localized in brain areas involved in memory formation. Interestingly, recently selective 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists and antagonists have become available. Previous evidence indicates that 5-HT(6) or 5-HT(7) receptors antagonists had no effects, improved memory formation and/or reversed amnesia. Herein, the effects of EMD (a 5-HT(6) receptor agonist) and AS19 (a 5-HT(7) receptor agonist) in the associative learning task of autoshaping were studied. Post-training systemic administration of EMD (1-10 mg/kg) or AS19 (1-10 mg/kg) were tested in short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). Results showed that only EMD 5.0mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. AS19 at 1-10 mg/kg significantly impaired STM but not LTM. In those groups used to test only LTM, EMD impaired it; while AS19 improved LTM. Moreover, in the interaction experiments, the STM EMD-impairment effect was partially reversed by the selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 (10 mg/kg). The STM AS19-impairment effect (5.0 mg/kg) was not altered by the selective 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY 100635 (0.3 mg/kg) but reversed by the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970 (10.0 mg/kg). The AS19-SB-269970 combination impaired LTM. Taken together these data suggest that the stimulation of 5-HT(6) impaired both STM and LTM. 5-HT(7) receptors stimulation impaired STM but improved LTM. And these results are discussed in the context of their possible neural bases.

  10. Rate constants of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors in rat brain medulla. Evaluation by competition kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, G.; Henis, Y.I.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1985-07-25

    The method of competition kinetics, which measures the binding kinetics of an unlabeled ligand through its effect on the binding kinetics of a labeled ligand, was employed to investigate the kinetics of muscarinic agonist binding to rat brain medulla pons homogenates. The agonists studied were acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, and oxotremorine, with N-methyl-4-(TH)piperidyl benzilate employed as the radiolabeled ligand. Our results suggested that the binding of muscarinic agonists to the high affinity sites is characterized by dissociation rate constants higher by 2 orders of magnitude than those of antagonists, with rather similar association rate constants. Our findings also suggest that isomerization of the muscarinic receptors following ligand binding is significant in the case of antagonists, but not of agonists. Moreover, it is demonstrated that in the medulla pons preparation, agonist-induced interconversion between high and low affinity bindings sites does not occur to an appreciable extent.

  11. The dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF-82958 serves as a discriminative stimulus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Haile, C N; Carey, G; Varty, G B; Coffin, V L

    2000-01-28

    We examined the discriminative stimulus effects of the high-efficacy dopamine D(1) receptor agonist (+/-)6-chloro-7, 8-dihydroxy-3-ally1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3benzazepine++ + hydrobromide (SKF-82958) in rats trained to discriminate SKF-82958 (0.03 mg/kg) from vehicle in a two-lever food-reinforced drug discrimination task. SKF-82958 produced dose-related increases in responding to the SKF-82958 appropriate lever with full substitution occurring at the training dose. Pretreatment with the dopamine D(1)/D(5) receptor antagonist (-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]naphtho -¿2, 1-b¿azepine (SCH-39166) (0.01 mg/kg) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of SKF-82958. Pretreatment with the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist raclopride (0.03 mg/kg) had no effect. The high-efficacy dopamine D(1) receptor agonist R(+)6chloro-7, 8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide (SKF-81297) fully substituted for SKF-82958, whereas the low-efficacy dopamine D(1) receptor agonist (+/-)1-phenyl-2,3,4, 5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol hydrochloride (SKF-38393) produced only partial substitution. The dopamine D(2) receptor agonist trans-(+/-)-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a, 9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-propyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-g]quinoline dihydrochloride (quinpirole) and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine did not substitute fully for the SKF-82958 discriminative stimulus cue. These results demonstrate that the high-efficacy dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF-82958 can serve as an effective discriminative stimulus in the rat, and that these effects are mediated by a dopamine D(1)-like receptor mechanism.

  12. Discovery and Characterization of Biased Allosteric Agonists of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR3.

    PubMed

    Milanos, Lampros; Brox, Regine; Frank, Theresa; Poklukar, Gašper; Palmisano, Ralf; Waibel, Reiner; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Dürr, Maximilian; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana; Larsen, Olav; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie; Tschammer, Nuska

    2016-03-10

    In this work we report a design, synthesis, and detailed functional characterization of unique strongly biased allosteric agonists of CXCR3 that contain tetrahydroisoquinoline carboxamide cores. Compound 11 (FAUC1036) is the first strongly biased allosteric agonist of CXCR3 that selectively induces weak chemotaxis and leads to receptor internalization and the β-arrestin 2 recruitment with potency comparable to that of the chemokine CXCL11 without any activation of G proteins. A subtle structural change (addition of a methoxy group, 14 (FAUC1104)) led to a contrasting biased allosteric partial agonist that activated solely G proteins, induced chemotaxis, but failed to induce receptor internalization or β-arrestin 2 recruitment. Concomitant structure-activity relationship studies indicated very steep structure-activity relationships, which steer the ligand bias between the β-arrestin 2 and G protein pathway. Overall, the information presented provides a powerful platform for further development and rational design of strongly biased allosteric agonists of CXCR3.

  13. NOP Receptor Mediates Anti-analgesia Induced by Agonist-Antagonist Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Gear, Robert W.; Bogen, Oliver; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ~90 minutes after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69,593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  14. Antidiabetic properties of the histamine H3 receptor protean agonist proxyfan.

    PubMed

    Henry, Melanie B; Zheng, Shuqin; Duan, Chenxia; Patel, Bhuneshwari; Vassileva, Galya; Sondey, Christopher; Lachowicz, Jean; Hwa, Joyce J

    2011-03-01

    Proxyfan is a histamine H3 receptor protean agonist that can produce a spectrum of pharmacological effects including agonist, inverse agonist, and antagonist. We have discovered that proxyfan (10 mg/kg orally) significantly improved glucose excursion after an ip glucose tolerance test in either lean or high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced obese mice. It also reduced plasma glucose levels comparable to that of metformin (300 mg/kg orally) in a nongenetic type 2 diabetes mouse model. The dose-dependent decrease in glucose excursion correlated with inhibition of ex vivo H3 receptor binding in the cerebral cortex. In addition, glucose levels were significantly reduced compared with vehicle-treated mice after intracerebroventricular administration of proxyfan, suggesting the involvement of central H3 receptors. Proxyfan-induced reduction of glucose excursion was not observed in the H3 receptor knockout mice, suggesting that proxyfan mediates this effect through H3 receptors. Proxyfan reduced glucose excursion by significantly increasing plasma insulin levels in a glucose-independent manner. However, no difference in insulin sensitivity was observed in proxyfan-treated mice. The H1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine and the H2 receptor antagonist zolantidine had modest effects on glucose excursion, and neither inhibited the glucose excursion reduced by proxyfan. The H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, thioperamide, had weaker effects on glucose excursion compared with proxyfan, whereas the H3 receptor agonist imetit did not affect glucose excursion. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that manipulation of central histamine H3 receptor by proxyfan can significantly improve glucose excursion by increasing plasma insulin levels via a glucose-independent mechanism.

  15. Discovery and dimeric approach of novel Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A (NPR-A) agonists.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Takehiko; Oyama, Yoshiaki; Tomoo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Taisaku; Okamura, Yoshihiko; Sugiyama, Masako; Yamaki, Akira; Furuya, Mayumi

    2017-03-15

    Novel agonists of the Natriuretic Peptide Receptor A (NPR-A) were obtained through random screening and subsequent structural modification of triazine derivatives. The key structural feature to improve in vitro activity was the dimerization of triazine monomer derivatives. The non peptide derivative 7c and 13a showed highly potent NPR-A agonistic activity in vitro and diuretic activity in vivo. These results implied that non-peptidic small molecules open the possibility of new therapy for congestive heart failure.

  16. Benzodiazepine agonist and inverse agonist actions on GABAA receptor-operated chloride channels. I. Acute effects of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, K.J.; Harris, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Acute exposure to ethanol was found to enhance the ability of a benzodiazepine (BZ) inverse agonist, methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), to reduce muscimol-activated 36Cl- uptake by membranes isolated from mouse cerebral cortex. Pretreatment in vivo with a hypnotic dose of ethanol (but not a subhypnotic dose), or exposure to a corresponding concentration in vitro, was effective. This increase in sensitivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-operated chloride channels to the actions of DMCM was due to an increase in both the potency and efficacy of DMCM. Sensitization to DMCM was reversible and was not observed 24 hr after a single injection of ethanol. Pretreatment with ethanol (10, 50 and 100 mM) in vitro produced sensitization to DMCM in a concentration-dependent manner, similar to that produced by in vivo exposure; this increase in sensitivity did not develop if the membranes were pretreated with ethanol at 0 degrees C. Similarly, in vitro exposure to pentobarbital (200 microM) or flunitrazepam (1 microM) enhanced the actions of the inverse agonist Ro15-4513 (ethyl-8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,5a)(1,4)BZ-3- carboxylate). Acute ethanol exposure did not alter low-affinity gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor binding or muscimol action, or the ability of a BZ agonist, flunitrazepam, to augment muscimol-activated chloride flux. Ethanol exposure did not alter (3H)flumazenil (Ro15-1788) binding to central BZ receptors, its displacement by DMCM or allosteric modulation of DMCM binding by muscimol (muscimol-shift).

  17. A Systematic Approach to Identify Biased Agonists of the Apelin Receptor through High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    McAnally, Danielle; Siddiquee, Khandaker; Sharir, Haleli; Qi, Feng; Phatak, Sharangdhar; Li, Jian-Liang; Berg, Eric; Fishman, Jordan; Smith, Layton

    2017-03-01

    Biased agonists are defined by their ability to selectively activate distinct signaling pathways of a receptor, and they hold enormous promise for the development of novel drugs that specifically elicit only the desired therapeutic response and avoid potential adverse effects. Unfortunately, most high-throughput screening (HTS) assays are designed to detect signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) downstream of either G protein or β-arrestin-mediated signaling but not both. A comprehensive drug discovery program seeking biased agonists must employ assays that report on the activity of each compound at multiple discrete pathways, particularly for HTS campaigns. Here, we report a systematic approach to the identification of biased agonists of human apelin receptor (APJ). We synthesized 448 modified versions of apelin and screened them against a cascade of cell-based assays, including intracellular cAMP and β-arrestin recruitment to APJ, simultaneously. The screen yielded potent and highly selective APJ agonists. Representative hits displaying preferential signaling via either G-protein or β-arrestin were subjected to a battery of confirmation assays. These biased agonists will be useful as tools to probe the function and pharmacology of APJ and provide proof of concept of our systematic approach to the discovery of biased ligands. This approach is likely universally applicable to the search for biased agonists of GPCRs.

  18. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor coupling events initiated by methoxy-substituted tolazoline partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, P.; Keung, A.; Deth, R.

    1986-03-01

    A series of mono- and dimethyoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives, known to be partial agonists at the alpha/sub 1/ receptor, were compared with the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ selective full agonist phenylephrine (PE) on isolated strips of rabbit aorta Agonist activity was evaluated in contraction, /sup 45/Ca influx, /sup 45/Ca efflux, and /sup 32/P-Phospholipid labelling studies. Maximum contractile responses for the 2-, 3-, and 3, 5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives (10/sup -5/M) were 53.8, 67.6 and 99.7% of the PE (10/sup -5/M) response respectively. These same partial agonists caused a stimulation of /sup 45/Ca influx to the extent of 64, 86, and 95% of the PE response respectively. In /sup 45/Ca efflux studies, (a measure of the intracellular Ca/sup +2/ release) the tolazolines caused: 30%, 63%, and 78% of the PE stimulated level. /sup 32/P-Phosphatidic acid (PA) labelling was measured as an index of PI turnover after ..cap alpha../sub 1/ receptor stimulation. Compared to PE, the 2-, 3-, and 3,5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives caused 22, 46, and 72% PA labelling. The above values are all in reasonable accord with the rank order or agonist activity shown in maximum contractile responses. The results of this investigation suggest that partial agonists stimulate ..cap alpha.. receptor coupling events at a level which is quantitatively comparable to their potencies in causing contraction of arterial smooth muscle.

  19. Analysis of full and partial agonists binding to beta2-adrenergic receptor suggests a role of transmembrane helix V in agonist-specific conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Reynolds, Kimberly A; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A; Roth, Christopher B; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    The 2.4 A crystal structure of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) in complex with the high-affinity inverse agonist (-)-carazolol provides a detailed structural framework for the analysis of ligand recognition by adrenergic receptors. Insights into agonist binding and the corresponding conformational changes triggering G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation mechanism are of special interest. Here we show that while the carazolol pocket captured in the beta(2)AR crystal structure accommodates (-)-isoproterenol and other agonists without steric clashes, a finite movement of the flexible extracellular part of TM-V helix (TM-Ve) obtained by receptor optimization in the presence of docked ligand can further improve the calculated binding affinities for agonist compounds. Tilting of TM-Ve towards the receptor axis provides a more complete description of polar receptor-ligand interactions for full and partial agonists, by enabling optimal engagement of agonists with two experimentally identified anchor sites, formed by Asp113/Asn312 and Ser203/Ser204/Ser207 side chains. Further, receptor models incorporating a flexible TM-V backbone allow reliable prediction of binding affinities for a set of diverse ligands, suggesting potential utility of this approach to design of effective and subtype-specific agonists for adrenergic receptors. Systematic differences in capacity of partial, full and inverse agonists to induce TM-V helix tilt in the beta(2)AR model suggest potential role of TM-V as a conformational "rheostat" involved in the whole spectrum of beta(2)AR responses to small molecule signals.

  20. Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Mitigate Features of Allergic Asthma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pawan; Yi, Roslyn; Nayak, Ajay P.; Wang, Nadan; Tang, Francesca; Knight, Morgan J.; Pan, Shi; Oliver, Brian; Deshpande, Deepak A.

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, mucus secretion, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Recent research has established the bronchodilatory effect of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists in various models. Comprehensive pre-clinical studies aimed at establishing effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in disease models are lacking. Here we aimed to determine the effect of TAS2R agonists on features of asthma. Further, we elucidated a mechanism by which TAS2R agonists mitigate features of asthma. Asthma was induced in mice using intranasal house dust mite or aerosol ova-albumin challenge, and chloroquine or quinine were tested in both prophylactic and treatment models. Allergen challenge resulted in airway inflammation as evidenced by increased immune cells infiltration and release of cytokines and chemokines in the lungs, which were significantly attenuated in TAS2R agonists treated mice. TAS2R agonists attenuated features of airway remodeling including smooth muscle mass, extracellular matrix deposition and pro-fibrotic signaling, and also prevented mucus accumulation and development of AHR in mice. Mechanistic studies using human neutrophils demonstrated that inhibition of immune cell chemotaxis is a key mechanism by which TAS2R agonists blocked allergic airway inflammation and exerted anti-asthma effects. Our comprehensive studies establish the effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in mitigating multiple features of allergic asthma.

  1. Studies Toward the Pharmacophore of Salvinorin A, a Potent Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Thomas A.; Rizzacasa, Mark A.; Roth, Bryan L.; Toth, Beth A.; Yan, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Salvinorin A (1), from the sage Salvia divinorum, is a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. We screened other salvinorins and derivatives for binding affinity and functional activity at opioid receptors. Our results suggest that the methyl ester and furan ring are required for activity, but that the lactone and ketone functionalities are not. Other salvinorins showed negligible binding affinity at the KOR. None of the compounds bound to mu or delta opioid receptors. PMID:15658846

  2. Studies toward the pharmacophore of salvinorin A, a potent kappa opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Munro, Thomas A; Rizzacasa, Mark A; Roth, Bryan L; Toth, Beth A; Yan, Feng

    2005-01-27

    Salvinorin A (1), from the sage Salvia divinorum, is a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. We screened other salvinorins and derivatives for binding affinity and functional activity at opioid receptors. Our results suggest that the methyl ester and furan ring are required for activity but that the lactone and ketone functionalities are not. Other salvinorins showed negligible binding affinity at the KOR. None of the compounds bound to mu or delta opioid receptors.

  3. Modification of formalin-induced nociception by different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Davood; Nosrati, Farnaz

    2007-01-15

    The present study evaluated the effects of different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on the nociceptive response in the mouse formalin test. Intracerebroventricular (20-40 microg/mouse i.c.v.) or subcutaneous (1-10 mg/kg s.c.) injection of HTMT (H(1) receptor agonist) elicited a dose-related hyperalgesia in the early and late phases. Conversely, intraperitoneal (20 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) injection of dexchlorpheniramine (H(1) receptor antagonist) was antinociceptive in both phases. At a dose ineffective per se, dexchlorpheniramine (10 mg/kg i.p.) antagonized the hyperalgesia induced by HTMT (40 mug/mouse i.c.v. or 10 mg/kg s.c.). Dimaprit (H(2) receptor agonist, 30 mg/kg i.p.) and ranitidine (H(2) receptor antagonist, 20 and 40 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the nociceptive responses in the early and late phases. No significant change in the antinociceptive activity was found following the combination of dimaprit (30 mg/kg i.p.) with ranitidine (10 mg/kg i.p.). The antinociceptive effect of dimaprit (30 mg/kg i.p.) was prevented by naloxone (5 mg/kg i.p.) in the early phase or by imetit (H(3) receptor agonist, 25 mg/kg i.p.) in both early and late phases. The histamine H(3) receptor agonist imetit was hyperalgesic following i.p. administration of 50 mg/kg. Imetit-induced hyperalgesia was completely prevented by treatment with a dose ineffective per se of thioperamide (H(3) receptor antagonist, 5 mg/kg i.p.). The results suggest that histamine H(1) and H(3) receptor activations increase sensitivity to nociceptive stimulus in the formalin test.

  4. Selective VIP Receptor Agonists Facilitate Immune Transformation for Dopaminergic Neuroprotection in MPTP-Intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Katherine E.; Kosloski-Bilek, Lisa M.; Anderson, Kristi M.; Diggs, Breha J.; Clark, Barbara E.; Gledhill, John M.; Shandler, Scott J.; Mosley, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mediates a broad range of biological responses by activating two related receptors, VIP receptor 1 and 2 (VIPR1 and VIPR2). Although the use of native VIP facilitates neuroprotection, clinical application of the hormone is limited due to VIP's rapid metabolism and inability to distinguish between VIPR1 and VIPR2 receptors. In addition, activation of both receptors by therapeutics may increase adverse secondary toxicities. Therefore, we developed metabolically stable and receptor-selective agonists for VIPR1 and VIPR2 to improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic therapeutic end points. Selective agonists were investigated for their abilities to protect mice against MPTP-induced neurodegeneration used to model Parkinson's disease (PD). Survival of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the substantia nigra was determined by stereological tests after MPTP intoxication in mice pretreated with either VIPR1 or VIPR2 agonist or after adoptive transfer of splenic cell populations from agonist-treated mice administered to MPTP-intoxicated animals. Treatment with VIPR2 agonist or splenocytes from agonist-treated mice resulted in increased neuronal sparing. Immunohistochemical tests showed that agonist-treated mice displayed reductions in microglial responses, with the most pronounced effects in VIPR2 agonist-treated, MPTP-intoxicated mice. In parallel studies, we observed reductions in proinflammatory cytokine release that included IL-17A, IL-6, and IFN-γ and increases in GM-CSF transcripts in CD4+ T cells recovered from VIPR2 agonist-treated animals. Moreover, a phenotypic shift of effector to regulatory T cells was observed. These results support the use of VIPR2-selective agonists as neuroprotective agents for PD treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 can elicit immune transformation in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Such immunomodulatory capabilities can lead to neuroprotection by attenuating

  5. Phosphorylation and chronic agonist treatment atypically modulate GABAB receptor cell surface stability.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Benjamin P; Pitcher, Julie A; Scott, Mark G H; Calver, Andrew R; Pangalos, Menelas N; Moss, Stephen J; Couve, Andrés

    2004-03-26

    GABA(B) receptors are heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system. The dynamic control of the cell surface stability of GABA(B) receptors is likely to be of fundamental importance in the modulation of receptor signaling. Presently, however, this process is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that GABA(B) receptors are remarkably stable at the plasma membrane showing little basal endocytosis in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. In addition, we show that exposure to baclofen, a well characterized GABA(B) receptor agonist, fails to enhance GABA(B) receptor endocytosis. Lack of receptor internalization in neurons correlates with an absence of agonist-induced phosphorylation and lack of arrestin recruitment in heterologous systems. We also demonstrate that chronic exposure to baclofen selectively promotes endocytosis-independent GABA(B) receptor degradation. The effect of baclofen can be attenuated by activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase or co-stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. Furthermore, we show that increased degradation rates are correlated with reduced receptor phosphorylation at serine 892 in GABA(B)R2. Our results support a model in which GABA(B)R2 phosphorylation specifically stabilizes surface GABA(B) receptors in neurons. We propose that signaling pathways that regulate cAMP levels in neurons may have profound effects on the tonic synaptic inhibition by modulating the availability of GABA(B) receptors.

  6. Virtual screening of CB(2) receptor agonists from bayesian network and high-throughput docking: structural insights into agonist-modulated GPCR features.

    PubMed

    Renault, Nicolas; Laurent, Xavier; Farce, Amaury; El Bakali, Jamal; Mansouri, Roxane; Gervois, Philippe; Millet, Régis; Desreumaux, Pierre; Furman, Christophe; Chavatte, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The relevance of CB(2)-mediated therapeutics is well established in the treatment of pain, neurodegenerative and gastrointestinal tract disorders. Recent works such as the crystallization of class-A G-protein-coupled receptors in a range of active states and the identification of specific anchoring sites for CB(2) agonists challenged us to design a reliable agonist-bound homology model of CB(2) receptor. Docking-scoring enrichment tests of a high-throughput virtual screening of 140 compounds led to 13 hits within the micromolar affinity range. Most of these hits behaved as CB(2) agonists, among which two novel full agonists emerged. Although the main challenge was a high-throughput docking run targeting an agonist-bound state of a CB(2) model, a prior 2D ligand-based Bayesian network was computed to enrich the input commercial library for 3D screening. The exclusive discovery of agonists illustrates the reliability of this agonist-bound state model for the identification of polar and aromatic amino acids as new agonist-modulated CB(2) features to be integrated in the wide activation pathway of G-protein-coupled receptors.

  7. Optimisation of in silico derived 2-aminobenzimidazole hits as unprecedented selective kappa opioid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Pradip K; Krishna, C Vamsee; Adabala, S Sudheerkumar; Roshaiah, M; Rawoof, Khaji Abdul; Thadi, Emima; Sukumar, K Pavan; Cheera, Srisailam; Abbineni, Chandrasekhar; Rao, K V L Narasimha; Prasanthi, A; Nijhawan, Kamal; Jaleel, Mahaboobi; Iyer, Lakshmi Ramachandran; Chaitanya, T Krishna; Tiwari, Nirbhay Kumar; Krishna, N Lavanya; Potluri, Vijay; Khanna, Ish; Frimurer, Thomas M; Lückmann, Michael; Rist, Øystein; Elster, Lisbeth; Högberg, Thomas

    2015-02-15

    Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is an important mediator of pain signaling and it is targeted for the treatment of various pains. Pharmacophore based mining of databases led to the identification of 2-aminobenzimidazole derivative as KOR agonists with selectivity over the other opioid receptors DOR and MOR. A short SAR exploration with the objective of identifying more polar and hence less brain penetrant agonists is described herewith. Modeling studies of the recently published structures of KOR, DOR and MOR are used to explain the receptor selectivity. The synthesis, biological evaluation and SAR of novel benzimidazole derivatives as KOR agonists are described. The in vivo proof of principle for anti-nociceptive effect with a lead compound from this series is exemplified.

  8. Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α agonist fenofibrate and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Syversen, Unni; Stunes, Astrid K; Gustafsson, Björn I; Obrant, Karl J; Nordsletten, Lars; Berge, Rolf; Thommesen, Liv; Reseland, Janne E

    2009-01-01

    Background All the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are found to be expressed in bone cells. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone has been shown to decrease bone mass in mice and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been found to increase bone loss and fracture risk in humans treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the PPARα agonist fenofibrate (FENO) and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on bone in intact female rats. Methods Rats were given methylcellulose (vehicle), fenofibrate or pioglitazone (35 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 4 months. BMC, BMD, and body composition were measured by DXA. Histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of excised femurs were performed. Effects of the compounds on bone cells were studied. Results The FENO group had higher femoral BMD and smaller medullary area at the distal femur; while trabecular bone volume was similar to controls. Whole body BMD, BMC, and trabecular bone volume were lower, while medullary area was increased in PIO rats compared to controls. Ultimate bending moment and energy absorption of the femoral shafts were reduced in the PIO group, while similar to controls in the FENO group. Plasma osteocalcin was higher in the FENO group than in the other groups. FENO stimulated proliferation and differentiation of, and OPG release from, the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Conclusion We show opposite skeletal effects of PPARα and γ agonists in intact female rats. FENO resulted in significantly higher femoral BMD and lower medullary area, while PIO induced bone loss and impairment of the mechanical strength. This represents a novel effect of PPARα activation. PMID:19331671

  9. Potency and characterization of estrogen-receptor agonists in United Kingdom estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin V; Balaam, Jan; Hurst, Mark; Nedyalkova, Zoya; Mekenyan, Ovanes

    2004-02-01

    The activity of estrogen-receptor (ER) agonists in sediments collected from the United Kingdom (UK) estuaries was assessed using the in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES assay). The YES assay was successfully used to determine the in vitro ER agonist potency of pore waters and solvent extracts of sediments collected from UK estuaries. Estrogen-receptor agonists were detected in 66% of the pore water samples and in 91% of the sediment solvent extracts tested. The pore waters tested had ER agonist potencies from less than 2 to 68 ng 17beta-estradiol (E2) L(-1), whereas sediment extracts had potencies from less than 0.2 to 13 microg E2 kg(-1). A toxicity identification evaluation approach using bioassay-directed fractionation was used in an attempt to identify the ER agonists in extracts of sediments collected from the Tyne and Tees estuaries (UK). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to provide lists of compounds in the fractions obtained that were evaluated for known ER agonist activity using published data and an ER quantitative structure-activity relationship model. Toxicity identification evaluation characterization failed to identify any ER agonists in pore water extracts; however, three compounds in sediment solvent extracts were identified as ER agonists. Nonylphenol, cinnarizine, and cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one were identified in the sample collected from the Tyne estuary. Important ER agonist substances that contaminate marine sediments remain unidentified. The present study as well as previous work on effluents point toward the involvement of natural products in the estrogenic burdens of marine sediments. Further work is required to establish the relative contribution of natural products and anthropogenic chemicals to current environmental impacts in the context of the Oslo and Paris Commission strategy to eliminate hazardous substances by 2020.

  10. Identification of an extracellular segment of the oxytocin receptor providing agonist-specific binding epitopes.

    PubMed

    Hawtin, S R; Howard, H C; Wheatley, M

    2001-03-01

    The effects of the peptide hormone oxytocin are mediated by oxytocin receptors (OTRs) expressed by the target tissue. The OTR is a member of the large family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Defining differences between the interaction of agonists and antagonists with the OTR at the molecular level is of fundamental importance, and is addressed in this study. Using truncated and chimaeric receptor constructs, we establish that a small 12-residue segment in the distal portion of the N-terminus of the human OTR provides important epitopes which are required for agonist binding. In contrast, this segment does not contribute to the binding site for antagonists, whether peptide or non-peptide. It does, however, have a role in agonist-induced OTR signalling. Oxytocin is also an agonist at the vasopressin V(1a) receptor (V(1a)R). A chimaeric receptor (V(1a)R(N)-OTR) was engineered in which the N-terminus of the OTR was substituted by the corresponding, but unrelated, sequence from the N-terminus of the V(1a)R. We show that the V(1a)R N-terminus present in V(1a)R(N)-OTR fully restored both agonist binding and intracellular signalling to a dysfunctional truncated OTR construct. The N-terminal segment does not, however, contribute to receptor-selective agonism between the OTR and the V(1a)R. Our data establish a key role for the distal N-terminus of the OTR in providing agonist-specific binding epitopes.

  11. Discovery of Novel Potent and Selective Agonists at the Melanocortin-3 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Alfonso; Merlino, Francesco; Cai, Minying; Brancaccio, Diego; Yousif, Ali Munaim; Novellino, Ettore; Hruby, Victor J; Grieco, Paolo

    2015-12-24

    The melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 control energy homeostasis, food-intake behavior, and correlated pathophysiological conditions. The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) has been broadly investigated. In contrast, the knowledge related to physiological roles of the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) is lacking because of the limited number of known MC3R selective ligands. Here, we report the design, synthesis, biological activity, conformational analysis, and docking with receptors of two potent and selective agonists at the human MC3 receptor.

  12. Retinoic Acid Receptor β2 Agonists Restore Glycemic Control In Diabetes and Reduce Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Trasino, Steven E.; Tang, Xiao-Han; Jessurun, Jose; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Retinoids (vitamin A (retinol), and structurally related molecules) possess metabolic modulating properties, prompting new interest in their role in the treatment of diabetes and fatty liver disease, but little is known about the effects of specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists in these diseases. Materials and Methods Synthetic agonists for retinoic acid receptor RARβ2 were administered to wild type (wt) mice in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D). Results We demonstrate that administration of synthetic agonists for the retinoic acid receptor RARβ2 to either wild type (wt) mice in a model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) or to ob/ob and db/db mice (genetic models of obesity-associated T2D) reduces hyperglycemia, peripheral insulin resistance, and body weight. Furthermore, RARβ2 agonists dramatically reduce steatosis, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys of obese, diabetic mice. RARβ2 agonists also lower levels of mRNAs involved in lipogenesis, such as SREBP1 and FASN (fatty acid synthase), and increase mRNAs that mediate mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, such as CPT1α, in these organs. RARβ2 agonists lower triglyceride levels in these organs, and in muscle. Conclusions Collectively, our data show that orally active, rapidly acting, high affinity pharmacological agonists for RARβ2 improve the diabetic phenotype while reducing lipid levels in key insulin target tissues. We suggest that RARβ2 agonists should be useful drugs for T2D therapy and for treatment of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26462866

  13. Distinct activities of GABA agonists at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Martin; Ebert, Bjarke; Wafford, Keith; Smart, Trevor G

    2010-01-01

    The activation characteristics of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors are important for shaping the profile of phasic and tonic inhibition in the central nervous system, which will critically impact on the activity of neuronal networks. Here, we study in isolation the activity of three agonists, GABA, muscimol and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydoisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3(2H)-one (THIP), to further understand the activation profiles of α1β3γ2, α4β3γ2 and α4β3δ receptors that typify synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type receptors expressed in the hippocampus and thalamus. The agonists display an order of potency that is invariant between the three receptors, which is reliant mostly on the agonist dissociation constant. At δ subunit-containing extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors, both THIP and muscimol additionally exhibited, to different degrees, superagonist behaviour. By comparing whole-cell and single channel currents induced by the agonists, we provide a molecular explanation for their different activation profiles. For THIP at high concentrations, the unusual superagonist behaviour on α4β3δ receptors is a consequence of its ability to increase the duration of longer channel openings and their frequency, resulting in longer burst durations. By contrast, for muscimol, moderate superagonist behaviour was caused by reduced desensitisation of the extrasynaptic-type receptors. The ability to specifically increase the efficacy of receptor activation, by selected exogenous agonists over that obtained with the natural transmitter, may prove to be of therapeutic benefit under circumstances when synaptic inhibition is compromised or dysfunctional. PMID:20176630

  14. Central- and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors: similar regulation by stress and GABA receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Rägo, L; Kiivet, R A; Harro, J; Pŏld, M

    1989-04-01

    Central- and peripheral-type benzodiazepine (BD) receptors were labelled either by 3H-flunitrazepam or 3H-Ro 5-4864 in vitro after stress and in vivo administration of GABAA and GABAB agonists. A significant increase in the density of cerebral cortex and kidney BD binding sites was observed in rats after forced swimming stress. Similar changes in both type of BD receptors were also followed when naive (stressed) and handling-habituated (unstressed) rats were used. Stress in both models was unable to change the affinity of BD receptors in cerebral cortex, but significantly lowered it in kidneys. Acute treatment of rats with muscimol (1.5 mg/kg) or (-)baclofen (5 mg/kg) resulted in marked increase in the affinity of BD binding not only in cerebral cortex but also in kidneys. After (-)baclofen treatment the number of BD binding sites was lowered in the structures studied. In a separate study mice selected according to their behavioral response to (-)baclofen (1 mg/kg) were studied. Two weeks after the selection it appeared that baclofen responders were behaviorally more "anxious" than baclofen nonresponders. The number of BD binding sites was reduced in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, heart and kidneys in baclofen responders as compared to baclofen nonresponders. In several cases the changes in peripheral BD binding sites were even more pronounced than those in central ones. The data presented here evidence that peripheral- and central-type BD receptors are regulated similarly by GABA and some models of stress. The physiological mechanisms involved in similar regulation of central- and peripheral-type BD receptors are yet unknown.

  15. Effect of Light and Melatonin and Other Melatonin Receptor Agonists on Human Circadian Physiology.

    PubMed

    Emens, Jonathan S; Burgess, Helen J

    2015-12-01

    Circadian (body clock) timing has a profound influence on mental health, physical health, and health behaviors. This review focuses on how light, melatonin, and other melatonin receptor agonist drugs can be used to shift circadian timing in patients with misaligned circadian rhythms. A brief overview of the human circadian system is provided, followed by a discussion of patient characteristics and safety considerations that can influence the treatment of choice. The important features of light treatment, light avoidance, exogenous melatonin, and other melatonin receptor agonists are reviewed, along with some of the practical aspects of light and melatonin treatment.

  16. Effect of Light and Melatonin and other Melatonin Receptor Agonists on Human Circadian Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Emens, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Circadian (body clock) timing has a profound influence on mental health, physical health, and health behaviors. This review focuses on how light, melatonin and other melatonin receptor agonist drugs can be used to shift circadian timing in patients with misaligned circadian rhythms. A brief overview of the human circadian system is provided, followed by a discussion of patient characteristics and safety considerations that can influence the treatment of choice. The important features of light treatment, light avoidance, exogenous melatonin and other melatonin receptor agonists are reviewed, along with some of the practical aspects of light and melatonin treatment. PMID:26568121

  17. Number and locations of agonist binding sites required to activate homomeric Cys-loop receptors.

    PubMed

    Rayes, Diego; De Rosa, María José; Sine, Steven M; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2009-05-06

    Homo-pentameric Cys-loop receptors contain five identical agonist binding sites, each formed at a subunit interface. To determine the number and locations of binding sites required to generate a stable active state, we constructed a receptor subunit with a mutation that disables the agonist binding site and a reporter mutation that alters unitary conductance and coexpressed mutant and nonmutant subunits. Although receptors with a range of different subunit compositions are produced, patch-clamp recordings reveal that the amplitude of each single-channel opening event reports the number and, for certain subunit combinations, the locations of subunits with intact binding sites. We find that receptors with three binding sites at nonconsecutive subunit interfaces exhibit maximal mean channel open time, receptors with binding sites at three consecutive or two nonconsecutive interfaces exhibit intermediate open time, and receptors with binding sites at two consecutive or one interface exhibit brief open time. Macroscopic recordings after rapid application of agonist reveal that channel activation slows and the extent of desensitization decreases as the number of binding sites per receptor decreases. The overall results provide a framework for defining mechanisms of activation and drug modulation for homo-pentameric Cys-loop receptors.

  18. Effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptor agonists and their interaction on learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Mariam; Komaki, Alireza; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Taheri, Masoumeh; Komaki, Hamidreza; Etaee, Farshid

    2017-04-01

    Despite previous findings on the effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid systems on learning and memory, the effects of the combined stimulation of these 2 systems on learning and memory have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we tested the interactive effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid systems on learning and memory in rats by using passive avoidance learning (PAL) tests. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into the following 4 groups: (1) control (DMSO+saline), (2) WIN55,212-2, (3) capsaicin, and (4) WIN55,212-2 + capsaicin. On test day, capsaicin, a vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) agonist, or WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor (CB1/CB2) agonist, or both substances were injected intraperitoneally. Compared to the control group, the group treated with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) had better scores in the PAL acquisition and retention test, whereas treatment with WIN55,212-2 (CB1/CB2 agonist) decreased the test scores. Capsaicin partly reduced the effects of WIN55,212-2 on PAL and memory. We conclude that the acute administration of a TRPV1 agonist improves the rats' cognitive performance in PAL tasks and that a vanilloid-related mechanism may underlie the agonistic effect of WIN55,212-2 on learning and memory.

  19. Rodent antinociception following acute treatment with different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Davood; Asghari, Ladan; Nowrouzi, Mahvash

    2002-06-01

    The effects of different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on the nociceptive threshold were investigated in mice by two different kinds of noxious stimuli: thermal (hot plate) and chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing). Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of the histamine H(1) receptor agonist, HTMT (6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl) heptanecarboxamide) (50 microg/mouse), produced a hypernociception in the hot plate and writhing tests. Conversely, intraperitoneal (ip) injection of dexchlorpheniramine (30 and 40 mg/kg) and diphenhydramine (20 and 40 mg/kg) increased the pain threshold in both tests. The histamine H(2) receptor agonist, dimaprit (50 and 100 microg/mouse icv), or antagonist, ranitidine (50 and 100 microg/mouse icv), raised the pain threshold in both hot plate and writhing tests. In the mouse hot plate test, the histamine H(3) receptor agonist, imetit (50 mg/kg ip), reduced the pain threshold, while the histamine H(3) receptor antagonist, thioperamide (10 and 20 mg/kg ip), produced an antinociception. The hypernociceptive effects of HTMT and imetit were antagonized by dexchlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg ip) and thioperamide (5 mg/kg ip), respectively. The results suggest that histaminergic mechanisms may be involved in the modulation of nociceptive stimuli.

  20. Adenosine-A1 receptor agonist induced hyperalgesic priming type II.

    PubMed

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2016-03-01

    We have recently shown that repeated exposure of the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala, N-Me-Phe, Gly-ol]-enkephalin acetate salt) induces a model of transition to chronic pain that we have termed type II hyperalgesic priming. Similar to type I hyperalgesic priming, there is a markedly prolonged response to subsequent administration of proalgesic cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, type II hyperalgesic priming differs from type I in being rapidly induced, protein kinase A (PKA), rather than PKCε dependent, not reversed by a protein translation inhibitor, occurring in female as well as in male rats, and isolectin B4-negative neuron dependent. We report that, as with the repeated injection of a MOR agonist, the repeated administration of an agonist at the A1-adenosine receptor, also a Gi-protein coupled receptor, N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), also produces priming similar to DAMGO-induced type II hyperalgesic priming. In this study, we demonstrate that priming induced by repeated exposure to this A1-adenosine receptor agonist shares the same mechanisms, as MOR-agonist induced priming. However, the prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by repeated administration of CPA depends on G-protein αi subunit activation, differently from DAMGO-induced type II priming, in which it depends on the β/γ subunit. These data implicate a novel form of Gi-protein signaling pathway in the type II hyperalgesic priming induced by repeated administration of an agonist at A1-adenosine receptor to the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor.

  1. Adenosine-A1 Receptor Agonist Induced Hyperalgesic Priming Type II

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that repeated exposure of the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin acetate salt) induces a model of the transition to chronic pain that we have termed Type II hyperalgesic priming. Similar to Type I hyperalgesic priming, there is a markedly prolonged response to subsequent administration of proalgesic cytokines, prototypically prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, Type II hyperalgesic priming differs from Type I in being rapidly induced, protein kinase A (PKA), rather than PKCε dependent, not reversed by a protein translation inhibitor, occurring in female as well as in male rats, and isolectin B4-negative neuron dependent. We report that as with the repeated injection of a MOR agonist, the repeated administration of an agonist at the A1-adenosine receptor, also a Gi-protein coupled receptor, N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), also produces priming similar to DAMGO-induced Type II hyperalgesic priming. In this study we demonstrate that priming induced by repeated exposure to this A1-adenosine receptor agonist shares the same mechanisms as MOR-agonist induced priming. However, the prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by repeated administration of CPA depends on G-protein αi subunit activation, differently from DAMGO-induced Type II priming, in which it depends on the β/γ subunit. These data implicate a novel form of Gi-protein signaling pathway in the Type II hyperalgesic priming induced by repeated administration of an agonist at A1-adenosine receptor to the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor. PMID:26588695

  2. The glycine transport inhibitor sarcosine is an NMDA receptor co-agonist that differs from glycine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Sarcosine is an amino acid involved in one-carbon metabolism and a promising therapy for schizophrenia because it enhances NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function by inhibiting glycine uptake. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine led us to hypothesize that sarcosine is also an agonist like glycine. We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that sarcosine is an NMDAR co-agonist at the glycine binding site. However, sarcosine differed from glycine because less NMDAR desensitization occurred with sarcosine than with glycine as the co-agonist. This finding led us to examine whether the physiological effects of NMDAR activation with these two co-agonists are the same. The difference in desensitization probably accounts for rises in intracellular Ca2+, as assessed by the fluorescent indicator fura-FF, being larger when NMDAR activation occurred with sarcosine than with glycine. In addition, Ca2+-activated K+ currents following NMDAR activation were larger with sarcosine than with glycine. Compared to glycine, NMDAR-mediated autaptic currents decayed faster with sarcosine suggesting that NMDAR deactivation also differs with these two co-agonists. Despite these differences, NMDAR-dependent neuronal death as assessed by propidium iodide was similar with both co-agonists. The same was true for neuronal bursting. Thus, sarcosine may enhance NMDAR function by more than one mechanism and may have different effects from other NMDAR co-agonists. PMID:19433577

  3. Discovery of novel acetanilide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tatsuya; Onda, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Matsui, Tetsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2009-06-01

    In the search for potent and selective human beta3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists as potential drugs for the treatment of obesity and noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, a novel series of acetanilide-based analogues were prepared and their biological activities were evaluated at the human beta3-, beta2-, and beta1-ARs. Among these compounds, 2-pyridylacetanilide (2f), pyrimidin-2-ylacetanilide (2u), and pyrazin-2-ylacetanilide (2v) derivatives exhibited potent agonistic activity at the beta3-AR with functional selectivity over the beta1- and beta2-ARs. In particular, compound 2u was found to be the most potent and selective beta3-AR agonist with an EC(50) value of 0.11 microM and no agonistic activity for either the beta1- or beta2-AR. In addition, 2f, 2u, and 2v showed significant hypoglycemic activity in a rodent diabetic model.

  4. Pharmacological Profiles of Alpha 2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists Identified Using Genetically Altered Mice and Isobolographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Stone, Laura S.; Wilcox, George L.

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous, descending noradrenergic fibers convey powerful analgesic control over spinal afferent circuitry mediating the rostrad transmission of pain signals. These fibers target alpha 2 adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) on both primary afferent terminals and secondary neurons, and their activation mediates substantial inhibitory control over this transmission, rivaling that of opioid receptors which share similar a similar pattern of distribution. The terminals of primary afferent nociceptive neurons and secondary spinal dorsal horn neurons express α2AAR and α2CAR subtypes, respectively. Spinal delivery of these agents serves to reduce their side effects, which are mediated largely at supraspinal sites, by concentrating the drugs at the spinal level. Targeting these spinal α2ARs with one of five selective therapeutic agonists, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, brimonidine, ST91 and moxonidine, produces significant antinociception that can work in concert with opioid agonists to yield synergistic antinociception. Application of several genetically altered mouse lines had facilitated identification of the primary receptor subtypes that likely mediate the antinociceptive effects of these agents. This review provides first an anatomical description of the localization of the three subtypes in the central nervous system, second a detailed account of the pharmacological history of each of these six primary agonists, and finally a comprehensive report of the specific interactions of other GPCR agonists with each of the six principal α2AR agonists featured. PMID:19393691

  5. 2-Dialkynyl derivatives of (N)-methanocarba nucleosides: 'Clickable' A(3) adenosine receptor-selective agonists.

    PubMed

    Tosh, Dilip K; Chinn, Moshe; Yoo, Lena S; Kang, Dong Wook; Luecke, Hans; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2010-01-15

    We modified a series of (N)-methanocarba nucleoside 5'-uronamides to contain dialkyne groups on an extended adenine C2 substituent, as synthetic intermediates leading to potent and selective A(3) adenosine receptor (AR) agonists. The proximal alkyne was intended to promote receptor recognition, and the distal alkyne reacted with azides to form triazole derivatives (click cycloaddition). Click chemistry was utilized to couple an octadiynyl A(3)AR agonist to azido-containing fluorescent, chemically reactive, biotinylated, and other moieties with retention of selective binding to the A(3)AR. A bifunctional thiol-reactive crosslinking reagent was introduced. The most potent and selective novel compound was a 1-adamantyl derivative (K(i) 6.5nM), although some of the click products had K(i) values in the range of 200-400nM. Other potent, selective derivatives (K(i) at A(3)AR innM) were intended as possible receptor affinity labels: 3-nitro-4-fluorophenyl (10.6), alpha-bromophenacyl (9.6), thiol-reactive isothiazolone (102), and arylisothiocyanate (37.5) derivatives. The maximal functional effects in inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP were measured, indicating that this class of click adducts varied from partial to full A(3)AR agonist compared to other widely used agonists. Thus, this strategy provides a general chemical approach to linking potent and selective A(3)AR agonists to reporter groups of diverse structure and to carrier moieties.

  6. Current status of positron emission tomography radiotracers for serotonin receptors in humans.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Luc; Le Bars, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission plays a key modulatory role in the brain. This system is critical for pathophysiological processes and many drug treatments for brain disorders interact with its 14 subtypes of receptors. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a unique tool for the study of the living brain in translational studies from animal models to patients in neurology or psychiatry. This short review is intended to cover the current status of PET radioligands used for imaging human brain 5-HT receptors. Here, we describe the available PET radioligands for the 5-HT1A , 5-HT1B , 5-HT2A , 5-HT4 and 5-HT6 receptors. Finally, we highlight the future challenges for a functional PET imaging of serotonin receptors, including the research towards specific PET radiotracers for yet unexplored serotonin receptors, the need of radiotracers for endogenous serotonin level measurement and the contribution of agonist radiotracers for functional imaging of 5-HT neurotransmission.

  7. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonists attenuate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Marti, Matteo; Rodi, Donata; Li, Qin; Guerrini, Remo; Fasano, Stefania; Morella, Ilaria; Tozzi, Alessandro; Brambilla, Riccardo; Calabresi, Paolo; Simonato, Michele; Bezard, Erwan; Morari, Michele

    2012-11-14

    In the present study we investigated whether the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), previously implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, also affects L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In striatal slices of naive rodents, N/OFQ (0.1-1 μm) prevented the increase of ERK phosphorylation and the loss of depotentiation of synaptic plasticity induced by the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 in spiny neurons. In vivo, exogenous N/OFQ (0.03-1 nmol, i.c.v.) or a synthetic N/OFQ receptor agonist given systemically (0.01-1 mg/Kg) attenuated dyskinesias expression in 6-hydroxydopamine hemilesioned rats primed with L-DOPA, without causing primary hypolocomotive effects. Conversely, N/OFQ receptor antagonists worsened dyskinesia expression. In vivo microdialysis revealed that N/OFQ prevented dyskinesias simultaneously with its neurochemical correlates such as the surge of nigral GABA and glutamate, and the reduction of thalamic GABA. Regional microinjections revealed that N/OFQ attenuated dyskinesias more potently and effectively when microinjected in striatum than substantia nigra (SN) reticulata, whereas N/OFQ receptor antagonists were ineffective in striatum but worsened dyskinesias when given in SN. Quantitative autoradiography showed an increase in N/OFQ receptor binding in striatum and a reduction in SN of both unprimed and dyskinetic 6-hydroxydopamine rats, consistent with opposite adaptive changes of N/OFQ transmission. Finally, the N/OFQ receptor synthetic agonist also reduced dyskinesia expression in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated dyskinetic macaques without affecting the global parkinsonian score. We conclude that N/OFQ receptor agonists may represent a novel strategy to counteract L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. Their action is possibly mediated by upregulated striatal N/OFQ receptors opposing the D1 receptor-mediated overactivation of the striatonigral direct pathway.

  8. Differential agonist sensitivity of glycine receptor alpha2 subunit splice variants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul S; Harvey, Robert J; Smart, Trevor G

    2004-09-01

    1. The glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha2A and alpha2B splice variants differ by a dual, adjacent amino acid substitution from alpha2A(V58,T59) to alpha2B(I58,A59) in the N-terminal extracellular domain. 2. Comparing the effects of the GlyR agonists, glycine, beta-alanine and taurine, on the GlyR alpha2 isoforms, revealed a significant increase in potency for all three agonists at the alpha2B variant. 3. The sensitivities of the splice variants to the competitive antagonist, strychnine, and to the biphasic modulator Zn(2+), were comparable. In contrast, the allosteric inhibitor picrotoxin was more potent on GlyR alpha2A compared to GlyR alpha2B receptors. 4. Coexpression of alpha2A or alpha2B subunits with the GlyR beta subunit revealed that the higher agonist potencies observed with the alpha2B homomer were retained for the alpha2Bbeta heteromer. 5. The identical sensitivity to strychnine combined with a reduction in the maximum current induced by the partial agonist taurine at the GlyR alpha2A homomer, suggested that the changed sensitivity to agonists is in accordance with a modulation of agonist efficacy rather than agonist affinity. 6. An effect on agonist efficacy was also supported by using a structural model of the GlyR, localising the region of splice variation to the proposed docking region between GlyR loop 2 and the TM2-3 loop, an area associated with channel activation. 7. The existence of a spasmodic mouse phenotype linked to a GlyR alpha1(A52S) mutation, the equivalent position to the source of the alpha2 splice variation, raises the possibility that the GlyR alpha2 splice variants may be responsible for distinct roles in neuronal function.

  9. Characterization of methadone as a β-arrestin-biased μ-opioid receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Seira; Mori, Tomohisa; Uzawa, Naoki; Arima, Takamichi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Uchida, Masashi; Yawata, Ayaka; Narita, Michiko; Uezono, Yasuhito; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Background Methadone is a unique µ-opioid receptor agonist. Although several researchers have insisted that the pharmacological effects of methadone are mediated through the blockade of NMDA receptor, the underlying mechanism by which methadone exerts its distinct pharmacological effects compared to those of other µ-opioid receptor agonists is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the pharmacological profile of methadone compared to those of fentanyl and morphine as measured mainly by the discriminative stimulus effect and in vitro assays for NMDA receptor binding, µ-opioid receptor-internalization, and µ-opioid receptor-mediated β-arrestin recruitment. Results We found that fentanyl substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of methadone, whereas a relatively high dose of morphine was required to substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of methadone in rats. Under these conditions, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of methadone. In association with its discriminative stimulus effect, methadone failed to displace the receptor binding of MK801 using mouse brain membrane. Methadone and fentanyl, but not morphine, induced potent µ-opioid receptor internalization accompanied by the strong recruitment of β-arrestin-2 in µ-opioid receptor-overexpressing cells. Conclusions These results suggest that methadone may, at least partly, produce its pharmacological effect as a β-arrestin-biased µ-opioid receptor agonist, similar to fentanyl, and NMDA receptor blockade is not the main contributor to the pharmacological profile of methadone. PMID:27317580

  10. Agonists with supraphysiological efficacy at the muscarinic M2 ACh receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schrage, R; Seemann, WK; Klöckner, J; Dallanoce, C; Racké, K; Kostenis, E; De Amici, M; Holzgrabe, U; Mohr, K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Artificial agonists may have higher efficacy for receptor activation than the physiological agonist. Until now, such ‘superagonism’ has rarely been reported for GPCRs. Iperoxo is an extremely potent muscarinic receptor agonist. We hypothesized that iperoxo is a ‘superagonist’. Experimental Approach Signalling of iperoxo and newly synthesized structural analogues was compared with that of ACh at label-free M2 muscarinic receptors applying whole cell dynamic mass redistribution, measurement of G-protein activation, evaluation of cell surface agonist binding and computation of operational efficacies. Key Results In CHO-hM2 cells, iperoxo significantly exceeds ACh in Gi/Gs signalling competence. In the orthosteric loss-of-function mutant M2-Y1043.33A, the maximum effect of iperoxo is hardly compromised in contrast to ACh. ‘Superagonism’ is preserved in the physiological cellular context of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts. Structure–signalling relationships including iperoxo derivatives with either modified positively charged head group or altered tail suggest that ‘superagonism’ of iperoxo is mechanistically based on parallel activation of the receptor protein via two orthosteric interaction points. Conclusion and Implications Supraphysiological agonist efficacy at muscarinic M2 ACh receptors is demonstrated for the first time. In addition, a possible underlying molecular mechanism of GPCR ‘superagonism’ is provided. We suggest that iperoxo-like orthosteric GPCR activation is a new avenue towards a novel class of receptor activators. Linked Article This article is commented on by Langmead and Christopoulos, pp. 353–356 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12142 PMID:23062057

  11. THIP and isoguvacine are partial agonists of GABA-stimulated benzodiazepine receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Karobath, M; Lippitsch, M

    1979-10-15

    The effects of THIP and isoguvacine on 3H-flunitrazepam binding to washed membranes prepared from the cerebral cortex of adult rats have been examined. THIP, which has only minimal stimulatory effects on benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor binding, has been found to inhibit the stimulation induced by small concentrations (2 microM) of exogenous GABA. While isoguvacine stimulates BZ receptor binding, although to a smaller extent than GABA, it also antagonizes the stimulation of BZ receptor binding induced by GABA. Thus THIP and isoguvacine exhibit the properties of a partial agonist of GABA-stimulated BZ receptor binding.

  12. 3-Methylcholanthrene and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Maen; Ariazi, Eric; Kim, Kyounghyun; Khan, Shaheen; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert; Liu, Shengxi; Hill, Denise; Finnell, Richard; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Jordan, V Craig; Safe, Stephen

    2006-02-15

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, and it has been reported that 3MC induces estrogenic activity through AhR-estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) interactions. In this study, we used 3MC and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB) as prototypical AhR ligands, and both compounds activated estrogen-responsive reporter genes/gene products (cathepsin D) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The estrogenic responses induced by these AhR ligands were inhibited by the antiestrogen ICI 182780 and by the transfection of a small inhibitory RNA for ER alpha but were not affected by the small inhibitory RNA for AhR. These results suggest that 3MC and PCB directly activate ER alpha, and this was confirmed in a competitive ER alpha binding assay and in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiment in which PCB and 3MC induced CFP-ER alpha/YFP-ER alpha interactions. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, PCB and 3MC enhanced ER alpha (but not AhR) association with the estrogen-responsive region of the pS2 gene promoter. Moreover, in AhR knockout mice, 3MC increased uterine weights and induced expression of cyclin D1 mRNA levels. These results show that PCB and 3MC directly activate ER alpha-dependent transactivation and extend the number of ligands that activate both AhR and ER alpha.

  13. Synthesis and opioid receptor affinity of morphinan and benzomorphan derivatives: mixed kappa agonists and mu agonists/antagonists as potential pharmacotherapeutics for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, J L; Bidlack, J M; Zong, R; Bakthavachalam, V; Gao, P; Cohen, D J; Negus, S S; Mello, N K

    2000-01-13

    This report concerns the synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of a novel series of kappa agonists related to the morphinan (-)-cyclorphan (3a) and the benzomorphan (-)-cyclazocine (2) as potential agents for the pharmacotherapy of cocaine abuse. Recent evidence suggests that agonists acting at kappa opioid receptors may modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons and alter the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine. We describe the synthesis and chemical characterization of a series of morphinans 3a-c, structural analogues of cyclorphan [(-)-3-hydroxy-N-cyclopropylmethylmorphinan S(+)-mandelate, 3a], the 10-ketomorphinans 4a,b, and the 8-ketobenzomorphan 1b. Binding experiments demonstrated that the cyclobutyl analogue 3b [(-)-3-hydroxy-N-cyclobutylmethylmorphinan S(+)-mandelate, 3b, MCL-101] of cyclorphan (3a) had a high affinity for mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors in guinea pig brain membranes. Both 3a,b were approximately 2-fold more selective for the kappa receptor than for the mu receptor. However 3b (the cyclobutyl analogue) was 18-fold more selective for the kappa receptor in comparison to the delta receptor, while cyclorphan (3a) had only 4-fold greater affinity for the kappa receptor in comparison to the delta receptor. These findings were confirmed in the antinociceptive tests (tail-flick and acetic acid writhing) in mice, which demonstrated that cyclorphan (3a) produced antinociception that was mediated by the delta receptor while 3b did not produce agonist or antagonist effects at the delta receptor. Both 3a,b had comparable kappa agonist properties. 3a,b had opposing effects at the mu receptor: 3b was a mu agonist whereas 3a was a mu antagonist.

  14. Differences in acute anorectic effects of long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have both glucose- and weight-lowering effects. The brain is poised to mediate both of these actions since GLP-1Rs are present in key areas known to control weight and glucose. Although some research has been performed on the effects of ...

  15. [Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment: focus on liraglutide].

    PubMed

    Haluzík, Martin; Trachta, Pavel; Mráz, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk reduction is the major aim of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. The effects of various antidiabetics on the cardiovascular complications are currently under careful scrutiny. Incretin-based therapy that utilizes the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or stimulation of its receptor by GLP-1 receptor agonists represents one of the most promising approaches from the potential cardiovascular risk reduction point of view. Experimental studies have shown that the GLP-1 and GLP-1 agonists treatment improves endothelial function, decrease blood pressure and protects myocardium during experimentally-induced ischemia. Clinical studies with GLP-1 receptor agonists consistently show that, in addition to good antidiabetic efficacy, its long-term administration decreases blood pressure, body weight and improves circulating lipid levels while slightly increasing heart rate. In this paper, we focus on the cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide. Preliminary analyses of cardiovascular complications in phase III trials with liraglutide indicate its good cardiovascular safety. A possibility of cardioprotective effects of liraglutide remains still open and is currently studied within a prospective cardiovascular trial LEADER.

  16. The impact of improved glycaemic control with GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy on diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Humphreys, Tracy; Walker, Adrian B; Varughese, George I

    2014-03-01

    Rapid improvement in glycaemic control with GLP-1 receptor agonist (RA) therapy has been reported to be associated with significant progression of diabetic retinopathy. This deterioration is transient, and continuing GLP-1 RA treatment is associated with reversal of this phenomenon. Pre-existent maculopathy, higher grade of retinopathy and longer duration of diabetes may be risk factors for persistent deterioration.

  17. Differential Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist on Social Discrimination and Contextual Fear in Amygdala and Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segev, Amir; Akirav, Irit

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 5 [mu]g/side) microinjected into the hippocampus or the amygdala would differentially affect memory processes in a neutral vs. an aversive task. In the aversive contextual fear task, WIN into the basolateral amygdala impaired fear acquisition/consolidation, but not retrieval.…

  18. Design and Discovery of Functionally Selective Serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianjun; McCorvy, John D; Giguere, Patrick M; Zhu, Hu; Kenakin, Terry; Roth, Bryan L; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-11-10

    On the basis of the structural similarity of our previous 5-HT2C agonists with the melatonin receptor agonist tasimelteon and the putative biological cross-talk between serotonergic and melatonergic systems, a series of new (2,3-dihydro)benzofuran-based compounds were designed and synthesized. The compounds were evaluated for their selectivity toward 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors in the calcium flux assay with the ultimate goal to generate selective 5-HT2C agonists. Selected compounds were studied for their functional selectivity by comparing their transduction efficiency at the G protein signaling pathway versus β-arrestin recruitment. The most functionally selective compound (+)-7e produced weak β-arrestin recruitment and also demonstrated less receptor desensitization compared to serotonin in both calcium flux and phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis assays. We report for the first time that selective 5-HT2C agonists possessing weak β-arrestin recruitment can produce distinct receptor desensitization properties.

  19. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid red...

  20. Dopamine D1 receptor-agonist interactions: A mutagenesis and homology modeling study.

    PubMed

    Mente, Scot; Guilmette, Edward; Salafia, Michelle; Gray, David

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates intracellular signaling via agonist activation. Although the number of solved GPCR X-ray structures has been steadily increasing, still no structure of the D1 receptor exists. We have used site-directed mutagenesis of 12 orthosteric vicinity residues of possible importance to G protein-coupled activation to examine the function of prototypical orthosteric D1 agonists and partial agonists. We find that residues from four different regions of the D1 receptor make significant contributions to agonist function. All compounds studied, which are catechol-amines, are found to interact with the previously identified residues: the conserved D103(3.32), as well as the trans-membrane V serine residues. Additional key interactions are found for trans-membrane VI residues F288(6.51), F289(6.52) and N292(6.55), as well as the extra-cellular loop residue L190(ECL2). Molecular dynamics simulations of a D1 homology model have been used to help put the ligand-residue interactions into context. Finally, we considered the rescaling of fold-shift data as a method to account for the change in the size of the mutated side-chain and found that this rescaling helps to relate the calculated ligand-residue energies with observed experimental fold-shifts.

  1. Discovery and characterization of novel small-molecule CXCR4 receptor agonists and antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rama K.; Shum, Andrew K.; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Miller, Richard J.; Schiltz, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1) and its cognate receptor CXCR4 are involved in a large number of physiological processes including HIV-1 infectivity, inflammation, tumorigenesis, stem cell migration, and autoimmune diseases. While previous efforts have identified a number of CXCR4 antagonists, there have been no small molecule agonists reported. Herein, we describe the identification of a novel series of CXCR4 modulators, including the first small molecules to display agonist behavior against this receptor, using a combination of structure- and ligand-based virtual screening. These agonists produce robust calcium mobilization in human melanoma cell lines which can be blocked by the CXCR4-selective antagonist AMD3100. We also demonstrate the ability of these new agonists to induce receptor internalization, ERK activation, and chemotaxis, all hallmarks of CXCR4 activation. Our results describe a new series of biologically relevant small molecules that will enable further study of the CXCR4 receptor and may contribute to the development of new therapeutics. PMID:27456816

  2. Molecular determinants of agonist selectivity in glutamate-gated chloride channels which likely explain the agonist selectivity of the vertebrate glycine and GABAA-ρ receptors.

    PubMed

    Blarre, Thomas; Bertrand, Hugues-Olivier; Acher, Francine C; Kehoe, JacSue

    2014-01-01

    Orthologous Cys-loop glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluClR's) have been cloned and described electrophysiologically and pharmacologically in arthropods and nematodes (both members of the invertebrate ecdysozoan superphylum). Recently, GluClR's from Aplysia californica (a mollusc from the lophotrochozoan superphylum) have been cloned and similarly studied. In spite of sharing a common function, the ecdysozoan and lophotrochozoan receptors have been shown by phylogenetic analyses to have evolved independently. The recent crystallization of the GluClR from C. elegans revealed the binding pocket of the nematode receptor. An alignment of the protein sequences of the nematode and molluscan GluClRs showed that the Aplysia receptor does not contain all of the residues defining the binding mode of the ecdysozoan receptor. That the two receptors have slightly different binding modes is not surprising since earlier electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments had suggested that they were differentially responsive to certain agonists. Knowledge of the structure of the C. elegans GluClR has permitted us to generate a homology model of the binding pocket of the Aplysia receptor. We have analyzed the differences between the two binding modes and evaluated the relative significance of their non-common residues. We have compared the GluClRs electrophysiologically and pharmacologically and we have used site-directed mutagenesis on both receptor types to test predictions made from the model. Finally, we propose an explanation derived from the model for why the nematode receptors are gated only by glutamate, whereas the molluscan receptors can also be activated by β-alanine, GABA and taurine. Like the Aplysia receptor, the vertebrate glycine and GABAA-ρ receptors also respond to these other agonists. An alignment of the sequences of the molluscan and vertebrate receptors shows that the reasons we have given for the ability of the other agonists to activate the Aplysia

  3. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na/sup +/ channel interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-12

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na/sup +/ channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) (G-protein(s)). These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of (/sup 3/H)batrachotoxin to Na/sup +/ channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na/sup +/ channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na/sup +/channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na/sup +/ channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na/sup +/ channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues.

  4. Effects of the potential 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 in an autoshaping learning task.

    PubMed

    Perez-García, Georgina S; Meneses, A

    2005-08-30

    This work aimed to evaluate further the role of 5-HT7 receptors during memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task. Post-training administration of the potential 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 or antagonist SB-269970 enhanced memory formation or had no effect, respectively. The AS 19 facilitatory effect was reversed by SB-269970, but not by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Amnesia induced by scopolamine (cholinergic antagonist) or dizocilpine (NMDA antagonist) was also reversed by AS 19. Certainly, reservations regarding the selectivity of AS 19 for 5-HT7 and other 5-HT receptors in vivo are noteworthy and, therefore, its validity for use in animal models as a pharmacological tool. Having mentioned that, it should be noticed that together these data are providing further support to the notion of the 5-HT7 receptors role in memory formation. Importantly, this 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 appears to represent a step forward respect to the notion that potent and selective 5-HT7 receptor agonists can be useful in the treatment of dysfunctional memory in aged-related decline and Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Agonist actions of neonicotinoids on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed by cockroach neurons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianguo; Galligan, James J; Hollingworth, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    The agonist actions of seven commercial neonicotinoid insecticides and nicotine were studied on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by neurons isolated from the three thoracic ganglia of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Single electrode voltage clamp recording was used to measure agonist-induced inward currents. Acetylcholine, nicotine and all neonicotinoids tested, except thiamethoxam, caused inward currents which were blocked reversibly by methyllycaconitine, a nAChR antagonist. Based on maximum inward currents, neonicotinoids could be divided into two subgroups: (1) those with a heterocyclic ring in their electronegative pharmacophore moiety (i.e. nicotine, imidacloprid and thiacloprid) were relatively weak partial agonists causing only 20-25% of the maximum ACh current and (2) open chain compounds (i.e. acetamiprid, dinotefuran, nitenpyram, and clothiandin) which were much more effective agonists producing 60-100% of the maximum ACh current. These compounds also elicited different symptoms of poisoning in American cockroaches with excitatory responses evident for the low efficacy agonists but depressive and paralytic responses predominating for the most efficacious agonists. No correlation was observed between agonist affinity and efficacy on these nAChRs. Thiamethoxam, even at 100 microM, failed to cause an inward current and showed no competitive interaction with other neonicotinoids on nAChRs, indicating that it is not a direct-acting agonist or antagonist. Despite the probable presence of multiple subtypes of nAChRs on cockroach neurons, competition studies between neonicotinoids did not reveal evidence that separate binding sites exist for the tested compounds. The size of inward currents induced by co-application of neonicotinoid pairs at equal concentration (100 microM) were predominantly determined by the one with higher binding affinity as indicated by EC(50) values, rather than by the one with higher binding efficacy as

  6. The most effective influence of 17-(3-ethoxypropyl) substituent on the binding affinity and the agonistic activity in KNT-127 derivatives, δ opioid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Toru; Ida, Yoshihiro; Iihara, Yusuke; Nakajima, Ryo; Hirayama, Shigeto; Iwai, Takashi; Fujii, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2013-12-15

    We investigated the structure-activity relationship of KNT-127 (opioid δ agonist) derivatives with various 17-substituents which are different in length and size. The 17-substituent in KNT-127 derivatives exerted a great influence on the affinity and agonistic activity for the δ receptor. While the compounds with electron-donating 17-substituents showed higher affinities for the δ receptor than those with electron-withdrawing groups, KNT-127 derivatives with 17-fluoroalkyl groups (the high electron-withdrawing groups) showed high selectivities for the δ receptor among evaluated compounds. In addition, the basicity of nitrogen as well as the structure of the 17-N substituent such as the length and configuration at an asymmetric carbon atom contributed to agonist properties for the δ receptor. Thus, the analog with a 17-(3-ethoxypropyl) group showed the best selectively and potent agonistic activity for the δ receptor among KNT-127 derivatives. These findings should be useful for designing novel δ selective agonists.

  7. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP

  8. Computational Prediction and Biochemical Analyses of New Inverse Agonists for the CB1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) G-protein coupled receptor is a potential therapeutic target for obesity. The previously predicted and experimentally validated ensemble of ligand-free conformations of CB1 [Scott, C. E. et al. Protein Sci.2013, 22, 101−11323184890; Ahn, K. H. et al. Proteins2013, 81, 1304–131723408552] are used here to predict the binding sites for known CB1-selective inverse agonists including rimonabant and its seven known derivatives. This binding pocket, which differs significantly from previously published models, is used to identify 16 novel compounds expected to be CB1 inverse agonists by exploiting potential new interactions. We show experimentally that two of these compounds exhibit inverse agonist properties including inhibition of basal and agonist-induced G-protein coupling activity, as well as an enhanced level of CB1 cell surface localization. This demonstrates the utility of using the predicted binding sites for an ensemble of CB1 receptor structures for designing new CB1 inverse agonists. PMID:26633590

  9. Agonist selectivity in the oxytocin/vasopressin receptor family: new insights and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chini, B; Manning, M

    2007-08-01

    The design and development of selective agonists acting at the OT (oxytocin)/AVP (vasopressin) receptors has been and continues to be a difficult task because of the great similarity among the different receptor subtypes as well as the high degree of chemical similarity between the active ligands. In recent decades, at least a thousand synthetic peptides have been synthesized and examined for their ability to bind to and activate the different OT/AVP receptors; an effort that has led to the identification of several receptor subtype-selective agonists in the rat. However, owing to species differences between rat and human AVP/OT receptors, these peptides do not exhibit the same selectivities in human receptor assays. Furthermore, the discovery of receptor promiscuity, which is the ability of a single receptor subtype to couple to several different G-proteins, has led to the definition of a completely new class of compounds, referred to here as coupling-selective ligands, which may activate, within a single receptor subtype, only a specific signalling pathway. Finally, the accumulating evidence that GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) do not function as monomers, but as dimers/oligomers, opens up the design of another class of specific ligands, bivalent ligands, in which two agonist and/or antagonist moieties are joined by a spacer of the appropriate length to allow the simultaneous binding at the two subunits within the dimer. The pharmacological properties and selectivity profiles of these bivalent ligands, which remain to be investigated, could lead to highly novel research tools and potential therapeutic agents.

  10. Agonist-mediated assembly of the crustacean methyl farnesoate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kakaley, Elizabeth K. Medlock; Wang, Helen Y.; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2017-01-01

    The methyl farnesoate receptor (MfR) orchestrates aspects of reproduction and development such as male sex determination in branchiopod crustaceans. Phenotypic endpoints regulated by the receptor have been well-documented, but molecular interactions involved in receptor activation remain elusive. We hypothesized that the MfR subunits, methoprene-tolerant transcription factor (Met) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC), would be expressed coincident with the timing of sex programming of developing oocytes by methyl farnesoate in daphnids. We also hypothesized that methyl farnesoate activates MfR assembly. Met mRNA was expressed rhythmically during the reproductive cycle, with peak mRNA accumulation just prior period of oocytes programming of sex. Further, we revealed evidence that Met proteins self-associate in the absence of methyl farnesoate, and that the presence of methyl farnesoate stimulates dissociation of Met multimers with subsequent association with SRC. Results demonstrated that the Met subunit is highly dynamic in controlling the action of methyl farnesoate through temporal variation in its expression and availability for receptor assembly. PMID:28322350

  11. Studies on the pharmacology of the novel histamine H3 receptor agonist Sch 50971.

    PubMed

    Hey, J A; Aslanian, R; Bolser, D C; Chapman, R W; Egan, R W; Rizzo, C A; Shih, N Y; Fernandez, X; McLeod, R L; West, R; Kreutner, W

    1998-09-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the pharmacology of Sch 50971 ((+)-trans-4-(4(R)-methyl-3(R)-pyrolidinyl)-1H-imidazole dihydrochloride, CAS 167610-28-8), a novel histamine H3 receptor agonist. The activity of Sch 50971 was compared with that of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (CAS 75614-87-8), a potent and moderately selective agonist of histamine H3 receptors, in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. Sch 50971 is a high affinity, selective H3 receptor agonist in vitro and in vivo. Sch 50971 inhibits [3H]-N-alpha-methylhistamine (CAS 673-50-7) binding to the histamine H3 receptor in human brain (Ki = 5.0 nmol/l) and guinea pig brain (Ki = 2.5 nmol/l). Sch 50971 also inhibits electric field stimulated guinea pig ileum contractions (pD2 = 7.47) and decreases [3H]-norepinephrine (CAS 51-41-2) release (pD2 = 7.48) from guinea pig pulmonary artery by activation of presynaptic inhibitory H3 receptors. The in vitro effects of Sch 50971 are antagonized by low concentrations of a selective H3 antagonist, thioperamide (CAS 106243-16-7). Sch 50971 has low affinity (IC50's > 10 mumol/l) for histamine H1, dopamine D1 and D2, serotonin 5-HT2 and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. It also does not exhibit histamine H2-antagonist activity. In guinea pigs and cats, Sch 50971 exhibits in vivo H3 agonist activity. Sch 50971 inhibits sympathetic hypertension evoked by stimulation of the medulla oblongata in anesthetized guinea pigs (ED30 = 0.3 mg/kg i.v., ED30 = 1.0 mg/kg i.d.). Sch 50971 also inhibits the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on nasal resistance in cats. In these assays, Sch 50971 exhibits an efficacy and potency comparable to H3-agonist (R)-alpha-methylhistamine. However, under in vivo conditions, Sch 50971 does not exhibit histamine H1-mediated responses that are seen with (R)-alpha-methylhistamine at doses close to those that produce H3 effects. Therefore, Sch 50971 is a novel, potent and selective agonist of histamine H3 receptors with an improved in

  12. Pungency of TRPV1 agonists is directly correlated with kinetics of receptor activation and lipophilicity.

    PubMed

    Ursu, Daniel; Knopp, Kelly; Beattie, Ruth E; Liu, Bin; Sher, Emanuele

    2010-09-01

    TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed predominantly in nociceptive primary afferents that plays a key role in pain processing. In vivo activation of TRPV1 receptors by natural agonists like capsaicin is associated with a sharp and burning pain, frequently described as pungency. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying pungency we investigated a series of TRPV1 agonists that included both pungent and non-pungent compounds covering a large range of potencies. Pungency of capsaicin, piperine, arvanil, olvanil, RTX (resiniferatoxin) and SDZ-249665 was evaluated in vivo, by determining the increase in the number of eye wipes caused by direct instillation of agonist solutions into the eye. Agonist-induced calcium fluxes were recorded using the FLIPR technique in a recombinant, TRPV1-expressing cell line. Current-clamp recordings were performed in rat DRG (dorsal root ganglia) neurons in order to assess the consequences of TRPV1 activation on neuronal excitability. Using the eye wipe assay the following rank of pungency was obtained: capsaicin>piperine>RTX>arvanil>olvanil>SDZ-249665. We found a strong correlation between kinetics of calcium flux, pungency and lipophilicity of TRPV1 agonists. Current-clamp recordings confirmed that the rate of receptor activation translates in the ability of agonists to generate action potentials in sensory neurons. We have demonstrated that the lipophilicity of the compounds is directly related to the kinetics of TRPV1 activation and that the latter influences their ability to trigger action potentials in sensory neurons and, ultimately, pungency.

  13. The Use of Anchored Agonists of Phagocytic Receptors for Cancer Immunotherapy: B16-F10 Murine Melanoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Janotová, Tereza; Jalovecká, Marie; Auerová, Marie; Švecová, Ivana; Bruzlová, Pavlína; Maierová, Veronika; Kumžáková, Zuzana; Čunátová, Štěpánka; Vlčková, Zuzana; Caisová, Veronika; Rozsypalová, Petra; Lukáčová, Katarína; Vácová, Nikol; Wachtlová, Markéta; Salát, Jiří; Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Kopecký, Jan; Ženka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The application of the phagocytic receptor agonists in cancer immunotherapy was studied. Agonists (laminarin, molecules with terminal mannose, N-Formyl-methioninyl-leucyl-phenylalanine) were firmly anchored to the tumor cell surface. When particular agonists of phagocytic receptors were used together with LPS (Toll-like receptor agonist), high synergy causing tumour shrinkage and a temporary or permanent disappearance was observed. Methods of anchoring phagocytic receptor agonists (charge interactions, anchoring based on hydrophobic chains, covalent bonds) and various regimes of phagocytic agonist/LPS mixture applications were tested to achieve maximum therapeutic effect. Combinations of mannan/LPS and f-MLF/LPS (hydrophobic anchors) in appropriate (pulse) regimes resulted in an 80% and 60% recovery for mice, respectively. We propose that substantial synergy between agonists of phagocytic and Toll-like receptors (TLR) is based on two events. The TLR ligand induces early and massive inflammatory infiltration of tumors. The effect of this cell infiltrate is directed towards tumor cells, bearing agonists of phagocytic receptors on their surface. The result of these processes was effective killing of tumor cells. This novel approach represents exploitation of innate immunity mechanisms for treating cancer. PMID:24454822

  14. Insights into the structural basis of endogenous agonist activation of family B G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Dong, Maoqing; Gao, Fan; Pinon, Delia I; Miller, Laurence J

    2008-06-01

    Agonist drugs targeting the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor represent important additions to the clinical management of patients with diabetes mellitus. In the current report, we have explored whether the recently described concept of a receptor-active endogenous agonist sequence within the amino terminus of the secretin receptor may also be applicable to the GLP1 receptor. If so, this could provide a lead for the development of additional small molecule agonists targeting this and other important family members. Indeed, the region of the GLP1 receptor analogous to that containing the active WDN within the secretin receptor was found to possess full agonist activity at the GLP1 receptor. The minimal fragment within this region that had full agonist activity was NRTFD. Despite having no primary sequence identity with the WDN, it was also active at the secretin receptor, where it had similar potency and efficacy to WDN, suggesting common structural features. Molecular modeling demonstrated that an intradomain salt bridge between the side chains of arginine and aspartate could yield similarities in structure with cyclic WDN. This directly supports the relevance of the endogenous agonist concept to the GLP1 receptor and provides new insights into the rational development and refinement of new types of drugs activating this important receptor.

  15. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in premenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sing-Huang; Wolff, Antonio C

    2007-02-01

    Ovarian function suppression for the treatment of premenopausal breast cancer was first used in the late 19th century. Traditionally, ovarian function suppression had been accomplished irreversibly via irradiation or surgery, but analogues of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) have emerged as reliable and reversible agents for this purpose, especially the LH-RH agonists. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists are in earlier stages of development in breast cancer and are not currently in clinical use. Luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone agonists act by pituitary desensitization and receptor downregulation, thereby suppressing gonadotrophin release. Limited information is available comparing the efficacies of the depot preparations of various agonists, but pharmacodynamic studies have shown comparable suppressive capabilities on estradiol and luteinizing hormone. At present, only monthly goserelin is Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive, premenopausal metastatic breast cancer in the United States. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists have proven to be as effective as surgical oophorectomy in premenopausal advanced breast cancer. They offer similar outcomes compared with tamoxifen, but the endocrine combination appears to be more effective than LH-RH agonists alone. In the adjuvant setting, LH-RH agonists versus no therapy reduce the annual odds of recurrence and death in women aged>50 years with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists alone or in combination with tamoxifen have shown disease-free survival rates similar to chemotherapy with CMF (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil). Outcomes of chemotherapy with or without LH-RH agonists are comparable, though a few trials favor the combination in young premenopausal women (aged<40 years). Adjuvant LH-RH agonists with or without tamoxifen might be as efficacious as tamoxifen alone

  16. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation

    PubMed Central

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  17. Buprenorphine is a weak partial agonist that inhibits opioid receptor desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Michael S.; Arttamangkul, Seksiri; Birdsong, William T.; Williams, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a weak partial agonist at mu-opioid receptors that is used for treatment of pain and addiction. Intracellular and whole cell recordings were made from locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in rat brain slices to characterize the actions of buprenorphine. Acute application of buprenorphine caused a hyperpolarization that was prevented by previous treatment of slices with the irreversible opioid antagonist, β-chlornaltrexamine (β-CNA), but was not reversed by a saturating concentration of naloxone. As expected for a partial agonist, sub-saturating concentrations of buprenorphine decreased the [Met]5 enkephalin (ME) induced hyperpolarization or outward current. When the ME induced current was decreased below a critical value, desensitization and internalization of μ-opioid receptors (MOR) was eliminated. The inhibition of desensitization by buprenorphine was not the result of prior desensitization, slow dissociation from the receptor, or elimination of receptor reserve. Treatment of slices with sub-saturating concentrations of etorphine, methadone, oxymorphone or β-CNA also reduced the current induced by ME but did not block ME-induced desensitization. Treatment of animals with buprenorphine for a week resulted in the inhibition of the current induced by ME and a block of desensitization that was not different from the acute application of buprenorphine to brain slices. These observations show the unique characteristics of buprenorphine and further demonstrate the range of agonist selective actions that are possible through G-protein coupled receptors. PMID:19494155

  18. Conformational variability of the glycine receptor M2 domain in response to activation by different agonists.

    PubMed

    Pless, Stephan A; Dibas, Mohammed I; Lester, Henry A; Lynch, Joseph W

    2007-12-07

    Models describing the structural changes mediating Cys loop receptor activation generally give little attention to the possibility that different agonists may promote activation via distinct M2 pore-lining domain structural rearrangements. We investigated this question by comparing the effects of different ligands on the conformation of the external portion of the homomeric alpha1 glycine receptor M2 domain. Conformational flexibility was assessed by tethering a rhodamine fluorophore to cysteines introduced at the 19' or 22' positions and monitoring fluorescence and current changes during channel activation. During glycine activation, fluorescence of the label attached to R19'C increased by approximately 20%, and the emission peak shifted to lower wavelengths, consistent with a more hydrophobic fluorophore environment. In contrast, ivermectin activated the receptors without producing a fluorescence change. Although taurine and beta-alanine were weak partial agonists at the alpha1R19'C glycine receptor, they induced large fluorescence changes. Propofol, which drastically enhanced these currents, did not induce a glycine-like blue shift in the spectral emission peak. The inhibitors strychnine and picrotoxin elicited fluorescence and current changes as expected for a competitive antagonist and an open channel blocker, respectively. Glycine and taurine (or beta-alanine) also produced an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the fluorescence of a label attached to the nearby L22'C residue. Thus, results from two separate labeled residues support the conclusion that the glycine receptor M2 domain responds with distinct conformational changes to activation by different agonists.

  19. Positron-labeled dopamine agonists for probing the high affinity states of dopamine subtype 2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dah-Ren; Narendran, Raj; Laruelle, Marc

    2005-01-01

    It is well documented that guanidine nucleotide-coupled dopamine subtype 2 receptors (D2) are configured in high and low affinity states for the dopamine agonist in vitro. However, it is still unclear whether these functional states exist in vivo. We hypothesized that positron-labeled D2 agonist and Positron Emission Tomography can be used to probe these functional states noninvasively. Recently, we demonstrated in nonhuman primates that N-[11C]propyl-norapomorphine (NPA), a full D2 agonist, is a suitable tracer for imaging the high affinity states of D2 receptors in vivo. We also developed kinetic modeling method to derive receptor parameters, such as binding potential (BP) and specific uptake ratios (V3''). When coupled with a dopamine releasing drug, amphetamine, NPA was found to be more sensitive than antagonist tracers, such as [11C]raclopride (RAC), to endogenous dopamine concentration changes (by about 42%). This finding suggests that NPA is a superior tracer for reporting endogenous DA concentration. In addition, the difference of the BP or V3'' of NPA and RAC under control and amphetamine challenge conditions could be used to estimate the functional states of D2 receptors in vivo. On the basis of our findings and the assumptions that NPA binds only to the high affinity states and RAC binds equally to both affinity states, we proposed that about 70% of the D2 receptors are configured in the high affinity states in vivo.

  20. Potent complement C3a receptor agonists derived from oxazole amino acids: Structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranee; Reed, Anthony N; Chu, Peifei; Scully, Conor C G; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Suen, Jacky Y; Durek, Thomas; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2015-12-01

    Potent ligands for the human complement C3a receptor (C3aR) were developed from the almost inactive tripeptide Leu-Ala-Arg corresponding to the three C-terminal residues of the endogenous peptide agonist C3a. The analogous Leu-Ser-Arg was modified by condensing the serine side chain with the leucine carbonyl with elimination of water to form leucine-oxazole-arginine. Subsequent elaboration with a variety of N-terminal amide capping groups produced agonists as potent as human C3a itself in stimulating Ca(2+) release from human macrophages. Structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  1. To kill a tumor cell: the potential of proapoptotic receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazi, Avi; Herbst, Roy S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in mechanisms that direct abnormal cells to undergo apoptosis frequently and critically contribute to tumorigenesis, yielding a logical target for potential therapeutic intervention. There is currently heightened interest in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, with several proapoptotic receptor agonists (PARAs) in development. The PARAs include the ligand recombinant human Apo2L/TRAIL and agonistic mAbs. Mechanistic and preclinical data with Apo2L/TRAIL indicate exciting opportunities for synergy with conventional therapies and for combining PARAs with other molecularly targeted agents. Novel molecular biomarkers may help identify those patients most likely to benefit from PARA therapy. PMID:18523647

  2. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  3. A Novel Non-Peptidic Agonist of the Ghrelin Receptor with Orexigenic Activity In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Cavada, Elena; Pardo, Leticia M.; Kandil, Dalia; Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Clarke, Sarah L.; Shaban, Hamdy; McGlacken, Gerard P.; Schellekens, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Loss of appetite in the medically ill and ageing populations is a major health problem and a significant symptom in cachexia syndromes, which is the loss of muscle and fat mass. Ghrelin is a gut-derived hormone which can stimulate appetite. Herein we describe a novel, simple, non-peptidic, 2-pyridone which acts as a selective agonist for the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a). The small 2-pyridone demonstrated clear agonistic activity in both transfected human cells and mouse hypothalamic cells with endogenous GHS-R1a receptor expression. In vivo tests with the hit compound showed significant increased food intake following peripheral administration, which highlights the potent orexigenic effect of this novel GHS-R1a receptor ligand. PMID:27819353

  4. Novel Oxazolidinone-Based Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Agonists: Molecular Modeling, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fresno, N; Macías-González, M; Torres-Zaguirre, A; Romero-Cuevas, M; Sanz-Camacho, P; Elguero, J; Pavón, F J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Goya, P; Pérez-Fernández, R

    2015-08-27

    A series of new peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) chiral ligands have been designed following the accepted three-module structure comprising a polar head, linker, and hydrophobic tail. The majority of the ligands incorporate the oxazolidinone moiety as a novel polar head, and the nature of the hydrophobic tail has also been varied. Docking studies using the crystal structure of an agonist bound to the ligand binding domain of the PPARα receptor have been performed as a tool for their design. Suitable synthetic procedures have been developed, and compounds with different stereochemistries have been prepared. Evaluation of basal and ligand-induced activity proved that several compounds showed agonist activity at the PPARα receptor, thus validating the oxazolidinone template for PPAR activity. In addition, two compounds, 2 and 4, showed dual PPARα/PPARγ agonism and interesting food intake reduction in rats.

  5. A Novel Non-Peptidic Agonist of the Ghrelin Receptor with Orexigenic Activity In vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Cavada, Elena; Pardo, Leticia M.; Kandil, Dalia; Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Clarke, Sarah L.; Shaban, Hamdy; McGlacken, Gerard P.; Schellekens, Harriet

    2016-11-01

    Loss of appetite in the medically ill and ageing populations is a major health problem and a significant symptom in cachexia syndromes, which is the loss of muscle and fat mass. Ghrelin is a gut-derived hormone which can stimulate appetite. Herein we describe a novel, simple, non-peptidic, 2-pyridone which acts as a selective agonist for the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a). The small 2-pyridone demonstrated clear agonistic activity in both transfected human cells and mouse hypothalamic cells with endogenous GHS-R1a receptor expression. In vivo tests with the hit compound showed significant increased food intake following peripheral administration, which highlights the potent orexigenic effect of this novel GHS-R1a receptor ligand.

  6. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-08-31

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

  7. Identification of the antiarrhythmic drugs amiodarone and lorcainide as potent H3 histamine receptor inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Del Tredici, Andria L; Ma, Jian-Nong; Piu, Fabrice; Burstein, Ethan S

    2014-01-01

    Use of molecular pharmacology to reprofile older drugs discovered before the advent of recombinant technologies is a fruitful method to elucidate mechanisms of drug action, expand understanding of structure-activity relationships between drugs and receptors, and in some cases, repurpose approved drugs. The H3 histamine receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) primarily expressed in the central nervous system where among many things it modulates cognitive processes, nociception, feeding and drinking behavior, and sleep/wakefulness. In binding assays and functional screens of the H3 histamine receptor, the antiarrhythmic drugs lorcainide and amiodarone were identified as potent, selective antagonists/inverse agonists of human and rat H3 histamine receptors, with relatively little or no activity at over 20 other monoamine GPCRs, including H1, H2, and H4 receptors. Potent antagonism of H3 receptors was unique to amiodarone and lorcainide of 20 antiarrhythmic drugs tested, representing six pharmacological classes. These results expand the pharmacophore of H3 histamine receptor antagonist/inverse agonists and may explain, in part, the effects of lorcainide on sleep in humans.

  8. Selective Orthosteric Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 (FFA2) Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Johannes; Smith, Nicola J.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Grundmann, Manuel; Hudson, Brian D.; Ward, Richard J.; Drewke, Christel; Milligan, Graeme; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2; GPR43) is a G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that is implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders. The SCFA propionate has close to optimal ligand efficiency for FFA2 and can hence be considered as highly potent given its size. Propionate, however, does not discriminate between FFA2 and the closely related receptor FFA3 (GPR41). To identify FFA2-selective ligands and understand the molecular basis for FFA2 selectivity, a targeted library of small carboxylic acids was examined using holistic, label-free dynamic mass redistribution technology for primary screening and the receptor-proximal G protein [35S]guanosine 5′-(3-O-thio)triphosphate activation, inositol phosphate, and cAMP accumulation assays for hit confirmation. Structure-activity relationship analysis allowed formulation of a general rule to predict selectivity for small carboxylic acids at the orthosteric binding site where ligands with substituted sp3-hybridized α-carbons preferentially activate FFA3, whereas ligands with sp2- or sp-hybridized α-carbons prefer FFA2. The orthosteric binding mode was verified by site-directed mutagenesis: replacement of orthosteric site arginine residues by alanine in FFA2 prevented ligand binding, and molecular modeling predicted the detailed mode of binding. Based on this, selective mutation of three residues to their non-conserved counterparts in FFA3 was sufficient to transfer FFA3 selectivity to FFA2. Thus, selective activation of FFA2 via the orthosteric site is achievable with rather small ligands, a finding with significant implications for the rational design of therapeutic compounds selectively targeting the SCFA receptors. PMID:21220428

  9. Identification of potent, selective, CNS-targeted inverse agonists of the ghrelin receptor.

    PubMed

    McClure, Kim F; Jackson, Margaret; Cameron, Kimberly O; Kung, Daniel W; Perry, David A; Orr, Suvi T M; Zhang, Yingxin; Kohrt, Jeffrey; Tu, Meihua; Gao, Hua; Fernando, Dilinie; Jones, Ryan; Erasga, Noe; Wang, Guoqiang; Polivkova, Jana; Jiao, Wenhua; Swartz, Roger; Ueno, Hirokazu; Bhattacharya, Samit K; Stock, Ingrid A; Varma, Sam; Bagdasarian, Victoria; Perez, Sylvie; Kelly-Sullivan, Dawn; Wang, Ruduan; Kong, Jimmy; Cornelius, Peter; Michael, Laura; Lee, Eunsun; Janssen, Ann; Steyn, Stefanus J; Lapham, Kimberly; Goosen, Theunis

    2013-10-01

    The optimization for selectivity and central receptor occupancy for a series of spirocyclic azetidine-piperidine inverse agonists of the ghrelin receptor is described. Decreased mAChR muscarinic M2 binding was achieved by use of a chiral indane in place of a substituted benzylic group. Compounds with desirable balance of human in vitro clearance and ex vivo central receptor occupancy were discovered by incorporation of heterocycles. Specifically, heteroaryl rings with nitrogen(s) vicinal to the indane linkage provided the most attractive overall properties.

  10. Comparison of the in vitro efficacy of mu, delta, kappa and ORL1 receptor agonists and non-selective opioid agonists in dog brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Lester, Patrick A; Traynor, John R

    2006-02-16

    Morphine and related opioid agonists are frequently used in dogs for their analgesic properties, their sedative effects and as adjuncts to anesthesia. Such compounds may be effective through a combined action at mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors. In this work, the in vitro relative agonist efficacy of ligands selective for mu (DAMGO)-, delta (SNC80)- and kappa (U69593)-opioid receptors as well as the opioid receptor-like receptor ORL(1) (orphaninFQ/nociceptin) which may mediate nociceptive or antinociceptive actions was determined using the [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay in membrane homogenates from the frontal cortex, thalamus and spinal cord of beagle dogs. In addition, other analgesics commonly used in the dog were investigated. For the receptor-selective compounds, maximum stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding decreased in the order kappa > ORL1 > delta > mu in cortical homogenates, compared with mu > ORL1 > kappa > delta in thalamic and spinal cord homogenates. For other opioids examined, efficacy decreased in the order etorphine > morphine > fentanyl = oxymorphine > butorphanol = oxycodone = nalbuphine. There was no significant difference in the potency of compounds to stimulate [35S]GTPgammaS binding between cortex and thalamus, with the exception of etorphine. Buprenorphine, the partial mu-opioid receptor agonist and kappa-, delta-opioid receptor antagonist, which does have analgesic efficacy in the dog, showed no agonism in any tissue but was an effective mu-opioid receptor > ORL1 receptor antagonist. The results show that the ability of agonists to stimulate [35S]GTPgammaS binding relates to the receptor distribution of opioid and ORL1 receptors in the dog.

  11. Development of fluorinated CB(2) receptor agonists for PET studies.

    PubMed

    Lueg, Corinna; Schepmann, Dirk; Günther, Robert; Brust, Peter; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    A convergent strategy was followed to modify systematically carbazole based CB(2) receptor ligands. The length of the N-(fluoroalkyl) group (n in 7), the length of the alkanamide (m in 7) and the substitution pattern of the phenyl moiety (X and Y in 7) were varied systematically. The highest CB(2) affinity was found for the 2-fluoroethyl substituted carbazole derivative 20a (Ki=5.8nM) containing the propionamide and the 2-bromo-4-fluorophenyl moiety. According to docking studies 20a fits nicely into the binding pocket of the CB(2) receptor, but elongation of the fluoroethyl side chain leads to a different binding mode of the ligands. The high CB(2) affinity together with the high selectivity over the CB(2) subtype qualifies the fluoroethyl derivative 20a to be developed as a PET tracer.

  12. Pharmacological Studies of NOP Receptor Agonists as Novel Analgesics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    strongly implicated in the integration and transduction of a variety of pain signaling including tissue-injury induced thermal hyperalgesia, diabetic ...have shown that activation of peripheral and spinal NOP receptors produces antinociceptive effects in a variety of pain models in rodents (Erb et al...Spinal and local peripheral antiallodynic activity of Ro 64-6198 in neuropathic pain in the rat. Pain 116: 17–25. Park KM, Max MB, Robinovitz E, Gracely

  13. [Protective effect of adenosine receptor agonists in a model of spinal cord injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Sufianova, G Z; Usov, L A; Sufianov, A A; Perelomov, Iu P; Raevskaia, L Iu; Shapkin, A G

    2002-01-01

    Possibilities of the neuroprotector therapy using adenosine and cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine receptor agonist, were studied on a model of spinal cord injury by compression in rats (most closely reproducing the analogous clinical pathological process in humans). The model was induced by slow, graded compression of the spinal cord at the thoracic level. Adenosine and CPA were introduced 60 min before injury by subcutaneous injections in a dose of 300 and 2.5 micrograms/kg, respectively. The protective effect was judged by comparing the neurological, electromyographic, and histopathological changes in animals with the model injury and in the control group (adenosine and CPA background). The A1-agonist CPA injections produced a pronounced, statistically significant neuroprotector effect on the given spinal cord injury model in rats. The neuroprotective effect of adenosine was significant but not as strong. It is concluded that it is expedient to use A-agonists in clinics.

  14. Metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists potentiate a slow afterdepolarization in CNS neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, F.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that, in the rat dorsolateral septal nucleus (DLSN), metabotropic glutamate receptor (met-GluR) agonists evoked a slow depolarization accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance and burst firing. We have speculated that the burst firing elicited by met-GluR agonists may be due to activation or enhancement of a non-specific cation current, which exists in some DLSN neurons. Now we report that a slow afterdepolarization (sADP) mediated by a non-specific cation current was potentiated by both 1S,3R-ACPD and quisqualate. In addition, met-GluR agonists unmask a sADP in DLSN neurons which did not show a sADP under control conditions. Our data suggest that a non-specific cation current can be potentiated by activation of the met-GluR.

  15. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A.; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. PMID:26294734

  16. Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists: pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2012-12-05

    Human tissues express cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors that can be activated by endogenously released 'endocannabinoids' or exogenously administered compounds in a manner that reduces the symptoms or opposes the underlying causes of several disorders in need of effective therapy. Three medicines that activate cannabinoid CB(1)/CB(2) receptors are now in the clinic: Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC)) and Sativex (Δ(9)-THC with cannabidiol). These can be prescribed for the amelioration of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (Cesamet and Marinol), stimulation of appetite (Marinol) and symptomatic relief of cancer pain and/or management of neuropathic pain and spasticity in adults with multiple sclerosis (Sativex). This review mentions several possible additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists. These include other kinds of pain, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, cancer, drug dependence, glaucoma, autoimmune uveitis, osteoporosis, sepsis, and hepatic, renal, intestinal and cardiovascular disorders. It also describes potential strategies for improving the efficacy and/or benefit-to-risk ratio of these agonists in the clinic. These are strategies that involve (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier, (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue, (iii) targeting upregulated cannabinoid receptors, (iv) selectively targeting cannabinoid CB(2) receptors, and/or (v) adjunctive 'multi-targeting'.

  17. Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists: pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, Roger G.

    2012-01-01

    Human tissues express cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors that can be activated by endogenously released ‘endocannabinoids’ or exogenously administered compounds in a manner that reduces the symptoms or opposes the underlying causes of several disorders in need of effective therapy. Three medicines that activate cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptors are now in the clinic: Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)) and Sativex (Δ9-THC with cannabidiol). These can be prescribed for the amelioration of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (Cesamet and Marinol), stimulation of appetite (Marinol) and symptomatic relief of cancer pain and/or management of neuropathic pain and spasticity in adults with multiple sclerosis (Sativex). This review mentions several possible additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists. These include other kinds of pain, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, cancer, drug dependence, glaucoma, autoimmune uveitis, osteoporosis, sepsis, and hepatic, renal, intestinal and cardiovascular disorders. It also describes potential strategies for improving the efficacy and/or benefit-to-risk ratio of these agonists in the clinic. These are strategies that involve (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier, (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue, (iii) targeting upregulated cannabinoid receptors, (iv) selectively targeting cannabinoid CB2 receptors, and/or (v) adjunctive ‘multi-targeting’. PMID:23108552

  18. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice.

    PubMed

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia.

  19. Cannabidiol is a partial agonist at dopamine D2High receptors, predicting its antipsychotic clinical dose

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, P

    2016-01-01

    Although all current antipsychotics act by interfering with the action of dopamine at dopamine D2 receptors, two recent reports showed that 800 to 1000 mg of cannabidiol per day alleviated the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, although cannabidiol is not known to act on dopamine receptors. Because these recent clinical findings may indicate an important exception to the general rule that all antipsychotics interfere with dopamine at dopamine D2 receptors, the present study examined whether cannabidiol acted directly on D2 receptors, using tritiated domperidone to label rat brain striatal D2 receptors. It was found that cannabidiol inhibited the binding of radio-domperidone with dissociation constants of 11 nm at dopamine D2High receptors and 2800 nm at dopamine D2Low receptors, in the same biphasic manner as a dopamine partial agonist antipsychotic drug such as aripiprazole. The clinical doses of cannabidiol are sufficient to occupy the functional D2High sites. it is concluded that the dopamine partial agonist action of cannabidiol may account for its clinical antipsychotic effects. PMID:27754480

  20. Development of CINPA1 analogs as novel and potent inverse agonists of constitutive androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenwei; Yang, Lei; Chai, Sergio C; Lu, Yan; Chen, Taosheng

    2016-01-27

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) are master regulators of endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolism and disposition. Because CAR is constitutively active in certain cellular contexts, inhibiting CAR might reduce drug-induced hepatotoxicity and resensitize drug-resistant cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. We recently reported a novel CAR inhibitor/inverse agonist CINPA1 (11). Here, we have obtained or designed 54 analogs of CINPA1 and used a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay to evaluate their CAR inhibition potency. Many of the 54 analogs showed CAR inverse agonistic activities higher than those of CINPA1, which has an IC50 value of 687 nM. Among them, 72 has an IC50 value of 11.7 nM, which is about 59-fold more potent than CINPA1 and over 10-fold more potent than clotrimazole (an IC50 value of 126.9 nM), the most potent CAR inverse agonist in a biochemical assay previously reported by others. Docking studies provide a molecular explanation of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) observed experimentally. To our knowledge, this effort is the first chemistry endeavor in designing and identifying potent CAR inverse agonists based on a novel chemical scaffold, leading to 72 as the most potent CAR inverse agonist so far. The 54 chemicals presented are novel and unique tools for characterizing CAR's function, and the SAR information gained from these 54 analogs could guide future efforts to develop improved CAR inverse agonists.

  1. Melanocortin Receptor Agonists Facilitate Oxytocin-Dependent Partner Preference Formation in the Prairie Vole.

    PubMed

    Modi, Meera E; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Barrett, Catherine E; Kittelberger, Kara A; Smith, Daniel G; Landgraf, Rainer; Young, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    The central melanocortin (MC) system has been widely studied for its effects on food intake and sexual behavior. However, the MC system, and more specifically the MC4 receptor (MC4R), also interacts with neurochemical systems that regulate socioemotional behaviors, including oxytocin (OT) and dopamine. In monogamous prairie voles, OT and dopamine interact to promote partner preference formation, a laboratory measure of an enduring social bond between mates. Here we investigated the effects of MC receptor activation on partner preference formation in prairie voles, as well as the interaction between the MC and OT systems during this process. Peripheral administration of the brain penetrant MC3/4R receptor peptide agonist, Melanotan II (MTII), and the highly selective, small-molecule MC4R agonist, Pf-446687, enhanced partner preference formation in the prairie vole, but not in the non-monogamous meadow vole. MTII-induced partner preferences were enduring, as they were present 1 week after drug manipulation. The prosocial effects of MCR agonists may be mediated, in part, through modulation of OT, as coadministration of an OT receptor antagonist prevented MTII-induced partner preferences. MTII also selectively activated hypothalamic OT neurons and potentiated central OT release. As OT has been shown to enhance some aspects of social cognition in humans, our data suggest that the MC4R may be a viable therapeutic target for enhancing social function in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, potentially through activation of the OT system.

  2. [Relationship between the crystal lattice structure and the biological action of some agonists of amino acid receptors].

    PubMed

    Kertser, L S; Baev, K V

    1992-01-01

    The crystal structures of glycine, taurine, GABA, beta-alanine were compared. The quantity and the accuracy of distances coincidence between nitrogen and oxygen atoms were used as a criterion of similarity of the crystalline structures. The conclusion is made about a correlation between crystalline structure of agonists and their effect on amino acid receptors. It is assumed that in case of a cooperative effect of agonist on the receptor a mutual arrangement of molecules on the receptor surface is similar to their arrangement in the agonist crystal.

  3. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists for Addictive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) has long been associated with the control of a variety of motivated behaviors, including feeding. Much of the evidence linking 5-HT and feeding behavior was obtained from studies of the effects of the 5-HT releaser (dex)fenfluramine in laboratory animals and humans. Recently, the selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. This review examines evidence to support the use of selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists as treatments for conditions beyond obesity, including substance abuse (particularly nicotine, psychostimulant, and alcohol dependence), obsessive compulsive, and excessive gambling disorder. Following a brief survey of the early literature supporting a role for 5-HT in modulating food and drug reinforcement, we propose that intrinsic differences between SSRI and serotonin releasers may have underestimated the value of serotonin-based pharmacotherapeutics to treat clinical forms of addictive behavior beyond obesity. We then highlight the critical involvement of the 5-HT2C receptor in mediating the effect of (dex)fenfluramine on feeding and body weight gain and the evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists reduce measures of drug reward and impulsivity. A recent report of lorcaserin efficacy in a smoking cessation trial further strengthens the idea that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may have potential as a treatment for addiction. This review was prepared as a contribution to the proceedings of the 11th International Society for Serotonin Research Meeting held in Hermanus, South Africa, July 9-12, 2014.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of bradykinin B(2) receptor agonists containing constrained dipeptide mimics.

    PubMed

    Amblard, M; Daffix, I; Bergé, G; Calmès, M; Dodey, P; Pruneau, D; Paquet, J L; Luccarini, J M; Bélichard, P; Martinez, J

    1999-10-07

    We have previously shown that substitution of the D-Tic-Oic dipeptide by a (3S)-[amino]-5-(carbonylmethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1, 5-benzothiazepin-4(5H)-one (D-BT) moiety in the bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist HOE 140 resulted in a full potent and selective bradykinin B(2) receptor agonist (H-DArg-Arg-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Thi-Ser-D-BT-Arg-OH, JMV1116) exhibiting a high affinity for the human receptor (K(i) 0.7 nM). In the present study, we have investigated the effects of replacement of the D-Tic-Oic moiety by various constrained dipeptide mimetics. The resulting compounds were tested for their binding affinity toward the cloned human B(2) receptor and for their functional interaction with the bradykinin-induced contraction of isolated human umbilical vein. Subsequently, we have designed novel bradykinin B(2) receptor agonists which are likely to be resistant to enzymatic cleavage by endopeptidases and which might represent interesting new pharmacological tools. In an attempt to increase the potency of compound JMV1116, both its N-terminal part and the D-BT moiety were modified. Substitution of the D-arginine residue by a L-lysine residue led to a 10-fold more potent bradykinin B(2) ligand [compound 22 (JMV1465) (K(i) 0.07 nM)], retaining full agonist activity on human umbilical vein. Substitution of the D-BT moiety by a (3S)-[amino]-5-(carbonylmethyl)-2,3-dihydro-8-methyl-1, 5-benzothiazepin-4(5H)-one [D-BT(Me)] moiety led to compound 23 (JMV1609) which exhibited a higher agonist activity (pD(2) = 7.4) than JMV1116 (pD(2) = 6.8).

  5. Detection of glucocorticoid receptor agonists in effluents from sewage treatment plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go; Sato, Kentaro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takigami, Hidetaka; Brouwer, Abraham; Nakayama, Kei

    2015-09-15

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory drugs. Our previous study demonstrated that several GCs such as cortisol and dexamethasone (Dex) were frequently detected in effluents collected from Japanese sewage treatment plants (STPs) in 2012. In this study, we used the GC-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (GR-CALUX) assay to elucidate GC receptor (GR) agonistic activities of ten pure synthetic GCs and selected STP effluents in Japan for assessment of the risks associated with the presence of GR agonists. The tested GCs demonstrated dose-dependent agonistic effects in the GR-CALUX assay and their EC50 values were calculated for estimation of relative potencies (REPs) compared to Dex. The GR agonistic potency was in the rank of: clobetasol propionate > clobetasone butyrate > betamethasone 17-valerate > difluprednate > betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate > Dex > betamethasone > 6α-methylprednisolone > prednisolone > cortisol. The GR agonistic activity in STP effluents as measured in Dex-equivalent (Dex-EQ) activities ranged from < 3.0-78 ng L(-1) (median: 29 ng L(-1), n = 50). To evaluate the contribution of the target GCs, theoretical Dex-EQs were calculated by multiplying the concentrations of each GC by its respective REP. Our calculation of Dex-EQ contribution for individual GR agonists indicated that the well-known GCs cortisol and Dex should not be given priority for subsequent in vivo testing, monitoring and removal experiments, but rather the highly potent synthetic GCs clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate (REP = 28 and 3.1) as well as other unidentified compounds are important GR agonists in STP effluents in Japan.

  6. Occurrence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists and genotoxic compounds in the river systems in Southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Pei-Hsin; Liu, Tong-Cun; Ko, Fung-Chi; Liao, Mong-Wei; Yeh, Hsiao-Mei; Yang, Tse-Han; Wu, Chun-Ting; Chen, Chien-Hsun; Tsai, Tsung-Ya

    2014-07-01

    Water and sediment samples from river systems located in Southern Taiwan were investigated for the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists and genotoxicants by a combination of recombinant cell assays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. AhR agonist activity and genotoxic response were frequently detected in samples collected during different seasons. In particular, dry-season water and sediment samples from Erren River showed strong AhR agonist activity (201-1423 ng L(-1) and 1374-5631 ng g(-1) β-naphthoflavone equivalents) and high genotoxic potential. Although no significant correlation was found between AhR agonist activity and genotoxicity, potential genotoxicants in sample extracts were suggested to be causative agents for yeast growth inhibition in the AhR-responsive reporter gene assay. After high performance liquid chromatography fractionation, AhR agonist candidates were detected in several fractions of Erren River water and sediment extracts, while possible genotoxicants were only found in water extracts. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the typical contaminants showing high AhR binding affinity, were only minor contributors to the AhR agonist activity detected in Erren River sediment extracts. Our findings displayed the usefulness of bioassays in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination, which may be helpful in reducing the chances of false-negative results obtained from chemical analysis of conventional contaminants. Further research will be undertaken to identify major candidates for xenobiotic AhR agonists and genotoxicants to better protect the aquatic environments in Taiwan.

  7. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists protect the striatum against malonate toxicity: relevance for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Sagredo, Onintza; González, Sara; Aroyo, Ilia; Pazos, María Ruth; Benito, Cristina; Lastres-Becker, Isabel; Romero, Juan P; Tolón, Rosa M; Mechoulam, Raphael; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Romero, Julián; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2009-08-15

    Cannabinoid agonists might serve as neuroprotective agents in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined this hypothesis in a rat model of Huntington's disease (HD) generated by intrastriatal injection of the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor malonate. Our results showed that only compounds able to activate CB2 receptors were capable of protecting striatal projection neurons from malonate-induced death. That CB2 receptor agonists are neuroprotective was confirmed by using the selective CB2 receptor antagonist, SR144528, and by the observation that mice deficient in CB2 receptor were more sensitive to malonate than wild-type animals. CB2 receptors are scarce in the striatum in healthy conditions, but they are markedly upregulated after the lesion with malonate. Studies of double immunostaining revealed a significant presence of CB2 receptors in cells labeled with the marker of reactive microglia OX-42, and also in cells labeled with GFAP (a marker of astrocytes). We further showed that the activation of CB2 receptors significantly reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) that had been increased by the lesion with malonate. In summary, our results demonstrate that stimulation of CB2 receptors protect the striatum against malonate toxicity, likely through a mechanism involving glial cells, in particular reactive microglial cells in which CB2 receptors would be upregulated in response to the lesion. Activation of these receptors would reduce the generation of proinflammatory molecules like TNF-alpha. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that CB2 receptors could constitute a therapeutic target to slowdown neurodegeneration in HD.

  8. Both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta agonists enhance cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, C A; Lieblich, S E; Bingham, B I; Williamson, M A; Viau, V; Galea, L A M

    2006-09-15

    This study investigated the involvement of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estradiol-induced enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult female rat. Subtype selective estrogen receptor agonists, propyl-pyrazole triol (estrogen receptor alpha agonist) and diarylpropionitrile (estrogen receptor beta agonist) were examined for each receptor's contribution, individual and cooperative, for estradiol-enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Estradiol increases hippocampal cell proliferation within 4 h [Ormerod BK, Lee TT, Galea LA (2003) Estradiol initially enhances but subsequently suppresses (via adrenal steroids) granule cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult female rats. J Neurobiol 55:247-260]. Therefore, animals received s.c. injections of estradiol (10 microg), propyl-pyrazole triol and diarylpropionitrile alone (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide) or in combination (2.5 mg propyl-pyrazole triol+2.5 mg diarylpropionitrile/0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide) and 4 h later received an i.p. injection of the cell synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (200 mg/kg). Diarylpropionitrile enhanced cell proliferation at all three administered doses (1.25 mg, P<0.008; 2.5 mg, P<0.003; 5 mg, P<0.005), whereas propyl-pyrazole triol significantly increased cell proliferation (P<0.0002) only at the dose of 2.5 mg. Our results demonstrate both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta are individually involved in estradiol-enhanced cell proliferation. Furthermore both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta mRNA was found co-localized with Ki-67 expression in the hippocampus albeit at low levels, indicating a potential direct influence of each receptor subtype on progenitor cells and their progeny. Dual receptor activation resulted in reduced levels of cell proliferation, supporting previous studies suggesting that estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta may modulate each other's activity. Our results also suggest that a component

  9. The pharmacologic basis for clinical differences among GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier

    2011-11-01

    The incretin system plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, largely through the actions of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Unlike GIP, the actions of GLP-1 are preserved in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which has led to the development of injectable GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. GLP-1R agonists-which can be dosed to pharmacologic levels-act directly upon the GLP-1R. In contrast, DPP-4 inhibitors work indirectly by inhibiting the enzymatic inactivation of native GLP-1, resulting in a modest increase in endogenous GLP-1 levels. GLP-1R agonists generally lower the fasting and postprandial glucose levels more than DPP-4 inhibitors, resulting in a greater mean reduction in glycated hemoglobin level with GLP-1R agonists (0.4%-1.7%) compared with DPP-4 inhibitors (0.4%-1.0%). GLP-1R agonists also promote satiety and reduce total caloric intake, generally resulting in a mean weight loss of 1 to 4 kg over several months in most patients, whereas DPP-4 inhbitors are weight-neutral overall. GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors are generally safe and well tolerated. The glucose-dependent manner of stimulation of insulin release and inhibition of glucagon secretion by both GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors contribute to the low incidence of hypoglycemia. Although transient nausea occurs in 26% to 28% of patients treated with GLP-1R agonists but not DPP-4 inhibitors, this can be reduced by using a dose-escalation strategy. Other adverse events (AEs) associated with GLP-1R agonists include diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. The main AEs associated with DPP-4 inhibitors include upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and headache. Overall, compared with other therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus with similar efficacy, incretin-based agents have low risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, GLP-1R agonists demonstrate greater

  10. Modulation Effect of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists on Lipid Droplet Proteins in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Ming-Liang; Zhong, Yuan; Wang, Chen; Jia, Wei-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are used for treating hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism of action of these agonists is still under investigation. The lipid droplet-associated proteins FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5, regulated directly by PPARγ and PPARα, are associated with hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity. Here, we evaluated the expression levels of FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5 and the regulation of these proteins by consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) or administration of PPAR agonists. Mice with diet-induced obesity were treated with the PPARγ or PPARα agonist, pioglitazone or fenofibrate, respectively. Liver tissues from db/db diabetic mice and human were also collected. Interestingly, FSP27/CIEDC was expressed in mouse and human livers and was upregulated in obese C57BL/6J mice. Fenofibrate treatment decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD diet. In mice, LSDP5 was not detected, even in the context of insulin resistance or treatment with PPAR agonists. However, LSDP5 was highly expressed in humans, with elevated expression observed in the fatty liver. We concluded that fenofibrate greatly decreased hepatic TG content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD, suggesting a potential regulatory role for fenofibrate in the amelioration of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26770990

  11. Modification of kappa-opioid receptor agonist-induced antinociception by diabetes in the mouse brain and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Masahiro; Kamei, Junzo

    2005-05-01

    The supraspinal and spinal antinociceptive effects of several kappa-opioid receptor agonists were examined in diabetic and non-diabetic mice using the tail-flick assay. The antinociception induced by intrathecal (i.t.), but not intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.), CI-977, a highly selective kappa(1)-opioid receptor agonist, in diabetic mice was less than that in non-diabetic mice. The antinociceptive effects of ICI-199,441 and R-84760, high potency kappa(1)-opioid receptor agonists, given i.c.v., but not i.t., were attenuated in diabetic mice compared to those in non-diabetic mice. On the other hand, the antinociceptive effects of the new kappa-opioid receptor agonist TRK-820, which has high affinity for kappa(2)- and/or kappa(3)-opioid receptors, injected both i.c.v. and i.t. in diabetic mice were markedly less than those in non-diabetic mice. These results indicate that the antinociceptive effects of those kappa-opioid receptor agonists in diabetic mice are altered in a region-specific manner in the central nervous system (CNS). The dysfunction of kappa-opioid receptor subtypes in diabetic mice may underlie this CNS region-specific variation in the effects of these kappa-opioid receptor agonists.

  12. Differentiation of δ, μ, and κ opioid receptor agonists based on pharmacophore development and computed physicochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizola, Marta; Villar, Hugo O.; Loew, Gilda H.

    2001-04-01

    Compounds that bind with significant affinity to the opioid receptor types, δ, μ, and κ, with different combinations of activation and inhibition at these three receptors could be promising behaviorally selective agents. Working on this hypothesis, the chemical moieties common to three different sets of opioid receptor agonists with significant affinity for each of the three receptor types δ, μ, or κ were identified. Using a distance analysis approach, common geometric arrangements of these chemical moieties were found for selected δ, μ, or κ opioid agonists. The chemical and geometric commonalities among agonists at each opioid receptor type were then compared with a non-specific opioid recognition pharmacophore recently developed. The comparison provided identification of the additional requirements for activation of δ, μ, and κ opioid receptors. The distance analysis approach was able to clearly discriminate κ-agonists, while global molecular properties for all compounds were calculated to identify additional requirements for activation of δ and μ receptors. Comparisons of the combined geometric and physicochemical properties calculated for each of the three sets of agonists allowed the determination of unique requirements for activation of each of the three opioid receptors. These results can be used to improve the activation selectivity of known opioid agonists and as a guide for the identification of novel selective opioid ligands with potential therapeutic usefulness.

  13. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2014-01-01

    Agonists of the nuclear receptor PPARγ are therapeutically used to combat hyperglycaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In spite of being effective in normalization of blood glucose levels, the currently used PPARγ agonists from the thiazolidinedione type have serious side effects, making the discovery of novel ligands highly relevant. Natural products have proven historically to be a promising pool of structures for drug discovery, and a significant research effort has recently been undertaken to explore the PPARγ-activating potential of a wide range of natural products originating from traditionally used medicinal plants or dietary sources. The majority of identified compounds are selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARMs), transactivating the expression of PPARγ-dependent reporter genes as partial agonists. Those natural PPARγ ligands have different binding modes to the receptor in comparison to the full thiazolidinedione agonists, and on some occasions activate in addition PPARα (e.g. genistein, biochanin A, sargaquinoic acid, sargahydroquinoic acid, resveratrol, amorphastilbol) or the PPARγ-dimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR; e.g. the neolignans magnolol and honokiol). A number of in vivo studies suggest that some of the natural product activators of PPARγ (e.g. honokiol, amorfrutin 1, amorfrutin B, amorphastilbol) improve metabolic parameters in diabetic animal models, partly with reduced side effects in comparison to full thiazolidinedione agonists. The bioactivity pattern as well as the dietary use of several of the identified active compounds and plant extracts warrants future research regarding their therapeutic potential and the possibility to modulate PPARγ activation by dietary interventions or food supplements. PMID:25083916

  14. Effects of halothane on GABA(A) receptor kinetics: evidence for slowed agonist unbinding.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Pearce, R A

    2000-02-01

    Many anesthetics, including the volatile agent halothane, prolong the decay of GABA(A) receptor-mediated IPSCs at central synapses. This effect is thought to be a major factor in the production of anesthesia. A variety of different kinetic mechanisms have been proposed for several intravenous agents, but for volatile agents the kinetic mechanisms underlying this change remain unknown. To address this question, we used rapid solution exchange techniques to apply GABA to recombinant GABA(A) receptors (alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2s)) expressed in HEK 293 cells, in the absence and presence of halothane. To differentiate between different microscopic kinetic steps that may be altered by the anesthetic, we studied a variety of measures, including peak concentration-response characteristics, macroscopic desensitization, recovery from desensitization, maximal current activation rates, and responses to the low-affinity agonist taurine. Experimentally observed alterations were compared with predictions based on a kinetic scheme that incorporated two agonist binding steps, and open and desensitized states. We found that, in addition to slowing deactivation after a brief pulse of GABA, halothane increased agonist sensitivity and slowed recovery from desensitization but did not alter macroscopic desensitization or maximal activation rate and only slightly slowed rapid deactivation after taurine application. This pattern of responses was found to be consistent with a reduction in the microscopic agonist unbinding rate (k(off)) but not with changes in channel gating steps, such as the channel opening rate (beta), closing rate (alpha), or microscopic desensitization. We conclude that halothane slows IPSC decay by slowing dissociation of agonist from the receptor.

  15. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M; Heiss, Elke H; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2014-11-01

    Agonists of the nuclear receptor PPARγ are therapeutically used to combat hyperglycaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In spite of being effective in normalization of blood glucose levels, the currently used PPARγ agonists from the thiazolidinedione type have serious side effects, making the discovery of novel ligands highly relevant. Natural products have proven historically to be a promising pool of structures for drug discovery, and a significant research effort has recently been undertaken to explore the PPARγ-activating potential of a wide range of natural products originating from traditionally used medicinal plants or dietary sources. The majority of identified compounds are selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARMs), transactivating the expression of PPARγ-dependent reporter genes as partial agonists. Those natural PPARγ ligands have different binding modes to the receptor in comparison to the full thiazolidinedione agonists, and on some occasions activate in addition PPARα (e.g. genistein, biochanin A, sargaquinoic acid, sargahydroquinoic acid, resveratrol, amorphastilbol) or the PPARγ-dimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR; e.g. the neolignans magnolol and honokiol). A number of in vivo studies suggest that some of the natural product activators of PPARγ (e.g. honokiol, amorfrutin 1, amorfrutin B, amorphastilbol) improve metabolic parameters in diabetic animal models, partly with reduced side effects in comparison to full thiazolidinedione agonists. The bioactivity pattern as well as the dietary use of several of the identified active compounds and plant extracts warrants future research regarding their therapeutic potential and the possibility to modulate PPARγ activation by dietary interventions or food supplements.

  16. The Glycine Transport Inhibitor Sarcosine Is an Inhibitory Glycine Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Sarcosine is an endogenous amino acid that is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist, and an important intermediate in one-carbon metabolism. Its therapeutic potential for schizophrenia further underscores its clinical importance. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine and sarcosine's ability to serve as an NMDAR co-agonist led us to examine whether sarcosine is also an agonist at the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR). We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons and found that sarcosine evoked a dose-dependent, strychnine sensitive, Cl- current that cross-inhibited glycine currents. Sarcosine evoked this current with Li+ in the extracellular solution to block GlyT1, in neurons treated with the essentially irreversible GlyT1 inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS), and in neurons plated in the absence of glia. These results indicate that the sarcosine currents did not result from GlyT1 inhibition or heteroexchange. We conclude that sarcosine is a GlyR agonist. PMID:19619564

  17. Preclinical evaluation of SMM-189, a cannabinoid receptor 2-specific inverse agonist.

    PubMed

    Presley, Chaela; Abidi, Ammaar; Suryawanshi, Satyendra; Mustafa, Suni; Meibohm, Bernd; Moore, Bob M

    2015-08-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 agonists and inverse agonists are emerging as new therapeutic options for a spectrum of autoimmune-related disease. Of particular interest, is the ability of CB2 ligands to regulate microglia function in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injury. We have previously reported the receptor affinity of 3',5'-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-phenyl-methanone (SMM-189) and the characterization of the beneficial effects of SMM-189 in the mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury. Herein, we report the further characterization of SMM-189 as a potent and selective CB2 inverse agonist, which acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of CP 55,940. The ability of SMM-189 to regulate microglial activation, in terms of chemokine expression and cell morphology, has been determined. Finally, we have determined that SMM-189 possesses acceptable biopharmaceutical properties indicating that the triaryl class of CB2 inverse agonists are viable compounds for continued preclinical development for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and traumatic brain injury.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists modulate neuropathic pain: a link to chemokines?

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Caroline M.; Miller, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain presents a widespread and intractable medical problem. While numerous pharmaceuticals are used to treat chronic pain, drugs that are safe for extended use and highly effective at treating the most severe pain do not yet exist. Chronic pain resulting from nervous system injury (neuropathic pain) is common in conditions ranging from multiple sclerosis to HIV-1 infection to type II diabetes. Inflammation caused by neuropathy is believed to contribute to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been linked to chronic, neuropathic pain in both human conditions and animal models. The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear receptors known for their roles in metabolism. Recent research has revealed that PPARs also play a role in inflammatory gene repression. PPAR agonists have wide-ranging effects including inhibition of chemokine expression and pain behavior reduction in animal models. Experimental evidence suggests a connection between the pain ameliorating effects of PPAR agonists and suppression of inflammatory gene expression, including chemokines. In early clinical research, one PPARα agonist, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), shows promise in relieving chronic pain. If this link can be better established, PPAR agonists may represent a new drug therapy for neuropathic pain. PMID:25191225

  19. Molecular modelling studies on the ORL1-receptor and ORL1-agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröer, Britta M.; Gurrath, Marion; Höltje, Hans-Dieter

    2003-11-01

    The ORL1 ( opioid receptor like 1)- receptor is a member of the family of rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and represents an interesting new therapeutical target since it is involved in a variety of biomedical important processes, such as anxiety, nociception, feeding, and memory. In order to shed light on the molecular basis of the interactions of the GPCR with its ligands, the receptor protein and a dataset of specific agonists were examined using molecular modelling methods. For that purpose, the conformational space of a very potent non-peptide ORL1-receptor agonist (Ro 64-6198) with a small number of rotatable bonds was analysed in order to derive a pharmacophoric arrangement. The conformational analyses yielded a conformation that served as template for the superposition of a set of related analogues. Structural superposition was achieved by employing the program FlexS. Using the experimental binding data and the superposition of the ligands, a 3D-QSAR analysis applying the GRID/GOLPE method was carried out. After the ligand-based modelling approach, a 3D model of the ORL1-receptor has been constructed using homology modelling methods based on the crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin. A representative structure of the model taken from molecular dynamics simulations was used for a manual docking procedure. Asp-130 and Thr-305 within the ORL1-receptor model served as important hydrophilic interaction partners. Furthermore, a hydrophobic cavity was identified stabilizing the agonists within their binding site. The manual docking results were supported using FlexX, which identified the same protein-ligand interaction points.

  20. Theoretical analysis of somatostatin receptor 5 with antagonists and agonists for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Santhosh Kumar; Babu, Sathya; Madhavan, Thirumurthy

    2017-02-02

    We report on SSTR5 receptor modeling and its interaction with reported antagonist and agonist molecules. Modeling of the SSTR5 receptor was carried out using multiple templates with the aim of improving the precision of the generated models. The selective SSTR5 antagonists, agonists and native somatostatin SRIF-14 were employed to propose the binding site of SSTR5 and to identify the critical residues involved in the interaction of the receptor with other molecules. Residues Q2.63, D3.32, Q3.36, C186, Y7.34 and Y7.42 were found to be highly significant for their strong interaction with the receptor. SSTR5 antagonists were utilized to perform a 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship study. A comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was conducted using two different alignment schemes, namely the ligand-based and receptor-based alignment methods. The best statistical results were obtained for ligand-based ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] = 0.988, noc = 4) and receptor-guided methods (docked mode 1:[Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], noc = 5), (docked mode 2:[Formula: see text] = 0.555, [Formula: see text], noc = 5). Based on CoMFA contour maps, an electropositive substitution at [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] position and bulky group at [Formula: see text] position are important in enhancing molecular activity.

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, obesity and psoriasis: diabetes meets dermatology.

    PubMed

    Drucker, D J; Rosen, C F

    2011-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterised by beta cell failure, which frequently develops in the setting of insulin resistance. Inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes by impairing insulin action in peripheral tissues and via reduction of beta cell function. Inflammation may also play an important role in the development of complications that arise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Hence, the anti-inflammatory actions of commonly used glucose-lowering drugs may contribute, indirectly, to their mechanisms of action and therapeutic benefit. Herein we highlight the anti-inflammatory actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which exerts direct and indirect actions on immune function. The observations that GLP-1 receptor agonists exert anti-inflammatory actions in preclinical studies, taken together with case reports linking improvements in psoriasis with GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy, illustrates the emerging clinical implications of non-classical anti-inflammatory actions of incretin-based therapeutics.

  2. Alpha-2 receptor agonists for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Molly R; Schwartz, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Clonidine and guanfacine are alpha-2 receptor agonists that decrease sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that is theorized to be related to a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system. Currently, the only US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for PTSD are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) sertraline and paroxetine. Sometimes use of the SSRIs may not lead to full remission and symptoms of hyperarousal often persist. This article specifically reviews the literature on alpha-2 receptor agonist use for the treatment of PTSD and concludes that while the evidence base is limited, these agents might be considered useful when SSRIs fail to treat symptoms of agitation and hyperarousal in patients with PTSD.

  3. Immunoactive effects of cannabinoids: considerations for the therapeutic use of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Greineisen, William E; Turner, Helen

    2010-05-01

    The active constituents of Cannabis sativa have been used for centuries as recreational drugs and medicinal agents. Today, marijuana is the most prevalent drug of abuse in the United States and, conversely, therapeutic use of marijuana constituents are gaining mainstream clinical and political acceptance. Given the documented contributions of endocannabinoid signaling to a range of physiological systems, including cognitive function, and the control of eating behaviors, it is unsurprising that cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists are showing significant clinical potential. In addition to the neuroactive effects of cannabinoids, an emerging body of data suggests that both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids are potently immunoactive. The central premise of this review article is that the immunological effects of cannabinoids should be considered in the context of each prescribing decision. We present evidence that the immunological effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists are highly relevant to the spectrum of disorders for which cannabinoid therapeutics are currently offered.

  4. Therapeutic effects of melatonin receptor agonists on sleep and comorbid disorders.

    PubMed

    Laudon, Moshe; Frydman-Marom, Anat

    2014-09-09

    Several melatonin receptors agonists (ramelteon, prolonged-release melatonin, agomelatine and tasimelteon) have recently become available for the treatment of insomnia, depression and circadian rhythms sleep-wake disorders. The efficacy and safety profiles of these compounds in the treatment of the indicated disorders are reviewed. Accumulating evidence indicates that sleep-wake disorders and co-existing medical conditions are mutually exacerbating. This understanding has now been incorporated into the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). Therefore, when evaluating the risk/benefit ratio of sleep drugs, it is pertinent to also evaluate their effects on wake and comorbid condition. Beneficial effects of melatonin receptor agonists on comorbid neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic symptomatology beyond sleep regulation are also described. The review underlines the beneficial value of enhancing physiological sleep in comorbid conditions.

  5. Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin Receptor Agonists on Sleep and Comorbid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Laudon, Moshe; Frydman-Marom, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Several melatonin receptors agonists (ramelteon, prolonged-release melatonin, agomelatine and tasimelteon) have recently become available for the treatment of insomnia, depression and circadian rhythms sleep-wake disorders. The efficacy and safety profiles of these compounds in the treatment of the indicated disorders are reviewed. Accumulating evidence indicates that sleep-wake disorders and co-existing medical conditions are mutually exacerbating. This understanding has now been incorporated into the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). Therefore, when evaluating the risk/benefit ratio of sleep drugs, it is pertinent to also evaluate their effects on wake and comorbid condition. Beneficial effects of melatonin receptor agonists on comorbid neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic symptomatology beyond sleep regulation are also described. The review underlines the beneficial value of enhancing physiological sleep in comorbid conditions. PMID:25207602

  6. Alpha-2 receptor agonists for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Belkin, Molly R; Schwartz, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Clonidine and guanfacine are alpha-2 receptor agonists that decrease sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that is theorized to be related to a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system. Currently, the only US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for PTSD are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) sertraline and paroxetine. Sometimes use of the SSRIs may not lead to full remission and symptoms of hyperarousal often persist. This article specifically reviews the literature on alpha-2 receptor agonist use for the treatment of PTSD and concludes that while the evidence base is limited, these agents might be considered useful when SSRIs fail to treat symptoms of agitation and hyperarousal in patients with PTSD. PMID:26322115

  7. Future Treatment of Constipation-associated Disorders: Role of Relamorelin and Other Ghrelin Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Mosińska, Paula; Zatorski, Hubert; Storr, Martin; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for effective pharmacological therapies for constipation, a symptom that significantly deteriorates patients’ quality of life and impacts health care. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and has been shown to exert prokinetic effects on gastrointestinal (GI) motility via the vagus and pelvic nerves. The pharmacological potential of ghrelin is hampered by its short half-life. Ghrelin receptor (GRLN-R) agonists with enhanced pharmacokinetics were thus developed. Centrally penetrant GRLN-R agonists stimulate defecation and improve impaired lower GI transit in animals and humans. This review summarizes the current knowledge on relamorelin, a potent ghrelin mimetic, and other GRLN-R analogs which are in preclinical or clinical stages of development for the management of disorders with underlying GI hypomotility, like constipation. PMID:28238253

  8. Heterocyclic acetamide and benzamide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists with improved rodent pharmacokinetic profiles.

    PubMed

    Goble, Stephen D; Wang, Liping; Howell, K Lulu; Bansal, Alka; Berger, Richard; Brockunier, Linda; DiSalvo, Jerry; Feighner, Scott; Harper, Bart; He, Jiafang; Hurley, Amanda; Hreniuk, Donna; Parmee, Emma; Robbins, Michael; Salituro, Gino; Sanfiz, Anthony; Streckfuss, Eric; Watkins, Eloisa; Weber, Ann E; Struthers, Mary; Edmondson, Scott D

    2010-03-15

    A series of amide derived beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists is described. The discovery and optimization of several series of compounds derived from 1, is used to lay the SAR foundation for second generation beta(3)-AR agonists for the treatment of overactive bladder.

  9. [Treatment of GLP1 receptor agonists and body mass control].

    PubMed

    Žák, Petr; Olšovský, Jindřich

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity continues to be increasing in all age groups in most countries of the European Union (EU). Many obese people have a history of several successful weight losses, but very few are able to maintain the weight loss over a longer period of time. Initiation of the GLP1 RA administration during weight loss maintenance would inhibit weight loss-induced increases in soluble leptin receptor plasma concentrations resulting in higher level of free leptin thereby preventing weight regain. In contrast initiation of insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes patients is frequently accompanied with weight gain. The GLP1 administration results in HbA1c decrease accompanied with weight loss, presents attractive alternative to basal insulin. The question remains to be answered in the future, if the GLP1 RA administration is generally more frequently started in antiobese than antidiabetes implication.

  10. Therapeutic potential of nuclear receptor agonists in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Miguel; Landreth, Gary E

    2017-03-06

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an extensive accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which triggers a set of deleterious processes including synaptic dysfunction, inflammation and neuronal injury leading to neuronal loss and cognitive impairment. A large body of evidence supports that nuclear receptor (NR) activation could be a promising therapeutic approach for AD. NRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression and have a cell type-specific effects. In this review we discuss the mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of NRs in AD. Moreover, we summarize studies reported in the last 10-15 years and their major outcomes arising from the pharmacological targeting of NRs in AD animal models. The dissection of the pathways regulated by NRs in the context of AD is of importance in identifying novel and effective therapeutic strategies.

  11. hvTRA, a novel TRAIL receptor agonist, induces apoptosis and sustained growth retardation in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fleten, Karianne G; Flørenes, Vivi Ann; Prasmickaite, Lina; Hill, Oliver; Sykora, Jaromir; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Engesæter, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, new treatment options for malignant melanoma patients have enhanced the overall survival for selected patients. Despite new hope, most melanoma patients still relapse with drug-resistant tumors or experience intrinsic resistance to the therapy. Therefore, novel treatment modalities beneficial for subgroups of patients are needed. TRAIL receptor agonists have been suggested as promising candidates for use in cancer treatment as they preferentially induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Unfortunately, the first generation of TRAIL receptor agonists showed poor clinical efficacy. hvTRA is a second-generation TRAIL receptor agonist with improved composition giving increased potency, and in the present study, we showed hvTRA-induced activation of apoptosis leading to an efficient and sustained reduction in melanoma cell growth in cell lines and xenograft models. Furthermore, the potential of hvTRA in a clinical setting was demonstrated by showing efficacy on tumor cells harvested from melanoma patients with lymph node metastasis in an ex vivo drug sensitivity assay. Inhibition of mutated BRAF has been shown to regulate proteins in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, making the cells more susceptible for apoptosis induction. In an attempt to increase the efficacy of hvTRA, combination treatment with the mutated BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib was investigated. A synergistic effect by the combination was observed for several cell lines in vitro, and an initial cytotoxic effect was observed in vivo. Unfortunately, the initial increased reduction in tumor growth compared with hvTRA mono treatment was not sustained, and this was related to downregulation of the DR5 level by vemurafenib. Altogether, the presented data imply that hvTRA efficiently induce apoptosis and growth delay in melanoma models and patient material, and the potential of this TRAIL receptor agonist should be further evaluated for treatment of subgroups of melanoma patients.

  12. hvTRA, a novel TRAIL receptor agonist, induces apoptosis and sustained growth retardation in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Fleten, Karianne G; Flørenes, Vivi Ann; Prasmickaite, Lina; Hill, Oliver; Sykora, Jaromir; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Engesæter, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, new treatment options for malignant melanoma patients have enhanced the overall survival for selected patients. Despite new hope, most melanoma patients still relapse with drug-resistant tumors or experience intrinsic resistance to the therapy. Therefore, novel treatment modalities beneficial for subgroups of patients are needed. TRAIL receptor agonists have been suggested as promising candidates for use in cancer treatment as they preferentially induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Unfortunately, the first generation of TRAIL receptor agonists showed poor clinical efficacy. hvTRA is a second-generation TRAIL receptor agonist with improved composition giving increased potency, and in the present study, we showed hvTRA-induced activation of apoptosis leading to an efficient and sustained reduction in melanoma cell growth in cell lines and xenograft models. Furthermore, the potential of hvTRA in a clinical setting was demonstrated by showing efficacy on tumor cells harvested from melanoma patients with lymph node metastasis in an ex vivo drug sensitivity assay. Inhibition of mutated BRAF has been shown to regulate proteins in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, making the cells more susceptible for apoptosis induction. In an attempt to increase the efficacy of hvTRA, combination treatment with the mutated BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib was investigated. A synergistic effect by the combination was observed for several cell lines in vitro, and an initial cytotoxic effect was observed in vivo. Unfortunately, the initial increased reduction in tumor growth compared with hvTRA mono treatment was not sustained, and this was related to downregulation of the DR5 level by vemurafenib. Altogether, the presented data imply that hvTRA efficiently induce apoptosis and growth delay in melanoma models and patient material, and the potential of this TRAIL receptor agonist should be further evaluated for treatment of subgroups of melanoma patients. PMID:28028438

  13. An Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Megan D.; Chan, Trevor; Swigart, Philip M.; Myagmar, Bat-erdene; Dash, Rajesh; Simpson, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors mediate adaptive effects in the heart and cardiac myocytes, and a myocyte survival pathway involving the alpha-1A receptor subtype and ERK activation exists in vitro. However, data in vivo are limited. Here we tested A61603 (N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl]methanesulfonamide), a selective imidazoline agonist for the alpha-1A. A61603 was the most potent alpha-1-agonist in activating ERK in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. A61603 activated ERK in adult mouse ventricular myocytes and protected the cells from death caused by the anthracycline doxorubicin. A low dose of A61603 (10 ng/kg/d) activated ERK in the mouse heart in vivo, but did not change blood pressure. In male mice, concurrent subcutaneous A61603 infusion at 10 ng/kg/d for 7 days after a single intraperitoneal dose of doxorubicin (25 mg/kg) increased survival, improved cardiac function, heart rate, and cardiac output by echocardiography, and reduced cardiac cell necrosis and apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. All protective effects were lost in alpha-1A-knockout mice. In female mice, doxorubicin at doses higher than in males (35–40 mg/kg) caused less cardiac toxicity than in males. We conclude that the alpha-1A-selective agonist A61603, via the alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, prevents doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in male mice, supporting the theory that alpha-1A adrenergic receptor agonists have potential as novel heart failure therapies. PMID:28081170

  14. N-terminal galanin-(1-16) fragment is an agonist at the hippocampal galanin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisone, G.; Berthold, M.; Bedecs, K.; Unden, A.; Bartfai, T.; Bertorelli, R.; Consolo, S.; Crawley, J.; Martin, B.; Nilsson, S.; )

    1989-12-01

    The galanin N-terminal fragment (galanin-(1-16)) has been prepared by solid-phase synthesis and by enzymic cleavage of galanin by endoproteinase Asp-N. This peptide fragment displaced {sup 125}I-labeled galanin in receptor autoradiography experiments on rat forebrain and spinal cord and in equilibrium binding experiments from high-affinity binding sites in the ventral hippocampus with an IC50 of approximately 3 nM. In tissue slices of the same brain area, galanin-(1-16), similarly to galanin, inhibited the muscarinic agonist-stimulated breakdown of inositol phospholipids. Upon intracerebroventricular administration, galanin-(1-16) (10 micrograms/15 microliters) also inhibited the scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.)-evoked release of acetylcholine, as studied in vivo by microdialysis. Substitution of (L-Trp2) for (D-Trp2) resulted in a 500-fold loss in affinity as compared with galanin-(1-16). It is concluded that, in the ventral hippocampus, the N-terminal galanin fragment (galanin-(1-16)) is recognized by the galanin receptors controlling acetylcholine release and muscarinic agonist-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown as a high-affinity agonist and that amino acid residue (Trp2) plays an important role in the receptor-ligand interactions.

  15. A fluorinated quinuclidine benzamide named LMA 10203 acts as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; Lapied, Bruno; Lebreton, Jacques; Thany, Steeve H

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we take advantage of the fact that cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons express different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to demonstrate that simple quinuclidine benzamides such as the 2-fluorinated benzamide LMA 10203, could act as an agonist of cockroach α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype, called nAChR2. Indeed, 1 mM LMA 10203 induced ionic currents which were partially blocked by 0.5 μM α-bungarotoxin and methyllycaconitine and completely blocked by 5 μM mecamylamine. Moreover, the current-voltage curve revealed that the ionic current induced by LMA 10203 increased from -30 mV to +20 mV confirming that it acted as an agonist of α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2. In addition, 1 mM LMA 10203 induced a depolarization of the sixth abdominal ganglion and this neuroexcitatory activity was completely blocked by 5 μM mecamylamine. These data suggest that nAChR2 was also expressed at the postsynaptic level on the synapse between the cercal afferent nerve and the giant interneurons. Interestingly, despite LMA 10203 being an agonist of cockroach nicotinic receptors, it had a poor insecticidal activity. We conclude that LMA 10203 could be used as an interesting compound to identify specific insect nAChR subtypes.

  16. The safety and tolerability of GLP-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Russell-Jones, D

    2010-09-01

    Established therapies for type-2 diabetes effectively reduce blood glucose, but are often associated with adverse effects that pose risks to patient's health or diminish adherence to treatment. Weight gain, hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly reported and some agents may not be safe for use in patients with renal impairment or elevated cardiovascular risk. New treatments based on the action of the endogenous human hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), including exenatide and liraglutide, are available. These therapies provide a novel pharmacological approach to glycaemic control via multiple mechanisms of action, and accordingly exhibit different safety and tolerability profiles than conventional treatments. GLP-1 receptor agonists stimulate insulin release only in the presence of elevated blood glucose and are therefore associated with a fairly low risk of hypoglycaemia. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common but transient, and there appears to be little potential for interaction with other drugs. GLP-1 receptor agonists are associated with weight loss rather than weight gain. As protein-based therapies, these agents have the potential to induce antibody formation, but the impact on efficacy and safety is minor. GLP-1 receptor agonists thus offer a new and potentially useful option for clinicians concerned about some of the common adverse effects of type-2 diabetes therapies.

  17. Headache, Raynaud's syndrome and serotonin receptor agonists in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bernatsky, S; Pineau, C A; Lee, J L; Clarke, A E

    2006-01-01

    There are potential concerns regarding serotonin receptor agonists in SLE patients with migraine, particularly patients with concomitant Raynaud's syndrome. We estimated the prevalence of lupus-related headache and Raynaud's syndrome in the Montreal General Hospital SLE clinic cohort and evaluated the relationship between these two variables in multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for age, sex, race, SLE duration and the presence of lupus anticoagulant and antibodies to cardiolipin and beta2 glycoprotein I. We also assessed, through chart review in those individuals with both Raynaud's syndrome and migraine, a history of serotonin receptor agonist use, and any associated worsening vasospasm. Based on Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) scores, the cumulative incidence of lupus-related headache in our sample (n = 391) was 46.1%; the prevalence of Raynaud's syndrome was 49.4%. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for lupus-related headache and Raynaud's syndrome was 1.7 (95% CI 1.1, 2.5). In addition, there was a strong independent relationship between headache and anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies (adjusted OR 5.6 [95% CI 1.8, 17.0]). The data from our chart review suggest that careful use of serotonin receptor agonists in patients with both Raynaud's syndrome and migraines may be undertaken, although caution would necessitate that these agents not be used in individuals with very severe Raynaud's (eg, digital ulcerations, and so on).

  18. GABA(B) receptor agonists for the treatment of drug addiction: a review of recent findings.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Michael S; Roberts, David C S; de Wit, Harriet

    2002-02-01

    A growing preclinical and clinical literature suggests that GABA(B) receptor agonists promote abstinence and reduce the use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol and nicotine. The purpose of this paper is to critically review these data. GABA(B) receptor agonists, such as baclofen, appear to reduce the reinforcing effects of abused drugs in animal models under multiple experimental procedures. This occurs at doses that have little effect on responding for other positive reinforcers such as food or water. We review evidence that these potential therapeutic effects may be mediated by modulation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons. This review also examines the preliminary clinical data from studies of the efficacy of baclofen for treatment of cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine dependence. We suggest that these preliminary data provide a rationale for conducting more systematic studies of the effects of GABA(B) receptor agonists as treatment for drug abuse. This line of research may also improve our understanding of the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the drug dependence process.

  19. Selective human Estrogen Receptor Partial Agonists (ShERPAs) for Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gutgesell, Lauren M.; Zhao, Jiong; Delgado-Rivera, Loruhama; Pham, Thao N.D.; Zhao, Huiping; Carlson, Kathryn; Martin, Teresa; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Moore, Terry W.; Tonetti, Debra A.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Almost 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), represents the standard of care for many patients; however, 30-50% develop resistance, underlining the need for alternative therapeutics. Paradoxically, agonists at ERα such as estradiol (E2), have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with heavily-treated breast cancer, although side effects in gynecological tissues are unacceptable. A drug that selectively mimics the actions of E2 in breast cancer therapy, but minimizes estrogenic effects in other tissues is a novel, therapeutic alternative. We hypothesized that a selective human estrogen receptor partial agonist (ShERPA) at ERα would provide such an agent. Novel benzothiophene derivatives with nanomolar potency in breast cancer cell cultures were designed. Several showed partial agonist activity, with potency of 0.8-76 nM, mimicking E2 in inhibiting growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Three ShERPAs were tested and validated in xenograft models of endocrine-independent and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer, and, in contrast to E2, ShERPAs did not cause significant uterine growth. PMID:26681208

  20. In silico screening for agonists and blockers of the β2 adrenergic receptor: implications of inactive and activated state structures

    PubMed Central

    Costanzi, Stefano; Vilar, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Ten crystal structures of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) have been published, reflecting different signaling states. Here, through controlled docking experiments, we examined the implications of using inactive or activated structures on the in silico screening for agonists and blockers of the receptor. Specifically, we targeted the crystal structures solved in complex with carazolol (2RH1), the neutral antagonist alprenalol (3NYA), the irreversible agonist FAUC50 (3PDS) and the full agonist BI-167017 (3P0G). Our results indicate that activated structures favor agonists over blockers while inactive structures favor blockers over agonists. This tendency is more marked for activated than for inactive structures. Additionally, agonists tend to receive more favorable docking scores when docked at activated rather than inactive structures, while blockers do the opposite. Hence, the difference between the docking scores attained with an activated and an inactive structure is an excellent means for the classification of ligands into agonists and blockers, as we determined through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). With respect to virtual screening, all structures prioritized well agonists and blockers over non-binders. However, inactive structures worked better for blockers and activated structures worked better for agonists. Notably, the combination of individual docking experiments through receptor ensemble docking (RED) resulted in an excellent performance in the retrieval of both agonists and blockers. Finally, we demonstrated that the induced fit docking of agonists is a viable way of modifying an inactive crystal structure and bias it towards the in silico recognition of agonists rather than blockers. PMID:22170280

  1. Agonist high- and low-affinity states of dopamine D₂ receptors: methods of detection and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    van Wieringen, Jan-Peter; Booij, Jan; Shalgunov, Vladimir; Elsinga, Philip; Michel, Martin C

    2013-02-01

    Dopamine D(2) receptors, similar to other G-protein-coupled receptors, exist in a high- and low-affinity state for agonists. Based upon a review of the methods for detecting D(2) receptor agonist high-affinity states, we discuss alterations of such states in animal models of disease and the implications of such alterations for their labelling with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers. The classic approach of detecting agonist high-affinity states compares agonist competition for antagonist radioligands, in most cases using [(3)H]-spiperone as the radioligand; alternative approaches and radioligands have been proposed, but their claimed advantages have not been substantiated by other investigators. In view of the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques, we critically have reviewed reported findings on the detection of D(2) receptor agonist high-affinity states in a variety of animal models. These data are compared to the less numerous findings from human in vivo studies based on PET and SPECT tracers; they are interpreted in light of the finding that D(2) receptor agonist high-affinity states under control conditions may differ between rodent and human brain. The potential advantages of agonist ligands in studies of pathophysiology and as diagnostics are being discussed.

  2. Characterization of the complex morphinan derivative BU72 as a high efficacy, long-lasting mu-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Neilan, Claire L; Husbands, Stephen M; Breeden, Simon; Ko, M C Holden; Aceto, Mario D; Lewis, John W; Woods, James H; Traynor, John R

    2004-09-19

    The development of buprenorphine as a treatment for opiate abuse and dependence has drawn attention to opioid ligands that have agonist actions followed by long-lasting antagonist actions. In a search for alternatives to buprenorphine, we discovered a bridged pyrrolidinomorphinan (BU72). In vitro, BU72 displayed high affinity and efficacy for mu-opioid receptors, but was also a partial delta-opioid receptor agonist and a full kappa-opioid receptor agonist. BU72 was a highly potent and long-lasting antinociceptive agent against both thermal and chemical nociception in the mouse and against thermal nociception in the monkey. These effects were prevented by mu-, but not kappa- or delta-, opioid receptor antagonists. Once the agonist effects of BU72 had subsided, the compound acted to attenuate the antinociceptive action of morphine. BU72 is too efficacious for human use but manipulation to reduce efficacy could provide a lead to the development of a treatment for opioid dependence.

  3. The identification of GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394; the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Elster, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Poda, Suresh Babu; Loechel, Frosty; Volbracht, Christiane; Klewe, Ib Vestergaard; David, Laurent; Watson, Stephen P

    2014-11-15

    The identification of the novel and selective GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394, the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function, is described. Structure activity relationships and syntheses based around AF64394 are reported.

  4. Serotonergic system and its role in epilepsy and neuropathic pain treatment: a review based on receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Panczyk, Katarzyna; Golda, Sylwia; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Zelaszczyk, Dorota; Gunia-Krzyzak, Agnieszka; Marona, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    The serotonergic system is involved in pathomechanisms of both epilepsy and neuropathic pain. So far, participation in the epileptogenesis and maintenance of epilepsy was proved for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as 5-HTT serotonin transporter. Depending on the receptor type or its localization, its stimulation may increase or decrease neuronal excitability. According to the available data, neuropathic pain mechanisms involve 5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, 5-HT7 receptors and 5-HTT serotonin transporter. Changes in their expression modulate pain mainly by affecting the transmission through serotonergic descending pathways. Several compounds, whose mechanisms of action base on influence on the serotonergic system, are already in use. These are 5-HT3 agonists (triptans) in case of migraine, tricyclic antidepressants or monoamine reuptake inhibitors in neuropathic pain treatment. In addition, selective and non-selective ligands are tested for their anticonvulsant or analgesic properties. Some ED50 values have been already obtained in such animal models as maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures (epilepsy), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), chronic constriction injury (CCI) or formalin (neuropathic pain). This review shows that in case of drug discovery within the serotonergic system one must take into account special significance of factors such as: the species, the type of model, the route of administration, and the dose range.

  5. [Renoprotecion With Metabolic Syndrome: the Possibility of Receptor Agonist Imidazoline Moxonidine].

    PubMed

    Ostroumova, O D; Zykova, A A

    2016-10-01

    The article is devoted to the of prevalence, diagnosis, and prognostic significance of renal damage in metabolic syndrome. The pathogenetic mechanisms of development and progression of chronic kidney disease in individuals with obesity, including the role of increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system is discussed. Approaches to the choice of antihypertensive drugs with an emphasis on metabolic and renal protection properties are given. The advantages of imidazoline receptors in neuroprotective of moxonidine in patients with arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus is discussed in detail. number of mechanisms of renal protection actions of the agonists of imidazoline receptors is described.

  6. Rotigotine is a potent agonist at dopamine D1 receptors as well as at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Martyn; Dubois, Vanessa; Scheller, Dieter; Gillard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Rotigotine acts as a dopamine receptor agonist with high affinity for the dopamine D2, D3, D4 and D5 receptors but with a low affinity for the dopamine D1 receptor. We have investigated this further in radioligand binding and functional studies and compared the profile of rotigotine with that of other drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental Approach The binding of rotigotine to human dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 receptors was determined in radioligand binding studies using [3H]rotigotine and compared with that of standard antagonist radioligands. Functional interactions of rotigotine with human dopamine receptors was also determined. Key Results [3H]rotigotine can be used as an agonist radioligand to label all dopamine receptor subtypes and this can be important to derive agonist affinity estimates. Rotigotine maintains this high affinity in functional studies at all dopamine receptors especially D1, D2 and D3 receptors and, to a lesser extent, D4 and D5 receptors. Rotigotine, like apomorphine but unlike ropinirole and pramipexole, was a potent agonist at all dopamine receptors. Conclusions and Implications Rotigotine is a high-potency agonist at human dopamine D1, D2 and D3 receptors with a lower potency at D4 and D5 receptors. These studies differentiate rotigotine from conventional dopamine D2 agonists, used in the treatment of PD, such as ropinirole and pramipexole which lack activity at the D1 and D5 receptors, but resembles that of apomorphine which has greater efficacy in PD than other dopamine agonists but has suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:25339241

  7. Rat alpha6beta2delta GABAA receptors exhibit two distinct and separable agonist affinities.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Stephen H; Amin, Jahanshah

    2007-06-15

    The onset of motor learning in rats coincides with exclusive expression of GABAA receptors containing alpha6 and delta subunits in the granule neurons of the cerebellum. This development temporally correlates with the presence of a spontaneously active chloride current through alpha6-containing GABAA receptors, known as tonic inhibition. Here we report that the coexpression of alpha6, beta2, and delta subunits produced receptor-channels which possessed two distinct and separable states of agonist affinity, one exhibiting micromolar and the other nanomolar affinities for GABA. The high-affinity state was associated with a significant level of spontaneous channel activity. Increasing the level of expression or the ratio of beta2 to alpha6 and delta subunits increased the prevalence of the high-affinity state. Comparative studies of alpha6beta2delta, alpha1beta2delta, alpha6beta2gamma2, alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha4beta2delta receptors under equivalent levels of expression demonstrated that the significant level of spontaneous channel activity is uniquely attributable to alpha6beta2delta receptors. The pharmacology of spontaneous channel activity arising from alpha6beta2delta receptor expression corresponded to that of tonic inhibition. For example, GABAA receptor antagonists, including furosemide, blocked the spontaneous current. Further, the neuroactive steroid 5alpha-THDOC and classical glycine receptor agonists beta-alanine and taurine directly activated alpha6beta2delta receptors with high potency. Specific mutation within the GABA-dependent activation domain (betaY157F) impaired both low- and high-affinity components of GABA agonist activity in alpha6betaY157Fdelta receptors, but did not attenuate the spontaneous current. In comparison, a mutation located between the second and third transmembrane segments of the delta subunit (deltaR287M) significantly diminished the nanomolar component and the spontaneous activity. The possibility that the high affinity state

  8. Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists: effects of structure and cell context.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Qin, Chunhua; Safe, Stephen H

    2003-01-01

    Chemoprotective phytochemicals exhibit multiple activities and interact with several cellular receptors, including the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor (AhR). In this study we investigated the AhR agonist/antagonist activities of the following flavonoids: chrysin, phloretin, kaempferol, galangin, naringenin, genistein, quercetin, myricetin, luteolin, baicalein, daidzein, apigenin, and diosmin. We also investigated the AhR-dependent activities of cantharidin and emodin (in herbal extracts) in Ah-responsive MCF-7 human breast cells, HepG2 human liver cancer cells, and mouse Hepa-1 cells transiently or stably transfected with plasmids expressing a luciferase reporter gene linked to multiple copies of a consensus dioxin-responsive element. The AhR agonist activities of the compounds (1 and 10 micro M) were as high as 25% of the maximal response induced by 5 nM 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and their potencies were dependent on cell context. Galangin, genistein, daidzein, and diosmin were active only in Hepa-1 cells, and cantharidin induced activity only in human HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed that baicalein and emodin also induced CYP1A1 protein in the human cancer cell lines. The AhR antagonist activities of four compounds inactive as agonists in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells (kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and luteolin) were also investigated. Luteolin was an AhR antagonist in both cell lines, and the inhibitory effects of the other compound were dependent on cell context. These data suggest that dietary phytochemicals exhibit substantial cell context-dependent AhR agonist as well as antagonist activities. Moreover, because phytochemicals and other AhR-active compounds in food are present in the diet at relatively high concentrations, risk assessment of dietary toxic equivalents of TCDD and related compounds should also take into account AhR agonist/antagonist activities of phytochemicals. PMID:14644660

  9. Inhibitory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists on collagen IV production in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Shen, Yachen; Li, Min; Su, Dongming; Xu, Weifeng; Liang, Xiubin; Li, Rongshan

    2015-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have beneficial effects on the kidney diseases through preventing microalbuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be fully understood. In this study, we investigate the effects of PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone (Rosi) and pioglitazone (Pio), on collagen IV production in mouse podocytes. The endogenous expression of PPAR-γ was found in the primary podocytes and can be upregulated by Rosi and Pio, respectively, detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. PPAR-γ agonist markedly blunted the increasing of collagen IV expression and extraction in podocytes induced by TGF-β. In contrast, adding PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662, to podocytes largely prevented the inhibition of collagen IV expression from Pio treatment. Our data also showed that phosphorylation of Smad2/3 enhanced by TGF-β in a time-dependent manner was significantly attenuated by adding Pio. The promoter region of collagen IV gene contains one putative consensus sequence of Smad-binding element (SBE) by promoter analysis, Rosi and Pio significantly ameliorated TGF-β-induced SBE4-luciferase activity. In conclusion, PPAR-γ activation by its agonist, Rosi or Pio, in vitro directly inhibits collagen IV expression and synthesis in primary mouse podocytes. The suppression of collagen IV production was related to the inhibition of TGF-β-driven phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and decreased response activity of SBEs of collagen IV in PPAR-γ agonist-treated mouse podocytes. This represents a novel mechanistic support regarding PPAR-γ agonists as podocyte protective agents.

  10. Epitope map for a growth hormone receptor agonist monoclonal antibody, MAb 263.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yu; Zheng, Yuan Zhi; Harris, Jonathan M; Brown, Richard; Waters, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 263 is a widely used monoclonal antibody that recognizes the extracellular domain (ECD) of the GH receptor. It has been shown to act as a GH agonist both in vitro and in vivo, and we report here that it must be divalent to exert its effect on the full-length receptor. To understand the mechanism of its agonist action, we have determined the precise epitope for this antibody using a novel random PCR mutagenesis approach together with expression screening in yeast. A library of 5200 clones of rabbit GH receptor ECD mutants were screened both with MAb 263 and with an anticarboxy-tag antibody to verify complete ECD expression. Sequencing for clones that expressed complete ECD but were not MAb 263 positive identified 20 epitope residues distributed in a discontinuous manner throughout the ECD. The major part of the epitope, as revealed after mapping onto the crystal structure model of the ECD molecule, was located on the side and upper portion of domain 1, particularly within the D-E strand disulfide loop 79-96. Molecular dynamics docking of an antibody of the same isotype as MAb 263 was used to dock the bivalent antibody to the 1528-A2 epitope and to visualize the likely consequences of MAb binding. The minimized model enables the antibody to grasp two receptors in a pincer-like movement from opposite sides, facilitating alignment of the receptor dimerization domains in a manner similar to, but not identical with, GH.

  11. Central administration of GPR55 receptor agonist and antagonist modulates anxiety-related behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Abbasali; Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Akbar; Roohbakhsh, Ali

    2015-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been proposed as an atypical cannabinoid receptor, which is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some synthetic or endogenous cannabinoid molecules. The exact role of GPR55 receptors in the central nervous system especially in anxiety needs to be evaluated. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of agonist and antagonist of GPR55 receptor on anxiety-related behaviors in rats were investigated. Here, O-1602 (GPR55 agonist) at the doses of 0.2, 1, and 5 μg/rat increased %OAT and %OAE but not the locomotor activity, showing an anxiolytic response, whereas i.c.v. injection of ML193 (GPR55 antagonist) at the doses of 0.1 and 1 μg/rat increased anxiety-like behaviors while causing locomotor impairment. The antagonistic effect of ML193 on the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602 was also evaluated. The results showed that ML193 decreased the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602. Based on these results, it may be concluded that central GPR55 may have a role in modulation of anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact role of these receptors in anxiety.

  12. Differential role of protein kinase C in desensitization of muscarinic receptor induced by phorbol esters and receptor agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Wi Sheung.

    1989-01-01

    PKC, a phorbol ester receptor, copurified with specific binding sites of ({sup 3}H)phorbol-12,13,-dibutyrate (({sup 3}H)PDBu). The specific binding of ({sup 3}H)PDBu to intact cells was saturable to a single class of binding sites. The PKC and phorbol ester receptors in N1E-115 cells can be down regulated by prolonged phorbol ester incubation. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) suppressed muscarinic receptor-mediated cyclic GMP response in a time-dependent and a concentration-dependent fashion and the suppressive effect of PMA could be attenuated by a protein kinase inhibitor, H-7, as well as by down-regulation of the PKC through long-term incubation with PDBu. Exposure of the cells to the muscarinic agonist carbamylcholine also desensitized subsequent CBC-mediated cyclic GMP response. However, pretreatment with carbamylcholine did not desensitize histamine-induced cyclic GMP formation while treatment with PMA suppressed this histamine-mediated response. Preincubation of the cells with CBC, but not with phorbol ester, resulted in down-regulation of muscarinic receptors. The loss of muscarinic receptors induced by agonist even occurred when the phosphoinositide hydrolysis response was suppressed.

  13. Assessment of 5-HT(7) Receptor Agonists Selectivity Using Nociceptive and Thermoregulation Tests in Knockout versus Wild-Type Mice.

    PubMed

    Brenchat, Alex; Rocasalbas, Maria; Zamanillo, Daniel; Hamon, Michel; Vela, José Miguel; Romero, Luz

    2012-01-01

    No study has ever examined the effect of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists on nociception by using 5-HT(7) receptor knockout mice. Basal sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli and formalin-induced nociception in both phase I and II of the formalin test did not differ in 5-HT(7) receptor knockout mice and paired wild-type controls. Similarly, there was no significant difference in basal body temperature between both genotypes. Subcutaneous administration of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists AS-19 (10 mg/kg), E-57431 (10 mg/kg), and E-55888 (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced formalin-induced licking/biting behavior during the phase II of the test in wild-type but not in 5-HT(7) receptor knockout mice. At these active analgesic doses, none of the three 5-HT(7) receptor agonists modified the basal body temperature neither in wild-type nor in 5-HT(7) receptor knockout mice. However, a significant decrease in body temperature was observed at a higher dose (20 mg/kg) of AS-19 and E-57431 in both genotypes. Our data strongly suggest that the 5-HT(7) receptor agonists AS-19, E-57431, and E-55888 produce antinociception in the formalin test by activating 5-HT(7) receptors. These results also strengthen the idea that the 5-HT(7) receptor plays a role in thermoregulation, but by acting in concert with other receptors.

  14. Assessment of 5-HT7 Receptor Agonists Selectivity Using Nociceptive and Thermoregulation Tests in Knockout versus Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brenchat, Alex; Rocasalbas, Maria; Zamanillo, Daniel; Hamon, Michel; Vela, José Miguel; Romero, Luz

    2012-01-01

    No study has ever examined the effect of 5-HT7 receptor agonists on nociception by using 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. Basal sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli and formalin-induced nociception in both phase I and II of the formalin test did not differ in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice and paired wild-type controls. Similarly, there was no significant difference in basal body temperature between both genotypes. Subcutaneous administration of 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19 (10 mg/kg), E-57431 (10 mg/kg), and E-55888 (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced formalin-induced licking/biting behavior during the phase II of the test in wild-type but not in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. At these active analgesic doses, none of the three 5-HT7 receptor agonists modified the basal body temperature neither in wild-type nor in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. However, a significant decrease in body temperature was observed at a higher dose (20 mg/kg) of AS-19 and E-57431 in both genotypes. Our data strongly suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19, E-57431, and E-55888 produce antinociception in the formalin test by activating 5-HT7 receptors. These results also strengthen the idea that the 5-HT7 receptor plays a role in thermoregulation, but by acting in concert with other receptors. PMID:22761612

  15. Quantitative encoding of a partial agonist effect on individual opioid receptors by multi-site phosphorylation and threshold detection

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Elaine K.; Trester-Zedlitz, Michelle; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Kotowski, Sarah J.; Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Burlingame, Alma L.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs act as partial agonists of seven-transmembrane signaling receptors when compared to endogenous ligands. Partial agonism is well described as a 'macroscopic' property manifest at the level of physiological systems or cell populations, but it is not known whether partial agonists encode discrete regulatory information at the 'microscopic' level of individual receptors. We addressed this question by focusing on morphine, a partial agonist drug for µ-type opioid peptide receptors, and combining quantitative mass spectrometry with cell biological analysis to investigate morphine's reduced efficacy for promoting receptor endocytosis when compared to a peptide full agonist. We show that these chemically distinct ligands produce a complex, and qualitatively similar mixture of phosphorylated opioid receptor forms in intact cells. Quantitatively, however, the agonists promote markedly disproportional production of multi-site phosphorylation involving a specific Ser/Thr motif, whose modification at more than one residue is essential for efficient recruitment of the adaptor protein β-arrestin to clathrin-coated pits that mediate subsequent endocytosis of MORs. These results reveal quantitative encoding of agonist-selective endocytosis at the level of individual opioid receptors, based on the conserved biochemical principles of multi-site phosphorylation and threshold detection. PMID:21868358

  16. Nigramide J is a novel potent inverse agonist of the human constitutive androstane receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Tanuma, Nobuaki; Yatsu, Tomofumi; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo; Inouye, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is very important for drug development and for understanding pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions. We screened by mammalian one hybrid assay among natural compounds to discover novel ligands of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR). hCAR transcriptional activity was measured by luciferase assay and mRNA levels of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in HepTR-hCAR cells and human primary hepatocytes were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Nigramide J (NJ) whose efficacy is comparable to those of hitherto known inverse agonists such as clotrimazole, PK11195, and ethinylestradiol. NJ is a naturally occurring cyclohexane-type amide alkaloid that was isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum. The suppressive effect of NJ on the CAR-dependent transcriptional activity was found to be species specific, in the descending order of hCAR, rat CAR, and mouse CAR. The unliganded hCAR-dependent transactivation of reporter and endogenous genes was suppressed by NJ at concentrations higher than 5 μmol/L. The ligand-binding cavity of hCAR was shared by NJ and CITCO, because they were competitive in the binding to hCAR. NJ interfered with the interaction of hCAR with coactivator SRC-1, but not with its interaction with the corepressor NCoR1. Furthermore, NJ is agonist of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR). NJ is a dual ligand of hCAR and hPXR, being an agonist of hPXR and an inverse agonist of hCAR. PMID:25505573

  17. Collybolide is a novel biased agonist of κ-opioid receptors with potent antipruritic activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Bobeck, Erin N.; Fakira, Amanda K.; Massaro, Nicholas P.; Sharma, Indrajeet; Cavé, Adrien; Hamm, Heidi E.; Parello, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Among the opioid receptors, the κ-opioid receptor (κOR) has been gaining considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of complex CNS disorders including depression, visceral pain, and cocaine addiction. With an interest in discovering novel ligands targeting κOR, we searched natural products for unusual scaffolds and identified collybolide (Colly), a nonnitrogenous sesquiterpene from the mushroom Collybia maculata. This compound has a furyl-δ-lactone core similar to that of Salvinorin A (Sal A), another natural product from the plant Salvia divinorum. Characterization of the molecular pharmacological properties reveals that Colly, like Sal A, is a highly potent and selective κOR agonist. However, the two compounds differ in certain signaling and behavioral properties. Colly exhibits 10- to 50-fold higher potency in activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway compared with Sal A. Taken with the fact that the two compounds are equipotent for inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity, these results suggest that Colly behaves as a biased agonist of κOR. Behavioral studies also support the biased agonistic activity of Colly in that it exhibits ∼10-fold higher potency in blocking non–histamine-mediated itch compared with Sal A, and this difference is not seen in pain attenuation by these two compounds. These results represent a rare example of functional selectivity by two natural products that act on the same receptor. The biased agonistic activity, along with an easily modifiable structure compared with Sal A, makes Colly an ideal candidate for the development of novel therapeutics targeting κOR with reduced side effects. PMID:27162327

  18. Identification of a Novel Non-retinoid Pan Inverse Agonist of the Retinoic Acid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Busby, Scott A.; Kumar, Naresh; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Istrate, Monica A.; Conkright, Juliana J.; Wang, Yongjun; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Cameron, Michael D.; Roush, William R.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoids are potent forms of vitamin A and are involved in a broad range of physiological processes and the pharmacological effects of retinoids are primarily mediated by the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Several natural and synthetic RAR modulators have proven to be clinically useful for a number of therapeutic indications including cancer, psoriasis, and diabetes. Unfortunately, these agents lead to a number of significant side effects. Most synthetic retinoid ligands are based on the retinoid scaffold and thus have similarities to the natural ligand with all previously disclosed RAR ligands having a carboxylic acid that makes a critical ionic bridge within the ligand binding domain of the receptors. The potential therapeutic value offered from RAR modulation provides the impetus to identify novel ligands based on unique scaffolds that may offer improved toxicity and pharmacokinetic profiles. Here we describe the identification of an atypical RAR inverse agonist that represents the first non-acid, non-retinoid direct modulator of RAR receptor subfamily. SR-0065 functions as a pan-RAR inverse agonist suppressing the basal activity of RARα, RARβ, and RARγ as well as inhibiting agonist induced RAR activity. SR-0065 treatment enhanced receptor interaction with a peptide representative of the corepressor SMRT and in cells SR-0065 enhances recruitment of SMRT to RARγ. The acid form of SR-0065, SR-1758, was inactive in all assays. Thus, SR-0065 represents a new class of non-acid, non-retinoid RAR modulator that may be used as a point to initiate development of improved RAR-targeted drugs. PMID:21381756

  19. Agonist action of taurine on glycine receptors in rat supraoptic magnocellular neurones: possible role in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Deleuze, C; Pantaloni, A; Desarménien, M G; Moos, F

    1997-08-01

    1. To evaluate the implication of taurine in the physiology of supraoptic neurones, we (i) investigated the agonist properties of taurine on glycine and GABAA receptors of supraoptic magnocellular neurones acutely dissociated from adult rats, using whole-cell voltage clamp, (ii) studied the effects of taurine and strychnine in vivo by extracellular recordings of supraoptic vasopressin neurones in anaesthetized rats, and (iii) measured the osmolarity-dependent release of endogenous taurine from isolated supraoptic nuclei by HPLC. 2. GABA, glycine and taurine evoked rapidly activating currents that all reversed close to the equilibrium potential for Cl-, indicating activation of Cl(-)-selective channels. Glycine-activated currents were reversibly blocked by strychnine (IC50 of 35 nM with 100 microM glycine), but were unaffected by the GABAA antagonist gabazine (1-3 microM). GABA-activated currents were reversibly antagonized by 3 microM gabazine, but not by strychnine (up to 1 microM). 3. Responses to 1 mM taurine were blocked by strychnine but not by gabazine and showed no additivity with glycine-induced currents, indicating selective activation of glycine receptors. Responses to 10 mM taurine were partially antagonized by gabazine, the residual current being blocked by strychnine. Thus, taurine is also a weak agonist of GABAA receptors. 4. In the presence of gabazine, taurine activated glycine receptors with an EC50 of 406 microM. Taurine activated at most 70% of maximal glycine currents, suggesting that it is a partial agonist of glycine receptors. 5. In vivo, locally applied strychnine (300 nM) increased and taurine (1 mM) decreased the basal electrical activity of vasopressin neurones in normally hydrated rats. The effect of strychnine was markedly more pronounced in water-loaded rats. 6. Taurine, which is concentrated in supraoptic glial cells, could be released from isolated supraoptic nuclei upon hyposmotic stimulation. Decreases in osmolarity of 15 and 30

  20. Agonistic autoantibodies directed against G-protein-coupled receptors and their relationship to cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Wallukat, Gerd; Schimke, Ingolf

    2014-05-01

    Agonistic autoantibodies (AABs) against G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) are present mainly in diseases of the cardiovascular system or in diseases associated with cardiovascular disturbances. The increasing knowledge about the role of autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR-AABs) as pathogenic drivers, the resulting development of strategies aimed at their removal or neutralization, and the evidenced patient benefit associated with such therapies have created the need for a summary of GPCR-AAB-associated diseases. Here, we summarize the present knowledge about GPCR-AABs in cardiovascular diseases. The identity of the GPCR-AABs and their prevalence in each of several specific cardiovascular diseases are documented. The structure of GPCR is also briefly discussed. Using this information, differences between classic agonists and GPCR-AABs in their GPCR binding and activation are presented and the resulting pathogenic consequences are discussed. Furthermore, treatment strategies that are currently under study, most of which are aimed at the removal and in vivo neutralization of GPCR-AABs, are indicated and their patient benefits discussed. In this context, immunoadsorption using peptides/proteins or aptamers as binders are introduced. The use of peptides or aptamers for in vivo neutralization of GPCR-AABs is also described. Particular attention is given to the GPCR-AABs directed against the adrenergic beta1-, beta2-, and α1-receptor as well as the muscarinic receptor M2, angiotensin II-angiotensin receptor type I, endothelin1 receptor type A, angiotensin (1-7) Mas-receptor, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4. Among the diseases associated with GPCR-AABs, special focus is given to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, Chagas' cardiomyopathy, malignant and pulmonary hypertension, and kidney diseases. Relationships of GPCR-AABs are indicated to glaucoma, peripartum cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pericarditis, preeclampsia, Alzheimer's disease, Sj

  1. Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonists: Chemical Feature Based Pharmacophore Identification and Molecular Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Liangren; Sun, Gang; Wang, Zhanli; Yu, Yongchun

    2013-01-01

    Chemical feature based pharmacophore models were generated for Toll-like receptors 7 (TLR7) agonists using HypoGen algorithm, which is implemented in the Discovery Studio software. Several methods tools used in validation of pharmacophore model were presented. The first hypothesis Hypo1 was considered to be the best pharmacophore model, which consists of four features: one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor, and two hydrophobic features. In addition, homology modeling and molecular docking studies were employed to probe the intermolecular interactions between TLR7 and its agonists. The results further confirmed the reliability of the pharmacophore model. The obtained pharmacophore model (Hypo1) was then employed as a query to screen the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD) for other potential lead compounds. One hit was identified as a potent TLR7 agonist, which has antiviral activity against hepatitis virus in vitro. Therefore, our current work provides confidence for the utility of the selected chemical feature based pharmacophore model to design novel TLR7 agonists with desired biological activity. PMID:23526932

  2. Platelet-activating factor receptor agonists mediate xeroderma pigmentosum A photosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongxue; Harrison, Kathleen A; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Murphy, Robert C; Rezania, Samin; Konger, Raymond L; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2012-03-16

    To date, oxidized glycerophosphocholines (Ox-GPCs) with platelet-activating factor (PAF) activity produced non-enzymatically have not been definitively demonstrated to mediate any known disease processes. Here we provide evidence that these Ox-GPCs play a pivotal role in the photosensitivity associated with the deficiency of the DNA repair protein xeroderma pigmentosum type A (XPA). It should be noted that XPA-deficient cells are known to have decreased antioxidant defenses. These studies demonstrate that treatment of human XPA-deficient fibroblasts with the pro-oxidative stressor ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation resulted in increased reactive oxygen species and PAF receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity in comparison with gene-corrected cells. The UVB irradiation-generated PAF-R agonists were inhibited by antioxidants. UVB irradiation of XPA-deficient (Xpa-/-) mice also resulted in increased PAF-R agonistic activity and skin inflammation in comparison with control mice. The increased UVB irradiation-mediated skin inflammation and TNF-α production in Xpa-/- mice were blocked by systemic antioxidants and by PAF-R antagonists. Structural characterization of PAF-R-stimulating activity in UVB-irradiated XPA-deficient fibroblasts using mass spectrometry revealed increased levels of sn-2 short-chain Ox-GPCs along with native PAF. These studies support a critical role for PAF-R agonistic Ox-GPCs in the pathophysiology of XPA photosensitivity.

  3. Novel Zn2+ Modulated GPR39 Receptor Agonists Do Not Drive Acute Insulin Secretion in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shin-ichiro; Tsuchida, Takuma; Oguma, Takahiro; Marley, Anna; Wennberg-Huldt, Charlotte; Hovdal, Daniel; Fukuda, Hajime; Yoneyama, Yukimi; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Johansson, Anders; Lundqvist, Sara; Brengdahl, Johan; Isaacs, Richard J.; Brown, Daniel; Geschwindner, Stefan; Benthem, Lambertus; Priest, Claire; Turnbull, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurs when there is insufficient insulin release to control blood glucose, due to insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function. The GPR39 receptor is expressed in metabolic tissues including pancreatic β-cells and has been proposed as a T2D target. Specifically, GPR39 agonists might improve β-cell function leading to more adequate and sustained insulin release and glucose control. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that GPR39 agonism would improve glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. A high throughput screen, followed by a medicinal chemistry program, identified three novel potent Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists. These agonists were evaluated in acute rodent glucose tolerance tests. The results showed a lack of glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects not only in lean mice, but also in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and Zucker fatty rats. It is concluded that Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists do not acutely stimulate insulin release in rodents. PMID:26720709

  4. A robotic BG1Luc reporter assay to detect estrogen receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Matthew A; Yang, Chun Z; Bittner, George D

    2014-08-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) have been associated with various adverse health effects. US agencies (ICCVAM/NICEATM) tasked to assess in vitro transcription activation assays to detect estrogenic receptor (ER) agonists for EA have recently validated a BG1Luc assay in manual format, but prefer robotic formats. We have developed a robotic BG1Luc EA assay to detect EA that demonstrated 100% concordance with ICCVAM meta-analyses and ICCVAM BG1Luc results in manual format for 27 ICCVAM test substances, i.e. no false negatives or false positives. This robotic assay also consistently assessed other, more problematic ICCVAM test substances such as clomiphene citrate, L-thyroxin, and tamoxifen. Agonist responses using this robotic BG1Luc assay were consistently inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780, confirming that agonist responses were due to binding to ERs rather than to a non-specific agonist response. This robotic assay also detected EA in complex mixtures of substances such as extracts of personal care products, plastic resins or plastic consumer products. This robotic BG1Luc assay had at least as high accuracy and greater sensitivity and repeatability when compared to its manual version or to the other ICCVAM/OECD validated assays for EA (manual BG1Luc and CERI).

  5. Effects of Peripherally Restricted κ Opioid Receptor Agonists on Pain-Related Stimulation and Depression of Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Robert; Morrissey, Ember; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    κ Opioid receptor agonists that do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier are peripherally restricted and distribute poorly to the central nervous system after systemic administration. Peripherally restricted κ agonists have promise as candidate analgesics, because they may produce antinociception mediated by peripheral κ receptors more potently than they produce undesirable sedative and psychotomimetic effects mediated by central κ receptors. The present study used assays of pain-related stimulation and depression of behavior in rats to compare effects of 1) two peripherally restricted κ agonists [the tetrapeptide d-Phe-d-Phe-d-Ile-d-Arg-NH2 (ffir) and the nonpeptidic compound ((R,S)-N-[2-(N-methyl-3,4-dichlorophenylacetamido)-2-(3-carboxyphenyl)-ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride (ICI204448)], 2) a centrally penetrating κ agonist (salvinorin A), and 3) several reference drugs, including a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID; ketoprofen). Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a stretching response and depress intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) maintained by the delivery of electrical brain stimulation to the medial forebrain bundle. Acid-stimulated stretching was blocked by ketoprofen, the peripherally restricted κ agonists, and salvinorin A. However, acid-induced depression of ICSS was blocked only by ketoprofen. The peripherally restricted κ agonists had little effect, and salvinorin A exacerbated acid-induced depression of ICSS. These results suggest that peripherally restricted κ agonists may be safer than centrally penetrating κ agonists but less efficacious than NSAIDS or μ opioid receptor agonists to block pain-related depression of behavior; however, the peripheral selectivity of ffir and ICI204448 is limited, and future studies with κ agonists capable of greater peripheral selectivity are warranted. PMID:22128346

  6. The effective opening of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with single agonist binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dustin K.; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Nicole A.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a means by which agonist-evoked responses of nicotinic receptors can be conditionally eliminated. Modification of α7L119C mutants by the sulfhydryl reagent 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA) reduces responses to acetylcholine (ACh) by more than 97%, whereas corresponding mutations in muscle-type receptors produce effects that depend on the specific subunits mutated and ACh concentration. We coexpressed α7L119C subunits with pseudo wild-type α7C116S subunits, as well as ACh-insensitive α7Y188F subunits with wild-type α7 subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes using varying ratios of cRNA. When mutant α7 cRNA was coinjected at a 5:1 ratio with wild-type cRNA, net charge responses to 300 µM ACh were retained by α7L119C-containing mutants after MTSEA modification and by the ACh-insensitive Y188F-containing mutants, even though the expected number of ACh-sensitive wild-type binding sites would on average be fewer than two per receptor. Responses of muscle-type receptors with one MTSEA-sensitive subunit were reduced at low ACh concentrations, but much less of an effect was observed when ACh concentrations were high (1 mM), indicating that saturation of a single binding site with agonist can evoke strong activation of nicotinic ACh receptors. Single-channel patch clamp analysis revealed that the burst durations of fetal wild-type and α1β1γδL121C receptors were equivalent until the α1β1γδL121C mutants were exposed to MTSEA, after which the majority (81%) of bursts were brief (≤2 ms). The longest duration events of the receptors modified at only one binding site were similar to the long bursts of native receptors traditionally associated with the activation of receptors with two sites containing bound agonists. PMID:21444659

  7. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  8. Allosteric modulation of glycine receptors is more efficacious for partial rather than full agonists.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Tímea; Maksay, Gábor

    2004-06-01

    Allosteric modulation of [3H]strychnine binding to glycine receptors (GlyRs) was examined in synaptosomal membranes of rat spinal cord. An allosteric model enabled us to determine the cooperativity factors of the allosteric agents with [3H]strychnine and glycine bindings (alpha and beta, respectively). We modified the allosteric model with a slope factor because the slope values of the displacement curves of partial agonists (beta-alanine, taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid) were beyond unity. The slope factor was reduced only by 100 microM propofol. Further, propofol showed positive cooperativity (beta < 1) stronger with taurine than with glycine. The extent of the positive cooperativity of propofol was nearly independent from the potencies and structures of partial agonists. The steroidal alphaxalone and minaxolone also potentiated taurine better than glycine. Alphaxalone exerted weak negative cooperativity with [3H]strychnine binding. Displacement by taurine is attenuated by granisetron and m-chlorophenylbiguanide representing negative cooperativity (beta > 1) greater than with glycine. The results suggest a developmental role of elevated perinatal levels of taurine and neurosteroids as well as a better allosteric modulation of decreased agonist efficacies for impaired glycine receptor-ionophores.

  9. A Novel Role of Serotonin Receptor 2B Agonist as an Anti-Melanogenesis Agent

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eun Ju; Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Myung, Cheol Hwan; Kim, Su Yeon; Chang, Sung Eun; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    BW723C86, a serotonin receptor 2B agonist, has been investigated as a potential therapeutic for various conditions such as anxiety, hyperphagia and hypertension. However, the functional role of BW723C86 against melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effect of serotonin receptor 2B (5-HTR2B) agonist on melanogenesis and elucidate the mechanism involved. BW723C86 reduced melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase activity in melan-A cells and normal human melanocytes. The expression of melanogenesis-related proteins (tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in melan-A cells decreased after BW723C86 treatment. The promoter activity of MITF was also reduced by BW723C86 treatment. The reduced level of MITF was associated with inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation by BW723C86 treatment. These results suggest that the serotonin agonist BW723C86 could be a potential therapeutic agent for skin hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:27077852

  10. Ligand-binding domain of an α7-nicotinic receptor chimera and its complex with agonist.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Xing; Huang, Sun; Bren, Nina; Noridomi, Kaori; Dellisanti, Cosma D; Sine, Steven M; Chen, Lin

    2011-09-11

    The α(7) acetylcholine receptor (AChR) mediates pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmission in the central nervous system and is a potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric and inflammatory disorders. We determined the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of a receptor chimera constructed from the human α(7) AChR and Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), which shares 64% sequence identity and 71% similarity with native α(7). We also determined the structure with bound epibatidine, a potent AChR agonist. Comparison of the structures revealed molecular rearrangements and interactions that mediate agonist recognition and early steps in signal transduction in α(7) AChRs. The structures further revealed a ring of negative charge within the central vestibule, poised to contribute to cation selectivity. Structure-guided mutational studies disclosed distinctive contributions to agonist recognition and signal transduction in α(7) AChRs. The structures provide a realistic template for structure-aided drug design and for defining structure-function relationships of α(7) AChRs.

  11. Identification of Darmstoff analogs as selective agonists and antagonists of lysophosphatidic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Gududuru, Veeresa; Zeng, Kui; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Makarova, Natalia; Fujiwara, Yuko; Pigg, Kathryn R; Baker, Daniel L; Tigyi, Gabor; Miller, Duane D

    2006-01-15

    Darmstoff describes a family of gut smooth muscle-stimulating acetal phosphatidic acids initially isolated and characterized from the bath fluid of stimulated gut over 50 years ago. Despite similar structural and biological profiles, Darmstoff analogs have not previously been examined as potential LPA mimetics. Here, we report a facile method for the synthesis of potassium salts of Darmstoff analogs. To understand the effect of stereochemistry on lysophosphatidic acid mimetic activity, synthesis of optically pure stereoisomers of selected Darmstoff analogs was achieved starting with chiral methyl glycerates. Each Darmstoff analog was evaluated for subtype-specific LPA receptor agonist/antagonist activity, PPARgamma activation, and autotaxin inhibition. From this study we identified compound 12 as a pan-antagonist and several pan-agonists for the LPA(1-3) receptors. Introduction of an aromatic ring in the lipid chain such as analog 22 produced a subtype-specific LPA(3) agonist with an EC(50) of 692 nM. Interestingly, regardless of their LPA(1/2/3) ligand properties all of the Darmstoff analogs tested activated PPARgamma. However, these compounds are weak inhibitors of autotaxin. The results indicate that Darmstoff analogs constitute a novel class of lysophosphatidic acid mimetics.

  12. Characterization of a new synthetic isoflavonoid with inverse agonist activity at the central benzodiazepine receptor.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Daniele V S; Caruso, Rodrigo R B; Castro, Newton G; Costa, Paulo R R; da Silva, Alcides J M; Noël, François

    2004-07-14

    Research aimed at developing selective drugs acting on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors introduced compounds from diverse chemical classes unrelated to the 1,4-benzodiazepines, including flavonoids. These studies also revealed the potential use of inverse agonists as cognition-enhancing agents. Here we report pharmacological properties of the novel synthetic isoflavonoid 2-methoxy-3,8,9-trihydroxy coumestan (PCALC36). PCALC36 displaced [3H]flunitrazepam binding to rat brain synaptosomes with an IC50 of 13.8 microM. Scatchard analysis of the effect of PCALC36 showed a concentration-dependent reduction of the Bmax of [3H]flunitrazepam, without a marked change in Kd. This effect could be reversed by diluting and washing the preparation. Addition of 20-microM GABA shifted to the right the inhibition curve of PCALC36 on [3H]flunitrazepam binding (IC50 ratio of 0.68), which is characteristic for inverse agonists. PCALC36 produced little change in the GABAergic tonic currents recorded by whole-cell patch clamp in cultured rat hippocampal neurones, but it caused a 20% reduction in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude and completely antagonised the full (direct) agonist midazolam in a quickly reversible manner. The data suggest that the coumestan backbone can be useful for developing novel ligands at the GABAA receptor.

  13. Therapeutic potential of histamine H3 receptor agonist for the treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Ryo; Miyamoto, Yasuhisa; Shimamura, Ken; Ishihara, Akane; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Kotani, Hidehito; Chen, Airu S; Chen, Howard Y; Macneil, Douglas J; Kanatani, Akio; Tokita, Shigeru

    2006-09-12

    Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) are located on the presynaptic membranes and cell soma of histamine neurons, where they negatively regulate the synthesis and release of histamine. In addition, H3Rs are also located on nonhistaminergic neurons, acting as heteroreceptors to regulate the releases of other amines such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. The present study investigated the effects of H3R ligands on appetite and body-weight regulation by using WT and H3R-deficient mice (H3RKO), because brain histamine plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. The results showed that thioperamide, an H3R inverse agonist, increases, whereas imetit, an H3R agonist, decreases appetite and body weight in diet-induced obese (DiO) WT mice. Moreover, in DiO WT mice, but not in DiO H3RKO mice, imetit reduced fat mass, plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin, and hepatic triglyceride content. The anorexigenic effects of imetit were associated with a reduction in histamine release, but a comparable reduction in histamine release with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, an inhibitor of histamine synthesis, increased appetite. Moreover, the anorexigenic effects of imetit were independent of the melanocortin system, because imetit comparably reduced appetite in melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor-deficient mice. The results provide roles of H3Rs in energy homeostasis and suggest a therapeutic potential for H3R agonists in the treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  14. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists activate CFTR in intestinal organoids and subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vijftigschild, Lodewijk A W; Berkers, Gitte; Dekkers, Johanna F; Zomer-van Ommen, Domenique D; Matthes, Elizabeth; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte; Hensen, Chantal E; Heida-Michel, Sabine; Geerdink, Margot; Janssens, Hettie M; van de Graaf, Eduard A; Bronsveld, Inez; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Majoor, Christof J; Heijerman, Harry G M; de Jonge, Hugo R; Hanrahan, John W; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesized that people with cystic fibrosis (CF) who express CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene mutations associated with residual function may benefit from G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-targeting drugs that can activate and enhance CFTR function.We used intestinal organoids to screen a GPCR-modulating compound library and identified β2-adrenergic receptor agonists as the most potent inducers of CFTR function.β2-Agonist-induced organoid swelling correlated with the CFTR genotype, and could be induced in homozygous CFTR-F508del organoids and highly differentiated primary CF airway epithelial cells after rescue of CFTR trafficking by small molecules. The in vivo response to treatment with an oral or inhaled β2-agonist (salbutamol) in CF patients with residual CFTR function was evaluated in a pilot study. 10 subjects with a R117H or A455E mutation were included and showed changes in the nasal potential difference measurement after treatment with oral salbutamol, including a significant improvement of the baseline potential difference of the nasal mucosa (+6.35 mV, p<0.05), suggesting that this treatment might be effective in vivo Furthermore, plasma that was collected after oral salbutamol treatment induced CFTR activation when administered ex vivo to organoids.This proof-of-concept study suggests that organoids can be used to identify drugs that activate CFTR function in vivo and to select route of administration.

  15. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Kim, Eun Ran; Fan, Shengjie; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2014-08-22

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid reduction in both body temperature and energy expenditure, which was independent of its effect on feeding and followed by a prolonged increase in energy expenditure. The rapid reduction was at least partly mediated by brain neurons since intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an endogenous melanocortin receptor agonist, produced a similar response. In addition, the body temperature-lowering effect of MTII was independent of the presence of MC4Rs, but in a similar fashion to the previously shown effect on body temperature by 5'AMP. Moreover, β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) were required for the recovery from low body temperature induced by MTII and further pharmacological studies showed that the MTII's effect on body temperature may be partially mediated by the vasopressin V1a receptors. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated role for the melanocortin pathway in rapidly lowering body temperature.

  16. Estrogen receptor (ER) agonists and androgen receptor (AR) antagonists in effluents from Norwegian North Sea oil production platforms.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Harman, Christopher; Smith, Andy; Thomas, Kevin V

    2007-03-01

    The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) agonist and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist potencies of offshore produced water effluents collected from the Norwegian Sector were determined using recombinant yeast estrogen and androgen screens. Solid phase extraction (SPE) concentrates of the effluents showed E2 agonist activities similar to those previously reported for the United Kingdom (UK) Continental Shelf (<0.1-4 ng E2 L(-1)). No activity was detected in the filtered oil droplets suggesting that produced water ER activity is primarily associated with the dissolved phase. Targeted analysis for methyl- to nonyl-substituted alkylphenol isomers show the occurrence of known ER agonists in the analysed samples. For the first time, AR antagonists were detected in both the dissolved and oil associated phase at concentrations of between 20 and 8000 microg of flutamide equivalents L(-1). The identity of the AR antagonists is unknown, however this represents a significant input into the marine environment of unknown compounds that exert a known biological effect. It is recommended that further analysis using techniques such as bioassay-directed analysis is performed to identify the compounds/groups of compounds that are responsible in order to improve the assessment of the risk posed by produced water discharges to the marine environment.

  17. Evidence that antipsychotic drugs are inverse agonists at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hall, D A; Strange, P G

    1997-06-01

    1. The effects of a number of D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists have been determined on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human D2short dopamine receptor (CHO-D2S cells). 2. Dopamine inhibited the effect of forskolin (as expected for a D2 receptor). However, all of the antagonists tested, apart from UH232 and (-)-butaclamol, were able to increase cyclic AMP accumulation above the forskolin control level. (+)-Butaclamol elicited a similar stimulation of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in a CHO cell line expressing human D2long dopamine receptors whereas it exhibited no stimulating effect on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in untransfected CHO-K1 cells. 3. There was a strong correlation between the EC50 values of these compounds for potentiation of cyclic AMP accumulation and their Ki values from radioligand binding experiments in CHO-D2S cells. 4. The effects of both (+)-butaclamol and dopamine in CHO-D2S cells were inhibited by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin indicating a role for Gi/Go proteins. 5. UH232 did not significantly affect forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation but this substance was able to inhibit the effects of both dopamine and (+)-butaclamol in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus the effects of (+)-butaclamol on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation are mediated directly via the D2 receptor rather than by reversal of the effects of an endogenous agonist. 6. These data suggest that the D2 dopamine receptor antagonists tested here, many of which are used clinically as antipsychotic drugs, are in fact inverse agonists at human D2 dopamine receptors.

  18. Selective agonists for serotonin 7 (5-HT7) receptor and their applications in preclinical models: an overview.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Pantaleo; Niso, Mauro; Adriani, Walter; Romano, Emilia; Travaglini, Domenica; Berardi, Francesco; Colabufo, Nicola A; Perrone, Roberto; Laviola, Giovanni; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin 7 (5-HT7) receptor was the last serotonin receptor subtype to be discovered in 1993. This receptor system has been implicated in several central nervous system (CNS) functions, including circadian rhythm, rapid eye movement sleep, thermoregulation, nociception, memory and neuropsychiatric symptoms and pathologies, such as anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. In 1999, medicinal chemistry efforts led to the identification of SB-269970, which became the gold standard selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, and later of various selective agonists such as AS-19, LP-44, LP-12, LP-211 and E-55888. In this review, we summarize the preclinical pharmacological studies performed using these agonists, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. The data indicate that 5-HT7 receptor agonists can have neuroprotective effects against N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced toxicity, modulate neuronal plasticity in rats, enhance morphine-induced antinociception and alleviate hyperalgesia consecutive to nerve lesion in neuropathic animals.

  19. Involvement of tyrosine residues located in the carboxyl tail of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor in agonist-induced down-regulation of the receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Valiquette, M; Bonin, H; Hnatowich, M; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J; Bouvier, M

    1990-01-01

    Chronic exposure of various cell types to adrenergic agonists leads to a decrease in cell surface beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) number. Sequestration of the receptor away from the cell surface as well as a down-regulation of the total number of cellular receptors are believed to contribute to this agonist-mediated regulation of receptor number. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not well characterized. Recently, tyrosine residues located in the cytoplasmic tails of several membrane receptors, such as the low density lipoprotein and mannose-6-phosphate receptors, have been suggested as playing an important role in the agonist-induced internalization of these receptors. Accordingly, we assessed the potential role of two tyrosine residues in the carboxyl tail of the human beta 2AR in agonist-induced sequestration and down-regulation of the receptor. Tyr-350 and Tyr-354 of the human beta 2AR were replaced with alanine residues by site-directed mutagenesis and both wild-type and mutant beta 2AR were stably expressed in transformed Chinese hamster fibroblasts. The mutation dramatically decreased the ability of the beta 2AR to undergo isoproterenol-induced down-regulation. However, the substitution of Tyr-350 and Tyr-354 did not affect agonist-induced sequestration of the receptor. These results suggest that tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of human beta 2AR are crucial determinants involved in its down-regulation. PMID:2164220

  20. MDA7: a novel selective agonist for CB2 receptors that prevents allodynia in rat neuropathic pain models

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, M; Diaz, P; Xu, J J; Astruc-Diaz, F; Craig, S; Vivas-Mejia, P; Brown, D L

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is growing interest in using cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor agonists for the treatment of neuropathic pain. In this report, we describe the pharmacological characteristics of MDA7 (1-[(3-benzyl-3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-6-yl)carbonyl]piperidine), a novel CB2 receptor agonist. Experimental approach: We characterized the pharmacological profile of MDA7 by using radioligand-binding assays and in vitro functional assays at human cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and CB2 receptors. In vitro functional assays were performed at rat CB1 and CB2 receptors. The effects of MDA7 in reversing neuropathic pain were assessed in spinal nerve ligation and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy models in rats. Key results: MDA7 exhibited selectivity and agonist affinity at human and rat CB2 receptors. MDA7 treatment attenuated tactile allodynia produced by spinal nerve ligation or by paclitaxel in a dose-related manner. These effects were selectively antagonized by a CB2 receptor antagonist but not by CB1 or opioid receptor antagonists. MDA7 did not affect rat locomotor activity. Conclusion and implications: MDA7, a novel selective CB2 agonist, was effective in suppressing neuropathic nociception in two rat models without affecting locomotor behaviour. These results confirm the potential for CB2 agonists in the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:18846037

  1. Different Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Agonists Produce Unique Signatures for the Recruitment of Downstream Signaling Proteins* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Ronan, Tom; Macdonald-Obermann, Jennifer L.; Huelsmann, Lorel; Bessman, Nicholas J.; Naegle, Kristen M.; Pike, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The EGF receptor can bind seven different agonist ligands. Although each agonist appears to stimulate the same suite of downstream signaling proteins, different agonists are capable of inducing distinct responses in the same cell. To determine the basis for these differences, we used luciferase fragment complementation imaging to monitor the recruitment of Cbl, CrkL, Gab1, Grb2, PI3K, p52 Shc, p66 Shc, and Shp2 to the EGF receptor when stimulated by the seven EGF receptor ligands. Recruitment of all eight proteins was rapid, dose-dependent, and inhibited by erlotinib and lapatinib, although to differing extents. Comparison of the time course of recruitment of the eight proteins in response to a fixed concentration of each growth factor revealed differences among the growth factors that could contribute to their differing biological effects. Principal component analysis of the resulting data set confirmed that the recruitment of these proteins differed between agonists and also between different doses of the same agonist. Ensemble clustering of the overall response to the different growth factors suggests that these EGF receptor ligands fall into two major groups as follows: (i) EGF, amphiregulin, and EPR; and (ii) betacellulin, TGFα, and epigen. Heparin-binding EGF is distantly related to both clusters. Our data identify differences in network utilization by different EGF receptor agonists and highlight the need to characterize network interactions under conditions other than high dose EGF. PMID:26786109

  2. Investigation of the histamine H3 receptor binding site. Design and synthesis of hybrid agonists with a lipophilic side chain.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi; Kudo, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, Fumikazu; Yamauchi, Miki; Kato, Kazuhiko; Kakui, Nobukazu; Sato, Yasuo

    2010-09-09

    As a part of our search for novel histamine H3 receptor agonists, we designed and synthesized hybrid compounds in which the lipophilic (4'-alkylphenylthio)ethyl moiety of a novel H3 receptor agonist, 4-(2-(4'-tert-butylphenylthio)ethyl)-1H-imidazole (1), was incorporated into N(alpha)-methylhistamine, immepip, and immethridine derivatives. These hybrid compounds were expected to interact concurrently with the histamine-binding site and a putative hydrophobic region in the H3 receptor. Among them, piperidine- and pyridine-type derivatives displayed partial agonist activity, and (S)-4-(1-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenylthio)ethyl)piperidine (36) was identified as a potent H3 agonist. We performed computational docking studies to examine the binding mode of the agonists. The results indicated that immepip interacts with the key residues, Asp114 and Glu206, in a different manner from histamine. The binding mode of 36 to these residues is similar to that of immepip, and the lipophilic tail of 36 has an additional interaction with a hydrophobic region in transmembrane helix 6 of the receptor. These results indicated that 36 served as a useful tool for studies on receptor-agonist interactions and drug design.

  3. Selective anxiolytics: are the actions related to partial "agonist" activity or a preferential affinity for benzodiazepine receptor subtypes?

    PubMed

    Gee, K W; Yamamura, H I

    1983-01-01

    Both pharmacological and biochemical evidence support the existence of BZ receptor subtypes. Determination of the molecular basis of BZ receptor heterogeneity requires additional research. The physiological significance of BZ receptor subtypes is not currently understood. One hypothesis presented to explain the unique pharmacological effects of CL 218872 suggests that CL 218872 has preferential affinity for a BZ receptor subtype (i.e., type I sites) that mediates the anxiolytic effects of the clinically active BZs. An alternative hypothesis has been proposed to account for these observations and is based upon the possibility that CL 218872 may act as a partial agonist at the BZ receptor. The partial agonist theory is supported by behavioral evidence and the relatively small differences in affinity of the BZ receptor subtypes discriminated by CL 218872 at physiological temperatures. In addition, in vivo binding studies suggest that occupancy of type II BZ receptor subtypes (i.e., those with low affinity for CL 218872) is necessary for CL 218872 to produce minimal anticonflict activity (4). Unlike certain other neurotransmitter systems, it is difficult to correlate the heterogeneous binding properties of BZ receptor ligands with their agonist/antagonist potential at BZ receptor. For example, CL 218872 discriminates BZ receptor subtypes and acts as an agonist at the BZ receptor. Beta-carbolines such as PCC also discriminate receptor subtypes, yet they act as antagonists at the BZ receptor. Compounding the complexity, neither the nature nor the existence of an endogenous ligand is known. So, the designation of agonist or antagonist effects is made on a purely functional basis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Influence of the dopamine receptor agonists fenoldopam and quinpirole in the rat superior mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, A. G.; Lefebvre, R. A.; Vanderniepen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of local administration of the dopamine 2 (DA2)-receptor agonist quinpirole and of the DA1-receptor agonist fenoldopam was studied in the in situ, constant flow autoperfused, superior mesenteric vascular bed of the rat. Local infusion of quinpirole (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 5 min) had no effect on baseline perfusion pressure; it reduced the pressor responses to electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 1 ms, supramaximal voltage) of the periarterial sympathetic nerves to 45.6 +/- 2.1% of its original value but did not modify similar pressor responses produced by locally administered noradrenaline. The inhibitory effect of quinpirole was antagonized by the selective DA2-receptor antagonist domperidone (10 micrograms kg-1) but not by the selective DA1-receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (50 micrograms kg-1). Local infusion of fenoldopam (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 5 min) reduced baseline perfusion pressure to 89.9 +/- 1.9%, increased the pressor response to electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 1 ms, supramaximal voltage) of the periarterial nerves to 134.7 +/- 14.0%, but reduced the pressor response to locally administered noradrenaline to 37.2 +/- 8.2%. Similar pressor responses induced by the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine were also reduced by fenoldopam (to 38.4 +/- 6.4%), but responses to locally administered angiotensin II were not modified. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 (50 micrograms kg-1) antagonized the effect of fenoldopam on baseline perfusion pressure, but had no influence on the effect of fenoldopam on responses to electrical stimulation or to noradrenaline. Pretreatment with the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (100 micrograms kg-1) had no effect on the reduction in baseline perfusion pressure induced by fenoldopam nor on its inhibitory effect on the response to noradrenaline, but it antagonized the stimulatory effect of fenoldopam on the response to electrical stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2886174

  5. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  6. Influence of different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on apomorphine-induced licking behavior in rat.

    PubMed

    Farzin, D; Attarzadeh, M

    2000-09-15

    The effects of different histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on apomorphine-induced licking behavior in rats were investigated. Subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of various doses of apomorphine (0. 125-1.25 mg/kg) induced licking. The licking response was counted by direct observation and recorded for a 75-min period. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the histamine H(1) or H(2) receptor agonist, HTMT (6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl) heptanecarboxamide) (50 and 100 microg per rat), or dimaprit (10 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively, potentiated apomorphine-induced licking, while the histamine H(3) receptor agonist, imetit (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), reduced the licking response induced by apomorphine. Pretreatment with various histamine receptor antagonists, dexchlorpheniramine (30 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.), diphenhydramine (20, 30 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.), famotidine (30 and 40 mg/kg, s.c.) and ranitidine (20, 30 and 40 mg/kg), reduced apomorphine-induced licking, while thioperamide (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the apomorphine effect. The effects of HTMT and dimaprit were blocked by dexchlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and famotidine (20 mg/kg, s.c.), respectively. The inhibitory effect elicited by imetit on apomorphine-induced licking behavior was also abolished in animals treated with thioperamide (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The results suggest that histaminergic mechanisms may be involved in the modulation of apomorphine-induced licking behavior.

  7. Highly Selective Salicylketoxime-Based Estrogen Receptor β Agonists Display Antiproliferative Activities in a Glioma Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) selective agonists are considered potential therapeutic agents for a variety of pathological conditions, including several types of cancer. Their development is particularly challenging, since differences in the ligand binding cavities of the two ER subtypes α and β are minimal. We have carried out a rational design of new salicylketoxime derivatives which display unprecedentedly high levels of ERβ selectivity for this class of compounds, both in binding affinity and in cell-based functional assays. An endogenous gene expression assay was used to further characterize the pharmacological action of these compounds. Finally, these ERβ-selective agonists were found to inhibit proliferation of a glioma cell line in vitro. Most importantly, one of these compounds also proved to be active in an in vivo xenograft model of human glioma, thus demonstrating the high potential of this type of compounds against this devastating disease. PMID:25559213

  8. The Effect of Glutamate Receptor Agonists on Mouse Retinal Astrocyte [Ca2+]i

    PubMed Central

    Blandford, Stephanie N.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-imaging techniques were used to determine if mouse retinal astrocytes in situ respond to agonists of ionotropic (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, AMPA; N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA) and metabotropic (S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, DHPG; trans-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid, ACPD) glutamate receptors. In most cases we found no evidence that retinal astrocyte intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) increased in response to these glutamate agonists. The one exception was AMPA that increased [Ca2+]i in some, but not all, mouse retinal astrocytes in situ. However, AMPA did not increase [Ca2+]i in mouse retinal astrocytes in vitro, suggesting that the effect of AMPA in situ may be indirect. PMID:27413752

  9. The Effect of Glutamate Receptor Agonists on Mouse Retinal Astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i.

    PubMed

    Blandford, Stephanie N; Baldridge, William H

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-imaging techniques were used to determine if mouse retinal astrocytes in situ respond to agonists of ionotropic (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, AMPA; N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA) and metabotropic (S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, DHPG; trans-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid, ACPD) glutamate receptors. In most cases we found no evidence that retinal astrocyte intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) increased in response to these glutamate agonists. The one exception was AMPA that increased [Ca(2+)]i in some, but not all, mouse retinal astrocytes in situ. However, AMPA did not increase [Ca(2+)]i in mouse retinal astrocytes in vitro, suggesting that the effect of AMPA in situ may be indirect.

  10. Allosteric agonists of the calcium receptor (CaR): fluorine and SF5 analogues of cinacalcet.

    PubMed

    Chia, Poh Wai; Brennan, Sarah C; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Riccardi, Daniela; O'Hagan, David

    2012-10-21

    Three selectively fluorinated cinacalcet analogues are prepared and their activity as calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) agonists is assessed. Individual (2R,1'R)-2 and (2S,1'R)-3 fluorocinacalcet diastereoisomers were prepared using the MacMillan asymmetric fluorination reaction. Assays with the recombinant human CaR revealed that both diastereoisomers have a similar potency to each other although slightly lower (75-80%) than that of cinacalcet 1. The SF(5)-cinacalcet analogue 4 was prepared from meta-pentafluorosulfanyl benzyl alcohol and has ~75% agonist activity relative to cinacalcet 1 indicating that the SF(5) group can replace the CF(3) group and retain significant bioactivity.

  11. CPG-7909 (PF-3512676, ProMune): toll-like receptor-9 agonist in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Murad, Yanal M; Clay, Timothy M; Lyerly, H Kim; Morse, Michael A

    2007-08-01

    Stimulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)9 activates human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, and induces potent innate immune responses in preclinical tumor models and in patients. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are TLR9 agonists that show promising results as vaccine adjuvants and in the treatment of cancers, infections, asthma and allergy. PF-3512676 (ProMune) was developed as a TLR9 agonist for the treatment of cancer as monotherapy and as an adjuvant in combination with chemo- and immunotherapy. Phase I and II trials have tested this drug in several hematopoietic and solid tumors. Pfizer has initiated Phase III trials to test PF-3512676 in combination with standard chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer.

  12. Prospects for Creation of Cardioprotective and Antiarrhythmic Drugs Based on Opioid Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Maslov, Leonid N; Oeltgen, Peter R.; Naryzhnaya, Natalia V.; Pei, Jian‐Ming; Brown, Stephen A.; Lishmanov, Yury B.; Downey, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has now been demonstrated that the μ, δ1, δ2, and κ1 opioid receptor (OR) agonists represent the most promising group of opioids for the creation of drugs enhancing cardiac tolerance to the detrimental effects of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Opioids are able to prevent necrosis and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes during I/R and improve cardiac contractility in the reperfusion period. The OR agonists exert an infarct‐reducing effect with prophylactic administration and prevent reperfusion‐induced cardiomyocyte death when ischemic injury of heart has already occurred; that is, opioids can mimic preconditioning and postconditioning phenomena. Furthermore, opioids are also effective in preventing ischemia‐induced arrhythmias. PMID:27197922

  13. Isoform-Specific Biased Agonism of Histamine H3 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Riddy, Darren M; Cook, Anna E; Diepenhorst, Natalie A; Bosnyak, Sanja; Brady, Ryan; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Summers, Roger J; Charman, William N; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur; Langmead, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    The human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R) is subject to extensive gene splicing that gives rise to a large number of functional and nonfunctional isoforms. Despite the general acceptance that G protein-coupled receptors can adopt different ligand-induced conformations that give rise to biased signaling, this has not been studied for the H3R; further, it is unknown whether splice variants of the same receptor engender the same or differential biased signaling. Herein, we profiled the pharmacology of histamine receptor agonists at the two most abundant hH3R splice variants (hH3R445 and hH3R365) across seven signaling endpoints. Both isoforms engender biased signaling, notably for 4-[3-(benzyloxy)propyl]-1H-imidazole (proxyfan) [e.g., strong bias toward phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) via the full-length receptor] and its congener 3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl-(4-iodophenyl)-methyl ether (iodoproxyfan), which are strongly consistent with the former's designation as a "protean" agonist. The 80 amino acid IL3 deleted isoform hH3R365 is more permissive in its signaling than hH3R445: 2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)ethyl imidothiocarbamate (imetit), proxyfan, and iodoproxyfan were all markedly biased away from calcium signaling, and principal component analysis of the full data set revealed divergent profiles for all five agonists. However, most interesting was the identification of differential biased signaling between the two isoforms. Strikingly, hH3R365 was completely unable to stimulate GSK3β phosphorylation, an endpoint robustly activated by the full-length receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative example of differential biased signaling via isoforms of the same G protein-coupled receptor that are simultaneously expressed in vivo and gives rise to the possibility of selective pharmacological targeting of individual receptor splice variants.

  14. Contractile effect of TRPA1 receptor agonists in the isolated mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Penuelas, Angelica; Tashima, Kimihito; Tsuchiya, Shizuko; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Nakamura, Tomonori; Horie, Syunji; Yano, Shingo

    2007-12-08

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family expressed in sensory neurons. The present study focused on the effects of TRPA1 activation on contractile responses in isolated mouse intestine preparations. The jejunum, ileum, and proximal and distal colon were surgically isolated from male ddY mice. Intestinal motility was recorded as changes in isotonic tension. TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV1 expressions were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) dose-dependently induced contractions in the proximal and distal colon, whereas in the jejunum and ileum, even 100 muM AITC caused very little contraction. Likewise, a TRPA1 and TRPM8 agonist icilin, a TRPA1 agonist allicin, and a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin induced contractions in the colon. However, a TRPM8 agonist menthol induced long-lasting relaxation in the colon. Repeated exposure to AITC produced desensitization of its own contraction in the colon. Moreover, contractions induced by AITC generate cross-desensitization with icilin and capsaicin. Tetrodotoxin completely abolished AITC-induced contractions in the colon, whereas atropine significantly attenuated AITC-induced contractions in the distal colon, but not in the proximal colon. Menthol-induced relaxation in the colon was not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and atropine. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of TRPA1 and TRPV1, but not TRPM8, throughout the mouse intestine. These results suggest that TRPA1, but not TRPM8, are functionally expressed in the enteric nervous system throughout the mouse intestine on neurons that may also co-express TRPV1, yet the contractile responses to TRPA1 activation differ depending on their location along the intestine.

  15. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Kenny, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  16. Predicted Structures of Agonist and Antagonist Bound Complexes of Adenosine A3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Riley, Lindsay; Abrol, Ravinder; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Goddard, William A.

    2011-01-01

    We used the GEnSeMBLE Monte Carlo method to predict ensemble of the 20 best packings (helix rotations and tilts) based on the neutral total energy (E) from a vast number (10 trillion) of potential packings for each of the 4 subtypes of the adenosine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in many cytoprotective functions. We then used the DarwinDock Monte Carlo methods to predict the binding pose for the human A3 adenosine receptor (hAA3R) for subtype selective agonists and antagonists. We find that all four A3 agonists stabilize the 15th lowest conformation of apo-hAA3R while also binding strongly to the 1st and 3rd. In contrast the four A3 antagonists stabilize the 2nd or 3rd lowest conformation. These results show that different ligands can stabilize different GPCR conformations, which will likely affect function, complicating the design of functionally unique ligands. Interestingly all agonists lead to a trans χ1 angle for W6.48 that experiments on other GPCRs associate with G-protein activation while all 20 apo-AA3R conformations have a W6.48 gauche+ χ1 angle associated experimentally with inactive GPCRs for other systems. Thus docking calculations have identified critical ligand-GPCR structures involved with activation. We find that the predicted binding site for selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA to the predicted structure of hAA3R shows favorable interactions to three subtype variable residues, I2536.58, V169EL2, and Q167EL2, while the predicted structure for hAA2AR shows weakened to the corresponding amino acids: T2566.58, E169EL2, and L167EL2, explaining the observed subtype selectivity. PMID:21488099

  17. Predicted structures of agonist and antagonist bound complexes of adenosine A3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Riley, Lindsay; Abrol, Ravinder; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Goddard, William A

    2011-06-01

    We used the GEnSeMBLE Monte Carlo method to predict ensemble of the 20 best packings (helix rotations and tilts) based on the neutral total energy (E) from a vast number (10 trillion) of potential packings for each of the four subtypes of the adenosine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are involved in many cytoprotective functions. We then used the DarwinDock Monte Carlo methods to predict the binding pose for the human A(3) adenosine receptor (hAA(3)R) for subtype selective agonists and antagonists. We found that all four A(3) agonists stabilize the 15th lowest conformation of apo-hAA(3)R while also binding strongly to the 1st and 3rd. In contrast the four A(3) antagonists stabilize the 2nd or 3rd lowest conformation. These results show that different ligands can stabilize different GPCR conformations, which will likely affect function, complicating the design of functionally unique ligands. Interestingly all agonists lead to a trans χ1 angle for W6.48 that experiments on other GPCRs associate with G-protein activation while all 20 apo-AA(3)R conformations have a W6.48 gauche+ χ1 angle associated experimentally with inactive GPCRs for other systems. Thus docking calculations have identified critical ligand-GPCR structures involved with activation. We found that the predicted binding site for selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA to the predicted structure of hAA(3)R shows favorable interactions to three subtype variable residues, I253(6.58), V169(EL2), and Q167(EL2), while the predicted structure for hAA(2A)R shows weakened to the corresponding amino acids: T256(6.58), E169(EL2), and L167(EL2), explaining the observed subtype selectivity.

  18. Diterpenoid, steroid, and triterpenoid agonists of liver X receptors from diversified terrestrial plants and marine sources.

    PubMed

    Jayasuriya, Hiranthi; Herath, Kithsiri B; Ondeyka, John G; Guan, Ziqiang; Borris, Robert P; Tiwari, Suroojnauth; de Jong, Wil; Chavez, Flor; Moss, Jeremy; Stevenson, Dennis W; Beck, Hans T; Slattery, Marc; Zamora, Nelson; Schulman, Marvin; Ali, Aisha; Sharma, Neelam; MacNaul, Karen; Hayes, Nancy; Menke, John G; Singh, Sheo B

    2005-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that liver X receptors (LXR) play a significant role in cholesterol homeostasis. Agonists of LXR are expected to increase cellular cholesterol efflux, lower LDL, and raise HDL levels. Screening of a natural product library of plant extracts using a LXR-SPA binding assay and bioassay-guided fractionation of a number of plant and marine gorgonian extracts led to the isolation of a number of active compounds. These included acanthoic acid (1) and alcohol (2), viperidone (3), polycarpol (4), rosacea acid (5), a cycloartane derivative (6), a new cycloartane analogue (7), betulinic acid (8), and gorgostane derivatives (9, 10, and 11). Of these compounds, 1, 4, and 11 exhibited potent binding affinity for alpha-receptor with IC(50) values of 0.25, 0.12, and 0.07 microM, respectively. Functionally they also showed strong coactivator association stimulation for LXRalpha receptor with EC50 values of 0.18, 0.03, and 0.05 microM, respectively. They also exhibited 15-, 8-, and 13-fold induction of the alpha-receptor in a transactivation assay in HEK-293 cells, respectively. In general these compounds were selective for the LXR alpha-receptor over the beta-receptor in all assays and were much better stimulators of the alpha-receptor than the endogenous steroid ligands.

  19. Revealing a steroid receptor ligand as a unique PPAR[gamma] agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shengchen; Han, Ying; Shi, Yuzhe; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Lin, Shu-Yong; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Li, Yong

    2012-06-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti-diabetic drugs. We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand, RU-486, as an unexpected PPAR{gamma} agonist, thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug. Similar to rosiglitazone, RU-486 modulates the expression of key PPAR{gamma} target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation, but with a lower adipogenic activity. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU-486 in the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes, providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination of RU-486 from thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs. Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent an alternative approach for designing non-TZD PPAR{gamma} ligands in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  20. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have emerged as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neurocognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia that are often resistant to existing antipsychotic drugs. Molecular evidence for involvement in schizophrenia of CHRNA7, the gene for the receptor subunit, in the neurobiology of deficits in attention is a critical rationale for the clinical study of α7-nicotinic receptor agonists to improve neurocognition. Initial clinical trials show enhancement of inhibitory neuron function related to sensory gating and increased attention and working memory, as well as improvement in negative symptoms such as anhedonia and alogia. Further development of this therapeutic strategy requires assessment of interactions with patients' heavy cigarette smoking and the relationship of this mechanism to the therapeutic effects of clozapine and olanzapine, both highly effective therapeutics with significant side effects.

  1. Detection of multiple H3 receptor affinity states utilizing [3H]A-349821, a novel, selective, non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist radioligand.

    PubMed

    Witte, David G; Yao, Betty Bei; Miller, Thomas R; Carr, Tracy L; Cassar, Steven; Sharma, Rahul; Faghih, Ramin; Surber, Bruce W; Esbenshade, Timothy A; Hancock, Arthur A; Krueger, Kathleen M

    2006-07-01

    1. A-349821 is a selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist. Herein, binding of the novel non-imidazole H3 receptor radioligand [3H]A-349821 to membranes expressing native or recombinant H3 receptors from rat or human sources was characterized and compared with the binding of the agonist [3H]N--methylhistamine ([3H]NMH). 2. [3H]A-349821 bound with high affinity and specificity to an apparent single class of saturable sites and recognized human H3 receptors with 10-fold higher affinity compared to rat H3 receptors. [3H]A-349821 detected larger populations of receptors compared to [3H]NMH. 3. Displacement of [3H]A-349821 binding by H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists was monophasic, suggesting recognition of a single binding site, while that of H3 receptor agonists was biphasic, suggesting recognition of both high- and low-affinity H3 receptor sites. 4. pKi values of high-affinity binding sites for H3 receptor competitors utilizing [3H]A-349821 were highly correlated with pKi values obtained with [3H]NalphaMH, consistent with labelling of H3 receptors by [3H]A-349821. 5. Unlike assays utilizing [3H]NMH, addition of GDP had no effect on saturation parameters measured with [3H]A-349821, while displacement of [3H]A-349821 binding by the H3 receptor agonist histamine was sensitive to GDP. 6. In conclusion, [3H]A-349821 labels interconvertible high- and low-affinity states of the H3 receptor, and displays improved selectivity over imidazole-containing H3 receptor antagonist radioligands. [3H]A-349821 competition studies showed significant differences in the proportions and potencies of high- and low-affinity sites across species, providing new information about the fundamental pharmacological nature of H3 receptors.

  2. AT2 receptor non-peptide agonist C21 promotes natriuresis in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Quaisar; Hussain, Tahir

    2012-06-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptors have a role in natriuresis in obese Zucker rats (OZR). In the present study, we investigated the role of a novel, non-peptide agonist, C21, in natriuresis via AT(2) receptor activation in OZR. Infusion of C21 (1 and 5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)) into rats under anesthesia caused a dose-dependent increase in urine flow (UF) and urinary Na volume (U(Na)V). These effects of C21 were blocked by pre-infusion of the AT(2) receptor antagonist, PD123319, (50 μg kg(-1) min(-1)), suggesting involvement of the AT(2) receptor. Infusion of C21 (5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)) significantly increased the fractional excretion of sodium without changing the glomerular filtration rate or blood pressure, suggesting a tubular effect. Similarly, C21 infusion increased the fractional excretion of lithium, suggesting a proximal tubular effect. Furthermore, we tested the effect of C21 on natriuresis after blocking two main, distal-nephron Na transporters, the epithelial Na channels (ENaC), with amiloride (AM, 3 mg kg(-1) body wt), and the NaCl cotransporters (NCC), with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ, 7 mg kg(-1) body wt). Infusion of AM + BFTZ caused significant increases in both diuresis and natriuresis, which were further increased by infusion of C21 (5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)). Natriuresis in response to C21 was associated with increases in urinary NO and cGMP levels. The data indicate that the AT(2) receptor agonist, C21, promotes natriuresis via AT(2) receptor activation and that this effect is potentially based in the proximal tubules and linked to the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. The natriuretic response to C21 may have therapeutic significance by improving kidney function in obesity.

  3. The specificity of some agonists and antagonists for nicotine-sensitive receptors in ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, R.B.; Bowman, Frances; Ison, R.R.; McQueen, D.S.

    1974-01-01

    1 The guinea-pig isolated ileum has been used to estimate the ability of substituted phenylalkylonium salts (related to nicotine) to stimulate or block receptors in ganglia. The effects of hexamethonium were used to indicate which were the most specific ganglion stimulants; these were tested on the blood-pressure of pithed rats and for neuromuscular blocking activity on the rat diaphragm preparation. 2 m-Hydroxyphenylpropyltrimethylammonium and 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyltrimethylammonium (coryneine, `quaternary dopamine') were the most active and specific ganglion stimulants but their usefulness in vivo may be limited by their neuromuscular blocking activity. The analogous tertiary compounds are being investigated. 3 The affinities of substances which were blocking agents at ganglionic receptors were measured on the isolated ileum with m-hydroxyphenylpropyltrimethylammonium as agonist. The affinities of selected compounds for postganglionic receptors were measured in experiments on the ileum in the presence of hexamethonium and with carbachol as agonist. Some of the compounds were tested for neuromuscular blocking activity on the rat diaphragm. 4 Phenylbutyldiethylamine had ganglion-blocking activity greater than pempidine and little postganglionic blocking or neuromuscular blocking activity. Its triethylammonium analogue had higher ganglion-blocking activity but had appreciable neuromuscular blocking activity. 5 The aromatic ring system is not essential either for activity or affinity and the effects of substituents are not related to their effects on electron distribution. Stimulant activity is enhanced only by hydroxyl or amino groups in suitable positions; it is not improved by the presence of rigid features (double or triple bonds or a cyclopropane ring) in the side chain. Affinity is slightly increased by chloro or bromo groups in suitable positions but the unsubstituted compounds are among those with the highest affinity. Substituents have similar effects on

  4. Exposure to D2-like dopamine receptor agonists inhibits swimming in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, Enrico R; Fowler, David A; Beckman, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    Daphnia are freshwater crustaceans that have been used for decades in ecotoxicology research. Despite the important role that Daphnia have played in environmental toxicology studies, very little is known about the neurobiology of Daphnia. Although many studies have investigated the swimming movements of these "water fleas", few studies have examined the underlying neurochemical basis for these movements. To characterize the locomotor effect of drugs in Daphnia, a two-dimensional video imaging tool was developed and animal tracking was performed with freely available software, CTRAX. Due to the central role that dopamine plays in the movement of animals, we sought to determine the role of dopamine receptor signaling in Daphnia movement by characterizing the effect of ten drugs that are agonists or antagonists of dopamine receptors. At 1, 2, and 6h of treatment with a 10μM drug, several dopamine receptor agonists with documented effects on the D2-like class of receptors decreased the movement. Further, we determined behavioral inhibition values (IC50) at 1h of treatment for (1R,3S)-1-(aminomethyl)-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromene-5,6-diol (A68930) to be 1.4μM and for bromocriptine to be 6.6μM. This study describes a new method to study Daphnia swimming and establishes this organism as a useful model for studies of dopaminergic signaling. Specifically, this study shows that a dopamine receptor signaling pathway, mediated by putative D2-like receptors, is involved in the control of Daphnia swimming behavior. Due to its ease of use and its rich motor program we propose that Daphnia should be considered for future studies of dopamine neuron toxicity and protection.

  5. Cardiovascular effects of selective agonists and antagonists of histamine H3 receptors in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Coruzzi, G; Gambarelli, E; Bertaccini, G; Timmerman, H

    1995-06-01

    The cardiovascular responses to a series of selective histamine H3 receptor agonists, (R) alpha-methylhistamine, imetit and immepip and selective antagonists, thioperamide, clobenpropit and clophenpropit, were studied in anaesthetized rats. At 0.003-1 mumol/kg i.v. doses, H3 agonists failed to produce any significant change in the basal blood pressure and heart rate. Larger doses of (R) alpha-methylhistamine increased the blood pressure and heart rate and higher doses of imetit caused vasodepressor responses and reduced heart rate, whereas immepip proved virtually inactive. While (R) alpha-methylhistamine-induced effects were not blocked by histamine H1-, H2- and H3-receptor antagonists, they were however reduced by idazoxan and propranolol, which indicates that the mechanisms involved are adrenergic. The effects induced by imetit are not related to histamine H3 receptors but are mediated by indirect (via 5HT3 receptors) cholinergic mechanisms, since these effects were prevented by 1 mg/kg i.v. atropine and by 0.1 mg/kg i.v. ondansetron. Similarly, the H3 antagonists per se failed to change basal cardiovascular function up to 10 mumol/kg i.v. and only at 30 mumol/kg i.v. were marked decreases observed in the blood pressure and heart rate with a significant reduction in the effects of noradrenaline. These data indicate that in anaesthetized rats, histamine H3 receptor activation or blockade has no effect on basal cardiovascular function. The effects recorded after the administration of large doses of (R) alpha-methylhistamine and imetit are clearly unrelated to histamine H3 receptors and should be taken into account when using these compounds as H3 ligands for "in vivo" experiments.

  6. Agonist versus antagonist action of ATP at the P2Y4 receptor is determined by the second extracellular loop.

    PubMed

    Herold, Christopher L; Qi, Ai-Dong; Harden, T Kendall; Nicholas, Robert A

    2004-03-19

    UTP is a potent full agonist at both the human P2Y(4) (hP2Y(4)) and rat P2Y(4) (rP2Y(4)) receptor. In contrast, ATP is a potent full agonist at the rP2Y(4) receptor but is a similarly potent competitive antagonist at the hP2Y(4) receptor. To delineate the structural determinants of agonism versus antagonism in these species homologues, we expressed a series of human/rat P2Y(4) receptor chimeras in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells and assessed the capacity of ATP and UTP to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+). Replacement of the NH(2) terminus of the hP2Y(4) receptor with the corresponding region of the rP2Y(4) receptor resulted in a receptor that was activated weakly by ATP, whereas replacement of the second extracellular loop (EL2) of the hP2Y(4) receptor with that of the rP2Y(4) receptor yielded a chimeric receptor that was activated fully by UTP and near fully by ATP, albeit with lower potencies than those observed at the rP2Y(4) receptor. These potencies were increased, and ATP was converted to a full agonist by replacing both the NH(2) terminus and EL2 in the hP2Y(4) receptor with the corresponding regions from the rP2Y(4) receptor. Mutational analysis of the five divergent amino acids in EL2 between the two receptors revealed that three amino acids, Asn-177, Ile-183, and Leu-190, contribute to the capacity of EL2 to impart ATP agonism. Taken together, these results suggest that the second extracellular loop and the NH(2) terminus form a functional motif that plays a key role in determining whether ATP functions as an agonist or antagonist at mammalian P2Y(4) receptors.

  7. Comparison of the discriminative-stimulus effects of SKF 38393 with those of other dopamine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Desai, R I; Terry, P; Katz, J L

    2003-05-01

    The dopamine D(1)-like receptor agonists have traditionally been defined molecularly by their efficacy in stimulating adenylyl cyclase. However, evidence correlating the effectiveness of these drugs in behavioral assays and their effectiveness biochemically has not been forthcoming. The present study compared the discriminative-stimulus effects of the D(1)-like partial agonist SKF 38393 with several other D(1)-like agonists, an indirect agonist, cocaine, and a D(2)-like agonist, quinpirole. Rats were trained under a fixed-ratio 30-response schedule to discriminate SKF 38393 (5.6 mg/kg) from vehicle. Under this schedule, 30 consecutive responses on one of two keys were reinforced with food presentation after a pre-session injection of 5.6 mg/kg SKF 38393, and 30 consecutive responses on the alternative key were reinforced after saline injection. When daily performances were stable, substitution patterns for several compounds were assessed during test sessions in which 30 consecutive responses on either key were reinforced. Quinpirole and cocaine each produced saline-appropriate responding. In contrast, the D(1)-like agonists, SKF 75670 and SKF 77434, fully substituted for SKF 38393. Curiously, SKF 82958, which is considered a full agonist based on adenylyl cyclase assays, was less effective in substituting for SKF 38393 (maximum drug-appropriate responding 66%) than was the partial agonist SKF 75670. The present results suggest that second messenger effects other than stimulation of adenylyl cyclase may play an important role in the behavioral effects of dopamine D(1)-like agonists.

  8. Structural Determinants for the Binding of Morphinan Agonists to the μ-Opioid Receptor.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaojing; Campomanes, Pablo; Kless, Achim; Schapitz, Inga; Wagener, Markus; Koch, Thomas; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic descriptions of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) noncovalently binding with two of its prototypical morphinan agonists, morphine (MOP) and hydromorphone (HMP), are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Subtle differences between the binding modes and hydration properties of MOP and HMP emerge from the calculations. Alchemical free energy perturbation calculations show qualitative agreement with in vitro experiments performed in this work: indeed, the binding free energy difference between MOP and HMP computed by forward and backward alchemical transformation is 1.2±1.1 and 0.8±0.8 kcal/mol, respectively, to be compared with 0.4±0.3 kcal/mol from experiment. Comparison with an MD simulation of μOR covalently bound with the antagonist β-funaltrexamine hints to agonist-induced conformational changes associated with an early event of the receptor's activation: a shift of the transmembrane helix 6 relative to the transmembrane helix 3 and a consequent loss of the key R165-T279 interhelical hydrogen bond. This finding is consistent with a previous proposal suggesting that the R165-T279 hydrogen bond between these two helices indicates an inactive receptor conformation.

  9. Development of a Single-Chain Peptide Agonist of the Relaxin-3 Receptor Using Hydrocarbon Stapling.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Keiko; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Tailhades, Julien; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Wong, Lilian L L; Ong-Pålsson, Emma E K; Kastman, Hanna E; Ma, Sherie; Gundlach, Andrew L; Rosengren, K Johan; Wade, John D; Bathgate, Ross A D

    2016-08-25

    Structure-activity studies of the insulin superfamily member, relaxin-3, have shown that its G protein-coupled receptor (RXFP3) binding site is contained within its central B-chain α-helix and this helical structure is essential for receptor activation. We sought to develop a single B-chain mimetic that retained agonist activity. This was achieved by use of solid phase peptide synthesis together with on-resin ruthenium-catalyzed ring closure metathesis of a pair of judiciously placed i,i+4 α-methyl, α-alkenyl amino acids. The resulting hydrocarbon stapled peptide was shown by solution NMR spectroscopy to mimic the native helical conformation of relaxin-3 and to possess potent RXFP3 receptor binding and activation. Alternative stapling procedures were unsuccessful, highlighting the critical need to carefully consider both the peptide sequence and stapling methodology for optimal outcomes. Our result is the first successful minimization of an insulin-like peptide to a single-chain α-helical peptide agonist which will facilitate study of the function of relaxin-3.

  10. α7 nicotinic receptor agonists reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesias with severe nigrostriatal damage

    PubMed Central

    Bordia, Tanuja; Perez, Xiomara A.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Decker, Michael W.; Quik, Maryka

    2015-01-01

    Background ABT-126 is a novel, safe and well-tolerated α7 nicotinic receptor agonist in a Phase 2 Alzheimer's disease study. Here we test the antidyskinetic effect of ABT-126 in MPTP-treated squirrel monkeys with moderate and more severe nigrostriatal damage. Methods Monkeys (n=21, Set 1) were lesioned with MPTP 1-2×. When parkinsonian, they were gavaged with levodopa (10 mg/kg)/carbidopa (2.5 mg/kg) twice daily and dyskinesias rated. They were then given nicotine in drinking water (n=5), or treated with vehicle (n=6) or ABT-126 (n=10) twice daily orally 30 min before levodopa. Set 1 was then re-lesioned 1-2 times for a total of 3-4 MPTP injections. The antidyskinetic effect of ABT-126, nicotine and the β2* nicotinic receptor agonist ABT-894 was re-assessed. Another group of monkeys (n=23, Set 2) was lesioned with MPTP only 1-2×. They were treated with levodopa/carbidopa, administered the α7 agonist ABT-107 (n=6), ABT-894 (n=6), nicotine (n=5) or vehicle (n=6) and dyskinesias evaluated. All monkeys were euthanized and the dopamine transporter measured. Results With moderate nigrostriatal damage (MPTP 1-2×), ABT-126 dose-dependently decreased dyskinesias (~60%), with similar results with ABT-894 (~60%) or nicotine (~60%). With more severe damage (MPTP 3-4×), ABT-126 and nicotine reduced dyskinesias, but ABT-894 did not. The dopamine transporter was 41% and 8.9% of control with moderate and severe nigrostriatal damage, respectively. No drug modified parkinsonism. Conclusion The novel α7 nicotinic receptor drug ABT-126 reduced dyskinesias in monkeys with both moderate and severe nigrostriatal damage. ABT-126 may be useful to reduce dyskinesias in both early and later stage Parkinson's disease. PMID:26573698

  11. Agonist and antagonist binding to rat brain muscarinic receptors: influence of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Gurwitz, D.; Egozi, Y.; Henis, Y.I.; Kloog, Y.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the binding properties of muscarinic receptors in six brain regions in mature and old rats of both sexes by employing direct binding of (/sup 3/H)-antagonist as well as of the labeled natural neurotransmitter, (/sup 3/H)-acetylcholine (( /sup 3/H)-AcCh). In addition, age-related factors were evaluated in the modulation processes involved in agonist binding. The results indicate that as the rat ages the density of the muscarinic receptors is altered differently in the various brain regions: it is decreased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and olfactory bulb of both male and female rats, but is increased (58%) in the brain stem of senescent males while no significant change is observed for females. The use of the highly sensitive technique measuring direct binding of (/sup 3/H)-AcCh facilitated the separate detection of age-related changes in the two classes (high- and low-affinity) of muscarinic agonist binding sites. In old female rats the density of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)-AcCh binding sites was preserved in all tissues studied, indicating that the decreases in muscarinic receptor density observed with (/sup 3/H)-antagonist represent a loss of low-affinity agonist binding sites. In contrast, (/sup 3/H)-AcCh binding is decreased in the hypothalamus and increased in the brain stem of old male rats. These data imply sexual dimorphism of the aging process in central cholinergic mechanisms.

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists trigger avoidance of novel food in rats.

    PubMed

    Mahiout, Selma; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2016-12-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxins, but also plays important physiological roles, which are only beginning to unfold. Previous studies have surprisingly unveiled that low doses of the potent AHR agonist TCDD induce a strong and persistent avoidance of novel food items in rats. Here, we further examined the involvement of the AHR in the avoidance response in Sprague-Dawley rats with three established AHR agonists: 6-formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ), β-naphthoflavone (BNF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); with a novel selective AHR modulator (C2); and with an activator of another nuclear receptor, CAR: 2,4,6-tryphenyldioxane-1,3 (TPD). As sensitive indices of AHR or CAR activity, we used Cyp1a1 and Cyp2b1 gene expression, as they are, respectively, the drug-metabolizing enzymes specifically regulated by them. We further attempted to address the roles played by enhanced neophobia and conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in the avoidance behaviour. All AHR agonists triggered practically total avoidance of novel chocolate, but the durations varied. Likewise, acutely subtoxic doses of C2, differing by 25-fold, all elicited a similar outcome. In contrast, TPD did not influence chocolate consumption at all. If rats were initially accustomed to chocolate for 6h after single FICZ or BNF exposure, avoidance was still clearly present two weeks later when chocolate was offered again. Hence, the avoidance response appears to specifically involve the AHR instead of being triggered by induction of intestinal or hepatic nuclear receptor signalling in general. It is also shared by both endogenous and exogenous AHR activators. Moreover, this behavioural change in rats seems to contain elements of both CTA and enhanced neophobia, but further clarification of this is still required.

  13. Glutamatergic contributions to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist-evoked cholinergic transients in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Vinay; Man, Kingson; Decker, Michael W; Sarter, Martin

    2008-04-02

    Because modulation of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission has been hypothesized to represent a necessary mechanism mediating the beneficial cognitive effects of nicotine and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype-selective agonists, we used choline-sensitive microelectrodes for the real-time measurement of ACh release in vivo, to characterize cholinergic transients evoked by nicotine and the alpha4beta2*-selective nAChR partial agonist 2-methyl-3-(2-(S)-pyrrolindinylmethoxy)pyridine dihydrochloride (ABT-089), a clinically effective cognition enhancer. In terms of cholinergic signal amplitudes, ABT-089 was significantly more potent than nicotine in evoking ACh cholinergic transients. Moreover, cholinergic signals evoked by ABT-089 were characterized by faster signal rise time and decay rate. The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine attenuated the cholinergic signals evoked by either compound. Cholinergic signals evoked by ABT-089 were more efficaciously attenuated by the relatively beta2*-selective nAChR antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine. The alpha7 antagonist methyllycaconitine did not affect choline signal amplitudes but partly attenuated the relatively slow decay rate of nicotine-evoked cholinergic signals. Furthermore, the AMPA receptor antagonist DNQX as well as the NMDA receptor antagonist APV more potently attenuated cholinergic signals evoked by ABT-089. Using glutamate-sensitive microelectrodes to measure glutamatergic transients, ABT-089 was more potent than nicotine in evoking glutamate release. Glutamatergic signals were highly sensitive to tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of voltage-regulated sodium channels. Together, the present evidence indicates that compared with nicotine, ABT-089 evokes more potent and sharper cholinergic transients in prefrontal cortex. Glutamatergic mechanisms necessarily mediate the cholinergic effects of nAChR agonists in the prefrontal cortex.

  14. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Gassaway, M M; Rives, M-L; Kruegel, A C; Javitch, J A; Sames, D

    2014-07-15

    Current pharmacological treatments of depression and related disorders suffer from major problems, such as a low rate of response, slow onset of therapeutic effects, loss of efficacy over time and serious side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new therapeutic approaches that address these issues. Interestingly, the atypical antidepressant tianeptine already meets in part these clinical goals. However, in spite of three decades of basic and clinical investigations, the molecular target of tianeptine, as well as its mechanism of action, remains elusive. Herein, we report the characterization of tianeptine as a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist. Using radioligand binding and cell-based functional assays, including bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assays for G-protein activation and cAMP accumulation, we identified tianeptine as an efficacious MOR agonist (K(i Human) of 383±183 nM and EC(50 Human) of 194±70 nM  and EC(50 Mouse) of 641±120 nM for G-protein activation). Tianeptine was also a full δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist, although with much lower potency (EC(50 Human) of 37.4±11.2 μM and EC(50 Mouse) of 14.5±6.6  μM for G-protein activation). In contrast, tianeptine was inactive at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR, both human and rat). On the basis of these pharmacological data, we propose that activation of MOR (or dual activation of MOR and DOR) could be the initial molecular event responsible for triggering many of the known acute and chronic effects of this agent, including its antidepressant and anxiolytic actions.

  15. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Gassaway, M M; Rives, M-L; Kruegel, A C; Javitch, J A; Sames, D

    2014-01-01

    Current pharmacological treatments of depression and related disorders suffer from major problems, such as a low rate of response, slow onset of therapeutic effects, loss of efficacy over time and serious side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new therapeutic approaches that address these issues. Interestingly, the atypical antidepressant tianeptine already meets in part these clinical goals. However, in spite of three decades of basic and clinical investigations, the molecular target of tianeptine, as well as its mechanism of action, remains elusive. Herein, we report the characterization of tianeptine as a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist. Using radioligand binding and cell-based functional assays, including bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assays for G-protein activation and cAMP accumulation, we identified tianeptine as an efficacious MOR agonist (Ki Human of 383±183 nM and EC50 Human of 194±70 nM  and EC50 Mouse of 641±120 nM for G-protein activation). Tianeptine was also a full δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist, although with much lower potency (EC50 Human of 37.4±11.2 μM and EC50 Mouse of 14.5±6.6  μM for G-protein activation). In contrast, tianeptine was inactive at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR, both human and rat). On the basis of these pharmacological data, we propose that activation of MOR (or dual activation of MOR and DOR) could be the initial molecular event responsible for triggering many of the known acute and chronic effects of this agent, including its antidepressant and anxiolytic actions. PMID:25026323

  16. Inhibition of the production of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by cannabinoid receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, I; Schermer, B; Popp, R; Busse, R

    1999-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, has been reported to induce an 'endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like' relaxation in vitro. We therefore investigated the effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists; HU 210, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and anandamide, and a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, SR 141716A, on nitric oxide (NO) and EDHF-mediated relaxation in precontracted rings of porcine coronary, rabbit carotid and mesenteric arteries. In rings of mesenteric artery HU 210 and Δ9-THC induced endothelium- and cyclo-oxygenase-independent relaxations which were sensitive to SR 141716A. Anandamide (0.03–30 μM) induced a slowly developing, endothelium-independent relaxation which was abolished by diclofenac and was therefore mediated by cyclo-oxygenase product(s). None of the CB1 agonists tested affected the tone of precontracted rings of rabbit carotid or porcine coronary artery. In endothelium-intact segments, HU 210, Δ9-THC and anandamide did not affect NO-mediated responses but under conditions of continuous NO synthase/cyclo-oxygenase blockade, significantly inhibited acetylcholine and bradykinin-induced relaxations which are attributed to the production of EDHF. The effects of HU 210 and Δ9-THC were not observed when experiments were performed in the presence of SR 141716A suggesting the involvement of the CB1 receptor. In a patch clamp bioassay of EDHF production, HU 210 decreased the EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization of detector smooth muscle cells when applied to the donor segment but was without effect on the membrane potential of detector cells. The inhibition of EDHF production was unrelated to alterations in Ca2+-signalling or cytochrome P450 activity. These results suggest that the activation of endothelial CB1 receptors appears to be negatively coupled to the production of EDHF. PMID:10193775

  17. Hyodeoxycholic acid derivatives as liver X receptor α and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    De Marino, Simona; Carino, Adriana; Masullo, Dario; Finamore, Claudia; Marchianò, Silvia; Cipriani, Sabrina; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Catalanotti, Bruno; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are extensively investigated for their potential in the treatment of human disorders. The liver X receptors (LXRs), activated by oxysterols and by a secondary bile acid named hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), have been found essential in the regulation of lipid homeostasis in mammals. Unfortunately, LXRα activates lipogenic enzymes causing accumulation of lipid in the liver. In addition to LXRs, HDCA has been also shown to function as ligand for GPBAR1, a G protein coupled receptor for secondary bile acids whose activation represents a promising approach to liver steatosis. In the present study, we report a library of HDCA derivatives endowed with modulatory activity on the two receptors. The lead optimization of HDCA moiety was rationally driven by the structural information on the binding site of the two targets and results from pharmacological characterization allowed the identification of hyodeoxycholane derivatives with selective agonistic activity toward LXRα and GPBAR1 and notably to the identification of the first example of potent dual LXRα/GPBAR1 agonists. The new chemical entities might hold utility in the treatment of dyslipidemic disorders. PMID:28233865

  18. Hyodeoxycholic acid derivatives as liver X receptor α and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marino, Simona; Carino, Adriana; Masullo, Dario; Finamore, Claudia; Marchianò, Silvia; Cipriani, Sabrina; di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Catalanotti, Bruno; Novellino, Ettore; Limongelli, Vittorio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Bile acids are extensively investigated for their potential in the treatment of human disorders. The liver X receptors (LXRs), activated by oxysterols and by a secondary bile acid named hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), have been found essential in the regulation of lipid homeostasis in mammals. Unfortunately, LXRα activates lipogenic enzymes causing accumulation of lipid in the liver. In addition to LXRs, HDCA has been also shown to function as ligand for GPBAR1, a G protein coupled receptor for secondary bile acids whose activation represents a promising approach to liver steatosis. In the present study, we report a library of HDCA derivatives endowed with modulatory activity on the two receptors. The lead optimization of HDCA moiety was rationally driven by the structural information on the binding site of the two targets and results from pharmacological characterization allowed the identification of hyodeoxycholane derivatives with selective agonistic activity toward LXRα and GPBAR1 and notably to the identification of the first example of potent dual LXRα/GPBAR1 agonists. The new chemical entities might hold utility in the treatment of dyslipidemic disorders.

  19. 1-Benzhydryl-3-phenylurea and 1-benzhydryl-3-phenylthiourea derivatives: new templates among the CB1 cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Muccioli, Giulio G; Wouters, Johan; Scriba, Gerhard K E; Poppitz, Wolfgang; Poupaert, Jacques H; Lambert, Didier M

    2005-11-17

    New 1-benzhydryl-3-phenylurea derivatives and their 1-benzhydryl-3-phenylthiourea isosteres were synthesized and evaluated for their human CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor affinity. These compounds proved to be selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor ligands, acting as inverse agonists in a [35S]-GTPgammaS assay. The affinity of 3,5,5'-triphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione and 3,5,5'-triphenyl-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one derivatives, possessing the 1-benzhydryl-3-phenylurea and 1-benzhydryl-3-phenylthiourea moiety, respectively, was also evaluated. In conclusion, the 1-benzhydryl-3-phenylurea scaffold seems to be a new interesting template of CB1 cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists.

  20. [Extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: an open window towards new treatment goals in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Andrada, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    The wide ubiquity of GLP-1 receptors in the body has stimulated the search for different extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 and its receptor agonists. Thus, severe cardioprotective effects directed on myocardial ischaemia and dysfunction as well as diverse antiaterogenic actions have been reported. Also, native and GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated significant beneficial effects on liver steatosis and fibrosis and on neuronal protection in experimental models of Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease as well as on cerebral ischaemia. Recent evidences suggest that these drugs may also be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Good results have also been reported in psoriasis. Despite we still need confirmation that these promising effects can be applied to clinical practice, they offer new interesting perspectives for treatment of type 2 diabetes associated complications and give to GLP-1 receptor agonists an even more integral position in diabetes therapy.

  1. [Extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: an open window towards new treatment goals in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Andrada, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The wide ubiquity of GLP-1 receptors in the body has stimulated the search for different extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 and its receptor agonists. Thus, severe cardioprotective effects directed on myocardial ischaemia and dysfunction as well as diverse antiaterogenic actions have been reported. Also, native and GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated significant beneficial effects on liver steatosis and fibrosis and on neuronal protection in experimental models of Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease as well as on cerebral ischaemia. Recent evidences suggest that these drugs may also be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Good results have also been reported in psoriasis. Despite we still need confirmation that these promising effects can be applied to clinical practice, they offer new interesting perspectives for treatment of type 2 diabetes associated complications and give to GLP-1 receptor agonists an even more integral position in diabetes therapy.

  2. Relaxant Effects of the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Bazedoxifene, and Estrogen Receptor Agonists in Isolated Rabbit Basilar Artery.

    PubMed

    Castelló-Ruiz, María; Salom, Juan B; Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; Burguete, María C; López-Morales, Mikahela A; Arduini, Alessandro; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Hervás, David; Torregrosa, Germán; Alborch, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We have previously shown that the selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene, improves the consequences of ischemic stroke. Now we aimed to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of bazedoxifene in cerebral arteries. Male rabbit isolated basilar arteries were used for isometric tension recording and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bazedoxifene relaxed cerebral arteries, as 17-β-estradiol, 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol [estrogen receptor (ER) α agonist], and G1 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER) agonist] did it (4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol > bazedoxifene = G1 > 17-β-estradiol). 2,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (ERβ agonist) had no effect. Expression profile of genes encoding for ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), and GPER was GPER > ESR1 > ESR2. As to the endothelial mechanisms, endothelium removal, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and indomethacin, did not modify the relaxant responses to bazedoxifene. As to the K channels, both a high-K medium and the Kv blocker, 4-aminopyridine, inhibited the bazedoxifene-induced relaxations, whereas tetraethylammonium (nonselective K channel blocker), glibenclamide (selective KATP blocker) or iberiotoxin (selective KCa blocker) were without effect. Bazedoxifene also inhibited both Ca- and Bay K8644-elicited contractions. Therefore, bazedoxifene induces endothelium-independent relaxations of cerebral arteries through (1) activation of GPER and ERα receptors; (2) increase of K conductance through Kv channels; and (3) inhibition of Ca entry through L-type Ca channels. Such a profile is compatible with the beneficial effects of estrogenic compounds (eg, SERMs) on vascular function and, specifically, that concerning the brain. Therefore, bazedoxifene could be useful in the treatment of cerebral disorders in which the cerebrovascular function is compromised (eg, stroke).

  3. A 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist inhibits light-induced suppression of pineal melatonin production.

    PubMed

    Rea, M A; Pickard, G E

    2000-03-10

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the phase adjusting effects of light on the mammalian circadian clock through the activation of presynaptic 5-HT(1B) receptors located on retinal terminals in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The current study was conducted to determine whether activation of 5-HT(1B) receptors also alters photic regulation of nocturnal pineal melatonin production. Systemic administration of the 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist TFMPP attenuated the inhibitory effect of light on pineal melatonin synthesis in a dose-related manner with an apparent ED(50) value of 0.9 mg/kg. The effect of TFMPP on light-induced melatonin suppression was blocked by the 5-HT(1) receptor antagonist, methiothepin, but not by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY 100,635, consistent with the involvement of 5-HT(1B) receptors. The results are consistent with the interpretation that activation of presynaptic 5-HT(1B) receptors on retinal terminals in the SCN attenuates the effect of light on pineal melatonin production, as well as on circadian phase.

  4. The Thrombopoietin Receptor: Structural Basis of Traffic and Activation by Ligand, Mutations, Agonists, and Mutated Calreticulin

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Leila N.; Defour, Jean-Philippe; Pecquet, Christian; Constantinescu, Stefan N.

    2017-01-01

    A well-functioning hematopoietic system requires a certain robustness and flexibility to maintain appropriate quantities of functional mature blood cells, such as red blood cells and platelets. This review focuses on the cytokine receptor that plays a significant role in thrombopoiesis: the receptor for thrombopoietin (TPO-R; also known as MPL). Here, we survey the work to date to understand how this receptor functions at a molecular level throughout its lifecycle, from traffic to the cell surface, dimerization and binding cognate cytokine via its extracellular domain, through to its subsequent activation of associated Janus kinases and initiation of downstream signaling pathways, as well as the regulation of these processes. Atomic level resolution structures of TPO-R have remained elusive. The identification of disease-causing mutations in the receptor has, however, offered some insight into structure and function relationships, as has artificial means of receptor activation, through TPO mimetics, transmembrane-targeting receptor agonists, and engineering in dimerization domains. More recently, a novel activation mechanism was identified whereby mutated forms of calreticulin form complexes with TPO-R via its extracellular N-glycosylated domain. Such complexes traffic pathologically in the cell and persistently activate JAK2, downstream signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), and other pathways. This pathologic TPO-R activation is associated with a large fraction of human myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  5. Structural insight into the MC4R conformational changes via different agonist-mediated receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingkui; Chen, Min; Dimmitt, Reed; Harmon, Carroll M

    2014-11-18

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Previous studies indicate that α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) binds to MC4R and activates three signal pathways (cAMP, calcium, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways), whereas MC4R synthetic agonist THIQ can activate only the cAMP pathway. The molecular basis of the MC4R responsible for different ligand-mediated signaling is unknown. We hypothesize that different MC4R agonists can stabilize different MC4R conformations and result in ligand-mediated signal transduction. In this study, we examined the effect of the MC4R conformational change in cAMP signaling pathways mediated by different agonists by cross-linking two transmembrane helices (TM3 and TM6). We generated and tested 11 single and 8 double mutations that are located at the end of TM3 and beginning of TM6 in MC4R. Our results indicate that (1) single or double mutations of the MC4R did not significantly alter cAMP production induced by NDP-MSH compared to that of wild-type MC4R except single mutation 243H (the mutation 243H significantly decreased cAMP production mediated by NDP-MSH or THIQ due to a low level of receptor expression at the cell surface), (2) the mutation 247H significantly decreased THIQ-mediated cAMP production but not NDP-MSH, and (3) the receptor cAMP signaling pathway activation by THIQ is blocked in the presence of Zn(2+) with the double mutation I150/242H but activation by NDP-MSH is not, suggesting that the activated conformation of MC4R mediated by NDP-MSH and THIQ is different. This study provides insight into the molecular basis of MC4R responsible for receptor signaling mediated by different agonists.

  6. Alcohol-heightened aggression in mice: attenuation by 5-HT1A receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Miczek, K A; Hussain, S; Faccidomo, S

    1998-09-01

    One of the critical mechanisms by which alcohol heightens aggression involves forebrain serotonin (5-HT) systems, possibly via actions on 5-HT1A receptors. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that activating 5-HT1A receptors by selective agonists will block the aggression-heightening effects of ethanol. Initially, the selective antagonist WAY 100635 was used to assess whether or not the changes in aggressive behavior after treatment with 8-OH-DPAT and flesinoxan result from action at the 5-HT1A receptors. Resident male CFW mice engaged in aggressive behavior (i.e. attack bites, sideways threats, tail rattle) during 5-min confrontations with a group-housed intruder male. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral repertoire revealed systematic reductions in all salient elements of aggressive behavior after treatment with 8-OH-DPAT (0.1-0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or flesinoxan (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). The 5-HT1A agonists also reduced motor activities such as walking, rearing and grooming, although to a lesser degree. Pretreatment with the antagonist WAY 100635 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) shifted the agonist dose-effect curves for behavioral effects to the right. In a further experiment, oral ethanol (1.0 g/kg, p.o.) increased the frequency of attacks in excess of 2 SD from their mean vehicle level of attacks in 19 out of 76 resident mice. Low doses of 8-OH-DPAT (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) and flesinoxan (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg), given before the ethanol treatment, attenuated the alcohol-heightened aggression in a dose-dependent fashion. By contrast, these low 5-HT1A agonist doses affected motor activity in ethanol-treated resident mice to a lesser degree, suggesting behavioral specificity of these anti-aggressive effects. The current results support the hypothesized significant role of 5-HT1A receptors in the aggression-heightening effects of alcohol. If these effects are in fact due to action at somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, then the anti-aggressive effects would be associated with

  7. New QSAR combined strategy for the design of A1 adenosine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    González, Maykel Pérez; Besada, Pedro; González Moa, Maria José; Teijeira, Marta; Terán, Carmen

    2008-02-15

    Combined discriminant and regression analysis was carried out on a series of 167 A1 adenosine receptor agonists to identify the best linear and nonlinear models for the design of new compounds with a better biological profile. On the basis of the best linear discriminant analysis and both linear and nonlinear Multi Layer Perceptron neural networks regression, we have designed and synthesized 14 carbonucleoside analogues of adenosine. Their biological activities were predicted and experimentally measured to demonstrate the capability of our model to avoid the prediction of false positives. A good agreement was found between the calculated and observed biological activity.

  8. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  9. SAR of α7 nicotinic receptor agonists derived from tilorone: exploration of a novel nicotinic pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Schrimpf, Michael R; Sippy, Kevin B; Briggs, Clark A; Anderson, David J; Li, Tao; Ji, Jianguo; Frost, Jennifer M; Surowy, Carol S; Bunnelle, William H; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Meyer, Michael D

    2012-02-15

    The well-known interferon-inducer tilorone was found to possess potent affinity for the agonist site of the α7 neuronal nicotinic receptor (K(i)=56 nM). SAR investigations determined that both basic sidechains are essential for potent activity, however active monosubstituted derivatives can also be prepared if the flexible sidechains are replaced with conformationally rigidified cyclic amines. Analogs in which the fluorenone core is replaced with either dibenzothiophene-5,5-dioxide or xanthenone also retain potent activity.

  10. The Protective Role of PAC1-Receptor Agonist Maxadilan in BCCAO-Induced Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Vaczy, A; Reglodi, D; Somoskeoy, T; Kovacs, K; Lokos, E; Szabo, E; Tamas, A; Atlasz, T

    2016-10-01

    A number of studies have proven that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is protective in neurodegenerative diseases. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) causes severe degeneration in the rat retina. In our previous studies, protective effects were observed with PACAP1-38, PACAP1-27, and VIP but not with their related peptides, glucagon, or secretin in BCCAO. All three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1, VPAC2) appear in the retina. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the retinoprotective effects are most probably mainly mediated by the PAC1 receptor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the retinoprotective effects of a selective PAC1-receptor agonist maxadilan in BCCAO-induced retinopathy. Wistar rats were used in the experiment. After performing BCCAO, the right eye was treated with intravitreal maxadilan (0.1 or 1 μM), while the left eye was injected with vehicle. Sham-operated rats received the same treatment. Two weeks after the operation, retinas were processed for standard morphometric and molecular analysis. Intravitreal injection of 0.1 or 1 μM maxadilan caused significant protection in the thickness of most retinal layers and the number of cells in the GCL compared to the BCCAO-operated eyes. In addition, 1 μM maxadilan application was more effective than 0.1 μM maxadilan treatment in the ONL, INL, IPL, and the entire retina (OLM-ILM). Maxadilan treatment significantly decreased cytokine expression (CINC-1, IL-1α, and L-selectin) in ischemia. In summary, our histological and molecular analysis showed that maxadilan, a selective PAC1 receptor agonist, has a protective role in BCCAO-induced retinal degeneration, further supporting the role of PAC1 receptor conveying the retinoprotective effects of PACAP.

  11. Mimetics of caloric restriction include agonists of lipid-activated nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Corton, J Christopher; Apte, Udayan; Anderson, Steven P; Limaye, Pallavi; Yoon, Lawrence; Latendresse, John; Dunn, Corrie; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Voss, Kenneth A; Swanson, Cynthia; Kimbrough, Carie; Wong, Jean S; Gill, Sarjeet S; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Stulnig, Thomas M; Steffensen, Knut R; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mehendale, Harihara M

    2004-10-29

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized countries is associated with increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and certain types of cancer. In animal models, caloric restriction (CR) suppresses these diseases as well as chemical-induced tissue damage. These beneficial effects of CR overlap with those altered by agonists of nuclear receptors (NR) under control of the fasting-responsive transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha). In a screen for compounds that mimic CR effects in the liver, we found statistically significant overlaps between the CR transcript profile in wild-type mice and the profiles altered by agonists of lipid-activated NR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), liver X receptor, and their obligate heterodimer partner, retinoid X receptor. The overlapping genes included those involved in CVD (lipid metabolism and inflammation) and cancer (cell fate). Based on this overlap, we hypothesized that some effects of CR are mediated by PPARalpha. As determined by transcript profiling, 19% of all gene expression changes in wild-type mice were dependent on PPARalpha, including Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14, involved in fatty acid omega-oxidation, acute phase response genes, and epidermal growth factor receptor but not increases in PGC-1alpha. CR protected the livers of wild-type mice from damage induced by thioacetamide, a liver toxicant and hepatocarcinogen. CR protection was lost in PPARalpha-null mice due to inadequate tissue repair. These results demonstrate that PPARalpha mediates some of the effects of CR and indicate that a pharmacological approach to mimicking many of the beneficial effects of CR may be possible.

  12. Switching agonist/antagonist properties of opiate alkaloids at the delta opioid receptor using mutations based on the structure of the orphanin FQ receptor.

    PubMed

    Meng, F; Wei, Q; Hoversten, M T; Taylor, L P; Akil, H

    2000-07-21

    In an earlier study, we have demonstrated that by mutating five amino acid residues to those conserved in the opioid receptors, the OFQ receptor could be converted to a functional receptor that bound many opioid alkaloids with nanomolar affinities. Surprisingly, when the reciprocal mutations, Lys-214 --> Ala (TM5), Ile-277 --> Val/His-278 --> Gln/Ile-279 --> Val (TM6), and Ile-304 --> Thr (TM7), are introduced in the delta receptor, neither the individual mutations nor their various combinations significantly reduce the binding affinities of opioid alkaloids tested. However, these mutations cause profound alterations in the functional characteristics of the mutant receptors as measured in guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding assays. Some agonists become antagonists at some constructs as they lose their ability to activate them. Some alkaloid antagonists are transformed into agonists at other constructs, but their agonistic effects can still be blocked by the peptide antagonist TIPP. Even the delta inverse agonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone becomes an agonist at the mutant containing both the Ile-277 --> Val/His-278 --> Gln/Ile-279 --> Val and Ile-304 --> Thr mutations. Thus, although the mutated residues are thought to be part of the binding pocket, they are critically involved in the control of the delta receptor activation process. These findings shed light on some of the structural bases of ligand efficacy. They are also compatible with the hypothesis that a ligand may achieve high affinity binding in several different ways, each having different effects on receptor activation.

  13. Effects of full D1 dopamine receptor agonists on firing rates in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars compacta in vivo: tests for D1 receptor selectivity and comparisons to the partial agonist SKF 38393.

    PubMed

    Ruskin, D N; Rawji, S S; Walters, J R

    1998-07-01

    Many studies have used the D1 agonist SKF 38393 to characterize D1 receptor influences on firing rates in basal ganglia nuclei in vivo. However, SKF 38393 is a partial agonist and so may not be ideal for delineating D1 receptor effects. This study characterizes the effects of four full D1 agonists, SKF 82958 (chloro-APB), SKF 81297 (6-chloro-PB), dihydrexidine and A-77636, on the firing rates of midbrain dopamine and globus pallidus neurons. Recordings were done in fully anesthetized or paralyzed, locally anesthetized rats, and drugs were given systemically intravenously. Dihydrexidine, SKF 81297 and A-77636 were free of rate effects on midbrain dopamine neurons (up to 10.2 mg/kg) and also did not antagonize the inhibitory effects of quinpirole. In contrast, SKF 82958 strongly inhibited dopamine cells through activation of D2 autoreceptors (ED50 = 0.70 mg/kg). Of these drugs, SKF 82958 also was the only one to increase pallidal unit firing rates when given alone (at 5.0 but not 1.0 mg/kg); the other compounds appeared to be selective for postsynaptic D1 receptors. The results suggest that SKF 82958 may be more properly classified as a mixed D1/D2 agonist. In addition, all four agonists strongly potentiated the pallidal response to quinpirole, demonstrating a D1 receptor potentiation of D2 receptor effects. The results support the role of D1 receptors in the midbrain and globus pallidus as previously characterized with SKF 38393. The similar actions of partial and full D1 agonists in these systems support evidence for a D1 receptor reserve and possibly an effector system other than adenylate cyclase.

  14. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P; Newman, Amy Hauck; Ferré, Sergi; Yano, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR > D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays.

  15. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2016-01-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR >> D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays. PMID:26843180

  16. Identification of natural compound carnosol as a novel TRPA1 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chenxi; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yuxin; Wang, Shifeng; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Shiyou; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2014-11-14

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channel is one of the well-known targets for pain therapy. Herbal medicine is a rich source for new drugs and potentially useful therapeutic agents. To discover novel natural TRPA1 agonists, compounds isolated from Chinese herbs were screened using a cell-based calcium mobilization assay. Out of the 158 natural compounds derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicines, carnosol was identified as a novel agonist of TRPA1 with an EC50 value of 12.46 µM. And the agonistic effect of carnosol on TRPA1 could be blocked by A-967079, a selective TRPA1 antagonist. Furthermore, the specificity of carnosol was verified as it showed no significant effects on two other typical targets of TRP family member: TRPM8 and TRPV3. Carnosol exhibited anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties; the activation of TRPA1 might be responsible for the modulation of inflammatory nociceptive transmission. Collectively, our findings indicate that carnosol is a new anti-nociceptive agent targeting TRPA1 that can be used to explore further biological role in pain therapy.

  17. Topical Administration of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Prevents Retinal Neurodegeneration in Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Cristina; Bogdanov, Patricia; Corraliza, Lidia; García-Ramírez, Marta; Solà-Adell, Cristina; Arranz, José A; Arroba, Ana I; Valverde, Angela M; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Since glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system and the retina is ontogenically a brain-derived tissue, the aims of the current study were as follows: 1) to examine the expression and content of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in human and db/db mice retinas; 2) to determine the retinal neuroprotective effects of systemic and topical administration (eye drops) of GLP-1R agonists in db/db mice; and 3) to examine the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. We have found abundant expression of GLP-1R in the human retina and retinas from db/db mice. Moreover, we have demonstrated that systemic administration of a GLP-1R agonist (liraglutide) prevents retinal neurodegeneration (glial activation, neural apoptosis, and electroretinographical abnormalities). This effect can be attributed to a significant reduction of extracellular glutamate and an increase of prosurvival signaling pathways. We have found a similar neuroprotective effect using topical administration of native GLP-1 and several GLP-1R agonists (liraglutide, lixisenatide, and exenatide). Notably, this neuroprotective action was observed without any reduction in blood glucose levels. These results suggest that GLP-1R activation itself prevents retinal neurodegeneration. Our results should open up a new approach in the treatment of the early stages of DR.

  18. Ligand Promiscuity of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists and Antagonists Revealed by Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Soshilov, Anatoly A.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by structurally diverse chemicals. To examine the mechanisms responsible for the promiscuity in AhR ligand binding, we determined the effects of mutations within the AhR ligand-binding domain (LBD) on the activity of diverse AhR ligands. Site-directed mutagenesis identified Ile319 of the mouse AhR and, to a lesser extent, Phe318 as residues involved in ligand-selective modulation of AhR transformation using a panel of 12 AhR ligands. These ligands could be categorized into four distinct structurally related groups based on their ability to activate AhR mutants at position 319 in vitro. The mutation I319K was selectively activated by FICZ and not by other examined ligands in vitro and in cell culture. F318L and F318A mutations resulted in the conversion of AhR agonists β-naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene, respectively, into partial agonists/antagonists. Hsp90 binding to the AhR was decreased with several mutations and was inversely correlated with AhR ligand-binding promiscuity. Together, these data define overlapping amino acid residues within the AhR LBD involved in the selectivity of ligand binding, the agonist or antagonist mode of ligand binding, and hsp90 binding and provide insights into the ligand diversity of AhR activators. PMID:24591650

  19. Regulation of TNF-alpha secretion by a specific melanocortin-1 receptor peptide agonist.

    PubMed

    Ignar, Diane M; Andrews, John L; Jansen, Marilyn; Eilert, Michelle M; Pink, Heather M; Lin, Peiyuan; Sherrill, Ronald G; Szewczyk, Jerzy R; Conway, James G

    2003-05-01

    The lack of specific pharmacological tools has impeded the evaluation of the role of each melanocortin receptor (MCR) subtype in the myriad physiological effects of melanocortins. 154N-5 is an octapeptide (MFRdWFKPV-NH(2)) that was first identified as an MC1R antagonist in Xenopus melanophores [J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 29846]. In this manuscript, we show that 154N-5 is a specific agonist for human and murine MC1R. The peptide has negligible activity at MC3R and MC4R and is 25-fold less potent and a weak agonist at MC5R. 154N-5 was tested in both a cellular and an animal model of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. The inhibitory efficacy of 154N-5 on TNF-alpha secretion in both models was similar to the nonselective agonist NDP-alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-alphaMSH), thus, we conclude that inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion by melanocortin peptides is mediated by MC1R. 154N-5 is a valuable new tool for the evaluation of specific contribution of MC1R agonism to physiological and pathological processes.

  20. Agonist antibodies activating the Met receptor protect cardiomyoblasts from cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, S; Gatti, S; Sala, V; Albano, R; Costelli, P; Casanova, E; Comoglio, P M; Crepaldi, T

    2014-04-17

    Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), mainly activates prosurvival pathways, including protection from apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of Met activation by agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a chemical mimetic of hypoxia, was used to induce cardiac damage in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, which resulted in reduction of cell viability by (i) caspase-dependent apoptosis and (ii) - surprisingly - autophagy. Blocking either apoptosis with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone or autophagosome formation with 3-methyladenine prevented loss of cell viability, which suggests that both processes contribute to cardiomyoblast injury. Concomitant treatment with Met-activating antibodies or HGF prevented apoptosis and autophagy. Pro-autophagic Redd1, Bnip3 and phospho-AMPK proteins, which are known to promote autophagy through inactivation of the mTOR pathway, were induced by CoCl2. Mechanistically, Met agonist antibodies or HGF prevented the inhibition of mTOR and reduced the flux of autophagosome formation. Accordingly, their anti-autophagic function was completely blunted by Temsirolimus, a specific mTOR inhibitor. Targeted Met activation was successful also in the setting of low oxygen conditions, in which Met agonist antibodies or HGF demonstrated anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects. Activation of the Met pathway is thus a promising novel therapeutic tool for ischaemic injury.

  1. Nanoparticles Containing a Liver X Receptor Agonist Inhibit Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Qing; Even-Or, Orli; Xu, Xiaoyang; van Rosmalen, Mariska; Lim, Lucas; Gadde, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling pathways regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, which has generated widespread interest in developing synthetic LXR agonists as potential therapeutics for the management of atherosclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that nanoparticles (NPs) containing the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 (NP-LXR) exert anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis without causing hepatic steatosis. These NPs were engineered through self-assembly of a biodegradable diblock poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) copolymer. NP-LXR was significantly more effective than free GW3965 at inducing LXR target gene expression and suppressing inflammatory factors in macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Addtionally, the NPs elicited negligible lipogenic gene stimulation in the liver. Using the Ldlr−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis, we saw abundant co-localization of fluorescently labeled NPs within plaque macrophages following systemic administration. Notably, six intravenous injections of NP-LXR over two weeks markedly reduced the CD68-positive cell (macrophage) content of plaques (by 50%) without increasing total cholesterol or triglycerides in the liver and plasma. Together, these findings identify GW3965-encapsulated PLGA-b-PEG NPs as a promising nanotherapeutic approach to combat atherosclerosis, providing the benefits of LXR agonists without their adverse effects on hepatic and plasma lipid metabolism. PMID:25156796

  2. Inhaled P2Y2 receptor agonists as a treatment for patients with Cystic Fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, Don; Evans, Richard; Mathews, Dave; Shaffer, Christy

    2002-12-05

    P2Y(2) receptor agonists are a new class of compounds that are being evaluated as a treatment for the pulmonary manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Results of preclinical research suggest that these compounds inhibit sodium absorption, restore chloride conductance and rehydrate the CF airway surface. In addition, P2Y(2) receptor agonists have been shown to enhance ciliary beat frequency and increase mucociliary clearance in animals and subjects with impaired mucociliary clearance. The normalization of airway surface liquid and enhancement of lung clearance is expected to provide a clinical benefit to CF patients. A number of P2Y(2) agonist compounds have been evaluated in healthy subjects and patients with CF. Most recently, INS37217, a metabolically stable and potent P2Y(2) agonist has been developed and studies have shown it to be well-tolerated when given via inhalation. This compound is currently being evaluated in children and adults with CF lung disease.

  3. Effects of repeated treatment with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist aripiprazole on striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Czoty, Paul W.; Gage, H. Donald; Garg, Pradeep K.; Garg, Sudha; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Chronic treatment with dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists can differentially affect measures of DA D2/D3 receptor number and function, but the effects of chronic treatment with a partial D2/D3 receptor agonist are not clear. Objective We used a within-subjects design in male cynomolgus monkeys to determine the effects of repeated (17-day) treatment with the D2/D3 receptor partial agonist aripiprazole (ARI; 0.03 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg i.m.) on food-reinforced behavior (n=5) and on D2/D3 receptor availability as measured with positron emission tomography (PET; n=9). Methods Five monkeys respond