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Sample records for 5-ht7 receptor ligands

  1. (Phenylpiperazinyl-butyl)oxindoles as selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Volk, Balázs; Barkóczy, József; Hegedus, Endre; Udvari, Szabolcs; Gacsályi, István; Mezei, Tibor; Pallagi, Katalin; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Lévay, György; Egyed, András; Hársing, László G; Spedding, Michael; Simig, Gyula

    2008-04-24

    A series of potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT 7) ligands has been synthesized that contain a 1,3-dihydro-2 H-indol-2-one (oxindole) skeleton. The binding of these compounds to the 5-HT 7 and 5-HT 1A receptors was measured. Despite the structural similarity of these two serotonin receptor subtypes, several derivatives exhibited a high selectivity to the 5-HT 7 receptor. According to the structure-activity relationship observations, compounds unsubstituted at the oxindole nitrogen atom and containing a tetramethylene spacer between the oxindole skeleton and the basic nitrogen atom are the most potent ligands. Concerning the basic group, besides the moieties of the 4-phenylpiperazine type, halophenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines also proved to be 5-HT 7 receptor-ligands. Because of halogen substitution on the aromatic rings, good metabolic stability could be achieved. A representative of the family, 3-{4-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-butyl}-3-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,3-dihydro-2 H-indol-2-one ( 9e') exhibited selective 5-HT 7 antagonist activity ( K i = 0.79 nM). The in vivo pharmacological potencies of these 5-HT 7 receptor-ligands were estimated by the conflict drinking (Vogel) and the light-dark anxiolytic tests.

  2. An Algorithm to Identify Target-Selective Ligands – A Case Study of 5-HT7/5-HT1A Receptor Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kurczab, Rafał; Canale, Vittorio; Zajdel, Paweł; Bojarski, Andrzej J.

    2016-01-01

    A computational procedure to search for selective ligands for structurally related protein targets was developed and verified for serotonergic 5-HT7/5-HT1A receptor ligands. Starting from a set of compounds with annotated activity at both targets (grouped into four classes according to their activity: selective toward each target, not-selective and not-selective but active) and with an additional set of decoys (prepared using DUD methodology), the SVM (Support Vector Machines) models were constructed using a selective subset as positive examples and four remaining classes as negative training examples. Based on these four component models, the consensus classifier was then constructed using a data fusion approach. The combination of two approaches of data representation (molecular fingerprints vs. structural interaction fingerprints), different training set sizes and selection of the best SVM component models for consensus model generation, were evaluated to determine the optimal settings for the developed algorithm. The results showed that consensus models with molecular fingerprints, a larger training set and the selection of component models based on MCC maximization provided the best predictive performance. PMID:27271158

  3. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  4. The atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promote down-regulation and display functional selectivity at human 5-HT7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Andressen, K W; Manfra, O; Brevik, C H; Ulsund, A H; Vanhoenacker, P; Levy, F O; Krobert, K A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Classically, ligands of GPCRs have been classified primarily upon their affinity and efficacy to activate a signal transduction pathway. Recent reports indicate that the efficacy of a particular ligand can vary depending on the receptor-mediated response measured (e.g. activating G proteins, other downstream responses, internalization). Previously, we reported that inverse agonists induce both homo- and heterologous desensitization, similar to agonist stimulation, at the Gs-coupled 5-HT7 receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether different inverse agonists at the 5-HT7 receptor also induce internalization and/or degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. Experimental Approach HEK293 cells expressing 5-HT7(a, b or d) receptors were pre-incubated with 5-HT, clozapine, olanzapine, mesulergine or SB269970 and their effects upon receptor density, AC activity, internalization, recruitment of β-arrestins and lysosomal trafficking were measured. Key Results The agonist 5-HT and three out of four inverse agonists tested increased internalization independently of β-arrestin recruitment. Among these, only the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine promoted lysosomal sorting and reduced 5-HT7 receptor density (∼60% reduction within 24 h). Inhibition of lysosomal degradation with chloroquine blocked the clozapine- and olanzapine-induced down-regulation of 5-HT7 receptors. Incubation with SB269970 decreased both 5-HT7(b) constitutive internalization and receptor density but increased 5-HT7(d) receptor density, indicating differential ligand regulation among the 5-HT7 splice variants. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, we found that various ligands differentially activate regulatory processes governing receptor internalization and degradation in addition to signal transduction. Thus, these data extend our understanding of functional selectivity at the 5-HT7 receptor. PMID:25884989

  5. LP-211 is a brain penetrant selective agonist for the serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Peter B; Leopoldo, Marcello; Caccia, Silvio; Sarkisyan, Gor; Fracasso, Claudia; Martelli, Giuliana; Lacivita, Enza; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto

    2010-08-30

    We have determined the pharmacological profile of the new serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor agonist N-(4-cyanophenylmethyl)-4-(2-diphenyl)-1-piperazinehexanamide (LP-211). Radioligand binding assays were performed on a panel of 5-HT receptor subtypes. The compound was also evaluated in vivo by examining its effect on body temperature regulation in mice lacking the 5-HT(7) receptor (5-HT(7)(-/-)) and their 5-HT(7)(+/+) sibling controls. Disposition studies were performed in mice of both genotypes. It was found that LP-211 was brain penetrant and underwent metabolic degradation to 1-(2-diphenyl)piperazine (RA-7). In vitro binding assays revealed that RA-7 possessed higher 5-HT(7) receptor affinity than LP-211 and a better selectivity profile over a panel of 5-HT receptor subtypes. In vivo it was demonstrated that LP-211, and to a lesser degree RA-7, induced hypothermia in 5-HT(7)(+/+) but not in 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that LP-211 can be used as a 5-HT(7) receptor agonist in vivo. PMID:20600619

  6. Design of novel quinazolinone derivatives as inhibitors for 5HT7 receptor.

    PubMed

    Chitta, Aparna; Jatavath, Mohan Babu; Fatima, Sabiha; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2012-02-01

    To study the pharmacophore properties of quinazolinone derivatives as 5HT(7) inhibitors, 3D QSAR methodologies, namely Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) were applied, partial least square (PLS) analysis was performed and QSAR models were generated. The derived model showed good statistical reliability in terms of predicting the 5HT(7) inhibitory activity of the quinazolione derivative, based on molecular property fields like steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor fields. This is evident from statistical parameters like q(2) (cross validated correlation coefficient) of 0.642, 0.602 and r(2) (conventional correlation coefficient) of 0.937, 0.908 for CoMFA and CoMSIA respectively. The predictive ability of the models to determine 5HT(7) antagonistic activity is validated using a test set of 26 molecules that were not included in the training set and the predictive r(2) obtained for the test set was 0.512 & 0.541. Further, the results of the derived model are illustrated by means of contour maps, which give an insight into the interaction of the drug with the receptor. The molecular fields so obtained served as the basis for the design of twenty new ligands. In addition, ADME (Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination) have been calculated in order to predict the relevant pharmaceutical properties, and the results are in conformity with required drug like properties.

  7. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors induce phrenic motor facilitation via EPAC-mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Fields, D P; Springborn, S R; Mitchell, G S

    2015-09-01

    Spinal serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicit complex effects on motor activity. Whereas 5-HT7 receptor activation gives rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), it also constrains 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF via "cross-talk inhibition." We hypothesized that divergent cAMP-dependent signaling pathways give rise to these distinct 5-HT7 receptor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that protein kinase A (PKA) mediates cross-talk inhibition of 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF whereas 5-HT7 receptor-induced pMF results from exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling. Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats receiving intrathecal (C4) 5-HT7 receptor agonist (AS-19) injections expressed pMF for >90 min, an effect abolished by pretreatment with a selective EPAC inhibitor (ESI-05) but not a selective PKA inhibitor (KT-5720). Furthermore, intrathecal injections of a selective EPAC activator (8-pCPT-2'-Me-cAMP) were sufficient to elicit pMF. Finally, spinal mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibition via intrathecal rapamycin abolished 5-HT7 receptor- and EPAC-induced pMF, demonstrating that spinal 5-HT7 receptors elicit pMF by an EPAC-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Thus 5-HT7 receptors elicit and constrain spinal phrenic motor plasticity via distinct signaling mechanisms that diverge at cAMP (EPAC vs. PKA). Selective manipulation of these molecules may enable refined regulation of serotonin-dependent spinal motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage. PMID:26269554

  8. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors induce phrenic motor facilitation via EPAC-mTORC1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fields, D. P.; Springborn, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicit complex effects on motor activity. Whereas 5-HT7 receptor activation gives rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), it also constrains 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF via “cross-talk inhibition.” We hypothesized that divergent cAMP-dependent signaling pathways give rise to these distinct 5-HT7 receptor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that protein kinase A (PKA) mediates cross-talk inhibition of 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF whereas 5-HT7 receptor-induced pMF results from exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling. Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats receiving intrathecal (C4) 5-HT7 receptor agonist (AS-19) injections expressed pMF for >90 min, an effect abolished by pretreatment with a selective EPAC inhibitor (ESI-05) but not a selective PKA inhibitor (KT-5720). Furthermore, intrathecal injections of a selective EPAC activator (8-pCPT-2′-Me-cAMP) were sufficient to elicit pMF. Finally, spinal mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibition via intrathecal rapamycin abolished 5-HT7 receptor- and EPAC-induced pMF, demonstrating that spinal 5-HT7 receptors elicit pMF by an EPAC-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Thus 5-HT7 receptors elicit and constrain spinal phrenic motor plasticity via distinct signaling mechanisms that diverge at cAMP (EPAC vs. PKA). Selective manipulation of these molecules may enable refined regulation of serotonin-dependent spinal motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage. PMID:26269554

  9. Improvement of ketamine-induced social withdrawal in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hołuj, Małgorzata; Popik, Piotr; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, can be modelled in the social interaction (SI) test in rats using N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glutamate receptor antagonists. We have recently shown that amisulpride, an antipsychotic with a high affinity for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors, reversed ketamine-induced SI deficits in rats. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the potential involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in the prosocial action of amisulpride. Acute administration of amisulpride (3 mg/kg) and SB-269970 (1 mg/kg), a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, reversed ketamine-induced social withdrawal, whereas sulpiride (20 or 30 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) were ineffective. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS19 (10 mg/kg) abolished the prosocial efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The coadministration of an inactive dose of SB-269970 (0.2 mg/kg) showed the prosocial effects of inactive doses of amisulpride (1 mg/kg) and sulpiride (20 mg/kg). The anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (2.5 mg/kg) and the antidepressant fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg) were ineffective in reversing ketamine-induced SI deficits. The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute towards the mechanisms underlying the prosocial action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia and other disorders characterized by social withdrawal.

  10. 5-HT7 receptors are involved in neurogenic dural vasodilatation in an experimental model of migraine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Fang, Yannan; Liang, Jianbo; Yan, Miansheng; Hu, Rong; Pan, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic dural vasodilation has been demonstrated to play an important role in migraine. 5-HT(7) receptors have been found on trigeminal nerve endings and middle meningeal arteries and demonstrated involved in the dilatation of meningeal arteries. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether 5-HT(7) receptors are involved in neurogenic dural vasodilation in migraine. The neurogenic dural vasodilation model of migraine was used in this study. Unilateral electrical stimulation of dura mater was performed in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were pretreated with selective 5-HT(7) receptor agonist AS19, 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB269970, 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist sumatriptan, or vehicles. Blood flow of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) was measured by a laser Doppler flowmetry. AS19 significantly increased the basal and stimulated blood flows of the middle meningeal artery following electrical stimulation of dura mater, and its effect was dose dependent at the early stage. SB269970 and sumatriptan significantly reduced the basal and stimulated blood flows of middle meningeal artery. The present study demonstrates for the first time that 5-HT(7) receptors are involved in neurogenic dural vasodilation evoked by electrical stimulation of dura mater and maybe of relevance in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine.

  11. Functional expression of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor in human glioblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mahé, Cécile; Bernhard, Michel; Bobirnac, Ionel; Keser, Corinna; Loetscher, Erika; Feuerbach, Dominik; Dev, Kumlesh K; Schoeffter, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT7 receptors are present in astrocytes. Understanding their role in this type of cell would greatly benefit from the identification of astroglial cell lines expressing this receptor type. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of native 5-HT7 receptors and 5-HT7 receptor mRNA in a number of human glioblastoma cell lines, by means of cAMP measurements, Western blot analysis and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) analysis. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) induced concentration-dependent stimulations of cAMP accumulation in the human glioblastoma cell lines, U-373 MG, U-138 MG, U-87 MG, DBTRG-05MG, T98G, H4, CCF-STTG1 and Hs 683. The rank order of potency was 5-CT>5-HT=5-MeOT≫8-OH-DPAT. The effect of 5-CT was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 in all human glioblastoma cells. Schild analyses yielded slope factors close to unity (0.89–1.13) and pA2 values of 8.69–9.05. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands corresponding to the human 5-HT7 receptor in extracts of all human glioblastoma cell lines. The presence of the three splice variants of the 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7(a/b/d)) was visualized by RT–PCR analysis with specific primers in all human glioblastoma cell lines. In conclusion, human glioblastoma cell lines express functional 5-HT7 receptors and the three splice variants of the corresponding mRNA. These cell lines could serve as model systems of native 5-HT7 receptors in glial cells to investigate their putative role in processes like release of neurotrophic factors or inflammatory cytokines. PMID:15339860

  12. Functional expression of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor in human glioblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Cécile; Bernhard, Michel; Bobirnac, Ionel; Keser, Corinna; Loetscher, Erika; Feuerbach, Dominik; Dev, Kumlesh K; Schoeffter, Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Serotonin 5-HT(7) receptors are present in astrocytes. Understanding their role in this type of cell would greatly benefit from the identification of astroglial cell lines expressing this receptor type. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of native 5-HT(7) receptors and 5-HT(7) receptor mRNA in a number of human glioblastoma cell lines, by means of cAMP measurements, Western blot analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) induced concentration-dependent stimulations of cAMP accumulation in the human glioblastoma cell lines, U-373 MG, U-138 MG, U-87 MG, DBTRG-05MG, T98G, H4, CCF-STTG1 and Hs 683. The rank order of potency was 5-CT>5-HT=5-MeOT>8-OH-DPAT. The effect of 5-CT was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-269970 in all human glioblastoma cells. Schild analyses yielded slope factors close to unity (0.89-1.13) and pA(2) values of 8.69-9.05. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands corresponding to the human 5-HT(7) receptor in extracts of all human glioblastoma cell lines. The presence of the three splice variants of the 5-HT(7) receptor (5-HT(7(a/b/d))) was visualized by RT-PCR analysis with specific primers in all human glioblastoma cell lines. In conclusion, human glioblastoma cell lines express functional 5-HT(7) receptors and the three splice variants of the corresponding mRNA. These cell lines could serve as model systems of native 5-HT(7) receptors in glial cells to investigate their putative role in processes like release of neurotrophic factors or inflammatory cytokines. PMID:15339860

  13. Amisulpride promotes cognitive flexibility in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2013-07-01

    The antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the antidepressant and procognitive actions of the atypical antipsychotic drug, amisulpride. It has been previously demonstrated that the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist reversed restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in a rat model of frontal-dependent attentional set-shifting task (ASST). Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of amisulpride against stress-evoked cognitive inflexibility. The second goal was to elucidate whether the pro-cognitive effect of amisulpride could be due to the compound's action at 5-HT7 receptors. Rats repeatedly exposed (1 h daily for 7 days) to restraint stress demonstrated impaired performance on the extra-dimensional (ED) set-shifting stage of the ASST. Amisulpride (3 mg/kg) given to stressed rats 30 min before testing reversed this restraint-induced cognitive inflexibility and improved ED performance of the unstressed control group. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19 (10 mg/kg), abolished the pro-cognitive efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the mechanisms underlining the pro-cognitive action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications in frontal-like deficits associated with stress-related disorders.

  14. Downregulation of 5-HT7 Serotonin Receptors by the Atypical Antipsychotics Clozapine and Olanzapine. Role of Motifs in the C-Terminal Domain and Interaction with GASP-1.

    PubMed

    Manfra, Ornella; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Skieterska, Kamila; Frimurer, Thomas; Schwartz, Thue W; Levy, Finn Olav; Andressen, Kjetil Wessel

    2015-07-15

    The human 5-HT7 serotonin receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), activates adenylyl cyclase constitutively and upon agonist activation. Biased ligands differentially activate 5-HT7 serotonin receptor desensitization, internalization and degradation in addition to G protein activation. We have previously found that the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine inhibited G protein activation and, surprisingly, induced both internalization and lysosomal degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism of clozapine- and olanzapine-mediated degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. In the C-terminus of the 5-HT7 receptor, we identified two YXXΦ motifs, LR residues, and a palmitoylated cysteine anchor as potential sites involved in receptor trafficking to lysosomes followed by receptor degradation. Mutating either of these sites inhibited clozapine- and olanzapine-mediated degradation of 5-HT7 receptors and also interfered with G protein activation. In addition, we tested whether receptor degradation was mediated by the GPCR-associated sorting protein-1 (GASP-1). We show that GASP-1 binds the 5-HT7 receptor and regulates the clozapine-mediated degradation. Mutations of the identified motifs and residues, located in or close to Helix-VIII of the 5-HT7 receptor, modified antipsychotic-stimulated binding of proteins (such as GASP-1), possibly by altering the flexibility of Helix-VIII, and also interfered with G protein activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that binding of clozapine or olanzapine to the 5-HT7 receptor leads to antagonist-mediated lysosomal degradation by exposing key residues in the C-terminal tail that interact with GASP-1. PMID:25706089

  15. Signalling properties and pharmacology of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Vleugels, R; Lenaerts, C; Vanden Broeck, J; Verlinden, H

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, genome sequence data and gene structure information on invertebrate receptors has been greatly expanded by large sequencing projects and cloning studies. This information is of great value for the identification of receptors; however, functional and pharmacological data are necessary for an accurate receptor classification and for practical applications. In insects, an important group of neurotransmitter and neurohormone receptors, for which ample sequence information is available but pharmacological information is missing, are the biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the present study, we investigated the sequence information, pharmacology and signalling properties of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT7 ). The receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with cognate 5-HT7 receptors and phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptor within this 5-HT receptor group. Real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated high expression levels in the brain, indicating the possible importance of this receptor in neural processes. Trica5-HT7 was dose-dependently activated by 5-HT, which induced elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels but had no effect on calcium signalling. The synthetic agonists, α-methyl 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-carboxamidotryptamine and 8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide, showed a response, although with a much lower potency and efficacy than 5-HT. Ketanserin and methiothepin were the most potent antagonists. Both showed characteristics of competitive inhibition on Trica5-HT7 . The signalling pathway and pharmacological profile offer important information that will facilitate functional and comparative studies of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacology of invertebrate 5-HT receptors differs considerably from that of vertebrates. The present study may therefore contribute to establishing a more

  16. 5-HT7 receptor signaling: improved therapeutic strategy in gut disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Janice J.; Khan, Waliul I.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is most commonly known for its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the majority of the body’s 5-HT is produced in the gut by enterochromaffin (EC) cells. Alterations in 5-HT signaling have been associated with various gut disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and enteric infections. Recently, our studies have identified a key role for 5-HT in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in the gut and very recently, we have shown evidence of 5-HT7 receptor expression on intestinal immune cells and demonstrated a key role for 5-HT7 receptors in generation of experimental colitis. This review summarizes the key findings of these studies and provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of the 5-HT7 receptor in terms of its pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic potential in intestinal inflammatory conditions, such as IBD. PMID:25565996

  17. Spinal 5-HT7 receptor activation induces long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M S; Mitchell, G S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Acute intermittent hypoxia elicits a form of serotonin-dependent respiratory plasticity known as phrenic long term facilitation (pLTF). Episodic spinal serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptor activation on or near phrenic motor neurons is necessary for pLTF. A hallmark of pLTF is the requirement for serotonin-dependent synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and activation of its high affinity receptor, TrkB. Activation of spinal Gs protein-coupled adenosine 2A receptors (GsPCRs) elicits a unique form of long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (PMF), but via unique mechanisms (BDNF independent TrkB trans-activation). We hypothesized that other GsPCRs elicit PMF, specifically serotonin-7 (5-HT7) receptors, which are expressed in phrenic motor neurons. Cervical spinal (C4) injections of a selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS-19 (10 μm, 5 μl; 3 × 5 min), in anaesthetized, vagotomized and ventilated male Sprague–Dawley rats elicited long-lasting PMF (>120 min), an effect prevented by pretreatment with a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (SB 269970; 5 mm, 7 μl). GsPCR activation ‘trans-activates’ TrkB by increasing synthesis of an immature TrkB isoform. Spinal injection of a TrkB inhibitor (k252a) and siRNAs that prevent TrkB (but not BDNF) mRNA translation both blocked 5-HT7 agonist-induced PMF, confirming a requirement for TrkB synthesis and activity. k252a affected late PMF (≥90 min) only. Spinal inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway blocked 5-HT7 agonist-induced PMF, whereas MEK/ERK inhibition delayed, but did not block, PMF. An understanding of signalling mechanisms giving rise to PMF may guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat ventilatory control disorders associated with respiratory insufficiency, such as spinal injury and motor neuron disease. PMID:21242254

  18. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  19. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  20. Serotonin 5-HT7 receptors coupled to induction of interleukin-6 in human microglial MC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Cécile; Loetscher, Erika; Dev, Kumlesh K; Bobirnac, Ionel; Otten, Uwe; Schoeffter, Philippe

    2005-07-01

    Brain serotonin 5-HT(7) receptors are known to be expressed in neurons and astrocytes. We now report the presence of these receptors in a third type of cell, microglial cells. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) induced concentration-dependent stimulations of cAMP accumulation in the human microglial MC-3 cell line. The maximal effect of 5-HT was 3.4+/-0.3-fold stimulation (mean+/-S.E.M., n=5) above basal levels. The rank order of agonist potency (pEC50 values) was 5-CT (7.09)>5-HT (6.13)>or=5-MeOT (5.78)>8-OH-DPAT (ca. 5). The effect of 5-CT was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 (pA2 value 9.03). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands corresponding to the human 5-HT7 receptor in extracts of MC-3 cells. The presence of two splice variants of the 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7(a/b)) was visualized by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis with specific primers. In real-time PCR studies, the mRNA for interleukin-6 (IL-6) was found to be increased by 2.5-fold in MC-3 cells after 1 h incubation with 5-CT (1 microM) and this effect was fully blocked by the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 (1 microM). These data show that functional 5-HT7 receptors are present in human microglial MC-3 cells, suggesting that they are involved in neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:15992579

  1. Role of the 5-HT7 receptor in the central nervous system: from current status to future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Anne; Haegeman, Guy; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Vanhoenacker, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Pharmacological and genetic tools targeting the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptor in preclinical animal models have implicated this receptor in diverse (patho)physiological processes of the central nervous system (CNS). Some data obtained with 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice, selective antagonists, and, to a lesser extent, agonists, however, are quite contradictory. In this review, we not only discuss in detail the role of the 5-HT7 receptor in the CNS but also propose some hypothetical models, which could explain the observed inconsistencies. These models are based on two novel concepts within the field of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), namely biphasic signaling and G protein-independent signaling, which both have been shown to be mediated by GPCR dimerization. This led us to suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor could reside in different dimeric contexts and initiate different signaling pathways, depending on the neuronal circuitry and/or brain region. In conclusion, we highlight GPCR dimerization and G protein-independent signaling as two promising future directions in 5-HT7 receptor research, which ultimately might lead to the development of more efficient dimer- and/or pathway-specific therapeutics. PMID:21424680

  2. Activation of 5-HT7 receptor stimulates neurite elongation through mTOR, Cdc42 and actin filaments dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Speranza, Luisa; Giuliano, Teresa; Volpicelli, Floriana; De Stefano, M. Egle; Lombardi, Loredana; Chambery, Angela; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Bellenchi, Gian C.; di Porzio, Umberto; Crispino, Marianna; Perrone-Capano, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the serotonin receptor subtype 7 (5-HT7R) plays a crucial role in shaping neuronal morphology during embryonic and early postnatal life. Here we show that pharmacological stimulation of 5-HT7R using a highly selective agonist, LP-211, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal primary cultures from the cortex, hippocampus and striatal complex of embryonic mouse brain, through multiple signal transduction pathways. All these signaling systems, involving mTOR, the Rho GTPase Cdc42, Cdk5, and ERK, are known to converge on the reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins that subserve neurite outgrowth. Indeed, our data indicate that neurite elongation stimulated by 5-HT7R is modulated by drugs affecting actin polymerization. In addition, we show, by 2D Western blot analyses, that treatment of neuronal cultures with LP-211 alters the expression profile of cofilin, an actin binding protein involved in microfilaments dynamics. Furthermore, by using microfluidic chambers that physically separate axons from the soma and dendrites, we demonstrate that agonist-dependent activation of 5-HT7R stimulates axonal elongation. Our results identify for the first time several signal transduction pathways, activated by stimulation of 5-HT7R, that converge to promote cytoskeleton reorganization and consequent modulation of axonal elongation. Therefore, the activation of 5-HT7R might represent one of the key elements regulating CNS connectivity and plasticity during development. PMID:25814944

  3. Activation of 5-HT7 receptor stimulates neurite elongation through mTOR, Cdc42 and actin filaments dynamics.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Luisa; Giuliano, Teresa; Volpicelli, Floriana; De Stefano, M Egle; Lombardi, Loredana; Chambery, Angela; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Bellenchi, Gian C; di Porzio, Umberto; Crispino, Marianna; Perrone-Capano, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the serotonin receptor subtype 7 (5-HT7R) plays a crucial role in shaping neuronal morphology during embryonic and early postnatal life. Here we show that pharmacological stimulation of 5-HT7R using a highly selective agonist, LP-211, enhances neurite outgrowth in neuronal primary cultures from the cortex, hippocampus and striatal complex of embryonic mouse brain, through multiple signal transduction pathways. All these signaling systems, involving mTOR, the Rho GTPase Cdc42, Cdk5, and ERK, are known to converge on the reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins that subserve neurite outgrowth. Indeed, our data indicate that neurite elongation stimulated by 5-HT7R is modulated by drugs affecting actin polymerization. In addition, we show, by 2D Western blot analyses, that treatment of neuronal cultures with LP-211 alters the expression profile of cofilin, an actin binding protein involved in microfilaments dynamics. Furthermore, by using microfluidic chambers that physically separate axons from the soma and dendrites, we demonstrate that agonist-dependent activation of 5-HT7R stimulates axonal elongation. Our results identify for the first time several signal transduction pathways, activated by stimulation of 5-HT7R, that converge to promote cytoskeleton reorganization and consequent modulation of axonal elongation. Therefore, the activation of 5-HT7R might represent one of the key elements regulating CNS connectivity and plasticity during development.

  4. Identification of essential residues for binding and activation in the human 5-HT7(a) serotonin receptor by molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Impellizzeri, Agata Antonina Rita; Pappalardo, Matteo; Basile, Livia; Manfra, Ornella; Andressen, Kjetil Wessel; Krobert, Kurt Allen; Messina, Angela; Levy, Finn Olav; Guccione, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The human 5-HT7 receptor is expressed in both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues and is a potential drug target in behavioral and psychiatric disorders. We examined molecular determinants of ligand binding and G protein activation by the human 5-HT7(a) receptor. The role of several key residues in the 7th transmembrane domain (TMD) and helix 8 were elucidated combining in silico and experimental mutagenesis. Several single and two double point mutations of the 5-HT7(a) wild type receptor were made (W7.33V, E7.35T, E7.35R, E7.35D, E7.35A, R7.36V, Y7.43A, Y7.43F, Y7.43T, R8.52D, D8.53K; E7.35T-R7.36V, R8.52D-D8.53K), and their effects upon ligand binding were assessed by radioligand binding using a potent agonist (5-CT) and a potent antagonist (SB269970). In addition, the ability of the mutated 5-HT7(a) receptors to activate G protein after 5-HT-stimulation was determined through activation of adenylyl cyclase. In silico investigation on mutated receptors substantiated the predicted importance of TM7 and showed critical roles of residues E7.35, W7.33, R7.36 and Y7.43 in agonist and antagonist binding and conformational changes of receptor structure affecting adenylyl cyclase activation. Experimental data showed that mutants E7.35T and E7.35R were incapable of ligand binding and adenylyl cyclase activation, consistent with a requirement for a negatively charged residue at this position. The mutant R8.52D was unable to activate adenylyl cyclase, despite unaffected ligand binding, consistent with the R8.52 residue playing an important role in the receptor-G protein interface. The mutants Y7.43A and Y7.43T displayed reduced agonist binding and AC agonist potency, not seen in Y7.43F, consistent with a requirement for an aromatic residue at this position. Knowledge of the molecular interactions important in h5-HT7 receptor ligand binding and G protein activation will aid the design of selective h5-HT7 receptor ligands for potential pharmacological use. PMID

  5. Microinjection of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 into the rat brainstem and basal forebrain: site-dependent effects on REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jaime M; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jantos, Héctor; Lagos, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    The effects of SB-269970, a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, on spontaneous sleep were studied in adult rats implanted for chronic sleep recordings. The 5-HT7 receptor ligand was microinjected into the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) and the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) during the light period of the 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. For comparative purposes the compound was administered systemically and, in addition, injected directly into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Microinjection of SB-269970 into the HDB and the DRN induced a significant reduction of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). Similar effects were observed after systemic administration of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist. On the other hand, local infusion of the compound into the LDT provoked the opposite effect. It is proposed that the deactivation of GABAergic cells located in the HDB, DRN and LDT is responsible for the changes induced by SB-269970 on REM sleep values. It is suggested that the antidepressant effect of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist could partly depend on the involvement of neuronal systems located in the DRN and the HDB.

  6. Stimulation of 5-HT7 receptor during adolescence determines its persistent upregulation in adult rat forebrain areas.

    PubMed

    Nativio, Paola; Zoratto, Francesca; Romano, Emilia; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Pascale, Esterina; Passarelli, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Adriani, Walter

    2015-11-01

    Brain serotonin 7 (5-HT7) receptors play an important functional role in learning and memory, in regulation of mood and motivation, and for circadian rhythms. Recently, we have studied the modulatory effects of a developmental exposure (under subchronic regimen) in rats with LP-211, a brain-penetrant and selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist. We aimed at further deciphering long-term sequelae into adulthood. LP-211 (0.250 mg/kg i.p., once/day) was administered for 5 days during the adolescent phase (postnatal days 43-45 to 47-49). When adult (postnatal days >70), forebrain areas were obtained for ex vivo immunohistochemistry, whose results prompted us to reconsider the brain connectivity maps presented in our previous study (Canese et al., Psycho-Pharmacol 2015;232:75-89.) Significant elevation in levels of 5-HT7 receptors were evidenced due to adolescent LP-211 exposure, in dorsal striatum (which also shows an increase of dopaminergic D2 auto-receptors) and-unexpectedly-in piriform cortex, with no changes in ventral striatum. We observed that functional connectivity from a seed on the right hippocampus was more extended than reported, also including the piriform cortex. As a whole, the cortical loop rearranged by adolescent LP-211 exposure consisted in a hippocampus receiving connections from piriform cortex and dorsal striatum, the latter both directly and through functional control over the 'extended amygdala'. Such results represent a starting point to explore neurophysiology of 5-HT7 receptors. Further investigation is warranted to develop therapies for sleep disorders, for impaired emotional and motivational regulation, for attentive and executive deficit. The 5-HT7 agonist LP-211 (0.250 mg/kg i.p., once/day) was administered for 5 days during adolescence (postnatal days 43-45 to 47-49) in rats. When adult (postnatal days >70), a significant elevation in levels of 5-HT7 receptors were evidenced in dorsal striatum and-unexpectedly-in piriform cortex. PMID:26364910

  7. Serotonin directly stimulates luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release from GT1 cells via 5-HT7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Héry, M; François-Bellan, A M; Héry, F; Deprez, P; Becquet, D

    1997-10-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH release, which serves as the primary drive to the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, is controlled by many neuromediators. Serotonin has been implicated in this regulation. However, it is unclear whether the central effect of serotonin on LHRH secretion is exerted directly on LHRH neurosecretory neurons or indirectly via multisynaptic pathways. The present studies were undertaken in order to examine whether LHRH secretion from immortalized LHRH cell lines is directly regulated by serotonin and, if so, to identify the receptor subtype involved. 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist, stimulated LHRH release from GT1-1 cells. This effect was blocked by ritanserin, a 5-HT2/7 receptor antagonist, but not by SDZ-216-525, a 5-HT1A antagonist. Basal LHRH release was not affected by the 5-HT2 agonist DOI. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) was used in order to identify 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor mRNA in immortalized LHRH cell lines. GT1-1 cells express mRNA for the 5-HT7, but not the 5-HT1A receptor subtypes. These results demonstrate a direct stimulatory effect of serotonin on LHRH release via 5-HT7 receptor.

  8. The serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-44 microinjected into the dorsal raphe nucleus suppresses REM sleep in the rat.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jaime M; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jantos, Héctor

    2008-08-22

    The effects of LP-44, a selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist, and of SB-269970, a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, on spontaneous sleep were studied in adult rats implanted for chronic sleep recordings. The 5-HT7 receptor ligands were microinjected directly into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) during the light period of the 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. Infusion of LP-44 (1.25-5.0 mM) into the DRN induced a significant reduction of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and of the number of REM periods. Similar effects were observed after the direct administration into the DRN of SB-269970 (0.5-1.0 mM). Pretreatment with a dose of SB-269970 (0.5 mM) that significantly affects sleep variables antagonized the LP-44 (2.5 mM)-induced suppression of REMS and of the number of REM periods. It is proposed that the suppression of REMS after microinjection of LP-44 into the DRN is related, at least in part, to the activation of GABAergic neurons in the DRN that contribute to long projections that reach, among others, the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei involved in the promotion of REMS.

  9. Systemic administration and local microinjection into the central nervous system of the 5-HT(7) receptor agonist LP-211 modify the sleep-wake cycle in the rat.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jaime M; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jantos, Héctor

    2014-02-01

    The effects of LP-211, a selective serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agonist were studied in adult rats implanted for chronic sleep recordings. Intraperitoneal administration of LP-211 (2.5-10mg/kg) during the light phase of the light-dark cycle significantly increased wakefulness (W) and reduced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and the number of REM periods during the 6-h recording period. Direct infusion of LP-211 into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) (2-6 mM), locus coeruleus nucleus (LC) (4 mM), basal forebrain (horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca) (HDB) (2 mM) or laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) (4 mM) induced also a decrease of REMS. Additionally, microinjection of the 5-HT7 receptor ligand into the HDB (2 mM) augmented W. Presently, there is no satisfactory explanation for the effect of 5-HT7 receptor activation on W and REMS occurrence. Additional studies are required to characterize the neurotransmitter systems responsible for the actions of LP-211 on the behavioral states.

  10. 5-HT7 receptors as modulators of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and plasticity: physiological role and possible implications in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ciranna, Lucia; Catania, Maria Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin type 7 receptors (5-HT7) are expressed in several brain areas, regulate brain development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and therefore are involved in various brain functions such as learning and memory. A number of studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptors could be potential pharmacotherapeutic target for cognitive disorders. Several abnormalities of serotonergic system have been described in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including abnormal activity of 5-HT transporter, altered blood and brain 5-HT levels, reduced 5-HT synthesis and altered expression of 5-HT receptors in the brain. A specific role for 5-HT7 receptors in ASD has not yet been demonstrated but some evidence implicates their possible involvement. We have recently shown that 5-HT7 receptor activation rescues hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome, a monogenic cause of autism. Several other studies have shown that 5-HT7 receptors modulate behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior, mood disorders and epilepsy, which include core and co-morbid symptoms of ASD. These findings further suggest an involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in ASD. Here, we review the physiological roles of 5-HT7 receptors and their implications in Fragile X Syndrome and other ASD. PMID:25221471

  11. Effect of 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-211, on micturition following spinal cord injury in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Javanbakht, Javad; Barati, Fardin; Fakhraei, Nahid; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Central and peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors play a critical role in regulation of micturition reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of a 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-211 (N-(4-cyanophenylmethyl)-4-(2-diphenyl)-1-piperazinehexanamide) on micturition reflex in acute spinal cord-injured (SCI) rats during infusion of vehicle into the bladder. Methods: SCI was induced by compressing T10 segment using an aneurysm clip, extradurally in male rats. Following two weeks, LP-211 doses (0.003-0.3 mg/kg) were administered cumulatively (intraperitoneally, i.p.) with 20 min interval. The 5-HT7 antagonist, SB-269970 ((R)-3-[2-[2-(4-Methylpiperidin-1-yl) ethyl] pyrrolidine-1-sulfonyl] phenol hydrochloride), was administered after achievement of LP-211 dose-response. A cystometric study was performed 2 weeks after spinal crushing in all the animals. Cystometric variables consisting of micturition volume (voided volume), residual volume (volume remaining in the bladder after voiding), and bladder capacity (micturition volume plus residual volume). Voiding efficiency was calculated as the percent of micturition volume to bladder capacity. Findings: Intact and sham-operated rats showed few significant changes in micturition reflex. SCI rats responded to LP-211 (0.003-0.3, mg/kg, i.v.) with dose-dependent increases in bladder capacity, and residual volume. In this treatment group, LP-211 induced significant dose-dependent increases in micturition volume, resulting in significant increases in voiding efficiency (P<0.001) compared to intact and sham-operated rats, SB-269970 (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) completely reversed the LP-211-induced changes on micturition volume and voiding efficiency was decreased significantly. Conclusion: The 5-HT7 receptors activation by LP-211 facilitated the micturition reflex. Furthermore, 5-HT7 receptors do seem to play an important role in physiological regulation of micturition, and as a result, may represent a

  12. Selective 5-HT7 receptor agonists LP 44 and LP 211 elicit an analgesic effect on formalin-induced orofacial pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    DEMİRKAYA, Kadriye; AKGÜN, Özlem Martı; ŞENEL, Buğra; ÖNCEL TORUN, Zeynep; SEYREK, Melik; LACİVİTA, Enza; LEOPOLDO, Marcello; DOĞRUL, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The most recently identified serotonin (5-HT) receptor is the 5-HT7 receptor. The antinociceptive effects of a 5-HT7 receptor agonist have been shown in neuropathic and inflammatory animal models of pain. A recent study demonstrated the functional expression of 5-HT7 receptors in the substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis, which receives and processes orofacial nociceptive inputs. Objective To investigate the antinociceptive effects of pharmacological activation of 5-HT7 receptors on orofacial pain in mice. Material and Methods Nociception was evaluated by using an orofacial formalin test in male Balb-C mice. Selective 5-HT7 receptor agonists, LP 44 and LP 211 (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg), were given intraperitoneally 30 min prior to a formalin injection. A bolus of 10 µl of 4% subcutaneous formalin was injected into the upper lip of mice and facial grooming behaviors were monitored. The behavioral responses consisted of two distinct periods, the early phase corresponding to acute pain (Phase I: 0–12 min) and the late phase (Phase II: 12–30 min). Results LP 44 and LP 211 (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) produced an analgesic effect with reductions in face rubbing time in both Phase I and Phase II of the formalin test. Conclusion Our results suggest that 5-HT7 receptor agonists may be promising analgesic drugs in the treatment of orofacial pain. PMID:27383702

  13. Distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 Receptors Along the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Yaakob, Nor S; Chinkwo, Kenneth A; Chetty, Navinisha; Coupar, Ian M; Irving, Helen R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are associated with abnormal serotonin (5-HT) signaling or metabolism where the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are clinically relevant. The aim was to examine the distribution of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the normal human colon and how this is associated with receptor interacting chaperone 3, G protein coupled receptor kinases, and protein LIN-7 homologs to extend previous observations limited to the sigmoid colon or the upper intestine. Methods Samples from ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid human colon were dissected into 3 separate layers (mucosa, longitudinal, and circular muscles) and ileum samples were dissected into mucosa and muscle layers (n = 20). Complementary DNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from extracted RNA and expression was determined by quantitative or end point polymerase chain reaction. Results The 5-HT3 receptor subunits were found in all tissues throughout the colon and ileum. The A subunit was detected in all samples and the C subunit was expressed at similar levels while the B subunit was expressed at lower levels and less frequently. The 5-HT3 receptor E subunit was mainly found in the mucosa layers. All splice variants of the 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors were expressed throughout the colon although the 5-HT4 receptor d, g, and i variants were expressed less often. Conclusions The major differences in 5-HT receptor distribution within the human colon are in relation to the mucosa and muscular tissue layers where the 5-HT3 receptor E subunit is predominantly found in the mucosal layer which may be of therapeutic relevance. PMID:26130632

  14. The role of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the amelioration of MK-801-induced learning and memory deficits by the novel atypical antipsychotic drug lurasidone.

    PubMed

    Horisawa, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Toma, Satoko; Ikeda, Atsushi; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Ono, Michiko; Ishiyama, Takeo; Taiji, Mutsuo

    2013-05-01

    Lurasidone is a novel atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A receptors. We previously reported that lurasidone and the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-656104-A improved learning and memory deficits induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in the rat passive avoidance test. In this study, we first examined the role of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone in its pro-cognitive effect to ameliorate MK-801-induced deficits in the rat passive avoidance test. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19, (2S)-(+)-5-(1,3,5-trimethylpyrazol-4-yl)-2-(dimethylamino) tetralin, (3 mg/kg, s.c.) completely blocked the attenuating effects of lurasidone (3 mg/kg, p.o.), highlighting the importance of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the pro-cognitive effect of lurasidone. AS19 (3 mg/kg, s.c.) also blocked the ameliorating effect of SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the same experimental paradigm. To further extend our observation, we next tested whether 5-HT7 receptor antagonism still led to the amelioration of MK-801-induced deficits when combined with D2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, and found that SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced deficits even in the presence of the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Taken together, these results suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone plays an important role in its effectiveness against MK-801-induced deficits, and may contribute to its pharmacological actions in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. [CROSS-TALK BETWEEN 5-HT1A AND 5-HT7 RECEPTORS: ROLE IN THE AUTOREGULATION OF THE BRAIN SEROTONIN SYSTEM AND IN MECHANISM OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS ACTION].

    PubMed

    Popova, N K; Ponimaskin, E G; Naumenko, V S

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies considerably extended our knowledge of the mechanisms and physiological role of the interaction between different receptors in the brain. Current review summarizes data on the formation of receptor complexes and the role of such complexes in the autoregulation of the brain serotonin system, behavioral abnormalities and mechanism of antidepressants action. Particular attention is paid to 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor heterodimers. The results described in the present review indicate that: i) dimerization and formation of mobile receptor complexes is a common feature for the members of G-protein coupled receptor superfamily; ii) 5-HT7 receptor appears to be a modulator for 5-HT1A receptor - the key autoregulator of the brain serotonin system; iii) 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor complexes formation is one of the mechanisms for inactivation and desensitization of the 5-HTIA receptors in the brain; iv) differences in the 5-HT7 receptor and 5-HTIA/5-HT7 heterodimers density define different sensitivity of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTlA receptors to chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  16. Effects of the Selective 5-HT7 Receptor Antagonist SB-269970 and Amisulpride on Ketamine-Induced Schizophrenia-like Deficits in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Kos, Tomasz; Fijał, Katarzyna; Hołuj, Małgorzata; Rafa, Dominik; Popik, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    A wide body of evidence suggests that 5-HT7 receptors are implicated in a variety of central nervous system functions, including control of learning and memory processes. According to recent preclinical data, the selective blockade of these receptors may be a potential target for cognitive improvement in schizophrenia. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970, and the antipsychotic drug with a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors, amisulpride, on ketamine-induced deficits in attentional set-shifting and novel object recognition tasks in rats. Because the role of 5-HT7 receptor blockade in ameliorating positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remains equivocal, the second aim of these experiments was to examine the effectiveness of SB-269970 and amisulpride in reversing ketamine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and in social interaction test in rats. The study revealed that acute administration of SB-269970 (1 mg/kg) or amisulpride (3 mg/kg) ameliorated ketamine-induced cognitive inflexibility and novel object recognition deficit in rats. Both compounds were also effective in attenuating ketamine-evoked disruption of social interactions. In contrast, neither SB-269970 nor amisulpride affected ketamine-disrupted prepulse inhibition or 50 kHz USVs accompanying social behaviour. In conclusion, antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may represent a useful pharmacological approach in the treatment of cognitive deficits and some negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:23776692

  17. Effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 and amisulpride on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Kos, Tomasz; Fijał, Katarzyna; Hołuj, Małgorzata; Rafa, Dominik; Popik, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    A wide body of evidence suggests that 5-HT7 receptors are implicated in a variety of central nervous system functions, including control of learning and memory processes. According to recent preclinical data, the selective blockade of these receptors may be a potential target for cognitive improvement in schizophrenia. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970, and the antipsychotic drug with a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors, amisulpride, on ketamine-induced deficits in attentional set-shifting and novel object recognition tasks in rats. Because the role of 5-HT7 receptor blockade in ameliorating positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remains equivocal, the second aim of these experiments was to examine the effectiveness of SB-269970 and amisulpride in reversing ketamine-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and in social interaction test in rats. The study revealed that acute administration of SB-269970 (1 mg/kg) or amisulpride (3 mg/kg) ameliorated ketamine-induced cognitive inflexibility and novel object recognition deficit in rats. Both compounds were also effective in attenuating ketamine-evoked disruption of social interactions. In contrast, neither SB-269970 nor amisulpride affected ketamine-disrupted prepulse inhibition or 50 kHz USVs accompanying social behaviour. In conclusion, antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may represent a useful pharmacological approach in the treatment of cognitive deficits and some negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  18. Antiallodynic effect of tianeptine via modulation of the 5-HT7 receptor of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Heo, Bong Ha; Kim, Woong Mo; Kim, Yong Chul; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2015-06-26

    Although tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant has been reported to have antinociceptive effects, the mode of action is different from that of tricyclic antidepressants despite structural similarities. We examined the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal tianeptine in neuropathic pain rats and determined the involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 7 (5-HT7) receptor of the GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord. Neuropathic pain was induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). After observation of the effect from intrathecal tianeptine, a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (SB-269970) was administered intrathecally 10 min before delivery of tianeptine, to determine the contribution of spinal 5-HT7 receptor on the activity of tianeptine. GAD expression and GABA concentrations were assessed. Intrathecal tianeptine dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia in SNL rats. Pre-treatment with intrathecal SB-269970 reversed the antiallodynic effect of tianeptine. Both GAD65 expression and the GABA concentration in the spinal cord were decreased in neuropathic rats but were increased by tianeptine. Additionally, 5-HT7 receptor and GAD65 were co-localized in the spinal cord. Intrathecal tianeptine reduces neuropathic pain. 5-HT7 receptor of the GABAergic interneurons together with GAD65 plays a role in the activity of tianeptine at the spinal cord level.

  19. Antiallodynic effect of tianeptine via modulation of the 5-HT7 receptor of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Heo, Bong Ha; Kim, Woong Mo; Kim, Yong Chul; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2015-06-26

    Although tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant has been reported to have antinociceptive effects, the mode of action is different from that of tricyclic antidepressants despite structural similarities. We examined the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal tianeptine in neuropathic pain rats and determined the involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 7 (5-HT7) receptor of the GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord. Neuropathic pain was induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). After observation of the effect from intrathecal tianeptine, a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (SB-269970) was administered intrathecally 10 min before delivery of tianeptine, to determine the contribution of spinal 5-HT7 receptor on the activity of tianeptine. GAD expression and GABA concentrations were assessed. Intrathecal tianeptine dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia in SNL rats. Pre-treatment with intrathecal SB-269970 reversed the antiallodynic effect of tianeptine. Both GAD65 expression and the GABA concentration in the spinal cord were decreased in neuropathic rats but were increased by tianeptine. Additionally, 5-HT7 receptor and GAD65 were co-localized in the spinal cord. Intrathecal tianeptine reduces neuropathic pain. 5-HT7 receptor of the GABAergic interneurons together with GAD65 plays a role in the activity of tianeptine at the spinal cord level. PMID:25982324

  20. Selective pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor attenuates light and 8-OH-DPAT induced phase shifts of mouse circadian wheel running activity.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jonathan; Yun, Sujin; Losee Olson, Susan; Turek, Fred; Bonaventure, Pascal; Dvorak, Curt; Lovenberg, Timothy; Dugovic, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have illustrated a reciprocal relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor may provide a crucial link between the two sides of this equation since the receptor plays a critical role in sleep, depression, and circadian rhythm regulation. To further define the role of the 5-HT7 receptor as a potential pharmacotherapy to correct circadian rhythm disruptions, the current study utilized the selective 5-HT7 antagonist JNJ-18038683 (10 mg/kg) in three different circadian paradigms. While JNJ-18038683 was ineffective at phase shifting the onset of wheel running activity in mice when administered at different circadian time (CT) points across the circadian cycle, pretreatment with JNJ-18038683 blocked non-photic phase advance (CT6) induced by the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg/kg). Since light induced phase shifts in mammals are partially mediated via the modulation of the serotonergic system, we determined if JNJ-18038683 altered phase shifts induced by a light pulse at times known to phase delay (CT15) or advance (CT22) wheel running activity in free running mice. Light exposure resulted in a robust shift in the onset of activity in vehicle treated animals at both times tested. Administration of JNJ-18038683 significantly attenuated the light induced phase delay and completely blocked the phase advance. The current study demonstrates that pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor by JNJ-18038683 blunts both non-photic and photic phase shifts of circadian wheel running activity in mice. These findings highlight the importance of the 5-HT7 receptor in modulating circadian rhythms. Due to the opposite modulating effects of light resetting between diurnal and nocturnal species, pharmacotherapy targeting the 5-HT7 receptor in conjunction with bright light therapy may prove therapeutically beneficial by correcting the desynchronization of internal rhythms observed in depressed individuals.

  1. Assignment of the 5HT7 receptor gene (HTR7) to chromosome 10q and exclusion of genetic linkage with Tourette syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gelernter, J.; Rao, P.A.; Pauls, D.L.

    1995-03-20

    A novel serotonin receptor designated 5HT7 (genetic locus HTR7) was cloned in 1993. This receptor has interesting properties related to ligand affinity and CNS distribution that render HTR7 a very interesting candidate gene for neuropsychiatric disorders. We mapped this gene, first by physical methods and then by genetic linkage. First, we made a tentative assignment to chromosome 10, based on hybridization of an HTR7 probe to a Southern blot of DNA from somatic cell hybrids. We then identified a genetic polymorphism at the HTR7 locus. We identified one extended pedigree where the polymorphism segregated. Using the LEPED computer program for pairwise linkage analysis, we confirmed the assignment of the gene to chromosome 10, specifically 10q21-q24, based on a lod score of 5.37 at 0% recombination between HTR7 and D10S20 (a chromosome 10 reference marker). Finally, we excluded genetic linkage between this locus and Tourette syndrome under a reasonable set of assumptions. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Stiedl, Oliver; Pappa, Elpiniki; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; Ögren, Sven Ove

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with the development of anxiety, depression and cognitive function linked to mechanisms of emotional learning and memory. In rodents fear conditioning and passive avoidance (PA) are associative learning paradigms to study emotional memory. This review assesses the role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R as well as their interplay at the molecular, neurochemical and behavioral level. Activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs impairs emotional memory through attenuation of neuronal activity, whereas presynaptic 5-HT1AR activation reduces 5-HT release and exerts pro-cognitive effects on PA retention. Antagonism of the 5-HT1AR facilitates memory retention possibly via 5-HT7R activation and evidence is provided that 5HT7R can facilitate emotional memory upon reduced 5-HT1AR transmission. These findings highlight the differential role of these 5-HTRs in cognitive/emotional domains of behavior. Moreover, the results indicate that tonic and phasic 5-HT release can exert different and potentially opposing effects on emotional memory, depending on the states of 5-HT1ARs and 5-HT7Rs and their interaction. Consequently, individual differences due to genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role for the responsiveness to drug treatment, e.g., by SSRIs which increase intrasynaptic 5-HT levels thereby activating multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTR subtypes. PMID:26300776

  3. The type 7 serotonin receptor, 5-HT 7 , is essential in the mammary gland for regulation of mammary epithelial structure and function.

    PubMed

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Hernandez, Laura L; Stull, Malinda A; Horseman, Nelson D

    2015-01-01

    Autocrine-paracrine activity of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a crucial homeostatic parameter in mammary gland development during lactation and involution. Published studies suggested that the 5-HT7 receptor type was important for mediating several effects of 5-HT in the mammary epithelium. Here, using 5-HT7 receptor-null (HT7KO) mice we attempt to understand the role of this receptor in mediating 5-HT actions within the mammary gland. We demonstrate for the first time that HT7KO dams are inefficient at sustaining their pups. Histologically, the HT7KO mammary epithelium shows a significant deviation from the normal secretory epithelium in morphological architecture, reduced secretory vesicles, and numerous multinucleated epithelial cells with atypically displaced nuclei, during lactation. Mammary epithelial cells in HT7KO dams also display an inability to transition from lactation to involution as normally seen by transition from a columnar to a squamous cell configuration, along with alveolar cell apoptosis and cell shedding. Our results show that 5-HT7 is required for multiple actions of 5-HT in the mammary glands including core functions that contribute to changes in cell shape and cell turnover, as well as specialized secretory functions. Understanding these actions may provide new interventions to improve lactation performance and treat diseases such as mastitis and breast cancer.

  4. The Type 7 Serotonin Receptor, 5-HT7, Is Essential in the Mammary Gland for Regulation of Mammary Epithelial Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Vaibhav P.; Hernandez, Laura L.; Stull, Malinda A.; Horseman, Nelson D.

    2015-01-01

    Autocrine-paracrine activity of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a crucial homeostatic parameter in mammary gland development during lactation and involution. Published studies suggested that the 5-HT7 receptor type was important for mediating several effects of 5-HT in the mammary epithelium. Here, using 5-HT7 receptor-null (HT7KO) mice we attempt to understand the role of this receptor in mediating 5-HT actions within the mammary gland. We demonstrate for the first time that HT7KO dams are inefficient at sustaining their pups. Histologically, the HT7KO mammary epithelium shows a significant deviation from the normal secretory epithelium in morphological architecture, reduced secretory vesicles, and numerous multinucleated epithelial cells with atypically displaced nuclei, during lactation. Mammary epithelial cells in HT7KO dams also display an inability to transition from lactation to involution as normally seen by transition from a columnar to a squamous cell configuration, along with alveolar cell apoptosis and cell shedding. Our results show that 5-HT7 is required for multiple actions of 5-HT in the mammary glands including core functions that contribute to changes in cell shape and cell turnover, as well as specialized secretory functions. Understanding these actions may provide new interventions to improve lactation performance and treat diseases such as mastitis and breast cancer. PMID:25664318

  5. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders.

  6. Serotonin and the 5-HT7 receptor: the link between hepatocytes, IGF-1 and small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Svejda, Bernhard; Kidd, Mark; Timberlake, Andrew; Harry, Kathy; Kazberouk, Alexander; Schimmack, Simon; Lawrence, Ben; Pfragner, Roswitha; Modlin, Irvin M

    2013-07-01

    Platelet-derived serotonin (5-HT) is involved in liver regeneration. The liver is also the metastatic site for malignant enterochromaffin (EC) cell "carcinoid" (neuroendocrine) neoplasms, the principal cellular source of 5-HT. We hypothesized that 5-HT produced by metastatic EC cells played a role in the hepatic tumor-microenvironment principally via 5-HT₇ receptor-mediated activation of hepatocyte IGF-1 synthesis and secretion. Using isolated rat hepatocytes, we evaluated 5-HT₇ receptor expression (using PCR, sequencing and western blot). ELISA, cell transfection and western blots delineated 5-HT-mediated signaling pathways (pCREB, AKT and ERK). IGF-1 synthesis/secretion was evaluated using QPCR and ELISA. IGF-1 was tested on small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm proliferation, while IGF-1 production and 5-HT₇ expression were examined in an in vivo SCID metastasis model. Our results demonstrated evidence for a functional 5-HT₇ receptor. 5-HT activated cAMP/PKA activity, pCREB (130-205%, P < 0.05) and pERK/pAKT (1.2-1.75, P < 0.05). Signaling was reversed by the 5-HT₇ receptor antagonist SB269970. IGF-1 significantly stimulated proliferation of two small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm cell lines (EC₅₀: 7-70 pg/mL) and could be reversed by the small molecule inhibitor BMS-754807. IGF-1 and 5-HT were elevated (40-300×) in peri-tumoral hepatic tissue in nude mice, while 5-HT₇ was increased fourfold compared to sham-operated animals. We conclude that hepatocytes express a cAMP-coupled 5-HT₇ receptor, which, at elevated 5-HT concentrations that occur in liver metastases, signals via CREB/AKT and is linked to IGF-1 synthesis and secretion. Because IGF-1 regulates NEN proliferation, identification of a role for 5-HT₇ in the hepatic metastatic tumor microenvironment suggests the potential for novel therapeutic strategies for amine-producing mid-gut tumors. PMID:23578138

  7. Serotonin regulates β-casein expression via 5-HT7 receptors in human mammary epithelial MCF-12A cells.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Takeshi; Kimura, Soichiro; Takahashi, Katsuo; Morimoto, Yasunori; Maeda, Tomoji; Sanbe, Atsushi; Ueda, Hideo; Kudo, Kenzo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) suppresses β-casein expression, a differentiation marker in mammary epithelial cells, via inhibition of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation in the human mammary epithelial cell line, MCF-12A. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of the different 5-HT receptor subtypes in MCF-12A cells, and identified the receptors involved in 5-HT-mediated suppression of β-casein protein expression. β-Casein mRNA expression was inhibited by 30 µM 5-HT in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with 30 µM 5-HT for 72 h decreased β-casein protein levels and STAT5 phosphorylation (pSTAT5). The cells expressed four 5-HT receptors subtypes (5-HTR1D, 2B, 3A, and 7) at the mRNA and protein level, and their expression was elevated by prolactin (PRL) treatment. Additionally, the mRNA levels of 5-HTR1D and 5-HTR7 were significantly higher than the other 5-HT receptors in the cells. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 mRNA was detectable in the cells in the absence of PRL, and PRL treatment significantly increased its expression. β-Casein and pSTAT5/STAT5 levels in the cells co-treated with 5-HT and a selective 5-HTR1D inhibitor, BRL15572, were equal to those observed in cells treated with 5-HT alone. However, in the cells co-treated with 5-HT and a selective 5-HTR7 inhibitor, SB269970, β-casein and pSTAT5/STAT5 levels increased in a SB269970 concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, we showed that 5-HT regulates β-casein expression via 5-HTR7 in MCF-12A human mammary epithelial cells.

  8. Structural modifications of the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agonist N-(4-cyanophenylmethyl)-4-(2-biphenyl)-1-piperazinehexanamide (LP-211) to improve in vitro microsomal stability: A case study.

    PubMed

    Lacivita, Enza; Podlewska, Sabina; Speranza, Luisa; Niso, Mauro; Satała, Grzegorz; Perrone, Roberto; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Leopoldo, Marcello

    2016-09-14

    The 5-HT7 serotonin receptor is revealing a promising target for innovative therapeutic strategies of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report the synthesis of thirty long-chain arylpiperazine analogs of the selective and brain penetrant 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-211 (1) designed to enhance stability towards microsomal oxidative metabolism. Commonly used medicinal chemistry strategies were used (i.e., reduction of overall lipophilicity, introduction of electron-withdrawing groups, blocking of potential vulnerable sites of metabolism), and in vitro microsomal stability was tested. The data showed that the adopted design strategy does not directly translate into improvements in stability. Instead, the metabolic stability of the compounds was related to the presence of specific substituents in well-defined regions of the molecule. The collected data allowed for the construction of a machine learning model that, in a given chemical space, is able to describe and quantitatively predict the metabolic stability of the compounds. The majority of the synthesized compounds maintained high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors and showed selectivity towards 5-HT6 and dopamine D2 receptors and different selectivity for 5-HT1A and α1 adrenergic receptors. Compound 50 showed 3-fold higher in vitro stability towards oxidative metabolism than 1 and was able to stimulate neurite outgrowth in neuronal primary cultures through the 5-HT7 receptor in a shorter time and at a lower concentration than the agonist 1. A preliminary disposition study in mice revealed that compound 50 was metabolically stable and was able to pass the blood-brain barrier, thus representing a new tool for studying the pharmacotherapeutic potential of 5-HT7 receptor in vivo. PMID:27318552

  9. Multi-Step Protocol for Automatic Evaluation of Docking Results Based on Machine Learning Methods--A Case Study of Serotonin Receptors 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7).

    PubMed

    Smusz, Sabina; Mordalski, Stefan; Witek, Jagna; Rataj, Krzysztof; Kafel, Rafał; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2015-04-27

    Molecular docking, despite its undeniable usefulness in computer-aided drug design protocols and the increasing sophistication of tools used in the prediction of ligand-protein interaction energies, is still connected with a problem of effective results analysis. In this study, a novel protocol for the automatic evaluation of numerous docking results is presented, being a combination of Structural Interaction Fingerprints and Spectrophores descriptors, machine-learning techniques, and multi-step results analysis. Such an approach takes into consideration the performance of a particular learning algorithm (five machine learning methods were applied), the performance of the docking algorithm itself, the variety of conformations returned from the docking experiment, and the receptor structure (homology models were constructed on five different templates). Evaluation using compounds active toward 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors, as well as additional analysis carried out for beta-2 adrenergic receptor ligands, proved that the methodology is a viable tool for supporting virtual screening protocols, enabling proper discrimination between active and inactive compounds.

  10. Serotonin via 5-HT7 receptors activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C epsilon resulting in interleukin-6 synthesis in human U373 MG astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Klaus; Biersack, Lisa; Waschbisch, Anne; Orlikowski, Sonja; Akundi, Ravi Shankar; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo; Hüll, Michael; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2005-05-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a widely distributed neurotransmitter which is involved in neuroimmunomodulatory processes. Previously, it has been demonstrated that 5-HT may induce interleukin (IL)-6 expression in primary rat hippocampal astrocytes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular pathways underlying this induction of IL-6 synthesis. As a model system, we used the human astrocytoma cell line U373 MG, which synthesizes IL-6 upon stimulation with various inducers. 5-HT dose- and time-dependently induced IL-6 protein synthesis. We identified several 5-HT receptors to be expressed on U373 MG cells, including the 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptors. In this report, we show that the 5-HT-induced IL-6 release is mediated by the 5-HT7 receptor based on several agonist/antagonists that were used. 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis is inhibited by the partially selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, pimozide, and the selective antagonist SB269970. Furthermore, IL-6 synthesis was induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist carboxamidotryptamin. In addition, we found p38 MAPKs and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon to be involved in 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis as specific inhibitors of these enzymes (SB202190 and RO-31-8425, respectively) blocked 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis. Furthermore, 5-HT mediated the phosphorylation of both p38 MAPK as well as the PKC epsilon isoform. The p42/44 MAPKs, however, were not involved in 5-HT-induced IL-6 synthesis. This study shows, for the first time, a central role of 5-HT7 receptor linked to p38 MAPK and PKC epsilon for the induction of cytokine synthesis in astrocytic cells. PMID:15836614

  11. 3D QSAR based design of novel oxindole derivative as 5HT7 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chitta, Aparna; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2014-06-01

    To understand the structural requirements of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT7) receptor inhibitors and to design new ligands against 5HT7 receptor with enhanced inhibitory potency, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study with comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) for a data set of 56 molecules consisting of oxindole, tetrahydronaphthalene, aryl ketone substituted arylpiperazinealkylamide derivatives was performed. Derived model showed good statistical reliability in terms of predicting 5HT7 inhibitory activity of the molecules, based on molecular property fields like steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor fields. This is evident from statistical parameters like conventional r2 and a cross validated (q2) values of 0.985, 0.743 for CoMFA and 0.970, 0.608 for CoMSIA, respectively. Predictive ability of the models to determine 5HT7 antagonistic activity is validated using a test set of 16 molecules that were not included in the training set. Predictive r2 obtained for the test set was 0.560 and 0.619 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. Steric, electrostatic fields majorly contributed toward activity which forms the basis for design of new molecules. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) calculation using QikProp 2.5 (Schrodinger 2010, Portland, OR) reveals that the molecules confer to Lipinski's rule of five in majority of the cases.

  12. 5-HT1A/1B, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 serotonergic receptors recruitment in tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception: role of dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Ferreira, Célio Marcos dos Reis; Urbina, Maria Angélica Castiblanco; Mariño, Andrés Uribe; Carvalho, Andressa Daiane; Butera, Giuseppe; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacological studies have been focused on the involvement of different neural pathways in the organization of antinociception that follows tonic-clonic seizures, including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-, norepinephrine-, acetylcholine- and endogenous opioid peptide-mediated mechanisms, giving rise to more in-depth comprehension of this interesting post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. The present work investigated the involvement of 5-HT(1A/1B), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7) serotonergic receptors through peripheral pretreatment with methiothepin at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg in the organization of the post-ictal antinociception elicited by pharmacologically (with pentylenetetrazole at 64 mg/kg)-induced tonic-clonic seizures. Methiothepin at 1.0 mg/kg blocked the post-ictal antinociception recorded after the end of seizures, whereas doses of 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg potentiated the post-ictal antinociception. The nociceptive thresholds were kept higher than those of the control group. However, when the same 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors antagonist was microinjected (at 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 microg/0.2 microL) in the dorsal raphe nucleus, a mesencephalic structure rich in serotonergic neurons and 5-HT receptors, the post-ictal hypo-analgesia was consistently antagonized. The present findings suggest a dual effect of methiothepin, characterized by a disinhibitory effect on the post-ictal antinociception when peripherally administered (possibly due to an antagonism of pre-synaptic 5-HT(1A) serotonergic autoreceptors in the pain endogenous inhibitory system) and an inhibitory effect (possibly due to a DRN post-synaptic 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7) serotonergic receptors blockade) when centrally administered. The present data also suggest that serotonin-mediated mechanisms of the dorsal raphe nucleus exert a key-role in the modulation of the post-ictal antinociception.

  13. A Pharmacological Analysis of an Associative Learning Task: 5-HT1 to 5-HT7 Receptor Subtypes Function on a Pavlovian/Instrumental Autoshaped Memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies using both invertebrates and mammals have revealed that endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) modulates plasticity processes, including learning and memory. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms, loci, or time window of the actions of 5-HT. The aim of this review is to discuss some recent results on the effects of systemic administration of selective agonists and antagonists of 5-HT on associative learning in a Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P/I-A) task in rats. The results indicate that pharmacological manipulation of 5-HT1-7 receptors or 5-HT reuptake sites might modulate memory consolidation, which is consistent with the emerging notion that 5-HT plays a key role in memory formation. PMID:14557609

  14. Amisulpride is a potent 5-HT7 antagonist: relevance for antidepressant actions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Atheir I.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Tran, Thuy B.; Meltzer, Herbert Y.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Amisulpride is approved for clinical use in treating schizophrenia in a number of European countries and also for treating dysthymia, a mild form of depression, in Italy. Amisulpride has also been demonstrated to be an antidepressant for patients with major depression in many clinical trials. In part because of the selective D2/D3 receptor antagonist properties of amisulpride, it has long been widely assumed that dopaminergic modulation is the proximal event responsible for mediating its antidepressant and antipsychotic properties. Objectives The purpose of these studies was to determine if amisulpride’s antidepressant actions are mediated by off-target interactions with other receptors. Materials and Methods We performed experiments that: (1) examined the pharmacological profile of amisulpride at a large number of CNS molecular targets and (2) after finding high potency antagonist affinity for human 5-HT7a serotonin receptors, characterized the actions of amisulpride as an antidepressant in wild-type and 5-HT7 receptor knock-out mice. Results We discovered that amisulpride was a potent competitive antagonist at 5-HT7a receptors and that interactions with no other molecular target investigated here could explain its antidepressant actions in vivo. Significantly, and in contrast to their wildtype littermates, 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice did not respond to amisulpride in a widely used rodent model of depression, the tail suspension test. Conclusions These results indicate that 5-HT7a receptor antagonism, and not D2/D3 receptor antagonism, likely underlies the antidepressant actions of amisulpride. PMID:19337725

  15. Emotional and risk seeking behavior after prepuberal subchronic or adult acute stimulation of 5-HT7-Rs in Naples High Excitability rats.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Lucia A; Romano, Emilia; Treno, Concetta; Lacivita, Enza; Arra, Claudio; Gironi-Carnevale, Ugo A; Travaglini, Domenica; Leopoldo, Marcello; Laviola, Giovanni; Sadile, Adolfo G; Adriani, Walter

    2014-04-01

    We report here the results of studies aimed to investigate the involvement of serotonin receptor 7 subtype (5-HT7-R) in the modulation of emotional response in Naples High-Excitability (NHE) rat, a validated model for hyperactivity and impaired attention. A range of dosages (0.0, 0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/kg) of LP-211, a selective agonist of 5-HT7-Rs, has been evaluated in animals at different age (adolescence and adulthood). Male NHE and random bred (NRB) control rats were tested in an Elevated Zero-Maze (EZM) after LP-211 treatment in two different regimens: at the issue of adolescent, subchronic exposure (14 intraperitoneal [i.p.] injections, once/day, pnd 31-44, tested on pnd 45--Exp. 1) or as adult, acute effect (15 min after i.p. injection--Exp. 2). Adolescent, subchronic LP-211 at 0.500 mg/kg dosage increased the frequency of head-dips only in NHE rats. Drug effect on time spent and entries in open EZM quadrants were revealed with adult, acute administration of 0.125 mg/kg LP-211 (both strains), indicating a tendency toward anxiolytic effects. In conclusion, data demonstrate that subchronic stimulation of 5-HT7-Rs during prepuberal period increases novelty-seeking/risk-taking propensity in NHE adults. These sequels are revealing increased disinhibition and/or motivation to explore in the NHE rats, which are characterized by a hyperactive dopaminergic system. These data may open new perspectives in studying mechanism of risk-seeking behavior.

  16. 5-Hydroxytryptamine type 7 receptor neuroprotection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity is PDGFβ receptor dependent.

    PubMed

    Vasefi, Maryam S; Kruk, Jeff S; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the hippocampus. Long-term (2-24 h) activation of 5-HT7 receptors regulates growth factor receptor expression, including the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptors. Direct activation of PDGFβ receptors in primary hippocampal and cortical neurons inhibits NMDA receptor activity and attenuates NMDA receptor-induced neurotoxicity. Our objective was to investigate whether the 5-HT7 receptor-induced increase in PDGFβ receptor expression would be similarly neuroprotective. We demonstrate that 5-HT7 receptor agonist treatment in primary hippocampal neurons also increases the expression of phospholipase C (PLC) γ, a downstream effector of PDGFβ receptors associated with the inhibition of NMDA receptor activity. To determine if the up-regulation of PDGFβ receptors is neuroprotective, primary hippocampal neurons were incubated with the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP 12, for 24 h. Indeed, LP 12 treatment prevented NMDA-induced neurotoxicity and this effect was dependent on PDGFβ receptor kinase activity. Treatment of primary neurons with LP 12 also differentially altered NMDA receptor subunit expression, reducing the expression of NR1 and NR2B, but not NR2A. These findings demonstrate the potential for providing growth factor receptor-dependent neuroprotective effects using small-molecule ligands of G protein-coupled receptors.

  17. EGF receptor ligands: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhuminder; Carpenter, Graham; Coffey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven ligands bind to and activate the mammalian epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR/ERBB1/HER1): EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and epigen (EPGN). Of these, EGF, TGFA, HBEGF, and BTC are thought to be high-affinity ligands, whereas AREG, EREG, and EPGN constitute low-affinity ligands. This focused review is meant to highlight recent studies related to actions of the individual EGFR ligands, the interesting biology that has been uncovered, and relevant advances related to ligand interactions with the EGFR.

  18. EGF receptor ligands: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhuminder; Carpenter, Graham; Coffey, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Seven ligands bind to and activate the mammalian epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR/ERBB1/HER1): EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and epigen (EPGN). Of these, EGF, TGFA, HBEGF, and BTC are thought to be high-affinity ligands, whereas AREG, EREG, and EPGN constitute low-affinity ligands. This focused review is meant to highlight recent studies related to actions of the individual EGFR ligands, the interesting biology that has been uncovered, and relevant advances related to ligand interactions with the EGFR. PMID:27635238

  19. EGF receptor ligands: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhuminder; Carpenter, Graham; Coffey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven ligands bind to and activate the mammalian epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR/ERBB1/HER1): EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and epigen (EPGN). Of these, EGF, TGFA, HBEGF, and BTC are thought to be high-affinity ligands, whereas AREG, EREG, and EPGN constitute low-affinity ligands. This focused review is meant to highlight recent studies related to actions of the individual EGFR ligands, the interesting biology that has been uncovered, and relevant advances related to ligand interactions with the EGFR. PMID:27635238

  20. Antidepressant- and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of New Dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Antagonists in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Pytka, Karolina; Partyka, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Mordyl, Barbara; Kazek, Grzegorz; Rapacz, Anna; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Błachuta, Marian; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Filipek, Barbara; Wesołowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further characterize pharmacological properties of two phenylpiperazine derivatives: 1-{2-[2-(2,6-dimethlphenoxy)ethoxy]ethyl}-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazynine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 2-[2-(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxy]ethyl-4-(2- methoxyphenyl)piperazynine dihydrochloride (HBK-15) in radioligand binding and functional in vitro assays as well as in vivo models. Antidepressant-like properties were investigated in the forced swim test (FST) in mice and rats. Anxiolytic-like activity was evaluated in the four-plate test in mice and elevated plus maze test (EPM) in rats. Imipramine and escitalopram were used as reference drugs in the FST, and diazepam was used as a standard anxiolytic drug in animal models of anxiety. Our results indicate that HBK-14 and HBK-15 possess high or moderate affinity for serotonergic 5-HT2, adrenergic α1, and dopaminergic D2 receptors as well as being full 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists. We also present their potent antidepressant-like activity (HBK-14—FST mice: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; FST rats: 5 mg/kg) and (HBK-15—FST mice: 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; FST rats: 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg). We show that HBK-14 (four-plate test: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; EPM: 2.5 mg/kg) and HBK-15 (four-plate test: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; EPM: 5 mg/kg) possess anxiolytic-like properties. Among the two, HBK-15 has stronger antidepressant-like properties, and HBK-14 displays greater anxiolytic-like activity. Lastly, we demonstrate the involvement of serotonergic system, particularly 5-HT1A receptor, in the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions of investigated compounds. PMID:26554929

  1. What are Nuclear Receptor Ligands?

    PubMed Central

    Sladek, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a family of highly conserved transcription factors that regulate transcription in response to small lipophilic compounds. They play a role in every aspect of development, physiology and disease in humans. They are also ubiquitous in and unique to the animal kingdom suggesting that they may have played an important role in their evolution. In contrast to the classical endocrine receptors that originally defined the family, recent studies suggest that the first NRs might have been sensors of their environment, binding ligands that were external to the host organism. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad perspective on NR ligands and address the issue of exactly what constitutes a NR ligand from historical, biological and evolutionary perspectives. This discussion will lay the foundation for subsequent reviews in this issue as well as pose new questions for future investigation. PMID:20615454

  2. Polypharmacology of dopamine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Butini, S; Nikolic, K; Kassel, S; Brückmann, H; Filipic, S; Agbaba, D; Gemma, S; Brogi, S; Brindisi, M; Campiani, G; Stark, H

    2016-07-01

    Most neurological diseases have a multifactorial nature and the number of molecular mechanisms discovered as underpinning these diseases is continuously evolving. The old concept of developing selective agents for a single target does not fit with the medical need of most neurological diseases. The development of designed multiple ligands holds great promises and appears as the next step in drug development for the treatment of these multifactorial diseases. Dopamine and its five receptor subtypes are intimately involved in numerous neurological disorders. Dopamine receptor ligands display a high degree of cross interactions with many other targets including G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes and ion channels. For brain disorders like Parkinsońs disease, schizophrenia and depression the dopaminergic system, being intertwined with many other signaling systems, plays a key role in pathogenesis and therapy. The concept of designed multiple ligands and polypharmacology, which perfectly meets the therapeutic needs for these brain disorders, is herein discussed as a general ligand-based concept while focusing on dopaminergic agents and receptor subtypes in particular. PMID:27234980

  3. Fluorescent ligands for adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Eszter; Jayasekara, P Suresh; Squarcialupi, Lucia; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    Interest is increasing in developing fluorescent ligands for characterization of adenosine receptors (ARs), which hold a promise of usefulness in the drug discovery process. The size of a strategically labeled AR ligand can be greatly increased after the attachment of a fluorophore. The choice of dye moiety (e.g. Alexa Fluor 488), attachment point and linker length can alter the selectivity and potency of the parent molecule. Fluorescent derivatives of adenosine agonists and antagonists (e.g. XAC and other heterocyclic antagonist scaffolds) have been synthesized and characterized pharmacologically. Some are useful AR probes for flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and scanning confocal microscopy. Thus, the approach of fluorescent labeled GPCR ligands, including those for ARs, is a growing dynamic research field.

  4. Absolute Ligand Discrimination by Dimeric Signaling Receptors.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Sepehr; Nayak, Chitra R; Feld, Jordan J; Zilman, Anton G

    2016-09-01

    Many signaling pathways act through shared components, where different ligand molecules bind the same receptors or activate overlapping sets of response regulators downstream. Nevertheless, different ligands acting through cross-wired pathways often lead to different outcomes in terms of the target cell behavior and function. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, it still largely remains unclear how cells can reliably discriminate different molecular ligands under such circumstances. Here we show that signaling via ligand-induced receptor dimerization-a very common motif in cellular signaling-naturally incorporates a mechanism for the discrimination of ligands acting through the same receptor. PMID:27602720

  5. Prepuberal Stimulation of 5-HT7-R by LP-211 in a Rat Model of Hyper-Activity and Attention-Deficit: Permanent Effects on Attention, Brain Amino Acids and Synaptic Markers in the Fronto-Striatal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Concetta; Gironi Carnevale, Ugo A.; Arra, Claudio; Nieddu, Maria; Pagano, Cristina; Illiano, Placido; Barbato, Fabiana; Carboni, Ezio; Laviola, Giovanni; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Adriani, Walter; Sadile, Adolfo G.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-talk at the prefronto-striatal interface involves excitatory amino acids, different receptors, transducers and modulators. We investigated long-term effects of a prepuberal, subchronic 5-HT7-R agonist (LP-211) on adult behaviour, amino acids and synaptic markers in a model for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Naples High Excitability rats (NHE) and their Random Bred controls (NRB) were daily treated with LP-211 in the 5th and 6th postnatal week. One month after treatment, these rats were tested for indices of activity, non selective (NSA), selective spatial attention (SSA) and emotionality. The quantity of L-Glutamate (L-Glu), L-Aspartate (L-Asp) and L-Leucine (L-Leu), dopamine transporter (DAT), NMDAR1 subunit and CAMKIIα, were assessed in prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal (DS) and ventral striatum (VS), for their role in synaptic transmission, neural plasticity and information processing. Prepuberal LP-211 (at lower dose) reduced horizontal activity and (at higher dose) increased SSA, only for NHE but not in NRB rats. Prepuberal LP-211 increased, in NHE rats, L-Glu in the PFC and L-Asp in the VS (at 0.250 mg/kg dose), whereas (at 0.125 mg/kg dose) it decreased L-Glu and L-Asp in the DS. The L-Glu was decreased, at 0.125 mg/kg, only in the VS of NRB rats. The DAT levels were decreased with the 0.125 mg/kg dose (in the PFC), and increased with the 0.250 mg/kg dose (in the VS), significantly for NHE rats. The basal NMDAR1 level was higher in the PFC of NHE than NRB rats; LP-211 treatment (at 0.125 mg/kg dose) decreased NMDAR1 in the VS of NRB rats. This study represents a starting point about the impact of developmental 5-HT7-R activation on neuro-physiology of attentive processes, executive functions and their neural substrates. PMID:24709857

  6. Engineering death receptor ligands for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wajant, Harald; Gerspach, Jeannette; Pfizenmaier, Klaus

    2013-05-28

    CD95, TNFR1, TRAILR1 and TRAILR2 belong to a subgroup of TNF receptors which is characterized by a conserved cell death-inducing protein domain that connects these receptors to the apoptotic machinery of the cell. Activation of death receptors in malignant cells attracts increasing attention as a principle to fight cancer. Besides agonistic antibodies the major way to stimulate death receptors is the use of their naturally occurring "death ligands" CD95L, TNF and TRAIL. However, dependent from the concept followed to develop a death ligand-based therapy various limiting aspects have to be taken into consideration on the way to a "bedside" usable drug. Problems arise in particular from the cell associated transmembrane nature of the death ligands, the poor serum half life of the soluble fragments derived from the transmembrane ligands, the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors and the existence of additional non-death receptors of the death ligands. Here, we summarize strategies how these limitations can be overcome by genetic engineering.

  7. Determining ligand specificity of Ly49 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Kerry J; Kane, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Ly49 receptors in rodents, like KIR in humans, play an integral role in the regulation of NK cell activity. Some inhibitory Ly49 are known to interact with specific MHC I alleles to maintain tolerance to self tissues, and NK activation is triggered upon the loss of inhibitory signals due to pathological downregulation of self MHC I. Although a virally encoded ligand has been identified that can trigger NK cytotoxicity through an activating Ly49, some activating Ly49 also recognize MHC I and the role of most activating receptors in NK effector function remains poorly defined. As many Ly49 remain orphan receptors, we describe methods to unambiguously discern receptor-ligand pairs. Additionally, we describe a method for the mutagenesis of Ly49 and MHC ligands that can be used to define the motifs conferring receptor specificity for their ligands. Further elucidation of Ly49 ligands is required to continue to define the role of Ly49 in regulating NK cell effector function and may give vital clues to the role of KIR in human health and disease. PMID:20033649

  8. The Retinoid X Receptors and Their Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Marcia I.; Xia, Zebin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the current status of studies on the structural and molecular biology of the retinoid X receptor subtypes α, β, and γ (RXRs, NR2B1–3), their nuclear and cytoplasmic functions, post-transcriptional processing, and recently reported ligands. Points of interest are the different changes in the ligand-binding pocket induced by variously shaped agonists, the communication of the ligand–bound pocket with the coactivator binding surface and the heterodimerization interface, and recently identified ligands that are natural products, those that function as environmental toxins or drugs that had been originally designed to interact with other targets, as well as those that were deliberately designed as RXR-selective transcriptional agonists, synergists, or antagonists. Of these synthetic ligands, the general trend in design appears to be away from fully aromatic rigid structures to those containing partial elements of the flexible tetraene side chain of 9-cis-retinoic acid. PMID:22020178

  9. Ligands for Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Sakai, Ryuichi

    Marine-derived small molecules and peptides have played a central role in elaborating pharmacological specificities and neuronal functions of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the primary mediators of excitatory syn-aptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). As well, the pathological sequelae elicited by one class of compounds (the kainoids) constitute a widely-used animal model for human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). New and existing molecules could prove useful as lead compounds for the development of therapeutics for neuropathologies that have aberrant glutamatergic signaling as a central component. In this chapter we discuss natural source origins and pharmacological activities of those marine compounds that target ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  10. Ligands for Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2010-01-01

    Marine-derived small molecules and peptides have played a central role in elaborating pharmacological specificities and neuronal functions of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the primary mediators of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). As well, the pathological sequelae elicited by one class of compounds (the kainoids) constitute a widely-used animal model for human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). New and existing molecules could prove useful as lead compounds for the development of therapeutics for neuropathologies that have aberrant glutamatergic signaling as a central component. In this chapter we discuss natural source origins and pharmacological activities of those marine compounds that target ionotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:19184587

  11. Glycomimetic ligands for the human asialoglycoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Mamidyala, Sreeman K; Dutta, Sanjay; Chrunyk, Boris A; Préville, Cathy; Wang, Hong; Withka, Jane M; McColl, Alexander; Subashi, Timothy A; Hawrylik, Steven J; Griffor, Matthew C; Kim, Sung; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Price, David A; Menhaji-Klotz, Elnaz; Mascitti, Vincent; Finn, M G

    2012-02-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a high-capacity galactose-binding receptor expressed on hepatocytes that binds its native substrates with low affinity. More potent ligands are of interest for hepatic delivery of therapeutic agents. We report several classes of galactosyl analogues with varied substitution at the anomeric, C2-, C5-, and C6-positions. Significant increases in binding affinity were noted for several trifluoromethylacetamide derivatives without covalent attachment to the protein. A variety of new ligands were obtained with affinity for ASGPR as good as or better than that of the parent N-acetylgalactosamine, showing that modification on either side of the key C3,C4-diol moiety is well tolerated, consistent with previous models of a shallow binding pocket. The galactosyl pyranose motif therefore offers many opportunities for the attachment of other functional units or payloads while retaining low-micromolar or better affinity for the ASGPR.

  12. Receptor-ligand interactions: Advanced biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Guryanov, Ivan; Fiorucci, Stefano; Tennikova, Tatiana

    2016-11-01

    Receptor-ligand interactions (RLIs) are at the base of all biological events occurring in living cells. The understanding of interactions between complementary macromolecules in biological systems represents a high-priority research area in bionanotechnology to design the artificial systems mimicking natural processes. This review summarizes and analyzes RLIs in some cutting-edge biomedical fields, in particular, for the preparation of novel stationary phases to separate complex biological mixtures in medical diagnostics, for the design of ultrasensitive biosensors for identification of biomarkers of various diseases at early stages, as well as in the development of innovative biomaterials and approaches for regenerative medicine. All these biotechnological fields are closely related, because their success depends on a proper choice, combination and spatial disposition of the single components of ligand-receptor pairs on the surface of appropriately designed support.

  13. Receptor-ligand interactions: Advanced biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Guryanov, Ivan; Fiorucci, Stefano; Tennikova, Tatiana

    2016-11-01

    Receptor-ligand interactions (RLIs) are at the base of all biological events occurring in living cells. The understanding of interactions between complementary macromolecules in biological systems represents a high-priority research area in bionanotechnology to design the artificial systems mimicking natural processes. This review summarizes and analyzes RLIs in some cutting-edge biomedical fields, in particular, for the preparation of novel stationary phases to separate complex biological mixtures in medical diagnostics, for the design of ultrasensitive biosensors for identification of biomarkers of various diseases at early stages, as well as in the development of innovative biomaterials and approaches for regenerative medicine. All these biotechnological fields are closely related, because their success depends on a proper choice, combination and spatial disposition of the single components of ligand-receptor pairs on the surface of appropriately designed support. PMID:27524092

  14. Molecular modulators of benzodiazepine receptor ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Villar, H.O.; Loew, G.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Ten derivatives of {beta}-carbolines with known affinities to the GABA{sub A}/BDZ (benzodiazepine) receptor were studied using the Am 1 and MNDO/H Semiempirical techniques to identify and characterize molecular modulators of receptor recognition. Steric, lipophilic, and electrostatic properties of these compounds were calculated and examined for their possible role in recognition. Particular attention was paid to the regions around the two most favorable proton-accepting sites, the ON and the substituent at the C{sub 3} position, already implicated in recognition, as well as to the acidic N9H group that could be a proton donating center. To probe further the role of these three ligand sites in receptor interactions, a model of the receptor using three methanol molecules was made and optimum interactions of these three sites with them characterized. The results indicate some similarity in the shape of these ligands, which could reflect a steric requirement. The receptor affinity appears to be modulated to some extent by the ratio of lipophilic to hydrophilic surface, the negative potential at the {beta}N, provided there is also one at the C{sub 3} substituent confirming the importance of two accepting sites in recognition. The acidic N9H does not appear to be a modulator of affinity or does it form a stable H-bond with methanol as acceptor. The two proton donating molecules do form such a stable complex, and both are needed for high affinity.

  15. Activation of Neuropeptide FF Receptors by Kisspeptin Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shinya; Misu, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kenji; Setsuda, Shohei; Masuda, Ryo; Ohno, Hiroaki; Naniwa, Yousuke; Ieda, Nahoko; Inoue, Naoko; Ohkura, Satoshi; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2011-01-13

    Kisspeptin is a member of the RFamide neuropeptide family that is implicated in gonadotropin secretion. Because kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling is implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction, GPR54 ligands represent promising therapeutic agents against endocrine secretion disorders. In the present study, the selectivity profiles of GPR54 agonist peptides were investigated for several GPCRs, including RFamide receptors. Kisspeptin-10 exhibited potent binding and activation of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and NPFFR2). In contrast, short peptide agonists bound with much lower affinity to NPFFRs while showing relatively high selectivity toward GPR54. The possible localization of secondary kisspeptin targets was also demonstrated by variation in the levels of GnRH release from the median eminence and the type of GPR54 agonists used. Negligible affinity of the reported NPFFR ligands to GPR54 was observed and indicates the unidirectional cross-reactivity between both ligands.

  16. Chemistry and pharmacology of GABAB receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents new clinical applications of the prototypic GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen for the treatment of addiction by drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, cocaine, nicotine, morphine, and heroin, a novel baclofen prodrug Arbaclofen placarbil, the GABA(B) receptor agonist AZD3355 (Lesogabaran) currently in Phase 2 clinical trials for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, and four positive allosteric modulators of GABA(B) receptors (CGP7930, GS39783, NVP-BHF177, and BHFF), which have less propensity for the development of tolerance due to receptor desensitization than classical GABA(B) receptor agonists. All four compounds showed anxiolytic affects. In the presence of positive allosteric modulators the "classical" GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP35348 and 2-hydroxy-saclofen showed properties of partial GABA(B) receptor agonists. Seven micromolar affinity GABA(B) receptor antagonists, phaclofen; 2-hydroxy-saclofen; CGP's 35348, 36742, 46381, 51176; and SCH50911, are discussed. CGP36742 (SGS742) showed statistically significant improvements of working memory and attention in a Phase 2 clinical trial in mild, but not in moderate Alzheimer patients. Eight nanomolar affinity GABA(B) receptor antagonists are presented (CGP's 52432, 54626, 55845, 56433, 56999, 61334, 62349, and 63360) that were used by pharmacologists for numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. CGP's 36742, 51176, 55845, and 56433 showed antidepressant effects. Several compounds are also available as radioligands, such as [(3)H]CGP27492, [(3)H]CGP54626, [(3)H]CGP5699, and [(3)H]CGP62349. Three novel fluorescent and three GABA(B) receptor antagonists with very high specific radioactivity (>2,000 Ci/mmol) are presented. [(125)I]CGP64213 and the photoaffinity ligand [(125)I]CGP71872 allowed the identification of GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b) receptors in the expression cloning work. PMID:20655477

  17. Affinity Regulates Spatial Range of EGF Receptor Autocrine Ligand Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, Ann; Iida, Tomoko; Lam, Ho-Yan; Hill, Virginia; Wiley, H S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2002-08-08

    Proper spatial localization of EGFR signaling activated by autocrine ligands represents a critical factor in embryonic development as well as tissue organization and function, and ligand/receptor binding affinity is among the molecular and cellular properties suggested to play a role in governing this localization. The authors employ a computational model to predict how receptor-binding affinity affects local capture of autocrine ligand vis-a-vis escape to distal regions, and provide experimental test by constructing cell lines expressing EGFR along with either wild-type EGF or a low-affinity mutant, EGF{sup L47M}. The model predicts local capture of a lower affinity autocrine ligand to be less efficient when the ligand production rate is small relative to receptor appearance rate. The experimental data confirm this prediction, demonstrating that cells can use ligand/receptor binding affinity to regulate ligand spatial distribution when autocrine ligand production is limiting for receptor signaling.

  18. Ligand-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus.

    PubMed

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2014-12-01

    GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that convey specific extracellular stimuli to intracellular signalling. They represent the largest family of cell surface proteins that are therapeutically targeted. According to the traditional two-state model of receptor theory, GPCRs were considered as operating in equilibrium between two functional conformations, an active (R*) and inactive (R) state. Thus, it was assumed that a GPCR can exist either in an "off" or "on" conformation causing either no activation or equal activation of all its signalling pathways. Over the past several years it has become evident that this model is too simple and that GPCR signalling is far more complex. Different studies have presented a multistate model of receptor activation in which ligand-specific receptor conformations are able to differentiate between distinct signalling partners. Recent data show that beside G proteins numerous other proteins, such as β-arrestins and kinases, may interact with GPCRs and activate intracellular signalling pathways. GPCR activation may therefore involve receptor desensitization, coupling to multiple G proteins, Gα or Gβγ signalling, and pathway activation that is independent of G proteins. This latter effect leads to agonist "functional selectivity" (also called ligand-directed receptor trafficking, stimulus trafficking, biased agonism, biased signalling), and agonist intervention with functional selectivity may improve the therapy. Many commercially available drugs with beneficial efficacy also show various undesirable side effects. Further studies of biased signalling might facilitate our understanding of the side effects of current drugs and take us to new avenues to efficiently design pathway-specific medications.

  19. Integrin receptors and ligand-gated channels.

    PubMed

    Morini, Raffaella; Becchetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Plastic expression of different integrin subunits controls the different stages of neural development, whereas in the adult integrins regulate synaptic stability. Evidence of integrin-channel crosstalk exists for ionotropic glutamate receptors. As is often the case in other tissues, integrin engagement regulates channel activity through complex signaling pathways that often include tyrosine phosphorylation cascades. The specific pathways recruited by integrin activation depend on cerebral region and cell type. In turn, ion channels control integrin expression onto the plasma membrane and their ligand binding affinity. The most extensive studies concern the hippocampus and suggest implications for neuronal circuit plasticity. The physiological relevance of these findings depends on whether adhesion molecules, aside from determining tissue stability, contribute to synaptogenesis and the responsiveness of mature synapses, thus contributing to long-term circuit consolidation. Little evidence is available for other ligand-gated channels, with the exception of nicotinic receptors. These exert a variety of functions in neurons and non neural tissue, both in development and in the adult, by regulating cell cycle, synaptogenesis and synaptic circuit refinement. Detailed studies in epidermal keratinocytes have shed some light on the possible mechanisms through which ACh can regulate cell motility, which may be of general relevance for morphogenetic processes. As to the control of mature synapses, most results concern the integrinic control of nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular junction. Following this lead, a few studies have addressed similar topics in adult cerebral synapses. However, pursuing and interpreting these results in the brain is especially difficult because of the complexity of the nicotinic roles and the widespread contribution of nonsynaptic, paracrine transmission. From a pathological point of view, considering the well-known contribution of both

  20. Limited proteolysis for assaying ligand binding affinities of nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Benkoussa, M; Nominé, B; Mouchon, A; Lefebvre, B; Bernardon, J M; Formstecher, P; Lefebvre, P

    1997-01-01

    The binding of natural or synthetic ligands to nuclear receptors is the triggering event leading to gene transcription activation or repression. Ligand binding to the ligand binding domain of these receptors induces conformational changes that are evidenced by an increased resistance of this domain to proteases. In vitro labeled receptors were incubated with various synthetic or natural agonists or antagonists and submitted to trypsin digestion. Proteolysis products were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantified. The amount of trypsin-resistant fragments was proportional to receptor occupancy by the ligand, and allowed the determination of dissociation constants (kDa). Using the wild-type or mutated human retinoic acid receptor alpha as a model, kDa values determined by classical competition binding assays using tritiated ligands are in agreement with those measured by the proteolytic assay. This method was successfully extended to human retinoic X receptor alpha, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, thus providing a basis for a new, faster assay to determine simultaneously the affinity and conformation of receptors when bound to a given ligand.

  1. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-09-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  2. Adenosine receptor ligands: differences with acute versus chronic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; von Lubitz, Dag K. J. E.; Daly, John W.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine receptors have been the target of intense research with respect to potential use of selective ligands in a variety of therapeutic areas. Caffeine and theophylline are adenosine receptor antagonists, and over the past three decades a wide range of selective agonists and antagonists for adenosine receptor subtypes have been developed. A complication to the therapeutic use of adenosine receptor ligands is the observation that the effects of acute administration of a particular ligand can be diametrically opposite to the chronic effects of the same ligand. This ‘effect inversion’ is discussed here by Ken Jecobson and colleagues, and has been observed for effects on cognitive processes, seizures and ischaemic damage. PMID:8936347

  3. Synthesis of 3-alkyl naphthalenes as novel estrogen receptor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jing; Akwabi-Ameyaw, Adwoa; Britton, Jonathan E.; Katamreddy, Subba R.; Navas III, Frank; Miller, Aaron B.; Williams, Shawn P.; Gray, David W.; Orband-Miller, Lisa A.; Shearin, Jean; Heyer, Dennis

    2009-06-24

    A series of estrogen receptor ligands based on a 3-alkyl naphthalene scaffold was synthesized using an intramolecular enolate-alkyne cycloaromatization as the key step. Several of these compounds bearing a C6-OH group were shown to be high affinity ligands. All compounds had similar ER{alpha} and ER{beta} binding affinity ranging from micromolar to low nanomolar.

  4. Database of Ligand-Receptor Partners, a DIP subset

    DOE Data Explorer

    Graeber, Thomas G.; Eisenberg, David

    The Database of Ligand-Receptor Partners (DLRP) is a subset of DIP (Database of Interacting Proteins). The DLRP is a database of protein ligand and protein receptor pairs that are known to interact with each other. By interact we mean that the ligand and receptor are members of a ligand-receptor complex and, unless otherwise noted, transduce a signal. In some instances the ligand and/or receptor may form a heterocomplex with other ligands/receptors in order to be functional. We have entered the majority of interactions in DLRP as full DIP entries, with links to references and additional information (see the DIP User's Guide). DLRP is a web supplement for: Thomas G. Graeber and David Eisenberg. Bioinformatic identification of potential autocrine signaling loops in cancers from gene expression profiles. Nature Genetics, 29(3):295-300 (November 2001). [Quoted from the DLRP homepage at http://dip.doe-mbi.ucla.edu/dip/DLRP.cgi] Also available from this page is the DLRP chemokine subset.

  5. Biotechnological Fluorescent Ligands of the Bradykinin B1 Receptor: Protein Ligands for a Peptide Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François

    2016-01-01

    The bradykinin (BK) B1 receptor (B1R) is a peculiar G protein coupled receptor that is strongly regulated to the point of being inducible in immunopathology. Limited clinical evidence suggests that its expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a biomarker of active inflammatory states. In an effort to develop a novel imaging/diagnostic tool, we report the rational design and testing of a fusion protein that is a ligand of the human B1R but not likely to label peptidases. This ligand is composed of a fluorescent protein (FP) (enhanced green FP [EGFP] or mCherry) prolonged at its N-terminus by a spacer peptide and a classical peptide agonist or antagonist (des-Arg9-BK, [Leu8]des-Arg9-BK, respectively). The design of the spacer-ligand joint peptide was validated by a competition assay for [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK binding to the human B1R applied to 4 synthetic peptides of 18 or 19 residues. The labeling of B1R-expressing cells with EGFP or mCherry fused with 7 of such peptides was performed in parallel (microscopy). Both assays indicated that the best design was FP-(Asn-Gly)n-Lys-des-Arg9-BK; n = 15 was superior to n = 5, suggesting benefits from minimizing steric hindrance between the FP and the receptor. Cell labeling concerned mostly plasma membranes and was inhibited by a B1R antagonist. EGFP-(Asn-Gly)15-Lys-des-Arg9-BK competed for the binding of [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK to human recombinant B1R, being only 10-fold less potent than the unlabeled form of Lys-des-Arg9-BK to do so. The fusion protein did not label HEK 293a cells expressing recombinant human BK B2 receptors or angiotensin converting enzyme. This study identifies a modular C-terminal sequence that can be adapted to protein cargoes, conferring high affinity for the BK B1R, with possible applications in diagnostic cytofluorometry, histology and drug delivery (e.g., in oncology). PMID:26844555

  6. Biotechnological Fluorescent Ligands of the Bradykinin B1 Receptor: Protein Ligands for a Peptide Receptor.

    PubMed

    Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François

    2016-01-01

    The bradykinin (BK) B1 receptor (B1R) is a peculiar G protein coupled receptor that is strongly regulated to the point of being inducible in immunopathology. Limited clinical evidence suggests that its expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a biomarker of active inflammatory states. In an effort to develop a novel imaging/diagnostic tool, we report the rational design and testing of a fusion protein that is a ligand of the human B1R but not likely to label peptidases. This ligand is composed of a fluorescent protein (FP) (enhanced green FP [EGFP] or mCherry) prolonged at its N-terminus by a spacer peptide and a classical peptide agonist or antagonist (des-Arg9-BK, [Leu8]des-Arg9-BK, respectively). The design of the spacer-ligand joint peptide was validated by a competition assay for [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK binding to the human B1R applied to 4 synthetic peptides of 18 or 19 residues. The labeling of B1R-expressing cells with EGFP or mCherry fused with 7 of such peptides was performed in parallel (microscopy). Both assays indicated that the best design was FP-(Asn-Gly)n-Lys-des-Arg9-BK; n = 15 was superior to n = 5, suggesting benefits from minimizing steric hindrance between the FP and the receptor. Cell labeling concerned mostly plasma membranes and was inhibited by a B1R antagonist. EGFP-(Asn-Gly)15-Lys-des-Arg9-BK competed for the binding of [3H]Lys-des-Arg9-BK to human recombinant B1R, being only 10-fold less potent than the unlabeled form of Lys-des-Arg9-BK to do so. The fusion protein did not label HEK 293a cells expressing recombinant human BK B2 receptors or angiotensin converting enzyme. This study identifies a modular C-terminal sequence that can be adapted to protein cargoes, conferring high affinity for the BK B1R, with possible applications in diagnostic cytofluorometry, histology and drug delivery (e.g., in oncology).

  7. Development of a membrane-anchored ligand and receptor yeast two-hybrid system for ligand-receptor interaction identification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Gao, Jin; Han, Lei; Zhang, Yinjie; Guan, Wen; Zhou, Liang; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Identifying interactions between ligands and transmembrane receptors is crucial for understanding the endocrine system. However, the present approaches for this purpose are still not capable of high-throughput screening. In this report, a membrane-anchored ligand and receptor yeast two-hybrid (MALAR-Y2H) system was established. In the method, an extracellular ligand is linked with an intracellular split-ubiquitin reporter system via a chimeric transmembrane structure. Meanwhile, the prey proteins of transmembrane receptors are fused to the other half of the split-ubiquitin reporter system. The extracellular interaction of ligands and receptors can lead to the functional recovery of the ubiquitin reporter system in yeast, and eventually lead to the expression of report genes. Consequently, the system can be used to detect the interactions between extracellular ligands and their transmembrane receptors. To test the efficiency and universality of the method, interactions between several pairs of ligands and receptors of mouse were analyzed. The detecting results were shown to be thoroughly consistent with the present knowledge, indicating MALAR-Y2H can be utilized for such purpose with high precision, high efficiency and strong universality. The characteristics of the simple procedure and high-throughput potential make MALAR-Y2H a powerful platform to study protein-protein interaction networks between secreted proteins and transmembrane proteins. PMID:27762338

  8. Multivalent Ligand-Receptor Binding on Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyunsook; Robison, Aaron D.; Cremer, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid supported lipid bilayers provide an excellent platform for studying multivalent protein-ligand interactions because the two-dimensional fluidity of the membrane allows for lateral rearrangement of ligands in order to optimize binding. Our laboratory has combined supported lipid bilayer-coated microfluidic platforms with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to obtain equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) data for these systems. This high throughput, on-chip approach provides highly accurate thermodynamic information about multivalent binding events while requiring only very small sample volumes. Herein, we review some of the most salient findings from these studies. In particular, increasing ligand density on the membrane surface can provide a modest enhancement or attenuation of ligand-receptor binding depending upon whether the surface ligands interact strongly with each other. Such effects, however, lead to little more than one order of magnitude change in the apparent KD values. On the other hand, the lipophilicity and presentation of lipid bilayer-conjugated ligands can have a much greater impact. Indeed, changing the way a particular ligand is conjugated to the membrane can alter the apparent KD value by at least three orders of magnitude. Such a result speaks strongly to the role of ligand availability for multivalent ligand-receptor binding. PMID:19508894

  9. The imidazoline receptors and ligands in pain modulation

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Nurcan; Nemutlu, Dilara; Arslan, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Pain is an unpleasant experience and effects daily routine negatively. Although there are various drugs, many of them are not entirely successful in relieving pain, since pain modulation is a complex process involving numerous mediators and receptors. Therefore, it is a rational approach to identify the factors involved in the complex process and develop new agents that act on these pain producing mechanisms. In this respect, the involvement of the imidazoline receptors in pain modulation has drawn attention in recent years. In this review, it is aimed to focus on the imidazoline receptors and their ligands which contribute to the pain modulation. It is demonstrated that imidazoline-2 (I2) receptors are steady new drug targets for analgesics. Even if the mechanism of I2 receptor is not well known in the modulation of pain, it is known that it plays a role in tonic and chronic pain but not in acute phasic pain. Moreover, the I2 receptor ligands increase the analgesic effects of opioids in both acute and chronic pain and prevent the development of opioid tolerance. So, they are valuable for the chronic pain treatment and also therapeutic coadjuvants in the management of chronic pain with opiate drugs due to the attenuation of opioid tolerance and addiction. Thus, the use of the ligands which bind to the imidazoline receptors is an effective strategy for relieving pain. This educational forum exhibits the role of imidazoline receptors and ligands in pain process by utilizing experimental studies. PMID:26600633

  10. A Natural Mutation in Helix 5 of the Ligand Binding Domain of Glucocorticoid Receptor Enhances Receptor-Ligand Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Reyer, Henry; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Kanitz, Ellen; Pöhland, Ralf; Wimmers, Klaus; Murani, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a central player in the neuroendocrine stress response; it mediates feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and physiological actions of glucocorticoids in the periphery. Despite intensive investigations of GR in the context of receptor-ligand interaction, only recently the first naturally occurring gain-of-function substitution, Ala610Val, of the ligand binding domain was identified in mammals. We showed that this mutation underlies a major quantitative trait locus for HPA axis activity in pigs, reducing cortisol production by about 40–50 percent. To unravel the molecular mechanisms behind this gain of function, receptor-ligand interactions were evaluated in silico, in vitro and in vivo. In accordance with previously observed phenotypic effects, the mutant Val610 GR showed significantly increased activation in response to glucocorticoid and non-glucocorticoid steroids, and, as revealed by GR-binding studies in vitro and in pituitary glands, enhanced ligand binding. Concordantly, the protein structure prediction depicted reduced binding distances between the receptor and ligand, and altered interactions in the ligand binding pocket. Consequently, the Ala610Val substitution opens up new structural information for the design of potent GR ligands and to examine effects of the enhanced GR responsiveness to glucocorticoids on the entire organism. PMID:27736993

  11. Mechanokinetics of receptor-ligand interactions in cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Lü, Shouqin; Zhang, Yan; Long, Mian

    2015-04-01

    Receptor-ligand interactions in blood flow are crucial to initiate such biological processes as inflammatory cascade, platelet thrombosis, as well as tumor metastasis. To mediate cell adhesion, the interacting receptors and ligands must be anchored onto two apposing surfaces of two cells or a cell and a substratum, i.e., two-dimensional (2D) binding, which is different from the binding of a soluble ligand in fluid phase to a receptor, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) binding. While numerous works have been focused on 3D kinetics of receptor-ligand interactions in the immune system, 2D kinetics and its regulations have been less understood, since no theoretical framework or experimental assays were established until 1993. Not only does the molecular structure dominate 2D binding kinetics, but the shear force in blood flow also regulates cell adhesion mediated by interacting receptors and ligands. Here, we provide an overview of current progress in 2D binding and regulations, mainly from our group. Relevant issues of theoretical frameworks, experimental measurements, kinetic rates and binding affinities, and force regulations are discussed.

  12. The Principles of Ligand Specificity on beta-2-adrenergic receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, H. C. Stephen; Filipek, Slawomir; Yuan, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are recognized as one of the largest families of membrane proteins. Despite sharing a characteristic seven-transmembrane topology, G protein-coupled receptors regulate a wide range of cellular signaling pathways in response to various physical and chemical stimuli, and prevail as an important target for drug discovery. Notably, the recent progress in crystallographic methods led to a breakthrough in elucidating the structures of membrane proteins. The structures of β2-adrenergic receptor bound with a variety of ligands provide atomic details of the binding modes of agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists. In this study, we selected four representative molecules from each functional class of ligands and investigated their impacts on β2-adrenergic receptor through a total of 12 × 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations. From the obtained trajectories, we generated molecular fingerprints exemplifying propensities of protein-ligand interactions. For each functional class of compounds, we characterized and compared the fluctuation of the protein backbone, the volumes in the intracellular pockets, the water densities in the receptors, the domain interaction networks as well as the movements of transmembrane helices. We discovered that each class of ligands exhibits a distinct mode of interactions with mainly TM5 and TM6, altering the shape and eventually the state of the receptor. Our findings provide insightful prospective into GPCR targeted structure-based drug discoveries. PMID:27703221

  13. Regulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptors by Allosteric Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Topographically distinct, druggable, allosteric sites may be present on all G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As such, targeting these sites with synthetic small molecules offers an attractive approach to develop receptor-subtype selective chemical leads for the development of novel therapies. A crucial part of drug development is to understand the acute and chronic effects of such allosteric modulators at their corresponding GPCR target. Key regulatory processes including cell-surface delivery, endocytosis, recycling, and down-regulation tightly control the number of receptors at the surface of the cell. As many GPCR therapeutics will be administered chronically, understanding how such ligands modulate these regulatory pathways forms an essential part of the characterization of novel GPCR ligands. This is true for both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of GPCR regulatory processes with a particular focus on the effects and implications of allosteric targeting of GPCRs. PMID:23398684

  14. Expression of notch receptors and ligands in the adult gut.

    PubMed

    Sander, Guy R; Powell, Barry C

    2004-04-01

    The Notch signaling pathway has become recognized as a vitally important pathway in regulating proliferative/differentiative decisions and cell fate. To explore the involvement of the Notch pathway in adult gut, we investigated the expression of Notch receptors and their ligands by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. Notch receptors and ligands were expressed in both proliferative and post-mitotic cells throughout adult rat gut, variously in epithelial, immune, and endothelial cells. Expression of Notch1, Jagged1, and Jagged2 frequently overlapped, whereas Notch2 expression was restricted to specific crypt cells, the lamina propria of the large intestine, and Peyer's patch lymphocytes. We propose that the expression of multiple Notch receptors and ligands in a range of different intestinal cell types indicates that this signaling pathway underpins many of the processes involved in the maintenance and function of the adult gut.

  15. Estrogen Receptor Ligands: A Review (2013–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, Shabnam; Zarghi, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of compounds named for their importance in both menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles. They are involved in the regulation of various processes ranging from tissue growth maintenance to reproduction. Their action is mediated through ER nuclear receptors. Two subtypes of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ, exist and exhibit distinct cellular and tissue distribution patterns. In humans, both receptor subtypes are expressed in many cells and tissues, and they control key physiological functions in various organ systems. Estrogens attract great attention due to their wide applications in female reproductive functions and treatment of some estrogen-dependent cancers and osteoporosis. This paper provides a general review of ER ligands published in international journals patented between 2013 and 2015. The broad physiological profile of estrogens has attracted the attention of many researchers to develop new estrogen ligands as therapeutic molecules for various clinical purposes. After the discovery of the ERβ receptor, subtype-selective ligands could be used to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce adverse side effects, based on the different distributions and relative levels of the two ER subtypes in different estrogen target tissues. Therefore, recent literature has focused on selective estrogen ligands as highly promising agents for the treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. Estrogen receptors are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological functions in humans. Selective estrogen ligands are highly promising targets for treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies of ER ligands based on small molecules indicate that many different structural scaffolds may provide high

  16. Quantifying ligand bias at seven-transmembrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Ahn, Seungkirl; Rominger, David H; Gowen-MacDonald, William; Lam, Christopher M; Dewire, Scott M; Violin, Jonathan D; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), commonly referred to as G protein-coupled receptors, form a large part of the "druggable" genome. 7TMRs can signal through parallel pathways simultaneously, such as through heterotrimeric G proteins from different families, or, as more recently appreciated, through the multifunctional adapters, β-arrestins. Biased agonists, which signal with different efficacies to a receptor's multiple downstream pathways, are useful tools for deconvoluting this signaling complexity. These compounds may also be of therapeutic use because they have distinct functional and therapeutic profiles from "balanced agonists." Although some methods have been proposed to identify biased ligands, no comparison of these methods applied to the same set of data has been performed. Therefore, at this time, there are no generally accepted methods to quantify the relative bias of different ligands, making studies of biased signaling difficult. Here, we use complementary computational approaches for the quantification of ligand bias and demonstrate their application to two well known drug targets, the β2 adrenergic and angiotensin II type 1A receptors. The strategy outlined here allows a quantification of ligand bias and the identification of weakly biased compounds. This general method should aid in deciphering complex signaling pathways and may be useful for the development of novel biased therapeutic ligands as drugs.

  17. Autoradiographic Evaluation of [(18)F]FECUMI-101, a High Affinity 5-HT1AR Ligand in Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J S Dileep; Underwood, Mark D; Simpson, Norman R; Kassir, Suham A; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Majo, Vattoly J; Bakalian, Mihran J; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John; Arango, Victoria

    2016-05-12

    [(18)F]FECUMI-101 ([(18)F]1) is a 5HT1AR ligand demonstrating specific binding in brain regions corresponding to the distribution of 5-HT1AR in baboons. However, we detected moderate uptake of [(18)F]1 in baboon thalamus, a brain region lacking 5-HT1AR. We sought to investigate the relative binding of [(18)F]1 to 5-HT1AR, α1R, and 5-HT7R in vitro. Using autoradiography in human brain sections, specific binding of [(18)F]1 to 5-HT1AR was confirmed. However, [(18)F]1 also showed 26% binding to α1R in PFC. The hippocampal formation exhibited 51% and 92% binding of [(18)F]1 to α1R and 5-HT1AR, respectively. Thalamus and cerebellum showed very little binding. There is no measurable specific binding of [(18)F]1 to 5-HT7R and no effect of temperature on [(18)F]1 specific binding to 5-HT1AR or α1R. These results indicate that, while [(18)F]FECUMI-101 is not a completely selective 5-HT1AR ligand for receptor quantification, it may be useful for occupancy measurements of drugs acting at 5-HT1AR in vivo. PMID:27190597

  18. Ligand regulation of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors: implications for development of novel therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Laura A.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review In the late 1980s, the cloning of several nuclear receptors led to the intense search and isolation of new members of this superfamily. Despite their identification, many of these receptors were dubbed ‘orphan’ receptors, as their physiological ligands remained unknown. Recent reports have presented evidence for one family of orphan receptors, the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs), in several pathologies, including osteoporosis, several autoimmune diseases, asthma, cancer, diabetes and obesity. The present review summarizes the studies identifying ligands for the RORs and evaluates their role as targets for potential therapeutics. Recent findings Significant progress was made in the initial identification of ligands for the RORs when X-ray crystallographic studies identified several molecules within the ligand-binding pockets of RORα and RORβ. Recently, we identified endogenous and synthetic ligands for RORα and RORγ, thereby solidifying their function as ligand-dependent transcription factors. Summary Recent studies have established roles for the RORs in physiological development and the advent of disease. Identification of ligands for the RORs, both endogenous and synthetic, has established these receptors as attractive new therapeutic targets for the treatment of ROR-related diseases. PMID:20463469

  19. Ligand regulation of a constitutively dimeric EGF receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Daniel M.; Alvarado, Diego; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2015-06-01

    Ligand-induced receptor dimerization has traditionally been viewed as the key event in transmembrane signalling by epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans EGFR orthologue LET-23 is constitutively dimeric, yet responds to its ligand LIN-3 without changing oligomerization state. SAXS and mutational analyses further reveal that the preformed dimer of the LET-23 extracellular region is mediated by its domain II dimerization arm and resembles other EGFR extracellular dimers seen in structural studies. Binding of LIN-3 induces only minor structural rearrangements in the LET-23 dimer to promote signalling. Our results therefore argue that EGFR can be regulated by allosteric changes within an existing receptor dimer--resembling signalling by insulin receptor family members, which share similar extracellular domain compositions but form covalent dimers.

  20. [Determining the parameters for receptor-ligand interaction by serial dilution method for the case when the ligand and receptor are in a pre-existing mixture].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A

    2005-01-01

    New methods of determining the binding parameters for ligand-receptor interaction are considered. The considered approaches are based on the earlier suggested method of serial dilution and application of so-called coordinates of dilution. It was shown that the suggested methods allow to evaluate affinity constant and ligand concentration even for the case, when the receptor and corresponding ligand of unknown concentration are in a mixture and their separation from each other is impossible. In this connection the suggested methods are especially useful for studying the ligand-receptor interaction if the receptor is very liable and its purification from the ligand would cause drastic changes of its binding properties.

  1. [Effect of ligand concentration on the precision of determining the parameters of ligand-receptor interaction by serial dilution methods].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A

    2004-01-01

    Earlier we suggested the method of serial dilution, which allows one to determine the parameters of ligand-receptor interaction even if the reactants are in a mixture and their concentrations are unknown. The method is especially useful if the liability of studied receptor does not allow its separation from corresponding ligand. The important prerequisite of the method's precision is that the concentration of the ligand should be sufficiently high comparing to the concentration of the receptor. In the present paper it was demonstrated that the method allows one to obtain sufficiently good precision even in the case when the concentration of the ligand is only one tenth of the receptor concentration.

  2. A Rapid Method for Refolding Cell Surface Receptors and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lu; Wu, Ling; Li, Feng; Burnham, Robert S.; Pizarro, Juan C.; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Production of membrane-associated cell surface receptors and their ligands is often a cumbersome, expensive, and time-consuming process that limits detailed structural and functional characterization of this important class of proteins. Here we report a rapid method for refolding inclusion-body-based, recombinant cell surface receptors and ligands in one day, a speed equivalent to that of soluble protein production. This method efficiently couples modular on-column immobilized metal ion affinity purification and solid-phase protein refolding. We demonstrated the general utility of this method for producing multiple functionally active immunoreceptors, ligands, and viral decoys, including challenging cell surface proteins that cannot be produced using typical dialysis- or dilution-based refolding approaches. PMID:27215173

  3. Nonsteroidal Androgen Receptor Ligands: Versatile Syntheses and Biological Data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report herein a stereoselective and straightforward methodology for the synthesis of new androgen receptor ligands with (anti)-agonistic activities. Oxygen–nitrogen replacement in bicalutamide-like structures paves the way to the disclosure of a new class of analogues, including cyclized/nitrogen-substituted derivatives, with promising antiandrogen (or anabolic) activity. PMID:24900495

  4. Structural and Functional Diversity of Estrogen Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptors, comprised of ERα and ERβ isoforms in mammals, act as ligand-modulated transcription factors and orchestrate a plethora of cellular functions from sexual development and reproduction to metabolic homeostasis. Herein, I revisit the structural basis of the binding of ERα to DNA and estradiol in light of the recent discoveries and emerging trends in the field of nuclear receptors. A particular emphasis of this review is on the chemical and structural diversity of an ever-increasing repertoire of physiological, environmental and synthetic ligands of estrogen receptors that ultimately modulate their interactions with cognate DNA located within the promoters of estrogen-responsive genes. In particular, modulation of estrogen receptors by small molecule ligands represents an important therapeutic goal toward the treatment of a wide variety of human pathologies including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and obesity. Collectively, this article provides an overview of a wide array of small organic and inorganic molecules that can fine-tune the physiological function of estrogen receptors, thereby bearing a direct impact on human health and disease. PMID:25866274

  5. Why do cannabinoid receptors have more than one endogenous ligand?

    PubMed Central

    Di Marzo, Vincenzo; De Petrocellis, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system was revealed following the understanding of the mechanism of action of marijuana's major psychotropic principle, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and includes two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors), their endogenous ligands (the endocannabinoids, the best studied of which are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)), and the proteins that regulate the levels and activity of these receptors and ligands. However, other minor lipid metabolites different from, but chemically similar to, anandamide and 2-AG have also been suggested to act as endocannabinoids. Thus, unlike most other GPCRs, cannabinoid receptors appear to have more than one endogenous agonist, and it has been often wondered what could be the physiological meaning of this peculiarity. In 1999, it was proposed that anandamide might also activate other targets, and in particular the transient receptor potential of vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels. Over the last decade, this interaction has been shown to occur both in peripheral tissues and brain, during both physiological and pathological conditions. TRPV1 channels can be activated also by another less abundant endocannabinoid, N-arachidonoyldopamine, but not by 2-AG, and have been proposed by some authors to act as ionotropic endocannabinoid receptors. This article will discuss the latest discoveries on this subject, and discuss, among others, how anandamide and 2-AG differential actions at TRPV1 and cannabinoid receptors contribute to making this signalling system a versatile tool available to organisms to fine-tune homeostasis. PMID:23108541

  6. Receptor Specific Ligands for Spect Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H. F.

    2003-02-25

    In the past funding period we have concentrated in developing new 99mTc labeled MIBG analogs. Basic chemistry of ligand synthesis, radiochemistry of Re and 99mTc complex formation, separation of stereoisomers and in vitro stability were investigated. We have prepared a number of new MIBG derivatives containing chelating moiety N2S2 and additional groups to increase lipophilicity. Unfortunately none of the new 99mTc labeled MIBG analogs showed promise as an imaging agent for myocardial neuronal function. Radioactive-iodine-labeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is currently being used as an in vivo imaging agent to evaluate neuroendocrine tumors as well as the myocardial sympathetic nervous system in patients with myocardial infarct and cardiomyopathy. It is generally accepted that MIBG is an analog of norepinephrine and its uptake in the heart corresponds to the distribution of norepinephrine and the density of sympathetic neurons. A series of MIBG derivatives containing suitable chelating functional groups N2S2 for the formation of [Tcv0]+3N2S2 complex was successfully synthesized and the 99mTc-labeled complexes were prepared and tested in rats. One of the compounds, [99mTc]M2, tested showed significant, albeit lower, heart uptakes post iv injection in rats (0.18% dose/organ at 4 hours) as compared to [l25l]MIBG (1.4% dose/organ at 4 hours). The heart uptake of the 99mTc-labeled complex, [99mTc]M2, appears to be specific and can be reduced by coinjection with nonradioactive MIBG or by pretreatment with desipramine. a selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. Further evaluation of the in vitro uptake of [99mTc]M2 in cultured neuroblastoma cells displayed consistently lower, but measurable uptake (app. 10% of that for [125l]MlBG). These preliminary results suggested that the mechanisms of heart uptake of [99mTc]M2 may be related to those for [125l]MIBG uptake. To improve the heart uptake of the MIBG derivatives we have developed chemistry related to the

  7. Ah receptor ligands in tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Löfroth, G; Rannug, A

    1988-08-01

    Tar particulates from cigarette smoke contain compounds with affinity for the Ah receptor. The sidestream activity is larger than that of the mainstream with a ratio of about 5. The compounds causing the affinity appear in the neutral fraction after chemical fractionation excluding basic and acidic components as major contributors to the affinity. The affinity cannot be explained by benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons but it might be caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds and by oxidized tryptophan derivatives.

  8. Ligands for cannabinoid receptors, promising anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Nikan, Marjan; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Manayi, Azadeh

    2016-02-01

    Cannabinoid compounds are unique to cannabis and provide some interesting biological properties. These compounds along with endocannabinoids, a group of neuromodulator compounds in the body especially in brain, express their effects by activation of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. There are several physiological properties attributed to the endocannabinoids including pain relief, enhancement of appetite, blood pressure lowering during shock, embryonic development, and blocking of working memory. On the other hand, activation of endocannabinoid system may be suppresses evolution and progression of several types of cancer. According to the results of recent studies, CB receptors are over-expressed in cancer cell lines and application of multiple cannabinoid or cannabis-derived compounds reduce tumor size through decrease of cell proliferation or induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis along with desirable effect on decrease of tumor-evoked pain. Therefore, modulation of endocannabinoid system by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme, which metabolized endocannabinoids, or application of multiple cannabinoid or cannabis-derived compounds, may be appropriate for the treatment of several cancer subtypes. This review focuses on how cannabinoid affect different types of cancers. PMID:26764235

  9. Cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling in the mouse uterus.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Paria, B C; Chakraborty, I; Dey, S K

    1995-05-01

    Using RNA (Northern) blot hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR, we demonstrate that the brain-type cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) mRNA, but not the spleen-type cannabinoid receptor (CB2-R) mRNA, is expressed in the mouse uterus and that this organ has the capacity to synthesize the putative endogenous cannabinoid ligand, anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide). The psychoactive cannabinoid component of marijuana--delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)--or anandamide, but not the inactive and nonpsychoactive cannabidiol (CBD), inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP formation in the mouse uterus, which was prevented by pertussis toxin pretreatment. These results suggest that uterine CB1-R is coupled to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and is biologically active. Autoradiographic studies identified ligand binding sites ([3H]anandamide) in the uterine epithelium and stromal cells, suggesting that these cells are perhaps the targets for cannabinoid action. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [3H]WIN 55212-2, another cannabinoid receptor ligand, showed a single class of high-affinity binding sites in the endometrium with an apparent Kd of 2.4 nM and Bmax of 5.4 x 10(9) molecules per mg of protein. The gene encoding lactoferrin is an estrogen-responsive gene in the mouse uterus that was rapidly and transiently up-regulated by THC, but not by CBD, in ovariectomized mice in the absence of ovarian steroids. This effect, unlike that of 17 beta-estradiol (E2), was not influenced by a pure antiestrogen, ICI 182780, suggesting that the THC-induced uterine lactoferrin gene expression does not involve estrogen receptors. We propose that the uterus is a new target for cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling.

  10. Metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands as potential therapeutics for addiction

    PubMed Central

    Olive, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction and alcoholism. As a result, there has been increasing interest in developing glutamate-based therapies for the treatment of addictive disorders. Receptors for glutamate are primarily divided into two classes: ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) that mediate fast excitatory glutamate transmission, and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which are G-protein coupled receptors that mediate slower, modulatory glutamate transmission. Most iGluR antagonists, while showing some efficacy in animal models of addiction, exhibit serious side effects when tested in humans. mGluR ligands, on the other hand, which have been advanced to testing in clinical trials for various medical conditions, have demonstrated the ability to reduce drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse-like behaviors in animal studies. mGluR ligands that have been shown to be primarily effective are Group I (mGluR1 and mGluR5) negative allosteric modulators and Group II (mGluR2 and mGluR3) orthosteric presynaptic autoreceptor agonists. In this review, we will summarize findings from animal studies suggesting that these mGluR ligands may be of potential benefit in reducing on-going drug self-administration and may aid in the prevention of relapse. The neuroanatomical distribution of mGluR1, mGluR2/3, and mGluR5 receptors and the pharmacological properties of Group I negative allosteric modulators and Group II agonists will also be overviewed. Finally, we will discuss the current status of mGluR ligands in human clinical trials. PMID:19630739

  11. Cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling in the mouse uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Das, S K; Paria, B C; Chakraborty, I; Dey, S K

    1995-01-01

    Using RNA (Northern) blot hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR, we demonstrate that the brain-type cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) mRNA, but not the spleen-type cannabinoid receptor (CB2-R) mRNA, is expressed in the mouse uterus and that this organ has the capacity to synthesize the putative endogenous cannabinoid ligand, anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide). The psychoactive cannabinoid component of marijuana--delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)--or anandamide, but not the inactive and nonpsychoactive cannabidiol (CBD), inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP formation in the mouse uterus, which was prevented by pertussis toxin pretreatment. These results suggest that uterine CB1-R is coupled to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and is biologically active. Autoradiographic studies identified ligand binding sites ([3H]anandamide) in the uterine epithelium and stromal cells, suggesting that these cells are perhaps the targets for cannabinoid action. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [3H]WIN 55212-2, another cannabinoid receptor ligand, showed a single class of high-affinity binding sites in the endometrium with an apparent Kd of 2.4 nM and Bmax of 5.4 x 10(9) molecules per mg of protein. The gene encoding lactoferrin is an estrogen-responsive gene in the mouse uterus that was rapidly and transiently up-regulated by THC, but not by CBD, in ovariectomized mice in the absence of ovarian steroids. This effect, unlike that of 17 beta-estradiol (E2), was not influenced by a pure antiestrogen, ICI 182780, suggesting that the THC-induced uterine lactoferrin gene expression does not involve estrogen receptors. We propose that the uterus is a new target for cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7753807

  12. Persistent Binding of Ligands to the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bohonowych, Jessica E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates many of the biological and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other structurally diverse ligands. While HAHs are several orders of magnitude more potent in producing AhR-dependent biochemical effects than PAHs or other AhR agonists, only the HAHs have been observed to produce AhR-dependent toxicity in vivo. Here we have characterized the dissociation of a prototypical HAH ligand ([3H] 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]) and PAH-like ligand ([3H] β-naphthoflavone [βNF]) from the guinea pig, hamster, mouse, and rat hepatic cytosolic AhR in order to elucidate the relationship between the apparent ligand-binding affinities and the divergent potency of these chemicals. Both compounds dissociated very slowly from the AhR with the amount of specific binding remaining at 96 h ranging from 53% to 70% for [3H]TCDD and 26% to 85% for [3H] βNF, depending upon the species examined. The rate of ligand dissociation was unaffected by protein concentration or incubation temperature. Preincubation of cytosol with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, carbaryl, or primaquine, prior to the addition of [3H]TCDD, shifted the apparent IC50 of these compounds as competitive AhR ligands by ∼10- to 50-fold. Our results support the need for reassessment of previous AhR ligand-binding affinity calculations and competitive binding analysis since these measurements are not carried out at equilibrium binding conditions. Our studies suggest that AhR binding affinity/occupancy has little effect on the observed differences in the persistence of gene expression by HAHs and PAHs. PMID:17431010

  13. Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of 7-phenylpiperazinylalkyl-1,3-dimethyl-purine-2,6-dione derivatives with diversified 5-HT₁A receptor functional profile.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Anna; Chłoń-Rzepa, Grażyna; Wasik, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Bucki, Adam; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Satała, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Wesołowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Continuing our earlier study in a group of purine-2,6-dione derivatives of long chain arylpiperazines (LCAPs), a series of 8-unsubstituted 7-phenylpiperazin-4-yl-alkyl (4-14) and 7-tetrahydroisoquinolinyl-alkyl (15-17) analogues were synthesized and their serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT6, 5-HT7 and dopamine D2 receptor affinities were determined. The study allowed us to identify some potent 5-HT1A receptor ligands with additional moderate affinity for 5-HT2A, 5-HT7 and dopamine D2 receptors. Compounds 9, 12, 13 and 14, with the highest 5HT1A receptor affinity, were selected for further functional in vivo studies and behavioural evaluation of antidepressant- and antianxiety-like activity. Compounds 9, 12 and 13 showed features of agonists of pre- and/or post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors, whereas 14 was classified as an antagonist of postsynaptic sites. Moreover, derivatives 9 and 14 acted as antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors. In behavioural studies, compounds 9 and 13 showed antidepressant-like activity in the mouse forced swim test, and their effects were similar or stronger than those of imipramine. Compounds 9, 12 and 14 displayed potential anxiolytic-like properties in the mouse four-plate test, similar or even greater than those of the reference anxiolytic drug, diazepam.

  14. A synthetic chemomechanical machine driven by ligand-receptor bonding.

    PubMed

    Lavella, Gabriel J; Jadhav, Amol D; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2012-09-12

    The ability to create synthetic chemomechanical machines with engineered functionality promises large technological rewards. However, current efforts in molecular chemistry are restrained by the formidable challenges faced in molecular structure and function prediction. An alternative approach to engineering machines with tailorable chemomechanical functionality is to design Brownian ratchet devices using molecular assemblies. We demonstrate this through the creation of autonomous molecular machines that sense, mechanically react, and extract energy from ligand-receptor binding. We present a specific instantiation, measuring approximately 100 nm in length, which actuates upon detection of a streptavidin ligand. Machines were designed through the tailoring of energy landscapes on 3D DNA origami motifs. We also analyzed the response over a logarithmic concentration ratio (device:ligand) range from 1:10(1) to 1:10(5). PMID:22920279

  15. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands; a patent review (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Gündisch, Daniela; Eibl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric ligand-gated cation channels, are potential targets for the development of therapeutics for a variety of disease states. Areas covered This article is reviewing recent advances in the development of small molecule ligands for diverse nAChR subtypes and is a continuation of an earlier review in this journal. Expert opinion The development of nAChR ligands with preference for α4β2 or α7 subtypes for the treatment of CNS disorders are in the most advanced developmental stage. In addition, there is a fast growing interest to generate so-called PAMs, positive allosteric modulators, to influence the channels’ functionalities. PMID:22098319

  16. High-affinity benzodiazepine receptor ligands among benzodiazepines and betacarbolines with different intrinsic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Yliniemelae, A.; Gynther, J. ); Konschin, H.; Tylli, H. ); Rouvinen, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Structural and electrostatic features of diazepam, flumazenil, and methyl betacarboline-3-carboxylate (BCCM) have been investigated using the molecular superimposition method. These high-affinity benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor ligands are structurally unrelated and they have different intrinsic activity. These ligands are superimposed in such a way that common structural and electrostatic features essential for the high receptor binding affinity overlap. In addition to this binding pharmacophore, there are roughly three separate binding zones in the BZ receptor, one for each class of ligands. The intrinsic activity of BZ receptor ligands depends on the molecular structures and the way the ligand approaches the receptor.

  17. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand cytotoxicity unrelated to PBR expression.

    PubMed

    Hans, Gregory; Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Lallemend, François; Robe, Pierre; Rogister, Bernard; Belachew, Shibeshih; Nguyen, Laurent; Malgrange, Brigitte; Moonen, Gustave; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2005-03-01

    Some synthetic ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), an 18 kDa protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane, are cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and arise as promising chemotherapeutic candidates. However, conflicting results were reported regarding the actual effect of these drugs on cellular survival ranging from protection to toxicity. Moreover, the concentrations needed to observe such a toxicity were usually high, far above the affinity range for their receptor, hence questioning its specificity. In the present study, we have shown that micromolar concentrations of FGIN-1-27 and Ro 5-4864, two chemically unrelated PBR ligands are toxic for both PBR-expressing SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cells and PBR-deficient Jurkat lymphoma cells. We have thereby demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of these drugs is unrelated to their PBR-binding activity. Moreover, Ro 5-4864-induced cell death differed strikingly between both cell types, being apoptotic in Jurkat cells while necrotic in SK-N-BE cells. Again, this did not seem to be related to PBR expression since Ro 5-4864-induced death of PBR-transfected Jurkat cells remained apoptotic. Taken together, our results show that PBR is unlikely to mediate all the effects of these PBR ligands. They however confirm that some of these ligands are very effective cytotoxic drugs towards various cancer cells, even for reputed chemoresistant tumors such as neuroblastoma, and, surprisingly, also for PBR-lacking tumor cells.

  18. Optimizing Ligand Efficiency of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs).

    PubMed

    Handlon, Anthony L; Schaller, Lee T; Leesnitzer, Lisa M; Merrihew, Raymond V; Poole, Chuck; Ulrich, John C; Wilson, Joseph W; Cadilla, Rodolfo; Turnbull, Philip

    2016-01-14

    A series of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) containing the 1-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol core have been optimized for androgen receptor (AR) potency and drug-like properties. We have taken advantage of the lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) parameter as a guide to interpret the effect of structural changes on AR activity. Over the course of optimization efforts the LLE increased over 3 log units leading to a SARM 43 with nanomolar potency, good aqueous kinetic solubility (>700 μM), and high oral bioavailability in rats (83%).

  19. Systematic Exploitation of Multiple Receptor Conformations for Virtual Ligand Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bottegoni, Giovanni; Rocchia, Walter; Rueda, Manuel; Abagyan, Ruben; Cavalli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The role of virtual ligand screening in modern drug discovery is to mine large chemical collections and to prioritize for experimental testing a comparatively small and diverse set of compounds with expected activity against a target. Several studies have pointed out that the performance of virtual ligand screening can be improved by taking into account receptor flexibility. Here, we systematically assess how multiple crystallographic receptor conformations, a powerful way of discretely representing protein plasticity, can be exploited in screening protocols to separate binders from non-binders. Our analyses encompass 36 targets of pharmaceutical relevance and are based on actual molecules with reported activity against those targets. The results suggest that an ensemble receptor-based protocol displays a stronger discriminating power between active and inactive molecules as compared to its standard single rigid receptor counterpart. Moreover, such a protocol can be engineered not only to enrich a higher number of active compounds, but also to enhance their chemical diversity. Finally, some clear indications can be gathered on how to select a subset of receptor conformations that is most likely to provide the best performance in a real life scenario. PMID:21625529

  20. 5D-QSAR for spirocyclic sigma1 receptor ligands by Quasar receptor surface modeling.

    PubMed

    Oberdorf, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas J; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Based on a contiguous and structurally as well as biologically diverse set of 87 sigma(1) ligands, a 5D-QSAR study was conducted in which a quasi-atomistic receptor surface modeling approach (program package Quasar) was applied. The superposition of the ligands was performed with the tool Pharmacophore Elucidation (MOE-package), which takes all conformations of the ligands into account. This procedure led to four pharmacophoric structural elements with aromatic, hydrophobic, cationic and H-bond acceptor properties. Using the aligned structures a 3D-model of the ligand binding site of the sigma(1) receptor was obtained, whose general features are in good agreement with previous assumptions on the receptor structure, but revealed some novel insights since it represents the receptor surface in more detail. Thus, e.g., our model indicates the presence of an H-bond acceptor moiety in the binding site as counterpart to the ligands' cationic ammonium center, rather than a negatively charged carboxylate group. The presented QSAR model is statistically valid and represents the biological data of all tested compounds, including a test set of 21 ligands not used in the modeling process, with very good to excellent accuracy [q(2) (training set, n=66; leave 1/3 out) = 0.84, p(2) (test set, n=21)=0.64]. Moreover, the binding affinities of 13 further spirocyclic sigma(1) ligands were predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean deviation in pK(i) approximately 0.8). Thus, in addition to novel insights into the requirements for binding of spirocyclic piperidines to the sigma(1) receptor, the presented model can be used successfully in the rational design of new sigma(1) ligands.

  1. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  2. Structural and Functional Profiling of Environmental Ligands for Estrogen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Grimaldi, Marina; Cavaillès, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individuals are exposed daily to environmental pollutants that may act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), causing a range of developmental, reproductive, metabolic, or neoplastic diseases. With their mostly hydrophobic pocket that serves as a docking site for endogenous and exogenous ligands, nuclear receptors (NRs) can be primary targets of small molecule environmental contaminants. However, most of these compounds are chemically unrelated to natural hormones, so their binding modes and associated hormonal activities are hardly predictable. Objectives: We conducted a correlative analysis of structural and functional data to gain insight into the mechanisms by which 12 members of representative families of pollutants bind to and activate the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. Methods: We used a battery of biochemical, structural, biophysical, and cell-based approaches to characterize the interaction between ERs and their environmental ligands. Results: Our study revealed that the chemically diverse compounds bound to ERs via varied sets of protein–ligand interactions, reflecting their differential activities, binding affinities, and specificities. We observed xenoestrogens binding to both ERs—with affinities ranging from subnanomolar to micromolar values—and acting in a subtype-dependent fashion as full agonists or partial agonists/antagonists by using different combinations of the activation functions 1 and 2 of ERα and ERβ. Conclusions: The precise characterization of the interactions between major environmental pollutants and two of their primary biological targets provides rational guidelines for the design of safer chemicals, and will increase the accuracy and usefulness of structure-based computational methods, allowing for activity prediction of chemicals in risk assessment. Citation: Delfosse V, Grimaldi M, Cavaillès V, Balaguer P, Bourguet W. 2014. Structural and functional profiling of environmental ligands for estrogen

  3. Feedback, receptor clustering, and receptor restriction to single cells yield large Turing spaces for ligand-receptor-based Turing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurics, Tamás; Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2014-08-01

    Turing mechanisms can yield a large variety of patterns from noisy, homogenous initial conditions and have been proposed as patterning mechanism for many developmental processes. However, the molecular components that give rise to Turing patterns have remained elusive, and the small size of the parameter space that permits Turing patterns to emerge makes it difficult to explain how Turing patterns could evolve. We have recently shown that Turing patterns can be obtained with a single ligand if the ligand-receptor interaction is taken into account. Here we show that the general properties of ligand-receptor systems result in very large Turing spaces. Thus, the restriction of receptors to single cells, negative feedbacks, regulatory interactions among different ligand-receptor systems, and the clustering of receptors on the cell surface all greatly enlarge the Turing space. We further show that the feedbacks that occur in the FGF10-SHH network that controls lung branching morphogenesis are sufficient to result in large Turing spaces. We conclude that the cellular restriction of receptors provides a mechanism to sufficiently increase the size of the Turing space to make the evolution of Turing patterns likely. Additional feedbacks may then have further enlarged the Turing space. Given their robustness and flexibility, we propose that receptor-ligand-based Turing mechanisms present a general mechanism for patterning in biology.

  4. Feedback, receptor clustering, and receptor restriction to single cells yield large Turing spaces for ligand-receptor-based Turing models.

    PubMed

    Kurics, Tamás; Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2014-08-01

    Turing mechanisms can yield a large variety of patterns from noisy, homogenous initial conditions and have been proposed as patterning mechanism for many developmental processes. However, the molecular components that give rise to Turing patterns have remained elusive, and the small size of the parameter space that permits Turing patterns to emerge makes it difficult to explain how Turing patterns could evolve. We have recently shown that Turing patterns can be obtained with a single ligand if the ligand-receptor interaction is taken into account. Here we show that the general properties of ligand-receptor systems result in very large Turing spaces. Thus, the restriction of receptors to single cells, negative feedbacks, regulatory interactions among different ligand-receptor systems, and the clustering of receptors on the cell surface all greatly enlarge the Turing space. We further show that the feedbacks that occur in the FGF10-SHH network that controls lung branching morphogenesis are sufficient to result in large Turing spaces. We conclude that the cellular restriction of receptors provides a mechanism to sufficiently increase the size of the Turing space to make the evolution of Turing patterns likely. Additional feedbacks may then have further enlarged the Turing space. Given their robustness and flexibility, we propose that receptor-ligand-based Turing mechanisms present a general mechanism for patterning in biology. PMID:25215767

  5. Lighting up G protein-coupled purinergic receptors with engineered fluorescent ligands

    PubMed Central

    Ciruela, Francisco; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of G protein-coupled receptors fluorescent ligands is undergoing continuous expansion. In line with this, fluorescent agonists and antagonists of high affinity for G protein-coupled adenosine and P2Y receptors have been shown to be useful pharmacological probe compounds. Fluorescent ligands for A1R, A2AR, and A3R (adenosine receptors) and P2Y2R, P2Y4R, P2Y6R, and P2Y14R (nucleotide receptors) have been reported. Such ligands have been successfully applied to drug discovery and to GPCR characterization by flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and scanning confocal microscopy. Here we summarize recently reported and readily available representative fluorescent ligands of purinergic receptors. In addition, we pay special attention on the use of this family of fluorescent ligands revealing two main aspects of purinergic receptor biology, namely ligand binding and receptor oligomerization. PMID:25890205

  6. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and Their Ligands in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-García, Estefanía; Saceda, Miguel; Martínez-Lacaci, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent, aggressive and fatal type of brain tumor. Glioblastomas are characterized by their infiltrating nature, high proliferation rate and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Recently, oncologic therapy experienced a rapid evolution towards “targeted therapy,” which is the employment of drugs directed against particular targets that play essential roles in proliferation, survival and invasiveness of cancer cells. A number of molecules involved in signal transduction pathways are used as molecular targets for the treatment of various tumors. In fact, inhibitors of these molecules have already entered the clinic or are undergoing clinical trials. Cellular receptors are clear examples of such targets and in the case of glioblastoma multiforme, some of these receptors and their ligands have become relevant. In this review, the importance of glioblastoma multiforme in signaling pathways initiated by extracellular tyrosine kinase receptors such as EGFR, PDGFR and IGF-1R will be discussed. We will describe their ligands, family members, structure, activation mechanism, downstream molecules, as well as the interaction among these pathways. Lastly, we will provide an up-to-date review of the current targeted therapies in cancer, in particular glioblastoma that employ inhibitors of these pathways and their benefits. PMID:24709958

  7. Somatostatin receptor ligands and resistance to treatment in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Fleseriu, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Somatostatin (SST), an inhibitory polypeptide with two biologically active forms SST14 and SST28, inhibits GH, prolactin (PRL), TSH, and ACTH secretion in the anterior pituitary gland. SST also has an antiproliferative effect inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Such actions are mediated through five G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors (SSTR): SSTR1-SSTR5. In GH-secreting adenomas, SSTR2 expression predominates, and somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs; octreotide and lanreotide) directed to SSTR2 are presently the mainstays of medical therapy. However, about half of patients show incomplete biochemical remission, but the definition of resistance per se remains controversial. We summarize here the determinants of SRL resistance in acromegaly patients, including clinical, imaging features as well as molecular (mutations, SSTR variants, and polymorphisms), and histopathological (granulation pattern, and proteins and receptor expression) predictors. The role of SSTR5 may explain the partial responsiveness to SRLs in patients with adequate SSTR2 density in the cell membrane. In patients with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, i.e. Cushing's disease (CD), SSTR5 is the most abundant receptor expressed and tumors show low SSTR2 density due to hypercortisolism-induced SSTR2 down-regulation. Clinical studies with pasireotide, a multireceptor-targeted SRL with increased SSTR5 activity, lead to approval of pasireotide for treatment of patients with CD. Other SRL delivery modes (oral octreotide), multireceptor-targeted SRL (somatoprim) or chimeric compounds targeting dopamine D2 receptors and SSTR2 (dopastatin), are briefly discussed. PMID:24647046

  8. Characterization of three non-peptide endothelin receptor ligands using human cloned ETA and ETB receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, K. W.; Alldus, C.; Christodoulou, C.; Clark, K. L.; Dykes, C. W.; Sumner, M. J.; Wallace, D. M.; White, D. G.; Watts, I. S.

    1994-01-01

    1. A number of putative endothelin (ET) receptor ligands were synthesized with a view to assessing their relative affinity for human recombinant ET receptors. 2. Human (h) and endothelin ETA and ETB receptor open reading frames were cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA1 and stable cell lines were created by transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells. 3. Scatchard analyses of saturation isotherms for the specific binding of [125I]-endothelin-1 ([125I]-ET-1) to membranes, prepared from Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with hETA or hETB receptors, yielded values for equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 20.5 +/- 1.8 pM and 25.5 +/- 5.5 pM, respectively. Hill coefficients did not differ significantly from unity, suggesting binding to homogeneous, non-interacting receptor populations. 4. Pharmacological characterization of the transfected hETA and hETB receptors was undertaken by measuring the relative abilities of ETA and ETB receptor-selective peptide ligands to inhibit binding of [125I]ET-1. For interaction with hETA receptors, the relative order of potency was ET-1 > ET-3 = FR139317 = BQ123 >[Ala1,3,11,15]-ET-1 = sarafotoxin S6c (S6c). In contrast, the relative order of potency, at hETB receptors, was ET-1 = ET-3 = [Ala1,3,11,15]-ET-1 = S6c >> FR139317 = BQ123. 5. The novel non-peptide ligands, Ro 46-2005, SB 209670 and BMS 182874, were found to inhibit [125I]-ET-1 binding to human recombinant ETA and ETB receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7952888

  9. Analysis of Edg-Like LPA Receptor-Ligand Interactions.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Balazs; Pazmany, Tamas; Matyus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The phospholipid derivative lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) serves as a signalling molecule through the activation of LPA receptors, which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptors. From a pharmacological point of view, the ('EDG-like') LPA1-3 receptors have attracted much attention, therefore we have also been focusing in our study on these subtypes. The LPA1receptors are widely expressed in the human body; interestingly, LPA1 might have a role in the pathomechanism of obesity. In order to recognize key structural features of the molecular interactions of human LPA1with its agonists, we built up the 3D structure of the LPA1 through homology modeling. Next, LPA1 agonists and antagonists were docked into the model. The mode of binding and the interactions between ligands and key amino acids (R3.28 and Q3.29) were consistent with mutagenesis assays and previously published models, indicating that this model is able to discriminate high-affinity compounds and may be useful for the development of novel agonists of LPA1. Homology models were also constructed for LPA2 and LPA3. All available agonists with published EC50 values, antagonists with IC50 values and compounds with Ki values for either of LPA1, LPA2 or LPA3 were collected from the ChEMBL database and were docked into the corresponding model.Ourmodels for the LPA1-3 receptors can discriminate high-affinity compounds identified in silico HTS studies and may be useful for the development of novel agonistsof LPA receptors. With a better understanding of the differences between LPA1-3 receptors new, selective agonists and antagonist could be designed, which could be used in the therapy of various diseases with a better side-effect profile. PMID:25686617

  10. Ligand-binding assays for cyanobacterial neurotoxins targeting cholinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Molgó, Jordi

    2010-07-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a threat to public health because of the capacity of some cyanobacterial species to produce potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Cyanobacterial neurotoxins are involved in the rapid death of wild and domestic animals by targeting voltage gated sodium channels and cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. Anatoxin-a and its methylene homologue homoanatoxin-a are potent agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Since the structural determination of anatoxin-a, several mass spectrometry-based methods have been developed for detection of anatoxin-a and, later, homoanatoxin-a. Mass spectrometry-based techniques provide accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, adequate limit of detection, and structural and quantitative information for analyses of cyanobacterial anatoxins from cultured and environmental cyanobacterial samples. However, these physicochemical techniques will only detect known toxins for which toxin standards are commercially available, and they require highly specialized laboratory personnel and expensive equipment. Receptor-based assays are functional methods that are based on the mechanism of action of a class of toxins and are thus, suitable tools for survey of freshwater reservoirs for cyanobacterial anatoxins. The competition between cyanobacterial anatoxins and a labelled ligand for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is measured radioactively or non-radioactively providing high-throughput screening formats for routine detection of this class of neurotoxins. The mouse bioassay is the method of choice for marine toxin monitoring, but has to be replaced by fully validated functional methods. In this paper we review the ligand-binding assays developed for detection of cyanobacterial and algal neurotoxins targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and for high-throughput screening of novel nicotinic agents.

  11. Identification of Putative Receptors for the Novel Adipokine CTRP3 Using Ligand-Receptor Capture Technology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Ozment, Tammy; Wright, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    C1q TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3) is a member of a family of secreted proteins that exert a multitude of biological effects. Our initial work identified CTRP3’s promise as an effective treatment for Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Specifically, we demonstrated that mice fed a high fat diet failed to develop NAFLD when treated with CTRP3. The purpose of this current project is to identify putative receptors which mediate the hepatic actions of CTRP3. Methods We used Ligand-receptor glycocapture technology with TriCEPS™-based ligand-receptor capture (LRC-TriCEPS; Dualsystems Biotech AG). The LRC-TriCEPS experiment with CTRP3-FLAG protein as ligand and insulin as a control ligand was performed on the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell line. Results Initial analysis demonstrated efficient coupling of TriCEPS to CTRP3. Further, flow cytometry analysis (FACS) demonstrated successful oxidation and crosslinking of CTRP3-TriCEPS and Insulin-TriCEPS complexes to cell surface glycans. Demonstrating the utility of TriCEPS under these conditions, the insulin receptor was identified in the control dataset. In the CTRP3 treated cells a total enrichment of 261 peptides was observed. From these experiments 5 putative receptors for CTRP3 were identified with two reaching statistically significance: Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) and Lysosome membrane protein 2 (LIMP II). Follow-up Co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the association between LAMP1 and CTRP3 and further testing using a polyclonal antibody to block potential binding sites of LAMP1 prevented CTRP3 binding to the cells. Conclusion The LRC-TriCEPS methodology was successful in identifying potential novel receptors for CTRP3. Relevance The identification of the receptors for CTRP3 are important prerequisites for the development of small molecule drug candidates, of which none currently exist, for the treatment NAFLD. PMID:27727322

  12. Identifying ligand-specific signalling within biased responses: focus on δ opioid receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Charfi, I; Audet, N; Bagheri Tudashki, H; Pineyro, G

    2015-01-01

    Opioids activate GPCRs to produce powerful analgesic actions but at the same time induce side effects and generate tolerance, which restrict their clinical use. Reducing this undesired response profile has remained a major goal of opioid research and the notion of ‘biased agonism’ is raising increasing interest as a means of separating therapeutic responses from unwanted side effects. However, to fully exploit this opportunity, it is necessary to confidently identify biased signals and evaluate which type of bias may support analgesia and which may lead to undesired effects. The development of new computational tools has made it possible to quantify ligand-dependent signalling and discriminate this component from confounders that may also yield biased responses. Here, we analyse different approaches to identify and quantify ligand-dependent bias and review different types of confounders. Focus is on δ opioid receptor ligands, which are currently viewed as promising agents for chronic pain management. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24665881

  13. Ligand and receptor dynamics contribute to the mechanism of graded PPARγ agonism

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis S.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Novick, Scott; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Chang, Mi Ra; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Rance, Mark; Johnson, Bruce A.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Ligand binding to proteins is not a static process, but rather involves a number of complex dynamic transitions. A flexible ligand can change conformation upon binding its target. The conformation and dynamics of a protein can change to facilitate ligand binding. The conformation of the ligand, however, is generally presumed to have one primary binding mode, shifting the protein conformational ensemble from one state to another. We report solution NMR studies that reveal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) modulators can sample multiple binding modes manifesting in multiple receptor conformations in slow conformational exchange. Our NMR, hydrogen/deuterium exchange and docking studies reveal that ligand-induced receptor stabilization and binding mode occupancy correlate with the graded agonist response of the ligand. Our results suggest that ligand and receptor dynamics affect the graded transcriptional output of PPARγ modulators. PMID:22244763

  14. Fcγ Receptors and Ligands and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Sundgren, Nathan; Khera, Amit; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    Fcγ receptors (FcγR) classically modulate intracellular signaling upon binding of the Fc region of IgG in immune response cells. How FcγR and their ligands impact cardiovascular health and disease has recently been interrogated in both preclinical and clinical studies. The stimulation of activating FcγR in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and monocytes/macrophages causes a variety of cellular responses that may contribute to vascular disease pathogenesis. Stimulation of the lone inhibitory FγcR, FcγRIIB, also has adverse consequences in endothelial cells, antagonizing NO production and reparative mechanisms. In preclinical disease models, activating FcγR promote atherosclerosis whereas FcγRIIB is protective, and activating FcγR also enhance thrombotic and non-thrombotic vascular occlusion. The FcγR ligand C-reactive protein (CRP) has undergone intense study. Although in rodents CRP does not impact atherosclerosis, it causes hypertension and insulin resistance and worsens myocardial infarction. Massive data has accumulated indicating an association between increases in circulating CRP and coronary heart disease in humans. However, Mendelian randomization studies reveal that CRP is not likely a disease mediator. CRP genetics and hypertension warrants further investigation. Studies to date of genetic variants of activating FcγR are insufficient to implicate the receptors in coronary heart disease pathogenesis in humans. However, a link between FcγRIIB and human hypertension may be emerging. Further knowledge of the vascular biology of FcγR and their ligands will potentially enhance our understanding of cardiovascular disorders, particularly in patients whose greater predisposition for disease is not explained by traditional risk factors, such as individuals with autoimmune disorders. PMID:25593280

  15. Purine derivatives as ligands for A3 adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Bhalchandra V; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2005-01-01

    Selective agonists and antagonists for A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) are being explored for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including brain and heart ischemic conditions, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. This review covers both the structure activity relationships of nucleoside agonist ligands and selected antagonists acting at this receptor and the routes of synthesis. Highly selective agonists have been designed, using both empirical approaches and a semi-rational approach based on molecular modeling. The prototypical A3 agonists IB-MECA 10 and the more receptor-subtype-selective Cl-IB-MECA 11, both of which have affinity in binding to the receptor of approximately 1 nM, have been used widely as pharmacological probes in the elucidation of the physiological role of this receptor. In addition to the exploration of the effects of structural modification of the adenine and ribose moieties on A3AR affinity, the effects of these structural changes on the intrinsic efficacy have also been studied in a systematic fashion. Key structural features determining A3AR interaction include the N6-benzyl group, 2-position substitution such as halo, substitution of ribose (e.g., the (N)-methanocarba ring system, various 2'- and 3'-substitutions and 4'-thio substitution of oxygen). Conformational studies of the ribose moiety and its equivalents indicate that the ring oxygen is not required and the North (N) ring conformation is preferred in binding to the A3AR. Using these observations, a series of ring constrained (N)-methanocarba 5'-uronamide derivatives was recently reported to be highly selective A3AR agonists, the most notable amongst them was MRS3558 113 having a Ki value in binding to the human A3 receptor of 0.3 nM. PMID:16305531

  16. In vitro screening strategies for nicotinic receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, John; Roncarati, Renza; Jow, Brian; Bothmann, Hendrick; Lock, Tim; Kowal, Dianne; Bowlby, Mark; Terstappen, Georg C

    2007-10-15

    A common historical strategy to the discovery of nicotinic receptor ligands has involved the use of radioligand-binding assays for ligand identification in combination with two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes for electrophysiological characterization. More recently, higher-throughput methodologies have replaced these approaches to accommodate screening of large compound libraries and to provide increased capacity for electrophysiological profiling in mammalian cell lines. We, and others, have implemented cell-based screening assays using the fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR) for primary and lead optimization screening of nicotinic receptor agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Using GH4C1 cells expressing the rat alpha7 nicotinic receptor, both acetylcholine and nicotine produced concentration-dependent elevations of intracellular calcium with EC(50) values of 5.5 and 1.6 microM, respectively. PAM activity was robustly detected using the FLIPR assay; for example, the known alpha7 receptor PAM 5-hydroxyindole failed to directly activate the receptor but produced a leftward shift of the nicotine concentration-response curve in combination with a potentiation of the maximum evoked response to nicotine. Electrophysiological confirmation of agonist activity was achieved using the Dynaflow rapid perfusion system and patch clamp in the same GH4C1 cell expression system. Estimated EC(50) values for acetylcholine-evoked currents in GH4C1/alpha7 cells were 55 and 576 microM for area-under-the-curve (AUC) and maximum peak height calculations, respectively. Similarly, PAM activity was confirmed using electrophysiological recordings while also allowing for the mechanistic discrimination of compounds, not possible using the FLIPR assay. Specifically, PAMs capable of slowing the rapid desensitization of alpha7 receptors to different extents were discernable in these studies. Further improvements in the capacity to screen compounds using

  17. Biased ligands at G-protein-coupled receptors: promise and progress.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Crombie, Aimee L; Soergel, David G; Lark, Michael W

    2014-07-01

    Drug discovery targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is no longer limited to seeking agonists or antagonists to stimulate or block cellular responses associated with a particular receptor. GPCRs are now known to support a diversity of pharmacological profiles, a concept broadly referred to as functional selectivity. In particular, the concept of ligand bias, whereby a ligand stabilizes subsets of receptor conformations to engender novel pharmacological profiles, has recently gained increasing prominence. This review discusses how biased ligands may deliver safer, better tolerated, and more efficacious drugs, and highlights several biased ligands that are in clinical development. Biased ligands targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and the μ opioid receptor illustrate the translation of the biased ligand concept from basic biology to clinical drug development.

  18. Biased ligands at G-protein-coupled receptors: promise and progress.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Crombie, Aimee L; Soergel, David G; Lark, Michael W

    2014-07-01

    Drug discovery targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is no longer limited to seeking agonists or antagonists to stimulate or block cellular responses associated with a particular receptor. GPCRs are now known to support a diversity of pharmacological profiles, a concept broadly referred to as functional selectivity. In particular, the concept of ligand bias, whereby a ligand stabilizes subsets of receptor conformations to engender novel pharmacological profiles, has recently gained increasing prominence. This review discusses how biased ligands may deliver safer, better tolerated, and more efficacious drugs, and highlights several biased ligands that are in clinical development. Biased ligands targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and the μ opioid receptor illustrate the translation of the biased ligand concept from basic biology to clinical drug development. PMID:24878326

  19. Ligand-receptor interactions in live cells by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Aladdin

    2004-04-01

    Receptor binding studies most often require the use of radioactively labeled ligands. In certain cases, the numbers of receptors are few per cell and no specific binding is detected because of a high background. Specific interactions between certain ligands (e.g. peptides, hormones, natural products) and their receptors are, therefore, often overlooked by the conventional binding technique. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) allows detection of the interaction of ligands with receptors in their native environment in live cells in a tiny confocal volume element (0.2 fl) at single-molecule detection sensitivity. This technique permits the identification of receptors which were not possible before to detect by isotope labeling. The beauty of the FCS technique is that there is no need for separating an unbound ligand from a bound one to calculate the receptor bound and free ligand fractions. This review will show FCS as a sensitive and a rapid technique to study ligand-receptor interaction in live cells and will demonstrate that the FCS-analysis of ligand-receptor interactions in live cells fulfils all the criteria of a ligand binding to its receptor i.e. it is able to provide information on the affinity and specificity of a ligand, binding constant, association and dissociation rate constants as well as the number and mobility of receptors carrying a fluorescently labeled ligand. This review is of pharmaceutical significance since it will provide insights on how FCS can be used as a rapid technique for studying ligand-receptor interactions in cell cultures, which is one step forward towards a high throughput drug screening in cell cultures. PMID:15078155

  20. Three's company: two or more unrelated receptors pair with the same ligand.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shlomo, Izhar; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2005-05-01

    Intercellular communication relies on signal transduction mediated by extracellular ligands and their receptors. Although the ligand-receptor interaction is usually a two-player event, there are selective examples of one polypeptide ligand interacting with more than one phylogenetically unrelated receptor. Likewise, a few receptors interact with more than one polypeptide ligand, and sometimes with more than one coreceptor, likely through an interlocking of unique protein domains. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that for certain triumvirates, the matching events could have taken place at different evolutionary times. In contrast to a few polypeptide ligands interacting with more than one receptor, we found that many small nonpeptide ligands have been paired with two or more plasma membrane receptors, nuclear receptors, or channels. The observation that many small ligands are paired with more than one receptor type highlights the utilitarian use of a limited number of cellular components during metazoan evolution. These conserved ligands are ubiquitous cell metabolites likely favored by natural selection to establish novel regulatory networks. They likely possess structural features useful for designing agonistic and antagonistic drugs to target diverse receptors.

  1. A structural chemogenomics analysis of aminergic GPCRs: lessons for histamine receptor ligand design

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, A J; Kuhne, S; de Esch, I J P; Leurs, R; de Graaf, C

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chemogenomics focuses on the discovery of new connections between chemical and biological space leading to the discovery of new protein targets and biologically active molecules. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a particularly interesting protein family for chemogenomics studies because there is an overwhelming amount of ligand binding affinity data available. The increasing number of aminergic GPCR crystal structures now for the first time allows the integration of chemogenomics studies with high-resolution structural analyses of GPCR-ligand complexes. Experimental Approach In this study, we have combined ligand affinity data, receptor mutagenesis studies, and amino acid sequence analyses to high-resolution structural analyses of (hist)aminergic GPCR-ligand interactions. This integrated structural chemogenomics analysis is used to more accurately describe the molecular and structural determinants of ligand affinity and selectivity in different key binding regions of the crystallized aminergic GPCRs, and histamine receptors in particular. Key Results Our investigations highlight interesting correlations and differences between ligand similarity and ligand binding site similarity of different aminergic receptors. Apparent discrepancies can be explained by combining detailed analysis of crystallized or predicted protein-ligand binding modes, receptor mutation studies, and ligand structure-selectivity relationships that identify local differences in essential pharmacophore features in the ligand binding sites of different receptors. Conclusions and Implications We have performed structural chemogenomics studies that identify links between (hist)aminergic receptor ligands and their binding sites and binding modes. This knowledge can be used to identify structure-selectivity relationships that increase our understanding of ligand binding to (hist)aminergic receptors and hence can be used in future GPCR ligand discovery and design. Linked

  2. Transport regulation of two-dimensional receptor-ligand association.

    PubMed

    Ju, Lining; Qian, Jin; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    The impact of flow disturbances on platelet adhesion is complex and incompletely understood. At the molecular scale, platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) must associate with the von Willebrand factor A1 domain (VWF-A1) with a rapid on-rate under high hemodynamic forces, as occurs in arterial thrombosis, where various transport mechanisms are at work. Here, we theoretically modeled the coupled transport-reaction process of the two-dimensional (2D) receptor-ligand association kinetics in a biomembrane force probe to explicitly account for the effects of molecular length, confinement stiffness, medium viscosity, surface curvature, and separation distance. We experimentally verified the theoretical approach by visualizing association and dissociation of individual VWF-A1-GPIbα bonds in a real-time thermal fluctuation assay. The apparent on-rate, reciprocal of the average time intervals between sequential bonds, decreased with the increasing gap distance between A1- and GPIbα-bearing surfaces with an 80-nm threshold (beyond which bond formation became prohibitive) identified as the combined contour length of the receptor and ligand molecules. The biomembrane force probe spring constant and diffusivity of the protein-bearing beads also significantly influenced the apparent on-rate, in accordance with the proposed transport mechanisms. The global agreement between the experimental data and the model predictions supports the hypothesis that receptor-ligand association behaves distinctly in the transport- and reaction-limited scenarios. To our knowledge, our results represent the first detailed quantification of physical regulation of the 2D on-rate that allows platelets to sense and respond to local changes in their hemodynamic environment. In addition, they provide an approach for determining the intrinsic kinetic parameters that employs simultaneous experimental measurements and theoretical modeling of bond association in a single assay. The 2D intrinsic forward rate

  3. Transport Regulation of Two-Dimensional Receptor-Ligand Association

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Lining; Qian, Jin; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The impact of flow disturbances on platelet adhesion is complex and incompletely understood. At the molecular scale, platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) must associate with the von Willebrand factor A1 domain (VWF-A1) with a rapid on-rate under high hemodynamic forces, as occurs in arterial thrombosis, where various transport mechanisms are at work. Here, we theoretically modeled the coupled transport-reaction process of the two-dimensional (2D) receptor-ligand association kinetics in a biomembrane force probe to explicitly account for the effects of molecular length, confinement stiffness, medium viscosity, surface curvature, and separation distance. We experimentally verified the theoretical approach by visualizing association and dissociation of individual VWF-A1-GPIbα bonds in a real-time thermal fluctuation assay. The apparent on-rate, reciprocal of the average time intervals between sequential bonds, decreased with the increasing gap distance between A1- and GPIbα-bearing surfaces with an 80-nm threshold (beyond which bond formation became prohibitive) identified as the combined contour length of the receptor and ligand molecules. The biomembrane force probe spring constant and diffusivity of the protein-bearing beads also significantly influenced the apparent on-rate, in accordance with the proposed transport mechanisms. The global agreement between the experimental data and the model predictions supports the hypothesis that receptor-ligand association behaves distinctly in the transport- and reaction-limited scenarios. To our knowledge, our results represent the first detailed quantification of physical regulation of the 2D on-rate that allows platelets to sense and respond to local changes in their hemodynamic environment. In addition, they provide an approach for determining the intrinsic kinetic parameters that employs simultaneous experimental measurements and theoretical modeling of bond association in a single assay. The 2D intrinsic forward rate

  4. Quantifying the rebinding effect in multivalent chemical ligand-receptor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Marcus; Bujotzek, Alexander; Haag, Rainer

    2012-08-01

    Multivalent ligand-receptor systems often show an enhancement in binding compared to the constituent monovalent systems. This "cooperativity effect" is often attributed to the favorable spatial preorganisation of the ligands by the connecting spacer that leads to a reduction of entropy loss at ligand binding. A different factor that has been proposed to contribute to the cooperativity effect is "rebinding": As soon as a single ligand-receptor complex dissociates, the presence of another ligand "on coat-tails" will increase the probability of another binding event, which in turn will drive the system to a state where all ligands are bound. In this article, we derive a first quantitative description of the rebinding effect. In order to model the inherent memory effect of a spacer-connected system, we pursue a mathematical approach based on Markov state models and conformation dynamics. The theoretical investigations are illustrated by studying different prototypic ligand-receptor systems.

  5. Functional phylogenetics reveals contributions of pleiotropic peptide action to ligand-receptor coevolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evolution of peptidergic signaling has been accompanied by a significant degree of ligand-receptor coevolution. Closely related clusters of peptide signaling molecules are observed to activate related groups of receptors, implying that genes encoding these ligands may orchestrate an array of fu...

  6. Novel photoaffinity ligands for the GA-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Suttle, J.C.; Hultstrand, J.F.; Tanaka, F.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that certain N-substituted phthalimides (NSPs) exhibit GA-like activity in a range of specific bioassays and that bioactive NSPs compete with ({sup 3}H)-GA{sub 4} for soluble binding sites in cucumber homogenates. As such, these compounds may prove useful in the purification and characterization of GA receptor proteins. To this end, five azido-NSPs have been synthesized and are currently being screened for biological activity and photochemical stability. Three azido-NSPs elicit {alpha}-amylase production in barley half-seeds and stimulate tissue elongation in d{sub 5} maize, lettuce, sunflower, and soybean. Further evaluations are in progress and these data as well as the utility of these compounds as photo-affinity ligands will be discussed.

  7. Prolonged signaling at the parathyroid hormone receptor by peptide ligands targeted to a specific receptor conformation

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Makoto; Ferrandon, Sebastien; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Potts, John T.; Gardella, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor that plays critical roles in bone and mineral ion metabolism. Ligand binding to the PTHR involves interactions to both the amino-terminal extracellular (N) domain, and transmembrane/extracellular loop, or juxtamembrane (J) regions of the receptor. Recently, we found that PTH(1–34), but not PTH-related protein, PTHrP(1–36), or M-PTH(1–14) (M = Ala/Aib1,Aib3,Gln10,Har11,Ala12,Trp14,Arg19), binds to the PTHR in a largely GTPγS-resistant fashion, suggesting selective binding to a novel, high-affinity conformation (R0), distinct from the GTPγS-sensitive conformation (RG). We examined the effects in vitro and in vivo of introducing the M substitutions, which enhance interaction to the J domain, into PTH analogs extended C-terminally to incorporate residues involved in the N domain interaction. As compared with PTH(1–34), M-PTH(1–28) and M-PTH(1–34) bound to R0 with higher affinity, produced more sustained cAMP responses in cells, formed more stable complexes with the PTHR in FRET and subcellular localization assays, and induced more prolonged calcemic and phosphate responses in mice. Moreover, after 2 weeks of daily injection in mice, M-PTH(1–34) induced larger increases in trabecular bone volume and greater increases in cortical bone turnover, than did PTH(1–34). Thus, the putative R0 PTHR conformation can form highly stable complexes with certain PTH ligand analogs and thereby mediate surprisingly prolonged signaling responses in bone and/or kidney PTH target cells. Controlling, via ligand analog design, the selectivity with which a PTH ligand binds to R0, versus RG, may be a strategy for optimizing signaling duration time, and hence therapeutic efficacy, of PTHR agonist ligands. PMID:18946036

  8. Imaging of a glioma using peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Starosta-Rubinstein, S.; Ciliax, B.J.; Penney, J.B.; McKeever, P.; Young, A.B.

    1987-02-01

    Two types of benzodiazepine receptors have been demonstrated in mammalian tissues, one which is localized on neuronal elements in brain and the other, on glial cells and in peripheral tissues such as kidney. In vivo administration of /sup 3/H-labeled PK 11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam with 5 mg of clonazepam per kg to rats with intracranial C6 gliomas resulted in high levels of tritiated-drug binding to the tumor as shown by quantitative autoradiography. Pharmacological studies indicated that the bound drugs labeled the peripheral benzodiazepine binding site. Binding to the peripheral benzodiazepine site was confirmed primarily to malignant cells with little binding to adjacent normal brain tissue or to necrotic tissue. Tumor cell binding was completely inhibited by preadministration of the peripheral benzodiazepine blocking agent PK 11195 at 5 mg/kg. The centrally selective benzodiazepine ligand clonazepam had no effect on PK 11195 binding to the tumor cells. When binding to other tumor cell lines grown in nude mice and nude athymic rats was evaluated, little or no peripheral benzodiazepine binding was detected on human pheochromocytoma (RN1) and neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC, SK-N-SH) tumor cells, respectively. However, high densities of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites were observed on tumors derived from a human glioma cell line (ATCC HTB 14, U-87 MG). The presence of high concentrations of specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors on glial tumors suggests that human primary central nervous system tumors could be imaged and diagnosed using peripheral benzodiazepine ligands labeled with positron- or gamma-emitting isotopes.

  9. Imaging of a glioma using peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Starosta-Rubinstein, S; Ciliax, B J; Penney, J B; McKeever, P; Young, A B

    1987-01-01

    Two types of benzodiazepine receptors have been demonstrated in mammalian tissues, one which is localized on neuronal elements in brain and the other, on glial cells and in peripheral tissues such as kidney. In vivo administration of 3H-labeled PK 11195 [1-(2-chlorophenyl-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide] or [3H]flunitrazepam with 5 mg of clonazepam per kg to rats with intracranial C6 gliomas resulted in high levels of tritiated-drug binding to the tumor as shown by quantitative autoradiography. Pharmacological studies indicated that the bound drugs labeled the peripheral benzodiazepine binding site. Binding to the peripheral benzodiazepine site was confirmed primarily to malignant cells with little binding to adjacent normal brain tissue or to necrotic tissue. Tumor cell binding was completely inhibited by preadministration of the peripheral benzodiazepine blocking agent PK 11195 at 5 mg/kg. The centrally selective benzodiazepine ligand clonazepam had no effect on PK 11195 binding to the tumor cells. When binding to other tumor cell lines grown in nude mice and nude athymic rats was evaluated, little or no peripheral benzodiazepine binding was detected on human pheochromocytoma (RN1) and neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC, SK-N-SH) tumor cells, respectively. However, high densities of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites were observed on tumors derived from a human glioma cell line (ATCC HTB 14, U-87 MG). The presence of high concentrations of specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors on glial tumors suggests that human primary central nervous system tumors could be imaged and diagnosed using peripheral benzodiazepine ligands labeled with positron- or gamma-emitting isotopes. Images PMID:3027710

  10. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Heteromerization: A Role in Allosteric Modulation of Ligand BindingS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ivone; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Ye, Kai; Maillet, Emeline L.

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that G protein-coupled receptors physically interact. These interactions may provide a mechanism for allosteric modulation of receptor function. In this study, we examined this possibility by using an established model system of a receptor heteromer consisting of μ and δ opioid receptors. We examined the effect of a number of μ receptor ligands on the binding equilibrium and association and dissociation kinetics of a radiolabeled δ receptor agonist, [3H]deltorphin II. We also examined the effect of δ receptor ligands on the binding equilibrium and association and dissociation kinetics of a radiolabeled μ receptor agonist, [3H][d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin ([3H]DAMGO). We show that μ receptor ligands are capable of allosterically enhancing δ receptor radioligand binding and vice versa. Thus, there is strong positive cooperativity between the two receptor units with remarkable consequences for ligand pharmacology. We find that the data can be simulated by adapting an allosteric receptor model previously developed for small molecules, suggesting that the ligand-occupied protomers function as allosteric modulators of the partner receptor's activity. PMID:21415307

  11. Development of radioiodinated receptor ligands for cerebral single photon emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade the use of radiolabeled ligands for the imaging of cerebral receptors by emission computed tomography (ECT) has seen rapid growth. The opportunity to routinely perform cerebral single photon emission tomography (SPET) with iodine-123-labeled ligands depends on the availability of receptor ligands into which iodine can be introduced without decreasing the required high target receptor specificity. The use of iodine-123-labeled receptor-specific ligands also depends on the availability of high purity iodine-123 at reasonable costs and the necessary imaging instrumentation. In this paper, the development and current stage of evaluation of various iodine-123-labeled ligands for SPET imaging of dopaminergic, serotonergic and muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor classes are discussed.

  12. Development of radioiodinated receptor ligands for cerebral single photon emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.

    1992-03-01

    In the last decade the use of radiolabeled ligands for the imaging of cerebral receptors by emission computed tomography (ECT) has seen rapid growth. The opportunity to routinely perform cerebral single photon emission tomography (SPET) with iodine-123-labeled ligands depends on the availability of receptor ligands into which iodine can be introduced without decreasing the required high target receptor specificity. The use of iodine-123-labeled receptor-specific ligands also depends on the availability of high purity iodine-123 at reasonable costs and the necessary imaging instrumentation. In this paper, the development and current stage of evaluation of various iodine-123-labeled ligands for SPET imaging of dopaminergic, serotonergic and muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor classes are discussed.

  13. Bioluminescent Ligand-Receptor Binding Assays for Protein or Peptide Hormones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Li; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence has been widely used in biomedical research due to its high sensitivity, low background, and broad linear range. In recent studies, we applied bioluminescence to ligand-receptor binding assays for some protein or peptide hormones based on a newly developed small monomeric Nanoluciferase (NanoLuc) reporter that has the so far brightest bioluminescence. The conventional ligand-receptor binding assays rely on radioligands that have drawbacks, such as radioactive hazards and short shelf lives. In contrast, the novel bioluminescent binding assays use the NanoLuc-based protein or peptide tracers that are safe, stable, and ultrasensitive. Thus, the novel bioluminescent ligand-receptor binding assay would be applied to more and more protein or peptide hormones for ligand-receptor interaction studies in future. In the present article, we provided detailed protocols for setting up the novel bioluminescent ligand-receptor binding assays using two representative protein hormones as examples. PMID:27424896

  14. Receptor, Ligand and Transducer Contributions to Dopamine D2 Receptor Functional Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sean M.; Pack, Thomas F.; Caron, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Functional selectivity (or biased agonism) is a property exhibited by some G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands, which results in the modulation of a subset of a receptor’s signaling capabilities and more precise control over complex biological processes. The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) exhibits pleiotropic responses to the biogenic amine dopamine (DA) to mediate complex central nervous system functions through activation of G proteins and β-arrestins. D2R is a prominent therapeutic target for psychological and neurological disorders in which DA biology is dysregulated and targeting D2R with functionally selective drugs could provide a means by which pharmacotherapies could be developed. However, factors that determine GPCR functional selectivity in vivo may be multiple with receptors, ligands and transducers contributing to the process. We have recently described a mutagenesis approach to engineer biased D2R mutants in which G protein-dependent ([Gprot]D2R) and β-arrestin-dependent signaling ([βarr]D2R) were successfully separated (Peterson, et al. PNAS, 2015). Here, permutations of these mutants were used to identify critical determinants of the D2R signaling complex that impart signaling bias in response to the natural or synthetic ligands. Critical residues identified in generating [Gprot]D2R and [βarr]D2R conferred control of partial agonism at G protein and/or β-arrestin activity. Another set of mutations that result in G protein bias was identified that demonstrated that full agonists can impart unique activation patterns, and provided further credence to the concept of ligand texture. Finally, the contributions and interplay between different transducers indicated that G proteins are not aberrantly activated, and that receptor kinase and β-arrestin activities are inextricably linked. These data provide a thorough elucidation of the feasibility and malleability of D2R functional selectivity and point to means by which novel in vivo therapies

  15. The Quantum Nature of Drug-Receptor Interactions: Deuteration Changes Binding Affinities for Histamine Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Repič, Matej; Zakšek, Maja; Kotnik, Kristina; Fijan, Estera; Mavri, Janez

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report a combined experimental and computational study concerning the effects of deuteration on the binding of histamine and two other histaminergic agonists to 3H-tiotidine-labeled histamine H2 receptor in neonatal rat astrocytes. Binding affinities were measured by displacing radiolabeled tiotidine from H2 receptor binding sites present on cultured neonatal rat astrocytes. Quantum-chemical calculations were performed by employing the empirical quantization of nuclear motion within a cluster model of the receptor binding site extracted from the homology model of the entire H2 receptor. Structure of H2 receptor built by homology modelling is attached in the supporting information (S1 Table) Experiments clearly demonstrate that deuteration affects the binding by increasing the affinity for histamine and reducing it for 2-methylhistamine, while basically leaving it unchanged for 4-methylhistamine. Ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on the cluster system extracted from the homology H2 model along with the implicit quantization of the acidic N–H and O–H bonds demonstrate that these changes in the binding can be rationalized by the altered strength of the hydrogen bonding upon deuteration known as the Ubbelohde effect. Our computational analysis also reveals a new mechanism of histamine binding, which underlines an important role of Tyr250 residue. The present work is, to our best knowledge, the first study of nuclear quantum effects on ligand receptor binding. The ligand H/D substitution is relevant for therapy in the context of perdeuterated and thus more stable drugs that are expected to enter therapeutic practice in the near future. Moreover, presented approach may contribute towards understanding receptor activation, while a distant goal remains in silico discrimination between agonists and antagonists based on the receptor structure. PMID:27159606

  16. The Quantum Nature of Drug-Receptor Interactions: Deuteration Changes Binding Affinities for Histamine Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Kržan, Mojca; Vianello, Robert; Maršavelski, Aleksandra; Repič, Matej; Zakšek, Maja; Kotnik, Kristina; Fijan, Estera; Mavri, Janez

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report a combined experimental and computational study concerning the effects of deuteration on the binding of histamine and two other histaminergic agonists to 3H-tiotidine-labeled histamine H2 receptor in neonatal rat astrocytes. Binding affinities were measured by displacing radiolabeled tiotidine from H2 receptor binding sites present on cultured neonatal rat astrocytes. Quantum-chemical calculations were performed by employing the empirical quantization of nuclear motion within a cluster model of the receptor binding site extracted from the homology model of the entire H2 receptor. Structure of H2 receptor built by homology modelling is attached in the supporting information (S1 Table) Experiments clearly demonstrate that deuteration affects the binding by increasing the affinity for histamine and reducing it for 2-methylhistamine, while basically leaving it unchanged for 4-methylhistamine. Ab initio quantum-chemical calculations on the cluster system extracted from the homology H2 model along with the implicit quantization of the acidic N-H and O-H bonds demonstrate that these changes in the binding can be rationalized by the altered strength of the hydrogen bonding upon deuteration known as the Ubbelohde effect. Our computational analysis also reveals a new mechanism of histamine binding, which underlines an important role of Tyr250 residue. The present work is, to our best knowledge, the first study of nuclear quantum effects on ligand receptor binding. The ligand H/D substitution is relevant for therapy in the context of perdeuterated and thus more stable drugs that are expected to enter therapeutic practice in the near future. Moreover, presented approach may contribute towards understanding receptor activation, while a distant goal remains in silico discrimination between agonists and antagonists based on the receptor structure. PMID:27159606

  17. Selectively Promiscuous Opioid Ligands: Discovery of High Affinity/Low Efficacy Opioid Ligands with Substantial Nociceptin Opioid Peptide Receptor Affinity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Emerging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that a compound displaying high affinity for μ, κ, and δ opioid (MOP, KOP, and DOP) receptors and antagonist activity at each, coupled with moderate affinity and efficacy at nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptors will have utility as a relapse prevention agent for multiple types of drug abuse. Members of the orvinol family of opioid ligands have the desired affinity profile but have typically displayed substantial efficacy at MOP and or KOP receptors. In this study it is shown that a phenyl ring analogue (1d) of buprenorphine displays the desired profile in vitro with high, nonselective affinity for the MOP, KOP, and DOP receptors coupled with moderate affinity for NOP receptors. In vivo, 1d lacked any opioid agonist activity and was an antagonist of both the MOP receptor agonist morphine and the KOP receptor agonist ethylketocyclazocine, confirming the desired opioid receptor profile in vivo. PMID:24761755

  18. Labeling of receptor ligands and other compounds with halogen radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J. . Edward Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology)

    1989-08-01

    Major advances have been made in all the areas. Specifically, patient studies have been carried out. This work has shown that the uptake of fluorine-18 labeled 16{alpha}-fluoroestradiol-17{beta} correlates well with receptor levels measured in vivo and also that the uptake of the tracer is blocked in humans by the administration of the antiestrogen tamoxifen. An image from this work was designated Image of the Year by Dr. Wagner, Jr., following his summary of the 1987 Society of Nuclear Medicine Meeting. We have also evaluated the brain uptake of both estrogen and progesterone, and this work was awarded the Berson-Yalow Award from the Society of Nuclear Medicine in 1988. This publication represents a new application of radiolabeled sex hormones. Hines and coworkers have suggested that hormone levels in the brain are important for sexual differentiation of human behavior. We have shown that both 16{alpha}-(F-18)-fluoroestradiol-17{beta} and 21-(F-18)-fluoro-16{alpha}-ethyl-19-norprogesterone (FENP) accumulate in the hypothalamus and pituitary tissues of primates and humans; and in primates this uptake can be blocked by administration of nonradioactive competing ligands. This presents an opportunity for studying sex hormone receptors in mammalian brain.

  19. Discriminative stimulus effects of the imidazoline I2 receptor ligands BU224 and phenyzoline in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yanyan; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Jun-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Although imidazoline I2 receptor ligands have been used as discriminative stimuli, the role of efficacy of I2 receptor ligands as a critical determinant in drug discrimination has not been explored. This study characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of selective imidazoline I2 receptor ligands BU224 (a low-efficacy I2 receptor ligand) and phenyzoline (a higher efficacy I2 receptor ligand) in rats. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 5.6 mg/kg BU224 or 32 mg/kg phenyzoline (i.p.) from their vehicle in a two-lever food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure, respectively. All rats acquired the discriminations after an average of 18 (BU224) and 56 (phenyzoline) training sessions, respectively. BU224 and phenyzoline completely substituted for one another symmetrically. Several I2 receptor ligands (tracizoline, CR4056, RS45041, and idazoxan) all occasioned > 80% drug-associated lever responding in both discriminations. The I2 receptor ligand 2-BFI and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmane occasioned > 80% drug-associated lever responding in rats discriminating BU224. Other drugs that occasioned partial or less substitution to BU224 cue included clonidine, methamphetamine, ketamine, morphine, methadone and agmatine. Clonidine, methamphetamine and morphine also only produced partial substitution to phenyzoline cue. Naltrexone, dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol and serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 failed to alter the discriminative stimulus effects of BU224 or phenyzoline. Combined, these results are the first to demonstrate that BU224 and phenyzoline can serve as discriminative stimuli and that the low-efficacy I2 receptor ligand BU224 shares similar discriminative stimulus effects with higher-efficacy I2 receptor ligands such as phenyzoline and 2-BFI. PMID:25617792

  20. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced /sup 155/Eu:/sup 3 +/ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor.

  1. Vasopeptidase-activated latent ligands of the histamine receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François

    2013-11-01

    Whether peptidases present in vascular cells can activate prodrugs active on vascular cells has been tested with 2 potential latent ligands of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). First, a peptide consisting of the antihistamine cetirizine (CTZ) condensed at the N-terminus of ε-aminocaproyl-bradykinin (εACA-BK) was evaluated for an antihistamine activity that could be revealed by degradation of the peptide part of the molecule. CTZ-εACA-BK had a submicromolar affinity for the BK B2 receptor (B2R; IC50 of 590 nM, [(3)H]BK binding competition), but a non-negligible affinity for the human H1 receptor (H1R; IC50 of 11 μM for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding). In the human isolated umbilical vein, a system where both endogenous B2R and H1R mediate strong contractions, CTZ-εACA-BK exerted mild antagonist effects on histamine-induced contraction that were not modified by omapatrilat or by a B2R antagonist that prevents endocytosis of the BK conjugate. Cells expressing recombinant ACE or B2R incubated with CTZ-εACA-BK did not release a competitor of [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. Thus, there is no evidence that CTZ-εACA-BK can release free cetirizine in biological environments. The second prodrug was a blocked agonist, L-alanyl-histamine, potentially activated by aminopeptidase N (APN). This compound did not compete for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. The human umbilical vein contractility assay responded to L-alanyl-histamine (EC50 54.7 μM), but the APN inhibitor amastatin massively (17-fold) reduced its apparent potency. Amastatin did not influence the potency of histamine as a contractile agent. One of the 2 tested latent H1R ligands, L-alanyl-histamine, supported the feasibility of pro-drug activation by vascular ectopeptidases.

  2. Fluorescent Approaches for Understanding Interactions of Ligands with G Protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Rajashri; Zuber, Jeffrey; Connelly, Sara M.; Mathew, Elizabeth; Dumont, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for a wide variety of signaling responses in diverse cell types. Despite major advances in the determination of structures of this class of receptors, the underlying mechanisms by which binding of different types of ligands specifically elicits particular signaling responses remains unclear. The use of fluorescence spectroscopy can provide important information about the process of ligand binding and ligand dependent conformational changes in receptors, especially kinetic aspects of these processes, that can be difficult to extract from x-ray structures. We present an overview of the extensive array of fluorescent ligands that have been used in studies of GPCRs and describe spectroscopic approaches for assaying binding and probing the environment of receptor-bound ligands with particular attention to examples involving yeast pheromone receptors. In addition, we discuss the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for detecting and characterizing conformational changes in receptors induced by the binding of ligands. Such studies have provided strong evidence for diversity of receptor conformations elicited by different ligands, consistent with the idea that GPCRs are not simple on and off switches. This diversity of states constitutes an underlying mechanistic basis for biased agonism, the observation that different stimuli can produce different responses from a single receptor. It is likely that continued technical advances will allow fluorescence spectroscopy to play an important role in continued probing of structural transitions in GPCRs. PMID:24055822

  3. Cellular approaches to the interaction between cannabinoid receptor ligands and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Oz, Murat; Al Kury, Lina; Keun-Hang, Susan Yang; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Galadari, Sehamuddin

    2014-05-15

    Cannabinoids are among the earliest known drugs to humanity. Cannabis plant contains various phytochemicals that bind to cannabinoid receptors. In addition, synthetic and endogenously produced cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) constitute other classes of cannabinoid receptor ligands. Although many pharmacological effects of these cannabinoids are mediated by the activation of cannabinoid receptors, recent studies indicate that cannabinoids also modulate the functions of various integral membrane proteins including ion channels, receptors, neurotransmitter transporters, and enzymes by mechanism(s) not involving the activation of known cannabinoid receptors. Currently, the mechanisms of these effects were not fully understood. However, it is likely that direct actions of cannabinoids are closely linked to their lipophilic structures. This report will focus on the actions of cannabinoids on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and will examine the results of recent studies in this field. In addition some mechanistic approaches will be provided. The results discussed in this review indicate that, besides cannabinoid receptors, further molecular targets for cannabinoids exist and that these targets may represent important novel sites to alter neuronal excitability.

  4. Biased ligands for better cardiovascular drugs: dissecting G-protein-coupled receptor pharmacology.

    PubMed

    DeWire, Scott M; Violin, Jonathan D

    2011-07-01

    Drug discovery efforts targeting G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) have been immensely successful in creating new cardiovascular medicines. Currently marketed GPCR drugs are broadly classified as either agonists that activate receptors or antagonists that prevent receptor activation by endogenous stimuli. However, GPCR couple to a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways beyond classical G-protein signals, and these signals can be independently activated by biased ligands to vastly expand the potential for new drugs at these classic targets. By selectively engaging only a subset of a receptor's potential intracellular partners, biased ligands may deliver more precise therapeutic benefit with fewer side effects than current GPCR-targeted drugs. In this review, we discuss the history of biased ligand research, the current understanding of how biased ligands exert their unique pharmacology, and how research into GPCR signaling has uncovered previously unappreciated capabilities of receptor pharmacology. We focus on several receptors to illustrate the approaches taken and discoveries made, and how these are steadily illuminating the intricacies of GPCR pharmacology. Discoveries of biased ligands targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and of separable pharmacology suggesting the potential value of biased ligands targeting the β-adrenergic receptors and nicotinic acid receptor GPR109a highlight the powerful clinical promise of this new category of potential therapeutics.

  5. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  6. Divergent Ah Receptor Ligand Selectivity during Hominin Evolution.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Troy D; Murray, Iain A; Bisson, William H; Sullivan, Alexis P; Sebastian, Aswathy; Perry, George H; Jablonski, Nina G; Perdew, Gary H

    2016-10-01

    We have identified a fixed nonsynonymous sequence difference between humans (Val381; derived variant) and Neandertals (Ala381; ancestral variant) in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene. In an exome sequence analysis of four Neandertal and Denisovan individuals compared with nine modern humans, there are only 90 total nucleotide sites genome-wide for which archaic hominins are fixed for the ancestral nonsynonymous variant and the modern humans are fixed for the derived variant. Of those sites, only 27, including Val381 in the AHR, also have no reported variability in the human dbSNP database, further suggesting that this highly conserved functional variant is a rare event. Functional analysis of the amino acid variant Ala381 within the AHR carried by Neandertals and nonhuman primates indicate enhanced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) binding, DNA binding capacity, and AHR mediated transcriptional activity compared with the human AHR. Also relative to human AHR, the Neandertal AHR exhibited 150-1000 times greater sensitivity to induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 expression by PAHs (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene). The resulting CYP1A1/CYP1B1 enzymes are responsible for PAH first pass metabolism, which can result in the generation of toxic intermediates and perhaps AHR-associated toxicities. In contrast, the human AHR retains the ancestral sensitivity observed in primates to nontoxic endogenous AHR ligands (e.g., indole, indoxyl sulfate). Our findings reveal that a functionally significant change in the AHR occurred uniquely in humans, relative to other primates, that would attenuate the response to many environmental pollutants, including chemicals present in smoke from fire use during cooking. PMID:27486223

  7. Divergent Ah Receptor Ligand Selectivity during Hominin Evolution.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Troy D; Murray, Iain A; Bisson, William H; Sullivan, Alexis P; Sebastian, Aswathy; Perry, George H; Jablonski, Nina G; Perdew, Gary H

    2016-10-01

    We have identified a fixed nonsynonymous sequence difference between humans (Val381; derived variant) and Neandertals (Ala381; ancestral variant) in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene. In an exome sequence analysis of four Neandertal and Denisovan individuals compared with nine modern humans, there are only 90 total nucleotide sites genome-wide for which archaic hominins are fixed for the ancestral nonsynonymous variant and the modern humans are fixed for the derived variant. Of those sites, only 27, including Val381 in the AHR, also have no reported variability in the human dbSNP database, further suggesting that this highly conserved functional variant is a rare event. Functional analysis of the amino acid variant Ala381 within the AHR carried by Neandertals and nonhuman primates indicate enhanced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) binding, DNA binding capacity, and AHR mediated transcriptional activity compared with the human AHR. Also relative to human AHR, the Neandertal AHR exhibited 150-1000 times greater sensitivity to induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 expression by PAHs (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene). The resulting CYP1A1/CYP1B1 enzymes are responsible for PAH first pass metabolism, which can result in the generation of toxic intermediates and perhaps AHR-associated toxicities. In contrast, the human AHR retains the ancestral sensitivity observed in primates to nontoxic endogenous AHR ligands (e.g., indole, indoxyl sulfate). Our findings reveal that a functionally significant change in the AHR occurred uniquely in humans, relative to other primates, that would attenuate the response to many environmental pollutants, including chemicals present in smoke from fire use during cooking.

  8. Cell Surface Receptors for Signal Transduction and Ligand Transport: A Design Principles Study

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Harish; Resat, Haluk; Wiley, H. Steven

    2007-01-01

    Receptors constitute the interface of cells to their external environment. These molecules bind specific ligands involved in multiple processes, such as signal transduction and nutrient transport. Although a variety of cell surface receptors undergo endocytosis, the systems-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor trafficking dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model of receptor–ligand binding and internalization to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. A given signaling or transport receptor system represents a particular implementation of this module with a specific set of kinetic parameters. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptor systems can be characterized as being: i) avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracellular ligand capture efficiency, ii) consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii) dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than merely serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulation. PMID:17542642

  9. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport - a design principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Resat, Haluk; Wiley, H. S.

    2007-06-01

    Although many different receptors undergo endocytosis, the system-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptors can be categorized a being: i) avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracelluar ligand capture efficiency, ii) consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii) dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled and epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to anhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulations.

  10. Lipid Homeostasis and Ligands for Liver X Receptors: Identification and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Beaudoin, Claude; Bayala, Bagora; Baron, Silvère; Trousson, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Screening of bona fide ligands for nuclear receptors is a real tour de force as the identified molecules are supposed to be able to activate the targeted proteins in cell culture as well as in vivo. Indeed orphan nuclear receptors are putative pharmacologically targets for various diseases. It is thus necessary to have quick and reproductive systems that help in identifying new ligands, agonist or antagonist, before using them in vivo in animal models to check for secondary effects. Here, we describe the transient transfections (homologous and heterologous) used for the screening of ligands for liver X receptor α (LXRα, NR1H3) in HeLa cells. PMID:27246331

  11. Trace amine-associated receptors and their ligands

    PubMed Central

    Zucchi, R; Chiellini, G; Scanlan, T S; Grandy, D K

    2006-01-01

    Classical biogenic amines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and histamine) interact with specific families of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The term ‘trace amines' is used when referring to p-tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and octopamine, compounds that are present in mammalian tissues at very low (nanomolar) concentrations. The pharmacological effects of trace amines are usually attributed to their interference with the aminergic pathways, but in 2001 a new gene was identified, that codes for a GPCR responding to p-tyramine and β-phenylethylamine but not to classical biogenic amines. Several closely related genes were subsequently identified and designated as the trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Pharmacological investigations in vitro show that many TAAR subtypes may not respond to p-tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, tryptamine or octopamine, suggesting the existence of additional endogenous ligands. A novel endogenous thyroid hormone derivative, 3-iodothyronamine, has been found to interact with TAAR1 and possibly other TAAR subtypes. In vivo, micromolar concentrations of 3-iodothyronamine determine functional effects which are opposite to those produced on a longer time scale by thyroid hormones, including reduction in body temperature and decrease in cardiac contractility. Expression of all TAAR subtypes except TAAR1 has been reported in mouse olfactory epithelium, and several volatile amines were shown to interact with specific TAAR subtypes. In addition, there is evidence that TAAR1 is targeted by amphetamines and other psychotropic agents, while genetic linkage studies show a significant association between the TAAR gene family locus and susceptibility to schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder. PMID:17088868

  12. Designing bifunctional NOP receptor-mu opioid receptor ligands from NOP-receptor selective scaffolds. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Journigan, V. Blair; Polgar, Willma; Khroyan, Taline V.; Zaveri, Nurulain T.

    2014-01-01

    The nociceptin opioid receptor (NOP) and its endogenous peptide ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ have been shown to modulate the pharmacological effects of the classical opioid receptor system. Suppression of opioid-induced reward associated with mu-opioid receptor (MOP)-mediated analgesia, without decreasing anti-nociceptive efficacy, can potentially be achieved with NOP agonists having bifunctional agonist activity at MOP, to afford ‘non-addicting’ analgesics. In Part II of this series, we describe a continuing structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of the NOP-selective piperidin-4-yl-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one scaffold, to obtain bifunctional activity at MOP, and a suitable ratio of NOP/MOP agonist activity that produces a non-addicting analgesic profile. The SAR reported here is focused on the influence of various piperidine nitrogen aromatic substituents on the ratio of binding affinity and intrinsic activity at both the NOP and MOP receptors. PMID:24657054

  13. Transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor through ligand-dependent receptor recruitment and chromatin remodelling.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Lars; Waterfall, Joshua J; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee; Zhao, Li; Park, Jeong Won; Nielsen, Ronni; Walker, Robert L; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul S; Hager, Gordon L; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    A bimodal switch model is widely used to describe transcriptional regulation by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In this model, the unliganded TR forms stable, chromatin-bound complexes with transcriptional co-repressors to repress transcription. Binding of hormone dissociates co-repressors and facilitates recruitment of co-activators to activate transcription. Here we show that in addition to hormone-independent TR occupancy, ChIP-seq against endogenous TR in mouse liver tissue demonstrates considerable hormone-induced TR recruitment to chromatin associated with chromatin remodelling and activated gene transcription. Genome-wide footprinting analysis using DNase-seq provides little evidence for TR footprints both in the absence and presence of hormone, suggesting that unliganded TR engagement with repressive complexes on chromatin is, similar to activating receptor complexes, a highly dynamic process. This dynamic and ligand-dependent interaction with chromatin is likely shared by all steroid hormone receptors regardless of their capacity to repress transcription in the absence of ligand. PMID:25916672

  14. Transcriptional activation by the thyroid hormone receptor through ligand-dependent receptor recruitment and chromatin remodelling.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Lars; Waterfall, Joshua J; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee; Zhao, Li; Park, Jeong Won; Nielsen, Ronni; Walker, Robert L; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul S; Hager, Gordon L; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    A bimodal switch model is widely used to describe transcriptional regulation by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In this model, the unliganded TR forms stable, chromatin-bound complexes with transcriptional co-repressors to repress transcription. Binding of hormone dissociates co-repressors and facilitates recruitment of co-activators to activate transcription. Here we show that in addition to hormone-independent TR occupancy, ChIP-seq against endogenous TR in mouse liver tissue demonstrates considerable hormone-induced TR recruitment to chromatin associated with chromatin remodelling and activated gene transcription. Genome-wide footprinting analysis using DNase-seq provides little evidence for TR footprints both in the absence and presence of hormone, suggesting that unliganded TR engagement with repressive complexes on chromatin is, similar to activating receptor complexes, a highly dynamic process. This dynamic and ligand-dependent interaction with chromatin is likely shared by all steroid hormone receptors regardless of their capacity to repress transcription in the absence of ligand.

  15. Monitoring ligand-receptor interactions by photonic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jeney, Sylvia; Mor, Flavio; Koszali, Roland; Forró, László; Moy, Vincent T.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a method for the acquisition of single molecule force measurements of ligandreceptor interactions using the photonic force microscope (PFM). Biotin-functionalized beads, manipulated with an optical trap, and a streptavidin-functionalized coverslip were used to measure the effect of different pulling forces on the lifetime of individual streptavidin-biotin complexes. By optimizing the design of the optical trap and selection of the appropriate bead size, pulling forces in excess of 50 pN were achieved. Based on the amplitude of three dimensional (3D) thermal position fluctuations of the attached bead, we were able to select for a bead-coverslip interaction that was mediated by a single streptavidin-biotin complex. Moreover, the developed experimental system was greatly accelerated by automation of data acquisition and analysis. In force-dependent kinetic measurements carried out between streptavidin and biotin, we observed that the streptavidin-biotin complex exhibited properties of a catch bond with the lifetime increasing 10 fold when the pulling force increased from 10 to 20 pN. We also show that silica beads were more appropriate than polystyrene beads for the force measurements as polystyrene tethers, longer than 200 nm, could be extracted from the beads. PMID:20516583

  16. Effect of size and conformation of the ligand on asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated ligand internalization and degradation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.H.; Chang, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The rates of internalization and degradation of /sup 125/-I-labeled desialylated cyanogen bromide fragment I of orosomucoid (AS-CNBr-I) and its reduced and carboxymethylated derivative (AS-RC-CNBr-I) were compared with those of /sup 125/I-labeled asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) in rat hepatocytes. At 30 nM the rates of internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-AS-CNBr-I were greater than those of /sup 125/I-ASOR. /sup 125/I-AS-RC-CNBr-I also had a lower rate of internalization and degradation. In contrast to /sup 125/I-ASOR, when degradation was inhibited by 5 ..mu..M colchicine there was a significant intracellular accumulation of the smaller ligands. At 4/sup 0/C the hepatocytes were found to bind the fragmented ligands more than /sup 125/I-ASOR. Incubation of the cells with bound ligand at 37/sup 0/ indicated that diacytosis of /sup 125/I-ASOR was greater than the smaller ligands. Colchincine markedly enhanced diacytosis of /sup 125/I-ASOR. On the other hand, there were marked accumulation of the smaller ligands by colchicine. These results suggest that the rates of internalization, degradation and diacytosis of the ligand are affected by the size and conformation of the ligand through different rates of receptor binding and intracellular transport.

  17. The sigma receptor as a ligand-regulated auxiliary potassium channel subunit.

    PubMed

    Aydar, Ebru; Palmer, Christopher P; Klyachko, Vitaly A; Jackson, Meyer B

    2002-04-25

    The sigma receptor is a novel protein that mediates the modulation of ion channels by psychotropic drugs through a unique transduction mechanism depending neither on G proteins nor protein phosphorylation. The present study investigated sigma receptor signal transduction by reconstituting responses in Xenopus oocytes. Sigma receptors modulated voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv1.4 or Kv1.5) in different ways in the presence and absence of ligands. Association between Kv1.4 channels and sigma receptors was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation. These results indicate a novel mechanism of signal transduction dependent on protein-protein interactions. Domain accessibility experiments suggested a structure for the sigma receptor with two cytoplasmic termini and two membrane-spanning segments. The ligand-independent effects on channels suggest that sigma receptors serve as auxiliary subunits to voltage-gated K+ channels with distinct functional interactions, depending on the presence or absence of ligand.

  18. Imaging G protein–coupled receptors while quantifying their ligand-binding free-energy landscape

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cheng; Spoerri, Patrizia M; Coughlin, Shaun R; Kobilka, Brian K; Müller, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Imaging native membrane receptors and testing how they interact with ligands is of fundamental interest in the life sciences but has proven remarkably difficult to accomplish. Here, we introduce an approach that uses force-distance curve–based atomic force microscopy to simultaneously image single native G protein–coupled receptors in membranes and quantify their dynamic binding strength to native and synthetic ligands. We measured kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for individual protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) molecules in the absence and presence of antagonists, and these measurements enabled us to describe PAR1’s ligand-binding free-energy landscape with high accuracy. Our nanoscopic method opens an avenue to directly image and characterize ligand binding of native membrane receptors. PMID:26167642

  19. Computational Exploration of a Protein Receptor Binding Space with Student Proposed Peptide Ligands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Matthew D.; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W.; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective "in silico" method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The…

  20. Computer-aided design of a novel ligand for retinoic acid receptor in cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos H. T. P.; Leopoldino, Andreia M.; Silva, Eloiza H. T.; Espinoza, V. A. A.; Taft, C. A.

    The isotypes of RAR and RXR are retinoic acid and retinoid X acid receptors, respectively, whose ligand-binding domain contains the ligand-dependent activation function, with distinct pharmacological targets for retinoids, involved in the treatment of various cancers and skin diseases. Due to the major challenge which cancer treatment and cure still imposes after many decades to the international scientific community, there is actually considerable interest in new ligands with increased bioactivity. We have focused on the retinoid acid receptor, which is considered an interesting target for drug design. In this work, we carried out density functional geometry optimizations and different docking procedures. We performed screening in a large database (hundreds of thousands of molecules which we optimized at the AM1 level) yielding a set of potential bioactive ligands. A new ligand was selected and optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. A flexible docking program was used to investigate the interactions between the receptor and the new ligand. The result of this work is compared with several crystallographic ligands of RAR. Our theoretically more bioactive new ligand indicates stronger and more hydrogen bonds as well as hydrophobic interactions with the receptor.

  1. Discriminative stimulus effects of the novel imidazoline I2 receptor ligand CR4056 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yanyan; He, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Jun-Xu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether a novel imidazoline I2 receptor ligand CR4056 could serve as a discriminative stimulus and whether it shares similar discriminative stimulus effects with other reported I2 receptor ligands. Eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 10.0 mg/kg CR4056 (i.p.) from vehicle in a two-lever food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Once rats acquired the discrimination, substitution and combination studies were conducted to elucidate the underlying receptor mechanisms. All rats acquired CR4056 discrimination after an average of 26 training sessions. Several I2 receptor ligands (phenyzoline, tracizoline, RS45041, and idazoxan, 3.2–75 mg/kg, i.p.) all occasioned > 80% CR4056-associated lever responding. Other drugs that occasioned partial or no CR4056-associated lever responding included methamphetamine, ketamine, the endogenous imidazoline ligand agmatine, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor harmane, the α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine, the μ-opioid receptor agonists morphine and methadone, and the selective I2 receptor ligands BU224 and 2-BFI. The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101, α2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine and μ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone failed to alter the stimulus effects of CR4056. Together, these results show that CR4056 can serve as a discriminative stimulus in rats, which demonstrates high pharmacological specificity and appears to be mediated by imidazoline I2 receptors. PMID:25308382

  2. Expression and Purification of Functional Ligand-binding Domains of T1R3 Taste Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nie,Y.; Hobbs, J.; Vigues, S.; Olson, W.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.

    2006-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors, including odor, taste, and vomeronasal receptors, comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the mammalian genome. However, little is known about the molecular determinants that are critical for the detection and discrimination of ligands by most of these receptors. This dearth of understanding is due in part to difficulties in preparing functional receptors suitable for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Here we describe in detail two strategies for the expression and purification of the ligand-binding domain of T1R taste receptors, which are constituents of the sweet and umami taste receptors. These class C GPCRs contain a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) that is the site of interaction with most ligands and that is amenable to expression as a separate polypeptide in heterologous cells. The NTD of mouse T1R3 was expressed as two distinct fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified NTD proteins shows them to be properly folded and capable of binding ligands. This methodology should not only facilitate the characterization of T1R ligand interactions but may also be useful for dissecting the function of other class C GPCRs such as the large family of orphan V2R vomeronasal receptors.

  3. Impact of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-human leukocyte antigens ligand incompatibility among renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Alam, S.; Rangaswamy, D.; Prakash, S.; Sharma, R. K.; Khan, M. I.; Sonawane, A.; Agrawal, S.

    2015-01-01

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene shows a high degree of polymorphism. Natural killer cell receptor gets activated once they bind to self-human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) with specific ligand. KIR gene and HLA ligand incompatibility due to the presence/absence of KIR in the recipient and the corresponding HLA ligand in the allograft may impact graft survival in solid organ transplantation. This study evaluates the effect of matches between KIR genes and known HLA ligands. KIR genotypes were determined using sequence specific primer polymerase chain reaction. Presence of certain KIR in a recipient, where the donor lacked the corresponding HLA ligand was considered a mismatch. The allograft was considered matched when both KIR receptor and HLA alloantigen reveald compatibility among recipient and donor. The data revealed better survival among individuals with matched inhibitory KIR receptors and their corresponding HLA ligands (KIR2DL2/DL3-HLAC2, KIR3DL1-HLABw4). On the contrary, no adverse effect was seen for matched activating KIR receptors and their corresponding HLA ligands. One of the activating gene KIR2DS4 showed risk (P = 0.0413, odds ratio = 1.91, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.57) association with renal allograft rejection. We conclude that the presence of inhibitory KIR gene leads to better survival; whereas activating motifs show no significant role in renal allograft survival. PMID:25684869

  4. Impact of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-human leukocyte antigens ligand incompatibility among renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alam, S; Rangaswamy, D; Prakash, S; Sharma, R K; Khan, M I; Sonawane, A; Agrawal, S

    2015-01-01

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene shows a high degree of polymorphism. Natural killer cell receptor gets activated once they bind to self-human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) with specific ligand. KIR gene and HLA ligand incompatibility due to the presence/absence of KIR in the recipient and the corresponding HLA ligand in the allograft may impact graft survival in solid organ transplantation. This study evaluates the effect of matches between KIR genes and known HLA ligands. KIR genotypes were determined using sequence specific primer polymerase chain reaction. Presence of certain KIR in a recipient, where the donor lacked the corresponding HLA ligand was considered a mismatch. The allograft was considered matched when both KIR receptor and HLA alloantigen reveald compatibility among recipient and donor. The data revealed better survival among individuals with matched inhibitory KIR receptors and their corresponding HLA ligands (KIR2DL2/DL3-HLAC2, KIR3DL1-HLABw4). On the contrary, no adverse effect was seen for matched activating KIR receptors and their corresponding HLA ligands. One of the activating gene KIR2DS4 showed risk (P = 0.0413, odds ratio = 1.91, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.57) association with renal allograft rejection. We conclude that the presence of inhibitory KIR gene leads to better survival; whereas activating motifs show no significant role in renal allograft survival.

  5. A ligand channel through the G protein coupled receptor opsin.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Peter W; Scheerer, Patrick; Park, Jung Hee; Choe, Hui-Woog; Piechnick, Ronny; Ernst, Oliver P; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Heck, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The G protein coupled receptor rhodopsin contains a pocket within its seven-transmembrane helix (TM) structure, which bears the inactivating 11-cis-retinal bound by a protonated Schiff-base to Lys296 in TM7. Light-induced 11-cis-/all-trans-isomerization leads to the Schiff-base deprotonated active Meta II intermediate. With Meta II decay, the Schiff-base bond is hydrolyzed, all-trans-retinal is released from the pocket, and the apoprotein opsin reloaded with new 11-cis-retinal. The crystal structure of opsin in its active Ops* conformation provides the basis for computational modeling of retinal release and uptake. The ligand-free 7TM bundle of opsin opens into the hydrophobic membrane layer through openings A (between TM1 and 7), and B (between TM5 and 6), respectively. Using skeleton search and molecular docking, we find a continuous channel through the protein that connects these two openings and comprises in its central part the retinal binding pocket. The channel traverses the receptor over a distance of ca. 70 A and is between 11.6 and 3.2 A wide. Both openings are lined with aromatic residues, while the central part is highly polar. Four constrictions within the channel are so narrow that they must stretch to allow passage of the retinal beta-ionone-ring. Constrictions are at openings A and B, respectively, and at Trp265 and Lys296 within the retinal pocket. The lysine enforces a 90 degrees elbow-like kink in the channel which limits retinal passage. With a favorable Lys side chain conformation, 11-cis-retinal can take the turn, whereas passage of the all-trans isomer would require more global conformational changes. We discuss possible scenarios for the uptake of 11-cis- and release of all-trans-retinal. If the uptake gate of 11-cis-retinal is assigned to opening B, all-trans is likely to leave through the same gate. The unidirectional passage proposed previously requires uptake of 11-cis-retinal through A and release of photolyzed all-trans-retinal through

  6. Cholangiocarcinomas express Fas ligand and disable the Fas receptor.

    PubMed

    Que, F G; Phan, V A; Phan, V H; Celli, A; Batts, K; LaRusso, N F; Gores, G J

    1999-12-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly-malignant adenocarcinoma originating from cholangiocytes. Current concepts support escape from immune surveillance using aberrant expression of Fas ligand (FasL) and dysregulation of receptor (FasR) signaling as a potential mechanism for tumor progression. Our aims were to determine if altered expression of FasR and FasL or changes in expression of FLICE inhibitor (I-FLICE) allow cholangiocarcinoma cells to escape immune surveillance. Human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated for the functional expression of FasR and FasL by (1) quantitating apoptosis after incubation of cells with agonistic antibodies and (2) an in vitro cell death assay involving coculture of cholangiocarcinoma cells with Fas-sensitive thymocytes. I-FLICE antisense treatment was performed by stable transfection with complementary DNA (cDNA) for I-FLICE in the reverse orientation. We found that normal cholangiocytes in vivo express FasL. Human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines express both FasL and FasR and I-FLICE. FasL expressed by cholangiocarcinomas in vitro induced lymphocyte cell death (70% after 24 hours). Despite the expression of FasR, exposure of the cells to agonistic antibodies (500 ng/mL) induced only minimal apoptosis in the Jurkat cells. Antisense treatment of cholangiocarcinomas in vitro with I-FLICE reduced protein expression of I-FLICE by 90% to 95% and increased Fas-mediated apoptosis 2-fold. We concluded that cholangiocarcinomas escape immune surveillance either by disabling FasR signaling through the expression of I-FLICE and/or increased FasL expression to induce apoptosis of invading T cells. Reduction of I-FLICE expression in cholangiocarcinoma cells restored Fas-mediated apoptosis. Therapeutic maneuvers to inhibit expression of I-FLICE may aid in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.

  7. Recombinant T Cell Receptor Ligand (RTL) Treats Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sandhya; Zhang, Bing; Kosaka, Yasuharu; Burrows, Gregory G.; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Offner, Halina

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Experimental stroke induces a biphasic effect on the immune response that involves early activation of peripheral leukocytes followed by severe immunodepression and atrophy of spleen and thymus. In tandem, the developing infarct is exacerbated by influx of numerous inflammatory cell types, including T and B lymphocytes. These features of stroke prompted our use of Recombinant T Cell Receptor Ligands (RTL), partial MHC class II molecules covalently bound to myelin peptides. We tested the hypothesis that RTL would improve ischemic outcome in brain without exacerbating defects in peripheral immune system function. Methods Four daily doses of RTL were administered subcutaneously to C57BL/6 mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and lesion size and cellular composition were assessed in brain, and cell numbers were assessed in spleen and thymus. Results Treatment with RTL551 (I-Ab molecule linked to MOG-35−55 peptide) reduced cortical and total stroke lesion size by ∼50%, inhibited the accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages/activated microglial cells and dendritic cells, and mitigated splenic atrophy. Treatment with RTL1000 (HLA-DR2 moiety linked to human MOG-35−55 peptide) similarly reduced the stroke lesion size in HLA-DR2 transgenic mice. In contrast, control RTL with a non-neuroantigen peptide or a mismatched MHC class II moiety had no effect on stroke lesion size. Conclusions These data are the first to demonstrate successful treatment of experimental stroke using a neuroantigen specific immunomodulatory agent administered after ischemia, suggesting therapeutic potential in human stroke. PMID:19443805

  8. Insights into bombesin receptors and ligands: Highlighting recent advances.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A; Nakamura, Taichi; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Moody, Terry W; Coy, David H; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    This following article is written for Prof. Abba Kastin's Festschrift, to add to the tribute to his important role in the advancement of the role of peptides in physiological, as well as pathophysiological processes. There have been many advances during the 35 years of his prominent role in the Peptide field, not only as editor of the journal Peptides, but also as a scientific investigator and editor of two volumes of the Handbook of Biological Active Peptides [146,147]. Similar to the advances with many different peptides, during this 35 year period, there have been much progress made in the understanding of the pharmacology, cell biology and the role of (bombesin) Bn receptors and their ligands in various disease states, since the original isolation of bombesin from skin of the European frog Bombina bombina in 1970 [76]. This paper will briefly review some of these advances over the time period of Prof. Kastin 35 years in the peptide field concentrating on the advances since 2007 when many of the results from earlier studies were summarized [128,129]. It is appropriate to do this because there have been 280 articles published in Peptides during this time on bombesin-related peptides and it accounts for almost 5% of all publications. Furthermore, 22 Bn publications we have been involved in have been published in either Peptides [14,39,55,58,81,92,93,119,152,216,225,226,231,280,302,309,355,361,362] or in Prof. Kastin's Handbook of Biological Active Peptides [137,138,331].

  9. Directed evolution of estrogen receptor proteins with altered ligand-binding specificities.

    PubMed

    Islam, Kazi Mohammed Didarul; Dilcher, Meik; Thurow, Corinna; Vock, Carsten; Krimmelbein, Ilga Kristine; Tietze, Lutz Friedjan; Gonzalez, Victor; Zhao, Huimin; Gatz, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional activators that respond to ligands with no cellular targets are powerful tools that can confer regulated expression of a transgene in almost all biological systems. In this study, we altered the ligand-binding specificity of the human estrogen receptor alpha (hER alpha) so that it would recognize a non-steroidal synthetic compound with structural similarities to the phytoestrogen resveratrol. For this purpose, we performed iterative rounds of site-specific saturation mutagenesis of a fixed set of ligand-contacting residues and subsequent random mutagenesis of the entire ligand-binding domain. Selection of the receptor mutants and quantification of the interaction were carried out by exploiting a yeast two-hybrid system that reports the ligand-dependent interaction between hER alpha and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1). The screen was performed with a synthetic ligand (CV3320) that promoted growth of the reporter yeast strain to half maximal levels at a concentration of 3.7 microM. The optimized receptor mutant (L384F/L387M/Y537S) showed a 67-fold increased activity to the synthetic ligand CV3320 (half maximal yeast growth at 0.055 microM) and a 10-fold decreased activity to 17beta-estradiol (E2; half maximal yeast growth at 4 nM). The novel receptor-ligand pair partially fulfills the requirements for a specific 'gene switch' as it responds to concentrations of the synthetic ligand which do not activate the wildtype receptor. Due to its residual responsiveness to E2 at concentrations (4 nM) that might occur in vivo, further improvements have to be performed to render the system applicable in organisms with endogenous E2 synthesis.

  10. Pharmacophore modeling improves virtual screening for novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Stephanie N.; Garcia, Zulma; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Bevan, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in regulating various metabolic and immune processes. The PPAR family of receptors possesses a large binding cavity that imparts promiscuity of ligand binding not common to other nuclear receptors. This feature increases the challenge of using computational methods to identify PPAR ligands that will dock favorably into a structural model. Utilizing both ligand- and structure-based pharmacophore methods, we sought to improve agonist prediction by grouping ligands according to pharmacophore features, and pairing models derived from these features with receptor structures for docking. For 22 of the 33 receptor structures evaluated we observed an increase in true positive rate (TPR) when screening was restricted to compounds sharing molecular features found in rosiglitazone. A combination of structure models used for docking resulted in a higher TPR (40%) when compared to docking with a single structure model (less than 20%). Prediction was also improved when specific protein-ligand interactions between the docked ligands and structure models were given greater weight than the calculated free energy of binding. A large-scale screen of compounds using a marketed drug database verified the predictive ability of the selected structure models. This study highlights the steps necessary to improve screening for PPARγ ligands using multiple structure models, ligand-based pharmacophore data, evaluation of protein-ligand interactions, and comparison of docking datasets. The unique combination of methods presented here holds potential for more efficient screening of compounds with unknown affinity for PPARγ that could serve as candidates for therapeutic development. PMID:25616366

  11. The type I interleukin-1 receptor mediates fever in the rat as shown by interleukin-1 receptor subtype selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, D; Chai, Z; Bristulf, J; Simoncsits, A; Bartfai, T

    1995-12-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL-1) system possesses two distinct receptors (type I and type II) which, together with the accessory protein, mediate a multitude of responses to IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta, including fever. So far, no receptor subtype-specific ligands have been described. Since both types of IL-1 receptors occur in the thermoregulatory areas it was unclear which IL-1 receptor type mediates fever. We report here that for a series of deletion mutants of human recombinant IL-1 beta (hrIL-1 beta), the affinity of these ligands for the type I IL-1 receptor correlates with their efficacy to evoke the fever response (hrIL-1 beta > des-SND52-54 > des-QGE48-50 > des-I56). Thus, the results suggest that agonist occupancy of the type I IL-1 receptor is essential for IL-1 beta-mediated fever.

  12. RECEPTOR AFFINITY AND PHOSPHODIESTERASES 4B AND 10A ACTIVITY OF OCTAHYDRO- AND 6,7-DIMETHOXY-3,4-DIHYDRO- ISOQUINOLIN-2(1H)-YL-ALKYL DERIVATIVES OF IMIDAZO- AND PYRIMIDINO[2,1-f]PURINES.

    PubMed

    Zagórska, Agnieszka; Gryzło, Beata; Satała, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Mordyl, Barbara; Kazek, Grzegorz; Pawłowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    A series of octahydro- and 6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro- isoquinolin-2(1H)-yl-alkyl derivatives of imidazo- and pyrimidino[2,1-f]purines were synthesized and biologically evaluated in in vitro competition binding experiments for serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(6), 5-HT(7), and dopamine D2 receptors and inhibitory potencies for phosphodiesterases - PDE4B1 and PDE10A. The structure-activity relationships allowed to determine the structural features responsible for receptor and enzyme activity. Compound 5 (8-(4-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroiso- quinolin-2(1H)butyl)1,3-dimethyl-H-imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4(3H,8H)-dione) could be regarded as promising structure for further modification and detailed mechanistic study for obtained hybrid ligands.

  13. An ELISA Based Binding and Competition Method to Rapidly Determine Ligand-receptor Interactions.

    PubMed

    Syedbasha, Mohameedyaseen; Linnik, Janina; Santer, Deanna; O'Shea, Daire; Barakat, Khaled; Joyce, Michael; Khanna, Nina; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Houghton, Michael; Egli, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of signaling pathways requires detailed knowledge regarding ligand-receptor interaction. This article describes two fast and reliable point-by-point protocols of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the investigation of ligand-receptor interactions: the direct ligand-receptor interaction assay (LRA) and the competition LRA. As a case study, the ELISA based analysis of the interaction between different lambda interferons (IFNLs) and the alpha subunit of their receptor (IL28RA) is presented: the direct LRA is used for the determination of dissociation constants (KD values) between receptor and IFN ligands, and the competition LRA for the determination of the inhibitory capacity of an oligopeptide, which was designed to compete with the IFNLs at their receptor binding site. Analytical steps to estimate KD and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values are described. Finally, the discussion highlights advantages and disadvantages of the presented method and how the results enable a better molecular understanding of ligand-receptor interactions.

  14. Delta/Notch-Like EGF-Related Receptor (DNER) Is Not a Notch Ligand.

    PubMed

    Greene, Maxwell; Lai, Yongjie; Pajcini, Kostandin; Bailis, Will; Pear, Warren S; Lancaster, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Delta/Notch-like EGF-related receptor (DNER) has been reported to act as a Notch ligand, despite lacking a Delta/Serrate/Lag (DSL) binding domain common to all other known ligands. The established Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1), but not DNER, activated Notch1 in a luciferase assay, prevented the differentiation of myoblasts through Notch signaling, and bound Notch-fc in a cell-based assay. DNER is not a Notch ligand and its true function remains unknown. PMID:27622512

  15. Delta/Notch-Like EGF-Related Receptor (DNER) Is Not a Notch Ligand.

    PubMed

    Greene, Maxwell; Lai, Yongjie; Pajcini, Kostandin; Bailis, Will; Pear, Warren S; Lancaster, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Delta/Notch-like EGF-related receptor (DNER) has been reported to act as a Notch ligand, despite lacking a Delta/Serrate/Lag (DSL) binding domain common to all other known ligands. The established Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1), but not DNER, activated Notch1 in a luciferase assay, prevented the differentiation of myoblasts through Notch signaling, and bound Notch-fc in a cell-based assay. DNER is not a Notch ligand and its true function remains unknown.

  16. Delta/Notch-Like EGF-Related Receptor (DNER) Is Not a Notch Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yongjie; Pajcini, Kostandin; Bailis, Will; Pear, Warren S.; Lancaster, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Delta/Notch-like EGF-related receptor (DNER) has been reported to act as a Notch ligand, despite lacking a Delta/Serrate/Lag (DSL) binding domain common to all other known ligands. The established Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1), but not DNER, activated Notch1 in a luciferase assay, prevented the differentiation of myoblasts through Notch signaling, and bound Notch-fc in a cell-based assay. DNER is not a Notch ligand and its true function remains unknown. PMID:27622512

  17. Lipid G Protein-coupled Receptor Ligand Identification Using β-Arrestin PathHunter™ Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hong; Chu, Alan; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Shelton, Fabiola; Otero, Francella; Nguyen, Deborah G.; Caldwell, Jeremy S.; Chen, Yu Alice

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of orphan G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been reported to be activated by lipid ligands, such as lysophosphatidic acid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and cannabinoids, for which there are already well established receptors. These new ligand claims are controversial due to either lack of independent confirmations or conflicting reports. We used the β-arrestin PathHunter™ assay system, a newly developed, generic GPCR assay format that measures β-arrestin binding to GPCRs, to evaluate lipid receptor and ligand pairing. This assay eliminates interference from endogenous receptors on the parental cells because it measures a signal that is specifically generated by the tagged receptor and is immediately downstream of receptor activation. We screened a large number of newly “deorphaned” receptors (GPR23, GPR92, GPR55, G2A, GPR18, GPR3, GPR6, GPR12, and GPR63) and control receptors against a collection of ∼400 lipid molecules to try to identify the receptor ligand in an unbiased fashion. GPR92 was confirmed to be a lysophosphatidic acid receptor with weaker responses to farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 responded strongly to AM251, rimonabant, and lysophosphatidylinositol but only very weakly to endocannabinoids. G2A receptor was confirmed to be an oxidized free fatty acid receptor. In addition, we discovered that 3,3′-diindolylmethane, a dietary molecule from cruciferous vegetables, which has known anti-cancer properties, to be a CB2 receptor partial agonist, with binding affinity around 1 μm. The anti-inflammatory effect of 3,3′-diindolylmethane in RAW264.7 cells was shown to be partially mediated by CB2. PMID:19286662

  18. Revealing a steroid receptor ligand as a unique PPAR[gamma] agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shengchen; Han, Ying; Shi, Yuzhe; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Lin, Shu-Yong; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Li, Yong

    2012-06-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti-diabetic drugs. We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand, RU-486, as an unexpected PPAR{gamma} agonist, thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug. Similar to rosiglitazone, RU-486 modulates the expression of key PPAR{gamma} target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation, but with a lower adipogenic activity. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU-486 in the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes, providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination of RU-486 from thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs. Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent an alternative approach for designing non-TZD PPAR{gamma} ligands in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  19. Visualization and ligand-induced modulation of dopamine receptor dimerization at the single molecule level

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Alina; Weisenburger, Siegfried; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Kaindl, Jonas M.; Hübner, Harald; Wei, Luxi; Grömer, Teja W.; Kornhuber, Johannes; Tschammer, Nuska; Birdsall, Nigel J. M.; Mashanov, Gregory I.; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), including dopamine receptors, represent a group of important pharmacological targets. An increased formation of dopamine receptor D2 homodimers has been suggested to be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Selective labeling and ligand-induced modulation of dimerization may therefore allow the investigation of the pathophysiological role of these dimers. Using TIRF microscopy at the single molecule level, transient formation of homodimers of dopamine receptors in the membrane of stably transfected CHO cells has been observed. The equilibrium between dimers and monomers was modulated by the binding of ligands; whereas antagonists showed a ratio that was identical to that of unliganded receptors, agonist-bound D2 receptor-ligand complexes resulted in an increase in dimerization. Addition of bivalent D2 receptor ligands also resulted in a large increase in D2 receptor dimers. A physical interaction between the protomers was confirmed using high resolution cryogenic localization microscopy, with ca. 9 nm between the centers of mass. PMID:27615810

  20. Increased accuracy of ligand sensing by receptor diffusion on cell surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, Gerardo; Endres, Robert G.

    2010-10-01

    The physical limit with which a cell senses external ligand concentration corresponds to the perfect absorber, where all ligand particles are absorbed and overcounting of same ligand particles does not occur. Here, we analyze how the lateral diffusion of receptors on the cell membrane affects the accuracy of sensing ligand concentration. Specifically, we connect our modeling to neurotransmission in neural synapses where the diffusion of glutamate receptors is already known to refresh synaptic connections. We find that receptor diffusion indeed increases the accuracy of sensing for both the glutamate α -Amino-3-hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-isoxazolePropionic Acid (AMPA) and N -Methyl-D-aspartic Acid (NMDA) receptor, although the NMDA receptor is overall much noisier. We propose that the difference in accuracy of sensing of the two receptors can be linked to their different roles in neurotransmission. Specifically, the high accuracy in sensing glutamate is essential for the AMPA receptor to start membrane depolarization, while the NMDA receptor is believed to work in a second stage as a coincidence detector, involved in long-term potentiation and memory.

  1. Visualization and ligand-induced modulation of dopamine receptor dimerization at the single molecule level.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Alina; Weisenburger, Siegfried; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Kaindl, Jonas M; Hübner, Harald; Wei, Luxi; Grömer, Teja W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Tschammer, Nuska; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Mashanov, Gregory I; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including dopamine receptors, represent a group of important pharmacological targets. An increased formation of dopamine receptor D2 homodimers has been suggested to be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Selective labeling and ligand-induced modulation of dimerization may therefore allow the investigation of the pathophysiological role of these dimers. Using TIRF microscopy at the single molecule level, transient formation of homodimers of dopamine receptors in the membrane of stably transfected CHO cells has been observed. The equilibrium between dimers and monomers was modulated by the binding of ligands; whereas antagonists showed a ratio that was identical to that of unliganded receptors, agonist-bound D2 receptor-ligand complexes resulted in an increase in dimerization. Addition of bivalent D2 receptor ligands also resulted in a large increase in D2 receptor dimers. A physical interaction between the protomers was confirmed using high resolution cryogenic localization microscopy, with ca. 9 nm between the centers of mass. PMID:27615810

  2. Modeling multivalent ligand-receptor interactions with steric constraints on configurations of cell surface receptor aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Monine, Michael; Posner, Richard; Savage, Paul; Faeder, James; Hlavacek, William S

    2008-01-01

    Signal transduction generally involves multivalent protein-protein interactions, which can produce various protein complexes and post-translational modifications. The reaction networks that characterize these interactions tend to be so large as to challenge conventional simulation procedures. To address this challenge, a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method has been developed that can take advantage of a model specification in terms of reaction rules for molecular interactions. A set of rules implicitly defines the reactions that can occur as a result of the interactions represented by the rules. With the rule-based KMC method, explicit generation of the underlying chemical reaction network implied by rules is avoided. Here, we apply and extend this method to characterize the interactions of a trivalent ligand with a bivalent cell-surface receptor. This system is also studied experimentally. We consider the following kinetic models: an equivalent-site model, an extension of this model, which takes into account steric constraints on the configurations of receptor aggregates, and finally, a model that accounts for cyclic receptor aggregates. Simulation results for the equivalent-site model are consistent with an equilibrium continuum model. Using these models, we investigate the effects of steric constraints and the formation of cyclic aggregates on the kinetics and equilibria of small and large aggregate formation and the percolation phase transition that occurs in this system.

  3. Ligand Binding Ensembles Determine Graded Agonist Efficacies at a G Protein-coupled Receptor.

    PubMed

    Bock, Andreas; Bermudez, Marcel; Krebs, Fabian; Matera, Carlo; Chirinda, Brian; Sydow, Dominique; Dallanoce, Clelia; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; De Amici, Marco; Lohse, Martin J; Wolber, Gerhard; Mohr, Klaus

    2016-07-29

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and modulate almost every physiological process in humans. Binding of agonists to G protein-coupled receptors induces a shift from inactive to active receptor conformations. Biophysical studies of the dynamic equilibrium of receptors suggest that a portion of receptors can remain in inactive states even in the presence of saturating concentrations of agonist and G protein mimetic. However, the molecular details of agonist-bound inactive receptors are poorly understood. Here we use the model of bitopic orthosteric/allosteric (i.e. dualsteric) agonists for muscarinic M2 receptors to demonstrate the existence and function of such inactive agonist·receptor complexes on a molecular level. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, dynophores (i.e. a combination of static three-dimensional pharmacophores and molecular dynamics-based conformational sampling), ligand design, and receptor mutagenesis, we show that inactive agonist·receptor complexes can result from agonist binding to the allosteric vestibule alone, whereas the dualsteric binding mode produces active receptors. Each agonist forms a distinct ligand binding ensemble, and different agonist efficacies depend on the fraction of purely allosteric (i.e. inactive) versus dualsteric (i.e. active) binding modes. We propose that this concept may explain why agonist·receptor complexes can be inactive and that adopting multiple binding modes may be generalized also to small agonists where binding modes will be only subtly different and confined to only one binding site.

  4. Ligand Binding Ensembles Determine Graded Agonist Efficacies at a G Protein-coupled Receptor.

    PubMed

    Bock, Andreas; Bermudez, Marcel; Krebs, Fabian; Matera, Carlo; Chirinda, Brian; Sydow, Dominique; Dallanoce, Clelia; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; De Amici, Marco; Lohse, Martin J; Wolber, Gerhard; Mohr, Klaus

    2016-07-29

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and modulate almost every physiological process in humans. Binding of agonists to G protein-coupled receptors induces a shift from inactive to active receptor conformations. Biophysical studies of the dynamic equilibrium of receptors suggest that a portion of receptors can remain in inactive states even in the presence of saturating concentrations of agonist and G protein mimetic. However, the molecular details of agonist-bound inactive receptors are poorly understood. Here we use the model of bitopic orthosteric/allosteric (i.e. dualsteric) agonists for muscarinic M2 receptors to demonstrate the existence and function of such inactive agonist·receptor complexes on a molecular level. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, dynophores (i.e. a combination of static three-dimensional pharmacophores and molecular dynamics-based conformational sampling), ligand design, and receptor mutagenesis, we show that inactive agonist·receptor complexes can result from agonist binding to the allosteric vestibule alone, whereas the dualsteric binding mode produces active receptors. Each agonist forms a distinct ligand binding ensemble, and different agonist efficacies depend on the fraction of purely allosteric (i.e. inactive) versus dualsteric (i.e. active) binding modes. We propose that this concept may explain why agonist·receptor complexes can be inactive and that adopting multiple binding modes may be generalized also to small agonists where binding modes will be only subtly different and confined to only one binding site. PMID:27298318

  5. T cell recognition of weak ligands: roles of signaling, receptor number, and affinity

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lindsay J.

    2011-01-01

    T cell recognition of antigen is a crucial aspect of the adaptive immune response. One of the most common means of pathogen immune evasion is mutation of T cell epitopes. T cell recognition of such ligands can result in a variety of outcomes including activation, apoptosis and anergy. The ability of a given T cell to respond to a specific peptide–MHC ligand is regulated by a number of factors, including the affinity, on- and off-rates and half-life of the TCR–peptide–MHC interaction. Interaction of T cells with low-potency ligands results in unique signaling patterns and requires engagement with a larger number of T cell receptors than agonist ligands. This review will address these aspects of T cell interaction with weak ligands and the ways in which these ligands have been utilized therapeutically. PMID:21365321

  6. ErbB receptors and their growth factor ligands in pediatric intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Mark R.; Polk, D. Brent

    2014-01-01

    The ErbB tyrosine kinases (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB2/HER2, ErbB3, and ErbB4) are cell surface growth factor receptors widely expressed in many developing mammalian tissues, including in the intestinal tract. Signaling elicited by these receptors promotes epithelial cell growth and survival, and ErbB ligands have been proposed as therapeutic agents for intestinal diseases of pediatric populations, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and inflammation associated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Furthermore, emerging evidence points to reduced ErbB ligand expression and thus reduced ErbB activity in IBD, NEC, and TPN models. This review will discuss the current understanding of the role of ErbB receptors in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of pediatric intestinal inflammation, with focus on the altered signaling in disease and the molecular mechanisms by which exogenous ligands are protective. PMID:24402051

  7. Engineering and optimization of an allosteric biosensor protein for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Gierach, Izabela; Gillies, Alison R; Warden, Charles D; Wood, David W

    2011-11-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ or PPARG) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, and is a potential drug target for a variety of diseases. In this work, we constructed a series of bacterial biosensors for the identification of functional PPARγ ligands. These sensors entail modified Escherichia coli cells carrying a four-domain fusion protein, comprised of the PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD), an engineered mini-intein domain, the E. coli maltose binding protein (MBD), and a thymidylate synthase (TS) reporter enzyme. E. coli cells expressing this protein exhibit hormone ligand-dependent growth phenotypes. Unlike our published estrogen (ER) and thyroid receptor (TR) biosensors, the canonical PPARγ biosensor cells displayed pronounced growth in the absence of ligand. They were able to distinguish agonists and antagonists, however, even in the absence of agonist. To improve ligand sensitivity of this sensor, we attempted to engineer and optimize linker peptides flanking the PPARγ LBD insertion point. Truncation of the original linkers led to decreased basal growth and significantly enhanced ligand sensitivity of the PPARγ sensor, while substitution of the native linkers with optimized G(4)S (Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ser) linkers further increased the sensitivity. Our studies demonstrate that the properties of linkers, especially the C-terminal linker, greatly influence the efficiency and fidelity of the allosteric signal induced by ligand binding. Our work also suggests an approach to increase allosteric behavior in this multidomain sensor protein, without modification of the functional LBD. PMID:21893405

  8. Theoretical investigation of interaction between the set of ligands and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Prytkova, T. R.; Shmygin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are neuron receptor proteins that provide a transmission of nerve impulse through the synapses. They are composed of a pentametric assembly of five homologous subunits (5 α7 subunits for α7nAChR, for example), oriented around the central pore. These receptors might be found in the chemical synapses of central and peripheral nervous system, and also in the neuromuscular synapses. Transmembrane domain of the one of such receptors constitutes ion channel. The conductive properties of ion channel strongly depend on the receptor conformation changes in the response of binding with some molecule, f.e. acetylcholine. Investigation of interaction between ligands and acetylcholine receptor is important for drug design. In this work we investigate theoretically the interaction between the set of different ligands (such as vanillin, thymoquinone, etc.) and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (primarily with subunit of the α7nAChR) by different methods and packages (AutodockVina, GROMACS, KVAZAR, HARLEM, VMD). We calculate interaction energy between different ligands in the subunit using molecular dynamics. On the base of obtained calculation results and using molecular docking we found an optimal location of different ligands in the subunit.

  9. Tuning cytokine receptor signaling by re-orienting dimer geometry with surrogate ligands.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Ignacio; Wernig, Gerlinde; Wilmes, Stephan; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Richter, Christian P; Hong, Wan-Jen; Sinha, Rahul; Guo, Feng; Fabionar, Hyna; Wehrman, Tom S; Krutzik, Peter; Demharter, Samuel; Plo, Isabelle; Weissman, Irving L; Minary, Peter; Majeti, Ravindra; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Piehler, Jacob; Garcia, K Christopher

    2015-03-12

    Most cell-surface receptors for cytokines and growth factors signal as dimers, but it is unclear whether remodeling receptor dimer topology is a viable strategy to "tune" signaling output. We utilized diabodies (DA) as surrogate ligands in a prototypical dimeric receptor-ligand system, the cytokine Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EpoR), to dimerize EpoR ectodomains in non-native architectures. Diabody-induced signaling amplitudes varied from full to minimal agonism, and structures of these DA/EpoR complexes differed in EpoR dimer orientation and proximity. Diabodies also elicited biased or differential activation of signaling pathways and gene expression profiles compared to EPO. Non-signaling diabodies inhibited proliferation of erythroid precursors from patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm due to a constitutively active JAK2V617F mutation. Thus, intracellular oncogenic mutations causing ligand-independent receptor activation can be counteracted by extracellular ligands that re-orient receptors into inactive dimer topologies. This approach has broad applications for tuning signaling output for many dimeric receptor systems. PMID:25728669

  10. Tuning cytokine receptor signaling by re-orienting dimer geometry with surrogate ligands.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Ignacio; Wernig, Gerlinde; Wilmes, Stephan; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Richter, Christian P; Hong, Wan-Jen; Sinha, Rahul; Guo, Feng; Fabionar, Hyna; Wehrman, Tom S; Krutzik, Peter; Demharter, Samuel; Plo, Isabelle; Weissman, Irving L; Minary, Peter; Majeti, Ravindra; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Piehler, Jacob; Garcia, K Christopher

    2015-03-12

    Most cell-surface receptors for cytokines and growth factors signal as dimers, but it is unclear whether remodeling receptor dimer topology is a viable strategy to "tune" signaling output. We utilized diabodies (DA) as surrogate ligands in a prototypical dimeric receptor-ligand system, the cytokine Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EpoR), to dimerize EpoR ectodomains in non-native architectures. Diabody-induced signaling amplitudes varied from full to minimal agonism, and structures of these DA/EpoR complexes differed in EpoR dimer orientation and proximity. Diabodies also elicited biased or differential activation of signaling pathways and gene expression profiles compared to EPO. Non-signaling diabodies inhibited proliferation of erythroid precursors from patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm due to a constitutively active JAK2V617F mutation. Thus, intracellular oncogenic mutations causing ligand-independent receptor activation can be counteracted by extracellular ligands that re-orient receptors into inactive dimer topologies. This approach has broad applications for tuning signaling output for many dimeric receptor systems.

  11. Why do receptor-ligand bonds in cell adhesion cluster into discrete focal-adhesion sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiwen; Gao, Yanfei

    2016-10-01

    Cell adhesion often exhibits the clustering of the receptor-ligand bonds into discrete focal-adhesion sites near the contact edge, thus resembling a rosette shape or a contracting membrane anchored by a small number of peripheral forces. The ligands on the extracellular matrix are immobile, and the receptors in the cell plasma membrane consist of two types: high-affinity integrins (that bond to the substrate ligands and are immobile) and low-affinity integrins (that are mobile and not bonded to the ligands). Thus the adhesion energy density is proportional to the high-affinity integrin density. This paper provides a mechanistic explanation for the clustering/assembling of the receptor-ligand bonds from two main points: (1) the cellular contractile force leads to the density evolution of these two types of integrins, and results into a large high-affinity integrin density near the contact edge and (2) the front of a propagating crack into a decreasing toughness field will be unstable and wavy. From this fracture mechanics perspective, the chemomechanical equilibrium is reached when a small number of patches with large receptor-ligand bond density are anticipated to form at the cell periphery, as opposed to a uniform distribution of bonds on the entire interface. Cohesive fracture simulations show that the de-adhesion force can be significantly enhanced by this nonuniform bond density field, but the de-adhesion force anisotropy due to the substrate elastic anisotropy is significantly reduced.

  12. Molecular studies of pH-dependent ligand interactions with the low-density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Taichi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Guigard, Emmanuel; Kay, Cyril M; Ryan, Robert O

    2008-11-01

    The release of ligand from the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has been postulated to involve a "histidine switch"-induced intramolecular rearrangement that discharges bound ligand. A recombinant soluble low-density lipoprotein receptor (sLDLR) was employed in ligand binding experiments with a fluorescently tagged variant apolipoprotein E N-terminal domain (apoE-NT). Binding was monitored as a function of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from excited Trp residues in sLDLR to an extrinsic fluorophore covalently attached to Trp-null apoE3-NT. In binding experiments with wild-type (WT) sLDLR, FRET-dependent AEDANS fluorescence decreased as the pH was lowered. To investigate the role of His190, His562, and His586 in sLDLR in pH-dependent ligand binding and discharge, site-directed mutagenesis studies were performed. Compared to WT sLDLR, triple His --> Ala mutant sLDLR displayed attenuated pH-dependent ligand binding and a decreased level of ligand release as a function of low pH. When these His residues were substituted for Lys, the positively charged side chain of which does not ionize over this pH range, ligand binding was nearly abolished at all pH values. When sequential His to Lys mutants were examined, the evidence suggested that His562 and His586 function cooperatively. Whereas the sedimentation coefficient for WT sLDLR increased when the pH was reduced from 7 to 5, no such change occurred in the case of the triple Lys mutant receptor or a His562Lys/His586Lys double mutant receptor. The data support the existence of a cryptic, histidine side chain ionization-dependent alternative ligand that modulates ligand discharge via conformational reorganization.

  13. Discriminating agonist and antagonist ligands of the nuclear receptors using 3D-pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Delahaye, Solenne; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) constitute an important class of therapeutic targets. We evaluated the performance of 3D structure-based and ligand-based pharmacophore models in predicting the pharmacological profile of NRs ligands using the NRLiSt BDB database. We could generate selective pharmacophores for agonist and antagonist ligands and we found that the best performances were obtained by combining the structure-based and the ligand-based approaches. The combination of pharmacophores that were generated allowed to cover most of the chemical space of the NRLiSt BDB datasets. By screening the whole NRLiSt BDB on our 3D pharmacophores, we demonstrated their selectivity towards their dedicated NRs ligands. The 3D pharmacophores herein presented can thus be used as a predictor of the pharmacological activity of NRs ligands.Graphical AbstractUsing a combination of structure-based and ligand-based pharmacophores, agonist and antagonist ligands of the Nuclear Receptors included in the NRLiSt BDB database could be separated.

  14. Discriminating agonist and antagonist ligands of the nuclear receptors using 3D-pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Delahaye, Solenne; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) constitute an important class of therapeutic targets. We evaluated the performance of 3D structure-based and ligand-based pharmacophore models in predicting the pharmacological profile of NRs ligands using the NRLiSt BDB database. We could generate selective pharmacophores for agonist and antagonist ligands and we found that the best performances were obtained by combining the structure-based and the ligand-based approaches. The combination of pharmacophores that were generated allowed to cover most of the chemical space of the NRLiSt BDB datasets. By screening the whole NRLiSt BDB on our 3D pharmacophores, we demonstrated their selectivity towards their dedicated NRs ligands. The 3D pharmacophores herein presented can thus be used as a predictor of the pharmacological activity of NRs ligands.Graphical AbstractUsing a combination of structure-based and ligand-based pharmacophores, agonist and antagonist ligands of the Nuclear Receptors included in the NRLiSt BDB database could be separated. PMID:27602059

  15. On the structural and mechanistic basis of function, classification, and ligand design for 5-HT receptors.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, H; Osman, R

    1990-01-01

    We review our results from the first computational simulations of a mechanism by which ligands can activate a 5-HT1A receptor, and relate the findings to information on the structure and function of the authentic receptor. The computational exploration of the recognition and activation mechanisms is carried out inside a protein selected as a model for the receptor based on cognate physicochemical and experimental data. A similar approach is applied to the 5-HT2 receptor. The interaction mechanisms at the two 5-HT receptor subtypes differ in the nature of the forces determining ligand-receptor interactions and the types of receptor activation mechanisms they entail. The main molecular property related to recognition at 5-HT1A receptors was shown to be the directional character of the electrostatic potential generated by the ligands in the molecular region corresponding to the indole in 5-HT. The corresponding recognition site was shown to have properties of a positively-charged (imidazolium) form of the side chain of a His residue. The mechanism of recognition at the 5-HT1A receptor was shown to be electrostatic, and conducive to a triggering of the receptor response through the change in the electronic structure of the imidazolium recognition site when it interacts with an activating ligand (agonist). This effect was shown to induce a proton transfer from the ring to a neighboring residue to which it can be hydrogen-bonded in the resting state. We show how this model for recognition and activation defines in molecular terms the mechanisms underlying the classical pharmacologic properties of agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists. The molecular correlates of pharmacologic efficacy emerge from the calculations of the effect of the ligands on the barriers for proton transfer, and on the energy drive for the proton transfer reaction. A different model is proposed for selective recognition at the 5-HT2 receptors, based on structural details of 5-HT-binding peptides

  16. Cell receptor and surface ligand density effects on dynamic states of adhering circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangjun; Cheung, Luthur Siu-Lun; Schroeder, Joyce A; Jiang, Linan; Zohar, Yitshak

    2011-10-21

    Dynamic states of cancer cells moving under shear flow in an antibody-functionalized microchannel are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The cell motion is analyzed with the aid of a simplified physical model featuring a receptor-coated rigid sphere moving above a solid surface with immobilized ligands. The motion of the sphere is described by the Langevin equation accounting for the hydrodynamic loadings, gravitational force, receptor-ligand bindings, and thermal fluctuations; the receptor-ligand bonds are modeled as linear springs. Depending on the applied shear flow rate, three dynamic states of cell motion have been identified: (i) free motion, (ii) rolling adhesion, and (iii) firm adhesion. Of particular interest is the fraction of captured circulating tumor cells, defined as the capture ratio, via specific receptor-ligand bonds. The cell capture ratio decreases with increasing shear flow rate with a characteristic rate. Based on both experimental and theoretical results, the characteristic flow rate increases monotonically with increasing either cell-receptor or surface-ligand density within certain ranges. Utilizing it as a scaling parameter, flow-rate dependent capture ratios for various cell-surface combinations collapse onto a single curve described by an exponential formula.

  17. Expression of Serotonin Receptors in the Colonic Tissue of Chronic Diarrhea Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Juanjuan; Wan, Jiajia; Wang, Fengyun; Tang, Xudong; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the difference among the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors) in colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats. Materials and Methods: A rat model of chronic diarrhea was established by lactose diet. The expression of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the colonic tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Results: There is no significant difference on the protein expression of 5-HT3 receptor between the normal group and the chronic diarrhea model group. The mRNA expression of 5-HT3 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01). The protein and mRNA expression of 5-HT4 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.05, P < 0.01). On the contrary, the protein and mRNA expressions of 5-HT7 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly decreased compared with the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results suggested the receptors of 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 may be involved in inducing diarrhea by lactose diet. PMID:27184643

  18. A Mollusk Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Ortholog Sheds Light on the Evolution of Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Nadendla, Eswar Kumar; Lima, Daniela; Pierzchalski, Keely; Jones, Jace W.; Kane, Maureen; Nishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Hiromori, Youhei; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Santos, Miguel M.; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Bourguet, William

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that regulate networks of target genes in response to small molecules. There is a strong bias in our knowledge of these receptors because they were mainly characterized in classical model organisms, mostly vertebrates. Therefore, the evolutionary origins of specific ligand-receptor couples still remain elusive. Here we present the identification and characterization of a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) from the mollusk Nucella lapillus (NlRAR). We show that this receptor specifically binds to DNA response elements organized in direct repeats as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor. Surprisingly, we also find that NlRAR does not bind all-trans retinoic acid or any other retinoid we tested. Furthermore, NlRAR is unable to activate the transcription of reporter genes in response to stimulation by retinoids and to recruit coactivators in the presence of these compounds. Three-dimensional modeling of the ligand-binding domain of NlRAR reveals an overall structure that is similar to vertebrate RARs. However, in the ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of the mollusk receptor, the alteration of several residues interacting with the ligand has apparently led to an overall decrease in the strength of the interaction with the ligand. Accordingly, mutations of NlRAR at key positions within the LBP generate receptors that are responsive to retinoids. Altogether our data suggest that, in mollusks, RAR has lost its affinity for all-trans retinoic acid, highlighting the evolutionary plasticity of its LBP. When put in an evolutionary context, our results reveal new structural and functional features of nuclear receptors validated by millions of years of evolution that were impossible to reveal in model organisms. PMID:25116705

  19. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  20. Antihyperalgesic effects of imidazoline I2 receptor ligands in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Xu; Thorn, David A; Qiu, Yanyan; Peng, Bi-Wen; Zhang, Yanan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A new imidazoline I2 receptor ligand, CR4056, is effective for chronic inflammatory pain and diabetic neuropathy. However, it is unclear whether other I2 receptor ligands have similar effects and whether antinociceptive tolerance develops with repeated treatment. Experimental Approach The Von Frey filament test was used to measure mechanical hyperalgesia and the plantar test to measure thermal hyperalgesia in rats injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) treatment or had undergone surgery to induce chronic constriction injury (CCI), models of inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain respectively. The effects of morphine and I2 receptor ligands, 2-BFI, BU224, tracizoline and CR4056, 3.2–32 mg·kg−1, i.p., on hyperalgesia or affective pain (as measured by a place escape/avoidance paradigm) were studied in separate experiments. Key Results Morphine and the I2 receptor ligands (2-BFI, BU224 and tracizoline) all dose-dependently attenuated mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in CFA-treated rats. The anti-hyperalgesic effects of 2-BFI in CFA-treated and CCI rats were attenuated by the I2 receptor antagonist idazoxan. The combination of 2-BFI and morphine produced additive effects against mechanical hyperalgesia in CFA-treated rats. Repeated treatment (daily for 7–9 days) with 2-BFI or CR4056 did not produce antinociceptive tolerance in CFA-treated or CCI rats. Morphine and the I2 receptor ligands (2-BFI, BU224 and CR4056) were all effective at attenuating place escape/avoidance behaviour in CFA-treated rats. Conclusions and Implications Imidazoline I2 receptor ligands have antihyperalgesic effects in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain and may represent a new class of pharmacotherapeutics for the management of chronic pain. PMID:24329196

  1. Photomodulation of G Protein-Coupled Adenosine Receptors by a Novel Light-Switchable Ligand

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The adenosinergic system operates through G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, which have become promising therapeutic targets for a wide range of pathological conditions. However, the ubiquity of adenosine receptors and the eventual lack of selectivity of adenosine-based drugs have frequently diminished their therapeutic potential. Accordingly, here we aimed to develop a new generation of light-switchable adenosine receptor ligands that change their intrinsic activity upon irradiation, thus allowing the spatiotemporal control of receptor functioning (i.e., receptor activation/inactivation dependent on location and timing). Therefore, we synthesized an orthosteric, photoisomerizable, and nonselective adenosine receptor agonist, nucleoside derivative MRS5543 containing an aryl diazo linkage on the N6 substituent, which in the dark (relaxed isomer) behaved as a full adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) and partial adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist. Conversely, upon photoisomerization with blue light (460 nm), it remained a full A3R agonist but became an A2AR antagonist. Interestingly, molecular modeling suggested that structural differences encountered within the third extracellular loop of each receptor could modulate the intrinsic, receptor subtype-dependent, activity. Overall, the development of adenosine receptor ligands with photoswitchable activity expands the pharmacological toolbox in support of research and possibly opens new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities. PMID:25248077

  2. Programmable Multivalent Display of Receptor Ligands using Peptide Nucleic Acid Nanoscaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Ethan A.; Wang, Deyun; Fujigaki, Hidetsugu; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Micklitsch, Christopher M.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Martin-Manso, Gema; Pendrak, Michael L.; Roberts, David D.; Durell, Stewart R.; Appella, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Multivalent effects dictate the binding affinity of multiple ligands on one molecular entity to receptors. Integrins are receptors that mediate cell attachment through multivalent binding to peptide sequences within the extracellular matrix, and overexpression promotes the metastasis of some cancers. Multivalent display of integrin antagonists enhances their efficacy, but current scaffolds have limited ranges and precision for the display of ligands. Here we present an approach to study multivalent effects across wide ranges of ligand number, density, and three-dimensional arrangement. Using L-lysine γ-substituted peptide nucleic acids, the multivalent effects of an integrin antagonist were examined over a range of 1 to 45 ligands. The optimal construct improves the inhibitory activity of the antagonist by two orders of magnitude against the binding of melanoma cells to the extracellular matrix in both in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:22233624

  3. Structural determinants of ligand binding selectivity between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H. Eric; Lambert, Millard H.; Montana, Valerie G.; Plunket, Kelli D.; Moore, Linda B.; Collins, Jon L.; Oplinger, Jeffery A.; Kliewer, Steven A.; Gampe, Robert T.; McKee, David D.; Moore, John T.; Willson, Timothy M.

    2001-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional regulators of glucose, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism. We report the x-ray crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of PPARα (NR1C1) as a complex with the agonist ligand GW409544 and a coactivator motif from the steroid receptor coactivator 1. Through comparison of the crystal structures of the ligand binding domains of the three human PPARs, we have identified molecular determinants of subtype selectivity. A single amino acid, which is tyrosine in PPARα and histidine in PPARγ, imparts subtype selectivity for both thiazolidinedione and nonthiazolidinedione ligands. The availability of high-resolution cocrystal structures of the three PPAR subtypes will aid the design of drugs for the treatments of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:11698662

  4. Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes and ligands and their role in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Varbanova, Viktoria; Naumova, Elissaveta; Mihaylova, Anastasiya

    2016-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are considered crucial for the elimination of emerging tumor cells. Effector NK-cell functions are controlled by interactions of inhibitory and activating killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on NK cells with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands on target cells. KIR and HLA are highly polymorphic genetic systems segregating independently, creating a great diversity in KIR/HLA gene profiles in different individuals. There is an increasing evidence supporting the relevance of KIR and HLA ligand gene background for the occurrence and outcome of certain cancers. However, the data are still controversial and the mechanisms of receptor-ligand mediated NK-cell action remain unclear. Here, the main characteristics and functions of KIRs and their HLA class I ligands are reviewed. In addition, we review the HLA and KIR correlations with different hematological malignancies and discuss our current understanding of the biological significance and mechanisms underlying these associations.

  5. Cholinergic ligand interactions with acetylcholine receptor proteins and solvent interactions with N,N-dialkylnicotinamides

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    A dual-chambered flow dialysis nuclear counting apparatus was used to monitor cholinergic ligand induced displacement of {sup 155}Eu{sup 3+} from acetylcholine receptor proteins. Acetylcholine, nicotine and carbamylcholine induced similar rates of displacement of {sup 155}Eu{sup 3+} probes of calcium binding sites in receptor proteins from wild type Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. The receptor isolated from a nicotine resistant strain of Drosophila melanogaster displayed an altered dependency of cholinergic ligand induced cation displacement with respect to the other two receptor proteins. Both Drosophila strains' solubilized receptor proteins migrated as three bands of molecular weights 68,000, 66,000, and 60,000 on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Carbon-13 NMR techniques were employed to examine the effects of solvent environment on rotational energy barriers in a series of molecules related to the analeptic, nikethamide: N,N-dimethylnicotinamide, 1-nicotinoyl piperidine, and N,N-dipropylnicotinamide.

  6. Perspectives on cognitive domains, H3 receptor ligands and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Arthur A; Fox, Gerard B

    2004-10-01

    Histamine H(3) receptor agonists and antagonists have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo animal models to better understand how H(3) receptors modulate neurotransmitter function in the central nervous system. Likewise, behavioural models have explored the hypothesis that changes in neurotransmitter release could enhance cognitive function in human diseases. This review examines the reported effects of H(3) receptor ligands and how they influence cognitive behaviour. These data are interpreted on the basis of different cognitive domains that are relevant to neuropsychiatric diseases. Because of the diversity of H(3) receptors, their function and their influence on neurotransmitter systems, considerable promise exists for H(3) ligands to treat diseases in which aspects of learning and memory are impaired. However, because of the complexities of the histaminergic system and H(3) receptors and the lack of clinical data so far, proof of principle for use in human disease remains to be established.

  7. Virtual fragment screening: discovery of histamine H3 receptor ligands using ligand-based and protein-based molecular fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Sirci, Francesco; Istyastono, Enade P; Vischer, Henry F; Kooistra, Albert J; Nijmeijer, Saskia; Kuijer, Martien; Wijtmans, Maikel; Mannhold, Raimund; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P; de Graaf, Chris

    2012-12-21

    Virtual fragment screening (VFS) is a promising new method that uses computer models to identify small, fragment-like biologically active molecules as useful starting points for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). Training sets of true active and inactive fragment-like molecules to construct and validate target customized VFS methods are however lacking. We have for the first time explored the possibilities and challenges of VFS using molecular fingerprints derived from a unique set of fragment affinity data for the histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R), a pharmaceutically relevant G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Optimized FLAP (Fingerprints of Ligands and Proteins) models containing essential molecular interaction fields that discriminate known H(3)R binders from inactive molecules were successfully used for the identification of new H(3)R ligands. Prospective virtual screening of 156,090 molecules yielded a high hit rate of 62% (18 of the 29 tested) experimentally confirmed novel fragment-like H(3)R ligands that offer new potential starting points for the design of H(3)R targeting drugs. The first construction and application of customized FLAP models for the discovery of fragment-like biologically active molecules demonstrates that VFS is an efficient way to explore protein-fragment interaction space in silico. PMID:23140085

  8. Targeting ligand-operated chaperone sigma-1 receptors in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Teruo, Hayashi; Shang-Yi, Tsai; Tomohisa, Mori; Michiko, Fujimoto; Tsung-Ping, Su

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Current conventional therapeutic drugs for the treatment of psychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders have certain limitations of use. Psychotherapeutic drugs such as typical and atypical antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, and selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, aim to normalize the hyper- or hypo-neurotransmission of monoaminergic systems. Despite their great contribution to the outcomes of psychiatric patients, these agents often exert severe side effects and require chronic treatments to promote amelioration of symptoms. Furthermore, drugs available for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are severely limited. Areas covered This review discusses recent evidence that has shed light on sigma-1 receptor ligands, which may serve as a new class of antidepressants or neuroprotective agents. Sigma-1 receptors are novel ligand-operated molecular chaperones regulating a variety of signal transduction, ER stress, cellular redox, cellular survival, and synaptogenesis. Selective sigma-1 receptor ligands exert rapid antidepressant-like, anxiolytic, antinociceptive and robust neuroprotective actions in preclinical studies. The review also looks at recent studies which suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a crucial role as signal integrators at the downstream of Sig-1Rs Expert opinion The significant advances in sigma receptor research in the last decade have begun to elucidate the intracellular signal cascades upstream and downstream of sigma-1 receptors. The novel ligand-operated properties of the sigma-1 receptor chaperone may enable a variety of interventions by which stress-related cellular systems are pharmacologically controlled. PMID:21375464

  9. The unique extracellular disulfide loop of the glycine receptor is a principal ligand binding element.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra, S; Vandenberg, R J; Pierce, K D; Cunningham, A M; French, P W; Barry, P H; Schofield, P R

    1995-01-01

    A loop structure, formed by the putative disulfide bridging of Cys198 and Cys209, is a principal element of the ligand binding site in the glycine receptor (GlyR). Disruption of the loop's tertiary structure by Ser mutations of these Cys residues either prevented receptor assembly on the cell surface, or created receptors unable to be activated by agonists or to bind the competitive antagonist, strychnine. Mutation of residues Lys200, Tyr202 and Thr204 within this loop reduced agonist binding and channel activation sensitivities by up to 55-, 520- and 190-fold, respectively, without altering maximal current sizes, and mutations of Lys200 and Tyr202 abolished strychnine binding to the receptor. Removal of the hydroxyl moiety from Tyr202 by mutation to Phe profoundly reduced agonist sensitivity, whilst removal of the benzene ring abolished strychnine binding, thus demonstrating that Tyr202 is crucial for both agonist and antagonist binding to the GlyR. Tyr202 also influences receptor assembly on the cell surface, with only large chain substitutions (Phe, Leu and Arg, but not Thr, Ser and Ala) forming functional receptors. Our data demonstrate the presence of a second ligand binding site in the GlyR, consistent with the three-loop model of ligand binding to the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Images PMID:7621814

  10. Modeling of cell adhesion and deformation mediated by receptor-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Golestaneh, Amirreza F; Nadler, Ben

    2016-04-01

    The current work is devoted to studying adhesion and deformation of biological cells mediated by receptors and ligands in order to enhance the existing models. Due to the sufficient in-plane continuity and fluidity of the phospholipid molecules, an isotropic continuum fluid membrane is proposed for modeling the cell membrane. The developed constitutive model accounts for the influence of the presence of receptors on the deformation and adhesion of the cell membrane through the introduction of spontaneous area dilation. Motivated by physics, a nonlinear receptor-ligand binding force is introduced based on charge-induced dipole interaction. Diffusion of the receptors on the membrane is governed by the receptor-ligand interaction via Fick's Law and receptor-ligand interaction. The developed model is then applied to study the deformation and adhesion of a biological cell. The proposed model is used to study the role of the material, binding, spontaneous area dilation and environmental properties on the deformation and adhesion of the cell.

  11. Modeling of cell adhesion and deformation mediated by receptor-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Golestaneh, Amirreza F; Nadler, Ben

    2016-04-01

    The current work is devoted to studying adhesion and deformation of biological cells mediated by receptors and ligands in order to enhance the existing models. Due to the sufficient in-plane continuity and fluidity of the phospholipid molecules, an isotropic continuum fluid membrane is proposed for modeling the cell membrane. The developed constitutive model accounts for the influence of the presence of receptors on the deformation and adhesion of the cell membrane through the introduction of spontaneous area dilation. Motivated by physics, a nonlinear receptor-ligand binding force is introduced based on charge-induced dipole interaction. Diffusion of the receptors on the membrane is governed by the receptor-ligand interaction via Fick's Law and receptor-ligand interaction. The developed model is then applied to study the deformation and adhesion of a biological cell. The proposed model is used to study the role of the material, binding, spontaneous area dilation and environmental properties on the deformation and adhesion of the cell. PMID:26093646

  12. Receptor-ligand interactions studied with homogeneous fluorescence-based assays suitable for miniaturized screening.

    PubMed

    Scheel, A A; Funsch, B; Busch, M; Gradl, G; Pschorr, J; Lohse, M J

    2001-02-01

    Cell membrane receptors play a central role in controlling cellular functions, making them the target of drugs for a wide variety of diseases. This report describes how a recently developed method, fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (FIDA), can be used to develop homogeneous, nonradioactive high throughput screening assays for membrane receptors. With FIDA, free ligand and ligand accumulated on receptor-bearing membrane vesicles can be distinguished on the basis of their particle brightness. This allows the concentration of both bound and free ligand to be determined reliably from a single measurement, without any separation. We demonstrate that ligand affinity, receptor expression level, and potency of inhibitors can be determined using the epidermal growth factor and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors as model systems. Highly focused confocal optics enable single-molecule sensitivity, and sample volumes can thus be reduced to 1 microl without affecting the quality of the fluorescence signal. Our results demonstrate that FIDA is an ideal method for membrane receptor assays offering substantial benefits for assay development and high throughput pharmaceutical screening.

  13. Tuned-Affinity Bivalent Ligands for the Characterization of Opioid Receptor Heteromers.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jessica H; Long, Darcie H; England, Pamela M; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    Opioid receptors, including the mu and delta opioid receptors (MOR and DOR) are important targets for the treatment of pain. Although there is mounting evidence that these receptors form heteromers, the functional role of the MOR/DOR heteromer remains unresolved. We have designed and synthesized bivalent ligands as tools to elucidate the functional role of the MOR/DOR heteromer. Our ligands (L2 and L4) are comprised of a compound with low affinity at the DOR tethered to a compound with high affinity at the MOR, with the goal of producing ligands with "tuned affinity" at MOR/DOR heteromers compared to DOR homomers. Here we show that both L2 and L4 demonstrate enhanced affinity at MOR/DOR heteromers compared to DOR homomers, thereby providing unique pharmacological tools to dissect the role of the MOR/DOR heteromer in pain.

  14. The Added Value of Assessing Ligand-Receptor Binding Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong; Heitman, Laura H; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2016-09-01

    In the past decade drug research community has started to appreciate the indispensable role of ligand-receptor binding kinetics (BK) in drug discovery. Next to the classical equilibrium-based drug evaluation process with affinity and potency values as outcomes, kinetic investigation of the ligand-receptor interaction can aid compound triage in the hit-to-lead campaign and provide additional information to understand the molecular mechanism of drug action. Translational models incorporating BK are emerging as well, which represent powerful tools for the prediction of in vivo effects. In this viewpoint we will summarize some recent findings and discuss and emphasize the added value of ligand-receptor binding kinetics in drug research. PMID:27660682

  15. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand–receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:26350224

  16. Trace amine-associated receptors: ligands, neural circuits, and behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are G Protein-Coupled Receptors that function as vertebrate olfactory receptors. Like odorant receptors, TAARs constitute an ever-evolving sensory subsystem, with individual TAARs recognizing particular chemicals and some evoking stereotyped behaviors. Several TAARs mediate aversion or attraction towards volatile amines that include the mouse odor trimethylamine, the predator odor 2-phenylethylamine, and the death-associated odor cadaverine. TAAR-expressing sensory neurons achieve monoallelic receptor expression, use canonical olfactory signaling molecules, and target a dedicated olfactory bulb region. In mouse, TAAR4 and TAAR5 are encoded by adjacent genes and localize to adjacent glomeruli, yet mediate opposing behaviors. Future studies are needed to understand how TAAR-expressing sensory neurons engage higher-order neural circuits to encode odor valence. PMID:25616211

  17. Geometries of functional group interactions in enzyme-ligand complexes: guides for receptor modelling.

    PubMed

    Tintelnot, M; Andrews, P

    1989-03-01

    An approach is described which makes use of X-ray structural data from enzyme-ligand complexes in order to obtain information for application in receptor modelling. The atomic surroundings of five different ligand functional groups were determined for all complex structures recorded in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. These atomic surroundings were then superimposed with respect to the atoms of the functional groups of the ligands in order to obtain clouds of neighbouring atoms. General principles were sought to describe the orientation or favoured position of groups or atoms around those functional groups when bound to a macromolecule. Some simple conclusions and leads for further modelling were thus derived.

  18. Estimation of ligand efficacies of metabotropic glutamate receptors from conformational forces obtained from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Lakkaraju, Sirish Kaushik; Xue, Fengtian; Faden, Alan I; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2013-06-24

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are G-protein coupled receptors with a large bilobate extracellular ligand binding region (LBR) that resembles a Venus fly trap. Closing of this LBR in the presence of a ligand is associated with the activation of the receptor. From conformational sampling of the LBR-ligand complexes using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we characterized the conformational minima related to the hinge like motion associated with the LBR closing/opening in the presence of known agonists and antagonists. By applying a harmonic restraint on the LBR, we also determined the conformational forces generated by the different ligands. The change in the location of the minima and the conformational forces were used to quantify the efficacies of the ligands. This analysis shows that efficacies can be estimated from the forces of a single conformation of the receptor, indicating the potential of MD simulations as an efficient and useful technique to quantify efficacies, thereby facilitating the rational design of mGluR agonists and antagonists.

  19. Differentiation between ligand trapping into intact cells and binding on muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Gossuin, A; Maloteaux, J M; Trouet, A; Laduron, P

    1984-05-22

    Binding properties of [3H] dexetimide , L-quinuclidinyl[phenyl-4-3H] benzilate and [3H]methylscopolamine were compared with intact 108 CC 15 cells and membrane preparations of those. The ability of the three ligands to label specifically muscarinic receptors on membrane fractions was quite similar. By contrast, when performed with intact cells, [3H] dexetimide and L-quinuclidinyl [phenyl-4-3H]benzilate revealed higher nonspecific binding which was prevented by methylamine, suggesting a trapping of the ligands within the cells presumably in the lysosomes. To the contrary, such nonspecific 'binding' or trapping was not detectable when [3H]methylscopolamine was used as ligand, a fact which makes this ligand particularly appropriate for labelling cell surface muscarinic receptors. It is concluded that more caution is needed in binding studies when performed with intact cells; indeed, besides specific binding on receptor sites, [3H]ligand can be entrapped within the cell and can even sometimes give the illusion of specific binding. The use of lysosomal agents which do not interfere with specific receptors on membrane preparations should allow one, in most cases, to discard the possibility of a trapping phenomenon in intact cells. PMID:6722181

  20. A photocleavable masked nuclear-receptor ligand enables temporal control of C. elegans development.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Joshua C; Mahanti, Parag; Hoffman, Jacob B; Yim, Isaiah; Antebi, Adam; Schroeder, Frank C

    2014-02-17

    The development and lifespan of C. elegans are controlled by the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, an important model for the vertebrate vitamin D and liver X receptors. As with its mammalian homologues, DAF-12 function is regulated by bile acid-like steroidal ligands; however, tools for investigating their biosynthesis and function in vivo are lacking. A flexible synthesis for DAF-12 ligands and masked ligand derivatives that enable precise temporal control of DAF-12 function was developed. For ligand masking, photocleavable amides of 5-methoxy-N-methyl-2-nitroaniline (MMNA) were introduced. MMNA-masked ligands are bioavailable and after incorporation into the worm, brief UV irradiation can be used to trigger the expression of DAF-12 target genes and initiate development from dauer larvae into adults. The in vivo release of DAF-12 ligands and other small-molecule signals by using photocleavable MMNA-masked ligands will enable functional studies with precise spatial and temporal resolution.

  1. Determinants governing ligand specificity of the Vibrio harveyi LuxN quorum-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiaobo; Miller, Laura C; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial cell-cell communication that relies on the production, release and receptor-driven detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. The quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi exclusively detects the autoinducer N-((R)-3-hydroxybutanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OH-C4 HSL) via the two-component receptor LuxN. To discover the principles underlying the exquisite selectivity LuxN has for its ligand, we identified LuxN mutants with altered specificity. LuxN uses three mechanisms to verify that the bound molecule is the correct ligand: in the context of the overall ligand-binding site, His210 validates the C3 modification, Leu166 surveys the chain-length and a strong steady-state kinase bias imposes an energetic hurdle for inappropriate ligands to elicit signal transduction. Affinities for the LuxN kinase on and kinase off states underpin whether a ligand will act as an antagonist or an agonist. Mutations that bias LuxN to the agonized, kinase off, state are clustered in a region adjacent to the ligand-binding site, suggesting that this region acts as the switch that triggers signal transduction. Together, our analyses illuminate how a histidine sensor kinase differentiates between ligands and exploits those differences to regulate its signaling activity.

  2. DEPENDENCE OF PPAR LIGAND-INDUCED MAPK SIGNALING ON EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TRANSACTIVATION HEPARIN-BINDING EGF CLEAVAGE MEDIATES ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR PHOSPHORYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma li...

  3. Importance of the pharmacological profile of the bound ligand in enrichment on nuclear receptors: toward the use of experimentally validated decoy ligands.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2014-10-27

    The evaluation of virtual ligand screening methods is of major importance to ensure their reliability. Taking into account the agonist/antagonist pharmacological profile should improve the quality of the benchmarking data sets since ligand binding can induce conformational changes in the nuclear receptor structure and such changes may vary according to the agonist/antagonist ligand profile. We indeed found that splitting the agonist and antagonist ligands into two separate data sets for a given nuclear receptor target significantly enhances the quality of the evaluation. The pharmacological profile of the ligand bound in the binding site of the target structure was also found to be an additional critical parameter. We also illustrate that active compound data sets for a given pharmacological activity can be used as a set of experimentally validated decoy ligands for another pharmacological activity to ensure a reliable and challenging evaluation of virtual screening methods.

  4. The heterodimeric sweet taste receptor has multiple potential ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Maillet, Emeline; Max, Marianna; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of two G protein coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. This discovery has increased our understanding at the molecular level of the mechanisms underlying sweet taste. Previous experimental studies using sweet receptor chimeras and mutants show that there are at least three potential binding sites in this heterodimeric receptor. Receptor activity toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame depends on residues in the amino terminal domain of human T1R2. In contrast, receptor activity toward the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole depends on residues within the transmembrane domain of human T1R3. Furthermore, receptor activity toward the sweet protein brazzein depends on the cysteine rich domain of human T1R3. Although crystal structures are not available for the sweet taste receptor, useful homology models can be developed based on appropriate templates. The amino terminal domain, cysteine rich domain and transmembrane helix domain of T1R2 and T1R3 have been modeled based on the crystal structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1, tumor necrosis factor receptor, and bovine rhodopsin, respectively. We have used homology models of the sweet taste receptors, molecular docking of sweet ligands to the receptors, and site-directed mutagenesis of the receptors to identify potential ligand binding sites of the sweet taste receptor. These studies have led to a better understanding of the structure and function of this heterodimeric receptor, and can act as a guide for rational structure-based design of novel non-caloric sweeteners, which can be used in the fighting against obesity and diabetes. PMID:17168764

  5. The heterodimeric sweet taste receptor has multiple potential ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Maillet, Emeline; Max, Marianna; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of two G protein coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. This discovery has increased our understanding at the molecular level of the mechanisms underlying sweet taste. Previous experimental studies using sweet receptor chimeras and mutants show that there are at least three potential binding sites in this heterodimeric receptor. Receptor activity toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame depends on residues in the amino terminal domain of human T1R2. In contrast, receptor activity toward the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole depends on residues within the transmembrane domain of human T1R3. Furthermore, receptor activity toward the sweet protein brazzein depends on the cysteine rich domain of human T1R3. Although crystal structures are not available for the sweet taste receptor, useful homology models can be developed based on appropriate templates. The amino terminal domain, cysteine rich domain and transmembrane helix domain of T1R2 and T1R3 have been modeled based on the crystal structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1, tumor necrosis factor receptor, and bovine rhodopsin, respectively. We have used homology models of the sweet taste receptors, molecular docking of sweet ligands to the receptors, and site-directed mutagenesis of the receptors to identify potential ligand binding sites of the sweet taste receptor. These studies have led to a better understanding of the structure and function of this heterodimeric receptor, and can act as a guide for rational structure-based design of novel non-caloric sweeteners, which can be used in the fighting against obesity and diabetes.

  6. Does the tissue concentration in receptor binding studies change the affinity of the labelled ligand?

    PubMed

    Ensing, K; De Zeeuw, R A

    1984-12-14

    When the tissue concentration in a radioreceptor assay for anticholinergic drugs was varied in order to obtain optimum conditions, and the receptor concentration Cr and the equilibrium dissociation constant KD were determined by Scatchard analysis, the KD increased with increasing tissue concentrations. This phenomenon was considered as an artefact caused by non-specific binding of the labelled ligand to constituents of the receptor preparation which were not completely retained on the glass-fibre filters used for the separation of bound and free fraction of radio-labelled ligand. The increase in KD in these experiments could be described with a mathematical model of the binding experiments. PMID:6514542

  7. New halogenated tris-(phenylalkyl)amines as h5-HT2B receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Nirav; Ahmed, Shahrear; Harding, Wayne W

    2016-07-15

    A series of compounds in which various halogen substituents were incorporated into a phenyl ring of a tris-(phenylalkyl)amine scaffold, was synthesized and evaluated for affinity to h5-HT2 receptors. In general, all compounds were found to have good affinity for the 5-HT2B receptor and were selective over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Compound 9i was the most selective compound in this study and is the highest affinity 5-HT2B receptor ligand bearing a tris-(phenylalkyl)amine scaffold to date. PMID:27261181

  8. Evaluation of benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines as ligands for neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Richard; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Lukas, Ronald J; Sher, Emanuele; Cassels, Bruce K; Bermudez, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Effects of derivatives of coclaurine (C), which mimic the ‘eastern' or the nonquaternary halves of the alkaloids tetrandrine or d-tubocurarine, respectively, both of which are inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACh), were examined on recombinant, human α7, α4β2 and α4β4 nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and clonal cell lines using two-electrode voltage clamping and radioligand binding techniques. In this limited series, Cs have higher affinity and are most potent at α4 subunit-containing-nACh receptors and least potent at homomeric α7 receptors, and this trend is very marked for the N-unsubstituted C and its O,O′-bisbenzyl derivative. 7-O-Benzyl-N-methylcoclaurine (BBCM) and its 12-O-methyl derivative showed the highest affinities and potencies at all three receptor subtypes, and this suggests that lipophilicity at C7 and/or C12 increases potency. Laudanosine and armepavine (A) were noncompetitive and voltage-dependent inhibitors of α7, α4β2 or α4β4 receptors, but the bulkier C7-benzylated 7BNMC (7-O-benzyl-N-methylcoclaurine) and 7B12MNMC (7-O-benzyl-N,12-O-dimethyl coclaurine) were voltage-independent, noncompetitive inhibitors of nACh receptors. Voltage-dependence was also lost on going from A to its N-ethyl analogue. These studies suggest that C derivatives may be useful tools for studies characterising the antagonist and ion channel sites on human α7, α4β2 or α4β4 nACh receptors and for revealing structure–function relationships for nACh receptor antagonists. PMID:15980871

  9. Expression of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand, growth hormone, blocks receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Guesdon, François; Kaabi, Yahia; Riley, Aiden H.; Wilkinson, Ian R.; Gray, Colin; James, David C.; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Sayers, Jon R.; Ross, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction between GH (growth hormone) and GHR (GH receptor). We previously demonstrated that a truncated GHR that possesses a transmembrane domain but no cytoplasmic domain blocks receptor signalling. Based on this observation we investigated the impact of tethering the receptor's extracellular domain to the cell surface using a native lipid GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor. We also investigated the effect of tethering GH, the ligand itself, to the cell surface and demonstrated that tethering either the ecGHR (extracellular domain of GHR) or the ligand itself to the cell membrane via a GPI anchor greatly attenuates signalling. To elucidate the mechanism for this antagonist activity, we used confocal microscopy to examine the fluorescently modified ligand and receptor. GH–GPI was expressed on the cell surface and formed inactive receptor complexes that failed to internalize and blocked receptor activation. In conclusion, contrary to expectation, tethering an agonist to the cell surface can generate an inactive hormone receptor complex that fails to internalize. PMID:23013472

  10. Ligand-bound quantum dots for intracellular imaging of neural receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Tania Q.; Sundara Rajan, Sujata; Liu, Hongyan

    2007-02-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) may serve as improved platforms for the complex modulation and ultra-sensitive imaging of molecular signaling in cells. The time course and spatial localization of activated ligand-receptor complexes and their trafficking within cells is becoming increasingly understood as vital for propagating cell signals. However, the movement and fate of ligand-receptor pairs inside cells is difficult to define with current technologies. We have studied the intracellular trafficking of TrkA receptors using QDs conjugated with nerve growth factor, a neuropeptide ligand critical for nervous system development and regulation. We find that NGF-QDs bind and activate TrkA surface receptors in PC12 neurons. Spatiotemporal maps of TrkA-NGF-QD endocytosis and translocation can be directly visualized with single QD resolution. Moreover, single molecule tracking experiments indicates that QDs complexes are actively shuttled over long distances within newly-sprouted neuronal processes. These results indicate that QDs can serve as effective high-resolution probe to track ligand-receptor function in the interior of cells.

  11. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    PubMed Central

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution. PMID:26561004

  12. Divergent Label-free Cell Phenotypic Pharmacology of Ligands at the Overexpressed β2-Adrenergic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Zaytseva, Natalya; Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    We present subclone sensitive cell phenotypic pharmacology of ligands at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The parental cell line was transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged β2-AR. Four stable subclones were established and used to profile a library of sixty-nine AR ligands. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profiling resulted in a pharmacological activity map suggesting that HEK293 endogenously expresses functional Gi-coupled α2-AR and Gs-coupled β2-AR, and the label-free cell phenotypic activity of AR ligands are subclone dependent. Pathway deconvolution revealed that the DMR of epinephrine is originated mostly from the remodeling of actin microfilaments and adhesion complexes, to less extent from the microtubule networks and receptor trafficking, and certain agonists displayed different efficacy towards the cAMP-Epac pathway. We demonstrate that receptor signaling and ligand pharmacology is sensitive to the receptor expression level, and the organization of the receptor and its signaling circuitry. PMID:24451999

  13. Divergent Label-free Cell Phenotypic Pharmacology of Ligands at the Overexpressed β2-Adrenergic Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrie, Ann M.; Sun, Haiyan; Zaytseva, Natalya; Fang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    We present subclone sensitive cell phenotypic pharmacology of ligands at the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. The parental cell line was transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged β2-AR. Four stable subclones were established and used to profile a library of sixty-nine AR ligands. Dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profiling resulted in a pharmacological activity map suggesting that HEK293 endogenously expresses functional Gi-coupled α2-AR and Gs-coupled β2-AR, and the label-free cell phenotypic activity of AR ligands are subclone dependent. Pathway deconvolution revealed that the DMR of epinephrine is originated mostly from the remodeling of actin microfilaments and adhesion complexes, to less extent from the microtubule networks and receptor trafficking, and certain agonists displayed different efficacy towards the cAMP-Epac pathway. We demonstrate that receptor signaling and ligand pharmacology is sensitive to the receptor expression level, and the organization of the receptor and its signaling circuitry.

  14. Identifying and quantifying two ligand-binding sites while imaging native human membrane receptors by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Alsteens, David; Wieneke, Ralph; Zhang, Cheng; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Tampé, Robert; Kobilka, Brian K.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    A current challenge in life sciences is to image cell membrane receptors while characterizing their specific interactions with various ligands. Addressing this issue has been hampered by the lack of suitable nanoscopic methods. Here we address this challenge and introduce multifunctional high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image human protease-activated receptors (PAR1) in the functionally important lipid membrane and to simultaneously localize and quantify their binding to two different ligands. Therefore, we introduce the surface chemistry to bifunctionalize AFM tips with the native receptor-activating peptide and a tris-N-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) group binding to a His10-tag engineered to PAR1. We further introduce ways to discern between the binding of both ligands to different receptor sites while imaging native PAR1s. Surface chemistry and nanoscopic method are applicable to a range of biological systems in vitro and in vivo and to concurrently detect and localize multiple ligand-binding sites at single receptor resolution.

  15. [Probable mechanism of recognition of cholinergic ligands by acetylcholine receptors].

    PubMed

    Demushkin, V P; Kotelevtsev, Iu V; Pliashkevich, Iu G; Khramtsov, N V

    1982-01-01

    Dryding's models were used for the conformational analysis of compounds affecting muscarin-specific acetylcholine receptor and nicotin-specific acetylcholine receptor. Ammonium group and ether oxygen (3.6 A apart from the ammonium group) specifically oriented to each other were shown to be necessary structural elements to reveal muscarin-type cholinergic activity. Ammonium group along with carbonyl oxygen or its substituent (5 A distance) are the necessary structural units providing nicotin-type cholinergic activity. The presence of two hydrophobic substituents (one in the ammonium area and the other neighbouring the second active grouping) is the additional factor. The developed principles were justified by the use of a series of synthetic samples. The compounds were obtained likely favouring affinitive modification of acetylcholine receptor (dissociation constants of acetylcholine receptor complexes equalling to 10(-4)--10(-7) M-1). PMID:7070378

  16. A selective sigma-2 receptor ligand antagonizes cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice.

    PubMed

    Lever, John R; Miller, Dennis K; Green, Caroline L; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A; Watkinson, Lisa D; Carmack, Terry L; Fan, Kuo-Hsien; Lever, Susan Z

    2014-02-01

    Cocaine functions, in part, through agonist actions at sigma-1 (σ1 ) receptors, while roles played by sigma-2 (σ2 ) receptors are less established. Attempts to discriminate σ2 receptor-mediated effects of cocaine in locomotor hyperactivity assays have been hampered by the lack of potent and selective antagonists. Certain tetrahydroisoquinolinyl benzamides display high σ2 receptor affinity, and excellent selectivity for binding to σ2 over σ1 receptors. The behavioral properties of this structural class of σ ligands have not yet been investigated. The present study evaluated 5-bromo-N-[4-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-butyl)]-2,3-dimethoxy-benzamide, 1, a ligand shown by others to bind preferentially to σ2 over σ1 receptors, as well as dopamine D2 and D3 sites. First, we determined binding to monoamine transporters and opioid receptors, and noted 57-fold selectivity for σ2 receptors over the serotonin transporter, and >800-fold selectivity for σ2 receptors over the other sites tested. We then examined 1 in locomotor activity studies using male CD-1® mice, and saw no alteration of basal activity at doses up to 31.6 µmol/kg. Cocaine produced a fivefold increase in locomotor activity, which was attenuated by 66% upon pretreatment of mice with 1 at 31.6 µmol/kg. In vivo radioligand binding studies also were performed, and showed no occupancy of σ1 receptors or the dopamine transporter by 1, or its possible metabolites, at the 31.6 µmol/kg dose. Thus, ligand 1 profiles behaviorally as a σ2 receptor-selective antagonist that is able to counteract cocaine's motor stimulatory effects.

  17. Synthesis and binding profile of haloperidol-based bivalent ligands targeting dopamine D(2)-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ismail; Löber, Stefan; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-08-15

    Homodimers of dopamine D2-like receptors are suggested to be of particular importance in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and, thus, serve as promising targets for the discovery of atypical antipsychotics. This study describes the development of a series of novel bivalent molecules with a pharmacophore derived from the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol. These dimers were investigated in comparison to their monomeric analogues for their D2long, D2short, D3, and D4 receptor binding and the ability to bridge two neighboring receptor protomers. Radioligand binding studies provided diagnostic insights when Hill slopes close to two for the bivalent ligand 13 incorporating 22 spacer atoms and a comparative analysis with monovalent control ligands indicated a bivalent binding mode with a simultaneous occupancy of two neighboring binding sites. PMID:25047579

  18. Ligand-Based Peptide Design and Combinatorial Peptide Libraries to Target G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Christian W.; Muttenthaler, Markus; Freissmuth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are considered to represent the most promising drug targets; it has been repeatedly said that a large fraction of the currently marketed drugs elicit their actions by binding to GPCRs (with cited numbers varying from 30–50%). Closer scrutiny, however, shows that only a modest fraction of (~60) GPCRs are, in fact, exploited as drug targets, only ~20 of which are peptide-binding receptors. The vast majority of receptors in the humane genome have not yet been explored as sites of action for drugs. Given the drugability of this receptor class, it appears that opportunities for drug discovery abound. In addition, GPCRs provide for binding sites other than the ligand binding sites (referred to as the “orthosteric site”). These additional sites include (i) binding sites for ligands (referred to as “allosteric ligands”) that modulate the affinity and efficacy of orthosteric ligands, (ii) the interaction surface that recruits G proteins and arrestins, (iii) the interaction sites of additional proteins (GIPs, GPCR interacting proteins that regulate G protein signaling or give rise to G protein-independent signals). These sites can also be targeted by peptides. Combinatorial and natural peptide libraries are therefore likely to play a major role in identifying new GPCR ligands at each of these sites. In particular the diverse natural peptide libraries such as the venom peptides from marine cone-snails and plant cyclotides have been established as a rich source of drug leads. High-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry approaches allow for progressing from these starting points to potential drug candidates. This will be illustrated by focusing on the ligand-based drug design of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) receptor ligands using natural peptide leads as starting points. PMID:20687879

  19. Doubling the Size of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Ligand Binding Pocket by Deacylcortivazol

    SciTech Connect

    Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chenghai; Tao, Yong-guang; Tolbert, W. David; Simons, Jr., S. Stoney; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    A common feature of nuclear receptor ligand binding domains (LBD) is a helical sandwich fold that nests a ligand binding pocket within the bottom half of the domain. Here we report that the ligand pocket of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) can be continuously extended into the top half of the LBD by binding to deacylcortivazol (DAC), an extremely potent glucocorticoid. It has been puzzling for decades why DAC, which contains a phenylpyrazole replacement at the conserved 3-ketone of steroid hormones that are normally required for activation of their cognate receptors, is a potent GR activator. The crystal structure of the GR LBD bound to DAC and the fourth LXXLL motif of steroid receptor coactivator 1 reveals that the GR ligand binding pocket is expanded to a size of 1,070 {angstrom}{sup 3}, effectively doubling the size of the GR dexamethasone-binding pocket of 540 {angstrom}{sup 3} and yet leaving the structure of the coactivator binding site intact. DAC occupies only {approx}50% of the space of the pocket but makes intricate interactions with the receptor around the phenylpyrazole group that accounts for the high-affinity binding of DAC. The dramatic expansion of the DAC-binding pocket thus highlights the conformational adaptability of GR to ligand binding. The new structure also allows docking of various nonsteroidal ligands that cannot be fitted into the previous structures, thus providing a new rational template for drug discovery of steroidal and nonsteroidal glucocorticoids that can be specifically designed to reach the unoccupied space of the expanded pocket.

  20. Reduction of avian influenza virus shedding by administration of Toll-like receptor ligands to chickens.

    PubMed

    Barjesteh, Neda; Shojadoost, Bahram; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Emam, Mehdi; Hodgins, Douglas C; Nagy, Éva; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-09-11

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are of concern to the poultry industry. Outbreaks of AIV highlight the urgent need for effective control measures. Prophylactic strategies should be explored that rapidly elicit immunity against the virus. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune molecules that can induce anti-viral responses, therefore the application of TLR ligands as prophylactic agents in chickens is gaining more attention. We hypothesized that treatment of chickens with TLR ligands reduces the shedding of AIV from infected birds. In addition, the effects of TLR ligand dose and route of administration on the efficiency of TLR ligands to reduce AIV shedding were examined. Chickens were treated with TLR2, 4, 7 and 21 ligands using different doses and routes of administration, 18h before AIV infection. Moreover, the expression of several candidate genes, such as type I interferons, PKR, OAS, viperin and IFITM3 was quantified at 3, 8 and 18h post-treatment with TLR ligands. The results revealed that route of administration and dosage affect the efficacy of TLR ligands to reduce virus shedding. Furthermore, varying effects were observed when different ligands were applied. Our results demonstrated that all TLR ligand treatments reduced AIV shedding, with the CpG-ODN 1826 being the most efficacious to reduce oral virus shedding, whereas LPS from Escherichia coli 026:B6 resulted in the largest reduction in cloacal virus shedding. Moreover, TLR ligands induced the expression of genes involved in antiviral responses such as type I interferons and interferon-stimulated genes in chicken trachea and cecal tonsils. These results raise the possibility of treatment of chickens with TLR ligands as anti-viral agents.

  1. Structural insights into ligand-induced activation of the insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Lawrence, M.; Streltsov, V.; Garrett, T.; McKern, N.; Lou, M.-Z.; Lovrecz, G.; Adams, T.

    2008-04-29

    The current model for insulin binding to the insulin receptor proposes that there are two binding sites, referred to as sites 1 and 2, on each monomer in the receptor homodimer and two binding surfaces on insulin, one involving residues predominantly from the dimerization face of insulin (the classical binding surface) and the other residues from the hexamerization face. High-affinity binding involves one insulin molecule using its two surfaces to make bridging contacts with site 1 from one receptor monomer and site 2 from the other. Whilst the receptor dimer has two identical site 1-site 2 pairs, insulin molecules cannot bridge both pairs simultaneously. Our structures of the insulin receptor (IR) ectodomain dimer and the L1-CR-L2 fragments of IR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) explain many of the features of ligand-receptor binding and allow the two binding sites on the receptor to be described. The IR dimer has an unexpected folded-over conformation which places the C-terminal surface of the first fibronectin-III domain in close juxtaposition to the known L1 domain ligand-binding surface suggesting that the C-terminal surface of FnIII-1 is the second binding site involved in high-affinity binding. This is very different from previous models based on three-dimensional reconstruction from scanning transmission electron micrographs. Our single-molecule images indicate that IGF-1R has a morphology similar to that of IR. In addition, the structures of the first three domains (L1-CR-L2) of the IR and IGF-1R show that there are major differences in the two regions governing ligand specificity. The implications of these findings for ligand-induced receptor activation will be discussed. This review summarizes the key findings regarding the discovery and characterization of the insulin receptor, the identification and arrangement of its structural domains in the sequence and the key features associated with ligand binding. The remainder of the review

  2. Post-docking optimization and analysis of protein-ligand interactions of estrogen receptor alpha using AMMOS software.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, Tania; Jereva, Dessislava; Miteva, Maria A; Pajeva, Ilza

    2013-03-01

    Understanding protein-ligand interactions is a critical step in rational drug design/virtual ligand screening. In this work we applied the AMMOS_ProtLig software for post-docking optimization of estrogen receptor alpha complexes generated after virtual ligand screening protocol. Using MOE software we identified the ligand-receptor interactions in the optimized complexes at different levels of protein flexibility and compared them to the experimentally observed interactions. We analyzed in details the binding sites of three X-ray complexes of the same receptor and identified the key residues for the protein-ligand interactions. The complexes were further processed with AMMOS_ProtLig and the interactions in the predicted poses were compared to those observed in the X-ray structures. The effect of employing different levels of flexibility was analyzed. The results confirmed the AMMOS_ProtLig applicability as a helpful postdocking optimization tool for virtual ligand screening of estrogen receptors.

  3. NFkappaB Selectivity of Estrogen Receptor Ligands Revealed By Comparative Crystallographic Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Nettles, K.W.; Bruning, J.B.; Gil, G.; Nowak, J.; Sharma, S.K.; Hahm, J.B.; Kulp, K.; Hochberg, R.B.; Zhou, H.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; Katzenllenbogen, B.S.; Kim, Y.; Joachmiak, A.; Greene, G.L.

    2009-05-22

    Our understanding of how steroid hormones regulate physiological functions has been significantly advanced by structural biology approaches. However, progress has been hampered by misfolding of the ligand binding domains in heterologous expression systems and by conformational flexibility that interferes with crystallization. Here, we show that protein folding problems that are common to steroid hormone receptors are circumvented by mutations that stabilize well-characterized conformations of the receptor. We use this approach to present the structure of an apo steroid receptor that reveals a ligand-accessible channel allowing soaking of preformed crystals. Furthermore, crystallization of different pharmacological classes of compounds allowed us to define the structural basis of NF{kappa}B-selective signaling through the estrogen receptor, thus revealing a unique conformation of the receptor that allows selective suppression of inflammatory gene expression. The ability to crystallize many receptor-ligand complexes with distinct pharmacophores allows one to define structural features of signaling specificity that would not be apparent in a single structure.

  4. Retinoid X receptor-selective ligands produce malformations in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Minucci, S; Saint-Jeannet, J P; Toyama, R; Scita, G; DeLuca, L M; Tiara, M; Levin, A A; Ozato, K; Dawid, I B

    1996-01-01

    Retinoids exert pleiotropic effects on the development of vertebrates through the action of retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR). We have investigated the effect of synthetic retinoids selective for RXR and RAR on the development of Xenopus and zebrafish embryos. In Xenopus, both ligands selective for RAR and RXR caused striking malformations along the anterior-posterior axis, whereas in zebrafish only ligands specific for RAR caused embryonic malformations. In Xenopus, RAR- and RXR-selective ligands regulated the expression of the Xlim-1, gsc, and HoxA1 genes similarly as all-trans-retinoic acid. Nevertheless, RXR-selective ligands activated only an RXR responsive reporter but not an RAR responsive reporter introduced by microinjection into the Xenopus embryo, consistent with our failure to detect conversion of an RXR-selective ligand to different derivatives in the embryo. These results suggest that Xenopus embryos possess a unique response pathway in which liganded RXR can control gene expression. Our observations further illustrate the divergence in retinoid responsiveness between different vertebrate species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8700839

  5. A Nuclear Receptor Ligand-based Probe Enables Temporal Control of C. elegans Development

    PubMed Central

    Judkins, Joshua C.; Mahanti, Parag; Hoffman, Jacob; Yim, Isaiah; Antebi, Adam; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    C. elegans development and lifespan are controlled by the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, an important model for vertebrate vitamin D and liver-X receptors. Similar to its mammalian homologs, DAF-12 function is regulated by bile acid-like steroidal ligands, the dafachronic acids; however, tools for investigating their biosynthesis and function in vivo are lacking. We report a flexible synthesis for DAF-12 ligands and masked ligand derivatives that enable precise temporal control of DAF-12 function. For ligand masking, we introduce photocleavable amides of 5-methoxy-N-methyl-2-nitroaniline (MMNA). MMNA-masked ligands are bioavailable and after incorporation into the worm can be used to trigger expression of DAF-12 target genes and initiate development from dauer larvae to adults by brief, innocuous UV-irradiation. In-vivo release of DAF-12 ligands and other small-molecule signals using MMNA-based probes will enable functional studies with precise spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:24453122

  6. Synthetic Multivalent Ligands as Probes of Inter-Receptor Communication in Bacterial Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestwicki, Jason

    2004-03-01

    Bacteria can sense chemotactic signals, such as nutrients and toxins, with remarkable sensitivity. Escherichia coli, respond to changes in stimulant concentration of less than 10to maintain sensitivity, the relationship between ligand concentration and output response must be non-linear. For example, at low ligand levels, substantial amplification of the chemotactic signal is required to trigger locomotion. Signal amplification must be quickly suppressed, however, to restore proper sensitivity to small changes in ligand at higher concentrations. Because of the rapid flexibility of this system, it has been hypothesized that alterations in the organization of the chemotactic signaling proteins, rather than changes in their expression, provide this exquisite sensitivity. The interaction between chemoreceptors within lattices has been proposed to play a role in this process. Using a series of synthetic multivalent ligands directed at the chemoreceptors, we have demonstrated a requirement for dynamic changes in inter-receptor interactions for amplification and integration of sensory information. Multivalent ligands that interact through the galactose-sensing receptor Trg, enforce proximal interactions between chemoreceptors and enhance signal output. Further, upon treatment with multivalent ligands, the response to the attractant serine is amplified by at least 100-fold. These results, and those from genetic and structural studies by other laboratories, suggest that the entire array is involved in sensing. These results support general strategy by which biological responses may be regulated.

  7. Ligand-selective activation of heterologously-expressed mammalian olfactory receptor.

    PubMed

    Ukhanov, K; Bobkov, Y; Corey, E A; Ache, B W

    2014-10-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptors (ORs) appear to have the capacity to couple to multiple G protein-coupled signaling pathways in a ligand-dependent selective manner. To better understand the mechanisms and molecular range of such ligand selectivity, we expressed the mouse eugenol OR (mOR-EG) in HEK293T cells together with Gα15 to monitor activation of the phospholipase-C (PLC) signaling pathway and/or Gαolf to monitor activation of the adenylate cyclase (AC) signaling pathway, resulting in intracellular Ca(2+) release and/or Ca(2+) influx through a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, respectively. PLC-dependent responses differed dynamically from AC-dependent responses, allowing them to be distinguished when Gα15 and Gαolf were co-expressed. The dynamic difference in readout was independent of the receptor, the heterologous expression system, and the ligand concentration. Of 17 reported mOR-EG ligands tested, including eugenol, its analogs, and structurally dissimilar compounds (mousse cristal, nootkatone, orivone), some equally activated both signaling pathways, some differentially activated both signaling pathways, and some had no noticeable effect even at 1-5mM. Our findings argue that mOR-EG, when heterologously expressed, can couple to two different signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner. The challenge now is to determine the potential of mOR-EG, and perhaps other ORs, to activate multiple signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner in native ORNs. PMID:25149566

  8. Ligand-selective activation of heterologously-expressed mammalian olfactory receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ukhanov, K.; Bobkov, Y.; Corey, E.A.; Ache, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptors (ORs) appear to have the capacity to couple to multiple G protein-coupled signaling pathways in a ligand-dependent selective manner. To better understand the mechanisms and molecular range of such ligand selectivity, we expressed the mouse eugenol OR (mOR-EG) in HEK293T cells together with Gα15 to monitor activation of the phospholipase-C (PLC) signaling pathway and/or Gαolf to monitor activation of the adenylate cyclase (AC) signaling pathway, resulting in intracellular Ca2+ release and/or Ca2+ influx through a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, respectively. PLC-dependent responses differed dynamically from AC-dependent responses, allowing them to be distinguished when Gα15 and Gαolf were co-expressed. The dynamic difference in readout was independent of the receptor, the heterologous expression system, and the ligand concentration. Of 17 reported mOR-EG ligands tested, including eugenol, its analogs, and structurally dissimilar compounds (mousse cristal, nootkatone, orivone), some equally activated both signaling pathways, some differentially activated both signaling pathways, and some had no noticeable effect even at 1-5 mM. Our findings argue that mOR-EG, when heterologously expressed, can couple to two different signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner. The challenge now is to determine the potential of mOR-EG, and perhaps other ORs, to activate multiple signaling pathways in a ligand selective manner in native ORNs. PMID:25149566

  9. Calculations of distance distributions and probabilities of binding by ligands between parallel plane membranes comprising receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2014-03-01

    Cell communication through biochemical signaling pathways is a key determinant of tissue responses to radiation. Several molecules, such as the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), are implicated in radiation-induced signaling between cells. Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithms have recently been used to simulate the interaction of ligands with receptors and to elucidate signal transduction and autocrine loops in ligand-receptors systems. In this paper, we discuss the simulation of particle diffusion and binding kinetics in a space bounded by two parallel plane membranes, using an exact algorithm to sample the propagator (Green’s function) of a particle located between 2 membranes. We also show that the simulation results are independent of the number of time steps used, in accordance with time discretization equations. These simulations could be used to simulate the motion and binding of ligand molecules in a cell culture, and possibly in neuronal synapses.

  10. Stochastic description of the ligand-receptor interaction of biologically active substances at extremely low doses.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, Konstantin G; Agutter, Paul S; Wheatley, Denys N

    2003-04-01

    Signalling molecules can be effective at extraordinarily low concentrations (down to attomolar levels). To handle such cases, probabilistic methods have been used to describe the formal kinetics of action of biologically active substances in these low doses, although it has been necessary to review what is meant by such a term. The mean numbers of transformed/degraded molecules and their dispersions were calculated for the possible range of ligand-receptor binding schemes. We used both analytical equations and numerical simulations to calculate the coefficients of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean) and demonstrated that the distribution of the coefficient is highly dependent on the reaction scheme. It may, therefore, be used as an additional factor for discriminating between cooperative and noncooperative models of ligand-receptor interaction over extreme ranges of ligand dilution. The relevance to signalling behaviour is discussed.

  11. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R.

    2015-12-01

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  12. Estimation of Ligand-Receptor Binding Affinity from Fluctuation of Their Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Koji; Ode, Hirotaka; Ohta, Masami; Misu, Takashi; Hata, Masayuki; Neya, Saburo; Hoshino, Tyuji

    2005-10-01

    It is necessary for the understanding of protein interactions or in silico drug designs to accurately estimate ligand-receptor affinity. The energy calculation based on the electrostatic force, van der Waals force, and solvation effect is a direct method of computing the magnitude of the interaction between ligand and receptor. By this conventional method, however, it is difficult to estimate a slight difference in binding affinity with sufficient accuracy. We propose a novel concept for the evaluation of binding affinity between a ligand and its receptor by functionalizing the fluctuation at the ligand-receptor interface. This method enables an adequate estimation with a high accuracy compared with the conventional energetic approach. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease and its inhibitor are used to explain how binding affinity is extracted from the fluctuation in interfacial energy, and a combination of an antigen and its antibody is examined to demonstrate the compatibility between the estimation from the interfacial fluctuation and the experimentally measured binding energy.

  13. Structural basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by the trypanosome haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor.

    PubMed

    Lane-Serff, Harriet; MacGregor, Paula; Lowe, Edward D; Carrington, Mark; Higgins, Matthew K

    2014-12-12

    The haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) of African trypanosomes allows acquisition of haem and provides an uptake route for trypanolytic factor-1, a mediator of innate immunity against trypanosome infection. In this study, we report the structure of Trypanosoma brucei HpHbR in complex with human haptoglobin-haemoglobin (HpHb), revealing an elongated ligand-binding site that extends along its membrane distal half. This contacts haptoglobin and the β-subunit of haemoglobin, showing how the receptor selectively binds HpHb over individual components. Lateral mobility of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HpHbR, and a ∼50° kink in the receptor, allows two receptors to simultaneously bind one HpHb dimer. Indeed, trypanosomes take up dimeric HpHb at significantly lower concentrations than monomeric HpHb, due to increased ligand avidity that comes from bivalent binding. The structure therefore reveals the molecular basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by trypanosomes and identifies adaptations that allow efficient ligand uptake in the context of the complex trypanosome cell surface.

  14. REACTIVITY PROFILE OF LIGANDS OF MAMMALIAN RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS: A PRELIMINARY COREPA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retinoic acid and associated derivatives comprise a class of endogenous hormones that bind to and activate different families of retinoic acid receptors (RARs, RXRs), and control many aspects of vertebrate development. Identification of potential RAR and RXR ligands is of interes...

  15. Characterization and Evaluation of Two Novel Fluorescent Sigma-2 Receptor Ligands as Proliferation Probes

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chenbo; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Jones, Lynne A.; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Chang, Katherine C.; Xu, Jinbin; Rothfuss, Justin M.; Goldberg, Mark P.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Mach, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized and characterized two novel fluorescent sigma-2 receptor selective ligands, SW120 and SW116, and evaluated these ligands as potential probes for imaging cell proliferation. Both ligands are highly selective for sigma-2 receptors versus sigma-1 receptors. SW120 and SW116 were internalized into MDA-MB-435 cells, and 50% of the maximum fluorescent intensity was reached in 11 and 24 minutes, respectively. In vitro studies showed that 50% of SW120 or SW116 washed out of cells in 1 hour. The internalization of SW120 was reduced ≈30% by phenylarsine oxide, an inhibitor of endocytosis, suggesting that sigma-2 ligands are internalized, in part, by an endocytotic pathway. Subcellular localization studies using confocal and two-photon microscopy showed that SW120 and SW116 partially colocalized with fluorescent markers of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and the plasma membrane, suggesting that sigma-2 receptors localized to the cytoplasmic organelles and plasma membrane. SW120 did not colocalize with the nuclear dye 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. In vivo studies showed that the uptake of SW120 in solid tumors and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mice positively correlated with the expression level of the cell proliferation marker Ki-67, suggesting that sigma-2 fluorescent probes may be used to image cell proliferation in mice. PMID:22201533

  16. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-12-28

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  17. Structural basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by the trypanosome haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Serff, Harriet; MacGregor, Paula; Lowe, Edward D; Carrington, Mark; Higgins, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    The haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) of African trypanosomes allows acquisition of haem and provides an uptake route for trypanolytic factor-1, a mediator of innate immunity against trypanosome infection. In this study, we report the structure of Trypanosoma brucei HpHbR in complex with human haptoglobin-haemoglobin (HpHb), revealing an elongated ligand-binding site that extends along its membrane distal half. This contacts haptoglobin and the β-subunit of haemoglobin, showing how the receptor selectively binds HpHb over individual components. Lateral mobility of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HpHbR, and a ∼50o kink in the receptor, allows two receptors to simultaneously bind one HpHb dimer. Indeed, trypanosomes take up dimeric HpHb at significantly lower concentrations than monomeric HpHb, due to increased ligand avidity that comes from bivalent binding. The structure therefore reveals the molecular basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by trypanosomes and identifies adaptations that allow efficient ligand uptake in the context of the complex trypanosome cell surface. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05553.001 PMID:25497229

  18. Functional Selectivity and Antidepressant Activity of Serotonin 1A Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej Jacek; Pilc, Andrzej; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays an important role in physiological functions. 5-HT has been implicated in sleep, feeding, sexual behavior, temperature regulation, pain, and cognition as well as in pathological states including disorders connected to mood, anxiety, psychosis and pain. 5-HT1A receptors have for a long time been considered as an interesting target for the action of antidepressant drugs. It was postulated that postsynaptic 5-HT1A agonists could form a new class of antidepressant drugs, and mixed 5-HT1A receptor ligands/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors seem to possess an interesting pharmacological profile. It should, however, be noted that 5-HT1A receptors can activate several different biochemical pathways and signal through both G protein-dependent and G protein-independent pathways. The variables that affect the multiplicity of 5-HT1A receptor signaling pathways would thus result from the summation of effects specific to the host cell milieu. Moreover, receptor trafficking appears different at pre- and postsynaptic sites. It should also be noted that the 5-HT1A receptor cooperates with other signal transduction systems (like the 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors, the GABAergic and the glutaminergic systems), which also contribute to its antidepressant and/or anxiolytic activity. Thus identifying brain specific molecular targets for 5-HT1A receptor ligands may result in a better targeting, raising a hope for more effective medicines for various pathologies. PMID:26262615

  19. Elimination of a ligand gating site generates a supersensitive olfactory receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kanika; Ahuja, Gaurav; Hussain, Ashiq; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction poses one of the most complex ligand-receptor matching problems in biology due to the unparalleled multitude of odor molecules facing a large number of cognate olfactory receptors. We have recently deorphanized an olfactory receptor, TAAR13c, as a specific receptor for the death-associated odor cadaverine. Here we have modeled the cadaverine/TAAR13c interaction, exchanged predicted binding residues by site-directed mutagenesis, and measured the activity of the mutant receptors. Unexpectedly we observed a binding site for cadaverine at the external surface of the receptor, in addition to an internal binding site, whose mutation resulted in complete loss of activity. In stark contrast, elimination of the external binding site generated supersensitive receptors. Modeling suggests this site to act as a gate, limiting access of the ligand to the internal binding site and thereby downregulating the affinity of the native receptor. This constitutes a novel mechanism to fine-tune physiological sensitivity to socially relevant odors. PMID:27323929

  20. Functional Selectivity and Antidepressant Activity of Serotonin 1A Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej Jacek; Pilc, Andrzej; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays an important role in physiological functions. 5-HT has been implicated in sleep, feeding, sexual behavior, temperature regulation, pain, and cognition as well as in pathological states including disorders connected to mood, anxiety, psychosis and pain. 5-HT1A receptors have for a long time been considered as an interesting target for the action of antidepressant drugs. It was postulated that postsynaptic 5-HT1A agonists could form a new class of antidepressant drugs, and mixed 5-HT1A receptor ligands/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors seem to possess an interesting pharmacological profile. It should, however, be noted that 5-HT1A receptors can activate several different biochemical pathways and signal through both G protein-dependent and G protein-independent pathways. The variables that affect the multiplicity of 5-HT1A receptor signaling pathways would thus result from the summation of effects specific to the host cell milieu. Moreover, receptor trafficking appears different at pre- and postsynaptic sites. It should also be noted that the 5-HT1A receptor cooperates with other signal transduction systems (like the 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors, the GABAergic and the glutaminergic systems), which also contribute to its antidepressant and/or anxiolytic activity. Thus identifying brain specific molecular targets for 5-HT1A receptor ligands may result in a better targeting, raising a hope for more effective medicines for various pathologies. PMID:26262615

  1. Ligand-based receptor tyrosine kinase partial agonists: New paradigm for cancer drug discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Riese, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are validated targets for oncology drug discovery and several RTK antagonists have been approved for the treatment of human malignancies. Nonetheless, the discovery and development of RTK antagonists has lagged behind the discovery and development of agents that target G-protein coupled receptors. In part, this is because it has been difficult to discover analogs of naturally-occurring RTK agonists that function as antagonists. Areas covered Here we describe ligands of ErbB receptors that function as partial agonists for these receptors, thereby enabling these ligands to antagonize the activity of full agonists for these receptors. We provide insights into the mechanisms by which these ligands function as antagonists. We discuss how information concerning these mechanisms can be translated into screens for novel small molecule- and antibody-based antagonists of ErbB receptors and how such antagonists hold great potential as targeted cancer chemotherapeutics. Expert opinion While there have been a number of important key findings into this field, the identification of the structural basis of ligand functional specificity is still of the greatest importance. While it is true that, with some notable exceptions, peptide hormones and growth factors have not proven to be good platforms for oncology drug discovery; addressing the fundamental issues of antagonistic partial agonists for receptor tyrosine kinases has the potential to steer oncology drug discovery in new directions. Mechanism based approaches are now emerging to enable the discovery of RTK partial agonists that may antagonize both agonist-dependent and –independent RTK signaling and may hold tremendous promise as targeted cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:21532939

  2. Endogenous and exogenous ligands of aryl hydrocarbon receptor: current state of art.

    PubMed

    Stejskalova, Lucie; Dvorak, Zdenek; Pavek, Petr

    2011-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important transcriptional regulator of drug metabolizing enzymes that dominantly controls the expression of cytochrome P450 CYP1 family genes and some phase II enzymes. AhR also has many endogenous functions including cell cycle control, immune response, and cell differentiation. In addition, AhR is well-known to be involved in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. AhR is activated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. While exogenous activation of AhR has deleterious effects on human organism, sustained activation of AhR by endogenous ligands is indispensable for proper cell functions. Therefore, the effects of exogenous and endogenous ligands on AhR resemble the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde story. The aim of the current paper is to summarize and update the knowledge on exogenous and endogenous AhR ligands. PMID:21395538

  3. Uncoupling the Structure-Activity Relationships of β2 Adrenergic Receptor Ligands from Membrane Binding.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Callum J; Hornak, Viktor; Velez-Vega, Camilo; McKay, Daniel J J; Reilly, John; Sandham, David A; Shaw, Duncan; Fairhurst, Robin A; Charlton, Steven J; Sykes, David A; Pearlstein, Robert A; Duca, Jose S

    2016-06-23

    Ligand binding to membrane proteins may be significantly influenced by the interaction of ligands with the membrane. In particular, the microscopic ligand concentration within the membrane surface solvation layer may exceed that in bulk solvent, resulting in overestimation of the intrinsic protein-ligand binding contribution to the apparent/measured affinity. Using published binding data for a set of small molecules with the β2 adrenergic receptor, we demonstrate that deconvolution of membrane and protein binding contributions allows for improved structure-activity relationship analysis and structure-based drug design. Molecular dynamics simulations of ligand bound membrane protein complexes were used to validate binding poses, allowing analysis of key interactions and binding site solvation to develop structure-activity relationships of β2 ligand binding. The resulting relationships are consistent with intrinsic binding affinity (corrected for membrane interaction). The successful structure-based design of ligands targeting membrane proteins may require an assessment of membrane affinity to uncouple protein binding from membrane interactions. PMID:27239696

  4. A python-based docking program utilizing a receptor bound ligand shape: PythDock.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Cho, Seung Joo; Hah, Jung-Mi

    2011-09-01

    PythDock is a heuristic docking program that uses Python programming language with a simple scoring function and a population based search engine. The scoring function considers electrostatic and dispersion/repulsion terms. The search engine utilizes a particle swarm optimization algorithm. A grid potential map is generated using the shape information of a bound ligand within the active site. Therefore, the searching area is more relevant to the ligand binding. To evaluate the docking performance of PythDock, two well-known docking programs (AutoDock and DOCK) were also used with the same data. The accuracy of docked results were measured by the difference of the ligand structure between x-ray structure, and docked pose, i.e., average root mean squared deviation values of the bound ligand were compared for fourteen protein-ligand complexes. Since the number of ligands' rotational flexibility is an important factor affecting the accuracy of a docking, the data set was chosen to have various degrees of flexibility. Although PythDock has a scoring function simpler than those of other programs (AutoDock and DOCK), our results showed that PythDock predicted more accurate poses than both AutoDock4.2 and DOCK6.2. This indicates that PythDock could be a useful tool to study ligand-receptor interactions and could also be beneficial in structure based drug design.

  5. 3-Chlorotyramine Acting as Ligand of the D2 Dopamine Receptor. Molecular Modeling, Synthesis and D2 Receptor Affinity.

    PubMed

    Angelina, Emilio; Andujar, Sebastian; Moreno, Laura; Garibotto, Francisco; Párraga, Javier; Peruchena, Nelida; Cabedo, Nuria; Villecco, Margarita; Cortes, Diego; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized and tested 3-chlorotyramine as a ligand of the D2 dopamine receptor. This compound displayed a similar affinity by this receptor to that previously reported for dopamine. In order to understand further the experimental results we performed a molecular modeling study of 3-chlorotyramine and structurally related compounds. By combining molecular dynamics simulations with semiempirical (PM6), ab initio and density functional theory calculations, a simple and generally applicable procedure to evaluate the binding energies of these ligands interacting with the D2 dopamine receptors is reported here. These results provided a clear picture of the binding interactions of these compounds from both structural and energetic view points. A reduced model for the binding pocket was used. This approach allowed us to perform more accurate quantum mechanical calculations as well as to obtain a detailed electronic analysis using the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) technique. Molecular aspects of the binding interactions between ligands and the D2 dopamine receptor are discussed in detail. A good correlation between the relative binding energies obtained from theoretical calculations and experimental IC50 values was obtained. These results allowed us to predict that 3-chlorotyramine possesses a significant affinity by the D2 -DR. Our theoretical predictions were experimentally corroborated when we synthesized and tested 3-chlorotyramine which displayed a similar affinity by the D2 -DR to that reported for DA.

  6. Tools for investigating functional interactions between ligands and G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Lerner, M R

    1994-04-01

    A general assay for evaluating functional interactions between ligands and G-protein-coupled receptors within minutes has been developed. The system uses the principles employed by animals such as reptiles, amphibians and fish to control their colors. In nature, activation of G-protein-coupled receptors expressed by skin cells called chromatophores effects pigment redistribution within the cells to change an animal's coloration. The in vitro 'chameleon in a dish' equivalent can use essentially any cloned G-protein-coupled receptor. PMID:7517590

  7. Binding kinetics differentiates functional antagonism of orexin-2 receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Mould, R; Brown, J; Marshall, FH; Langmead, CJ

    2014-01-01

    Orexin receptor antagonism represents a novel approach for the treatment of insomnia that directly targets sleep/wake regulation. Several such compounds have entered into clinical development, including the dual orexin receptor antagonists, suvorexant and almorexant. In this study, we have used equilibrium and kinetic binding studies with the orexin-2 (OX2) selective antagonist radioligand, [3H]-EMPA, to profile several orexin receptor antagonists. Furthermore, selected compounds were studied in cell-based assays of inositol phosphate accumulation and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation in CHO cells stably expressing the OX2 receptor that employ different agonist incubation times (30 and 5 min, respectively). EMPA, suvorexant, almorexant and TCS-OX-29 all bind to the OX2 receptor with moderate to high affinity (pKI values ≥ 7.5), whereas the primarily OX1 selective antagonists SB-334867 and SB-408124 displayed low affinity (pKI values ca. 6). Competition kinetic analysis showed that the compounds displayed a range of dissociation rates from very fast (TCS-OX2-29, koff = 0.22 min−1) to very slow (almorexant, koff = 0.005 min−1). Notably, there was a clear correlation between association rate and affinity. In the cell-based assays, fast-offset antagonists EMPA and TCS-OX2-29 displayed surmountable antagonism of orexin-A agonist activity. However, both suvorexant and particularly almorexant cause concentration-dependent depression in the maximal orexin-A response, a profile that is more evident with a shorter agonist incubation time. Analysis according to a hemi-equilibrium model suggests that antagonist dissociation is slower in a cellular system than in membrane binding; under these conditions, almorexant effectively acts as a pseudo-irreversible antagonist. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Orexin Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-2 PMID:23692283

  8. Ligand-Induced Dynamics of Neurotrophin Receptors Investigated by Single-Molecule Imaging Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Laura; Luin, Stefano; Bonsignore, Fulvio; de Nadai, Teresa; Beltram, Fabio; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophins are secreted proteins that regulate neuronal development and survival, as well as maintenance and plasticity of the adult nervous system. The biological activity of neurotrophins stems from their binding to two membrane receptor types, the tropomyosin receptor kinase and the p75 neurotrophin receptors (NRs). The intracellular signalling cascades thereby activated have been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, a comprehensive description of the ligand-induced nanoscale details of NRs dynamics and interactions spanning from the initial lateral movements triggered at the plasma membrane to the internalization and transport processes is still missing. Recent advances in high spatio-temporal resolution imaging techniques have yielded new insight on the dynamics of NRs upon ligand binding. Here we discuss requirements, potential and practical implementation of these novel approaches for the study of neurotrophin trafficking and signalling, in the framework of current knowledge available also for other ligand-receptor systems. We shall especially highlight the correlation between the receptor dynamics activated by different neurotrophins and the respective signalling outcome, as recently revealed by single-molecule tracking of NRs in living neuronal cells. PMID:25603178

  9. Dye-labeled benzodiazepines: development of small ligands for receptor binding studies using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hegener, Oliver; Jordan, Randolf; Häberlein, Hanns

    2004-07-01

    To investigate benzodiazepine receptor binding studies by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), the four fluorophores fluorescein, tetramethylrhodamine, Oregon Green 488, and Alexa 532 were coupled to the benzodiazepine Ro 07-1986/602 (Ro). Binding assays to polyclonal antibodies to benzodiazepines and at the native benzodiazepine receptor on the membrane of rat hippocampal neurons were established to examine the dye-labeled ligands for their benzodiazepine character and their binding behavior. Both the fluorescein and the Oregon Green488 moiety led to a loss of the benzodiazepine receptor binding of the corresponding Ro derivatives. Antibody recognition and interactions to the receptor were observed for the tetramethylrhodamine derivative (K(D) = 96.0 +/- 9.5 nM) but with a high amount of nonspecific binding at the cell membrane of about 50%. In saturation experiments a K(D) value of 97.2 +/- 8.5 nM was found for the Alexa Fluor 532 derivative-antibody interaction. Investigation of the binding of this ligand to the benzodiazepine receptor in FCS cell measurements led to confirmation of high specific binding behavior with a K(D) value of 9.9 +/- 1.9 nM. A nonspecific binding of <10% was observed after coincubation with 1 microM of midazolam. The different properties of the labeled benzodiazepine derivatives and the requirements of the fluorophore in small dye-labeled ligands in FCS binding studies, at the membrane of living cells, are discussed.

  10. How does oxygen rise drive evolution? Clues from oxygen-dependent biosynthesis of nuclear receptor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ying-Ying; Kong, De-Xin; Qin, Tao; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2010-01-08

    It is well known that oxygen rise greatly facilitated biological evolution. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Recently, Raymond and Segre revealed that molecular oxygen allows 1000 more metabolic reactions than can occur in anoxic conditions. From the novel metabolites produced in aerobic metabolism, we serendipitously found that some of the metabolites are signaling molecules that target nuclear receptors. Since nuclear signaling systems are indispensable to superior organisms, we speculated that aerobic metabolism may facilitate biological evolution through promoting the establishment of nuclear signaling systems. This hypothesis is validated by the observation that most (97.5%) nuclear receptor ligands are produced by aerobic metabolism, which is further explained in terms of the chemical criteria (appropriate volume and rather high hydrophobicity) of nuclear receptor ligands that aerobic metabolites are more ready than anaerobic counterparts to satisfy these criteria.

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of novel small peptides with aminophosphonates moiety as NOP receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Naydenova, Emilia D; Todorov, Petar T; Mateeva, Polina I; Zamfirova, Rositza N; Pavlov, Nikola D; Todorov, Simeon B

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was the synthesis and the biological screening of new analogs of Ac-RYYRWK-NH2, modified at the N-terminal with 1-[(methoxyphosphono)methylamino]cycloalkanecarboxylic acids. The four newly synthesized ligands for the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor (NOP) have been prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis--Fmoc-strategy. These compounds were tested for agonistic activity in vitro on electrically stimulated smooth-muscle preparations isolated from vas deferens of Wistar rats. Our data showed that substitution of Arg at position 1 with aminophosphonates moiety decreased significantly the affinity of ligands to the NOP receptor. Furthermore, the enlargement of the cycle (with 5-8 carbon atoms) additionally diminished both the activity and the selectivity for NOP-receptor.

  12. Structure of complement receptor 2 in complex with its C3d ligand.

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, G; Guthridge, J M; Li, D; Young, K; Holers, V M; Chen, X S

    2001-06-01

    Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is an important receptor that amplifies B lymphocyte activation by bridging the innate and adaptive immune systems. CR2 ligands include complement C3d and Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein 350/220. We describe the x-ray structure of this CR2 domain in complex with C3d at 2.0 angstroms. The structure reveals extensive main chain interactions between C3d and only one short consensus repeat (SCR) of CR2 and substantial SCR side-side packing. These results provide a detailed understanding of receptor-ligand interactions in this protein family and reveal potential target sites for molecular drug design. PMID:11387479

  13. Ligands and Regulatory Modes of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Avians.

    PubMed

    Navidshad, Bahman; Royan, M

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient and gene interaction is an important aspect of poultry metabolism that determines performance capacity. New technological tools in biochemistry and biotechnology make it possible to explore the molecular base of phenotypic characteristics of poultry production. Fats act as energy deposits in the poultry body and are an essential constituent of animal cell membranes. From a functional standpoint, it has been suggested that ingested lipids change liver fatty acid synthesis and other lipogenic enzymes by regulating mRNA synthesis. Nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that control several genes involved in lipid metabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors. Three separate PPAR genes have been identified; they are known as α, δ, and γ. The most important metabolic effect of PPARγ in chicken is its task in adipogenesis. Reviewing the ligands of chicken PPARγ gene can be useful to a better understanding of PPARγ regulatory functions.

  14. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha

  15. Only high-affinity receptors for interleukin 2 mediate internalization of ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, A.M.; Harford, J.B.; Svetlik, P.B.; Leonard, W.L.; Depper, J.M.; Waldmann, T.A.; Greene, W.C.; Klausner, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors are expressed on activated T cells and in select T-cell leukemias. Recently, it has been demonstrated that at least two classes of receptor for IL-2 exist with markedly different affinities for ligand. All known biological actions of IL-2 have been correlated with occupancy of high-affinity sites; the function of the low-affinity sites remains unknown. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the primary means of internalization of cell-surface receptors and their ligands. The internalization of IL-2 bound to high- and low-affinity receptor sites was studied in a human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected human T-cell leukemia cell line and in a cloned murine cytotoxic T-cell line (CTLL). Internalization of IL-2 occurred only when bound to high-affinity sites. In addition, an anti-receptor antibody (anti-Tac), which binds equally well to high- and low-affinity sites, demonstrated no detectable internalization. The implications of these findings as they relate to IL-2 receptor structure and function are discussed.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of the EGF Receptor Autocrine System Reveals Cryptic Regulation of Cell Response by Ligand Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, Ann E.; Dong, Jian Y.; Wiley, H S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2001-06-15

    Autocrine signaling is important in normal tissue physiology as well as pathological conditions. It is difficult to analyze these systems, however, because they are both self-contained and recursive. To understand how parameters, such as ligand production and receptor expression influence autocrine activity, we investigated a human epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF/EGFR) loop engineered into mouse B82 fibroblasts. We varied the level of ligand production using the tet-off expression system and used metalloprotease inhibitors to modulate ligand release. Receptor expression was varied using antagonistic, blocking antibodies. We compared autocrine ligand release to receptor activation using a microphysiometer-based assay and analyzed our data with a quantitative model of ligand release and receptor dynamics. We found that the activity of our autocrine system could be described in terms of a simple ratio between the rate of ligand production (VL) and the rate of receptor production (VR). At a VL/VR ratio of < 0.3, essentially no ligand was found in the extracellular medium, but a significant number cell receptors (30-40%) were occupied. As the VL/VR ratio increased from 0.3 towards unity, receptor occupancy increased, and significant amounts of ligand now appeared in the medium. Above a VL/VR ratio of 1.0, receptor occupancy approached saturation and most of the released ligand was lost into the medium. Analysis of human mammary epithelial cells showed that a VL/VR ratio of < 5 x 10 -4 was sufficient to evoke >20% of a maximal proliferative response. This suggests that natural autocrine systems are active even when no ligand appears in the extracellular medium; i.e., they operate 'invisibly' to general detection.

  17. Chemical modification of Class II G-protein coupled receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Chapter, Megan C.; White, Caitlin M.; De Ridder, Angela; Chadwick, Wayne; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Recent research and clinical data have begun to demonstrate the huge potential therapeutic importance of ligands that modulate the activity of the secretin-like, Class II, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Ligands that can modulate the activity of these Class II GPCRs may have important clinical roles in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions such as osteoporosis, diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and autism spectrum disorders. While these receptors present important new therapeutic targets, the large glycoprotein nature of their cognate ligands poses many problems with respect to therapeutic peptidergic drug design. These native peptides often exhibit poor bioavailability, metabolic instability, poor receptor selectivity and resultant low potencies in vivo. Recently, increased attention has been paid to the structural modification of these peptides to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Successful modification strategies have included D-amino acid substitutions, selective truncation, and fatty acid acylation of the peptide. Through these and other processes, these novel peptide ligand analogs can demonstrate enhanced receptor subtype selectivity, directed signal transduction pathway activation, resistance to proteolytic degradation, and improved systemic bioavailability. In the future, it is likely, through additional modification strategies such as addition of circulation-stabilizing transferrin moieties, that the therapeutic pharmacopeia of drugs targeted towards Class II secretin-like receptors may rival that of the Class I rhodopsin-like receptors that currently provide the majority of clinically used GPCR-based therapeutics. Currently, Class II-based drugs include synthesized analogues of vasoactive intestinal peptide for type 2 diabetes or parathyroid hormone for osteoporosis. PMID:19686775

  18. Effects of imidazoline I₂ receptor ligands on morphine- and tramadol-induced antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Thorn, David A; Zhang, Yanan; Peng, Bi-Wen; Winter, Jerrold C; Li, Jun-Xu

    2011-11-30

    Currently available analgesics cannot meet the increasing clinical needs and new analgesics with better therapeutic profiles are in great demand. The imidazoline I₂ receptor is an emerging drug target for analgesics. However, few studies have examined the effects of selective I₂ receptor ligands on the antinociceptive activity of opioids. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of the opioids morphine (0.1-10 mg/kg) and tramadol (3.2-56 mg/kg), the nonselective I₂ receptor ligand agmatine (10-100 mg/kg), and the selective I₂ receptor ligands 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride (2-BFI; 1-10 mg/kg) and 2-(4, 5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl) quinoline hydrochloride (BU224; 1-10mg/kg), alone and in combination, in a warm water tail withdrawal procedure in rats. Morphine and tramadol but not agmatine, 2-BFI or BU224 increased tail withdrawal latency in a dose-related manner at 48°C water. Agmatine and 2-BFI but not BU224 dose-dependently enhanced the antinociceptive effects of morphine and tramadol, shifting the dose-effect curves of morphine and tramadol leftward. The enhancement of agmatine and 2-BFI on morphine and tramadol antinociception was prevented by BU224. These results, combined with the fact that BU224 and 2-BFI share similar behavioral effects under other conditions, suggest that BU224 has lower efficacy than 2-BFI at I₂ receptors, and that the enhancement of opioid antinociception by I₂ receptor ligands depends on their efficacies.

  19. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10766.001 PMID:26650353

  20. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. PMID:26650353

  1. Differential utilization of binding loop flexibility in T cell receptor ligand selection and cross-reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Cory M.; Scott, Daniel R.; Corcelli, Steven A.; Baker, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Complementarity determining region (CDR) loop flexibility has been suggested to play an important role in the selection and binding of ligands by T cell receptors (TCRs) of the cellular immune system. However, questions remain regarding the role of loop motion in TCR binding, and crystallographic structures have raised questions about the extent to which generalizations can be made. Here we studied the flexibility of two structurally well characterized αβ TCRs, A6 and DMF5. We found that the two receptors utilize loop motion very differently in ligand binding and cross-reactivity. While the loops of A6 move rapidly in an uncorrelated fashion, those of DMF5 are substantially less mobile. Accordingly, the mechanisms of binding and cross-reactivity are very different between the two TCRs: whereas A6 relies on conformational selection to select and bind different ligands, DMF5 uses a more rigid, permissive architecture with greater reliance on slower motions or induced-fit. In addition to binding site flexibility, we also explored whether ligand-binding resulted in common dynamical changes in A6 and DMF5 that could contribute to TCR triggering. Although binding-linked motional changes propagated throughout both receptors, no common features were observed, suggesting that changes in nanosecond-level TCR structural dynamics do not contribute to T cell signaling. PMID:27118724

  2. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. {yields} PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. {yields} SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. {yields} PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  3. A multi-protein receptor-ligand complex underlies combinatorial dendrite guidance choices in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Shen, Ao; Dong, Xintong; Tugizova, Madina; Xiang, Yang K; Shen, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Ligand receptor interactions instruct axon guidance during development. How dendrites are guided to specific targets is less understood. The C. elegans PVD sensory neuron innervates muscle-skin interface with its elaborate dendritic branches. Here, we found that LECT-2, the ortholog of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2), is secreted from the muscles and required for muscle innervation by PVD. Mosaic analyses showed that LECT-2 acted locally to guide the growth of terminal branches. Ectopic expression of LECT-2 from seam cells is sufficient to redirect the PVD dendrites onto seam cells. LECT-2 functions in a multi-protein receptor-ligand complex that also contains two transmembrane ligands on the skin, SAX-7/L1CAM and MNR-1, and the neuronal transmembrane receptor DMA-1. LECT-2 greatly enhances the binding between SAX-7, MNR-1 and DMA-1. The activation of DMA-1 strictly requires all three ligands, which establishes a combinatorial code to precisely target and pattern dendritic arbors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18345.001 PMID:27705746

  4. Ligand-stimulated downregulation of the alpha interferon receptor: role of protein kinase D2.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Qian, Juan; Varghese, Bentley; Baker, Darren P; Fuchs, Serge

    2011-02-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-α) controls homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells, regulates antiviral resistance, inhibits angiogenesis, and suppresses tumor growth. This cytokine is often used to treat cancers and chronic viral infections. The extent of cellular responses to IFN-α is limited by the IFN-induced ubiquitination and degradation of the IFN-α/β receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1) chain of the cognate receptor. IFNAR1 ubiquitination is facilitated by the βTrcp E3 ubiquitin ligase that is recruited to IFNAR1 upon its degron phosphorylation, which is induced by the ligand. Here we report identification of protein kinase D2 (PKD2) as a kinase that mediates the ligand-inducible phosphorylation of IFNAR1 degron and enables binding of βTrcp to the receptor. Treatment of cells with IFN-α induces catalytic activity of PKD2 and stimulates its interaction with IFNAR1. Expression and kinase activity of PKD2 are required for the ligand-inducible stimulation of IFNAR1 ubiquitination and endocytosis and for accelerated proteolytic turnover of IFNAR1. Furthermore, inhibition or knockdown of PKD2 robustly augments intracellular signaling induced by IFN-α and increases the efficacy of its antiviral effects. The mechanisms of the ligand-inducible elimination of IFNAR1 are discussed, along with the potential medical significance of this regulation. PMID:21173164

  5. Enhanced dimerization drives ligand-independent activity of mutant epidermal growth factor receptor in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Christopher C.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.; Karedla, Narain; Steinkamp, Mara P.; Chizhik, Alexey I.; Hlavacek, William S.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Lidke, Keith A.; Lidke, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/erbB1/Her1) are often associated with tumorigenesis. In particular, a number of EGFR mutants that demonstrate ligand-independent signaling are common in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including kinase domain mutations L858R (also called L834R) and exon 19 deletions (e.g., ΔL747-P753insS), which collectively make up nearly 90% of mutations in NSCLC. The molecular mechanisms by which these mutations confer constitutive activity remain unresolved. Using multiple subdiffraction-limit imaging modalities, we reveal the altered receptor structure and interaction kinetics of NSCLC-associated EGFR mutants. We applied two-color single quantum dot tracking to quantify receptor dimerization kinetics on living cells and show that, in contrast to wild-type EGFR, mutants are capable of forming stable, ligand-independent dimers. Two-color superresolution localization microscopy confirmed ligand-independent aggregation of EGFR mutants. Live-cell Förster resonance energy transfer measurements revealed that the L858R kinase mutation alters ectodomain structure such that unliganded mutant EGFR adopts an extended, dimerization-competent conformation. Finally, mutation of the putative dimerization arm confirmed a critical role for ectodomain engagement in ligand-independent signaling. These data support a model in which dysregulated activity of NSCLC-associated kinase mutants is driven by coordinated interactions involving both the kinase and extracellular domains that lead to enhanced dimerization. PMID:26337388

  6. Binding site structure of one LRP-RAP complex: implications for a common ligand-receptor binding motif.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte A; Andersen, Olav M; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Bjerrum-Bohr, Ida; Etzerodt, Michael; Thøgersen, Hans C; O'Shea, Charlotte; Poulsen, Flemming M; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2006-09-29

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) interacts with more than 30 ligands of different sizes and structures that can all be replaced by the receptor-associated protein (RAP). The double module of complement type repeats, CR56, of LRP binds many ligands including all three domains of RAP and alpha2-macroglobulin, which promotes the catabolism of the Abeta-peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. To understand the receptor-ligand cross-talk, the NMR structure of CR56 has been solved and ligand binding experiments with RAP domain 1 (RAPd1) have been performed. From chemical shift perturbations of both binding partners upon complex formation, a HADDOCK model of the complex between CR56 and RAPd1 has been obtained. The binding residues are similar to a common binding motif suggested from alpha2-macroglobulin binding studies and provide evidence for an understanding of their mutual cross-competition pattern. The present structural results convey a simultaneous description of both binding partners of an LRP-ligand complex and open a route to a broader understanding of the binding specificity of the LRP receptor, which may involve a general four-residue receptor-ligand recognition motif common to all LRP ligands. The present result may be beneficial in the design of antagonists of ligand binding to the LDL receptor family, and especially of drugs for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Comparative metabolomics reveals endogenous ligands of DAF-12, a nuclear hormone receptor, regulating C. elegans development and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Mahanti, Parag; Bose, Neelanjan; Bethke, Axel; Judkins, Joshua C; Wollam, Joshua; Dumas, Kathleen J; Zimmerman, Anna M; Campbell, Sydney L; Hu, Patrick J; Antebi, Adam; Schroeder, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    Small-molecule ligands of nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) govern the transcriptional regulation of metazoan development, cell differentiation, and metabolism. However, the physiological ligands of many NHRs remain poorly characterized, primarily due to lack of robust analytical techniques. Using comparative metabolomics, we identified endogenous steroids that act as ligands of the C. elegans NHR, DAF-12, a vitamin D and liver X receptor homolog regulating larval development, fat metabolism, and lifespan. The identified molecules feature unexpected chemical modifications and include only one of two DAF-12 ligands reported earlier, necessitating a revision of previously proposed ligand biosynthetic pathways. We further show that ligand profiles are regulated by a complex enzymatic network, including the Rieske oxygenase DAF-36, the short-chain dehydrogenase DHS-16, and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase HSD-1. Our results demonstrate the advantages of comparative metabolomics over traditional candidate-based approaches and provide a blueprint for the identification of ligands for other C. elegans and mammalian NHRs.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Bitopic Ligand Engagement with the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Keov, Peter; López, Laura; Devine, Shane M.; Valant, Celine; Lane, J. Robert; Scammells, Peter J.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    TBPB and 77-LH-28-1 are selective agonists of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) that may gain their selectivity through a bitopic mechanism, interacting concomitantly with the orthosteric site and part of an allosteric site. The current study combined site-directed mutagenesis, analytical pharmacology,and molecular modeling to gain further insights into the structural basis underlying binding and signaling by these agonists. Mutations within the orthosteric binding site caused similar reductions in affinity and signaling efficacy for both selective and prototypical orthosteric ligands. In contrast, the mutation of residues within transmembrane helix (TM) 2 and the second extracellular loop (ECL2) discriminated between the different classes of ligand. In particular, ECL2 appears to be involved in the selective binding of bitopic ligands and in coordinating biased agonism between intracellular calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Molecular modeling of the interaction between TBPB and the M1 mAChR revealed a binding pose predicted to extend from the orthosteric site up toward a putative allosteric site bordered by TM2, TM3, and TM7, thus consistent with a bitopic mode of binding. Overall, these findings provide valuable structural and mechanistic insights into bitopic ligand actions and receptor activation and support a role for ECL2 in dictating the active states that can be adopted by a G protein-coupled receptor. This may enable greater selective ligand design and development for mAChRs and facilitate improved identification of bitopic ligands. PMID:25006252

  9. Receptor Crosslinking: A General Method to Trigger Internalization and Lysosomal Targeting of Therapeutic Receptor:Ligand Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Paul R; Sayers, Edward J; Magnusson, Johannes P; Alexander, Cameron; Borri, Paola; Watson, Peter; Jones, Arwyn T

    2015-01-01

    A major unmet clinical need is a universal method for subcellular targeting of bioactive molecules to lysosomes. Delivery to this organelle enables either degradation of oncogenic receptors that are overexpressed in cancers, or release of prodrugs from antibody–drug conjugates. Here, we describe a general method that uses receptor crosslinking to trigger endocytosis and subsequently redirect trafficking of receptor:cargo complexes from their expected route, to lysosomes. By incubation of plasma membrane receptors with biotinylated cargo and subsequent addition of streptavidin to crosslink receptor:cargo–biotin complexes, we achieved rapid and selective lysosomal targeting of transferrin, an anti-MHC class I antibody, and the clinically approved anti-Her2 antibody trastuzumab. These three protein ligands each target a receptor with a distinct cellular function and intracellular trafficking profile. Importantly, we confirmed that crosslinking of trastuzumab increased lysosomal degradation of its cognate oncogenic receptor Her2 in breast cancer cell lines SKBR3 and BT474. These data suggest that crosslinking could be exploited for a wide range of target receptors, for navigating therapeutics through the endolysosomal pathway, for significant therapeutic benefit. PMID:26412588

  10. Rational Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (RQSAR) Screen for PXR and CAR Isoform-Specific Nuclear Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Dring, Ann M.; Anderson, Linnea E.; Qamar, Saima; Stoner, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are closely related orphan nuclear receptor proteins that share several ligands and target overlapping sets of genes involved in homeostasis and all phases of drug metabolism. CAR and PXR are involved in the development of certain diseases, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Ligand screens for these receptors so far have typically focused on steroid hormone analogs with pharmacophore-based approaches, only to find relatively few new hits. Multiple CAR isoforms have been detected in human liver, with the most abundant being the constitutively active reference, CAR1, and the ligand-dependent isoform CAR3. It has been assumed that any compound that binds CAR1 should also activate CAR3, and so CAR3 can be used as a ligand-activated surrogate for CAR1 studies. The possibility of CAR3-specific ligands has not, so far, been addressed. To investigate the differences between CAR1, CAR3 and PXR, and to look for more CAR ligands that may be of use in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies, we performed a luciferase transactivation assay screen of 60 mostly non-steroid compounds. Known active compounds with different core chemistries were chosen as starting points and structural variants were rationally selected for screening. Distinct differences in agonist versus inverse agonist/antagonist effects were seen in 49 compounds that had some ligand effect on at least one receptor and 18 that had effects on all three receptors; eight were CAR1 ligands only, three were CAR3 only ligands and four affected PXR only. This work provides evidence for new CAR ligands, some of which have CAR3-specific effects, and provides observational data on CAR and PXR ligands with which to inform in silico strategies. Compounds that demonstrated unique activity on any one receptor are potentially valuable diagnostic tools for the investigation of in vivo molecular targets. PMID:20869355

  11. Dynamic disorder in receptor-ligand forced dissociation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2006-01-01

    Recently experiments showed that some biological noncovalent bonds increase their lifetimes when they are stretched by an external force, and their lifetimes will decrease when the force increases further. Several specific quantitative models have been proposed to explain the intriguing transitions from the “catch bond” to the “slip bond.” In this work we propose that the dynamic disorder of the force-dependent dissociation rate can account for the counterintuitive behaviors of the bonds. A Gaussian stochastic rate model is used to quantitatively describe the transitions observed recently in the single bond P-selctin glycoprotein ligand 1-P-selectin force rupture experiment [Marshall , Nature 423, 190 (2003)]. Our model agrees well with the experimental data. We conclude that the catch bonds could arise from the stronger positive correlation between the height of the intrinsic energy barrier and the distance from the bound state to the barrier; classical pathway scenario or a priori catch bond assumption is not essential.

  12. Drosophila PS1 integrin is a laminin receptor and differs in ligand specificity from PS2.

    PubMed Central

    Gotwals, P J; Fessler, L I; Wehrli, M; Hynes, R O

    1994-01-01

    We have expressed Drosophila position-specific (PS) integrins on the surfaces of Schneider S2 cells and tested for adhesion and spreading on various matrix molecules. We report that PS1 integrin is a laminin receptor and that PS1 and PS2 integrins promote cell spreading on two different Drosophila extracellular matrix molecules, laminin and tiggrin, respectively. The differing ligand specificities of these two integrins, combined with data on the in vivo expression patterns of the integrins and their ligands, lead to a model for the structure of integrin-dependent attachments in the pupal wings and embryonic muscles of Drosophila. Images PMID:7972082

  13. Mass spectrometry-based ligand binding assays on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Massink, A; Holzheimer, M; Hölscher, A; Louvel, J; Guo, D; Spijksma, G; Hankemeier, T; IJzerman, A P

    2015-12-01

    Conventional methods to measure ligand-receptor binding parameters typically require radiolabeled ligands as probes. Despite the robustness of radioligand binding assays, they carry inherent disadvantages in terms of safety precautions, expensive synthesis, special lab requirements, and waste disposal. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a method that can selectively detect ligands without the need of a label. The sensitivity of MS equipment increases progressively, and currently, it is possible to detect low ligand quantities that are usually found in ligand binding assays. We developed a label-free MS ligand binding (MS binding) assay on the adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors (A(1)AR and A(2A)AR), which are well-characterized members of the class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Radioligand binding assays for both receptors are well established, and ample data is available to compare and evaluate the performance of an MS binding assay. 1,3-Dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl-xanthine (DPCPX) and 4-(2-((7-amino-2-(furan-2-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]-[1,3,5]triazin-5-yl)amino)ethyl)phenol (ZM-241,385) are high-affinity ligands selective for the A(1)AR and A(2A)AR, respectively. To proof the feasibility of MS binding on the A(1)AR and A(2A)AR, we first developed an MS detection method for unlabeled DPCPX and ZM-241,385. To serve as internal standards, both compounds were also deuterium-labeled. Subsequently, we investigated whether the two unlabeled compounds could substitute for their radiolabeled counterparts as marker ligands in binding experiments, including saturation, displacement, dissociation, and competition association assays. Furthermore, we investigated the accuracy of these assays if the use of internal standards was excluded. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the MS binding assay, even in the absence of a deuterium-labeled internal standard, and provide great promise for the further development of label-free assays based on MS for other GPCRs. PMID

  14. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid Receptors and Their Ligands: Beyond CB1 and CB2

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, A. C.; Abood, M. E.; Alexander, S. P. H.; Di Marzo, V.; Elphick, M. R.; Greasley, P. J.; Hansen, H. S.; Kunos, G.; Mackie, K.; Mechoulam, R.; Ross, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Ligands activating these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) include the phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, numerous synthetic compounds, and endogenous compounds known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have also been developed. Some of these ligands activate or block one type of cannabinoid receptor more potently than the other type. This review summarizes current data indicating the extent to which cannabinoid receptor ligands undergo orthosteric or allosteric interactions with non-CB1, non-CB2 established GPCRs, deorphanized receptors such as GPR55, ligand-gated ion channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, and other ion channels or peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors. From these data, it is clear that some ligands that interact similarly with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors are likely to display significantly different pharmacological profiles. The review also lists some criteria that any novel “CB3” cannabinoid receptor or channel should fulfil and concludes that these criteria are not currently met by any non-CB1, non-CB2 pharmacological receptor or channel. However, it does identify certain pharmacological targets that should be investigated further as potential CB3 receptors or channels. These include TRP vanilloid 1, which possibly functions as an ionotropic cannabinoid receptor under physiological and/or pathological conditions, and some deorphanized GPCRs. Also discussed are 1) the ability of CB1 receptors to form heteromeric complexes with certain other GPCRs, 2) phylogenetic relationships that exist between CB1/CB2 receptors and other GPCRs, 3) evidence for the existence of several as-yet-uncharacterized non-CB1, non-CB2 cannabinoid receptors; and 4) current cannabinoid receptor nomenclature. PMID:21079038

  15. Identification of the Ah-receptor structural determinants for ligand preferences.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yongna; Nukaya, Manabu; Satyshur, Kenneth A; Jiang, Li; Stanevich, Vitali; Korkmaz, Elif Nihal; Burdette, Lisa; Kennedy, Gregory D; Cui, Qiang; Bradfield, Christopher A

    2012-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a transcription factor that responds to diverse ligands and plays a critical role in toxicology, immune function, and cardiovascular physiology. The structural basis of the AHR for ligand promiscuity and preferences is critical for understanding AHR function. Based on the structure of a closely related protein HIF2α, we modeled the AHR ligand binding domain (LBD) bound to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and identified residues that control ligand preferences by shape and H-bond potential. Mutations to these residues, particularly Q377 and G298, resulted in robust and opposite changes in the potency of TCDD and BaP and up to a 20-fold change in the ratio of TCDD/BaP efficacy. The model also revealed a flexible "belt" structure; molecular dynamic (MD) simulation suggested that the "belt" and several other structural elements in the AHR-LBD are more flexible than HIF2α and likely contribute to ligand promiscuity. Molecular docking of TCDD congeners to a model of human AHR-LBD ranks their binding affinity similar to experimental ranking of their toxicity. Our study reveals key structural basis for prediction of toxicity and understanding the AHR signaling through diverse ligands. PMID:22659362

  16. Measuring two-dimensional receptor-ligand binding kinetics by micropipette.

    PubMed

    Chesla, S E; Selvaraj, P; Zhu, C

    1998-09-01

    We report a novel method for measuring forward and reverse kinetic rate constants, kf0 and kr0, for the binding of individual receptors and ligands anchored to apposing surfaces in cell adhesion. Not only does the method examine adhesion between a single pair of cells; it also probes predominantly a single receptor-ligand bond. The idea is to quantify the dependence of adhesion probability on contact duration and densities of the receptors and ligands. The experiment was an extension of existing micropipette protocols. The analysis was based on analytical solutions to the probabilistic formulation of kinetics for small systems. This method was applied to examine the interaction between Fc gamma receptor IIIA (CD16A) expressed on Chinese hamster ovary cell transfectants and immunoglobulin G (IgG) of either human or rabbit origin coated on human erythrocytes, which were found to follow a monovalent biomolecular binding mechanism. The measured rate constants are Ackf0 = (2.6 +/- 0.32) x 10(-7) micron 4 s-1 and kr0 = (0.37 +/- 0.055) s-1 for the CD16A-hIgG interaction and Ackf0 = (5.7 +/- 0.31) X 10(-7) micron 4 s-1 and kr0 = (0.20 +/- 0.042) s-1 for the CD16A-rIgG interaction, respectively, where Ac is the contact area, estimated to be a few percent of 3 micron 2.

  17. Variable ligand- and receptor-binding hot spots in key strains of influenza neuraminidase

    PubMed Central

    Votapka, Lane; Demir, Özlem; Swift, Robert V; Walker, Ross C; Amaro, Rommie E

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A continues to be a major public health concern due to its ability to cause epidemic and pandemic disease outbreaks in humans. Computational investigations of structural dynamics of the major influenza glycoproteins, especially the neuraminidase (NA) enzyme, are able to provide key insights beyond what is currently accessible with standard experimental techniques. In particular, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations reveal the varying degrees of flexibility for such enzymes. Here we present an analysis of the relative flexibility of the ligand- and receptor-binding area of three key strains of influenza A: highly pathogenic H5N1, the 2009 pandemic H1N1, and a human N2 strain. Through computational solvent mapping, we investigate the various ligand- and receptor-binding “hot spots” that exist on the surface of NA which interacts with both sialic acid receptors on the host cells and antiviral drugs. This analysis suggests that the variable cavities found in the different strains and their corresponding capacities to bind ligand functional groups may play an important role in the ability of NA to form competent reaction encounter complexes with other species of interest, including antiviral drugs, sialic acid receptors on the host cell surface, and the hemagglutinin protein. Such considerations may be especially useful for the prediction of how such complexes form and with what binding capacity. PMID:22872804

  18. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by NR3 subtype glutamate receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Yongneng; Harrison, Chris B.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Schulten, Klaus; Mayer, Mark L.

    2008-10-27

    NR3 subtype glutamate receptors have a unique developmental expression profile, but are the least well-characterized members of the NMDA receptor gene family, which have key roles in synaptic plasticity and brain development. Using ligand binding assays, crystallographic analysis, and all atom MD simulations, we investigate mechanisms underlying the binding by NR3A and NR3B of glycine and D-serine, which are candidate neurotransmitters for NMDA receptors containing NR3 subunits. The ligand binding domains of both NR3 subunits adopt a similar extent of domain closure as found in the corresponding NR1 complexes, but have a unique loop 1 structure distinct from that in all other glutamate receptor ion channels. Within their ligand binding pockets, NR3A and NR3B have strikingly different hydrogen bonding networks and solvent structures from those found in NR1, and fail to undergo a conformational rearrangement observed in NR1 upon binding the partial agonist ACPC. MD simulations revealed numerous interdomain contacts, which stabilize the agonist-bound closed-cleft conformation, and a novel twisting motion for the loop 1 helix that is unique in NR3 subunits.

  19. Ligands for SPECT and PET imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors of the heart and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.

    1995-06-01

    Interest in the potential use of cerebral SPECT and PET imaging for determination of the density and activity of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) has been stimulated by the changes in these receptors which occur in many neurological diseases. In addition, the important involvement of mAChR in modulating negative inotropic cardiac activity suggests that such receptor ligands may have important applications in evaluation of changes which may occur in cardiac disease. In this paper, the properties of several key muscarinic receptor ligands being developed or which have been used for clinical SPECT and PET are discussed. In addition, the ORNL development of the new iodinated IQNP ligand based on QNB and the results of in vivo biodistribution studies in rats, in vitro competitive binding studies and ex vivo autoradiographic experiments are described. The use of radioiodinated IQNP may offer several advantages in comparison to IQNB because of its easy and high yield preparation and high brain uptake and the potential usefulness of the {open_quotes}partial{close_quotes} subtype selective IONP isomers. We also describe the development of new IQNP-type analogues which offer the opportunity for radiolabeling with positron-emitting radioisotopes (carbon-11, fluorine-18 and bromine-76) for potential use with PET.

  20. Multicomponent Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Piperazine-Based Dopamine Receptor Ligand Library

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of 1,4-disubstituted piperazine-based compounds were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as dopamine D2/D3 receptor ligands. The synthesis relies on the key multicomponent split-Ugi reaction, assessing its great potential in generating chemical diversity around the piperazine core. With the aim of evaluating the effect of such diversity on the dopamine receptor affinity, a small library of compounds was prepared, applying post-Ugi transformations. Ligand stimulated binding assays indicated that some compounds show a significant affinity, with Ki values up to 53 nM for the D2 receptor. Molecular docking studies with the D2 and D3 receptor homology models were also performed on selected compounds. They highlighted key interactions at the indole head and at the piperazine moiety, which resulted in good agreement with the known pharmacophore models, thus helping to explain the observed structure–activity relationship data. Molecular insights from this study could enable a rational improvement of the split-Ugi primary scaffold, toward more selective ligands. PMID:26288260

  1. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XC. multisite pharmacology: recommendations for the nomenclature of receptor allosterism and allosteric ligands.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Arthur; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Burris, Thomas P; Cidlowski, John A; Olsen, Richard W; Peters, John A; Neubig, Richard R; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Sexton, Patrick M; Kenakin, Terry P; Ehlert, Frederick J; Spedding, Michael; Langmead, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Allosteric interactions play vital roles in metabolic processes and signal transduction and, more recently, have become the focus of numerous pharmacological studies because of the potential for discovering more target-selective chemical probes and therapeutic agents. In addition to classic early studies on enzymes, there are now examples of small molecule allosteric modulators for all superfamilies of receptors encoded by the genome, including ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. As a consequence, a vast array of pharmacologic behaviors has been ascribed to allosteric ligands that can vary in a target-, ligand-, and cell-/tissue-dependent manner. The current article presents an overview of allostery as applied to receptor families and approaches for detecting and validating allosteric interactions and gives recommendations for the nomenclature of allosteric ligands and their properties.

  2. Conformational Rearrangement Within the Soluble Domains of the CD4 Receptor is Ligand-Specific

    SciTech Connect

    Ashish,F.; Juncadella, I.; Garg, R.; Boone, C.; Anguita, J.; Krueger, J.

    2008-01-01

    Ligand binding induces shape changes within the four modular ectodomains (D1-D4) of the CD4 receptor, an important receptor in immune signaling. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) on both a two-domain and a four-domain construct of the soluble CD4 (sCD4) is consistent with known crystal structures demonstrating a bilobal and a semi-extended tetralobal Z conformation in solution, respectively. Detection of conformational changes within sCD4 as a result of ligand binding was followed by SAXS on sCD4 bound to two different glycoprotein ligands: the tick saliva immunosuppressor Salp15 and the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120. Ab initio modeling of these data showed that both Salp15 and gp120 bind to the D1 domain of sCD4 and yet induce drastically different structural rearrangements. Upon binding, Salp15 primarily distorts the characteristic lobal architecture of the sCD4 without significantly altering the semi-extended shape of the sCD4 receptor. In sharp contrast, the interaction of gp120 with sCD4 induces a shape change within sCD4 that can be described as a Z-to-U bi-fold closure of the four domains across its flexible D2-D3 linker. Placement of known crystal structures within the boundaries of the SAXS-derived models suggests that the ligand-induced shape changes could be a result of conformational changes within this D2-D3 linker. Functionally, the observed shape changes in CD4 receptor causes dissociation of lymphocyte kinase from the cytoplasmic domain of Salp15-bound CD4 and facilitates an interaction between the exposed V3 loops of CD4-bound gp120 molecule to the extracellular loops of its co-receptor, a step essential for HIV-1 viral entry.

  3. ONRLDB--manually curated database of experimentally validated ligands for orphan nuclear receptors: insights into new drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Ravikanth; Bhutani, Isha; Somavarapu, Arun Kumar; Mahajan, Sahil; Parkesh, Raman; Gupta, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Orphan nuclear receptors are potential therapeutic targets. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor Ligand Binding Database (ONRLDB) is an interactive, comprehensive and manually curated database of small molecule ligands targeting orphan nuclear receptors. Currently, ONRLDB consists of ∼11,000 ligands, of which ∼6500 are unique. All entries include information for the ligand, such as EC50 and IC50, number of aromatic rings and rotatable bonds, XlogP, hydrogen donor and acceptor count, molecular weight (MW) and structure. ONRLDB is a cross-platform database, where either the cognate small molecule modulators of a receptor or the cognate receptors to a ligand can be searched. The database can be searched using three methods: text search, advanced search or similarity search. Substructure search, cataloguing tools, and clustering tools can be used to perform advanced analysis of the ligand based on chemical similarity fingerprints, hierarchical clustering, binning partition and multidimensional scaling. These tools, together with the Tree function provided, deliver an interactive platform and a comprehensive resource for identification of common and unique scaffolds. As demonstrated, ONRLDB is designed to allow selection of ligands based on various properties and for designing novel ligands or to improve the existing ones. Database URL: http://www.onrldb.org/.

  4. ONRLDB—manually curated database of experimentally validated ligands for orphan nuclear receptors: insights into new drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nanduri, Ravikanth; Bhutani, Isha; Somavarapu, Arun Kumar; Mahajan, Sahil; Parkesh, Raman; Gupta, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Orphan nuclear receptors are potential therapeutic targets. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor Ligand Binding Database (ONRLDB) is an interactive, comprehensive and manually curated database of small molecule ligands targeting orphan nuclear receptors. Currently, ONRLDB consists of ∼11 000 ligands, of which ∼6500 are unique. All entries include information for the ligand, such as EC50 and IC50, number of aromatic rings and rotatable bonds, XlogP, hydrogen donor and acceptor count, molecular weight (MW) and structure. ONRLDB is a cross-platform database, where either the cognate small molecule modulators of a receptor or the cognate receptors to a ligand can be searched. The database can be searched using three methods: text search, advanced search or similarity search. Substructure search, cataloguing tools, and clustering tools can be used to perform advanced analysis of the ligand based on chemical similarity fingerprints, hierarchical clustering, binning partition and multidimensional scaling. These tools, together with the Tree function provided, deliver an interactive platform and a comprehensive resource for identification of common and unique scaffolds. As demonstrated, ONRLDB is designed to allow selection of ligands based on various properties and for designing novel ligands or to improve the existing ones. Database URL: http://www.onrldb.org/ PMID:26637529

  5. Peptides identify multiple hotspots within the ligand binding domain of the TNF receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Ku-chuan; Brissette, Renee E; Wang, Pinger; Fletcher, Paul W; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Lennick, Michael; Blume, Arthur J; Goldstein, Neil I

    2003-01-01

    Background Hotspots are defined as the minimal functional domains involved in protein:protein interactions and sufficient to induce a biological response. Results Here we describe the use of complex and high diversity phage display libraries to isolate peptides (called Hotspot Ligands or HSPLs) which sub-divide the ligand binding domain of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2; p75) into multiple hotspots. We have shown that these libraries could generate HSPLs which not only subdivide hotspots on protein and non-protein targets but act as agonists or antagonists. Using this approach, we generated peptides which were specific for human TNFR2, could be competed by the natural ligands, TNFα and TNFβ and induced an unexpected biological response in a TNFR2-specific manner. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the dissection of the TNFR2 into biologically active hotspots with the concomitant identification of a novel and unexpected biological activity. PMID:12646066

  6. Ligand binding pocket of the human somatostatin receptor 5: mutational analysis of the extracellular domains.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M T; Hukovic, N; Kumar, U; Panetta, R; Hjorth, S A; Srikant, C B; Patel, Y C

    1997-11-01

    The ligand binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors for peptide ligands consists of a pocket formed by extracellular and transmembrane domain (TM) residues. In the case of somatostatin (SRIF), however, previous studies have suggested that the binding cavity of the octapeptide analog SMS201-995 (SMS) is lined by residues in TMs III-VII. The additional involvement of the extracellular domains for binding SMS or the natural SRIF ligands (SRIF-14, SRIF-28) has not been clarified. Using a cassette construct cDNA for the human somatostatin 5 receptor (sst5R), we systematically examined the role of exofacial structures in ligand binding by creating a series of mutants in which the extracellular portions have been altered by conservative segment exchange (CSE) mutagenesis for the extracellular loops (ECLs) and by deletion (for the NH2-terminal segment) or truncation analysis (ECL3). CHO-K1 cells were stably transfected with wild type or mutant human sst5R constructs, and agonist binding was assessed using membrane binding assays with 125I-LTT SRIF-28 ligand. Deletion of the NH2 terminus or CSE mutagenesis of ECL1 and ECL3 produced minor 2-8-fold decreases in affinity for SRIF-14, SRIF-28, and SMS ligands. Truncation of ECL3 to mimic the size of this loop in sst1R and sst4R (the two subtypes that do not bind SMS) did not interfere with the binding of SMS, SRIF-14, or SRIF-28. In contrast, both ECL2 mutants failed to bind 125I-LTT SRIF-28. Immunocytochemical analysis of nonpermeabilized cells with a human sst5R antibody revealed that the mutant receptors were targeted to the plasma membrane. Labeled SMS (125I-Tyr3 SMS) also failed to bind to the mutant ECL2 receptors. These results suggest a potential contribution of ECL2 (in addition to the previously identified residues in TMs III-VII) to the SRIF ligand binding pocket.

  7. A Structural Switch between Agonist and Antagonist Bound Conformations for a Ligand-Optimized Model of the Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Arden; Phillips, Jessica L.; Kerkvliet, Nancy I.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Perdew, Gary H.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Bisson, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates the expression of a diverse group of genes. Exogenous AHR ligands include the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which is a potent agonist, and the synthetic AHR antagonist N-2-(1H-indol-3yl)ethyl)-9-isopropyl-2-(5-methylpyridin-3-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (GNF351). As no experimentally determined structure of the ligand binding domain exists, homology models have been utilized for virtual ligand screening (VLS) to search for novel ligands. Here, we have developed an “agonist-optimized” homology model of the human AHR ligand binding domain, and this model aided in the discovery of two human AHR agonists by VLS. In addition, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of an agonist TCDD-bound and antagonist GNF351-bound version of this model in order to gain insights into the mechanics of the AHR ligand-binding pocket. These simulations identified residues 307–329 as a flexible segment of the AHR ligand pocket that adopts discrete conformations upon agonist or antagonist binding. This flexible segment of the AHR may act as a structural switch that determines the agonist or antagonist activity of a given AHR ligand. PMID:25329374

  8. Evolutionary diversification of retinoic acid receptor ligand-binding pocket structure by molecular tinkering

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Nadendla, Eswar Kumar; Studer, Romain A.; Alvarez, Susana; de Lera, Angel R.; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Bourguet, William; Laudet, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGDs) have been classically associated with the origin of evolutionary novelties and the so-called duplication–degeneration–complementation model describes the possible fates of genes after duplication. However, how sequence divergence effectively allows functional changes between gene duplicates is still unclear. In the vertebrate lineage, two rounds of WGDs took place, giving rise to paralogous gene copies observed for many gene families. For the retinoic acid receptors (RARs), for example, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily, a unique ancestral gene has been duplicated resulting in three vertebrate paralogues: RARα, RARβ and RARγ. It has previously been shown that this single ancestral RAR was neofunctionalized to give rise to a larger substrate specificity range in the RARs of extant jawed vertebrates (also called gnathostomes). To understand RAR diversification, the members of the cyclostomes (lamprey and hagfish), jawless vertebrates representing the extant sister group of gnathostomes, provide an intermediate situation and thus allow the characterization of the evolutionary steps that shaped RAR ligand-binding properties following the WGDs. In this study, we assessed the ligand-binding specificity of cyclostome RARs and found that their ligand-binding pockets resemble those of gnathostome RARα and RARβ. In contrast, none of the cyclostome receptors studied showed any RARγ-like specificity. Together, our results suggest that cyclostome RARs cover only a portion of the specificity repertoire of the ancestral gnathostome RARs and indicate that the establishment of ligand-binding specificity was a stepwise event. This iterative process thus provides a rare example for the diversification of receptor–ligand interactions of NRs following WGDs. PMID:27069642

  9. Aggregation of complement receptors on human neutrophils in the absence of ligand

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    C3bi receptors (CR3) on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) bind ligand-coated particles and promote their ingestion. The binding activity of CR3 is not constitutive but is transiently enabled by phorbol esters (Wright, S. D., and B. D. Meyer, 1986, J. Immunol. 136:1759-1764). Our observations indicate that the capacity of CR3 to bind ligand is tightly correlated with the degree of ligand-independent aggregation of the receptor in the plane of the membrane. Fixed PMN were labeled with anti-CR3 monoclonal antibodies and streptavidin colloidal gold before viewing in the electron microscope either en face or in thin section. On unstimulated PMN, gold particles marking CR3 were dispersed randomly. Stimulation of PMN for 25 min with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) dramatically enhances binding of C3bi-coated particles, and the CR3 on such stimulated cells was observed in clusters containing more than six gold particles. CR3 was not aggregated over coated pits. After 50 min in PMA, the binding activity of CR3 falls, and the distribution of CR3 was again observed to be disperse. If a hydrophilic phorbol ester was washed away after a 20-min stimulation, binding activity remains elevated for at least 50 min, and CR3 remained aggregated. Thus, clustering of CR3 was temporally correlated with its ability to bind ligand and initiate phagocytosis. Unlike CR3, Fc receptors and HLA did not exhibit changes in their aggregation state in response to PMA. Treating PMN with formyl- methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, which enhances expression of CR3 but not its function, did not lead to aggregation of CR3. These observations suggest that a clustered configuration is a precondition necessary for binding ligand and signaling phagocytosis. PMID:2958480

  10. Third Transmembrane Domain of the Adrenocorticotropic Receptor Is Critical for Ligand Selectivity and Potency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingkui; Mishra, Vinod; Crasto, Chiquito J.; Chen, Min; Dimmitt, Reed; Harmon, Carroll M.

    2015-01-01

    The ACTH receptor, known as the melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), plays an important role in regulating and maintaining adrenocortical function. MC2R is a subtype of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family and has unique characteristics among MCRs. Endogenous ACTH is the only endogenous agonist for MC2R, whereas the melanocortin peptides α-, β-, and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and ACTH are full agonists for all other MCRs. In this study, we examined the molecular basis of MC2R responsible for ligand selectivity using ACTH analogs and MC2R mutagenesis. Our results indicate that substitution of Phe7 with d-Phe or d-naphthylalanine (d-Nal(2′)) in ACTH(1–24) caused a significant decrease in ligand binding affinity and potency. Substitution of Phe7 with d-Nal(2′) in ACTH(1–24) did not switch the ligand from agonist to antagonist at MC2R, which was observed in MC3R and MC4R. Substitution of Phe7 with d-Phe7 in ACTH(1–17) resulted in the loss of ligand binding and activity. Molecular analysis of MC2R indicated that only mutation of the third transmembrane domain of MC2R resulted in a decrease in d-Phe ACTH binding affinity and potency. Our results suggest that Phe7 in ACTH plays an important role in ligand selectivity and that the third transmembrane domain of MC2R is crucial for ACTH selectivity and potency. PMID:25605722

  11. Vascular ligand-receptor mapping by direct combinatorial selection in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Trepel, Martin; Edwards, Julianna K.; Nunes, Diana N.; Sergeeva, Anna; Efstathiou, Eleni; Sun, Jessica; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Tu, Shi-Ming; Botz, Gregory H.; Wallace, Michael J.; O’Connell, David J.; Krajewski, Stan; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Flamm, Anne L.; Koivunen, Erkki; Pentz, Rebecca D.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Setubal, João C.; Cahill, Dolores J.; Troncoso, Patricia; Do, Kim-Ahn; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2011-01-01

    Molecules differentially expressed in blood vessels among organs or between damaged and normal tissues, are attractive therapy targets; however, their identification within the human vasculature is challenging. Here we screened a peptide library in cancer patients to uncover ligand-receptors common or specific to certain vascular beds. Surveying ∼2.35 × 106 motifs recovered from biopsies yielded a nonrandom distribution, indicating that systemic tissue targeting is feasible. High-throughput analysis by similarity search, protein arrays, and affinity chromatography revealed four native ligand-receptors, three of which were previously unrecognized. Two are shared among multiple tissues (integrin α4/annexin A4 and cathepsin B/apolipoprotein E3) and the other two have a restricted and specific distribution in normal tissue (prohibitin/annexin A2 in white adipose tissue) or cancer (RAGE/leukocyte proteinase-3 in bone metastases). These findings provide vascular molecular markers for biotechnology and medical applications. PMID:22049339

  12. Communication: Free energy of ligand-receptor systems forming multimeric complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Bachmann, Stephan J.; Parolini, Lucia; Mognetti, Bortolo M.

    2016-04-01

    Ligand-receptor interactions are ubiquitous in biology and have become popular in materials in view of their applications to programmable self-assembly. Although complex functionalities often emerge from the simultaneous interaction of more than just two linker molecules, state of the art theoretical frameworks enable the calculation of the free energy only in systems featuring one-to-one ligand/receptor binding. In this Communication, we derive a general formula to calculate the free energy of systems featuring simultaneous direct interaction between an arbitrary number of linkers. To exemplify the potential and generality of our approach, we apply it to the systems recently introduced by Parolini et al. [ACS Nano 10, 2392 (2016)] and Halverson and Tkachenko [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 094903 (2016)], both featuring functionalized Brownian particles interacting via three-linker complexes.

  13. Evolution of Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Family and Their Ligands in Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    On, Jason S. W.; Chow, Billy K. C.; Lee, Leo T. O.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of the parathyroid hormones in vertebrates, including PTH, PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), and tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39), has been proposed to be the result of two rounds of whole genome duplication in the beginning of vertebrate diversification. Bioinformatics analyses, in particular chromosomal synteny study and the characterization of the PTH ligands and their receptors from various vertebrate species, provide evidence that strongly supports this hypothesis. In this mini-review, we summarize recent advances in studies regarding the molecular evolution and physiology of the PTH ligands and their receptors, with particular focus on non-mammalian vertebrates. In summary, the PTH family of peptides probably predates early vertebrate evolution, indicating a more ancient existence as well as a function of these peptides in invertebrates. PMID:25806022

  14. Soluble ligands and their receptors in human embryo development and implantation.

    PubMed

    Thouas, George A; Dominguez, Francisco; Green, Mark P; Vilella, Felipe; Simon, Carlos; Gardner, David K

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that soluble ligands and their receptors mediate human preimplantation embryo development and implantation. Progress in this complex area has been ongoing since the 1980s, with an ever-increasing list of candidates. This article specifically reviews evidence of soluble ligands and their receptors in the human preimplantation stage embryo and female reproductive tract. The focus will be on candidates produced by the human preimplantation embryo and those eliciting developmental responses in vitro, as well as endometrial factors related to implantation and receptivity. Pathways to clinical translation, including innovative diagnostics and other technologies, are also highlighted, drawing from this collective evidence toward facilitating joint improvements in embryo quality and endometrial receptivity. This strategy could not only benefit clinical outcomes in reproductive medicine but also provide broader insights into the peri-implantation period of human development to improve fetal and neonatal health.

  15. Communication: Free energy of ligand-receptor systems forming multimeric complexes.

    PubMed

    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Bachmann, Stephan J; Parolini, Lucia; Mognetti, Bortolo M

    2016-04-28

    Ligand-receptor interactions are ubiquitous in biology and have become popular in materials in view of their applications to programmable self-assembly. Although complex functionalities often emerge from the simultaneous interaction of more than just two linker molecules, state of the art theoretical frameworks enable the calculation of the free energy only in systems featuring one-to-one ligand/receptor binding. In this Communication, we derive a general formula to calculate the free energy of systems featuring simultaneous direct interaction between an arbitrary number of linkers. To exemplify the potential and generality of our approach, we apply it to the systems recently introduced by Parolini et al. [ACS Nano 10, 2392 (2016)] and Halverson and Tkachenko [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 094903 (2016)], both featuring functionalized Brownian particles interacting via three-linker complexes.

  16. Communication: Free energy of ligand-receptor systems forming multimeric complexes.

    PubMed

    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Bachmann, Stephan J; Parolini, Lucia; Mognetti, Bortolo M

    2016-04-28

    Ligand-receptor interactions are ubiquitous in biology and have become popular in materials in view of their applications to programmable self-assembly. Although complex functionalities often emerge from the simultaneous interaction of more than just two linker molecules, state of the art theoretical frameworks enable the calculation of the free energy only in systems featuring one-to-one ligand/receptor binding. In this Communication, we derive a general formula to calculate the free energy of systems featuring simultaneous direct interaction between an arbitrary number of linkers. To exemplify the potential and generality of our approach, we apply it to the systems recently introduced by Parolini et al. [ACS Nano 10, 2392 (2016)] and Halverson and Tkachenko [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 094903 (2016)], both featuring functionalized Brownian particles interacting via three-linker complexes. PMID:27131522

  17. Molecular Basis of Ligand Dissociation from the Adenosine A2A Receptor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong; Pan, Albert C; Dror, Ron O; Mocking, Tamara; Liu, Rongfang; Heitman, Laura H; Shaw, David E; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2016-05-01

    How drugs dissociate from their targets is largely unknown. We investigated the molecular basis of this process in the adenosine A2Areceptor (A2AR), a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Through kinetic radioligand binding experiments, we characterized mutant receptors selected based on molecular dynamic simulations of the antagonist ZM241385 dissociating from the A2AR. We discovered mutations that dramatically altered the ligand's dissociation rate despite only marginally influencing its binding affinity, demonstrating that even receptor features with little contribution to affinity may prove critical to the dissociation process. Our results also suggest that ZM241385 follows a multistep dissociation pathway, consecutively interacting with distinct receptor regions, a mechanism that may also be common to many other GPCRs.

  18. Effects of imidazoline I2 receptor ligands on acute nociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Cristal; Zhang, Yanan; Del Bello, Fabio; Li, Jun-Xu

    2012-01-25

    This study examined the antinociceptive effects of seven imidazoline I2 receptor ligands in a rat warm water tail withdrawal procedure (46 and 50 °C). Agmatine, 2-BFI, phenyzoline, and diphenyzoline produced a significant antinociceptive activity at 46 °C. BU224, S22687, and idazoxan had no effect at 46 °C up to doses that altered the locomotor activity. None of the drugs showed antinociceptive activity at 50 °C. It is suggested that I2 receptor agonists have antinociceptive activity for acute phasic pain under weak noxious stimulus, and the effects are efficacy-dependent. These data explain the findings that I2 receptor agonists enhance the antinociceptive effects of opioids and support developing higher-efficacy I2 receptor agonists for the treatment of pain.

  19. Development of sub-nanomolar dipeptidic ligands of neuropeptide FF receptors.

    PubMed

    Gealageas, Ronan; Schneider, Séverine; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Schmitt, Martine; Laboureyras, Emilie; Dugave, Christophe; Mollereau, Catherine; Simonnet, Guy; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frédéric; Bihel, Frédéric

    2012-12-15

    Based on our earlier reported neuropeptide FF receptors antagonist (RF9), we carried out an extensive structural exploration of the N-terminus part of the amidated dipeptide Arg-Phe-NH(2) in order to establish a structure-activity relationships (SAR) study towards both NPFF receptor subtypes. This SAR led to the discovery of dipeptides (12, 35) with subnanomolar affinities towards NPFF1 receptor subtype, similar to endogenous ligand NPVF. More particularly, compound 12 exhibited a potent in vivo preventive effect on opioid-induced hyperalgesia at low dose. The significant selectivity of 12 toward NPFF1-R indicates that this receptor subtype may play a critical role in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF-like peptides.

  20. The novel sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43 stabilizes pancreas cancer progression in combination with gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sigma-2 receptors are over-expressed in proliferating cancer cells, making an attractive target for the targeted treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of the novel sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43 to induce apoptosis and augment standard chemotherapy. Results The binding affinity for sigma-2 ligands is high in pancreas cancer, and they induce apoptosis with a rank order of SV119 < SW43 < SRM in vitro. Combining these compounds with gemcitabine further increased apoptosis and decreased viability. Our in vivo model showed that sigma-2 ligand treatment decreased tumor volume to the same extent as gemcitabine. However, SW43 combination treatment with gemcitabine was superior to the other compounds and resulted in stabilization of tumor volume during treatment, with minimal toxicities. Conclusions This study shows that the sigma-2 ligand SW43 has the greatest capacity to augment gemcitabine in a pre-clinical model of pancreas cancer and has provided us with the rationale to move this compound forward with clinical investigations for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:21092190

  1. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Faria, Jerusa A Q A; de Andrade, Carolina; Goes, Alfredo M; Rodrigues, Michele A; Gomes, Dawidson A

    2016-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. PMID:27462018

  2. Immunological Visibility: Posttranscriptional Regulation of Human NKG2D Ligands by the EGF Receptor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vantourout, Pierre; Willcox, Carrie; Turner, Andrea; Swanson, Chad; Haque, Yasmin; Sobolev, Olga; Grigoriadis, Anita; Tutt, Andrew; Hayday, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Human cytolytic T lymphocytes and NK cells can limit tumor growth and are being increasingly harnessed for tumor immunotherapy. One way cytolytic lymphocytes recognize tumor cells is by engagement of their activating receptor, NKG2D, by stress-antigens of the MICA/B and ULBP families. This study shows that surface upregulation of NKG2D ligands by human epithelial cells in response to ultraviolet irradiation, osmotic shock, oxidative stress, and growth factor provision, is attributable to activation of the EGF-receptor (EGFR). EGFR activation causes intracellular re-localisation of AUF1 proteins that ordinarily destabilise NKG2D ligand mRNAs by targeting an AU-rich element conserved within the 3′ ends of most human but not murine NKG2D ligand genes. Consistent with these findings, NKG2D ligand expression by primary human carcinomas positively correlated with EGFR expression that is commonly hyper-activated in such tumours, and was reduced by clinical EGFR inhibitors. Thus, stress-induced activation of EGFR not only regulates cell growth but concomitantly regulates the cells’ immunological visibility. Thus, therapeutics designed to limit cancer cell growth should also be considered in terms of their impact on immunosurveillance. PMID:24718859

  3. Effects of coumestrol on lipid and glucose metabolism as a farnesoid X receptor ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Miki; Kanayama, Tomohiko; Yashiro, Takuya; Kondo, Hidehiko; Murase, Takatoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2008-08-01

    In the course of an effort to identify novel agonists of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), coumestrol was determined to be one such ligand. Reporter and in vitro coactivator interaction assays revealed that coumestrol bound and activated FXR. Treatment of Hep G2 cells with coumestrol stimulated the expression of FXR target genes, thereby regulating the expression of target genes of the liver X receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha}. Through these actions, coumestrol is expected to exert beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism.

  4. Structures of pattern recognition receptors reveal molecular mechanisms of autoinhibition, ligand recognition and oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Chuenchor, Watchalee; Jin, Tengchuan; Ravilious, Geoffrey; Xiao, T Sam

    2014-02-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential sentinels for pathogens or tissue damage and integral components of the innate immune system. Recent structural studies have provided unprecedented insights into the molecular mechanisms of ligand recognition and signal transduction by several PRR families at distinct subcellular compartments. Here we highlight some of the recent discoveries and summarize the common themes that are emerging from these exciting studies. Better mechanistic understanding of the structure and function of the PRRs will improve future prospects of therapeutic targeting of these important innate immune receptors.

  5. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.H.; Verma, A.; Trifiletti, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is a site identified by its nanomolar affinity for (/sup 3/H)diazepam, similar to the affinity of diazepam for the central-type benzodiazepine receptor in the brain. The peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor occurs in many peripheral tissues but has discrete localizations as indicated by autoradiographic studies showing uniquely high densities of the receptors in the adrenal cortex and in Leydig cells of the testes. Subcellular localization studies reveal a selective association of the receptors with the outer membrane of mitochondria. Photoaffinity labeling of the mitochondrial receptor with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam reveals two discrete labeled protein bands of 30 and 35 kDa, respectively. The 35-kDa band appears to be identical with the voltage-dependent anion channel protein porin. Fractionation of numerous peripheral tissues reveals a single principal endogenous ligand for the receptor, consisting of porphyrins, which display nanomolar affinity. Interactions of porphyrins with the mitochondrial receptor may clarify its physiological role and account for many pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines.

  6. Ligand-induced receptor-like kinase complex regulates floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzong; Zhou, Jinggeng; Tang, Jiao; Li, Bo; de Oliveira, Marcos V. V.; Chai, Jijie; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Abscission is a developmental process that enables plants to shed unwanted organs. In Arabidopsis, the floral organ abscission is regulated by a signaling pathway consisting of the peptide ligand IDA, the receptor-like kinases (RLKs) HAE and HSL2, and a downstream MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade. However, little is known about the molecular link between ligand-receptor pairs and intracellular signaling. Here, we report that the SERK family RLKs function redundantly in regulating floral organ abscission downstream of IDA and upstream of the MAPK cascade. IDA induces heterodimerization of HAE/HSL2 and SERKs, which transphosphorylate each other. The SERK3 residues mediating its interaction with the immune receptor FLS2 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 are also required for IDA-induced HAE/HSL2-SERK3 interaction, suggesting SERKs serve as co-receptors of HAE/HSL2 in perceiving IDA. Thus, our study reveals the signaling activation mechanism in floral organ abscission by IDA-induced HAE/HSL2-SERK complex formation accompanied by transphosphorylation. PMID:26854226

  7. Dimeric Arrangement of the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor and a Structural Mechanism for Ligand-induced Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.; Parker, Naomi R.; Miller, Laurence J.; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-06-25

    The parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP). Little is known about the oligomeric state of the receptor and its regulation by hormone. The crystal structure of the ligand-free PTH1R extracellular domain (ECD) reveals an unexpected dimer in which the C-terminal segment of both ECD protomers forms an {alpha}-helix that mimics PTH/PTHrP by occupying the peptide binding groove of the opposing protomer. ECD-mediated oligomerization of intact PTH1R was confirmed in living cells by bioluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments. As predicted by the structure, PTH binding disrupted receptor oligomerization. A receptor rendered monomeric by mutations in the ECD retained wild-type PTH binding and cAMP signaling ability. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that PTH1R forms constitutive dimers that are dissociated by ligand binding and that monomeric PTH1R is capable of activating G protein.

  8. The Prelude on Novel Receptor and Ligand Targets Involved in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Venu Gopal; Ram Raju, Allam Venkata Sita; Pittala, Srinivas; Shaik, Afsar; Selkar, Nilakash Annaji

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are a group of disorders, due to the disruption of the normal metabolic process at a cellular level. Diabetes Mellitus and Tyrosinaemia are the majorly reported metabolic disorders. Among them, Diabetes Mellitus is a one of the leading metabolic syndrome, affecting 5 to 7 % of the population worldwide and mainly characterised by elevated levels of glucose and is associated with two types of physiological event disturbances such as impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Up to now, various treatment strategies are like insulin, alphaglucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, incretins were being followed. Concurrently, various novel therapeutic strategies are required to advance the therapy of Diabetes mellitus. For the last few decades, there has been an extensive research in understanding the metabolic pathways involved in Diabetes Mellitus at the cellular level and having the profound knowledge on cell-growth, cell-cycle, and apoptosis at a molecular level provides new targets for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. Receptor signalling has been involved in these mechanisms, to translate the information coming from outside. To understand the various receptors involved in these pathways, we must have a sound knowledge on receptors and ligands involved in it. This review mainly summarises the receptors and ligands which are involved the Diabetes Mellitus. Finally, researchers have to develop the alternative chemical moieties that retain their affinity to receptors and efficacy. Diabetes Mellitus being a metabolic disorder due to the glucose surfeit, demands the need for regular exercise along with dietary changes. PMID:24754003

  9. Ligand-dependent recruitment of the Arnt coregulator determines DNA recognition by the dioxin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Whitelaw, M.; Pongratz, I.; Wilhelmsson, A.; Gustafsson, J.; Poellinger, L. )

    1993-04-01

    Signal transduction by dioxins is mediated by the intracellular dioxin or aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This receptor binds dioxin and its planar aromatic congeners in a saturable manner with high affinity. The extreme toxicity of dioxin has been demonstrated in animals but not in humans. In animals, dioxin causes thymic wasting, immune suppression, severe epithelial disorders and tumor promotion. On a molecular level, dioxins are inducers of transcription of a battery of target genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Dioxin also appears to transcriptionally regulate the expression of the growth modulatory genes for interleukin-1 Beta and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2. The dioxin induction response is mediated by single or multiple copies of dioxin-inducible transcriptional control elements in target promoters. The research data detailed in this paper examines the ligand-dependent recruitment of the Arnt coregulator which determines DNA recognition by the dioxin receptor. This data suggests that dioxin receptor activity is governed by a complex pattern of combinatorial regulation involving repression by hsp90 and then by ligand-dependent recruitment of the positive coregulator Arnt and that the dioxin receptor system provides the first example of signal-controlled dimerization of bHLH factors.

  10. Microchemical synthesis of the serotonin receptor ligand, /sup 125/I-LSD

    SciTech Connect

    Hartig, P.R.; Krohn, A.M.; Hirschman, S.A.

    1985-02-01

    The synthesis and properties of 2-(/sup 125/I)-lysergic acid diethylamide, the first /sup 125/I-labeled serotonin receptor ligand, are described. A novel microsynthesis apparatus was developed for this synthesis. The apparatus employs a micromanipulator and glass micro tools to handle microliter to nanoliter volumes on a microscope stage. This apparatus should be generally useful for the synthesis of radioligands and other compounds when limited amounts of material must be handled in small volumes.

  11. Molecular determinants of ligand binding modes in the histamine H(4) receptor: linking ligand-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models to in silico guided receptor mutagenesis studies.

    PubMed

    Istyastono, Enade P; Nijmeijer, Saskia; Lim, Herman D; van de Stolpe, Andrea; Roumen, Luc; Kooistra, Albert J; Vischer, Henry F; de Esch, Iwan J P; Leurs, Rob; de Graaf, Chris

    2011-12-01

    The histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays an important role in inflammation. Similar to the homologous histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R), two acidic residues in the H(4)R binding pocket, D(3.32) and E(5.46), act as essential hydrogen bond acceptors of positively ionizable hydrogen bond donors in H(4)R ligands. Given the symmetric distribution of these complementary pharmacophore features in H(4)R and its ligands, different alternative ligand binding mode hypotheses have been proposed. The current study focuses on the elucidation of the molecular determinants of H(4)R-ligand binding modes by combining (3D) quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), protein homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, and site-directed mutagenesis studies. We have designed and synthesized a series of clobenpropit (N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-S-[3-(4(5)-imidazolyl)propyl]isothiourea) derivatives to investigate H(4)R-ligand interactions and ligand binding orientations. Interestingly, our studies indicate that clobenpropit (2) itself can bind to H(4)R in two distinct binding modes, while the addition of a cyclohexyl group to the clobenpropit isothiourea moiety allows VUF5228 (5) to adopt only one specific binding mode in the H(4)R binding pocket. Our ligand-steered, experimentally supported protein modeling method gives new insights into ligand recognition by H(4)R and can be used as a general approach to elucidate the structure of protein-ligand complexes.

  12. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, TYRO3, AXL, and MER, Demonstrate Distinct Patterns and Complex Regulation of Ligand-induced Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Wen-I; Nguyen, Khanh-Quynh N.; Calarese, Daniel A.; Garforth, Scott J.; Antes, Anita L.; Smirnov, Sergey V.; Almo, Steve C.; Birge, Raymond B.; Kotenko, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    TYRO3, AXL, and MER receptors (TAMs) are three homologous type I receptor-tyrosine kinases that are activated by endogenous ligands, protein S (PROS1) and growth arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6). These ligands can either activate TAMs as soluble factors, or, in turn, opsonize phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells (ACs) and serve as bridging molecules between ACs and TAMs. Abnormal expression and activation of TAMs have been implicated in promoting proliferation and survival of cancer cells, as well as in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Despite the fact that TAM receptors share significant similarity, little is known about the specificity of interaction between TAM receptors and their ligands, particularly in the context of ACs, and about the functional diversity of TAM receptors. To study ligand-mediated activation of TAMs, we generated a series of reporter cell lines expressing chimeric TAM receptors. Using this system, we found that each TAM receptor has a unique pattern of interaction with and activation by GAS6 and PROS1, which is also differentially affected by the presence of ACs, PS-containing lipid vesicles and enveloped virus. We also demonstrated that γ-carboxylation of ligands is essential for the full activation of TAMs and that soluble immunoglobulin-like TAM domains act as specific ligand antagonists. These studies demonstrate that, despite their similarity, TYRO3, AXL, and MER are likely to perform distinct functions in both immunoregulation and the recognition and removal of ACs. PMID:25074926

  13. Multiple, diverse senile plaque-associated proteins are ligands of an apolipoprotein E receptor, the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    Rebeck, G W; Harr, S D; Strickland, D K; Hyman, B T

    1995-02-01

    Both apolipoprotein E and its receptor, the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), are associated with senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. We examined the relationship of other LRP-related molecules to senile plaques. LRP is a multifunctional receptor that binds and rapidly internalizes at least seven ligands: apolipoprotein E, activated alpha 2-macroglobulin, tissue and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, lipoprotein lipase, and lactoferrin. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that all of these ligands, representing a diverse group of otherwise apparently unrelated proteins, accumulate on senile plaques. We also studied expression of the receptor-associated protein, a physiological inhibitor of LRP, in the hippocampal formation from normal subjects and Alzheimer's disease patients. Receptor-associated protein colocalizes with LRP on neuronal soma, but not on neuronal processes or reactive astrocytes. It is not present on senile plaques. These results suggest that senile plaque-associated LRP can bind its ligands, but clearance of these compounds may be impaired in the vicinity of senile plaques.

  14. Multitarget-directed tricyclic pyridazinones as G protein-coupled receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pau, Amedeo; Catto, Marco; Pinna, Giovanni; Frau, Simona; Murineddu, Gabriele; Asproni, Battistina; Curzu, Maria M; Pisani, Leonardo; Leonetti, Francesco; Loza, Maria Isabel; Brea, José; Pinna, Gérard A; Carotti, Angelo

    2015-06-01

    By following a multitarget ligand design approach, a library of 47 compounds was prepared, and they were tested as binders of selected G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and inhibitors of acetyl and/or butyryl cholinesterase. The newly designed ligands feature pyridazinone-based tricyclic scaffolds connected through alkyl chains of variable length to proper amine moieties (e.g., substituted piperazines or piperidines) for GPCR and cholinesterase (ChE) molecular recognition. The compounds were tested at three different GPCRs, namely serotoninergic 5-HT1A, adrenergic α1A, and dopaminergic D2 receptors. Our main goal was the discovery of compounds that exhibit, in addition to ChE inhibition, antagonist activity at 5-HT1A because of its involvement in neuronal deficits typical of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Ligands with nanomolar affinity for the tested GPCRs were discovered, but most of them behaved as dual antagonists of α1A and 5-HT1A receptors. Nevertheless, several compounds displaying this GPCR affinity profile also showed moderate to good inhibition of AChE and BChE, thus deserving further investigations to exploit the therapeutic potential of such unusual biological profiles.

  15. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Zou, Yaozhong; Rasmussen, Søren G.F.; Liu, Corey W.; Nygaard, Rie; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Fung, Juan José; Choi, Hee-Jung; Thian, Foon Sun; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Weis, William I.; Pardo, Leonardo; Prosser, R. Scott; Mueller, Luciano; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2010-01-14

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane proteins that mediate most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. They are the largest group of therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. Recent crystal structures of GPCRs have revealed structural conservation extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the transmembrane core to the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling domains. In contrast, the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs is remarkably diverse and is therefore an ideal target for the discovery of subtype-selective drugs. However, little is known about the functional role of the ECS in receptor activation, or about conformational coupling of this surface to the native ligand-binding pocket. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate ligand-specific conformational changes around a central structural feature in the ECS of the {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic receptor: a salt bridge linking extracellular loops 2 and 3. Small-molecule drugs that bind within the transmembrane core and exhibit different efficacies towards G-protein activation (agonist, neutral antagonist and inverse agonist) also stabilize distinct conformations of the ECS. We thereby demonstrate conformational coupling between the ECS and the orthosteric binding site, showing that drugs targeting this diverse surface could function as allosteric modulators with high subtype selectivity. Moreover, these studies provide a new insight into the dynamic behaviour of GPCRs not addressable by static, inactive-state crystal structures.

  16. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kourouniotis, George; Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ) and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP) at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. PMID:27463710

  17. Ligand-receptor interaction rates in the presence of convective mass transport.

    PubMed Central

    Model, M A; Omann, G M

    1995-01-01

    The rate of binding of a ligand to receptors on the cell surface can be diffusion limited. We analyze the kinetics of binding, diffusion-limited in a stationary liquid, in the presence of convective mass transport. We derive a formula that expresses the reaction kinetics in terms of the mass transfer coefficient. A moderately transport-limited kinetics is not readily recognizable from the shape of the binding curve and may lead to erroneous estimates of the rate coefficients. We apply our results to practically important cases: a cell suspension in a stirred volume of liquid and a confluent cell colony under a laminar stream. Using typical numbers characterizing the ligand-receptor interactions, we show that stirring and perfusion can be important factors determining the reaction rates. With the confluent colony, the early reaction kinetics requires a different treatment, and we provide it for the case of low receptor occupancy. We show that, even with a fast perfusion, a cell monolayer can transiently generate a zone of depletion of the ligand, and that would affect the early stages of the reaction. Our results are expressed in a simple analytical form and can be used for the design and interpretation of experimental data. PMID:8580315

  18. Two disparate ligand binding sites in the human P2Y1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Zhang, Kaihua; Kiselev, Evgeny; Crane, Steven; Wang, Jiang; Paoletta, Silvia; Yi, Cuiying; Ma, Limin; Zhang, Wenru; Han, Gye Won; Liu, Hong; Cherezov, Vadim; Katritch, Vsevolod; Jiang, Hualiang; Stevens, Raymond C.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Beili

    2015-01-01

    In response to adenosine 5′-diphosphate, the P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) facilitates platelet aggregation, and thus serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Here we report the crystal structures of the human P2Y1R in complex with a nucleotide antagonist MRS2500 at 2.7Å resolution, and with a non-nucleotide antagonist BPTU at 2.2Å resolution. The structures reveal two distinct ligand binding sites, providing atomic details of P2Y1R’s unique ligand binding modes. MRS2500 recognizes a binding site within the seven transmembrane bundle of P2Y1R, which, however, is different in shape and location from the nucleotide binding site in previously determined P2Y12R structure. BPTU binds to an allosteric pocket on the external receptor interface with the lipid bilayer, making it the first structurally characterized selective G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand located entirely outside of the helical bundle. These high-resolution insights into P2Y1R should enable discovery of new orthosteric and allosteric antithrombotic drugs with reduced adverse effects. PMID:25822790

  19. Automated Site Preparation in Physics-Based Rescoring of Receptor Ligand Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Chaya S.; Schonbrun, Cheryl; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Huang, Niu

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms are not typically observable in xray crystal structures but inferring their locations is often important in structure-based drug design. In addition, protonation states of the protein can change in response to ligand binding, as can the orientations of OH groups, a subtle form of “induced fit”. We implement and evaluate an automated procedure for optimizing polar hydrogens in protein binding sites in complex with ligands. Specifically, we apply the previously described ICDA algorithm (Proteins 66: 824–837), which assigns the ionization states of titratable residues, the amide orientations of Asn/Gln side chains, the imidazole ring orientation in His, and the orientations of OH/SH groups, in a unified algorithm. We test the utility of this method for identifying native-like ligand poses using 247 protein-ligand complexes from an established database of docked decoys. Pose selection is performed with a physics-based scoring function based on a molecular mechanics energy function and a Generalized Born implicit solvent model. The use of the ICDA receptor preparation protocol, implemented with no knowledge of the native ligand pose, increases the accuracy of pose selection significantly, with the average RMSD over all complexes decreasing from 2.7 to 1.5 Å when applying ICDA. Large improvements are seen for specific classes of binding sites with titratable groups, such as aspartyl proteases. PMID:19382204

  20. Automated site preparation in physics-based rescoring of receptor ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Chaya S; Schonbrun, Cheryl; Jacobson, Matthew P; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Huang, Niu

    2009-10-01

    Hydrogen atoms are not typically observable in X-ray crystal structures, but inferring their locations is often important in structure-based drug design. In addition, protonation states of the protein can change in response to ligand binding, as can the orientations of OH groups, a subtle form of "induced fit." We implement and evaluate an automated procedure for optimizing polar hydrogens in protein-binding sites in complex with ligands. Specifically, we apply the previously described Independent Cluster Decomposition Algorithm (ICDA) algorithm (Li et al., Proteins 2007;66:824-837), which assigns the ionization states of titratable residues, the amide orientations of Asn/Gln side chains, the imidazole ring orientation in His, and the orientations of OH/SH groups, in a unified algorithm. We test the utility of this method for identifying nativelike ligand poses using 247 protein-ligand complexes from an established database of docked decoys. Pose selection is performed with a physics-based scoring function based on a molecular mechanics energy function and a Generalized Born implicit solvent model. The use of the ICDA receptor preparation protocol, implemented with no knowledge of the native ligand pose, increases the accuracy of pose selection significantly, with the average RMSD over all complexes decreasing from 2.7 to 1.5 A when applying ICDA. Large improvements are seen for specific classes of binding sites with titratable groups, such as aspartyl proteases.

  1. MODELING THE BINDING OF THE METABOLITES OF SOME POLYCYCLIC AROMTIC HYDROCARBONS TO THE LIGAND BINDING DOMAIN OF THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the binding of the metabolites of some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to the ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor
    James Rabinowitz, Stephen Little, Katrina Brown, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC; Un...

  2. Diversity and Inter-Connections in the CXCR4 Chemokine Receptor/Ligand Family: Molecular Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pawig, Lukas; Klasen, Christina; Weber, Christian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Noels, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 mediate the homing of progenitor cells in the bone marrow and their recruitment to sites of injury, as well as affect processes such as cell arrest, survival, and angiogenesis. CXCL12 was long thought to be the sole CXCR4 ligand, but more recently the atypical chemokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was identified as an alternative, non-cognate ligand for CXCR4 and shown to mediate chemotaxis and arrest of CXCR4-expressing T-cells. This has complicated the understanding of CXCR4-mediated signaling and associated biological processes. Compared to CXCL12/CXCR4-induced signaling, only few details are known on MIF/CXCR4-mediated signaling and it remains unclear to which extent MIF and CXCL12 reciprocally influence CXCR4 binding and signaling. Furthermore, the atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) (previously CXCR7) has added to the complexity of CXCR4 signaling due to its ability to bind CXCL12 and MIF, and to evoke CXCL12- and MIF-triggered signaling independently of CXCR4. Also, extracellular ubiquitin (eUb) and the viral protein gp120 (HIV) have been reported as CXCR4 ligands, whereas viral chemokine vMIP-II (Herpesvirus) and human β3-defensin (HBD-3) have been identified as CXCR4 antagonists. This review will provide insight into the diversity and inter-connections in the CXCR4 receptor/ligand family. We will discuss signaling pathways initiated by binding of CXCL12 vs. MIF to CXCR4, elaborate on how ACKR3 affects CXCR4 signaling, and summarize biological functions of CXCR4 signaling mediated by CXCL12 or MIF. Also, we will discuss eUb and gp120 as alternative ligands for CXCR4, and describe vMIP-II and HBD-3 as antagonists for CXCR4. Detailed insight into biological effects of CXCR4 signaling und underlying mechanisms, including diversity of CXCR4 ligands and inter-connections with other (chemokine) receptors, is clinically important, as the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 has been approved as stem cell mobilizer in specific

  3. Crystal structure of the urokinase receptor in a ligand-free form.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Yuan, Cai; Lin, Lin; Ploug, Michael; Huang, Mingdong

    2012-03-01

    The urokinase receptor urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a surface receptor capable of not only focalizing urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-mediated fibrinolysis to the pericellular micro-environment but also promoting cell migration and chemotaxis. Consistent with this multifunctional role, uPAR binds several extracellular ligands, including uPA and vitronectin. Structural studies suggest that uPAR possesses structural flexibility. It is, however, not clear whether this flexibility is an inherent property of the uPAR structure per se or whether it is induced upon ligand binding. The crystal structure of human uPAR in its ligand-free state would clarify this issue, but such information remains unfortunately elusive. We now report the crystal structures of a stabilized, human uPAR (H47C/N259C) in its ligand-free form to 2.4 Å and in complex with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) to 3.2 Å. The structure of uPAR(H47C/N259C) in complex with ATF resembles the wild-type uPAR·ATF complex, demonstrating that these mutations do not perturb the uPA binding properties of uPAR. The present structure of uPAR(H47C/N259C) provides the first structural definition of uPAR in its ligand-free form, which represents one of the biologically active conformations of uPAR as defined by extensive biochemical studies. The domain boundary between uPAR DI-DII domains is more flexible than the DII-DIII domain boundary. Two important structural features are highlighted by the present uPAR structure. First, the DI-DIII domain boundary may face the cell membrane. Second, loop 130-140 of uPAR plays a dynamic role during ligand loading/unloading. Together, these studies provide new insights into uPAR structure-function relationships, emphasizing the importance of the inter-domain dynamics of this modular receptor. PMID:22285761

  4. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Davis, Perry; Reinick, Christina; Mizusawa, Kanta; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Dores, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) related to research published in "Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish" (Takahashi et al., 2016) [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR. PMID:27408924

  5. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Brian D.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Grundmann, Manuel; Kostenis, Evi; Adams, David R.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    When it is difficult to develop selective ligands within a family of related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), chemically engineered receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) are useful alternatives for probing receptor function. In the present work, we explored whether a RASSL of the free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) could be developed on the basis of pharmacological variation between species orthologs. For this, bovine FFA2 was characterized, revealing distinct ligand selectivity compared with human FFA2. Homology modeling and mutational analysis demonstrated a single mutation in human FFA2 of C4.57G resulted in a human FFA2 receptor with ligand selectivity similar to the bovine receptor. This was exploited to generate human FFA2-RASSL by the addition of a second mutation at a known orthosteric ligand interaction site, H6.55Q. The resulting FFA2-RASSL displayed a >100-fold loss of activity to endogenous ligands, while responding to the distinct ligand sorbic acid with pEC50 values for inhibition of cAMP, 5.83 ± 0.11; Ca2+ mobilization, 4.63 ± 0.05; ERK phosphorylation, 5.61 ± 0.06; and dynamic mass redistribution, 5.35 ± 0.06. This FFA2-RASSL will be useful in future studies on this receptor and demonstrates that exploitation of pharmacological variation between species orthologs is a powerful method to generate novel chemically engineered GPCRs.—Hudson, B. D., Christiansen, E., Tikhonova, I. G., Grundmann, M., Kostenis, E., Adams, D. R., Ulven, T., Milligan, G. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs. PMID:22919070

  6. Identification of ligand specificity determinants in AgrC, the Staphylococcus aureus quorum-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, Edward; George, Elizabeth A; Chen, John; Muir, Tom W; Novick, Richard P

    2008-04-01

    Activation of the agr system, a major regulator of staphylococcal virulence, is initiated by the binding of a specific autoinducing peptide (AIP) to the extracellular domain of AgrC, a classical receptor histidine protein kinase. There are four known agr specificity groups in Staphylococcus aureus, and we have previously localized the determinant of AIP receptor specificity to the C-terminal half of the AgrC sensor domain. We have now identified the specific amino acid residues that determine ligand activation specificity for agr groups I and IV, the two most closely related. Comparison of the AgrC-I and AgrC-IV sequences revealed a set of five divergent residues in the region of the second extracellular loop of the receptor that could be responsible. Accordingly, we exchanged these residues between AgrC-I and AgrC-IV and tested the resulting constructs for activation by the respective AIPs, measuring activation kinetics with a transcriptional fusion of blaZ to the principal agr promoter, P3. Exchange of all five residues caused a complete switch in receptor specificity. Replacement of two of the AgrC-IV residues by the corresponding residues in AgrC-I caused the receptor to be activated by AIP-I nearly as well as the wild type AgrC-I receptor. Replacement of two different AgrC-I residues by the corresponding AgrC-IV residues broadened receptor recognition specificity to include both AIPs. Various types of intermediate activity were observed with other replacement mutations. Preliminary characterization of the AgrC-I-AIP-I interaction suggests that ligand specificity may be sterically determined.

  7. Effect of receptor-ligand affinity on the strength of endothelial cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Y; Truskey, G A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of receptor-ligand affinity on the strength of endothelial cell adhesion. Linear and cyclic forms of the fibronectin (Fn) cell-binding domain peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) were covalently immobilized to glass, and Fn was adsorbed onto glass slides. Bovine aortic endothelial cells attached to the surfaces for 15 min. The critical wall shear stress at which 50% of the cells detached increased nonlinearly with ligand density and was greater with immobilized cyclic RGD than with immobilized linear RGD or adsorbed Fn. To directly compare results for the different ligand densities, the receptor-ligand dissociation constant and force per bond were estimated from data for the critical shear stress and contact area. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was used to measure the contact area as a function of separation distance. Contact area increased with increasing ligand density. Contact areas were similar for the immobilized peptides but were greater on surfaces with adsorbed Fn. The dissociation constant was determined by nonlinear regression of the net force on the cells to models that assumed that bonds were either uniformly stressed or that only bonds on the periphery of the contact region were stressed (peeling model). Both models provided equally good fits for cells attached to immobilized peptides whereas the peeling model produced a better fit of data for cells attached to adsorbed Fn. Cyclic RGD and linear RGD both bind to the integrin alpha v beta 3, but immobilized cyclic RGD exhibited a greater affinity than did linear RGD. Receptor affinities of Fn adsorbed to glycophase glass and Fn adsorbed to glass were similar. The number of bonds was calculated assuming binding equilibrium. The peeling model produced good linear fits between bond force and number of bonds. Results of this study indicate that 1) bovine aortic endothelial cells are more adherent on immobilized cyclic RGD peptide than linear

  8. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by metal-ligand complexes decreases levels of extracellular amyloid beta peptide.

    PubMed

    Price, Katherine A; Filiz, Gulay; Caragounis, Aphrodite; Du, Tai; Laughton, Katrina M; Masters, Colin L; Sharples, Robyn A; Hill, Andrew F; Li, Qiao-Xin; Donnelly, Paul S; Barnham, Kevin J; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2008-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in a range of tissues and cell-types. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by a number of ligands induces downstream signalling that modulates critical cell functions including growth, survival and differentiation. Abnormal epidermal growth factor receptor expression and activation is also involved in a number of cancers. In addition to its cognate ligands, the epidermal growth factor receptor can be activated by metals such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Due to the important role of these metals in a number of diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, therapeutic approaches are being developed based on the use of lipid permeable metal-complexing molecules. While these agents are showing promising results in animal models and clinical trials, little is known about the effects of metal-ligand complexes on cell signalling pathways. In this study, we investigated the effects of clioquinol (CQ)-metal complexes on activation of epidermal growth factor receptor. We show here that CQ-Cu complexes induced potent epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation resulting in downstream activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Similar levels of epidermal growth factor receptor activation were observed with alternative lipid permeable metal-ligands including neocuproine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. We found that CQ-Cu complexes induced a significant reduction in the level of extracellular Abeta1-40 in cell culture. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor activation by PD153035 blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and restored Abeta1-40 levels. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by CQ-Cu was mediated through up-regulation of src kinase activity by a cognate ligand-independent process involving membrane integrins. These findings provide the first evidence that metal-ligand complexes can activate the epidermal growth

  9. Structure-Activity Relationships of Constrained Phenylethylamine Ligands for the Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Isberg, Vignir; Paine, James; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Kristensen, Jesper L.; Gloriam, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonergic ligands have proven effective drugs in the treatment of migraine, pain, obesity, and a wide range of psychiatric and neurological disorders. There is a clinical need for more highly 5-HT2 receptor subtype-selective ligands and the most attention has been given to the phenethylamine class. Conformationally constrained phenethylamine analogs have demonstrated that for optimal activity the free lone pair electrons of the 2-oxygen must be oriented syn and the 5-oxygen lone pairs anti relative to the ethylamine moiety. Also the ethyl linker has been constrained providing information about the bioactive conformation of the amine functionality. However, combined 1,2-constriction by cyclization has only been tested with one compound. Here, we present three new 1,2-cyclized phenylethylamines, 9–11, and describe their synthetic routes. Ligand docking in the 5-HT2B crystal structure showed that the 1,2-heterocyclized compounds can be accommodated in the binding site. Conformational analysis showed that 11 can only bind in a higher-energy conformation, which would explain its absent or low affinity. The amine and 2-oxygen interactions with D3.32 and S3.36, respectively, can form but shift the placement of the core scaffold. The constraints in 9–11 resulted in docking poses with the 4-bromine in closer vicinity to 5.46, which is polar only in the human 5-HT2A subtype, for which 9–11 have the lowest affinity. The new ligands, conformational analysis and docking expand the structure-activity relationships of constrained phenethylamines and contributes towards the development of 5-HT2 receptor subtype-selective ligands. PMID:24244317

  10. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promotes ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Kasina, Sathish; Macoska, Jill A

    2012-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the transition of some prostate cancers from androgen ligand-dependent to androgen ligand-independent are incompletely established. Molecules that are ligands for G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in ligand-independent androgen receptor (AR) activation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether CXCL12, the ligand for the GPCR, CXCR4, might mediate prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR-dependent mechanisms involving functional transactivation of the AR in the absence of androgen. The results of these studies showed that activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promoted: The nuclear accumulation of both wild-type and mutant AR in several prostate epithelial cell lines; AR-dependent proliferative responses; nuclear accumulation of the AR co-regulator SRC-1 protein; SRC-1:AR protein:protein association; co-localization of AR and SRC-1 on the promoters of AR-regulated genes; AR- and SRC-1 dependent transcription of AR-regulated genes; AR-dependent secretion of the AR-regulated PSA protein; P13K-dependent phosphorylation of AR; MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of SRC-1, and both MAPK- and P13K-dependent secretion of the PSA protein, in the absence of androgen. Taken together, these studies identify CXCL12 as a novel, non-steroidal growth factor that promotes the growth of prostate epithelial cells through AR-dependent mechanisms in the absence of steroid hormones. These findings support the development of novel therapeutics targeting the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis as an ancillary to those targeting the androgen/AR axis to effectively treat castration resistant/recurrent prostate tumors.

  11. Structure based virtual screening of ligands to identify cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Srinivas; Marri, Vijaya Kumar; Kasera, Priyadarshani; Kovuri, Purnima; Girdhar, Amandeep; Mittal, Deepti Raj; Ikram, Sabeen; Gv, Ravi; Nayarisseri, Anuraj

    2014-01-01

    Montelukast and Zafirlukast are known leukotriene receptor antagonists prescribed in asthma treatment. However, these fall short as mono therapy and are frequently used in combination with inhaled glucocorticosteroids with or without long acting beta 2 agonists. Therefore, it is of interest to apply ligand and structure based virtual screening strategies to identify compounds akin to lead compounds Montelukast and Zafirlukast. Hence, compounds with structures having 95% similarity to these compounds were retrieved from NCBI׳s PubChem database. Compounds similar to lead were grouped and docked at the antagonist binding site of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1. This exercise identified compounds UNII 70RV86E50Q (Pub Cid 71587778) and Sure CN 9587085 (Pub Cid 19793614) with higher predicted binding compared to Montelukast and Zafirlukast. It is shown that the compound Sure CN 9587085 showed appreciable ligand receptor interaction compared to UNII 70RV86E50Q. Thus, the compound Sure CN 9587085 is selected as a potent antagonist to cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 for further consideration in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:25489175

  12. Characterization of opiate receptor heterogeneity using affinity ligands and phospholipase A/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Reichman, M.

    1985-01-01

    The primary aim of the dissertation was to study the heterogeneity of opiate receptors by utilizing affinity ligands, and by modification of the receptor lipid-microenvironment with phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/). The affinity ligands, 14-bromacetamidomorphine (BAM) and 14-chloroacetylnaltrexone (CAN), selectively inactivated high affinity dihydromorphine binding sites in an apparently irreversible manner (the inhibition was resistant to extensive washes of treated neural membrane homogenates). The inhibitory effect of PLA/sub 2/ (10 ng/ml) on opiate receptor subtypes was determined using (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine (..mu..-type agonist), (/sup 3/H)-enkephalin (delta agonist) and (/sup 3/H)-naloxone (..mu.. antagonist). PLA/sub 2/ abolished the high affinity antagonist binding site, whereas it inhibited high and low affinity agonist binding sites similarly. The results suggest that high affinity antagonist binding sites are different from high affinity agonist binding sites. Indirect binding assays demonstrated that the selectivities of ..mu..- and delta receptors are not affected significantly by PLA/sub 2/ treatment.

  13. Sub-millisecond ligand probing of cell receptors with multiple solution exchange

    PubMed Central

    Sylantyev, Sergiy; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2013-01-01

    The accurate knowledge of receptor kinetics is crucial to our understanding of cell signal transduction in general and neural function in particular. The classical technique of probing membrane receptors on a millisecond scale involves placing a recording micropipette with a membrane patch in front of a double-barrel (θ-glass) application pipette mounted on a piezo actuator. Driven by electric pulses, the actuator can rapidly shift the θ-glass pipette tip, thus exposing the target receptors to alternating ligand solutions. However, membrane patches survive for only a few minutes, thus normally restricting such experiments to a single-application protocol. In order to overcome this deficiency, we have introduced pressurized supply microcircuits in the θ-glass channels, thus enabling repeated replacement of application solutions within 10–15 s. this protocol, which has been validated in our recent studies and takes 20–60 min to implement, allows the characterization of ligand-receptor interactions with high sensitivity, thereby also enabling a powerful paired-sample statistical design. PMID:23744290

  14. Redox mechanism as alternative to ligand binding for receptor activation delivering disregulated cellular signals.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, I; Pu, M Y; Nishizaki, A; Rosila, I; Ma, L; Katano, Y; Ohkusu, K; Rahman, S M; Isobe, K; Hamaguchi, M

    1994-02-01

    Cross-linking with specific ligand is a general requirement for ordered activation of cell surface receptors. In this study we demonstrated a novel pathway for disregulated receptor activation through a redox mechanism. Treatment of murine thymocytes or spleen cells with thiol-reactive HgCl2, a known inducer of autoimmune proliferative lymphocyte disorders in rodents, was found to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, which was up to 100 times as extensive as that triggered by stimulation with antireceptor antibody or mitogen. Through the cross-linkage by thiol-reactive bivalent mercury, transmembrane CD4, CD3, and CD45 and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Thy-1 were aggregated together on thymocytes or T lymphocytes. Along with the aggregation of Thy-1 and CD4, nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase p56lck was aggregated and activated. These events were linked to extensive protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which was visualized as a well localized spot beneath the membrane. Under appropriate conditions, this novel pathway of multiple receptor aggregation delivered a disregulated signal into T lymphocytes, which cross-talked to the antireceptor antibody-induced signal, for prolonged cell proliferation and IL-2 production. These results suggest a novel mechanism of disregulation of the ligand-dependent receptor function.

  15. Ephrin Ligands and Eph Receptors Show Regionally Restricted Expression in the Developing Palate and Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Guilherme M.; Miletich, Isabelle; Cobourne, Martyn T.

    2016-01-01

    The Eph family receptor-interacting (ephrin) ligands and erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors constitute the largest known family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Ephrin ligands and their receptors form an important cell communication system with widespread roles in normal physiology and disease pathogenesis. In order to investigate potential roles of the ephrin-Eph system during palatogenesis and tongue development, we have characterized the cellular mRNA expression of family members EphrinA1-A3, EphA1–A8, and EphrinB2, EphB1, EphB4 during murine embryogenesis between embryonic day 13.5–16.5 using radioactive in situ hybridization. With the exception of EphA6 and ephrinA3, all genes were regionally expressed during the process of palatogenesis, with restricted and often overlapping domains. Transcripts were identified in the palate epithelium, localized at the tip of the palatal shelves, in the mesenchyme and also confined to the medial epithelium seam. Numerous Eph transcripts were also identified during tongue development. In particular, EphA1 and EphA2 demonstrated a highly restricted and specific expression in the tongue epithelium at all stages examined, whereas EphA3 was strongly expressed in the lateral tongue mesenchyme. These results suggest regulatory roles for ephrin-EphA signaling in development of the murine palate and tongue. PMID:26941654

  16. Proteasome inhibition blocks ligand-induced dynamic processing and internalization of epidermal growth factor receptor via altered receptor ubiquitination and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kesarwala, Aparna H; Samrakandi, Mustapha M; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2009-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), a member of the EGF superfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, is a critical regulator of cell growth and an important target for single agent and combination anticancer therapeutics. To further investigate the dynamics of ligand-induced EGFR processing and regulation noninvasively, we developed a chimeric EGFR-firefly luciferase (FLuc) fusion reporter to directly monitor processing of EGFR in real-time. In a stable HeLa cell line expressing the reporter at physiologically relevant levels, bioluminescence imaging continuously monitored reporter dynamics, correlating with the ligand-induced response of endogenous EGFR as determined by Western blot, subcellular localization of an EGFR-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein, and validated pharmacologic responses. The signaling competency of the reporter was confirmed by gene rescue experiments in EGFR-null cells. Bioluminescence analysis further showed that proteasome inhibition with bortezomib or MG132 attenuated overall ligand-induced degradation of EGFR. In cells expressing EGFR-GFP, pretreatment with proteasome inhibitors trapped essentially all of the receptor at the cell membrane both before and after ligand-induced activation with EGF. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition enhanced receptor ubiquitination in both the basal and ligand-activated states as well as delayed the processing of ligand-activated phosphorylation of the receptor, kinetically correlating with attenuated receptor degradation. These observations point to a potential mechanism for the synergistic therapeutic effects of combination EGFR- and proteasome-targeted therapies.

  17. Monitoring Solution Structures of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ upon Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Rico; Tänzler, Dirk; Ihling, Christian H; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been intensively studied as drug targets to treat type 2 diabetes, lipid disorders, and metabolic syndrome. This study is part of our ongoing efforts to map conformational changes in PPARs in solution by a combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (MS). To our best knowledge, we performed the first studies addressing solution structures of full-length PPAR-β/δ. We monitored the conformations of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ upon binding of two agonists. (Photo-) cross-linking relied on (i) a variety of externally introduced amine- and carboxyl-reactive linkers and (ii) the incorporation of the photo-reactive amino acid p-benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) into PPAR-β/δ by genetic engineering. The distances derived from cross-linking experiments allowed us to monitor conformational changes in PPAR-β/δ upon ligand binding. The cross-linking/MS approach proved highly advantageous to study nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, and revealed the interplay between DBD (DNA-binding domain) and LDB in PPAR-β/δ. Our results indicate the stabilization of a specific conformation through ligand binding in PPAR-β/δ LBD as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ. Moreover, our results suggest a close distance between the N- and C-terminal regions of full-length PPAR-β/δ in the presence of GW1516. Chemical cross-linking/MS allowed us gaining detailed insights into conformational changes that are induced in PPARs when activating ligands are present. Thus, cross-linking/MS should be added to the arsenal of structural methods available for studying nuclear receptors.

  18. Monitoring Solution Structures of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ upon Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Rico; Tänzler, Dirk; Ihling, Christian H; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been intensively studied as drug targets to treat type 2 diabetes, lipid disorders, and metabolic syndrome. This study is part of our ongoing efforts to map conformational changes in PPARs in solution by a combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (MS). To our best knowledge, we performed the first studies addressing solution structures of full-length PPAR-β/δ. We monitored the conformations of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ upon binding of two agonists. (Photo-) cross-linking relied on (i) a variety of externally introduced amine- and carboxyl-reactive linkers and (ii) the incorporation of the photo-reactive amino acid p-benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) into PPAR-β/δ by genetic engineering. The distances derived from cross-linking experiments allowed us to monitor conformational changes in PPAR-β/δ upon ligand binding. The cross-linking/MS approach proved highly advantageous to study nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, and revealed the interplay between DBD (DNA-binding domain) and LDB in PPAR-β/δ. Our results indicate the stabilization of a specific conformation through ligand binding in PPAR-β/δ LBD as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ. Moreover, our results suggest a close distance between the N- and C-terminal regions of full-length PPAR-β/δ in the presence of GW1516. Chemical cross-linking/MS allowed us gaining detailed insights into conformational changes that are induced in PPARs when activating ligands are present. Thus, cross-linking/MS should be added to the arsenal of structural methods available for studying nuclear receptors. PMID:26992147

  19. Monitoring Solution Structures of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ upon Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Rico; Tänzler, Dirk; Ihling, Christian H.; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been intensively studied as drug targets to treat type 2 diabetes, lipid disorders, and metabolic syndrome. This study is part of our ongoing efforts to map conformational changes in PPARs in solution by a combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (MS). To our best knowledge, we performed the first studies addressing solution structures of full-length PPAR-β/δ. We monitored the conformations of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ upon binding of two agonists. (Photo-) cross-linking relied on (i) a variety of externally introduced amine- and carboxyl-reactive linkers and (ii) the incorporation of the photo-reactive amino acid p-benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) into PPAR-β/δ by genetic engineering. The distances derived from cross-linking experiments allowed us to monitor conformational changes in PPAR-β/δ upon ligand binding. The cross-linking/MS approach proved highly advantageous to study nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, and revealed the interplay between DBD (DNA-binding domain) and LDB in PPAR-β/δ. Our results indicate the stabilization of a specific conformation through ligand binding in PPAR-β/δ LBD as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ. Moreover, our results suggest a close distance between the N- and C-terminal regions of full-length PPAR-β/δ in the presence of GW1516. Chemical cross-linking/MS allowed us gaining detailed insights into conformational changes that are induced in PPARs when activating ligands are present. Thus, cross-linking/MS should be added to the arsenal of structural methods available for studying nuclear receptors. PMID:26992147

  20. Evolutionarily conserved paired immunoglobulin-like receptor α (PILRα) domain mediates its interaction with diverse sialylated ligands.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonglian; Senger, Kate; Baginski, Tomasz K; Mazloom, Anita; Chinn, Yvonne; Pantua, Homer; Hamidzadeh, Kajal; Ramani, Sree Ranjani; Luis, Elizabeth; Tom, Irene; Sebrell, Andrew; Quinones, Gabriel; Ma, Yan; Mukhyala, Kiran; Sai, Tao; Ding, Jiabing; Haley, Benjamin; Shadnia, Hooman; Kapadia, Sharookh B; Gonzalez, Lino C; Hass, Philip E; Zarrin, Ali A

    2012-05-01

    Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor (PILR) α is an inhibitory receptor that recognizes several ligands, including mouse CD99, PILR-associating neural protein, and Herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein B. The physiological function(s) of interactions between PILRα and its cellular ligands are not well understood, as are the molecular determinants of PILRα/ligand interactions. To address these uncertainties, we sought to identify additional PILRα ligands and further define the molecular basis for PILRα/ligand interactions. Here, we identify two novel PILRα binding partners, neuronal differentiation and proliferation factor-1 (NPDC1), and collectin-12 (COLEC12). We find that sialylated O-glycans on these novel PILRα ligands, and on known PILRα ligands, are compulsory for PILRα binding. Sialylation-dependent ligand recognition is also a property of SIGLEC1, a member of the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins. SIGLEC1 Ig domain shares ∼22% sequence identity with PILRα, an identity that includes a conserved arginine localized to position 97 in mouse and human SIGLEC1, position 133 in mouse PILRα and position 126 in human PILRα. We observe that PILRα/ligand interactions require conserved PILRα Arg-133 (mouse) and Arg-126 (human), in correspondence with a previously reported requirement for SIGLEC1 Arg-197 in SIGLEC1/ligand interactions. Homology modeling identifies striking similarities between PILRα and SIGLEC1 ligand binding pockets as well as at least one set of distinctive interactions in the galactoxyl-binding site. Binding studies suggest that PILRα recognizes a complex ligand domain involving both sialic acid and protein motif(s). Thus, PILRα is evolved to engage multiple ligands with common molecular determinants to modulate myeloid cell functions in anatomical settings where PILRα ligands are expressed. PMID:22396535

  1. Evolutionarily Conserved Paired Immunoglobulin-like Receptor α (PILRα) Domain Mediates Its Interaction with Diverse Sialylated Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yonglian; Senger, Kate; Baginski, Tomasz K.; Mazloom, Anita; Chinn, Yvonne; Pantua, Homer; Hamidzadeh, Kajal; Ramani, Sree Ranjani; Luis, Elizabeth; Tom, Irene; Sebrell, Andrew; Quinones, Gabriel; Ma, Yan; Mukhyala, Kiran; Sai, Tao; Ding, Jiabing; Haley, Benjamin; Shadnia, Hooman; Kapadia, Sharookh B.; Gonzalez, Lino C.; Hass, Philip E.; Zarrin, Ali A.

    2012-01-01

    Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor (PILR) α is an inhibitory receptor that recognizes several ligands, including mouse CD99, PILR-associating neural protein, and Herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein B. The physiological function(s) of interactions between PILRα and its cellular ligands are not well understood, as are the molecular determinants of PILRα/ligand interactions. To address these uncertainties, we sought to identify additional PILRα ligands and further define the molecular basis for PILRα/ligand interactions. Here, we identify two novel PILRα binding partners, neuronal differentiation and proliferation factor-1 (NPDC1), and collectin-12 (COLEC12). We find that sialylated O-glycans on these novel PILRα ligands, and on known PILRα ligands, are compulsory for PILRα binding. Sialylation-dependent ligand recognition is also a property of SIGLEC1, a member of the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins. SIGLEC1 Ig domain shares ∼22% sequence identity with PILRα, an identity that includes a conserved arginine localized to position 97 in mouse and human SIGLEC1, position 133 in mouse PILRα and position 126 in human PILRα. We observe that PILRα/ligand interactions require conserved PILRα Arg-133 (mouse) and Arg-126 (human), in correspondence with a previously reported requirement for SIGLEC1 Arg-197 in SIGLEC1/ligand interactions. Homology modeling identifies striking similarities between PILRα and SIGLEC1 ligand binding pockets as well as at least one set of distinctive interactions in the galactoxyl-binding site. Binding studies suggest that PILRα recognizes a complex ligand domain involving both sialic acid and protein motif(s). Thus, PILRα is evolved to engage multiple ligands with common molecular determinants to modulate myeloid cell functions in anatomical settings where PILRα ligands are expressed. PMID:22396535

  2. Molecular Dynamics Investigation of gluazo, a Photo-Switchable Ligand for the Glutamate Receptor GluK2.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanan; Wolter, Tino; Kubař, Tomáš; Sumser, Martin; Trauner, Dirk; Elstner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Photochromic ligands (PCLs), defined as photoswitchable molecules that are able to endow native receptors with a sensitivity towards light, have become a promising photopharmacological tool for various applications in biology. In general, PCLs consist of a ligand of the target receptor covalently linked to an azobenzene, which can be reversibly switched between two configurations upon light illumination. Gluazo, as a PCL that targets excitatory amino acid receptors, in its dark-adapted trans iso-form was characterized to be a partial agonist of the kainate glutamate receptor GluK2. Application of UV light leads to the formation of the cis form, with remarkedly reduced affinity towards GluK2. The mechanism of the change of ligand affinity induced by the photoisomerization was unresolved. The presented computational study explains how the isomerization of such a PCL affects the structural changes in the target receptor that lead to its activation. PMID:26308344

  3. Molecular Dynamics Investigation of gluazo, a Photo-Switchable Ligand for the Glutamate Receptor GluK2

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Wolter, Tino; Kubař, Tomáš; Sumser, Martin; Trauner, Dirk; Elstner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Photochromic ligands (PCLs), defined as photoswitchable molecules that are able to endow native receptors with a sensitivity towards light, have become a promising photopharmacological tool for various applications in biology. In general, PCLs consist of a ligand of the target receptor covalently linked to an azobenzene, which can be reversibly switched between two configurations upon light illumination. Gluazo, as a PCL that targets excitatory amino acid receptors, in its dark-adapted trans iso-form was characterized to be a partial agonist of the kainate glutamate receptor GluK2. Application of UV light leads to the formation of the cis form, with remarkedly reduced affinity towards GluK2. The mechanism of the change of ligand affinity induced by the photoisomerization was unresolved. The presented computational study explains how the isomerization of such a PCL affects the structural changes in the target receptor that lead to its activation. PMID:26308344

  4. Synthesis and receptor profiling of Stemona alkaloid analogues reveal a potent class of sigma ligands

    PubMed Central

    Frankowski, Kevin J.; Setola, Vincent; Evans, Jon M.; Neuenswander, Ben; Roth, Bryan L.; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Reported biological activities of Stemona natural products, such as antitussive activity, inspired the development of synthetic methods to access several alkaloids within this family and in so doing develop a general route to the core skeleta shared by the class of natural products. The chemistry was subsequently adapted to afford a series of analogue sets bearing simplified, diverse Stemona-inspired skeleta. Over 100 of these analogues were subjected to general G protein-coupled receptor profiling along with the known antitussive compound, neostenine; this led to the identification of hit compounds targeting several receptor types. The particularly rich hit subset for sigma receptors was expanded with two focused library sets, which resulted in the discovery of a fully synthetic, potent chemotype of sigma ligands. This collaborative effort combined the development of synthetic methods with extensive, flexible screening resources and exemplifies the role of natural products in bioactivity mining. PMID:21368188

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) and Ligand Choreography: Newcomers Take the Stage.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Guasch, Laura; Tomas-Hernández, Sarah; del Bas, Josep Maria; Ollendorff, Vincent; Arola, Lluís; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel

    2015-07-23

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) full agonists that have been widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the demonstrated beneficial effect of reducing glucose levels in the plasma, TZDs also induce several adverse effects. Consequently, the search for new compounds with potent antidiabetic effects but fewer undesired effects is an active field of research. Interestingly, the novel proposed mechanisms for the antidiabetic activity of PPARγ agonists, consisting of PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation inhibition, ligand and receptor mutual dynamics, and the presence of an alternate binding site, have recently changed the view regarding the optimal characteristics for the screening of novel PPARγ ligands. Furthermore, transcriptional genomics could bring essential information about the genome-wide effects of PPARγ ligands. Consequently, facing the new mechanistic scenario proposed for these compounds is essential for resolving the paradoxes among their agonistic function, antidiabetic activities, and side effects and should allow the rational development of better and safer PPARγ-mediated antidiabetic drugs. PMID:25734377

  6. Minimal encounter time and separation determine ligand-receptor binding in cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Robert, Philippe; Nicolas, Alice; Aranda-Espinoza, Said; Bongrand, Pierre; Limozin, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    The binding properties of biomolecules play a crucial role in many biological phenomena, especially cell adhesion. Whereas the attachment kinetics of soluble proteins is considered well known, complex behavior arises when protein molecules are bound to the cell membrane. We probe the hidden kinetics of ligand-receptor bond formation using single-molecule flow chamber assays and Brownian dynamics simulations. We show that, consistent with our recently proposed hypothesis, association requires a minimum duration of contact between the reactive species. In our experiments, ICAM-1 anchored on a flat substrate binds to anti-ICAM-1 coated onto flowing microbeads. The interaction potential between bead and substrate is measured by microinterferometry and is used as an ingredient to simulate bead movement. Our simulation calculates the duration of ligand-receptor contacts imposed by the bead movement. We quantitatively predict the reduction of adhesion probability measured for shorter tether length of the ligand or if a repulsive hyaluronan layer is added onto the surface. To account for our results, we propose that bond formation may occur in our system by crossing of a diffusive plateau in the energy landscape, on the timescale of 5 ms and an energy barrier of 5 k(B)T, before reaching the first detectable bound state. Our results show how to relate cell-scale behavior to the combined information of molecular reactivity and biomolecule submicron-scale environment.

  7. Determining force dependence of two-dimensional receptor-ligand binding affinity by centrifugation.

    PubMed Central

    Piper, J W; Swerlick, R A; Zhu, C

    1998-01-01

    Analyses of receptor-ligand interactions are important to the understanding of cellular adhesion. Traditional methods of measuring the three-dimensional (3D) dissociation constant (Kd) require at least one of the molecular species in solution and hence cannot be directly applied to the case of cell adhesion. We describe a novel method of measuring 2D binding characteristics of receptors and ligands that are attached to surfaces and whose bonds are subjected to forces. The method utilizes a common centrifugation assay to quantify adhesion. A model for the experiment has been formulated, solved exactly, and tested carefully. The model is stochastically based and couples the bond force to the binding affinity. The method was applied to examine tumor cell adherence to recombinant E-selectin. Satisfactory agreement was found between predictions and data. The estimated zero-force 2D Kd for E-selectin/carbohydrate ligand binding was approximately 5 x 10(3) microm(-2), and the bond interaction range was subangstrom. Our results also suggest that the number of bonds mediating adhesion was small (<5). PMID:9449350

  8. Emerging importance of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Altara, Raffaele; Manca, Marco; Brandão, Rita D; Zeidan, Asad; Booz, George W; Zouein, Fouad A

    2016-04-01

    The CXC chemokines, CXCL4, -9, -10, -11, CXCL4L1, and the CC chemokine CCL21, activate CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), a cell-surface G protein-coupled receptor expressed mainly by Th1 cells, cytotoxic T (Tc) cells and NK cells that have a key role in immunity and inflammation. However, CXCR3 is also expressed by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and appears to be important in controlling physiological vascular function. In the last decade, evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies has revealed the participation of CXCR3 and its ligands in multiple cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) of different aetiologies including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, as well as in heart transplant rejection and transplant coronary artery disease (CAD). CXCR3 ligands have also proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, suggesting an underlining pathophysiological relation between levels of these chemokines and the development of adverse cardiac remodelling. The observation that several of the above-mentioned chemokines exert biological actions independent of CXCR3 provides both opportunities and challenges for developing effective drug strategies. In this review, we provide evidence to support our contention that CXCR3 and its ligands actively participate in the development and progression of CVDs, and may additionally have utility as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

  9. Emerging importance of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Altara, Raffaele; Manca, Marco; Brandão, Rita D; Zeidan, Asad; Booz, George W; Zouein, Fouad A

    2016-04-01

    The CXC chemokines, CXCL4, -9, -10, -11, CXCL4L1, and the CC chemokine CCL21, activate CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), a cell-surface G protein-coupled receptor expressed mainly by Th1 cells, cytotoxic T (Tc) cells and NK cells that have a key role in immunity and inflammation. However, CXCR3 is also expressed by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and appears to be important in controlling physiological vascular function. In the last decade, evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies has revealed the participation of CXCR3 and its ligands in multiple cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) of different aetiologies including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, as well as in heart transplant rejection and transplant coronary artery disease (CAD). CXCR3 ligands have also proven to be valid biomarkers for the development of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, suggesting an underlining pathophysiological relation between levels of these chemokines and the development of adverse cardiac remodelling. The observation that several of the above-mentioned chemokines exert biological actions independent of CXCR3 provides both opportunities and challenges for developing effective drug strategies. In this review, we provide evidence to support our contention that CXCR3 and its ligands actively participate in the development and progression of CVDs, and may additionally have utility as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:26888559

  10. Evidence for an additional ligand, distinct from B7, for the CTLA-4 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Razi-Wolf, Z; Galvin, F; Gray, G; Reiser, H

    1993-01-01

    Activation of T lymphocytes requires the recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complex complexes and costimulatory signals provided by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The best-characterized costimulatory molecule to date is the B7 antigen, a member of the immunoglobulin family that binds two receptors, CD28 and CTLA-4, expressed on the T-cell surface. Using the anti-mouse B7 (mB7) monoclonal antibody (mAb) 16-10A1, which we recently developed, we found that mB7 is indeed an important costimulatory ligand for the antigen-specific activation of murine T cells by B lymphocytes. Three lines of evidence suggest, however, the existence of at least one additional ligand for the CTLA-4 receptor. First, a soluble fusion protein of human CTLA-4 and the IgG1 Fc region, termed CTLA4Ig, blocks better than the anti-mB7 mAb the allogeneic stimulation of T cells by unfractionated splenic APCs. Second, saturating amounts of anti-mB7 mAb do not significantly block binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated CTLA4Ig to activated splenic APCs. Furthermore, CTLA4Ig but not the anti-mB7 mAb reacts with the M12 and M12.C3 cell lines. The identification of an additional ligand for CTLA-4 may have applications to the treatment of autoimmune disease and transplant-associated disorders. PMID:7504299

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) and Ligand Choreography: Newcomers Take the Stage.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Guasch, Laura; Tomas-Hernández, Sarah; del Bas, Josep Maria; Ollendorff, Vincent; Arola, Lluís; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel

    2015-07-23

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) full agonists that have been widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the demonstrated beneficial effect of reducing glucose levels in the plasma, TZDs also induce several adverse effects. Consequently, the search for new compounds with potent antidiabetic effects but fewer undesired effects is an active field of research. Interestingly, the novel proposed mechanisms for the antidiabetic activity of PPARγ agonists, consisting of PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation inhibition, ligand and receptor mutual dynamics, and the presence of an alternate binding site, have recently changed the view regarding the optimal characteristics for the screening of novel PPARγ ligands. Furthermore, transcriptional genomics could bring essential information about the genome-wide effects of PPARγ ligands. Consequently, facing the new mechanistic scenario proposed for these compounds is essential for resolving the paradoxes among their agonistic function, antidiabetic activities, and side effects and should allow the rational development of better and safer PPARγ-mediated antidiabetic drugs.

  12. Allosteric ligands for the pharmacologically dark receptors GPR68 and GPR65.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Karpiak, Joel; Kroeze, Wesley K; Zhu, Hu; Chen, Xin; Moy, Sheryl S; Saddoris, Kara A; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Farrell, Martilias S; Wang, Sheng; Mangano, Thomas J; Deshpande, Deepak A; Jiang, Alice; Penn, Raymond B; Jin, Jian; Koller, Beverly H; Kenakin, Terry; Shoichet, Brian K; Roth, Bryan L

    2015-11-26

    At least 120 non-olfactory G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome are 'orphans' for which endogenous ligands are unknown, and many have no selective ligands, hindering the determination of their biological functions and clinical relevance. Among these is GPR68, a proton receptor that lacks small molecule modulators for probing its biology. Using yeast-based screens against GPR68, here we identify the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam as a non-selective GPR68 positive allosteric modulator. More than 3,000 GPR68 homology models were refined to recognize lorazepam in a putative allosteric site. Docking 3.1 million molecules predicted new GPR68 modulators, many of which were confirmed in functional assays. One potent GPR68 modulator, ogerin, suppressed recall in fear conditioning in wild-type but not in GPR68-knockout mice. The same approach led to the discovery of allosteric agonists and negative allosteric modulators for GPR65. Combining physical and structure-based screening may be broadly useful for ligand discovery for understudied and orphan GPCRs. PMID:26550826

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation for ligand-receptor studies. Carbohydrates interactions in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Grigera, J Raul

    2002-01-01

    The review deals with the problem of the study of ligand-receptor interactions and the use of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation to approach such a problem. After a short review of the fundamentals of MD we describe the medium in which all biology takes place, water. Emphasis is put on the water models appropriate for simulation of macromolecular systems explicitly including the water molecules. We consider the quality of the water model both in terms of simplicity and performance to describe the liquid water properties. Heavy water, although not a biologically viable medium, is considered since many experiments make use of it as a solvent. Sweetness of carbohydrates is considered as an example of the procedure suitable to characterize active sites on the ligands. Consideration is given to the computation of the binding constants through molecular dynamics. The computation of the Free Energy is described and illustrated. The potentiality of MD for studies of ligand-receptor interactions is limited by the computer resources, for even with large computing facilities the need of relatively long simulation times severely restricts the study of large systems. A method is described in which several shells are treated at different levels of approximation, form mechanical response and mean electrical field to quantum mechanics, through stochastic dynamics and atomic classical MD. The review closes with a brief account of the perspectives of the method.

  14. NK cell activating receptor ligand expression in lymphangioleiomyomatosis is associated with lung function decline

    PubMed Central

    Osterburg, Andrew R.; Nelson, Rebecca L.; Yaniv, Benyamin Z.; Foot, Rachel; Donica, Walter R.F.; Nashu, Madison A.; Liu, Huan; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Moss, Joel; McCormack, Francis X.; Borchers, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease of women that leads to progressive cyst formation and accelerated loss of pulmonary function. Neoplastic smooth muscle cells from an unknown source metastasize to the lung and drive destructive remodeling. Given the role of NK cells in immune surveillance, we postulated that NK cell activating receptors and their cognate ligands are involved in LAM pathogenesis. We found that ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor UL-16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2) and ULBP3 are localized in cystic LAM lesions and pulmonary nodules. We found elevated soluble serum ULBP2 (mean = 575 pg/ml ± 142) in 50 of 100 subjects and ULBP3 in 30 of 100 (mean = 8,300 pg/ml ± 1,515) subjects. LAM patients had fewer circulating NKG2D+ NK cells and decreased NKG2D surface expression. Lung function decline was associated with soluble NKG2D ligand (sNKG2DL) detection. The greatest rate of decline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, –124 ± 30 ml/year) in the 48 months after enrollment (NHLBI LAM Registry) occurred in patients expressing both ULBP2 and ULBP3, whereas patients with undetectable sNKG2DL levels had the lowest rate of FEV1 decline (–32.7 ± 10 ml/year). These data suggest a role for NK cells, sNKG2DL, and the innate immune system in LAM pathogenesis. PMID:27734028

  15. RANTES expression induced by Toll-like receptor 4 ligand in rat airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Okayasu, Kaori; Tamaoka, Meiyo; Takayama, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Yasunari; Sumi, Yuki; Inase, Naohiko; Yoshizawa, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) have been reported to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and take part in the pathogenesis of asthma exacerbation. Though TLRs were found to activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in airway epithelial cells, little is known about the association of TLR ligands with EGFR signaling pathways in ASMCs. Using primary cultured ASMCs from Brown Norway rats, TLR4, eotaxin, and RANTES mRNA were examined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The concentration of RANTES protein in culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. The effect of EGFR signaling inhibitors on RANTES expression was examined as well. Phosphorylation of EGFR after stimulation was examined by Western Blotting. Rat ASMCs expressed TLR4 and eotaxin, and LPS upregulated RANTES production. The EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor GM6001 inhibited RANTES expression induced by LPS. LPS phosphorylated EGFR. TLR4 activation can induce RANTES expression via EGFR transactivation and PI3K/Akt pathway in rat ASMCs. MMP-induced EGFR proligand cleavage and ligand binding to EGFR seem to be involved in this pathway. These findings may be critical in the pathogenesis of asthma exacerbation by airway infection. PMID:23896774

  16. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN) Enantiomers: Synthesis and Evaluation of Estrogen Receptor Beta-Selective Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Vincent M.; Jeyakumar, M.; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, mediate the actions of estrogens in diverse reproductive and non-reproductive target tissues. ER subtype-selective ligands, which bind to and activate these subtypes differentially, have proved to be useful in elucidating which actions of estrogens proceed through ERα vs. ERβ. Some of these ligands show potential as novel therapeutic agents. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an ERβ selective ligand that we developed, is a chiral molecule, but it has been studied almost exclusively as the racemic mixture (rac-DPN, 1). Herein we report the development of an efficient enantioselective synthesis of the two isomers, R-DPN (3) and S-DPN (2), and we have compared the in vitro ligand binding affinities, coactivator binding affinities and recruitment potencies, and cellular transcriptional potencies of these isomers. Both enantiomers show a very high affinity and potency preference for ERβ over ERα, typically in the range of 80-300 fold. Although the enantioselectivity is only modest (3-4 fold), the R-enantiomer is the higher affinity and more potent isomer. While ERβ can be effectively and selectively stimulated by rac-DPN or by either R-DPN or S-DPN, R-DPN might be the preferred member of this isomeric series for biological studies of ERβ function. PMID:22122563

  17. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN) enantiomers: synthesis and evaluation of estrogen receptor β-selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Vincent M; Jeyakumar, M; Carlson, Kathryn E; Katzenellenbogen, John A

    2012-01-12

    Two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, mediate the actions of estrogens in diverse reproductive and nonreproductive target tissues. ER subtype-selective ligands, which bind to and activate these subtypes differentially, have proved to be useful in elucidating which actions of estrogens proceed through ERα vs ERβ. Some of these ligands show potential as novel therapeutic agents. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an ERβ selective ligand that we developed, is a chiral molecule, but it has been studied almost exclusively as the racemic mixture (rac-DPN, 1). Herein we report the development of an efficient enantioselective synthesis of the two isomers, R-DPN (3) and S-DPN (2), and we have compared the in vitro ligand binding affinities, coactivator binding affinities, recruitment potencies, and cellular transcriptional potencies of these isomers. Both enantiomers show a very high affinity and potency preference for ERβ over ERα, typically in the range of 80-300-fold. Although the enantioselectivity is only modest (3-4-fold), the R-enantiomer is the higher affinity and more potent isomer. While ERβ can be effectively and selectively stimulated by rac-DPN or by either R-DPN or S-DPN, R-DPN might be the preferred member of this isomeric series for biological studies of ERβ function.

  18. Serotonin7 receptors in the lateral habenular nucleus regulate depressive-like behaviors in the hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling Na; Zhang, Li; Sun, Yi Na; Du, Cheng Xue; Zhang, Yu Ming; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that serotonin7 (5-HT7) receptors may regulate depressive-like behaviors. Depression is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its pathophysiology is unclear. Here we examined whether 5-HT7 receptors in the lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) involve in the regulation of PD-related depression. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta in rats induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-LHb injection of 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS19 (1, 2 and 4μg/rat) induced or increased the expression of depressive-like behaviors in sham-operated and the lesioned rats. Further, intra-LHb injection of 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB269970 (1.5, 3 and 6μg/rat) produced antidepressant effects in the two groups of rats. However, the doses producing these effects in the lesioned rats were higher than those in sham-operated rats. Neurochemical results showed that intra-LHb injection of AS19 (4μg/rat) decreased dopamine and 5-HT levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, habenula and hippocampus in sham-operated and the lesioned rats; whereas SB269970 (6μg/rat) increased dopamine and 5-HT levels in these structures. In addition, noradrenaline levels in these structures were not changed after intra-LHb injection of AS19 or SB269970 in the two groups of rats. These findings suggest that activation or blockade of 5-HT7 receptors in the LHb may change the activity of LHb glutamate neurons, and then decreases or increases dopamine and 5-HT levels in the limbic and limbic-related brain regions, which are involved in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors.

  19. Pheromonotropic and melanotropic PK/PBAN receptors: differential ligand-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Aliza Hariton; Altstein, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to further characterize the PK/PBAN receptors and their interaction with various PK/PBAN peptides in order to get a better understanding of their ubiquitous and multifunctional nature. Two cloned receptors stably expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were used in this study: a Heliothis peltigera pheromone gland receptor (Hep-PK/PBAN-R) (which stimulates sex pheromone biosynthesis) and Spodoptera littoralis larval receptor (Spl-PK/PBAN-R) (which mediates cuticular melanization in moth larvae) and their ability to respond to several native PK/PBAN peptides: β-subesophageal neuropeptide (β-SGNP), myotropin (MT) and Leucophaea maderae pyrokinin (LPK), as well as linear and cyclic analogs was tested by monitoring their ability to stimulate Ca(2+) release. The receptors exhibited a differential response to β-SGNP, which activated the Hep-PK/PBAN-R but not the Spl-PK/PBAN-R - a response opposite to that previously demonstrated with diapause hormone (DH). MT was somewhat more active on Spl-PK/PBAN-R than on Hep-PK/PBAN-R. LPK elicited similar positive responses in both receptors (like that with PBAN). A differential response toward both receptors was also noticed with the PBAN-derived backbone cyclic (BBC) conformationally constrained peptide BBC-5. The peptides BBC-7 and BBC-8 activated both receptors. The results correlate between two PK/PBAN mediated function (cuticular melanization and sex pheromone biosynthesis) and the peptides that activate them and thus advance our understanding of the mode of action of the PK/PBAN family, and might help in exploring novel high-affinity receptor-specific antagonists that could serve as a basis for development of new families of insect-control agents. PMID:25451335

  20. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  1. Parabens and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligand Cross-Talk in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shawn; Yuan, Chaoshen; Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Ackerman, Janet M.; Yaswen, Paul; Vulpe, Chris D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xenoestrogens are synthetic compounds that mimic endogenous estrogens by binding to and activating estrogen receptors. Exposure to estrogens and to some xenoestrogens has been associated with cell proliferation and an increased risk of breast cancer. Despite evidence of estrogenicity, parabens are among the most widely used xenoestrogens in cosmetics and personal-care products and are generally considered safe. However, previous cell-based studies with parabens do not take into account the signaling cross-talk between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family. Objectives: We investigated the hypothesis that the potency of parabens can be increased with HER ligands, such as heregulin (HRG). Methods: The effects of HER ligands on paraben activation of c-Myc expression and cell proliferation were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blots, flow cytometry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in ERα- and HER2-positive human BT-474 breast cancer cells. Results: Butylparaben (BP) and HRG produced a synergistic increase in c-Myc mRNA and protein levels in BT-474 cells. Estrogen receptor antagonists blocked the synergistic increase in c-Myc protein levels. The combination of BP and HRG also stimulated proliferation of BT-474 cells compared with the effects of BP alone. HRG decreased the dose required for BP-mediated stimulation of c-Myc mRNA expression and cell proliferation. HRG caused the phosphorylation of serine 167 in ERα. BP and HRG produced a synergistic increase in ERα recruitment to the c-Myc gene. Conclusion: Our results show that HER ligands enhanced the potency of BP to stimulate oncogene expression and breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro via ERα, suggesting that parabens might be active at exposure levels not previously considered toxicologically relevant from studies testing their effects in isolation. Citation: Pan S, Yuan C, Tagmount A, Rudel RA, Ackerman JM

  2. Ligand binding affinities of arctigenin and its demethylated metabolites to estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hattori, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (-)-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (-)-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL) by Eubacterium (E.) sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (-)-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (-)-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC(50) value of (2R,3R)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10⁻⁴ M.

  3. Emerging Roles for CSF-1 Receptor and its Ligands in the Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Chitu, Violeta; Gokhan, Şölen; Nandi, Sayan; Mehler, Mark F; Stanley, E Richard

    2016-06-01

    The colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) kinase regulates tissue macrophage homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, and Paneth cell development. However, recent studies in mice have revealed that CSF-1R signaling directly controls the development and maintenance of microglia, and cell autonomously regulates neuronal differentiation and survival. While the CSF-1R-cognate ligands, CSF-1 and interleukin-34 (IL-34) compete for binding to the CSF-1R, they are expressed in a largely non-overlapping manner by mature neurons. The recent identification of a dominantly inherited, adult-onset, progressive dementia associated with inactivating mutations in the CSF-1R highlights the importance of CSF-1R signaling in the brain. We review the roles of the CSF-1R and its ligands in microglial and neural development and function, and their relevance to our understanding of neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Ligand-binding domains of nuclear receptors facilitate tight control of split CRISPR activity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duy P.; Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Gilbert, Luke A.; Mayerl, Steven J.; Lee, Brian H.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Conklin, Bruce R.; Wells, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cas9-based RNA-guided nuclease (RGN) has emerged to be a versatile method for genome editing due to the ease of construction of RGN reagents to target specific genomic sequences. The ability to control the activity of Cas9 with a high temporal resolution will facilitate tight regulation of genome editing processes for studying the dynamics of transcriptional regulation or epigenetic modifications in complex biological systems. Here we show that fusing ligand-binding domains of nuclear receptors to split Cas9 protein fragments can provide chemical control over split Cas9 activity. The method has allowed us to control Cas9 activity in a tunable manner with no significant background, which has been challenging for other inducible Cas9 constructs. We anticipate that our design will provide opportunities through the use of different ligand-binding domains to enable multiplexed genome regulation of endogenous genes in distinct loci through simultaneous chemical regulation of orthogonal Cas9 variants. PMID:27363581

  5. Ligand binding affinities of arctigenin and its demethylated metabolites to estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Hattori, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (-)-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (-)-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL) by Eubacterium (E.) sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (-)-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (-)-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC(50) value of (2R,3R)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10⁻⁴ M. PMID:23325100

  6. Targeting the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor with small molecule ligands and antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Terry F; Latif, Rauf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is the essential molecule for thyroid growth and thyroid hormone production. Since it is also a key autoantigen in Graves’ disease and is involved in thyroid cancer pathophysiology, the targeting of the TSHR offers a logical model for disease control. Areas covered We review the structure and function of the TSHR and the progress in both small molecule ligands and TSHR antibodies for their therapeutic potential. Expert opinion Stabilization of a preferential conformation for the TSHR by allosteric ligands and TSHR antibodies with selective modulation of the signaling pathways is now possible. These tools may be the next generation of therapeutics for controlling the pathophysiological consequences mediated by the effects of the TSHR in the thyroid and other extrathyroidal tissues. PMID:25768836

  7. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand inhibits proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Dai, Cai-Feng; Patankar, Manish S; Song, Jia-Sheng; Zheng, Jing

    2013-10-28

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor mediates many biological processes. Herein, we investigated if 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE, an endogenous AhR ligand) regulated proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells via AhR. We found that AhR was widely present in many histotypes of ovarian cancer tissues. ITE suppressed OVCAR-3 cell proliferation and SKOV-3 cell migration in vitro, which were blocked by AhR knockdown. ITE also suppressed OVCAR-3 cell growth in mice. These data suggest that the ITE might potentially be used for therapeutic intervention for at least a subset of human ovarian cancer.

  8. Synthesis and Opioid Receptor Binding Affinities of 2-Substituted and 3-Aminomorphinans: Ligands for mu, kappa and delta Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michael; Si, Yu-Gui; Knapp, Brian I.; Bidlack, Jean M.; Neumeyer, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The phenolic group of the potent μ and κ opioid morphinan agonist/antagonists cyclorphan and butorphan was replaced by phenylamino and benzylamino groups including compounds with p-substituents in the benzene ring. These compounds are highly potent μ and κ ligands, e. g. p-methoxyphenylaminocyclorphan showing a Ki of 0.026 nM at the mu and a Ki of 0.03 nM at the kappa receptor. Phenyl carbamates and phenylureas were synthesized and investigated. Selective o-formylation of butorphan and levorphanol was achieved. This reaction opened the way to a large set of 2-substituted 3-hydroxymorphinans, including 2-hydroxymethyl-, 2-aminomethyl-, and N-substituted 2-aminomethyl-3-hydroxymorphinans. Bivalent ligands bridged in the 2-position were also synthesized and connected with secondary and tertiary aminomethyl groups, amide bonds or hydroxymethylene groups, respectively. Although most of the 2-substituted morphinans showed considerably lower affinities compared to their parent compounds, the bivalent ligand approach led to significantly higher affinities compared to the univalent aminomethylmorphinans. PMID:19928862

  9. Neuronal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors undergo cognate ligand chaperoning in the endoplasmic reticulum by endogenous GABA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Eshaq, Randa S.; Meshul, Charles K.; Moore, Cynthia; Hood, Rebecca L.; Leidenheimer, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Dysfunction of these receptors is associated with various psychiatric/neurological disorders and drugs targeting this receptor are widely used therapeutic agents. Both the efficacy and plasticity of GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission depends on the number of surface GABAA receptors. An understudied aspect of receptor cell surface expression is the post-translational regulation of receptor biogenesis within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that exogenous GABA can act as a ligand chaperone of recombinant GABAA receptors in the early secretory pathway leading us to now investigate whether endogenous GABA facilitates the biogenesis of GABAA receptors in primary cerebral cortical cultures. In immunofluorescence labeling experiments, we have determined that neurons expressing surface GABAA receptors contain both GABA and its degradative enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T). Treatment of neurons with GABA-T inhibitors, a treatment known to increase intracellular GABA levels, decreases the interaction of the receptor with the ER quality control protein calnexin, concomittantly increasing receptor forward-trafficking and plasma membrane insertion. The effect of GABA-T inhibition on the receptor/calnexin interaction is not due to the activation of surface GABAA or GABAB receptors. Consistent with our hypothesis that GABA acts as a cognate ligand chaperone in the ER, immunogold-labeling of rodent brain slices reveals the presence of GABA within the rough ER. The density of this labeling is similar to that present in mitochondria, the organelle in which GABA is degraded. Lastly, the effect of GABA-T inhibition on the receptor/calnexin interaction was prevented by pretreatment with a GABA transporter inhibitor. Together, these data indicate that endogenous GABA acts in the rough ER as a cognate ligand chaperone to facilitate the biogenesis of neuronal GABAA receptors. PMID

  10. Characterization of a Ligand Binding Site in the Human Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Pore

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Göran; Eisele, Lina; Malinowsky, David; Nolting, Andreas; Svensson, Mats; Terp, Gitte; Weigelt, Dirk; Dabrowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacology and regulation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel activity is intricate due to the physiological function as an integrator of multiple chemical, mechanical, and temperature stimuli as well as differences in species pharmacology. In this study, we describe and compare the current inhibition efficacy of human TRPA1 on three different TRPA1 antagonists. We used a homology model of TRPA1 based on Kv1.2 to select pore vestibule residues available for interaction with ligands entering the vestibule. Site-directed mutation constructs were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and their functionality and pharmacology assessed to support and improve our homology model. Based on the functional pharmacology results we propose an antagonist-binding site in the vestibule of the TRPA1 ion channel. We use the results to describe the proposed intravestibular ligand-binding site in TRPA1 in detail. Based on the single site substitutions, we designed a human TRPA1 receptor by substituting several residues in the vestibule and adjacent regions from the rat receptor to address and explain observed species pharmacology differences. In parallel, the lack of effect on HC-030031 inhibition by the vestibule substitutions suggests that this molecule interacts with TRPA1 via a binding site not situated in the vestibule. PMID:23442958

  11. Characterization of a ligand binding site in the human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 pore.

    PubMed

    Klement, Göran; Eisele, Lina; Malinowsky, David; Nolting, Andreas; Svensson, Mats; Terp, Gitte; Weigelt, Dirk; Dabrowski, Michael

    2013-02-19

    The pharmacology and regulation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel activity is intricate due to the physiological function as an integrator of multiple chemical, mechanical, and temperature stimuli as well as differences in species pharmacology. In this study, we describe and compare the current inhibition efficacy of human TRPA1 on three different TRPA1 antagonists. We used a homology model of TRPA1 based on Kv1.2 to select pore vestibule residues available for interaction with ligands entering the vestibule. Site-directed mutation constructs were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and their functionality and pharmacology assessed to support and improve our homology model. Based on the functional pharmacology results we propose an antagonist-binding site in the vestibule of the TRPA1 ion channel. We use the results to describe the proposed intravestibular ligand-binding site in TRPA1 in detail. Based on the single site substitutions, we designed a human TRPA1 receptor by substituting several residues in the vestibule and adjacent regions from the rat receptor to address and explain observed species pharmacology differences. In parallel, the lack of effect on HC-030031 inhibition by the vestibule substitutions suggests that this molecule interacts with TRPA1 via a binding site not situated in the vestibule.

  12. Agonist ligands mediate the transcriptional response of nuclear receptor heterodimers through distinct stoichiometric assemblies with coactivators.

    PubMed

    Pavlin, Mark Remec; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Fernandez, Elias J

    2014-09-01

    The constitutive androstane (CAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-mediated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor protein superfamily. Functional CAR:RXR heterodimers recruit coactivator proteins, such as the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC1). Here, we show that agonist ligands can potentiate transactivation through both coactivator binding sites on CAR:RXR, which distinctly bind two SRC1 molecules. We also observe that SRC1 transitions from a structurally plastic to a compact form upon binding CAR:RXR. Using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) we show that the CAR(tcp):RXR(9c)·SRC1 complex can encompass two SRC1 molecules compared with the CAR(tcp):RXR·SRC1, which binds only a single SRC1. Moreover, sedimentation coefficients and molecular weights determined by analytical ultracentrifugation confirm the SAXS model. Cell-based transcription assays show that disrupting the SRC1 binding site on RXR alters the transactivation by CAR:RXR. These data suggest a broader role for RXR within heterodimers, whereas offering multiple strategies for the assembly of the transcription complex.

  13. Dual ligand/receptor interactions activate urothelial defenses against uropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Mémet, Sylvie; Saban, Ricardo; Kong, Xiangpeng; Aprikian, Pavel; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2015-11-09

    During urinary tract infection (UTI), the second most common bacterial infection, dynamic interactions take place between uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and host urothelial cells. While significant strides have been made in the identification of the virulence factors of UPEC, our understanding of how the urothelial cells mobilize innate defenses against the invading UPEC remains rudimentary. Here we show that mouse urothelium responds to the adhesion of type 1-fimbriated UPEC by rapidly activating the canonical NF-κB selectively in terminally differentiated, superficial (umbrella) cells. This activation depends on a dual ligand/receptor system, one between FimH adhesin and uroplakin Ia and another between lipopolysaccharide and Toll-like receptor 4. When activated, all the nuclei (up to 11) of a multinucleated umbrella cell are affected, leading to significant amplification of proinflammatory signals. Intermediate and basal cells of the urothelium undergo NF-κB activation only if the umbrella cells are detached or if the UPEC persistently express type 1-fimbriae. Inhibition of NF-κB prevents the urothelium from clearing the intracellular bacterial communities, leading to prolonged bladder colonization by UPEC. Based on these data, we propose a model of dual ligand/receptor system in innate urothelial defenses against UPEC.

  14. Cathepsin S Signals via PAR2 and Generates a Novel Tethered Ligand Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Ethan A.

    2014-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 is widely expressed in mammalian epithelial, immune and neural tissues. Cleavage of PAR2 by serine proteases leads to self-activation of the receptor by the tethered ligand SLIGRL. The contribution of other classes of proteases to PAR activation has not been studied in detail. Cathepsin S is a widely expressed cysteine protease that is upregulated in inflammatory conditions. It has been suggested that cathepsin S activates PAR2. However, cathepsin S activation of PAR2 has not been demonstrated directly nor has the potential mechanism of activation been identified. We show that cathepsin S cleaves near the N-terminus of PAR2 to expose a novel tethered ligand, KVDGTS. The hexapeptide KVDGTS generates downstream signaling events specific to PAR2 but is weaker than SLIGRL. Mutation of the cathepsin S cleavage site prevents receptor activation by the protease while KVDGTS retains activity. In conclusion, the range of actions previously ascribed to cysteine cathepsins in general, and cathepsin S in particular, should be expanded to include molecular signaling. Such signaling may link together observations that had been attributed previously to PAR2 or cathepsin S individually. These interactions may contribute to inflammation. PMID:24964046

  15. Computational exploration of a protein receptor binding space with student proposed peptide ligands.

    PubMed

    King, Matthew D; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective in silico method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The DockoMatic tutorial described herein provides a framework by which instructors can guide students through a drug screening exercise. Using receptor models derived from readily available protein crystal structures, docking programs have the ability to predict ligand binding properties, such as preferential binding orientations and binding affinities. The use of computational studies can significantly enhance complimentary wet chemical experimentation by providing insight into the important molecular interactions within the system of interest, as well as guide the design of new candidate ligands based on observed binding motifs and energetics. In this laboratory tutorial, the graphical user interface, DockoMatic, facilitates docking job submissions to the docking engine, AutoDock 4.2. The purpose of this exercise is to successfully dock a 17-amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin TxIA, to the acetylcholine binding protein from Aplysia californica-AChBP to determine the most stable binding configuration. Each student will then propose two specific amino acid substitutions of α-conotoxin TxIA to enhance peptide binding affinity, create the mutant in DockoMatic, and perform docking calculations to compare their results with the class. Students will also compare intermolecular forces, binding energy, and geometric orientation of their prepared analog to their initial α-conotoxin TxIA docking results.

  16. Computational exploration of a protein receptor binding space with student proposed peptide ligands.

    PubMed

    King, Matthew D; Phillips, Paul; Turner, Matthew W; Katz, Michael; Lew, Sarah; Bradburn, Sarah; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    Computational molecular docking is a fast and effective in silico method for the analysis of binding between a protein receptor model and a ligand. The visualization and manipulation of protein to ligand binding in three-dimensional space represents a powerful tool in the biochemistry curriculum to enhance student learning. The DockoMatic tutorial described herein provides a framework by which instructors can guide students through a drug screening exercise. Using receptor models derived from readily available protein crystal structures, docking programs have the ability to predict ligand binding properties, such as preferential binding orientations and binding affinities. The use of computational studies can significantly enhance complimentary wet chemical experimentation by providing insight into the important molecular interactions within the system of interest, as well as guide the design of new candidate ligands based on observed binding motifs and energetics. In this laboratory tutorial, the graphical user interface, DockoMatic, facilitates docking job submissions to the docking engine, AutoDock 4.2. The purpose of this exercise is to successfully dock a 17-amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin TxIA, to the acetylcholine binding protein from Aplysia californica-AChBP to determine the most stable binding configuration. Each student will then propose two specific amino acid substitutions of α-conotoxin TxIA to enhance peptide binding affinity, create the mutant in DockoMatic, and perform docking calculations to compare their results with the class. Students will also compare intermolecular forces, binding energy, and geometric orientation of their prepared analog to their initial α-conotoxin TxIA docking results. PMID:26537635

  17. Efficient cell-free production of olfactory receptors: Detergent optimization, structure, and ligand binding analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Liselotte; Graveland-Bikker, Johanna; Steuerwald, Dirk; Vanberghem, Mélanie; Herlihy, Kara; Zhang, Shuguang

    2008-01-01

    High-level production of membrane proteins, particularly of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in heterologous cell systems encounters a number of difficulties from their inherent hydrophobicity in their transmembrane domains, which frequently cause protein aggregation and cytotoxicity and thus reduce the protein yield. Recent advances in cell-free protein synthesis circumvent those problems to produce membrane proteins with a yield sometimes exceeding the cell-based approach. Here, we report cell-free production of a human olfactory receptor 17-4 (hOR17-4) using the wheat germ extract. Using the simple method, we also successful produced two additional olfactory receptors. To obtain soluble olfactory receptors and to increase yield, we directly added different detergents in varying concentrations to the cell-free reaction. To identify a purification buffer system that maintained the receptor in a nonaggregated form, we developed a method that uses small-volume size-exclusion column chromatography combined with rapid and sensitive dot-blot detection. Different buffer components including salt concentration, various detergents and detergent concentration, and reducing agent and its concentrations were evaluated for their ability to maintain the cell-free produced protein stable and nonaggregated. The purified olfactory receptor displays a typical a α-helical CD spectrum. Surface plasmon resonance measurements were used to show binding of a known ligand undecanal to hOR17-4. Our approach to produce a high yield of purified olfactory receptor is a milestone toward obtaining a large quantity of olfactory receptors for designing bionic sensors. Furthermore, this simple approach may be broadly useful not only for other classes of GPCRs but also for other membrane proteins. PMID:18840687

  18. Efficient cell-free production of olfactory receptors: detergent optimization, structure, and ligand binding analyses.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Liselotte; Graveland-Bikker, Johanna; Steuerwald, Dirk; Vanberghem, Mélanie; Herlihy, Kara; Zhang, Shuguang

    2008-10-14

    High-level production of membrane proteins, particularly of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in heterologous cell systems encounters a number of difficulties from their inherent hydrophobicity in their transmembrane domains, which frequently cause protein aggregation and cytotoxicity and thus reduce the protein yield. Recent advances in cell-free protein synthesis circumvent those problems to produce membrane proteins with a yield sometimes exceeding the cell-based approach. Here, we report cell-free production of a human olfactory receptor 17-4 (hOR17-4) using the wheat germ extract. Using the simple method, we also successful produced two additional olfactory receptors. To obtain soluble olfactory receptors and to increase yield, we directly added different detergents in varying concentrations to the cell-free reaction. To identify a purification buffer system that maintained the receptor in a nonaggregated form, we developed a method that uses small-volume size-exclusion column chromatography combined with rapid and sensitive dot-blot detection. Different buffer components including salt concentration, various detergents and detergent concentration, and reducing agent and its concentrations were evaluated for their ability to maintain the cell-free produced protein stable and nonaggregated. The purified olfactory receptor displays a typical a alpha-helical CD spectrum. Surface plasmon resonance measurements were used to show binding of a known ligand undecanal to hOR17-4. Our approach to produce a high yield of purified olfactory receptor is a milestone toward obtaining a large quantity of olfactory receptors for designing bionic sensors. Furthermore, this simple approach may be broadly useful not only for other classes of GPCRs but also for other membrane proteins.

  19. Synthetic Ligands of Cannabinoid Receptors Affect Dauer Formation in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Reis Rodrigues, Pedro; Kaul, Tiffany K.; Ho, Jo-Hao; Lucanic, Mark; Burkewitz, Kristopher; Mair, William B.; Held, Jason M.; Bohn, Laura M.; Gill, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Under adverse environmental conditions the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can enter an alternate developmental stage called the dauer larva. To identify lipophilic signaling molecules that influence this process, we screened a library of bioactive lipids and found that AM251, an antagonist of the human cannabinoid (CB) receptor, suppresses dauer entry in daf-2 insulin receptor mutants. AM251 acted synergistically with glucose supplementation indicating that the metabolic status of the animal influenced the activity of this compound. Similarly, loss of function mutations in the energy-sensing AMP-activated kinase subunit, aak-2, enhanced the dauer-suppressing effects of AM251, while constitutive activation of aak-2 in neurons was sufficient to inhibit AM251 activity. Chemical epistasis experiments indicated that AM251 acts via G-protein signaling and requires the TGF-β ligand DAF-7, the insulin peptides DAF-28 and INS-6, and a functional ASI neuron to promote reproductive growth. AM251 also required the presence of the SER-5 serotonin receptor, but in vitro experiments suggest that this may not be via a direct interaction. Interestingly, we found that other antagonists of mammalian CB receptors also suppress dauer entry, while the nonselective CB receptor agonist, O-2545, not only inhibited the activity of AM251, but also was able to promote dauer entry when administered alone. Since worms do not have obvious orthologs of CB receptors, the effects of synthetic CBs on neuroendocrine signaling in C. elegans are likely to be mediated via another, as yet unknown, receptor mechanism. However, we cannot exclude the existence of a noncanonical CB receptor in C. elegans. PMID:27172180

  20. LNP 906, the first high-affinity photoaffinity ligand selective for I1 imidazoline receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dragan, Urosevic; Stephan, Schann; Jean-Daniel, Ehrhardt; Pascal, Bousquet; Hugues, Greney

    2004-01-01

    The hypotensive effect of imidazoline-like drugs, such as clonidine, was attributed both to α2-adrenergic receptors and nonadrenergic imidazoline receptors, which are divided into I1, I2 and I3 subtypes. We have recently synthesized a derivative of (2-(2-chloro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-5-methyl-pyrroline (LNP 911), the first high-affinity and selective ligand for I1 receptors (I1R), with a photoactivable function (LNP 906). This work aims to test whether this derivative retained the binding properties of LNP 911 and bound irreversibly to I1R. Binding studies showed that LNP 906 exhibited nanomolar affinity for I1R and was selective for I1R over I2 receptors and α2-adrenergic receptors (α2Ars). Upon exposure to u.v. light, LNP 906 irreversibly blocked the binding of [125I]-paraiodoclonidine (PIC) to I1R, time- and dose-dependently, on PC12 cell membranes and interacted with I1R in a reversible and competitive manner in the absence of light. Pharmacological studies showed that this blockade was prevented by the concomitant presence of rilmenidine (a well-known I1 agonist), but not by rauwolscine (an α2 antagonist). Finally, LNP 906 clearly antagonized the decrease in forskolin-stimulated cAMP level induced by rilmenidine, but not by melatonin. These results indicate that LNP 906 is the first high-affinity and selective photoaffinity ligand for I1R and that it behaves as an I1R antagonist. PMID:15178642

  1. Capturing intercellular sugar-mediated ligand-receptor recognitions via a simple yet highly biospecific interfacial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Deng, Si-Si; Zang, Yi; Gu, Zhen; He, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Guo-Rong; Chen, Kaixian; James, Tony D.; Li, Jia; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-07-01

    Intercellular ligand-receptor recognitions are crucial natural interactions that initiate a number of biological and pathological events. We present here the simple construction of a unique class of biomimetic interfaces based on a graphene-mediated self-assembly of glycosyl anthraquinones to a screen-printed electrode for the detection of transmembrane glycoprotein receptors expressed on a hepatoma cell line. We show that an electroactive interface confined with densely clustered galactosyl ligands is able to ingeniously recognize the asialoglycoprotein receptors on live Hep-G2 cells employing simple electrochemical techniques. The only facility used is a personal laptop in connection with a cheap and portable electrochemical workstation.

  2. HLA-F and MHC Class I Open Conformers Are Ligands for NK Cell Ig-like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Jodie P.; Burian, Aura; Lee, Ni

    2013-01-01

    Killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) are innate immune receptors expressed by NK and T cells classically associated with the detection of missing self through loss of their respective MHC ligand. Some KIR specificities for allelic classical class I MHC (MHC-I) have been described, whereas other KIR receptor–ligand relationships, including those associated with nonclassical MHC-I, have yet to be clearly defined. We report in this article that KIR3DL2 and KIR2DS4 and the nonclassical Ag HLA-F, expressed as a free form devoid of peptide, physically and functionally interact. These interactions extend to include classical MHC-I open conformers as ligands, defining new relationships between KIR receptors and MHC-I. The data collectively suggest a broader, previously unrecognized interaction between MHC-I open conformers—including prototypical HLA-F—and KIR receptors, acting in an immunoregulatory capacity centered on the inflammatory response. PMID:24018270

  3. Characterization of apela, a novel endogenous ligand of apelin receptor, in the adult heart.

    PubMed

    Perjés, Ábel; Kilpiö, Teemu; Ulvila, Johanna; Magga, Johanna; Alakoski, Tarja; Szabó, Zoltán; Vainio, Laura; Halmetoja, Eveliina; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Petäjä-Repo, Ulla; Szokodi, István; Kerkelä, Risto

    2016-01-01

    The G protein-coupled apelin receptor regulates important processes of the cardiovascular homeostasis, including cardiac development, cardiac contractility, and vascular tone. Most recently, a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the apelin receptor was identified in zebrafish, and it was named apela/elabela/toddler. The peptide was originally considered as an exclusively embryonic regulator, and so far its function in the adult organism remains elusive. We show here that apela is predominantly expressed in the non-cardiomyocyte fraction in the adult rodent heart. We also provide evidence that apela binds to apelin receptors in the heart. Using isolated adult rat hearts, we demonstrate, that just like the fellow receptor agonist apelin, apela increases cardiac contractility and induces coronary vasodilation already in the nanomolar level. The inotropic effect, as revealed by Western blot analysis, is accompanied by a significant increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 activation markedly attenuates the apela-induced inotropy. Analysis of samples from infarcted mouse hearts showed that expression of both apela and apelin receptor is induced in failing mouse hearts and correlate with left ventricular ejection fraction. Hence, we conclude that apela is present in the adult heart, is upregulated in post-infarction cardiac remodeling, and increases cardiac contractility in an ERK1/2-dependent manner.

  4. Direct Force Measurements of Receptor-Ligand Interactions on Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Robert H.

    The characterization of cell adhesion between two living cells at the level of single receptor-ligand bonds is an experimental challenge. This chapter describes how the extremely sensitive method of atomic force microscopy (AFM) based force spectroscopy can be applied to living cells in order to probe for cell-to-cell or cell-to-substrate interactions mediated by single pairs of adhesion receptors. In addition, it is outlined how single-molecule AFM force spectroscopy can be used to detect physiologic changes of an adhesion receptor in a living cell. This force spectroscopy allows us to detect in living cells rapidly changing, chemokine SDF-1 triggered activation states of single VLA-4 receptors. This recently developed AFM application will allow for the detailed investigation of the integrin-chemokine crosstalk of integrin activation mechanisms and on how other adhesion receptors are modulated in health and disease. As adhesion molecules, living cells and even bacteria can be studied by single-molecule AFM force spectroscopy, this method is set to become a powerful tool that can not only be used in biophysics, but in cell biology as well as in immunology and cancer research.

  5. Toll-like receptor ligand activation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Cumberbatch, Marie; Maxwell, Gavin; Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the initiation of primary immune responses. The pattern of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression on various subsets of these cells has been shown to differ, suggestive of distinct roles in influencing immune responses. We have examined here the responses of immature DCs derived from murine bone marrow (BMDCs) to a range of TLR ligands. BMDCs cultured for 6 days in the presence of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor were stimulated for 24 hr with ligands to TLR1-2 [Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 (PAM)], TLR2-6 (macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2); zymosan or peptidoglycan (PG)], TLR3 (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid), TLR4 [lipopolysaccharide R515 (LPS)], TLR5 (flagellin), TLR7 (polyuridylic acid) and TLR9 [CpG ODN2395 (CpG)]. DC activation was monitored using membrane marker expression and analysis of culture supernatants for cytokine/chemokine release. Ligands to TLR3 and TLR7 failed to activate BMDCs. All other TLR ligands caused elevated expression of membrane markers. PAM, MALP-2 and LPS induced high-level expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Treatment with CpG was associated with a preferential type 1 cytokine and chemokine profile. Zymosan and PG were proinflammatory but also skewed towards a type 2 pattern of cytokines and chemokines. In contrast, flagellin did not cause marked secretion by BMDCs of cytokines or chemokines. These data for BMDCs are largely consistent with the reported TLR repertoire of freshly isolated murine Langerhans cells. In addition, murine BMDCs show selective responses to TLR ligands with respect to general activation, with differentiated cytokine patterns suggestive of potential priming for divergent immune responses. PMID:18778283

  6. Dopaminergic receptor-ligand binding assays based on molecularly imprinted polymers on quartz crystal microbalance sensors.

    PubMed

    Naklua, Wanpen; Suedee, Roongnapa; Lieberzeit, Peter A

    2016-07-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been successfully applied as selective materials for assessing the binding activity of agonist and antagonist of dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) by using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). In this study, D1R derived from rat hypothalamus was used as a template and thus self-organized on stamps. Those were pressed into an oligomer film consisting of acrylic acid: N-vinylpyrrolidone: N,N'-(1,2-dihydroxyethylene) bis-acrylamide in a ratio of 2:3:12 spin coated onto a dual electrode QCM. Such we obtained one D1R-MIP-QCM electrode, whereas the other electrode carried the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP) that had remained untreated. Successful imprinting of D1R was confirmed by AFM. The polymer can re-incorporate D1R leading to frequency responses of 100-1200Hz in a concentration range of 5.9-47.2µM. In a further step such frequency changes proved inherently useful for examining the binding properties of test ligands to D1R. The resulting mass-sensitive measurements revealed Kd of dopamine∙HCl, haloperidol, and (+)-SCH23390 at 0.874, 25.6, and 0.004nM, respectively. These results correlate well with the values determined in radio ligand binding assays. Our experiments revealed that D1R-MIP sensors are useful for estimating the strength of ligand binding to the active single site. Therefore, we have developed a biomimetic surface imprinting strategy for QCM studies of D1R-ligand binding and presented a new method to ligand binding assay for D1R. PMID:26926593

  7. Asymmetric Clustering Index in a Case Study of 5-HT1A Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Marek; Warszycki, Dawid; Tabor, Jacek; Bojarski, Andrzej J.

    2014-01-01

    The automatic clustering of chemical compounds is an important branch of chemoinformatics. In this paper the Asymmetric Clustering Index (Aci) is proposed to assess how well an automatically created partition reflects the reference. The asymmetry allows for a distinction between the fixed reference and the numerically constructed partition. The introduced index is applied to evaluate the quality of hierarchical clustering procedures for 5-HT1A receptor ligands. We find that the most appropriate combination of parameters for the hierarchical clustering of compounds with a determined activity for this biological target is the Klekota Roth fingerprint combined with the complete linkage function and the Buser similarity metric. PMID:25019251

  8. Fancy bioisosteres: synthesis, SAR, and pharmacological investigations of novel nonaromatic dopamine D3 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Carola; Boeckler, Frank; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2005-07-15

    Structural variations of the lead compound FAUC 88 led to dopaminergic enynes with an extended pi-system when Pd-catalyzed cross coupling reactions were employed for the key reaction steps. The dienyne 9b displayed substantial affinity for the dopamine receptor subtype D3 and remarkable selectivity over D4. Compared to FAUC 88, the novel fancy bioisostere 9b displayed reduced ligand efficacy. DFT-based conformational analysis of the test compound 9b, including the calculation of diagnostic magnetic shielding properties and their comparison with experimentally derived NMR data, indicated a clear energetic preference for the s-trans geometry of the diene substructure. PMID:15908220

  9. Bodilisant—A Novel Fluorescent, Highly Affine Histamine H3 Receptor Ligand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A piperidine-based lead structure for the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R) was coupled with the BODIPY fluorophore and resulted in a strong green fluorescent (quantum yield, 0.92) hH3R ligand with affinity in the nanomolar concentration range (Ki hH3R = 6.51 ± 3.31 nM), named Bodilisant. Screening for affinities at histamine and dopamine receptor subtypes showed high hH3R preference. Bodilisant was used for visualization of hH3R in hH3R overexpressing HEK-293 cells with fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, in native human brain tissues, Bodilisant showed clear and displaceable images of labeled hH3R. PMID:24900647

  10. Plant membrane assays with cytokinin receptors underpin the unique role of free cytokinin bases as biologically active ligands.

    PubMed

    Lomin, Sergey N; Krivosheev, Dmitry M; Steklov, Mikhail Yu; Arkhipov, Dmitry V; Osolodkin, Dmitry I; Schmülling, Thomas; Romanov, Georgy A

    2015-04-01

    Cytokinin receptors play a key role in cytokinin-dependent processes regulating plant growth, development, and adaptation; therefore, the functional properties of these receptors are of great importance. Previously the properties of cytokinin receptors were investigated in heterologous assay systems using unicellular microorganisms, mainly bacteria, expressing receptor proteins. However, within microorganisms receptors reside in an alien environment that might distort the receptor properties. Therefore, a new assay system has been developed allowing studies of individual receptors within plant membranes (i.e. closer to their natural environment). The main ligand-binding characteristics of receptors from Arabidopsis [AHK2, AHK3, and AHK4] and maize (ZmHK1) were refined in this new system, and the properties of full-length Arabidopsis receptor AHK2 were characterized for the first time. Ligand specificity profiles of receptors towards cytokinin bases were comparable with the profiles retrieved in bacterial assay systems. In contrast, cytokinin-9-ribosides displayed a strongly reduced affinity for receptors in the plant assay system, indicating that ribosides as the common transport form of cytokinins have no or very weak cytokinin activity. This underpins the central role of free bases as the sole biologically active cytokinin compounds. According to molecular modelling and docking studies, N (9)-ribosylation alters the bonding pattern in cytokinin-receptor interaction and prevents β6-β7 loop movement important for tight hormone binding. A common feature of all receptors was a greatly reduced ligand binding at low (5.0-5.5) pH. The particularly high sensitivity of ZmHK1 to pH changes leads to the suggestion that some cytokinin receptors may play an additional role as pH sensors in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  11. Aromatic interactions impact ligand binding and function at serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors: receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics results validated by experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova-Sintjago, Tania; Villa, Nancy; Fang, Lijuan; Booth, Raymond G.

    2014-02-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family consists of types 2A, 2B, and 2C that share ∼75% transmembrane (TM) sequence identity. Agonists for 5-HT2C receptors are under development for psychoses; whereas, at 5-HT2A receptors, antipsychotic effects are associated with antagonists - in fact, 5-HT2A agonists can cause hallucinations and 5-HT2B agonists cause cardiotoxicity. It is known that 5-HT2A TM6 residues W6.48, F6.51, and F6.52 impact ligand binding and function; however, ligand interactions with these residues at the 5-HT2C receptor have not been reported. To predict and validate molecular determinants for 5-HT2C-specific activation, results from receptor homology modelling, ligand docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies were compared with experimental results for ligand binding and function at wild type and W6.48A, F6.51A, and F6.52A point-mutated 5-HT2C receptors.

  12. Fish genomes provide novel insights into the evolution of vertebrate secretin receptors and their ligand.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Trindade, Marlene; Power, Deborah M

    2014-12-01

    The secretin receptor (SCTR) is a member of Class 2 subfamily B1 GPCRs and part of the PAC1/VPAC receptor subfamily. This receptor has long been known in mammals but has only recently been identified in other vertebrates including teleosts, from which it was previously considered to be absent. The ligand for SCTR in mammals is secretin (SCT), an important gastrointestinal peptide, which in teleosts has not yet been isolated, or the gene identified. This study revises the evolutionary model previously proposed for the secretin-GPCRs in metazoan by analysing in detail the fishes, the most successful of the extant vertebrates. All the Actinopterygii genomes analysed and the Chondrichthyes and Sarcopterygii fish possess a SCTR gene that shares conserved sequence, structure and synteny with the tetrapod homologue. Phylogenetic clustering and gene environment comparisons revealed that fish and tetrapod SCTR shared a common origin and diverged early from the PAC1/VPAC subfamily group. In teleosts SCTR duplicated as a result of the fish specific whole genome duplication but in all the teleost genomes analysed, with the exception of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the duplicates was lost. The function of SCTR in teleosts is unknown but quantitative PCR revealed that in both sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) transcript abundance is high in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting it may intervene in similar processes to those in mammals. In contrast, no gene encoding the ligand SCT was identified in the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) although it was present in the coelacanth (lobe finned fish, Sarcopterygii) and in the elephant shark (holocephalian). The genes in linkage with SCT in tetrapods and coelacanth were also identified in ray-finned fishes supporting the idea that it was lost from their genome. At present SCTR remains an orphan receptor in ray-finned fishes and it will be of interest in the future to establish why SCT was

  13. Ligand Binding Alters Dimerization and Sequestering of Urokinase Receptors in Raft-Mimicking Lipid Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yifan; Siegel, Amanda P.; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid heterogeneities, such as lipid rafts, are widely considered to be important for the sequestering of membrane proteins in plasma membranes, thereby influencing membrane protein functionality. However, the underlying mechanisms of such sequestration processes remain elusive, in part, due to the small size and often transient nature of these functional membrane heterogeneities in cellular membranes. To overcome these challenges, here we report the sequestration behavior of urokinase receptor (uPAR), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, in a planar model membrane platform with raft-mimicking lipid mixtures of well-defined compositions using a powerful optical imaging platform consisting of confocal spectroscopy XY-scans, photon counting histogram, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analyses. This methodology provides parallel information about receptor sequestration, oligomerization state, and lateral mobility with single molecule sensitivity. Most notably, our experiments demonstrate that moderate changes in uPAR sequestration are not only associated with modifications in uPAR dimerization levels, but may also be linked to ligand-mediated allosteric changes of these membrane receptors. Our data show that these modifications in uPAR sequestration can be induced by exposure to specific ligands (urokinase plasminogen activator, vitronectin), but not via adjustment of the cholesterol level in the planar model membrane system. Good agreement of our key findings with published results on cell membranes confirms the validity of our model membrane approach. We hypothesize that the observed mechanism of receptor translocation in the presence of raft-mimicking lipid mixtures is also applicable to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. PMID:25418095

  14. Caged vanilloid ligands for activation of TRPV1 receptors by 1- and 2-photon excitation†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Gover, Tony D.; Muralidharan, Sukumaran; Auston, Darryl A.; Weinreich, Daniel; Kao, Joseph P. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Nociceptive neurons in the peripheral nervous system detect noxious stimuli and report the information to the central nervous system. Most nociceptive neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel gated by vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin, the pungent essence of chili peppers. Here, we report the synthesis and biological application of two caged vanilloids—biologically inert precursors that, when photolyzed, release bioactive vanilloid ligands. The two caged vanilloids, Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA, are photoreleased with quantum efficiency of 0.13 and 0.041, respectively. Under flash photolysis conditions, photorelease of Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA is 95% complete in ∼40 μs and ∼125 μs, respectively. Through 1-photon excitation with ultraviolet light (360 nm), or 2-photon excitation with red light (720 nm), the caged vanilloids can be photoreleased in situ to activate TRPV1 receptors on nociceptive neurons. The consequent increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) can be visualized by laser-scanning confocal imaging of neurons loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, fluo-3. Stimulation results from TRPV1 receptor activation, because the response is blocked by capsazepine, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. In Ca2+-free extracellular medium, photoreleased vanilloid can still elevate [Ca2+]i, which suggests that TRPV1 receptors also reside on endomembranes in neurons and can mediate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Notably, whole-cell voltage clamp measurements showed that flash photorelease of vanilloid can activate TRPV1 channels in < 4 msec at 22°C. In combination with 1- or 2-photon excitation, caged vanilloids are a powerful tool for probing morphologically distinct structures of nociceptive sensory neurons with high spatial and temporal precision. PMID:16605259

  15. Ligand binding alters dimerization and sequestering of urokinase receptors in raft-mimicking lipid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yifan; Siegel, Amanda P; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A

    2014-11-01

    Lipid heterogeneities, such as lipid rafts, are widely considered to be important for the sequestering of membrane proteins in plasma membranes, thereby influencing membrane protein functionality. However, the underlying mechanisms of such sequestration processes remain elusive, in part, due to the small size and often transient nature of these functional membrane heterogeneities in cellular membranes. To overcome these challenges, here we report the sequestration behavior of urokinase receptor (uPAR), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, in a planar model membrane platform with raft-mimicking lipid mixtures of well-defined compositions using a powerful optical imaging platform consisting of confocal spectroscopy XY-scans, photon counting histogram, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analyses. This methodology provides parallel information about receptor sequestration, oligomerization state, and lateral mobility with single molecule sensitivity. Most notably, our experiments demonstrate that moderate changes in uPAR sequestration are not only associated with modifications in uPAR dimerization levels, but may also be linked to ligand-mediated allosteric changes of these membrane receptors. Our data show that these modifications in uPAR sequestration can be induced by exposure to specific ligands (urokinase plasminogen activator, vitronectin), but not via adjustment of the cholesterol level in the planar model membrane system. Good agreement of our key findings with published results on cell membranes confirms the validity of our model membrane approach. We hypothesize that the observed mechanism of receptor translocation in the presence of raft-mimicking lipid mixtures is also applicable to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

  16. The GABAA receptor complex in hepatic encephalopathy. Autoradiographic evidence for the presence of elevated levels of a benzodiazepine receptor ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Gammal, S.H.; Jones, E.A.; Skolnick, P. )

    1990-02-01

    Autoradiographic analysis was used to examine radioligand binding to benzodiazepine (BZ) and GABAA receptors in the brains of rabbits with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Thin sections of whole brain from normal rabbits and rabbits with HE were mounted on slides and subdivided into two groups. One group was washed before incubation with radioligand, while the second group was not prewashed. (3H)Flunitrazepam binding to BZ receptors was decreased by 22% to 42% (p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, superior and inferior colliculi, and cerebellum of unwashed sections from rabbits with HE compared to all other groups. The binding of (3H)Ro 15-1788 to unwashed sections from rabbits with HE was reduced by a similar degree (18% to 37%, p less than 0.05) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, superior colliculus, and cerebellar cortex. Incubation of sections with the GABA-mimetic muscimol and NaCl produced an additional decrease in (3H)flunitrazepam binding to the cortex and hippocampus (25% to 31%, p less than 0.05) in unwashed HE rabbit brain, but increased radioligand binding (27% to 71%, p less than 0.05) to several regions in control rabbits. No changes in radioligand binding to either GABAA or peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed between HE and control rabbit sections. These findings are consistent with previous electrophysiologic and neurochemical observations indicating no significant changes in either the function or density of GABAA or BZ receptors in this model of HE. Further, they indicate that a reversible BZ receptor ligand with agonist properties is present in the brain in HE. This substance may contribute to the enhancement of GABAergic tone observed in this syndrome.

  17. GABAC receptor binding of quantum-dot conjugates of variable ligand valency.

    PubMed

    Gussin, Hélène A; Tomlinson, Ian D; Muni, Niraj J; Little, Deborah M; Qian, Haohua; Rosenthal, Sandra J; Pepperberg, David R

    2010-08-18

    Highly fluorescent CdSe quantum dots (qdots) can serve as a platform for tethering multiple copies of a receptor-targeted ligand, affording study of how the level of multivalency affects receptor binding. We previously showed that qdots conjugated with long PEG chains terminated by muscimol, a known GABA(C) agonist, exhibit specific binding to the surface membrane of GABA(C) receptor-expressing Xenopus oocytes. The present report addresses the effect of varying the number, i.e., valency, of muscimol- (M-) terminated PEG chains attached to the qdot on binding of the resulting conjugate to GABA(C) receptors. M-PEG-qdots of differing muscimol valency were prepared by conjugating AMP-CdSe/ZnS qdots with muscimol-terminated and methylamine-terminated PEG chains in proportions designed to yield varying percentages of muscimol-terminated chains among the total approximately 150-200 chains bound to the qdot. The investigated valencies represented 0%, approximately 25%, approximately 50%, and 100% loading with muscimol (preparations termed M-PEG-qdot0, M-PEG-qdot25, M-PEG-qdot50, and M-PEG-qdot100, respectively. Binding of a given conjugate to surface membranes of GABA(C) receptor-expressing oocytes was analyzed by quantitative fluorescence microscopy following defined incubation with approximately 30 nM of the conjugate. With 5-20 min incubation, the fluorescence signal resulting from incubation with M-PEG-qdot25 exceeded, by approximately 6-fold, the fluorescence level obtained with M-PEG-qdot preparations that lacked muscimol-terminated chains (M-PEG-qdot0). M-PEG-qdot50 yielded a net signal roughly similar to that of M-PEG-qdot25, and that produced by M-PEG-qdot100 exceeded, by approximately 30-50%, those for M-PEG-qdot25 and M-PEG-qdot50. The time course of changes in oocyte surface membrane fluorescence resulting from the introduction of and removal of M-PEG-qdots in the medium bathing the oocyte indicated only a modest dependence of both binding and wash-out kinetics

  18. Mutations in the WSAWSE and cytosolic domains of the erythropoietin receptor affect signal transduction and ligand binding and internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Quelle, D E; Quelle, F W; Wojchowski, D M

    1992-01-01

    The terminal development of erythroid progenitor cells is promoted in part through the interaction of erythropoietin (EPO) with its cell surface receptor. This receptor and a growing family of related cytokine receptors share homologous extracellular features, including a well-conserved WSXWS motif. To explore the functional significance of this motif in the murine EPO receptor, five WSAWSE mutants were prepared and their signal-transducing, ligand binding, and endocytotic properties were compared. EPO receptors mutated at tryptophan residues (W-232, W-235----G; W-235----G; W-235----F) failed to mediate EPO-induced growth or pp100 phosphorylation, while S-236----T and E-237----K mutants exhibited partial to full activity (50 to 100% of wild-type growth and induced phosphorylation). Ligand affinity was reduced for mutant receptors (two- to fivefold), yet expression at the cell surface for all receptors was nearly equivalent. Also, the ability of mutated receptors to internalize ligand was either markedly reduced or abolished (W-235----F), indicating a role for the WSAWSE region in hormone internalization. Interestingly, receptor forms lacking 97% of the cytosolic domain (no signal-transducing capacity; binding affinity reduced two- to threefold) internalized EPO efficiently. This and all WSAWSE receptor forms studied also mediated specific cross-linking of 125I-EPO to three accessory membrane proteins (M(r)s, 120,000, 105,000, and 93,000). These findings suggest that the WSAWSE domain of the EPO receptor is important for EPO-induced signal transduction and ligand internalization. In contrast, although the cytosolic domain is required for growth signaling, it appears nonessential for efficient endocytosis. Images PMID:1406645

  19. A D-peptide ligand of nicotine acetylcholine receptors for brain-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoli; Zhan, Changyou; Shen, Qing; Fu, Wei; Xie, Cao; Gao, Jie; Peng, Chunmei; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Weiyue

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomes of brain capillary endothelial cells are implicated in nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated transcytosis and act as an enzymatic barrier for the transport of peptide ligands to the brain. A D-peptide ligand of nAChRs (termed (D)CDX), which binds to nAChRs with an IC50 value of 84.5 nM, was developed by retro-inverso isomerization. (D)CDX displayed exceptional stability in lysosomal homogenate and serum, and demonstrated significantly higher transcytosis efficiency in an in vitro blood-brain barrier monolayer compared with the parent L-peptide. When modified on liposomal surface, (D)CDX facilitated significant brain-targeted delivery of liposomes. As a result, brain-targeted delivery of (D)CDX modified liposomes enhanced therapeutic efficiency of encapsulated doxorubicin for glioblastoma. This study illustrates the importance of ligand stability in nAChRs-mediated transcytosis, and paves the way for developing stable brain-targeted entities.

  20. NRLiSt BDB, the manually curated nuclear receptors ligands and structures benchmarking database.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Ben Nasr, Nesrine; Jérémie, Aurore; Guillemain, Hélène; Laville, Vincent; Labib, Taoufik; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2014-04-10

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) constitute an important class of drug targets. We created the most exhaustive NR-focused benchmarking database to date, the NRLiSt BDB (NRs ligands and structures benchmarking database). The 9905 compounds and 339 structures of the NRLiSt BDB are ready for structure-based and ligand-based virtual screening. In the present study, we detail the protocol used to generate the NRLiSt BDB and its features. We also give some examples of the errors that we found in ChEMBL that convinced us to manually review all original papers. Since extensive and manually curated experimental data about NR ligands and structures are provided in the NRLiSt BDB, it should become a powerful tool to assess the performance of virtual screening methods on NRs, to assist the understanding of NR's function and modulation, and to support the discovery of new drugs targeting NRs. NRLiSt BDB is freely available online at http://nrlist.drugdesign.fr .

  1. Roles of cell and microvillus deformation and receptor-ligand binding kinetics in cell rolling.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Parag; Jadhav, Sameer; Eggleton, Charles D; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2008-10-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment to sites of inflammation is initiated by selectin-mediated PMN tethering and rolling on activated endothelium under flow. Cell rolling is modulated by bulk cell deformation (mesoscale), microvillus deformability (microscale), and receptor-ligand binding kinetics (nanoscale). Selectin-ligand bonds exhibit a catch-slip bond behavior, and their dissociation is governed not only by the force but also by the force history. Whereas previous theoretical models have studied the significance of these three "length scales" in isolation, how their interplay affects cell rolling has yet to be resolved. We therefore developed a three-dimensional computational model that integrates the aforementioned length scales to delineate their relative contributions to PMN rolling. Our simulations predict that the catch-slip bond behavior and to a lesser extent bulk cell deformation are responsible for the shear threshold phenomenon. Cells bearing deformable rather than rigid microvilli roll slower only at high P-selectin site densities and elevated levels of shear (>or=400 s(-1)). The more compliant cells (membrane stiffness=1.2 dyn/cm) rolled slower than cells with a membrane stiffness of 3.0 dyn/cm at shear rates >50 s(-1). In summary, our model demonstrates that cell rolling over a ligand-coated surface is a highly coordinated process characterized by a complex interplay between forces acting on three distinct length scales.

  2. A single glycine-alanine exchange directs ligand specificity of the elephant progestin receptor.

    PubMed

    Wierer, Michael; Schrey, Anna K; Kühne, Ronald; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2012-01-01

    The primary gestagen of elephants is 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP), which is unlike all other mammals studied until now. The level of DHP in elephants equals that of progesterone in other mammals, and elephants are able to bind DHP with similar affinity to progesterone indicating a unique ligand-binding specificity of the elephant progestin receptor (PR). Using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with in vitro binding studies we here report that this change in specificity is due to a single glycine to alanine exchange at position 722 (G722A) of PR, which specifically increases DHP affinity while not affecting binding of progesterone. By conducting molecular dynamics simulations comparing human and elephant PR ligand-binding domains (LBD), we observed that the alanine methyl group at position 722 is able to push the DHP A-ring into a position similar to progesterone. In the human PR, the DHP A-ring position is twisted towards helix 3 of PR thereby disturbing the hydrogen bond pattern around the C3-keto group, resulting in a lower binding affinity. Furthermore, we observed that the elephant PR ligand-binding pocket is more rigid than the human analogue, which probably explains the higher affinity towards both progesterone and DHP. Interestingly, the G722A substitution is not elephant-specific, rather it is also present in five independent lineages of mammalian evolution, suggesting a special role of the substitution for the development of distinct mammalian gestagen systems. PMID:23209719

  3. A ligand-specific kinetic switch regulates glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and function

    PubMed Central

    Trebble, Peter J.; Woolven, James M.; Saunders, Ken A.; Simpson, Karen D.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Matthews, Laura C.; Ray, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major drug target for inflammatory disease, but issues of specificity and target tissue sensitivity remain. We now identify high potency, non-steroidal GR ligands, GSK47867A and GSK47869A, which induce a novel conformation of the GR ligand-binding domain (LBD) and augment the efficacy of cellular action. Despite their high potency, GSK47867A and GSK47869A both induce surprisingly slow GR nuclear translocation, followed by prolonged nuclear GR retention, and transcriptional activity following washout. We reveal that GSK47867A and GSK47869A specifically alter the GR LBD structure at the HSP90-binding site. The alteration in the HSP90-binding site was accompanied by resistance to HSP90 antagonism, with persisting transactivation seen after geldanamycin treatment. Taken together, our studies reveal a new mechanism governing GR intracellular trafficking regulated by ligand binding that relies on a specific surface charge patch within the LBD. This conformational change permits extended GR action, probably because of altered GR–HSP90 interaction. This chemical series may offer anti-inflammatory drugs with prolonged duration of action due to altered pharmacodynamics rather than altered pharmacokinetics. PMID:23687373

  4. Effect of pregnane X receptor ligands on transport mediated by human OATP1B1 and OATP1B3

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chunshan; Miao, Yi; Thompson, Lucas; Wahlgren, Bret; Mock, Melissa; Stieger, Bruno; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes. Numerous drugs are pregnane X receptor ligands. To bind to their receptor they must cross the sinusoidal membrane. Organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) are polyspecific transporters expressed at the sinusoidal membrane of human hepatocytes. They mediate transport of a variety of drugs including the pregnane X receptor ligands rifampicin and dexamethasone. To test whether additional pregnane X receptor ligands interact with OATP1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport, we developed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines stably expressing OATP1B1 or 1B3 at high levels. OATP1B1- and 1B3-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide uptake was inhibited by several pregnane X receptor ligands in a concentration dependent way. IC50 values for rifampicin, paclitaxel, mifepristone, and troglitazone were within their respective pharmacological free plasma concentrations. Kinetic analysis revealed that clotrimazole inhibits OATP1B1-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport with a Ki of 7.7 ± 0.3 μM in a competitive way. However, uptake of OATP1B3-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide was stimulated and this stimulation was due to an increased apparent affinity. Transport of estrone-3-sulfate was hardly affected while all other substrates tested were inhibited. Additional azoles like fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole did not stimulate OATP1B3-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport. In summary, these results demonstrate that pregnane X receptor ligands, by inhibiting or stimulating OATP-mediated uptake, can lead to drug-drug interactions at the transporter level. PMID:18321482

  5. Effect of the anti-receptor ligand-blocking 225 monoclonal antibody on EGF receptor endocytosis and sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, Maria L. . E-mail: maria.jaramillo@nrc.ca; Leon, Zully; Grothe, Suzanne; Paul-Roc, Beatrice; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; O'Connor McCourt, Maureen

    2006-09-10

    The anti-receptor antibody, 225 mAb, is known to block binding of ligand to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the effect of this neutralizing antibody on EGFR endocytosis, trafficking and degradation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endocytosis of {sup 125}I-225 mAb occurs, albeit with a slower rate than that of EGF. Using pulse chase assays, we show that internalized {sup 125}I-225 mAb is recycled to the surface much more efficiently than internalized {sup 125}I-EGF. Also, we found that internalization of {sup 125}I-225 mAb, in contrast to that of EGF, is independent of receptor tyrosine kinase activity, as evidenced by its insensitivity to AG1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Analysis of the levels of cell surface and total EGFR showed that treatment with 225 mAb results in a 30-40% decrease in surface EGFR and a relatively slow downregulation of total EGFR. Taken together, these data indicate that 225 mAb induces internalization and downregulation of EGFR via a mechanism distinct from that underlying EGF-induced EGFR internalization and downregulation.

  6. Intracellular trafficking by Star regulates cleavage of the Drosophila EGF receptor ligand Spitz

    PubMed Central

    Tsruya, Rachel; Schlesinger, Ayelet; Reich, Aderet; Gabay, Limor; Sapir, Amir; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2002-01-01

    Spitz (Spi) is a TGFα homolog that is a cardinal ligand for the Drosophila EGF receptor throughout development. Cleavage of the ubiquitously expressed transmembrane form of Spi (mSpi) precedes EGF receptor activation. We show that the Star and Rhomboid (Rho) proteins are necessary for Spi cleavage in Drosophila cells. Complexes between the Spi and Star proteins, as well as between the Star and Rho proteins were identified, but no Spi–Star–Rho triple complex was detected. This observation suggests a sequential activity of Star and Rho in mSpi processing. The interactions between Spi and Star regulate the intracellular trafficking of Spi. The Spi precursor is retained in the periphery of the nucleus. Coexpression of Star promotes translocation of Spi to a compartment where Rho is present both in cells and in embryos. A Star deletion construct that maintains binding to Spi and Rho, but is unable to facilitate Spi translocation, lost biological activity. These results underscore the importance of regulated intracellular trafficking in processing of a TGFα family ligand. PMID:11799065

  7. The CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine ligand/receptor axis in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Yvonne; Pawig, Lukas; Weber, Christian; Noels, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 play an important homeostatic function by mediating the homing of progenitor cells in the bone marrow and regulating their mobilization into peripheral tissues upon injury or stress. Although the CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction has long been regarded as a monogamous relation, the identification of the pro-inflammatory chemokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as an important second ligand for CXCR4, and of CXCR7 as an alternative receptor for CXCL12, has undermined this interpretation and has considerably complicated the understanding of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling and associated biological functions. This review aims to provide insight into the current concept of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in myocardial infarction (MI) and its underlying pathologies such as atherosclerosis and injury-induced vascular restenosis. It will discuss main findings from in vitro studies, animal experiments and large-scale genome-wide association studies. The importance of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in progenitor cell homing and mobilization will be addressed, as will be the function of CXCR4 in different cell types involved in atherosclerosis. Finally, a potential translation of current knowledge on CXCR4 into future therapeutical application will be discussed. PMID:24966838

  8. QSAR study of selective ligands for the thyroid hormone receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, an accurate and reliable QSAR model of 87 selective ligands for the thyroid hormone receptor beta 1 (TRbeta1) was developed, based on theoretical molecular descriptors to predict the binding affinity of compounds with receptor. The structural characteristics of compounds were described wholly by a large amount of molecular structural descriptors calculated by DRAGON. Six most relevant structural descriptors to the studied activity were selected as the inputs of QSAR model by a robust optimization algorithm Genetic Algorithm. The built model was fully assessed by various validation methods, including internal and external validation, Y-randomization test, chemical applicability domain, and all the validations indicate that the QSAR model we proposed is robust and satisfactory. Thus, the built QSAR model can be used to fast and accurately predict the binding affinity of compounds (in the defined applicability domain) to TRbeta1. At the same time, the model proposed could also identify and provide some insight into what structural features are related to the biological activity of these compounds and provide some instruction for further designing the new selective ligands for TRbeta1 with high activity.

  9. Flexibility and extracellular opening determine the interaction between ligands and insect sulfakinin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Na; Zotti, Moises João; Scheys, Freja; Braz, Antônio S. K.; Penna, Pedro H. C.; Nachman, Ronald J.; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Despite their fundamental importance for growth, the mechanisms that regulate food intake are poorly understood. Our previous work demonstrated that insect sulfakinin (SK) signaling is involved in inhibiting feeding in an important model and pest insect, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Because the interaction of SK peptide and SK receptors (SKR) initiates the SK signaling, we have special interest on the structural factors that influence the SK-SKR interaction. First, the three-dimensional structures of the two T. castaneum SKRs (TcSKR1 and TcSKR2) were generated from molecular modeling and they displayed significance in terms of the outer opening of the cavity and protein flexibility. TcSKR1 contained a larger outer opening of the cavity than that in TcSKR2, which allows ligands a deep access into the cavity through cell membrane. Second, normal mode analysis revealed that TcSKR1 was more flexible than TcSKR2 during receptor-ligand interaction. Third, the sulfated SK (sSK) and sSK-related peptides were more potent than the nonsulfated SK, suggesting the importance of the sulfate moiety. PMID:26267367

  10. Targeting a homogeneously glycosylated antibody Fc to bind cancer cells using a synthetic receptor ligand.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junpeng; Chen, Rui; Pawlicki, Mark A; Tolbert, Thomas J

    2009-09-30

    The targeting of a glycosylated antibody Fc fragment to bind to cancer cells by site-selective incorporation of a synthetic ligand is described. Homogeneously glycosylated immunoglobulin G subclass 1 fragment crystallizable (IgG1 Fc) was produced by expression in a glycosylation-deficient yeast strain and subsequent treatment with mannosidase IA. A