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Sample records for 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid 5hiaa

  1. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia: a cohort study focused on cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Neider, Daniel; Lindström, Leif H; Bodén, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the association between 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), bullying, and later suicide among patients with schizophrenia. Methods Ninety-nine patients with schizophrenia were included. Correlations of clinical factors, 5-HIAA and HVA, and later suicide were investigated. Results Twelve patients committed suicide (12%) during a 28-year follow-up period. Later suicide was correlated to bullying in childhood (P=0.02) and a lower quotient of HVA/5-HIAA in CSF (P<0.05). Conclusion Suicide in schizophrenia is related to childhood exposedness and CSF neurotransmitter levels. PMID:27468235

  2. 5-HIAA

    MedlinePlus

    HIAA; 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid; Serotonin metabolite ... interfere with the test. Medicines that can increase 5-HIAA measurements include acetaminophen (Tylenol), acetanilide, phenacetin, glyceryl ...

  3. Alcohol biomarker analysis: simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxytryptophol glucuronide and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid by direct injection of urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stephanson, Nikolai; Helander, Anders; Beck, Olof

    2007-07-01

    A direct ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-MS/MS) for simultaneous measurement of urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol glucuronide (GTOL) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) was developed. The GTOL/5-HIAA ratio is used as an alcohol biomarker with clinical and forensic applications. The method involved dilution of the urine sample with deuterated analogues (internal standards), reversed-phase chromatography with gradient elution, electrospray ionisation and monitoring of two product ions per analyte in selected reaction monitoring mode. The measuring ranges were 6.7-10 000 nmol/l for GTOL and 0.07-100 micromol/l for 5-HIAA. The intra- and inter-assay imprecision, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was below 7%. Influence from ion suppression was noted for both compounds but was compensated for by the use of co-eluting internal standards. The accuracy in analytical recovery of added substance to urine samples was 96 and 98%, respectively, for GTOL and 5-HIAA. Method comparison with GC-MS for GTOL in 25 authentic patient samples confirmed the accuracy of the method with a median ratio between methods (GC-MS to UPLC-MS/MS) of 1.14 (r(2) = 0.975). The difference is explained by the fact that the GC-MS method also measures unconjugated 5-hydroxytryptophol naturally present in urine. The comparison with data for 5-HIAA obtained by an HPLC method demonstrated a median ratio of 1.05 between the methods. The UPLC-MS/MS method was capable of measuring endogenous GTOL and 5-HIAA levels in urine, which agreed with the literature data. In conclusion, a fully validated and robust direct method for the routine measurement of urinary GTOL and 5-HIAA was developed. PMID:17565712

  4. CSF 5-HIAA Predicts Suicide Risk after Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied suicide risk after attempted suicide, as predicted by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite concentrations, in 92 psychiatric mood disorder inpatients admitted shortly after attempting suicide. Results revealed that low CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) predicted short-range suicide risk after attempted suicide in mood…

  5. Nocturnal elevation of plasma melatonin and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in young men: attempts at modification by brief changes in environmental lighting and sleep and by autonomic drugs.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, G M; Pelham, R W; Pang, S F; Loughlin, L L; Wilson, K M; Sandock, K L; Vaughan, M K; Koslow, S H; Reiter, R J

    1976-04-01

    In order to determine whether the human pattern of circulating melatonin resembles that previously described in lower animals, men 19-32 years old were exposed to a light-dark cycle with 14 hours of light per day (L:D 14:10). In whites and blacks, nocturnal (dark phase, sleeping) melatonin levels were almost always elevated to 0.05-0.1 ng/ml plasma compared with lower or undetectable levels during the day, measured by the tadpole bioassay. Thin-layer migration of bioactive material was identical to that for melatonin standard. A rhythm with nocturnal elevation of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) was observed. Nocturnal (sleep phase) rise in blood melatonin (but not urinary 5-HIAA) continued during 21/2 day-night cycle lengths after the onset of constant light. Though the dark phase plasma melatonin rise was less marked after reversal of the sleep-wake cycle (no change in the light cycle), dark phase rise in urinary 5-HIAA continued. Though marked cardiovascular and other effects were produced by intravenous isoproterenol or scopolamine, no definite effect on melatonin levels was observed after either drug during the light phase in waking subjects. PMID:1262447

  6. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in macaques following early life stress and inverse association with hippocampal volume: preliminary implications for serotonin-related function in mood and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Fulton, Sasha L.; Reiner, Wade; Jackowski, Andrea; Panthangi, Venkatesh; Perera, Tarique D.; Gorman, Jack M.; Huang, Yung-yu; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Hof, Patrick R.; Kaffman, Arie; Dwork, Andrew J.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Kaufman, Joan; Mann, J. John

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early life stress (ELS) is cited as a risk for mood and anxiety disorders, potentially through altered serotonin neurotransmission. We examined the effects of ELS, utilizing the variable foraging demand (VFD) macaque model, on adolescent monoamine metabolites. We sought to replicate an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) observed in two previous VFD cohorts. We hypothesized that elevated cisternal 5-HIAA was associated with reduced neurotrophic effects, conceivably due to excessive negative feedback at somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. A putatively decreased serotonin neurotransmission would be reflected by reductions in hippocampal volume and white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA). Methods: When infants were 2–6 months of age, bonnet macaque mothers were exposed to VFD. We employed cisternal CSF taps to measure monoamine metabolites in VFD (N = 22) and non-VFD (N = 14) offspring (mean age = 2.61 years). Metabolites were correlated with hippocampal volume obtained by MRI and WM FA by diffusion tensor imaging in young adulthood in 17 males [10 VFD (mean age = 4.57 years)]. Results: VFD subjects exhibited increased CSF 5-HIAA compared to non-VFD controls. An inverse correlation between right hippocampal volume and 5-HIAA was noted in VFD- but not controls. CSF HVA and MHPG correlated inversely with hippocampal volume only in VFD. CSF 5-HIAA correlated inversely with FA of the WM tracts of the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) only in VFD. Conclusions: Elevated cisternal 5-HIAA in VFD may reflect increased dorsal raphe serotonin, potentially inducing excessive autoreceptor activation, inducing a putative serotonin deficit in terminal fields. Resultant reductions in neurotrophic activity are reflected by smaller right hippocampal volume. Convergent evidence of reduced neurotrophic activity in association with high CSF 5-HIAA in VFD was reflected by reduced FA of the ALIC. PMID:25566007

  7. Systemic Regulation of RAS/MAPK Signaling by the Serotonin Metabolite 5-HIAA

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Tobias; Snoek, L. Basten; Fröhli, Erika; van der Bent, M. Leontien; Kammenga, Jan; Hajnal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Human cancer is caused by the interplay of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and inherited variations in cancer susceptibility genes. While many of the tumor initiating mutations are well characterized, the effect of genetic background variation on disease onset and progression is less understood. We have used C. elegans genetics to identify genetic modifiers of the oncogenic RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Quantitative trait locus analysis of two highly diverged C. elegans isolates combined with allele swapping experiments identified the polymorphic monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene amx-2 as a negative regulator of RAS/MAPK signaling. We further show that the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), which is a product of MAOA catalysis, systemically inhibits RAS/MAPK signaling in different organs of C. elegans. Thus, MAOA activity sets a global threshold for MAPK activation by controlling 5-HIAA levels. To our knowledge, 5-HIAA is the first endogenous small molecule that acts as a systemic inhibitor of RAS/MAPK signaling. PMID:25978500

  8. Anaesthesia abolishes the effect of valproate on extracellular 5-HIAA, DOPAC and ascorbate as measured in rat striatum by differential pulse voltammetry.

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, F.; Keane, P. E.; Morre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of sodium valproate (VPA, 400 mg kg-1, i.p.) on extracellular ascorbate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the striatum was examined by differential pulse voltammetry in anaesthetized and freely-moving rats. In rats anaesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg kg-1, i.p.) pentobarbitone (50 mg kg-1, i.p.) or phenobarbitone (60 mg kg-1, i.p.), VPA produced no significant changes in peak 1 (extracellular ascorbate) or peak 2 (extracellular DOPAC), but produced a slight but statistically significant reduction in the height of peak 3 (extracellular 5-HIAA). In contrast, in freely-moving rats the same dose of VPA greatly reduced extracellular ascorbate and DOPAC concentrations, and increased that of 5-HIAA. These results suggest that VPA may reduce the release or turnover of dopamine, and increase that of 5-hydroxytryptamine in conscious rats. Our data also suggest that caution may be required in the interpretation of the effects of VPA in anaesthetized animals, as the results obtained may not always reflect the situation in the absence of anaesthesia. Images Figure 1 PMID:2420401

  9. Site-dependent effects of an acute intensive exercise on extracellular 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Merino, D; Béquet, F; Berthelot, M; Chennaoui, M; Guezennec, C Y

    2001-03-30

    Previous neurochemical studies have reported different pattern of 5-HT release during exercise varying across either exercise conditions or forebrain sites. This in vivo microdialysis study is the first to examine the impact of an acute intensive treadmill running (2 h at 25 m.min(-1), which is close to exhaustion time), on extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in two different brain areas in rats, the ventral hippocampus and the frontal cortex. Hippocampal and cortical 5-HT levels increased significantly after 90 min of exercise and were maximal in the first 30 min of recovery. Thereafter, cortical 5-HT levels followed a rapid and significant decrease when hippocampal levels are still maximal. During exercise, changes in extracellular 5-HIAA levels paralleled 5-HT changes, but showed no difference between the two brain areas during recovery. Thus, an intensive exercise induces a delayed increase in brain 5-HT release but recovery seems to display site-dependent patterns. PMID:11248443

  10. Mechanistic model for the acute effect of fluvoxamine on 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in rat frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Geldof, Marian; Freijer, Jan I; Peletier, Lambertus A; van Beijsterveldt, Ludy; Danhof, Meindert

    2008-03-01

    A mechanistic model is proposed to predict the time course of the concentrations of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in rat frontal cortex following acute administration of SSRIs. In the model, SSRIs increase synaptic 5-HT concentrations by reversible blockade of the SERT in a direct concentration-dependent manner, while the 5-HT response is attenuated by negative feedback via 5-HT autoreceptors. In principle, the model allows for the description of oscillatory patterns in the time course of 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in brain extracellular fluid. The model was applied in a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) investigation on the time course of the microdialysate 5-HT and 5-HIAA response in rat frontal cortex following a 30-min intravenous infusion of 3.7 and 7.3mg/kg fluvoxamine. Directly after administration of fluvoxamine, concentrations of 5-HT were increased to approximately 450-600% of baseline values while 5-HIAA concentrations were decreased. Thereafter 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations gradually returned to baseline values in 6-10h, respectively. The PK/PD analysis revealed that inhibition of 5-HT reuptake was directly related to the fluvoxamine concentration in plasma, with 50% inhibition of 5-HT reuptake occurring at a plasma concentration of 1.1ng/ml (EC50). The levels of 5-HT at which 50% of the inhibition of the 5-HT response was reached (IC50) amounted to 272% of baseline. The model was unable to capture the oscillatory patterns in the individual concentration time curves, which appeared to occur randomly. The proposed mechanistic model is the first step in modeling of complex neurotransmission processes. The model constitutes a useful basis for prediction of the time course of median 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in the frontal cortex in behavioral pharmacology studies in vivo. PMID:18207708

  11. The effect of continuous ELF-MFs on the level of 5-HIAA in the raphe nucleus of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Shiri, Leila; Alaei, Hojjatollah; Naghdi, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of continuous extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) with a frequency of 10 Hz and an intensity of 690–720 μT on the level of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in adult male Wistar rats. A total of 24 adult Wistar male rats were used, and after exposure with an ELF-MF for 15 successive days, all rats in each test were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. Then, they were placed in a stereotaxic frame for surgery and a microdialysis process. Dialysate samples were analyzed to measure the amount of 5-HIAA by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using electrochemical detection. Results showed that ELF-MF exposure for 15 days, 1 h daily, was not effective in altering the level of 5-HIAA. However, ELF-MF exposure for 15 days, 3 h daily, decreased the level of the 5-HIAA in the raphe nucleus. It can be concluded that ELF-MFs affect the serotonergic system and may be used to treat nervous system diseases. This study is an initial step towards helping cure depression using ELF-MFs. PMID:26811259

  12. Low brain serotonin turnover rate (low CSF 5-HIAA) and impulsive violence.

    PubMed Central

    Virkkunen, M; Goldman, D; Nielsen, D A; Linnoila, M

    1995-01-01

    The findings of a series of studies by the authors support the idea that most impulsive offenders who have a tendency to behave aggressively while intoxicated have a low brain serotonin turnover rate. The impulsive violent offenders with the lowest CSF 5-HIAA concentrations have diurnal activity rhythm disturbances, and are also prone to hypoglycemia after an oral glucose challenge. Low CSF 5-HIAA combined with hyoglycemic tendency also predicts future violence under the influence of alcohol. Sons of alcoholic fathers, who have committed violent crimes, have very low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations. Vagal tone does not correlate significantly with CSF 5-HIAA but correlates with enhanced insulin secretion, which is most prominent in subjects with intermittent explosive disorder. A polymorphism of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene is associated with low CSF 5-HIAA and a history of suicide attempts. PMID:7544158

  13. Effects of triadimefon on extracellular dopamine, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA in adult rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, François; Micillino, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-16

    Triadimefon has been shown to inhibit monoamine uptake, bind to the dopamine (DA) transporter, and stimulate dopamine efflux in rat brain tissue, in vitro. To determine whether these changes also occur in the intact animal and to study the reversibility of the effects observed, we used in vivo microdialysis to determine changes in the concentrations of DA, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the striatal dialysates from free moving adult rats after exposure to triadimefon 50, 100 and 200mg/kg, i.p. Triadimefon induced a gradual dose- and time-dependent accumulation of extracellular DA accompanied by a small increase in the HVA and 5-HIAA concentrations. These changes were still present 24h after treatment in the group treated with 200mg/kg and had vanished 48 h after treatment. In contrast to the DA efflux induced by S(+)-amphetamine (2mg/kg, i.p.), that induced by triadimefon was totally inhibited by the infusion of 10(-5)M tetrodotoxin (TTX), a voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker, thus showing that the increase in extracellular DA induced by triadimefon was an action potential-dependent mechanism. GBR 12909 (10mg/kg, i.p.), a dopamine uptake inhibitor, induced a gradual increase in striatal dopamine similar to that induced by triadimefon, whereas the effects on the acid metabolites were not exactly the same. The present results indicate that triadimefon acts in vivo as a DA transporter inhibitor and could also act on the serotoninergic system. PMID:16246478

  14. Spinal reflexes and the concentrations of 5-HIAA, MHPG, and HVA in lumbar cereborspinal fluid after spinal lesions in man.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, P; Verrier, M; Warsh, J J; Price, K S

    1976-01-01

    Descending bulbospinal pathways that employ specific neurotransmitter substances are known to be capable of modulating segmental reflex activity in the experimental animal. To determine whether this might also occur in man correlations have been sought between the activity in spinal reflex pathways and the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3 methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 12 patients with complete or virtually complete spinal lesions. The concentrations of 5-HIAA and MHPG in lumbar CSF ARE REDUCED AFTER COMPLETE OR VIRTUALLY COMPLETE SPINAL LESIONS IN MAN. This may occur within 18 days of the lesion. MHPG concentrations appear to be inversely related to the level of the lesion. The HVA concentration in lumbar CSF is reduced when there is obstruction of the CSF pathways. No relationship could be demonstrated between the concentrations of 5-HIAA or MHPG in lumbar CSF and the activity in the spinal monosynaptic pathway (estimated from the proportion of the motoneurone pool activated by the Achilles tendon reflex or H reflex) or the activity of a spinal inhibitory mechanism (estimated by the degree of vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex). Patients with a tonic vibration reflex (TVR) tended to have higher MHPG levels. There appeared to be an association between low CSF HVA and enhanced vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex in the nine patients whose spinal lesions were complete. PMID:1011029

  15. Aggression and personality: association with amino acids and monoamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Møller, S E; Mortensen, E L; Breum, L; Alling, C; Larsen, O G; Bøge-Rasmussen, T; Jensen, C; Bennicke, K

    1996-03-01

    Associations in 52 normal individuals were examined between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine, and concentrations of monoamine metabolites in the CSF, and scores on an aggression questionnaire, the Kinsey Institute Reaction List II, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. There was a significantly positive correlation between CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels and extroverted aggression scores, and a significantly negative correlation between CSF 5-HIAA levels and introverted aggression scores. Males showed higher plasma Trp concentrations than females, and significantly positive correlations between plasma Trp concentrations and scores on extroverted aggression and the Eysenck E scale. Males, furthermore, showed a significantly negative correlation between CSF Trp levels and scores on the Eysenck P scale, and a significantly positive correlation between concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol in CSF and scores on moral aggression. These results suggest that central serotonin influences aggression in normal individuals through effects on personality. PMID:8685288

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency Does Not Alter the Effects of Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment on Central Serotonin Turnover or Behavior in the Forced Swim Test in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lipton, Jack W.

    2013-01-01

    While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90), and one half of each group were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) for 30 d (P60-P90) prior to testing. In adulthood (P90), regional brain serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) concentrations, presynaptic markers of 5-HT neurotransmission, behavioral responses in the forced swim test (FST), and plasma FLX and norfluoxetine (NFLX) concentrations were investigated. Peri-adolescent n-3 insufficiency led to significant reductions in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (−25%, p≤0.0001) and DEF+FLX (−28%, p≤0.0001) rats. Untreated DEF rats exhibited significantly lower regional 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios compared with untreated CON rats, but exhibited similar behavioral responses in the FST. In both CON and DEF rats, chronic FLX treatment similarly and significantly decreased 5-HIAA concentrations and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, brainstem tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression, and immobility in the FST. While the FLX-induced reduction in 5-HIAA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex was significantly blunted in DEF rats, the reduction in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was similar to CON rats. Although plasma FLX and NFLX levels were not significantly different in DEF and CON rats, the NFLX/FLX ratio was significantly lower in DEF+FLX rats. These preclinical data demonstrate that n-3 fatty acid deficiency does not significantly reduce the effects of chronic

  17. Impairments in working memory associated with naturalistic dieting in women: no relationship between task performance and urinary 5-HIAA levels.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael W; Jones, A David; Smith, Ian D; Cobain, Mark R; Williams, J Mark G; Healy, Helen; Cowen, Philip J; Powell, Jonathan; Durlach, Paula J

    2003-04-01

    The present study investigated the question of whether the previously observed impairments of working memory characteristic of dieting to lose weight can be explained in terms of preoccupying cognitions relating to body shape or to alterations in serotonergic function resulting from a low dietary intake of tryptophan. The population comprised female non-dieting, lower restrained eaters (N=23), non-dieting higher restrained eaters (N=11) and current dieters (N=19). Each participant completed three tasks, each of which selectively loaded on to a different sub-component of working memory. The tasks comprised the Tower of London task, a letter string recall task and a mental rotation task. In addition, all participants completed self-report measures of body shape concern and affective state. Serotonin turnover was assessed by means of 24 h urine sample collection for each participant on their day of testing. This was analysed (via HPLC) for levels of the main serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA.The results of the present study broadly replicated previous findings of a Central Executive and Phonological Loop (but not Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad) deficit in those subjects who reported themselves to be currently dieting. Tower of London task performance also significantly correlated with self-reported feelings of fatness and body shape disparagement. There were no group differences in 5-HIAA levels nor did 5-HIAA levels correlate with task performance. However, there was a significant negative correlation between 5-HIAA levels and self-reported depression. These results support the hypothesis that the variables mediating this deficit are preoccupying cognitions concerning body shape. They do not support the hypothesis that the serotonergic function of dieters is compromised, although this conclusion is tentative. PMID:12781164

  18. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-07-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentrations increased only modestly and briefly after an oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of oral L-tryptophan, reflecting the absorptive defect. An oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of tryptophan ethyl ester resulted in a prompt increase in serum tryptophan to a peak of 555 microM. Sustained treatment with 20 mg/kg q6h resulted in normalization of serum (66 +/- 15 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan concentrations (mean = 2.3 microM). Cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA increased to more normal concentrations (mean = 33 ng/ml). No toxicity was observed over an 8-mo period of treatment, chronic diarrhea resolved, and body weight, which had remained unchanged for 7 mo before ester therapy, increased by approximately 26%. We concluded that tryptophan ethyl ester is effective at circumventing defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport and may be useful in the treatment of Hartnup disease. PMID:2472426

  19. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-01-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentrations increased only modestly and briefly after an oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of oral L-tryptophan, reflecting the absorptive defect. An oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of tryptophan ethyl ester resulted in a prompt increase in serum tryptophan to a peak of 555 microM. Sustained treatment with 20 mg/kg q6h resulted in normalization of serum (66 +/- 15 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan concentrations (mean = 2.3 microM). Cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA increased to more normal concentrations (mean = 33 ng/ml). No toxicity was observed over an 8-mo period of treatment, chronic diarrhea resolved, and body weight, which had remained unchanged for 7 mo before ester therapy, increased by approximately 26%. We concluded that tryptophan ethyl ester is effective at circumventing defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport and may be useful in the treatment of Hartnup disease. PMID:2472426

  20. Alteration of brain levels of neurotransmitters and amino acids in male F344 rats induced by three-week repeated inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane.

    PubMed

    Suda, Megumi; Honma, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Muneyuki; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of 1-bromopropane (1BP) on brain neuroactive substances of rats to determine the extent of its toxicity to the central nervous system (CNS). We measured the changes in neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, catecholamine, serotonin and amino acids) and their metabolites or precursors in eight brain regions after inhalation exposure to 1BP at 50 to 1,000 ppm for 8 h per day for 7 d per week for 3 wk. Rats were sacrificed at 2 h (Case 1), or at 19 h (Case 2) after the end of exposure. In Case 1, the level of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) was lowered in some brain regions by 1BP exposure. The decrease of 5HIAA in the frontal cortex was statistically significant at 50 ppm 1BP exposure. In Case 2, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and taurine were decreased in many brain regions of exposed rats, and a significant decrease of taurine in the midbrain occurred at 50 ppm 1BP exposure. In both cases of 2-h and 19-h intervals from the end of exposure to sacrifice, aspartate and glutamine levels were elevated in many brain regions, but the acetylcholine level did not change in any brain region. Three-week repeated exposure to 1BP produced significantly changes in amino acid contents of rat brains, particularly at 1,000 ppm. PMID:18716383

  1. 5-HIAA Test

    MedlinePlus

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  2. Adolescent Males, Impulsive/Aggressive Behavior, and Alcohol Abuse: Biological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matykiewicz, Lynn; La Grange, Linda; Reyes, Edward; Vance, Peter; Wang, Mu

    1997-01-01

    Compared adjudicated male adolescents (N=37) to middle school students on measures of glucose nadir and urinary 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), a serotonin metabolite. Results show that adjudicated youth had significantly lower levels of both substances, supporting previous studies linking low glucose and 5-HIAA levels to impulsivity,…

  3. IDRD2 TaqIA polymorphism is associated with urinary homovanillic acid levels in a sample of Spanish male alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Ponce, G; Hoenicka, J; Rodríguez-Jiménez, R; Gozalo, A; Jimenéz, M; Monasor, R; Aragüés, M; Rubio, G; Jiménez-Arriero, M A; Ramos, J A; Palomo, T

    2004-01-01

    The TaqIA1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene D2 (DRD2) has been associated with alcoholism, as well as with other addictive behaviours. The exact nature of how the presence of this allele can be a vulnerability factor in the development of alcoholism remains unclear. In this study we found that the presence in the DRD2 genotype of the TaqIA1 allele in Spanish alcoholics is associated with higher levels of urine homovanillic acid (HVA) when compared to patients homozygous for the TaqIA2 allele. A sample of 142 Spanish male alcoholic patients was split into 2 groups on the basis of the presence or absence of the A1 allele in their genotype. The urine sample was analyzed by high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC), and the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and vanilylmandelic acid (VMA) was determined. We found a statistical difference in the concentration of HVA between the groups, that suggests this polymorphism could be related to the variance of urine HVA levels. PMID:15545020

  4. Evidence that the branched-chain amino acid L-valine prevents exercise-induced release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Merino, D; Béquet, F; Berthelot, M; Riverain, S; Chennaoui, M; Guezennec, C Y

    2001-07-01

    The branched-chain amino acid L-valine competes with tryptophan for transport into the brain and has previously been shown to decrease brain 5-HT synthesis. The purpose of this study was to assess, using a combined venous catheterization and in vivo microdialysis method, the effect of pre-exercise L-valine administration on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism in the ventral hippocampus of rats submitted to an acute intensive treadmill running (120 min at 25 m x min(-1) followed by 150 min of recovery). The presented results include measurement of extracellular tryptophan (TRP), the 5-HT precursor, and extracellular 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the 5-HT metabolite. The data clearly demonstrate that exercise induces 5-HT release in the rat hippocampus: in control group, hippocampal 5-HT levels increase from 123.7 +/- 6.4% at the end of exercise to 133.9 +/- 6.4% after 60 min of recovery. Moreover, two hours of intensive running induced significant increases both in extracellular TRP levels (from 120 min of exercise to 30 min of recovery) and 5-HIAA levels (from 90 min of exercise to 90 min of recovery). Pre-exercise administration of L-valine prevents significantly the exercise-induced 5-HT release: 5-HT levels are maintained to baseline during exercise and recovery. With regard to the competitive effect of L-valine with TRP, we could observe a treatment-induced decrease in brain TRP levels (from 120 min of exercise to the end of recovery). Besides, L-valine does not prevent exercise-induced increase in 5-HIAA levels. The present study evidences that an acute intensive exercise stimulates 5-HT metabolism in the rat hippocampus, and that a pre-exercise administration of L-valine prevents, via a limiting effect on 5-HT synthesis, exercise-induced 5-HT release. This study provides some anwers to previous human and animal investigations, showing physiological and psychological benefits of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on performance. PMID:11510866

  5. Increased release of brain serotonin reduces vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehnert, Hendrik; Lombardi, Federico; Raeder, Ernst A.; Lorenzo, Antonio V.; Verrier, Richard L.; Lown, Bernard; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of administering the serotonin precursor 5-l-hydroxytryptophan, in conjunction with a monamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine and a l-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa, on neurochemical changes in the concentrations of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid of the cat were investigated. Results showed that this drug regimen led to increases of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid by 330 and 830 percent, respectively. Concomitantly, the threshold of ventricular fibrillation was found to be elevated by 42 percent and the effective refractory period was prolonged by 7 percent; the efferent sympathetic neural activity was suppressed in the normal heart. The results indicate that the enhancement of central serotoninergic neurotransmission can reduce the susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation mediated through a decline in sympathetic neural traffic to the heart.

  6. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in dystimic/depressed, adult obese women: what correlations to hepatic steatosis?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Polichetti, G; Capone, D

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of serotonin at CNS level is influenced by diet. Moreover, insulin resistance is associated with lower serotonin levels. Visceral obesity, strictly linked to hepatic steatosis is specifically associated with mild to severe somatic affective-depressive symptom clusters. Previous data support the view that depression involves serotonergic systems, reflecting low levels of urinary 5- hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was evaluated in 76 dystimic/depressed, obese/overweight females, divided into two groups, i.e., on a hyper-caloric diet, associated with a life style characterized by leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB, 35 women), or on a normo-caloric diet, assisted by program-based strategies aimed at promoting physical activity participation (PAP, 41 women). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out to score the severity of dystimia/depression. Anthropometric measures, metabolic indices, severity of hepatic steatosis at sonography and HOMA were studied. Urinary levels of 5-HIAA in controls and PAP groups were comparable with a great overlap, while in the LTSB group the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was significantly reduced in respect to that of the PAP group and obviously compared to that of the control group, 3.4±1.4 mg/L versus 6.2±2.7 mg/L and 6.4±2.6 mg/L, respectively, ANOVA test, P= 0.001. Among metabolic indices, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid were not able to predict urinary concentrations of 5-HIAA, which were not associated with hepatic steatosis; vice versa, ferritin levels, and mainly HOMA values, were independent predictors of the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA (β=0.235 and 0.45, respectively). Dystimia/depression severity was negatively predicted by urinary 5-HIAA levels in the sense that the highest BDI values were forecast by the lowest values of urinary 5-HIAA (β= -0.72).The importance of measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA in follow-ups could rely

  7. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M

    1992-10-01

    Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390

  8. Glucose utilization in the medial prefrontal cortex correlates with serotonin turnover rate and clinical depression in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Wendol; Reimold, Matthias; Kerich, Michael; Hommer, Dan; Bauer, Michael; Heinz, Andreas

    2004-12-30

    We measured the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), regional cerebral glucose uptake (rCMRglc) as assessed with positron emission tomography in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and severity of clinical depression (Beck's Depression Inventory, BDI) in detoxified male alcoholics and age-matched healthy men. In alcoholics, the severity of clinical depression was negatively correlated with rCMRglc in the medial PFC and positively with CSF 5-HIAA concentrations. A voxel-based analysis showed that the strongest correlation between CSF 5-HIAA levels and rCMRglc was found in alcoholics in the left orbitofrontal and medial PFC (BA10 and BA11); no significant correlations were observed among healthy control subjects. This pilot study indicates that a dysfunction of medial PFC may interact with central serotonin turnover and negative mood states during early abstinence. PMID:15664793

  9. Comparison of hormone and electrolyte circadian rhythms in male and female humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. E.; Reilly, T.

    1977-01-01

    Circadian rhythm characteristics in healthy male and female humans were studied at 4-hour intervals for urine volume, cortisol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Na, K, Na/K ratios in the urine, as well as plasma cortisol. While plasma and urinary cortisol rhythms were very similar in both sexes, the described rhythms in urine volume, electrolyte, and 5-HIAA excretion differ for the two sexes. The results suggest that sex differences exist in the circadian patterns of important hormone and metabolic functions and that the internal synchrony of circadian rhythms differs for the two sexes. The results seem to indicate that the rhythmical secretion of cortisol does not account for the pattern of Na and K excretion.

  10. Age and Gender-Related Changes in Biogenic Amine Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Children.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Krystyna; Rokicki, Dariusz; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Mierzewska, Hanna; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Pronicka, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of cerebrospinal biogenic amines (dopamine and serotonin)are an important tool in clinical research and diagnosis of children with neurotransmitter disorders. In this article we focused on finding relationships between the concentration of biogenic amine metabolites, age, and gender. We analyzed 148 samples from children with drug resistant seizures of unknown etiology and children with mild stable encephalopathy aged 0-18 years. A normal profile of biogenic amineswas found in 107 children and those children were enrolled to the study group. The CSF samples were analyzed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. The concentrations of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, were high at birth, gradually decreasing afterward until the 18 years of age. Nevertheless, the HVA/5-HIAA ratio did not vary with age, except in the children below 1 year of age. In the youngest group we observed a strong relationship between the HVA/5-HIAA ratio and age (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). There were no statistical differences in the level of both dopamine and serotonin metabolites between boys and girls, although a tread toward lower HVA and 5-HIAA in the boys was noticeable. Significant inter-gender differences in the level of HVA and 5-HIAA were noted only in the age-group of 1-4 years, with 5-HIAA being higher in the girls than boys (p = 0.004). In conclusion, the study revealed that the concentration of biogenic amine metabolites is age and sex dependent. PMID:26453071

  11. Opposing effects of ketamine and acetyl L-carnitine on the serotonergic system of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Bonnie L.; Dumas, Melanie; Paule, Merle G.; Ali, Syed F.; Kanungo, Jyotshna

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Studies show that ketamine is neurotoxic in developing mammals and zebrafish. In both mammals and zebrafish, acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR) has been shown to be protective against ketamine toxicity. Ketamine is known to modulate the serotonergic system in mammals. Here, we measured the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the embryos exposed to ketamine in the presence and absence of ALCAR. Ketamine, at lower doses, did not produce significant changes in the 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels in 3 dpf (day post-fertilization) embryos. However, 2 mM ketamine (internal embryo exposure levels comparable to human anesthetic plasma concentration) significantly reduced 5-HT level, and 5-HIAA was not detectable indicating that 5-HT metabolism was abolished. In the presence or absence of 2 mM ketamine, ALCAR by itself did not significantly alter 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels compared to the control. Ratios of metabolite/5-HT indicated that 2 mM ketamine inhibited 5-HT metabolism to 5-HIAA whereas lower doses (0.1–0.3 mM) of ketamine did not have any effect. ALCAR reversed the effects of 2 mM ketamine not only by restoring 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels but also 5-HT turnover rate to control levels. Whole mount immunohistochemical studies showed that 2 mM ketamine reduced the serotonergic area in the brain whereas ALCAR expanded it with increased axonal sprouting and branching. These results indicate that ketamine and ALCAR have opposing effects on the zebrafish serotonergic system. PMID:26365406

  12. Serotonin release in the subfornical organ area induced by sodium and water intake in the rat.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Tanaka, Junichi

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the subfornical organ (SFO) is involved in the modulation of sodium intake in rats. To clarify whether serotonergic mechanisms in the SFO participate in the modulatory system, the present study was carried out to examine the effects of sodium and water intake on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) release in the subfornical organ (SFO) in freely moving rats. The ingestion of 0.3M NaCl and water was induced by subcutaneous injections of the diuretic furosemide (FURO, 10mg/kg) and the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (CAP, 5mg/kg), and extracellular concentrations of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the region of the SFO were measured using intracerebral microdialysis techniques. The combined treatment with FURO and CAP elicited significant decreases in the 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels in the SFO area. The 0.3M NaCl and water intake caused by the treatment significantly enhanced the 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in the SFO area compared with the basal levels. No significant changes in the 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels caused by either the FURO and CAP treatment or water and NaCl intake were observed in the sites away from the SFO. These results suggest that the serotonergic mechanism in the SFO may be important for the control of sodium appetite and thirst. PMID:27117815

  13. Monoamine acid metabolites and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in normal pressure hydrocephalus: preliminary results.

    PubMed Central

    Maira, G; Bareggi, S R; Di Rocco, C; Calderini, G; Morselli, P L

    1975-01-01

    Lumbar and ventricular CSF concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid (5-HIAA) have been determined in 13 patients admitted to hospital for suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus. Low values of HVA in lumbar CSF were found in all patients with reduced CSF absorption and CSF flow inversion. The HVA lumbar concentration remained low after shunt procedure; it increased if obstruction of the shunt occurred. The ventricular CSF concentration of HVA was normal before surgery; it became higher, in two cases, after surgery. No important variations were found in the lumbar and ventricular CSF concentration of 5-HIAA. The possible mechanisms and diagnostic value of these findings are discussed. PMID:1151392

  14. GABAergic modulation of serotonin release in the rat subfornical organ area.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Nomura, Masahiko; Tanaka, Junichi

    2016-09-01

    The present study was carried out to examine whether γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor mechanisms are involved in the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the subfornical organ (SFO) using intracerebral microdialysis techniques. Perfusion with the GABA receptor antagonists as well as agonists was performed in the region of the SFO through a microdialysis probe and extracellular concentrations of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured in freely moving rats. Perfusion with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (10 and 50μM), but not the GABAB receptor antagonist phaclofen (10 and 50μM), increased dialysate 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in the SFO area, suggesting that the GABAergic system may tonically inhibit the 5-HT release in the SFO area through GABAA receptors. Higher perfusion with the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (50μM) or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (250μM) decreased extracellular levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the SFO area. Nonhypotensive hypovolemia induced by subcutaneous injection of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 30%, 5ml) significantly enhanced the 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in the SFO area. The enhanced 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels elicited the PEG treatment were reduced by perfusion with muscimol (10μM), but not by baclofen (50μM). These results show the involvement of both GABAA and GABAB receptors in the modulation of the 5-HT release in the SFO area, and imply that the GABAA receptor mechanism may be importance for the serotonergic regulatory system of body fluid balance. PMID:27453060

  15. Increased plasma serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid concentrations are associated with impaired systolic and late diastolic forward flows during cardiac cycle and elevated resistive index at popliteal artery and renal insufficiency in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Jun; Suzuki, Eiji; Tajima, Yoshitaka; Takami, Kazuhisa; Horikawa, Yukio; Takeda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Although lower extremity arterial disease is frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus, the association of circulating biomarkers with flow components during the cardiac cycle in lower-leg arteries has yet to be fully elucidated. We enrolled 165 type 2 diabetic patients with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI 1.0-1.4), comprising 106 normoalbuminuric and 59 microalbuminuric patients, and 40 age-matched nondiabetic subjects consecutively admitted to our hospital. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level and plasma von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF) and vasoconstrictor serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were measured. An automatic device was used to measure ABI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Flow components during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume, and resistive index at popliteal artery were evaluated using gated magnetic resonance imaging. Although estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), early diastolic flow reversal, heart rate, and ABI were similar between the groups, diabetic patients had higher log hsCRP (p<0.001), VWF (p<0.001), 5-HIAA (p=0.002), resistive index (p<0.001) and baPWV (p<0.001) and lower systolic (p=0.026) and late diastolic (p<0.001) forward flows and total flow volume (p<0.001) than nondiabetic subjects. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that 5-HIAA in microalbuminuric patients showed higher associations with systolic and late diastolic forward flows during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume and resistive index at popliteal artery, and eGFR compared to normoalbuminuric patients. In microalbuminuric patients, 5-HIAA was a significant independent determinant among these factors. Thus, increased plasma 5-HIAA levels are involved in the pathogenesis of impaired blood flow in lower extremities and renal insufficiency in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. PMID:26567921

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite concentrations as intermediate phenotypes between glutamate-related genes and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Söderman, Erik; Axelsson, Tomas; Sedvall, Göran C; Terenius, Lars; Agartz, Ingrid; Jönsson, Erik G

    2015-09-30

    Glutamate-related genes have been associated with schizophrenia, but the results have been ambiguous and difficult to replicate. Homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are the major degradation products of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, respectively, and their concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), mainly HVA, have been associated with schizophrenia. In the present study, we hypothesized that CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis. To test this hypothesis, we searched for association between 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ten genes shown to be directly or indirectly implicated in glutamate transmission and CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations in 74 patients with psychotic disease. Thirty-eight nominally significant associations were found. Further analyses in 111 healthy controls showed that 87% of the nominal associations were restricted to the patients with psychosis. Some of the psychosis-only-associated SNPs found in the d-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) and the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) genes have previously been reported to be associated with schizophrenia. The present results suggest that CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations may represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis. PMID:26142836

  17. Naloxone affects both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine. Application of direct correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Shibanoki, S; Kubo, T; Kogure, M; Ishikawa, K

    1991-08-01

    Direct correlation analyses between the distribution of morphine (pharmacokinetics) and the biochemical effects of the drug on monoamine metabolism (pharmacodynamics) are reported for dissected regions of the brain. Determinations of morphine and monoamine-related substances were carried out in the same sample by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Naloxone, an antagonist of morphine, significantly shortened the biological half lives of morphine in both the blood and brain tissue. Such pharmacokinetic behavior appeared to be related to the contractive effect of morphine on the bile duct, and naloxone facilitated the excretion of morphine via this route. In the striatum, significant correlations were observed between the concentrations of the metabolites of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), and morphine with a shift to the right in the concentration-response curve on naloxone treatment indicating competitive antagonism. While significant correlations were also observed in this brain region for the metabolites of noradrenaline, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MOPEG), and 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a shift to the right did not occur. Significant correlations and shifts were noted for DOPAC, HVA and MOPEG in the hypothalamus. However, no correlation was found between the concentrations of 5-HIAA and morphine in this region. In other regions such as the hippocampus and medulla oblongata, similar correlations and shifts were not observed for MOPEG and 5-HIAA or for DOPAC and HVA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1714733

  18. Evidence for a relationship between recovery from anaesthesia, modified state of consciousness and striatal voltammetric levels of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Crespi, F; Möbius, C; Keane, P

    1992-01-01

    The effects of various procedures which modify consciousness were studied on the extracellular concentration of ascorbic acid (AA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA) in rat striatum, as measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with electrically pretreated carbon fibre micro-electrodes (CFE). Recovery from anaesthesia (produced by 500 mg/kg i.p. chloral hydrate) was accompanied by a six-fold increase in extracellular striatal AA levels, while negligible changes in DOPAC and 5HIAA occurred. Following complete recovery from anaesthesia, the animals were re-injected with the same dose of anaesthetic which specifically reduced AA levels by 90% (DOPAC levels were unchanged and 5HIAA concentrations slightly reduced). In conscious rats, the neuroleptic haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p., n = 5) and the minor tranquillizer diazepam (10 mg/kg i.p., n = 5), both considered as behaviourally depressant drugs, reduced extracellular AA levels to 50% of controls. The psychomotor stimulant D-amphetamine (1 mg/kg i.p., n = 5) increased AA levels by 90% over controls. Stress activation of animals (handling for 10 min, n = 10) also produced a transient, significant increase (180% of control values) in this striatal parameter. Taken together with previous reports, our results suggest a close relationship between the state of consciousness and extracellular AA levels in the rat striatum and that this relationship appears to be more correlated to AA as no such clear interdependence was noted between the levels of consciousness and extracellular striatal DOPAC or 5HIAA. PMID:1381092

  19. Polyethylenimine carbon nanotube fiber electrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Zestos, Alexander G; Jacobs, Christopher B; Trikantzopoulos, Elefterios; Ross, Ashley E; Venton, B Jill

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based microelectrodes have been investigated as alternatives to carbon-fiber microelectrodes for the detection of neurotransmitters because they are sensitive, exhibit fast electron transfer kinetics, and are more resistant to surface fouling. Wet spinning CNTs into fibers using a coagulating polymer produces a thin, uniform fiber that can be fabricated into an electrode. CNT fibers formed in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been used as microelectrodes to detect dopamine, serotonin, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we characterize microelectrodes with CNT fibers made in polyethylenimine (PEI), which have much higher conductivity than PVA-CNT fibers. PEI-CNT fibers have lower overpotentials and higher sensitivities than PVA-CNT fiber microelectrodes, with a limit of detection of 5 nM for dopamine. The currents for dopamine were adsorption controlled at PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes, independent of scan repetition frequency, and stable for over 10 h. PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes were resistant to surface fouling by serotonin and the metabolite interferant 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No change in sensitivity was observed for detection of serotonin after 30 flow injection experiments or after 2 h in 5-HIAA for PEI-CNT electrodes. The antifouling properties were maintained in brain slices when serotonin was exogenously applied multiple times or after bathing the slice in 5-HIAA. Thus, PEI-CNT fiber electrodes could be useful for the in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals. PMID:25117550

  20. SEROTONIN, SOCIAL STATUS AND SEX CHANGE IN THE BLUEBANDED GOBY LYTHRYPNUS DALLI

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Varenka; Carpenter, Russ E.; Summers, Cliff H.; Earley, Ryan L.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    In a variety of vertebrates, highly aggressive individuals tend to have high social status and low serotonergic function. In the sex changing fish Lythrypnus dalli, serotonin (5-HT) may be involved as a mediator between the social environment and the reproductive system because social status is a critical cue in regulating sex change. Subordination inhibits sex change in L. dalli, and it is associated with higher serotonergic activity in other species. We tested the hypothesis that high serotonergic activity has an inhibitory effect on sex change. In a social situation permissive to sex change, we administered to the dominant female implants containing the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). In a social situation not conducive to sex change, we administered either the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) or the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist p-MPPI. After three weeks we used HPLC to measure brain levels of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). We also performed PCPA, p-MPPI and fluoxetine injections in size-matched pairs of females to assess its effect on dominance status. Males and newly sex changed fish showed a trend for higher levels of 5-HIAA and 5-HT/5-HIAA ratio than females. The different implants treatments did not affect the probability of sex change. Interestingly, this species does not seem to fit the pattern seen in other vertebrates where dominant individuals have lower serotonergic activity than subordinates. PMID:19345236

  1. PKC-alpha mediated alterations of indoleamine contents in diabetic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, R; Sheeladevi, R; Suthanthirarajan, N

    2004-08-30

    We previously have reported that acute or chronic diabetes in animals resulted in altered neurotransmitter levels. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in discrete areas of brain viz. striatum (ST), hippocampus (HC), hypothalamus (HT), midbrain (MB), pons medulla (PM), cerebellum (CB) and cerebral cortex (CCX) of control, untreated diabetic and insulin treated diabetic rats after 30 days. Alloxan (45 mg/kg) diabetic untreated rats, which showed hyperglycemia (>250 mg%), revealed significant increases of 5-HT level in ST, MB, PM, CB and CCX and the 5-HIAA level found to be increased significantly in ST, HC and MB. Whereas the insulin treated rats, which was maintained under normal glucose level (80-110 mg%), showed no significant changes in any of the areas studied. The expressions of PKC-alpha studied by immunoblotting also showed significant changes in ST, HC, MB, PM, CB and CCX that is identical to the changes of both 5-HT and 5-HIAA under similar condition, suggesting that the PKC-alpha may regulate the synthesis and release of indoleamines in diabetic animals. PMID:15342107

  2. Polyethylenimine Carbon Nanotube Fiber Electrodes for Enhanced Detection of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based microelectrodes have been investigated as alternatives to carbon-fiber microelectrodes for the detection of neurotransmitters because they are sensitive, exhibit fast electron transfer kinetics, and are more resistant to surface fouling. Wet spinning CNTs into fibers using a coagulating polymer produces a thin, uniform fiber that can be fabricated into an electrode. CNT fibers formed in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been used as microelectrodes to detect dopamine, serotonin, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we characterize microelectrodes with CNT fibers made in polyethylenimine (PEI), which have much higher conductivity than PVA-CNT fibers. PEI-CNT fibers have lower overpotentials and higher sensitivities than PVA-CNT fiber microelectrodes, with a limit of detection of 5 nM for dopamine. The currents for dopamine were adsorption controlled at PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes, independent of scan repetition frequency, and stable for over 10 h. PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes were resistant to surface fouling by serotonin and the metabolite interferant 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No change in sensitivity was observed for detection of serotonin after 30 flow injection experiments or after 2 h in 5-HIAA for PEI-CNT electrodes. The antifouling properties were maintained in brain slices when serotonin was exogenously applied multiple times or after bathing the slice in 5-HIAA. Thus, PEI-CNT fiber electrodes could be useful for the in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals. PMID:25117550

  3. Chronic exposure of primates to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields: II. Neurochemical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Seegal, R.F.; Wolpaw, J.R.; Dowman, R.

    1989-01-01

    We exposed Macaca nemestrina (pig-tailed macaques) to electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields ranging in intensity from 3 kV/m and 0.1 G to 30 kV/m and 0.9 G for three 21-day (d) periods. Experimental animals were exposed to sham E and B fields for two 21-d periods, one prior to and one following actual exposure to E and B fields, resulting in a total of five 21-d periods. Control animals were exposed to sham E and B fields for the entire 105-d interval. At the end of each 21-d period cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained by lumbar puncture and analyzed for concentrations of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), metabolites of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters, respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Results are based on an examination of six experimental and four control animals. Exposure to E and B fields at all strengths was associated with a significant decline in CSF concentrations of both HVA and 5-HIAA when statistical comparisons were made against values obtained at the end of the preexposure interval. However, HVA returned to preexposure levels during the postexposure period, while 5-HIAA did not. No significant change in the concentrations of HVA or 5-HIAA was noted in the control animals. These results strongly suggest that exposure of the nonhuman primate to E and B fields can significantly affect specific biochemical estimates of nervous system function. These effects may involve alterations either in neuronal activity or in the activity of enzymes that catabolize the neurotransmitters.

  4. Chromogranin A as Serum Marker for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Single Center Experience and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nölting, Svenja; Kuttner, Axel; Lauseker, Michael; Vogeser, Michael; Haug, Alexander; Herrmann, Karin A.; Hoffmann, Johannes N.; Spitzweg, Christine; Göke, Burkhard; Auernhammer, Christoph J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical sensitivities of the tumor markers chromogranin A (CgA), urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the GastroEnteroPancreatic-(GEP-) system depending on tumor primary location and metastatic spread. In a retrospective single-center series, sensitivities were evaluated in serum samples from 110 patients with midgut (n = 62) and pancreatic (n = 48) NETs. CgA levels were analyzed by a commercially-available immunoradiometric assay (CIS-bio) during routine follow-up in the years 2000–2009. CgA showed a higher sensitivity for midgut (68%) than pancreatic (54%) NETs. A higher CgA sensitivity and significantly higher median CgA values were found in patients with liver metastases than in those without, and in patients with hepatic and additionally extra-hepatic metastases than in those with hepatic and nodal metastases alone, respectively. We found an overall sensitivity for elevated 5HIAA excretion of 69% for midgut NETs and a significant correlation between median CgA and 5-HIAA values. The sensitivity of AP and the correlations of AP/CgA-data-pairs were low in both midgut and pancreatic NETs, although highest for metastatic pancreatic NETs. The sensitivity of CgA measurement depends on the NET primary location and spread of disease. 5-HIAA and CgA showed comparable sensitivity in midgut NETs, while AP does not seem to be useful as a tumor marker in GEP-NETs. PMID:24213232

  5. Study of tryptophan metabolism via serotonin in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with noncommunicating hydrocephalus using a new endoscopic technique.

    PubMed

    Comai, Stefano; Longatti, Pierluigi; Perin, Alessandro; Bertazzo, Antonella; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Costa, Carlo V L; Allegri, Graziella

    2006-08-15

    By a recent minimally invasive neuroendoscopic technique, the cerebral ventricles have been reached in a quick, reliable, and harmless way, making possible the study of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the lateral ventricles and, above all, the CSF adjacent to the walls of the third ventricle. Tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured in CSF by HPLC equipment. Twenty-six patients affected with noncommunicating hydrocephalus were enrolled in the study and, as controls, 28 subjects not suffering from any neurological disease. The concentrations of tryptophan were higher in right ventricular CSF than in lumbar CSF (P < 0.01). 5-HT was detectable in the CSF of the right ventricle of hydrocephalic patients. 5-HIAA was higher in right ventricular CSF than in cisternal and lumbar CSF (P < 0.01), both in controls and in hydrocephalic patients. However, there was a higher concentration of 5-HIAA in right ventricular (P < 0.05) and cisternal (P < 0.01) CSF in hydrocephalic patients in comparison with controls. In the CSF samples withdrawn during neuroendoscopy, 5-HT presented the highest concentrations in the pineal recess. The highest amounts of 5-HIAA were found in the choroid plexus, third and right ventricles, pituitary recess, and aqueduct, and the lowest in pineal recess, subarachnoid space, infundibulum, and interpeduncolar cistern. These results provide new insight into the fate of tryptophan and its metabolites via serotonin in the CSF and suggest the feasibility of the new neuroendoscopic technique for brain metabolic studies. PMID:16721766

  6. Uptake and metabolism of indole compounds by the goldfish pineal organ

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    Indole metabolism was studied in the pineal organ of the goldfish by radioautography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The rate of uptake of tritiated serotonin was rapid in vitro with dense labeling over the photoreceptor cells. Tritiated tryptophan was taken up at a slower rate and the label was distributed evenly over the epithelium. Continual light caused a reduction in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) compared to groups exposed to constant darkness both in vivo and in explants, suggesting that these effects are not derived from photoreceptors outside the pineal organ. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that indole metabolism is functionally linked to phototransduction events in the pineal organ of lower vertebrates.

  7. Central action of glaucine in rodents.

    PubMed

    Jagiełło-Wójtowicz, E; Kleinrok, Z; Jusiak, L; Matuszek, B; Daniłoś, J; Chodakowska, A

    1994-01-01

    It was found that glaucine (7, 14 and 28 mg/kg ip) decreased locomotor activity, did not affect the body temperature and potentiated the amphetamine and apomorphine stereotypy but did not affect the amphetamine hypermotility. Besides, glaucine antagonized haloperidol-induced catalepsy of the rats. Glaucine was without analgesic, anticonvulsant, antianxiety and antidepressive effects in mice. This alkaloid in doses of 14 and 28mg/kg ip antagonized the head twitch response induced by 5-HTP in the rats. Further, glaucine decreased the hyperthermia induced by m-CPP in rats kept at high ambient temperature. It was found that glaucine depressed the noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels in the whole brain of mice. Besides, this alkaloid significantly decreased the brain level of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), without changing the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentration. PMID:7863789

  8. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J.A.; Rudeen, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity.

  9. Evaluation of toluene exposure via drinking water on levels of regional brain biogenic monoamines and their metabolites in CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, G.C.; Sharma, R.P.; Parker, R.D.; Coulombe, R.A. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    Toluene, a potentially neurotoxic substance, is found in trace amounts in groundwater. Adult male CD-1 mice were continuously fed drinking water ad libitum containing 0, 17, 80, and 405 mg/liter toluene. After a 28-day treatment, animals were tested for endogenous levels of the biogenic monoamines norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) and their respective metabolites, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in six discrete brain regions. The maximum toluene-induced increases of biogenic amines and their metabolites generally occurred at a toluene concentration of 80 mg/liter. In the hypothalamus, a major NE-containing compartment, the concentrations of NE significantly increased by 51, 63, and 34% in groups dosed with 17, 80, and 405 mg/liter, respectively. Significant increases of NE were also observed in the medulla oblongata and midbrain. Concomitantly, concentrations of VMA increased in various brain regions. Concentrations of DA were significantly higher in the corpus striatum and hypothalamus. Alterations in levels of DA metabolites, DOPAC and HVA, were marginal. Toluene significantly increased concentrations of 5-HT in all dissected brain regions, except cerebellum, and increased the 5-HIAA levels in the hypothalamus, corpus striatum, and cerebral cortex.

  10. Effects of acute handling stress on cerebral monoaminergic neurotransmitters in juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Weber, R A; Pérez Maceira, J J; Aldegunde, M J; Peleteiro, J B; García Martín, L O; Aldegunde, M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis were subjected for short periods to two different types of handling-related stress: air exposure stress and net handling stress. The S. senegalensis were sacrificed 2 and 24 h after the stress events and the levels of serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and their respective major metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were measured in three brain regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and optic tectum) and compared with those in control, non-stressed S. senegalensis. Neither type of stress caused any significant alteration of serotoninergic activity (5-HIAA:5-HT ratio) or NA levels. Dopaminergic activity (DOPAC:DA ratio) was lower in stressed fish in all of the brain regions studied. For both air exposure stress and net handling stress, DA levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the control S. senegalensis. In addition, the higher DA levels after net handling stress were always significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those observed after acute air exposure stress, except in the telencephalon after 24 h. The significantly lower DOPAC:DA ratio (P < 0.05) in all of the brain regions studied was only observed in response to net handling stress. PMID:26387448

  11. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract affects immobilization stress-induced changes in murine cerebral monoamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nadaoka, Isao; Yasue, Masaaki; Sami, Manabu; Kitagawa, Yasushi

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) plant extracts on the changes in levels of the cerebral monoamines norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT), the respective metabolites 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and plasma corticosterone in mice subjected to acute immobilization stress. Single oral administration of the CR extract (1,000 mg/kg) significantly attenuated plasma corticosterone levels that had been increased as a result of enforced immobilization. Acute immobilization stress caused significant changes in the corresponding amine-to-metabolite ratios in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cortex; however, CR-extract treatment significantly attenuated the MHPG/NE change in the hypothalamus, and the 5-HIAA/5- HT changes in each region of the brain. Our results suggest that the CR extract interacts not only with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but also with the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system under stress conditions. Thus the CR extract can alleviate acute stress responses by suppressing the changes of amine-to-metabolite ratio in brain. PMID:22572387

  12. Monoamines in the brain cerebrospinal fluid of facial pain patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bouckoms, A. J.; Sweet, W. H.; Poletti, C.; Lavori, P.; Carr, D.; Matson, W.; Gamache, P.; Aronin, N.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assay monoamines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from the trigeminal cistern of 64 patients with intractable facial pain. The CSF was analyzed for homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), end-product markers of activity for the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine systems, respectively. HVA averaged 121 ng/mL in these facial pain patients, compared to 150 to 550 ng/mL in 10 studies of ventricular brain CSF in assorted psychiatric and pain patients. 5-HIAA averaged 29 to ng/mL in our facial pain patients compared to 60 to 120 ng/mL in nine studies of ventricular brain CSF in assorted psychiatric and neurological patients. Trigeminal cistern CSF MHPG averaged 9 ng/mL, similar to the range of 13 studies of lumbar CSF of assorted psychiatric and pain diagnoses. These results indicate that (1) the electrochemical detection method provides a unique way of accurately measuring nanogram concentrations of multiple monoamines in a little as 0.25 mL of CSF; (2) trigeminal cistern and posterior fossa brain CSF monoamine metabolites reflect a different profile of dopaminergic and serotonergic functioning in these facial pain patients from that previously reported with lumbar CSF measurements of other patients; and (3) trigeminal sensory ganglion or brain dopamine and serotonin systems may be concomitantly dysfunctional in intractable facial pain. PMID:7504420

  13. Dynamic of neurochemical alterations in striatum, hippocampus and cortex after the 6-OHDA mesostriatal lesion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Gui, Xue-Hong; Xue, Zhong-Feng; Huang, Li-Ping; Fang, Ruo-Ming; Ke, Xue-Hong; Li, Ling; Fang, Yong-Qi

    2014-08-01

    Immediate neurochemical alterations produced by 6-OHDA could explain the general toxic pattern in the central nervous system. However, no evidences describe the effects of 6-OHDA on early changes of neurotransmitters in rats' striatum, cortex and hippocampus. In our study, unilateral 6-OHDA injection into medial forebrain bundle (MFB) was used in rats, then five neurotransmitters were analyzed at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Results showed that 6-OHDA injection caused a sharp decline of striatal dopamine (DA) levels in the first 12h followed by a further reduction between 12 and 48 h. However, striatal levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) were stable in the first 12h and showed a marked reduction between 12 and 24h. Striatal levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) decreased linearly for 72 h, whereas levels of norepinephrine (NE) showed a slight reduction in the first 48 h, and returned back to normal afterwards. Striatal HVA/DA ratio increased significantly in the first 12h, but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio showed a sharp increase between 12 and 72 h. Besides, neurochemical alterations were also found in hippocampus and cortex, and the correlations of neurotransmitters were analyzed. Our study indicated that NE system had little influence in the early phase of 6-OHDA injection, moreover, early neurochemical alterations were involved with striatum, hippocampus and cortex. PMID:24814667

  14. Evidence that brain glucose availability influences exercise-enhanced extracellular 5-HT level in hippocampus: a microdialysis study in exercising rats.

    PubMed

    Béquet, F; Gomez-Merino, D; Berthelot, M; Guezennec, C Y

    2002-09-01

    The relationship between brain glucose and serotonin is still unclear and no direct evidence of an action of brain glucose on serotonergic metabolism in central fatigue phenomena has been shown yet. In order to determine whether or not brain glucose could influence the brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system, we have monitored in microdialysis the effects of a direct injection of glucose in rat brain hippocampus on serotonergic metabolism [i.e. 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and tryptophan (TRP)], during high intensive treadmill running. The injection was performed just before and after exercise. We have shown that glucose induced a decrease of brain 5-HT levels to a minimum of 73.0 +/- 3.5% of baseline after the first injection (P < 0.01) and to 68.5 +/- 5.5% of baseline after the second injection (P < 0.01) and consequently prevented the exercise-induced 5-HT enhanced levels. We have observed the same phenomenon concerning the 5-HIAA, but brain TRP levels were not decreased by the injections. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that brain glucose can act on serotonergic metabolism and thus can prevent exercise-induced increase of 5-HT levels. The results also suggest that extracellular brain glucose does not act on the synthesis way of 5-HT, but probably on the release/reuptake system. PMID:12193220

  15. Injected tryptophan increases brain but not plasma tryptophan levels more in ethanol treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Haleem, D.J. )

    1990-01-01

    In the present study ethanol treatment given for two weeks decreased hepatic apo-tryptophan pyrrolase but not total tryptophan pyrrolase activity in rats. Tryptophan levels in plasma and brain did not increase significantly. But there was a marked increase of 5-HT but not 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentration in brain, suggesting a possible increase in the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase. The effect of a tryptophan load on brain 5-HT metabolism was therefore compared in controls and ethanol treated rats. One hour after tryptophan injection plasma concentrations of total and free tryptophan were identical in controls and ethanol treated rats, but the increases of brain tryptophan 5-HT and 5-HIAA were considerably greater in the latter group. The results are consistent with long term ethanol treatment enhancing brain serotonin metabolism and show that brain uptake/utilization of exogenous tryptophan is increased in ethanol treated rats and may be useful to understand the role and possible mechanism of tryptophan/serotonin involvement in mood regulation.

  16. Description and Validation of a Dynamical Systems Model of Presynaptic Serotonin Function: Genetic Variation, Brain Activation and Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Stoltenberg, Scott F.; Nag, Parthasarathi

    2010-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of empirical work on the role of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on behavior, the details across levels of analysis are not well understood. We describe a mathematical model of the genetic control of presynaptic serotonergic function that is based on control theory, implemented using systems of differential equations, and focused on better characterizing pathways from genes to behavior. We present the results of model validation tests that include the comparison of simulation outcomes with empirical data on genetic effects on brain response to affective stimuli and on impulsivity. Patterns of simulated neural firing were consistent with recent findings of additive effects of serotonin transporter and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 polymorphisms on brain activation. In addition, simulated levels of cerebral spinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA) were negatively correlated with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (Version 11) Total scores in college students (r = −.22, p = .002, N = 187), which is consistent with the well-established negative correlation between CSF 5-HIAA and impulsivity. The results of the validation tests suggest that the model captures important aspects of the genetic control of presynaptic serotonergic function and behavior via brain activation. The proposed model can be: (1) extended to include other system components, neurotransmitter systems, behaviors and environmental influences; (2) used to generate testable hypotheses. PMID:20111992

  17. Energy substrate metabolism among habitually violent alcoholic offenders having antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Linnoila, Markku; Tiihonen, Jari

    2007-04-15

    A large proportion of violent offences in Western countries are attributable to antisocial personality disorder (APD). Several studies have shown abnormal lipid, carbohydrate and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite levels in habitually violent alcoholic offenders with APD, but it is not clear how these biochemical abnormalities are related to each other in this disorder. We aimed to study energy substrate metabolism among habitually violent offenders with APD. Insulin sensitivity (euglycemic insulin clamp), basal energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), and CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) measurements were performed on 96 habitually violent antisocial male alcoholic offenders and on 40 normal male controls. Habitually violent, incarcerated offenders with APD had significantly lower non-oxidative glucose metabolism, basal glucagon, and free fatty acids when compared with normal controls, but glucose oxidation and CSF 5-HIAA did not differ markedly between these groups. The effect sizes for lower non-oxidative glucose metabolism among incarcerated and non-incarcerated APD subjects were 0.73 and 0.51, respectively, when compared with controls, indicating that this finding was not explained by incarceration. Habitually violent offenders with APD have markedly lower glucagon and non-oxidative glucose metabolism when compared with healthy controls, and these findings were more strongly associated with habitual violent offending than low CSF 5-HIAA levels, a well-established marker for impulsive violent behavior. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm if abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism can be used to predict violent offending over the course of the APD offender's life span. PMID:17316826

  18. Conditioned fear and inescapable shock modify the release of serotonin in the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Kaehler, S T; Singewald, N; Sinner, C; Thurnher, C; Philippu, A

    2000-03-24

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the importance of the serotonergic transmission in the locus coeruleus (LC) to conditioned fear. Rats were conditioned to fear by exposing them to noise signal (N), light signal (L) and electric foot shock (S) for 4 days. Control rats were exposed to the same events without receiving S. The LC was superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) through a push-pull cannula, and the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) was determined in the superfusate. Motility, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were telemetrically recorded. (1) The process of moving animals from their home cage into the grid-floor chamber transiently increased the release rate of 5-HT and the outflow of 5-HIAA in control and naive rats. In conditioned rats, 5-HT release was similarly increased during transfer but was permanently decreased in the grid-floor chamber. Control rats showed phases of enhanced motility in the chamber, while conditioned animals displayed continuous immobility. In naive rats, enhanced motility persisted in the novel environment. (2) Exposure of rats to N+L+S increased the release of 5-HT and the outflow of 5-HIAA to the same extent in conditioned and naive rats. These changes were associated with elevated motility, rise in BP and tachycardia. (3) In conditioned subjects, exposure to N+L in the fifth day led to a pronounced and sustained decrease in the release rate of 5-HT and to tachycardia, while no effects were observed in control rats or naive rats. The findings suggest that conditioned fear attenuates serotonergic neurotransmission within the LC. Telemetric recording of HR proves to be a valuable index for fear and stress processes. PMID:10719071

  19. Deficient serotonin neurotransmission and depression-like serotonin biomarker alterations in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) loss-of-function mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, JPR; Siesser, WB; Sachs, BD; Peterson, S; Cools, MJ; Setola, V; Folgering, JHA; Flik, G; Caron, MG

    2012-01-01

    Probably the foremost hypothesis of depression is the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) deficiency hypothesis. Accordingly, anomalies in putative 5-HT biomarkers have repeatedly been reported in depression patients. However, whether such anomalies in fact reflect deficient central 5-HT neurotransmission remains unresolved. We employed a naturalistic model of 5-HT deficiency, the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) R439H knockin mouse, to address this question. We report that Tph2 knockin mice have reduced basal and stimulated levels of extracellular 5-HT (5-HTExt). Interestingly, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and fenfluramine-induced plasma prolactin levels are markedly diminished in the Tph2 knockin mice. These data seemingly confirm that low CSF 5-HIAA and fenfluramine-induced plasma prolactin reflects chronic, endogenous central nervous system (CNS) 5-HT deficiency. Moreover, 5-HT1A receptor agonist-induced hypothermia is blunted and frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptors are increased in the Tph2 knockin mice. These data likewise parallel core findings in depression, but are usually attributed to anomalies in the respective receptors rather than resulting from CNS 5-HT deficiency. Further, 5-HT2A receptor function is enhanced in the Tph2 knockin mice. In contrast, 5-HT1A receptor levels and G-protein coupling is normal in Tph2 knockin mice, indicating that the blunted hypothermic response relates directly to the low 5-HTExt. Thus, we show that not only low CSF 5-HIAA and a blunted fenfluramine-induced prolactin response, but also blunted 5-HT1A agonist-induced hypothermia and increased 5-HT2A receptor levels are bona fide biomarkers of chronic, endogenous 5-HT deficiency. Potentially, some of these biomarkers could identify patients likely to have 5-HT deficiency. This could have clinical research utility or even guide pharmacotherapy. PMID:21537332

  20. On the mechanism of radiation-induced emesis: The role of serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Scarantino, C.W.; Ornitz, R.D.; Hoffman, L.G.

    1994-11-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of action of radiation-induced emesis by determining the incidence of radiation-induced emesis following hemibody irradiation; the effects of specific antiemetics especially ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist, and to determine the relationship between radiation-induced emesis and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) through its active metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Forty-one patients received 53 hemibody treatments of 5-8 Gy following intravenous hydration. The patients were divided into three groups according to prehemibody irradiation treatment: Group A: no pretreatment antiemetics, 30 patients; Group B: nonondansetron antiemetics (metoclopramide, dexamethasone, prochlorperazine), ten patients; and Group C: ondansetron, 13 patient. The incidence of radiation-induced emesis was determined prehemibody irradiation or baseline and at 1 h posthemibody irradiation in 38 patients and the results expressed as the percent change in 5-HIAA (ng/ug creatinine). The incidence of radiation-induced emesis was 82% (14/17) following upper/mid hemibody irradiation and 15% (2/11) following lower hemibody irradiation in Group A; 50% (3/6) and 25% (1/4) following upper/mid and lower hemibody irradiation respectively, in Group B/; and 0% (p/13) after upper/mid hemibody irradiation in Group C. The incidence of emesis was significantly different (p<0.001) between the patients of Group A and C who received upper/mid hemibody irradiation. The percent change in 5-HIAA excretion following upper/mid hemibody irradiation were greatest in Group A and smallest in Group C (p<0.002). The degree of change following lower hemibody irradiation (15% incidence of emesis) in Group A was lower than upper/mid hemibody irradiation of the same group. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The Tryptophan Hydroxylase Inhibitor LX1031 Shows Clinical Benefit in Patients With Nonconstipating Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Philip M.; Drossman, Douglas A.; Wood, Alastair J. J.; Cline, Gary A.; Frazier, Kenny S.; Jackson, Jessica I.; Bronner, Johanna; Freiman, Joel; Zambrowicz, Brian; Sands, Arthur; Gershon, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has an important role in gastrointestinal function. LX1031 is an oral, locally acting, small molecule inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). Local inhibition of TPH in the gastrointestinal tract might reduce mucosal production of serotonin (5-HT) and be used to treat patients with nonconstipating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS We evaluated 2 dose levels of LX1031 (250 mg or 1000 mg, given 4 times/day) in a 28-day, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 155 patients with nonconstipating IBS. 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a biomarker of pharmacodynamic activity, was measured in urine samples at baseline (24 hours after LX1031 administration), and at weeks 4 and 6 (n = 76). RESULTS Each dose of LX1031 was safe and well-tolerated. The primary efficacy end point, relief of IBS pain and discomfort, improved significantly in patients given 1000 mg LX1031 (25.5%), compared with those given placebo, at week 1 (P = .018); with nonsignificant improvements at weeks 2, 3, and 4 (17.9%, 16.3%, and 11.6%, respectively). Symptom improvement correlated with a dose-dependent reduction in 5-HIAA, a marker for TPH inhibition, from baseline until week 4. This suggests the efficacy of LX1031 is related to the extent of inhibition of 5-HT biosynthesis. Stool consistency significantly improved, compared with the group given placebo, at weeks 1 and 4 (P < .01) and at week 2 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS In a phase 2 study, LX1031 was well tolerated, relieving symptoms and increasing stool consistency in patients with nonconstipating IBS. Symptom relief was associated with reduced levels of 5-HIAA in urine samples. This marker might be used to identify patients with nonconstipating IBS who respond to inhibitors of 5-HT synthesis. PMID:21684281

  2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Curzon, G.; Fernando, J.C.R.; Marsden, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    1 Control rats given L-tryptophan (100 mg/kg) showed a smaller increase of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) than its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). However, when brain 5-HT concentrations were depleted by 40-50% after treatment with the synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) (150 mg/kg) L-tryptophan caused a considerable increase in 5-HT but no change in 5-HIAA. Similar results were obtained following depletion of brain 5-HT by pretreatment with p-chloroamphetamine (10 mg/kg). 2 Electrical stimulation of the median raphe nucleus of control rats significantly increased 5-HIAA in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and striatum. However, stimulation of PCPA (200 mg/kg) pretreated animals did not significantly increase 5-H1AA either 24 or 72 h after administration of the drug. 3 Pretreatment of rats with PCPA (200 mg/kg) increased striatal synaptosomal uptake of [3H]-5HT by 30% and reduced 5-HT concentration in the rest of the brain by 62%. 4 PCPA (150 mg/kg) markedly reduced the acute behavioural response (-76%) to p-chloroamphetamine (10 mg/kg) although brain 5-HT was only moderately reduced (-36%). L-Tryptophan (100 mg/kg) given 15 min before p-chloroamphetamine restored both brain 5-HT and the behavioural effects of p-chloroamphetamine in PCPA pretreated rats and enhanced the behavioural response to p-chloroamphetamine in control rats. 5 The results suggest that newly synthesized 5-HT is less rapidly metabolized in rats with low brain 5-HT. The possible reasons for this and the relevance of the results to the use of L-tryptophan in the treatment of depressive illness are discussed. PMID:80243

  3. The active transport of 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid from a recirculatory perfusion system of the cerebral ventricles of the unanaesthetized dog

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, G. W.; Dow, R. C.; Moir, A. T. B.

    1968-01-01

    1. An operation on dogs for the implantation of guide tubes to the lateral ventricle and cisterna magna and a method whereby the ventricular space can be repeatedly perfused in conscious and unrestrained animals are described. 2. The characteristics of a recirculatory perfusion system were examined and the bulk formation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid and the volume of the ventricular space perfused were derived from the concentrations achieved during the infusion of inulin into the system. 3. 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HIAA), the acid metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HVA), the main acid metabolite of dopamine, were demonstrated to be mainly removed from cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) by an active transport system localized in the region of the fourth ventricle. 4. It was possible to inhibit the active transport of these acids from cerebrospinal fluid by pre-treating the dogs with probenecid. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:5723518

  4. The role of 5-HT₁A receptors in fish oil-mediated increased BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus and cortex: a possible antidepressant mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vines, Aparecida; Delattre, Ana Marcia; Lima, Marcelo M S; Rodrigues, Laís Soares; Suchecki, Deborah; Machado, Ricardo B; Tufik, Sergio; Pereira, Sofia I R; Zanata, Sílvio M; Ferraz, Anete Curte

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological and dietary studies show that nutritional deficit of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) is directly related to the prevalence and severity of depression. Supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) during critical periods of development (pregnancy and lactation) is essential for cortical maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination, and may also mitigate the risk for cognitive deficits and psychopathologies in young adults. The present study was performed to evaluate the involvement of serotonin (5-HT) receptors, particularly of 5-HT(1A), and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the antidepressant effect of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. In Experiment 1, the antidepressant effects of fish oil were assessed by the modified forced swim test in adult rats. The data indicated a robust antidepressant effect produced by this supplementation and that treatment of the rats with WAY 100135 reversed this effect. In Experiment 2, cortical and hippocampal contents of BDNF, 5-HT, dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were determined in animals subjected to the same protocol. Increased BDNF expression in the cortex and hippocampus of both age groups was detected. In 90 day-old rats, 5-HT content in the hippocampus was increased, whereas 5-HIAA formation was diminished in the fish oil group. We suggest the occurrence of a reciprocal involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors activation and the hippocampal BDNF-increased expression mediated by fish oil supplementation. These data corroborate and expand the notion that supplementation with ω-3 PUFA produces antidepressant effects mediated by an increase in serotonergic neurotransmission, particularly in the hippocampus. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21740919

  5. Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Thiblin, Ingemar; Finn, Anja; Ross, Svante B; Stenfors, Carina

    1999-01-01

    The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. The DOPAC+HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems. PMID:10217522

  6. Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Thiblin, I; Finn, A; Ross, S B; Stenfors, C

    1999-03-01

    1. The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. 2. The DOPAC + HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. 3. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. 4. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. 5. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems. PMID:10217522

  7. The saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, induces anxiety-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Morgan L.; Joesting, Jennifer J.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Chiu, Gabriel S.; Blevins, Neil A.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Excess fat in the diet can impact neuropsychiatric functions by negatively affecting cognition, mood and anxiety. We sought to show that the free fatty acid (FFA), palmitic acid, can cause adverse biobehaviors in mice that lasts beyond an acute elevation in plasma FFAs. Methods Mice were administered palmitic acid or vehicle as a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Biobehaviors were profiled 2 and 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Quantification of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT) and their major metabolites was performed in cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. FFA concentration was determined in plasma. Relative fold change in mRNA expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes was determined in brain regions. Results In a dose-dependent fashion, palmitic acid rapidly reduced mouse locomotor activity by a mechanism that did not rely on TLR4, MyD88, IL-1, IL-6 or TNFα but was dependent on fatty acid chain length. Twenty-four hrs after palmitic acid administration mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior without impairment in locomotion, food intake, depressive-like behavior or spatial memory. Additionally, the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA was increased by 33% in the amygdala 24 hrs after palmitic acid treatment. Conclusions Palmitic acid induces anxiety-like behavior in mice while increasing amygdala-based serotonin metabolism. These effects occur at a time point when plasma FFA levels are no longer elevated. PMID:25016520

  8. A new stress model, a scream sound, alters learning and monoamine levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Yang, Juan; Song, Tusheng; Hou, Ni; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoge; Zhang, Dianzeng; Wang, Lumin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Chen

    2014-01-17

    Most existing animal models for stress involve the simultaneous application of physical and psychological stress factors. In the current study, we described and used a novel psychological stress model (scream sound stress). To study the validity of it, we carried out acute and chronic scream sound stress. First, adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into white noise, stress and background groups. The white noise group and stress group were treated with white noise and scream sound for 4h in the morning respectively. Compared with white noise and background groups, exposure to acute scream sound increased corticosterone (CORT) level and decreased latency in Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were altered in the striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus of stress rats. Second, adult SD rats were randomly divided into background and stress groups, which were treated with scream sound for three weeks. Exposure to chronic scream sound suppressed body weight gain, increased corticosterone (CORT) level, influenced the morphology of adrenal gland, improved spleen and thymus indices, and decreased latency in MWM test. NE, DA, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA levels were also altered in the brain of stress rats. Our results suggested that scream sound, as a novel stressor, facilitated learning ability, as well as altered monoamine levels in the rat brain. Moreover, scream sound is easy to apply and can be applied in more animals at the same time. PMID:24096192

  9. Blood withdrawal affects iron store dynamics in primates with consequences on monoaminergic system function.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, C; De Deurwaerdere, P; Thiollier, T; Li, Q; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I

    2015-04-01

    Iron homeostasis is essential for the integrity of brain monoaminergic functions and its deregulation might be involved in neurological movement disorders such as the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although iron metabolism breakdown concomitantly appears with monoaminergic system dysfunction in iron-deficient rodents and in RLS patients, the direct consequences of peripheral iron deficiency in the central nervous system (CNS) of non-human primates have received little attention. Here, we evaluated the peripheral iron-depletion impact on brain monoamine levels in macaque monkeys. After documenting circadian variations of iron and iron-related proteins (hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin) in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal macaques, repeated blood withdrawals (RBW) were used to reduce peripheral iron-related parameter levels. Decreased serum iron levels were paradoxically associated with increased CSF iron concentrations. Despite limited consequences on tissue monoamine contents (dopamine - DA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid - DOPAC, homovanillic acid, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine - L-DOPA, 5-8 hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-HIAA and noradrenaline) measured with post-mortem chromatography, we found distinct and region-dependent relationships of these tissue concentrations with CSF iron and/or serum iron and/or blood hemoglobin. Additionally, striatal extracellular DA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA levels evaluated by in vivo microdialysis showed a substantial increase, suggesting an overall increase in both DA and 5-HT tones. Finally, a trending increase in general locomotor activity, measured by actimetry, was observed in the most serum iron-depleted macaques. Taken together, our data are compatible with an increase in nigrostriatal DAergic function in the event of iron deficiency and point to a specific alteration of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS that is possibly involved in the etiology of RLS. PMID:25662508

  10. Silica stationary phase-based on-line sample enrichment coupled with LC-MS/MS for the quantification of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in rat brain microdialysates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Lee, Jin-Gyeom; Yang, Chae Ha; Lee, Sooyeun

    2016-06-01

    Accurate measurement of trace levels of endogenous compounds remains challenging despite advancements in analytical technologies. In particular, monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are polar compounds with low molecular weights, which complicates the optimization of retention and detection on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Microdialysis is an important sampling technique to collect extracellular fluid from the brain of living animals. However, the very low basal concentrations of the neurotransmitters, small sample volume (maximum 30 μL) and the absence of matrix-matching calibrators are limitations of a microdialysate as an analytical sample. In the present study, an LC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the quantification of DA, 5-HT and their main metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in microdialysates from the rat nucleus accumbens shell. To improve the method sensitivity and accuracy, on-line sample enrichment using silica stationary phase was employed, before which any other sample pretreatment was not performed. The validation results proved the method to be selective, sensitive, accurate and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges. The lower limits of quantification were 0.025, 0.1, 0.5, 25 and 2.5 ng/mL for 5-HT, DA, 5-HIAA, HVA and DOPAC, respectively. This is a powerful analytical method to determine endogenous concentrations of those compounds in microdialysates from the rat nucleus accumbens and will be very useful to further study on the pathophysiological functions of monoamine neurotramsmitters in vivo. PMID:27155302

  11. Acute L: -DOPA effect on hydroxyl radical- and DOPAC-levels in striatal microdialysates of parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Przemysław; Kostrzewa, Rose Anna; Skaba, Dariusz; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2010-04-01

    The object of the current study was to determine the effect of L: -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L: -DOPA) on the in vivo striatal microdialysate levels of the respective dopamine and serotonin metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenlalanine (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and hydroxyl radical level (HO(*); 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA) in adult rats made parkinsonian by treatment at 3 days after birth with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 66.7 microg, base form, on each side; desipramine pretreatment, 1 h). Using HPLC/ED we found that in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats the basal striatal extraneuronal level of DOPAC was dramatically reduced and constituted only approximately 4.5% of referenced value (intact rats). Conversely, the striatal microdialysate level of 5-HIAA was elevated 2-fold in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Acute L: -DOPA (60 mg/kg i.p.; S-carbidopa pretreatment, 12.5 mg/kg i.p., 30 min) produced a rapid rise in the extraneuronal DOPAC in both tested groups but to a much greater extent in intact rats (P < 0.05). Levels of HO(*) (spin-trap products of salicylate, 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA) were elevated 2-fold in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. However, L: -DOPA did not enhance HO(*) production; acute 6-OHDOPA treatment (60 mg/kg i.p.) also did not alter HO(*) production. In summary, L: -DOPA, an effective drug in ameliorating PD symptoms, did not acutely pose a risk for HO(*) generation in parkinsonian rats. We conclude that L: -DOPA is not likely to generate reactive oxygen species in humans nor is L: -DOPA likely to accelerate PD in humans. PMID:19760476

  12. 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid in the treatment of refractory tumors: a phase I safety study of a vascular disrupting agent.

    PubMed

    McKeage, Mark J; Fong, Peter; Jeffery, Mark; Baguley, Bruce C; Kestell, Phil; Ravic, Miroslav; Jameson, Michael B

    2006-03-15

    This phase I safety study aimed to identify the optimal dose of the vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) for combination studies. Using a crossover design, 15 patients with refractory tumors were allocated randomly to receive six sequential doses of DMXAA (300, 600, 1,200, 1,800, 2,400, and 3,000 mg m(-2)), each given once-weekly as a 20-minute i.v. infusion. The drug was generally well tolerated. Transient, moderate increases in the heart rate-corrected cardiac QT interval occurred at the two highest doses. DMXAA produced transient dose-dependent increases in blood pressure. Transient, dose-related visual disturbances occurred at the two highest doses. No significant changes in K(trans) and k(ep) were observed but V(e), a secondary dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging variable, increased significantly after giving DMXAA. At 1,200 mg m(-2), the Cmax and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 hours for total and free DMXAA plasma concentrations were 315 +/- 25.8 microg/mL, 29 +/- 6.4 microg/mL x d, 8.0 +/- 1.77 microg/mL, and 0.43 +/- 0.07 microg/mL x d, respectively. Plasma levels of the vascular damage biomarker 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid increased in the 4 hours after treatment in a dose-dependent fashion up to 1,200 mg m(-2), with a plateau thereafter. Doses in the range of 1,200 mg m(-2) have been selected for further studies (phase II combination studies with taxanes and platins are under way) because this dose produced no significant effect on heart rate-corrected cardiac QT interval, produced near maximum levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, achieved DMXAA plasma concentrations within the preclinical therapeutic range, and was well tolerated. PMID:16551862

  13. Socially-mediated differences in brain monoamines in rainbow trout: effects of trace metal contaminants.

    PubMed

    Sloman, Katherine A; Lepage, Olivier; Rogers, Joseph T; Wood, Chris M; Winberg, Svante

    2005-02-10

    Monoaminergic systems play a crucial role in linking behaviour and physiology. Here the physiological and behavioural effects of metal exposure in relation to monoaminergic systems were considered by exposing rainbow trout dyads, demonstrating stable dominance relationships, to cadmium or lead. Fish exposed to 4 microg l(-1) cadmium accumulated more cadmium at the gill than fish held in control water. Fish exposed to 7 microg l(-1) cadmium had higher gill, liver and kidney cadmium concentrations. No significant lead accumulation was seen after exposure to 46 microg l(-1) for 48 h but exposure to 325 microg l(-1) lead caused an increase in gill, liver and kidney lead concentrations. Brain accumulation of both cadmium and lead was only seen after exposure to the highest concentrations. Exposure to 4 or 7 microg l(-1) cadmium, or 46 or 325 microg l(-1) lead for 48 h did not disrupt established dominance hierarchies. As expected with this stable behavioural situation, in control pairs, animals of different social status displayed different physiological profiles. Subordinate fish had higher concentrations of circulating plasma cortisol and telencephalic 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HIAA/5-HT) ratios. However, these physiological profiles were affected by metal exposure, with a trend towards higher serotonergic activity in dominant fish. Dominants exposed to 325 microg l(-1) lead had significantly higher hypothalamic 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios when compared with subordinates. The results demonstrate that if stable social hierarchies are established in control water they may not be affected by exposure to cadmium and lead although physiological changes may be evident. PMID:15670630

  14. 5-HT loss in rat brain following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine administration and effects of chlormethiazole and dizocilpine.

    PubMed Central

    Colado, M. I.; Murray, T. K.; Green, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The present study has investigated whether the neurotoxic effects of the relatively selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotoxins, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy'), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and fenfluramine on hippocampal and cortical 5-HT terminals in rat brain could be prevented by administration of either chlormethiazole or dizocilpine. 2. Administration of MDMA (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in an approximate 30% loss of cortical and hippocampal 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content 4 days later. Injection of chlormethiazole (50 mg kg-1) 5 min before and 55 min after the MDMA provided complete protection in both regions, while dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) protected only the hippocampus. 3. Administration of a single dose of chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1) 20 min after the MDMA also provided complete protection to the hippocampus but not the cortex. This regime also attenuated the sustained hyperthermia (approx +2.5 degrees C) induced by the MDMA injection. 4. Injection of PCA (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in a 70% loss of 5-HT and 5-HIAA content in hippocampus and cortex 4 days later. Injection of chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1, i.p.) or dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) 5 min before and 55 min after the PCA failed to protect against the neurotoxicity, nor was protection afforded by chlormethiazole when a lower dose of PCA (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) was given which produced only a 30% loss of 5-HT content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7682129

  15. Telotristat etiprate, a novel serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with carcinoid syndrome and diarrhea not adequately controlled by octreotide.

    PubMed

    Kulke, Matthew H; O'Dorisio, Thomas; Phan, Alexandria; Bergsland, Emily; Law, Linda; Banks, Phillip; Freiman, Joel; Frazier, Kenny; Jackson, Jessica; Yao, James C; Kvols, Larry; Lapuerta, Pablo; Zambrowicz, Brian; Fleming, Douglas; Sands, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin produced by neuroendocrine tumors is believed to be a principal cause of the diarrhea in carcinoid syndrome. We assessed the safety and efficacy of telotristat etiprate, an oral serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. In this prospective, randomized study, patients with evidence of carcinoid tumor and ≥4 bowel movements (BMs)/day despite stable-dose octreotide LAR depot therapy were enrolled in sequential, escalating, cohorts of four patients per cohort. In each cohort, one patient was randomly assigned to placebo and three patients to telotristat etiprate, at 150, 250, 350, or 500 mg three times a day (tid). In a subsequent cohort, one patient was assigned to placebo and six patients to telotristat etiprate 500 mg tid. Patients were assessed for safety, BM frequency (daily diary), 24 h urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA), and adequate relief of carcinoid gastrointestinal symptoms (using a weekly questionnaire). Twenty-three patients were treated: 18 received telotristat etiprate and five received placebo. Adverse events were generally mild. Among evaluable telotristat etiprate-treated patients, 5/18 (28%) experienced a ≥30% reduction in BM frequency for ≥2 weeks, 9/16 (56%) experienced biochemical response (≥50% reduction or normalization in 24-h u5-HIAA) at week 2 or 4, and 10/18 (56%) reported adequate relief during at least 1 of the first 4 weeks of treatment. Similar activity was not observed in placebo-treated patients. Telotristat etiprate was well tolerated. Our observations suggest that telotristat etiprate has activity in controlling diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted. PMID:25012985

  16. Noradrenergic and serotonergic neurochemistry arising from intranasal inoculation with α-synuclein aggregates which incite parkinsonian-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gruden, Marina A; Davydova, Tatiana V; Narkevich, Victor B; Fomina, Valentina G; Wang, Chao; Kudrin, Vladimir S; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A; Sewell, Robert D E

    2015-02-15

    Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) toxic aggregates delivered by the nasal vector have been shown to modify the neurochemistry of dopamine (DA) which is associated with parkinsonian-like motor symptoms. The aim was therefore to study the intranasal effects of α-syn oligomers, fibrils or their combination on the motor behavior of aged mice in relation to possible noradrenergic and serotonergic correlates. In vitro generated α-syn oligomers and fibrils were verified using atomic force microscopy and the thioflavin T binding assay. Levels of noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were detected using HPLC with electrochemical detection in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum. The oligomers or fibrils administered alone or in a 50:50 combination (total dose of 0.48 mg/kg) were given intranasally for 14 days and "open-field" behaviour was tested on days 0, 15 and 28 of the protocol, at which time brain structures were sampled. Behavioral deficits at the end of the 14-day dosing regime and on day 28 (i.e. 14 days after treatment completion) induced hypokinesia and immobility whilst the aggregate combination additionally produced rigidity. The α-Syn oligomer/fibril mixture also instigated PD-like motor symptoms which correlated heterochronically with elevated NA levels in the striatum but then later in the SN while intranasal fibrils alone augmented 5-HT and 5-HIAA nigral concentrations throughout the protocol. In contrast, α-syn oligomers displayed a delayed serotonin upsurge in the SN. Neurodegenerative and/or actions on neurotransmitter transporters (such as NET, SERT and VMAT2) are discussed as being implicated in these α-syn amyloid induced neurochemical and motoric disturbances. PMID:25446742

  17. Revisiting the Serotonin-Aggression Relation in Humans: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Aaron A.; Bègue, Laurent; Bell, Rob; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory

    2013-01-01

    The inverse relation between serotonin and human aggression is often portrayed as “reliable,” “strong,” and “well-established” despite decades of conflicting reports and widely recognized methodological limitations. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluate the evidence for and against the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of human aggression across four methods of assessing serotonin: (a) cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA), (b) acute tryptophan depletion, (c) pharmacological challenge, and (d) endocrine challenge. Results across 175 independent samples and over 6,500 total participants were heterogeneous, but, in aggregate, revealed a small, inverse correlation between central serotonin functioning and aggression, anger, and hostility, r = −.12. Pharmacological challenge studies had the largest mean weighted effect size, r = −.21, and CSF 5-HIAA studies had the smallest, r = −.06, p = .21. Potential methodological and demographic moderators largely failed to account for variability in study outcomes. Notable exceptions included year of publication (effect sizes tended to diminish with time) and self-versus other-reported aggression (other-reported aggression was positively correlated to serotonin functioning). We discuss four possible explanations for the pattern of findings: unreliable measures, ambient correlational noise, an unidentified higher-order interaction, and a selective serotonergic effect. Finally, we provide four recommendations for bringing much needed clarity to this important area of research: acknowledge contradictory findings and avoid selective reporting practices; focus on improving the reliability and validity of serotonin and aggression measures; test for interactions involving personality and/or environmental moderators; and revise the serotonin deficiency hypothesis to account for serotonin’s functional complexity. PMID:23379963

  18. LX-1031, a Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase Inhibitor, and Its Potential in Chronic Diarrhea Associated with Increased Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background LX-1031 is an oral, small-molecule tryptophan 5-hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitor that reduces serotonin (5-HT) synthesis peripherally. It has potential for illnesses characterized by excess 5-HT, such as diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and carcinoid diarrhea. In vitro, inhibition of TPH1 occurred in 10−8 – 10−7 M range. In vivo in rodents, LX-1031 has no effect on brain 5-HT while dose-dependently reducing 5-HT, particularly in the small bowel. Pharmacokinetics After oral LX1031 in humans, systemic exposure is very low, plasma concentrations are linear in dose range 250 mg QD to 750 mg QID; the median T1/2 for elimination is ~20 hrs, and repeat administration for 14 days doubles Cmax. Pharmacodynamics In ascending-single-dose and multiple dose (14 day) trials in healthy volunteers, LX-1031 2g-4g/day significantly reduced urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) starting by day 5, and persisting over the 14 day exposure. Clinical safety and efficacy There are no dose limiting toxicities in healthy subjects or remarkable adverse effects in clinical trials to date. Over a 28-day treatment period, LX-1031 was associated with improved weekly global scores (2/4 weeks) and improved stool consistency with lower urinary 5-HIAA excretion. Conclusion LX-1031 appears promising for chronic diarrhea associated with increased 5-HT expression including IBS-D. Optimal doses, efficacy and safety in IBS clinical trials need to be fully elucidated; low systemic exposure, selectivity for TPH1 over TPH2, and lack of effect on brain 5-HT in several species suggest that LX-1031 is unlikely to cause affective disorders. PMID:21159063

  19. Activation of brain serotonergic system by repeated intracerebral administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) decreases the expression and activity of liver cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Rysz, Marta; Bromek, Ewa; Daniel, Władysława A

    2016-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that brain serotonergic system may be involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of cytochrome P450 expression. Intracerebral injection of the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine affected serum hormone concentration and increased the expression and activity of the hormone-dependent isoforms CYP1A1/2, CYP2C11 and CYP3A1. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stimulation of brain serotonergic system on cytochrome P450 expression in the liver. The serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) was injected for 5 days to the lateral ventricles of rat brain. Afterwards, the brain concentrations of serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid 5-HIAA, serum hormone levels and liver cytochrome P450 expression and activity were measured. 5-HTP potently increased the concentration of serotonin and its metabolite 5-HIAA in all the brain structures studied including the hypothalamus. The brain concentrations of noradrenaline or dopamine and its metabolites were not changed in that structure. At the same time, a significant decrease in the serum concentration of the growth hormone and an increase in that of thyroxine were observed. In the liver, the activity of CYP1A, CYP2A, CYP2B, CYP2C11 and CYP3A was diminished, which positively correlated with a decrease in the respective CYP protein levels and a reduction in the mRNA levels of CYP1A2, CYP2A2, CYP2C11, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2. The obtained results provide evidence to prove that brain serotonergic system negatively regulates liver cytochrome P450 expression via endocrine system and suggest mechanisms by which this enzyme may be regulated by drugs with a serotonergic profile such as antidepressants. PMID:26581122

  20. The protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Bauomy, Amira A; Diab, Marwa M S; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F

    2014-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg bwt of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of Physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh 1 h before cadmium for 5 days. Cadmium treatment induced marked disturbances in neurochemical parameters as indicating by significant (p < 0.05) reduction in dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in cerebellum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex and enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in the brain. Cadmium treatment also decreased the amount of nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants significantly (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with MEPh resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decreases in lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels and restored the amount of glutathione successfully. Although, preadministration of MEPh also brought the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase significantly (p < 0.05) to the control levels, as well as the levels of Ca(2+), Cl(-), DA, 5-HT, and serotonin metabolite, 5-HIAA. These data indicated that Physalis has a beneficial effect in ameliorating the cadmium-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in the brain of rats. PMID:25022246

  1. Telotristat Etiprate, a Novel Serotonin Synthesis Inhibitor, in Patients with Carcinoid Syndrome and Diarrhea Not Adequately Controlled by Octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Matthew H.; O’Dorisio, Thomas; Phan, Alexandria; Bergsland, Emily; Law, Linda; Banks, Phillip; Freiman, Joel; Frazier, Kenny; Jackson, Jessica; Yao, James C.; Kvols, Larry; Lapuerta, Pablo; Zambrowicz, Brian; Fleming, Douglas; Sands, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin produced by neuroendocrine tumors is believed to be a principal cause of the diarrhea in carcinoid syndrome. We assessed the safety and efficacy of telotristat etiprate, an oral serotonin synthesis inhibitor, in patients with diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. In this prospective, randomized study, patients with evidence of carcinoid tumor and ≥4 bowel movements (BMs)/day despite stable-dose octreotide LAR depot therapy were enrolled in sequential, escalating, cohorts of 4 patients/cohort. In each cohort, 1 patient was randomly assigned to placebo and 3 patients to telotristat etiprate, at 150, 250, 350, or 500 mg 3x/day (tid). In a subsequent cohort, 1 patient was assigned to placebo and 6 patients to telotristat etiprate 500 mg tid. Patients were assessed for safety, BM frequency (daily diary), 24-hour urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA), and adequate relief of carcinoid gastrointestinal symptoms (using a weekly questionnaire). Twenty-three patients were treated; 18 received telotristat etiprate and 5 received placebo. Adverse events were generally mild. Among evaluable telotristat etiprate-treated patients, 5/18 (28%) experienced a ≥30% reduction in BM frequency for ≥2 weeks, 9/16 (56%) experienced biochemical response (≥50% reduction or normalization in 24-hour u5-HIAA) at Week 2 or 4, and 10/18 (56%) reported adequate relief during at least 1 of the first 4 weeks of treatment. Similar activity was not observed in placebo-treated patients. Telotristat etiprate was well tolerated. Our observations suggest that telotristat etiprate has activity in controlling diarrhea associated with carcinoid syndrome. Further studies confirming these findings are warranted. PMID:25012985

  2. Diurnal patterns in brain biogenic amines of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, B.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Lowery, C.I.; Adey, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of brain neurotransmitters and their metabolites, as well as concentrations of enzymes associated with their synthesis and metabolism, fluctuate during the day in patterns defined as circadian. The present study examined these rhythms in albino rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Thirty-six animals were exposed to a 39 kV/m field for 4 weeks, 20 h/day, in a parallel-plate electrode system. A group of 36 sham animals was similarly handled and housed in a nonenergized exposure system. On the sampling day, animals were sacrificed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h day. Brains were removed, dissected, and kept frozen until chemically analyzed. The levels of biogenic amines and their acidic metabolites in the striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) methods. Repeated exposure to 60-Hz electric fields produced significant alterations in the diurnal rhythms of several biogenic amines: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, the primary metabolite of dopamine in the rat) in the striatum, and norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; serotonin metabolite) in the hypothalamus. Levels of serotonin in the striatum and hypothalamus showed clear circadian patterns that was not affected by the field. No diurnal or field-related changes were observed in the hippocampal amines.

  3. Effect of acute and chronic cholinesterase inhibition on biogenic amines in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Soininen, H; Unni, L; Shillcutt, S

    1990-12-01

    The effects of five cholinesterase inhibitors on forebrain monoamine and their metabolite levels, and on forebrain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity in rat were studied in acute and chronic conditions. Acute tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) dosing caused lower brain (68%) and higher plasma (90%) ChE inhibition than the other drugs studied and increased levels of brain dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (236%), homovanillic acid (HVA) (197%) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) (130%). Acute physostigmine (PHY) administration caused a 215% increase in brain DOPAC content. Despite high brain ChE inhibition induced by metrifonate (MTF), dichlorvos (DDVP) or naled no changes in brain noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5-HT) occurred due to treatment with the study drugs in the acute study. In the chronic 10-day study THA or PHY caused no substantial ChE inhibition in brain when measured 18 hours after the last dose, whereas MTF induced 74% ChE inhibition. Long-term treatment with THA or MTF caused no changes in monoamine levels, but PHY treatment resulted in slightly increased 5-HT values. These results suggest that MTF, DDVP and naled seem to act solely by cholinergic mechanisms. However, the central neuropharmacological mechanism of action of THA and PHY may involve changes in cholinergic as well as dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems. PMID:1711162

  4. Acute effects of a bicyclophosphate neuroconvulsant on monoamine neurotransmitter and metabolite levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, J W; Jung, A E; Narayanan, T K; Ritchie, G D

    1998-07-10

    Naive male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the bicyclophosphate convulsant trimethylolpropane phosphate (TMPP) at dose levels from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/kg. Rats were observed for convulsive activity, and were sacrificed 15 min posttreatment. Levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) and the major metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were assayed in forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, cerebellum and brainstem regions. Neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were compared between control rats and rats that did and did not experience seizures. TMPP administration induced significant decreases in levels of measured neurotransmitters that varied as a function of brain region, dose, and expression of the seizure activity. These results show that tonic or tonic-clonic seizures induced by TMPP administration (0.6 mg/kg) are reliably associated with regional decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Convulsive activity resulting from lower dose administrations (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) of TMPP result only in decreased regional levels of serotonin. PMID:9650574

  5. Neurotransmitter and their metabolite concentrations in different areas of the HPRT knockout mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tschirner, Sarah K; Gutzki, Frank; Schneider, Erich H; Seifert, Roland; Kaever, Volkhard

    2016-06-15

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is characterized by uric acid overproduction and severe neurobehavioral symptoms, such as recurrent self-mutilative behavior. To learn more about the pathophysiology of the disease, we quantified neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata of HPRT knockout mice, an animal model for LNS, in comparison to the corresponding wild-type. Our analyses included l-glutamate, 4-aminobutanoic acid (GABA), acetylcholine, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine, l-normetanephrine, epinephrine and l-metanephrine and were conducted via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Among these neurotransmitter systems, we did not find any abnormalities in the HPRT knockout mouse brains. On one side, this might indicate that HPRT deficiency most severely affects dopamine signaling, while brain functioning based on other neurotransmitters is more or less spared. On the other hand, our findings may reflect a compensating mechanism for impaired purine salvage that protects the brain in HPRT-deficient mice but not in LNS patients. PMID:27206901

  6. Biogenic amine metabolism in juvenile neurocardiogenic syncope with dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Ian J; Lankford, Jeremy E; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Numan, Mohammed T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Biogenic amine brain levels and their cerebral metabolism are frequently studied by quantitation of biogenic amine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to age-matched controls. There is a paucity of studies in adolescents and young adults investigating the potential role of disordered cerebral biogenic amine metabolism in young patients who have dysautonomia based on abnormal head-up tilt table (HUTT). Methods In a cohort of juvenile patients with neurocardiogenic syncope and dysautonomia documented by abnormal HUTT, biogenic amine metabolites of dopamine and serotonin were quantitated in 18 patients (15 females). HUTT testing is an effective clinical method to evaluate posturally induced physiological events in patients suspected of neurocardiogenic syncope with dysautonomia. Results Levels of the dopamine metabolite (homovanillic acid: HVA) and/or the serotonin metabolite (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid: 5HIAA) were significantly reduced in 13 patients compared to age-matched controls. Interpretation Peripheral biogenic amines and their metabolites have been extensively studied in adults with dysautonomia due to various neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, primary autonomic failure). Our findings indicate that more than two-thirds of this cohort of young patients with dysautonomia of variable severity have a defect in cerebral biogenic amines, particularly in dopamine and serotonin metabolism. PMID:25590038

  7. Simultaneous analysis of multiple neurotransmitters by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tufi, Sara; Lamoree, Marja; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim

    2015-05-22

    Neurotransmitters are endogenous metabolites that allow the signal transmission across neuronal synapses. Their biological role is crucial for many physiological functions and their levels can be changed by several diseases. Because of their high polarity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is a promising tool for neurotransmitter analysis. Due to the large number of HILIC stationary phases available, an evaluation of the column performances and retention behaviors has been performed on five different commercial HILIC packing materials (silica, amino, amide and two zwitterionic stationary phases). Several parameters like the linear correlation between retention and the distribution coefficient (logD), the separation factor k and the column resolution Rs have been investigated and the column performances have been visualized with a heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis. An optimized and validated HILIC-MS/MS method based on the ZIC-cHILIC column is proposed for the simultaneous detection and quantification of twenty compounds consisting of neurotransmitters, precursors and metabolites: 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-hydroxy-L-tripthophan, acetylcholine, choline, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, epinephrine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glutamine, histamine, histidine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, norepinephrine, normetanephrine, phenylalanine, serotonin and tyramine. The method was applied to neuronal metabolite profiling of the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. This method is suitable to explore neuronal metabolism and its alteration in different biological matrices. PMID:25869798

  8. Lotus Leaf Alkaloid Extract Displays Sedative-Hypnotic and Anxiolytic Effects through GABAA Receptor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming-Zhu; Chang, Qi; Zhong, Yu; Xiao, Bing-Xin; Feng, Li; Cao, Fang-Rui; Pan, Rei-Le; Zhang, Ze-Sheng; Liao, Yong-Hong; Liu, Xin-Min

    2015-10-28

    Lotus leaves have been used traditionally as both food and herbal medicine in Asia. Open-field, sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping and light/dark box tests were used to evaluate sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic effects of the total alkaloids (TA) extracted from the herb, and the neurotransmitter levels in the brain were determined by ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effects of picrotoxin, flumazenil, and bicuculline on the hypnotic activity of TA, as well as the influence of TA on Cl(-) influx in cerebellar granule cells, were also investigated. TA showed a sedative-hypnotic effect by increasing the brain level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the hypnotic effect could be blocked by picrotoxin and bicuculline, but could not be antagonized by flumazenil. Additionally, TA could increase Cl(-) influx in cerebellar granule cells. TA at 20 mg/kg induced anxiolytic-like effects and significantly increased the concentrations of serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and dopamine (DA). These data demonstrated that TA exerts sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic effects via binding to the GABAA receptor and activating the monoaminergic system. PMID:26448283

  9. Antidepressant-like effect of essential oil of Perilla frutescens in a chronic, unpredictable, mild stress-induced depression model mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei-Wei; Li, Rui-Peng; Li, Meng; Wang, Shu-Yuan; Zhang, Xian; Niu, Xing-Xing; Li, Wei; Yan, Lu; Wang, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shi-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Perilla frutescens (Perilla leaf), a garnishing vegetable in East Asian countries, as well as a plant-based medicine, has been used for centuries to treat various conditions, including depression. Several studies have demonstrated that the essential oil of P. frutescens (EOPF) attenuated the depressive-like behavior in mice. The present study was designed to test the anti-depressant effects of EOPF and the possible mechanisms in an chronic, unpredictable, mild stress (CUMS)-induced mouse model. With the exposure to stressor once daily for five consecutive weeks, EOPF (3, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) and a positive control drug fluoxetine (20 mg·kg(-1)) were administered through gastric intubation to mice once daily for three consecutive weeks from the 3(rd) week. Open-field test, sucrose consumption test, tail suspension test (TST), and forced swimming test (FST) were used to evaluate the behavioral activity. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in mouse hippocampus were determined by HPLC-ECD. Serum interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that CUMS significantly decreased the levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus, with an increase in plasma IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels. CUMS also reduced open-field activity, sucrose consumption, as well as increased immobility duration in FST and TST. EOPF administration could effectively reverse the alterations in the concentrations of 5-HT and 5-HIAA; reduce the IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels. Moreover, EOPF could effectively reverse alterations in immobility duration, sucrose consumption, and open-field activity. However, the effect was not dose-dependent. In conclusion, EOPF administration exhibited significant antidepressant-like effects in mice with CUMS-induced depression. The antidepressant activity of EOPF might be related to the relation between

  10. Increased anxiety in corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptor-null mice requires recent acute stress exposure and is associated with dysregulated serotonergic activity in limbic brain areas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Corticotropin-releasing factor type 2 receptors (CRFR2) are suggested to facilitate successful recovery from stress to maintain mental health. They are abundant in the midbrain raphe nuclei, where they regulate serotonergic neuronal activity and have been demonstrated to mediate behavioural consequences of stress. Here, we describe behavioural and serotonergic responses consistent with maladaptive recovery from stressful challenge in CRFR2-null mice. Results CRFR2-null mice showed similar anxiety levels to control mice before and immediately after acute restraint stress, and also after cessation of chronic stress. However, they showed increased anxiety by 24 hours after restraint, whether or not they had been chronically stressed. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) contents were quantified and the level of 5-HIAA in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) was increased under basal conditions in CRFR2-null mice, indicating increased 5-HT turnover. Twenty-four hours following restraint, 5-HIAA was decreased only in CRFR2-null mice, suggesting that they had not fully recovered from the challenge. In efferent limbic structures, CRFR2-null mice showed lower levels of basal 5-HT in the lateral septum and subiculum, and again showed a differential response to restraint stress from controls. Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMRglu) revealed decreased neuronal activity in the DRN of CRFR2-null mice under basal conditions. Following 5-HT receptor agonist challenge, LCMRglu responses indicated that 5-HT1A receptor responses in the DRN were attenuated in CRFR2-null mice. However, postsynaptic 5-HT receptor responses in forebrain regions were intact. Conclusions These results suggest that CRFR2 are required for proper functionality of 5-HT1A receptors in the raphe nuclei, and are key to successful recovery from stress. This disrupted serotonergic function in CRFR2-null mice likely contributes to their stress-sensitive phenotype. The 5-HT

  11. Involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the modulation of indolamines in diabetic and hyperglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, R; Prabhakaran, K; Jayakumar, A R; Gunasekaran, P; Sheeladevi, R; Suthanthirarajan, N

    2005-05-15

    Hyperglycemia and acidosis are the key factors in diabetic complications. It has been shown that acute or chronic diabetes alters serotonin levels in brain. However, the mechanism of hyperglycemia- or acidosis-induced changes in serotonin levels remains poorly understood. Because Ca2+-dependent protein kinases play a major role in the regulation of serotonin synthesis and release, we investigated the effect of diabetes, hyperglycemia, and acidosis on the level of indolamines [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and/or 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)] and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) enzyme activity or protein expression in different brain regions. Alloxan-induced (45 mg/kg bw) diabetic rats (30 days) showed increased level of 5-HT in striatum (ST; 183%), midbrain (MB; 199%), pons medulla (PM; 151%), cerebellum (CB; 214%), and cerebral cortex (CCX; 162%) compared with control (P < 0.05), and these changes were reversed after insulin administration. Rats treated with glucose (500 mg/kg bw) for 30 days showed a 146%, 183%, 208%, and 177% (P < 0.05) increase in 5-HT levels in ST, PM, CB, and CCX, respectively. 5-HIAA level increased in hippocampus (HC; 172%) and in MB (145%; P < 0.05). In addition, rats treated with sodium acetoacetate (NaAcAc) for 30 days (60 mg/kg bw) showed significant increases (P < 0.05) of 5-HT level in ST (152%) and MB (174%). However, the levels of 5-HIAA increased only in MB (151%, P < 0.05). Rats treated with NH4Cl, which induced acidosis (150 mg/kg bw), showed an increased level of 5-HT only in HC (165%, P < 0.05). The increased activity and protein expression of CaMKII in ST, MB, PM, CB, and CCX under diabetic conditions were correlated with the levels of indolamines changes during diabetic, hyperglycemic, or acidotic conditions. These results suggest that CaMKII may be involved in the regulation of indolamines in diabetic animals. PMID:15846780

  12. Dependence of serotonin release in the locus coeruleus on dorsal raphe neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Kaehler, S T; Singewald, N; Philippu, A

    1999-05-01

    The serotonergic innervation of the locus coeruleus paetly derives from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Using the push-pull superfusion technique, we investigated whether and to what extent the release of serotonin and the extracellular concentration of its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the locus coeruleus are influenced by the neuronal activity of the DRN. In anaesthetized rats, a push-pull cannula was inserted into the locus coeruleus, which was continuously superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). Serotonin and 5-HIAA levels in the superfusate were determined by HPLC combined with electrochemical detection. Electrical stimulation (5 Hz, 300 microA, 1 ms) of the DRN for 5 min, or its chemical stimulation by microinjection of glutamate (3.5 nmol, 50 nl), led to an increased release of serotonin in the locus coeruleus and to a slight (2 mmHg) decrease in blood pressure. Superfusion of the locus coeruleus with tetrodotoxin (1 microM) abolished the increase in the release rate of serotonin evoked by electrical stimulation of the DRN, while the slight fall in blood pressure was not influenced. Thermic lesion (75 degrees C, 1 min) of the DRN elicited a pronounced decline in serotonin release rate within the locus coeruleus, the maximum decrease being 52%. The decrease in the release of serotonin was associated with a long-lasting rise in blood pressure. Microinjection of the serotonin neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5 microg, 250 nl) into the DRN led to an initial increase in the serotonin release rate that coincided with a short-lasting fall in blood pressure. Subsequently, the release of serotonin was permanently reduced and was associated with hypertension. Microinjection of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 7.5 nmol, 50 nl) into the DRN led to a long-lasting reduction of the release rate of serotonin in the locus coeruleus. Microinjection of 8-OH-DPAT into the DRN also slightly

  13. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies. PMID:17553555

  14. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-03-15

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showing direct effects of food allergic immune responses on social behaviour is very limited. In the present study, we show that a food allergic reaction to cow's milk protein, induced shortly after weaning, reduced social behaviour and increased repetitive behaviour in mice. This food allergic reaction increased levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the number of 5-HT positive cells, and decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the intestine. Behavioural changes in food allergic mice were accompanied by reduced dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal activation (c-Fos expression) was increased in the prefrontal cortex and reduced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus after exposure to a social target. We hypothesize that an intestinal allergic response regulates complex, but critical, neuroimmune interactions, thereby affecting brain circuits involved in social interaction, repetitive behaviour and cognition. Together with a genetic predisposition and multiple environmental factors, these effects of allergic immune activation may exacerbate behavioural abnormalities in patients with ASD. PMID:24333575

  15. Whole brain monoamine detection and manipulation in a stalk-eyed fly.

    PubMed

    Bubak, Andrew N; Swallow, John G; Renner, Kenneth J

    2013-09-30

    Understanding the physiological mechanisms that influence conflict resolution is of great importance because the outcome of contests over limited resources such as mates, territories, and food has significant fitness consequences. Male stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni) compete over territory and mates and provide an excellent model system to study aggression. To investigate potential effects of serotonin (5-HT) on aggressive behavior in these flies, we developed a dissection and sample preparation method sufficiently sensitive to measure monoamine concentrations from whole brain samples of small insects. This new method allows the detection of monoamines from a single fly brain using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The method allows for the detection and quantification of octopamine (OA), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), tyramine (TA), and serotonin (5-HT) and provides a means for assessing changes in stalk-eyed fly brain monoamine concentrations in response to drug administration in food media. We successfully elevated 5-HT levels approximately 8-fold that of control levels in stalk-eyed fly brains by oral administration of the 5-HT precursor 5-HTP. Furthermore, in size-matched competitions for a food resource, flies that had elevated 5-HT in response to 5-HTP pretreatment exhibited a high probability of winning the contests. These results suggest that 5-HT enhances aggression in the stalk-eyed fly and highlight the potential of our method for testing putative roles of monoamines in modulating self and rival assessment in conflict resolution. PMID:23891953

  16. Involvement of the central monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of catalpol in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junming; Cui, Ying; Feng, Weisheng; Zhang, Yueyue; Wang, Guifang; Wang, Xingxing; Zhou, Gai

    2014-10-01

    Catalpol is a natural iridoid glycoside with diverse bioactivities that is found in abundance in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (Scrophulariaceae). The present study assessed whether catalpol treatment (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg for 14 days by intragastric administration (i.g.)) has an antidepressant-like effect on mice performing the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), open field test (OFT), and tests for reversal of reserpine-induced ptosis, akinesia, and hypothermia. This study also examined the potential role that catalpol plays in the cerebral monoaminergic system. Results indicated that catalpol administration produced an antidepressant-like effect in mice, as indicated by the reduced duration of immobility in the FST and TST, but it had no effect on locomotor activity in the OFT. Catalpol treatment significantly counteracted the decrease in rectal temperature, akinesia, and eyelid ptosis induced by reserpine. Moreover, catalpol increased levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brains of mice, but it did not affect levels of norepinephrine (NE) or dopamine (DA). These antidepressant-like effects of catalpol are essentially similar to the effects of the clinical antidepressant fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH). This is the first study to indicate that catalpol has an antidepressant-like effect and that its action may be mediated by the central serotonergic system, and not by noradrenergic or dopaminergic systems. PMID:25382440

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL IN VIVO MODEL OF CARCINOID SYNDROME*

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Lindsey N.; Chen, L. Andy; Larson, Shawn D.; Silva, Scott R.; Rychahou, Piotr G.; Boor, Paul J.; Li, Jing; DeFreitas, Gilberto; Stafford, W. Lane; Townsend, Courtney M.

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoid syndrome, characterized by flushing, diarrhea, and valvular heart disease, can occur following carcinoid tumor metastasis to the liver, and systemic release of bioactive hormones into the systemic circulation. Treatment of this devastating disease is hampered by the lack of an in vivo model that recapitulates the clinical syndrome. Here, we have injected BON cells, a novel human carcinoid cell line established in our laboratory, into the spleens of athymic nude mice to establish liver metastases. The majority of mice injected intrasplenically with BON cells developed significant increases in plasma serotonin (5-HT) and urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and several mice exhibited mesenteric fibrosis, diarrhea, and fibrotic cardiac valvular disease reminiscent of carcinoid syndrome both by echocardiographic and histopathologic evaluation. Mice pre-treated with octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analog, or bevacizumab, a VEGF inhibitor, developed fewer liver metastases and manifestations of carcinoid syndrome, including valvular heart disease. We have provided an important in vivo model to further delineate novel treatment modalities for carcinoid syndrome that will also be useful to elucidate the factors contributing to the sequelae of carcinoid disease (eg, mesenteric fibrosis, valvular heart disease). PMID:19336516

  18. A clinicobiochemical study of tryptophan and other plasma and urinary amino acids in the family with Hartnup disease.

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Dragoslav D

    2003-01-01

    Two cases of Hartnup disease were diagnosed in a five member family. A changeable polymorph and severe clinical features of a 16 year old girl was described. Total plasma amino acids value was significantly decreased in the girl compared to the sum of plasma amino acids value in the brother, mother, father and to the summed maximal values of normal range. Intermediate aminoaciduria was also found with atypical amino acids pattern. Total plasma amino acids concentration was significantly reduced (27.20%) in the mother, while no significant decrease in the son (1.83%) and father (7.51%) were found compared to the summed maximal values of normal range. In the clinicaly healthy father, 38 years of age, a gross aminoaciduria with atypical pattern of amino acids was also found. Urinary amino acids concentration in the son and his mother were rather normal, although low concentration of eight amino acids was found in the mother's urine. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid level was reduced in the girl. PMID:15206746

  19. Validated methods for determination of neurotransmitters and metabolites in rodent brain tissue and extracellular fluid by reversed phase UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Marianne Skov-Skov; Bogen, Inger Lise; Lundanes, Elsa; Øiestad, Åse Marit Leere

    2016-08-15

    Fast and sensitive methods for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), the two DA-metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), serotonin (5-HT) and the 5-HT-metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rodent brain tissue (1.0-4000nM) and extracellular fluid (ECF) (0.5-2000nM) based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) have been developed. Of the three different sample preparation methods for brain tissue samples tested, a simple and rapid protein precipitation procedure with formic acid was found to give the best results. The neurotransmitters (NTs) and NT metabolites were separated using UHPLC with an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 C18 column (2.1×100mm, 1.8μm particle size) with acidic mobile phase. Gradient elution with methanol was used and quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The total run time was 5.2min including equilibration time. The methods were validated by determining calibration model, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), matrix effects (ME), carry-over and stability. Surrogate analytes were used to enable determination of the recovery and ME of the endogenous analytes in brain tissue. The methods were applied for determination of NTs at basal levels in rodent brain ECF and brain tissue homogenate. The developed methods are valuable tools in the studies of mechanisms of drugs of abuse, and neurologic and psychiatric disease. PMID:27336704

  20. Aggressiveness and brain amine concentration in dominant and subordinate finishing pigs fed the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Poletto, R; Cheng, H W; Meisel, R L; Garner, J P; Richert, B T; Marchant-Forde, J N

    2010-09-01

    Under farm conditions, aggression related to the formation of social hierarchy and competition for resources can be a major problem because of associated injuries, social stress, and carcass losses. Any factor that may affect the regulation and amount of aggression within a farmed system, for instance, feeding the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine (RAC), is therefore worthy of investigation. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of the widely used swine feed additive RAC, considering also the effects of sex and social rank on aggressiveness and concentrations of brain amines, neurotransmitters essential for controlling aggression, in finishing pigs. Thirty-two barrows and 32 gilts (4 pigs/pen by sex) were fed either a control diet or a diet with RAC (Paylean, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) added (5 mg/kg for 2 wk, followed by 10 mg/kg for 2 wk). The top dominant and bottom subordinate pigs (16 pigs/sex) in each pen were determined after mixing by a 36-h period of continuous behavioral observation. These pigs were then subjected to resident-intruder tests (maximum 300 s) during the feeding trial to measure aggressiveness. At the end of wk 4, the amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and raphe nuclei were dissected and analyzed for concentrations of dopamine (DA); serotonin (5-HT); their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively; norepinephrine; and epinephrine using HPLC. Ractopamine-fed gilts performed more attacks during the first 30 s of testing than pigs in all other subgroups (P < 0.05). By the end of the resident-intruder test (300 s), the dominant control gilts and barrows, and both dominant and subordinate RAC-fed gilts performed the greatest percentage of attacks (P < 0.05). Gilts had decreased norepinephrine and DOPAC concentrations in the amygdala and frontal cortex, and when fed RAC, gilts also had the least 5-HIAA concentration and

  1. The influence of n-3 fatty acids on maternal behavior and brain monoamines in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Harauma, Akiko; Sagisaka, Takayuki; Horii, Taku; Watanabe, Yoshitake; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to use n-3 fatty acid-deficient pregnant mice to assess maternal behavior in the perinatal period. Female mice were fed either an n-3 fatty acid-deficient (n-3 Def) or -adequate (n-3 Adq) diet for two generations. The nest score and volume of the n-3 Def dams were lower than those of the n-3 Adq dams. In the observation of the post-delivery conditions, 40% of the n-3 Def dams attacked their newborns or did not nurse them. The brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of the n-3 Def dams were lower than those of the n-3 Adq dams. In the hippocampus, moreover, positive correlations were observed between the DHA and the 5-HT or 5-HIAA, and a negative correlation was observed between the DHA and the DA. These results suggest that dietary n-3 fatty acids may normalize the development of maternal behavior and prevent postpartum depression. PMID:27033419

  2. A functional polymorphism in the MAOA gene promoter (MAOA-LPR) predicts central dopamine function and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ducci, F; Newman, T K; Funt, S; Brown, G L; Virkkunen, M; Goldman, D

    2006-09-01

    Variation in brain monoaminergic activity is heritable and modulates risk of alcoholism and other addictions, as well as food intake and energy expenditure. Monoamine oxidase A deaminates the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline. The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene (Xp11.5) contains a length polymorphism in its promoter region (MAOA-LPR) that putatively affects transcriptional efficiency. Our goals were to test (1) whether MAOA-LPR contributes to interindividual variation in monoamine activity, assessed using levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolites; and (2) whether MAOA-LPR genotype influences alcoholism and/or body mass index (BMI). Male, unrelated criminal alcoholics (N=278) and controls (N=227) were collected from a homogeneous Finnish source population. CSF concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were available from 208 participants. Single allele, hemizygous genotypes were grouped according to inferred effect of the MAOA alleles on transcriptional activity. MAOA-LPR genotypes had a significant effect on CSF HVA concentration (P=0.01) but explained only 3% of the total variance. There was a detectable but nonsignificant genotype effect on 5-HIAA and no effects on MHPG. Specifically, the genotype conferring high MAOA activity was associated with lower HVA levels in both alcoholics and controls, a finding that persisted after accounting for the potential confounds of alcoholism, BMI, height, and smoking. MAOA-LPR genotype predicted BMI (P<0.005), with the high-activity genotype being associated with lower BMI. MAOA-LPR genotypes were not associated with alcoholism or related psychiatric phenotypes in this data set. Our results suggest that MAOA-LPR allelic variation modulates DA turnover in the CNS, but does so in a manner contrary to our prior expectation that alleles conferring high activity would predict higher HVA levels in

  3. Short-term atrazine exposure causes behavioral deficits and disrupts monoaminergic systems in male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Dodd, Celia A; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2013-01-01

    Excessive exposure to the widely used herbicide atrazine (ATR) affects several organ systems, including the brain, where neurochemical alterations reflective of dopamine (DA) circuitry perturbation have been reported. The present study aimed to investigate effects of short-term oral exposure to a dose-range (0, 5, 25, 125, or 250 mg/kg) of ATR on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular indices of toxicity in adult male C57BL/6 mice. The experimental paradigm included open field, pole and grip tests (day 4), novel object recognition (NOR) and forced swim test (FST; day 9), followed by tissue collection 4h post dosing on day 10. After 4 days of exposure, ATR decreased locomotor activity (≥125 mg/kg). On day 9, ATR-exposed mice exhibited dose-dependent decreased performance in the NOR test (≥25 mg/kg) and spent more time swimming and less time immobile during the FST (≥125 mg/kg). Neurochemically, short-term ATR exposure increased striatal DA and DA turnover (its metabolite homovanillic acid [HVA] and the HVA/DA ratio; ≥125 mg/kg). In addition, ATR exposure increased the levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the striatum (≥125 mg/kg) and it also increased DA turnover (≥125 mg/kg), 5-HIAA (125 mg/kg), and norepinephrine (≥125 mg/kg) levels in the prefrontal cortex. In the hippocampus, the only effect of ATR was to increase the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG; 250 mg/kg). At the molecular level, the expression of key striatal (protein) or nigral (mRNA) markers associated with nigrostriatal DA function, such as tyrosine hydroxylase, DA transporter, vesicular monoamine transporter 2, and DA receptors, was not affected by ATR. These results indicate that short-term ATR exposure targets multiple monoamine pathways at the neurochemical level, including in the striatum, and induces behavioral abnormalities suggestive of impaired motor and cognitive functions and increased anxiety. Impaired

  4. The Functional Study of a Chinese Herbal Compounded Antidepressant Medicine – Jie Yu Chu Fan Capsule on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Hongliang; Yuan, Junliang; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Jie Yu Chu Fan capsule (JYCF) is a new compounded Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of JYCF by using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model and comparing results to that of fluoxetine. Behavioral tests including an open field test, sucrose preference test and forced swim test were performed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of JYCF. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolic products including norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). The results show that a successful mouse CUMS model was established through 5 weeks of continuous unpredictable stimulation, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose preference and locomotor activity and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Chronic treatment of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities. JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) significantly increased NE in CUMS mouse prefrontal cortex (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 respectively) and 5-HT in hippocampus (P < 0.05). In summary, our findings suggest that JYCF exerts comparable antidepressant-like effects to that of fluoxetine in CUMS mice. Besides, the antidepressant-like effect of JYCF is mediated by the increase of monoaminergic transmitters including 5-HT and NE. PMID:26186537

  5. Enhanced synthesis and release of dopamine in transgenic mice with gain-of-function α6* nAChRs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiang; Lee, Jang-Won; Oh, Gyeon; Grady, Sharon R.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Brunzell, Darlene H.; Cannon, Jason R.; Drenan, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    α6β2* nAChRs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens (NAc) pathway are implicated in the response to nicotine, and recent work suggests these receptors play a role in the rewarding action of ethanol. Here, we studied mice expressing gain-of-function α6β2* nAChRs (α6L9’S mice) that are hypersensitive to nicotine and endogenous acetylcholine (ACh). Evoked extracellular dopamine (DA) levels were enhanced in α6L9’S NAc slices compared to control, non-transgenic (nonTg) slices. Extracellular DA levels in both nonTg and α6L9’S slices were further enhanced in the presence of GBR12909, suggesting intact DA transporter function in both mouse strains. Ongoing α6β2* nAChR activation by ACh plays a role in enhancing DA levels, as α-conotoxin MII completely abolished evoked DA release in α6L9’S slices and decreased spontaneous DA release from striatal synaptosomes. In HPLC experiments, α6L9’S NAc tissue contained significantly more DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) compared to nonTg NAc tissue. Serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine (NE) were unchanged in α6L9’S compared to nonTg tissue. Western blot analysis revealed increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression in α6L9’S NAc. Overall, these results show that enhanced α6β2* nAChR activity in NAc can stimulate DA production and lead to increased extracellular DA levels. PMID:24266758

  6. Acute Administration of Clozapine and Risperidone Altered Dopamine Metabolism More in Rat Caudate than in Nucleus Accumbens: A Dose-Response Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Farhat; Haleem, Muhammad A.; Haleem, Darakhshan J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study compares the extrapyramidal and neurochemical effects of clozapine and risperidone in rat caudate (corpus striatum) and nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum) dose-dependently. Animals injected with clozapine (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg IP) or risperidone (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg IP) in acute were sacrificed 1 h later to collect brain samples. Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) in terms of locomotor activity and catalepsy were monitored in each animal after the drug or vehicle administration. Maximum cataleptic potentials were found only at high doses of clozapine (10.0 mg/kg; 60%) and risperidone (5.0 mg/kg; 100%). Neurochemical estimations were carried out by HPLC-EC. Both drugs at all doses significantly (p<0.01) increased the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of DA, in the caudate nucleus and decreased in nucleus accumbens. Levels of Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) significantly (p<0.01) increased in the caudate by clozapine administration and decreased in the nucleus accumbens by the administration of both drugs in a dose-dependent manner. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the predominant metabolite of serotonin significantly decreased in the caudate and nucleus accumbens in a similar fashion. Levels of tryptophan (TRP) were remained insignificant in caudate and nucleus accumbens by the injections of two drugs. In caudate, clozapine and risperidone administrations significantly (p<0.01) decreased HVA/DA ratio and increased DOPAC/DA ratio in nucleus accumbens at all doses. The findings suggest the evidence for DA/5-HT receptor interaction as an important link in the lower incidence of EPS. The possible role of serotonin1A receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is also discussed. PMID:21179339

  7. High dose sapropterin dihydrochloride therapy improves monoamine neurotransmitter turnover in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Winn, Shelley R; Scherer, Tanja; Thöny, Beat; Harding, Cary O

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in phenylketonuria (PKU). Increased brain phenylalanine concentration likely competitively inhibits the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for TH and TPH activity. Our hypothesis was that treatment of hyperphenylalaninemic Pah(enu2/enu2) mice, a model of human PKU, with sapropterin dihydrochloride, a synthetic form of BH4, would stimulate TH and TPH activities leading to improved dopamine and serotonin synthesis despite persistently elevated brain phenylalanine. Sapropterin (20, 40, or 100mg/kg body weight in 1% ascorbic acid) was administered daily for 4 days by oral gavage to Pah(enu2/enu2) mice followed by measurement of brain biopterin, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and monoamine neurotransmitter content. A significant increase in brain biopterin content was detected only in mice that had received the highest sapropterin dose, 100mg/kg. Blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations were unchanged by sapropterin therapy. Sapropterin therapy also did not alter the absolute amounts of dopamine and serotonin in brain but was associated with increased homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine and serotonin metabolites respectively, in both wild type and Pah(enu2/enu2) mice. Oral sapropterin therapy likely does not directly affect central nervous system monoamine synthesis in either wild type or hyperphenylalaninemic mice but may stimulate synaptic neurotransmitter release and subsequent metabolism. PMID:26653793

  8. Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline A; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  9. Problem drinking in relation to treatment outcome among opiate addicts in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Stenbacka, M; Beck, O; Leifman, A; Romelsjö, A; Helander, A

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed indicators of alcohol-related problems in opiate addicts before, during, and after leaving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), in relation to illicit drug use and retention in treatment. The study was based on 204 patients, admitted to MMT for the first time between 1 January 1995 and 31 July 2000, and followed until 31 December 2000. Three measures were used to indicate alcohol use and alcohol-related problems; records of hospital care with an alcohol-related diagnosis, any treatment with alcohol-sensitizing drugs (disulfiram or calcium carbimide) during MMT, and results of the 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ratio (5HTOL/5HIAA) in urine, a sensitive biomarker for recent drinking. Use of illicit drugs was determined by routine urine drug testing. About one third of the patients (n = 69) had a lifetime prevalence of hospital treatment for an alcohol-related diagnosis, 45 of whom had been hospitalized (mean 4.2 stays) prior to the start of MMT. There was a significant association (p<0.05) between the number of alcohol-related diagnoses prior to treatment and a positive 5HTOL/5HIAA test during MMT. The alcohol indicators first became positive on average 1.6 years after admission to treatment, compared with after about 4 months for illicit drugs. Use of cannabis or benzodiazepines was significantly associated with alcohol use. Female methadone patients with indications of alcohol-related problems relapsed more often into illicit drug use than did women without such indications (3.9 vs. 2.5 relapse periods/year; p<0.005), whereas no significant association was found for men. The results of the present study indicate that drinking problems among patients undergoing MMT is associated with an increased risk of relapse into illicit drug use and with discharge from treatment. Concurrent treatment of alcohol-related problems, including systematic monitoring of alcohol use, therefore should be recommended to reduce the risk for relapse

  10. Comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan signaling pathway characteristics in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Feng-Yan; Huang, Shao-Gang; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Ye, Hua; Chi, Hong-Gang; Zou, Ying; Lv, Ru-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study differences in the visceral sensitivity of the colonic mucosa between patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and those with ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission and to relate these differences with changes in the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) signaling pathway. METHODS: Gastrointestinal symptoms were used to determine the clinical symptom scores and rectal visceral sensitivity of patients with IBS-D and patients with UC in remission. Blood levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured using an HPLC-electrochemical detection system. The levels of 5-HT 3 receptor (3R), 4R, and 7R mRNAs in colonic biopsy samples were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of TPH1 was analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Abdominal pain or discomfort, stool frequency, and the scores of these symptoms in combination with gastrointestinal symptoms were higher in the IBS-D and UC groups than in the control groups. However, no significant differences were observed between the IBS-D and UC remission groups. With respect to rectal visceral sensitivity, the UC remission and IBS-D groups showed a decrease in the initial perception threshold, defecating threshold and pain threshold. However, these groups exhibited significantly increased anorectal relaxation pressure. Tests examining the main indicators of the 5-HT signaling pathway showed that the plasma 5-HT levels, 5-HIAA concentrations, TPH1 expression in the colonic mucosa, and 5-HT3R and 5-HT5R expression were increased in both the IBS-D and the UC remission groups; no increases were observed with respect to 5-HT7R expression. CONCLUSION: The IBS-D and UC groups showed similar clinical symptom scores, visceral sensitivity, and levels of serotonin signaling pathway indicators in the plasma and colonic mucosa. However, the pain threshold and 5-HT7R expression in the colonic mucosa were significantly different

  11. DRD4 dopamine receptor genotype and CSF monoamine metabolites in Finnish alcoholics and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.D.; Dean, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is thus far unique among neurotransmitter receptors in having a highly polymorphic gene structure that has been reported to produce altered receptor functioning. These allelic variations are caused by a 48-bp segment in exon III of the coding region which may be repeated from 2-10 times. Varying the numbers of repeated segments changes the length, structure, and, possibly, the functional efficiency of the receptor, which makes this gene an intriguing candidate for variations in dopamine-related behaviors, such as alcoholism and drug abuse. Thus far, these DRD4 alleles have been investigated for association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson`s disease, and chronic alcoholism, and all have been largely negative for a direct association. We evaluated the DRD4 genotype in 226 Finish adult males, 113 of whom were alcoholics, many of the early onset type with features of impulsivity and antisocial traits. Genotype frequencies were compared to 113 Finnish controls who were free of alcohol abuse, substance abuse, and major mental illness. In 70 alcoholics and 20 controls, we measured CSF homovanillic acid (HVA), the major metabolite of dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No association was found between a particular DRD4 dopamine receptor allele and alcoholism. CSF concentrations of the monoamine metabolites showed no significant difference among the DRD4 genotypes. This study of the DRD4 dopamine receptor in alcoholics is the first to be conducted in a clinically and ethnically homogeneous population and to relate the DRD4 genotype to CSF monoamine concentrations. The results indicate that there is no association of the DRD4 receptor with alcoholism. 52 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effect of Acute Swim Stress on Plasma Corticosterone and Brain Monoamine Levels in Bidirectionally Selected DxH Recombinant Inbred Mouse Strains Differing in Fear Recall and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Caroline A.; Hanke, Joachim; Rose, Claudia; Walsh, Irene; Foley, Tara; Clarke, Gerard; Schwegler, Herbert; Cryan, John F.; Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. Two DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains with a DBA/2J background, which were originally bred for a high (H-FSS) and low fear-sensitized acoustic startle reflex (L-FSS), were used. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 minutes after stress compared to H-FSS mice. Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25117886

  13. The Antidepressant-Like Effect of Fish Oil: Possible Role of Ventral Hippocampal 5-HT1A Post-synaptic Receptor.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, Bruno; Delattre, Ana Marcia; Pudell, Claudia; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Suchecki, Deborah; Machado, Ricardo B; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Piazzetta, Sílvia Regina; Hammerschmidt, Ivilim; Zanata, Sílvio M; Lima, Marcelo M S; Zanoveli, Janaína Menezes; Ferraz, Anete Curte

    2015-08-01

    The pathophysiology of depression is not completely understood; nonetheless, numerous studies point to serotonergic dysfunction as a possible cause. Supplementation with fish oil rich docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) during critical periods of development produces antidepressant effects by increasing serotonergic neurotransmission, particularly in the hippocampus. In a previous study, the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors was demonstrated and we hypothesized that fish oil supplementation (from conception to weaning) alters the function of post-synaptic hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors. To test this hypothesis, female rats were supplemented with fish oil during habituation, mating, gestation, and lactation. The adult male offspring was maintained without supplementation until 3 months of age, when they were subjected to the modified forced swimming test (MFST) after infusion of vehicle or the selective 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY100635, and frequency of swimming, immobility, and climbing was recorded for 5 min. After the behavioral test, the hippocampi were obtained for quantification of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and for 5-HT1A receptor expression by Western blotting analysis. Fish oil-supplemented offspring displayed less depressive-like behaviors in the MFST reflected by decreased immobility and increased swimming and higher 5-HT hippocampal levels. Although there was no difference in the expression of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors, intra-hippocampal infusion of a sub-effective dose of 8-OH-DPAT enhanced the antidepressant effect of fish oil in supplemented animals. In summary, the present findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of fish oil supplementation are likely related to increased hippocampal serotonergic neurotransmission and sensitization of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:25139282

  14. Tryptophan-induced central fatigue in exercising rats is related to serotonin content in preoptic area.

    PubMed

    Soares, Danusa Dias; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Marubayashi, Umeko

    2007-03-30

    To assess the effects of increased hypothalamic tryptophan (TRP) availability on 5-HT content in preoptic area on thermoregulation and work production during exercise on treadmill, 20.3 microM of L-TRP (n=7) or 0.15M NaCl (n=6) was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle of male Wistar rats immediately before the animals started running (18 m min(-1) 5% inclination). Exercise time to fatigue (min), and workload (kgm) were analysed. Core temperature was measured by telemetry. At fatigue, brains were quickly removed and preoptic area (POA), hypothalamus (HP), frontal cortex (FC), hippocampi (HC) were rapidly dissected and frozen immediately in dry ice. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured by HPLC. TRP-exercised rats showed the highest content of 5-HT in the POA and the lowest in the hippocampi compared to the rested and SAL-exercised rats. An inverse relationship between TF and a direct correlation with body temperature changes and POA-5HT levels were observed. A correlation between HC 5-HT content and TF was also found. However, there was no correlation between HC 5-HT content and changes in Tb at fatigue. Finally, our results bring further evidences that increased 5-HT content in POA is involved with an increase in heat production during exercise. In addition, the direct correlation of 5-HT level in hippocampi and TF of TRP-exercised rats suggests that this brain area is also related to motor activity control during exercise. In conclusion, our data indicated that tryptophan-induced central fatigue in exercising rats is related to serotonin content in preoptic area. PMID:17280786

  15. Brain glycogen decreases during prolonged exercise

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Brain glycogen could be a critical energy source for brain activity when the glucose supply from the blood is inadequate (hypoglycaemia). Although untested, it is hypothesized that during prolonged exhaustive exercise that induces hypoglycaemia and muscular glycogen depletion, the resultant hypoglycaemia may cause a decrease in brain glycogen. Here, we tested this hypothesis and also investigated the possible involvement of brain monoamines with the reduced levels of brain glycogen. For this purpose, we exercised male Wistar rats on a treadmill for different durations (30–120 min) at moderate intensity (20 m min−1) and measured their brain glycogen levels using high-power microwave irradiation (10 kW). At the end of 30 and 60 min of running, the brain glycogen levels remained unchanged from resting levels, but liver and muscle glycogen decreased. After 120 min of running, the glycogen levels decreased significantly by ∼37–60% in five discrete brain loci (the cerebellum 60%, cortex 48%, hippocampus 43%, brainstem 37% and hypothalamus 34%) compared to those of the sedentary control. The brain glycogen levels in all five regions after running were positively correlated with the respective blood and brain glucose levels. Further, in the cortex, the levels of methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), potential involved in degradation of the brain glycogen, increased during prolonged exercise and negatively correlated with the glycogen levels. These results support the hypothesis that brain glycogen could decrease with prolonged exhaustive exercise. Increased monoamines together with hypoglycaemia should be associated with the development of decreased brain glycogen, suggesting a new clue towards the understanding of central fatigue during prolonged exercise. PMID:21521757

  16. 5-HT7 receptor modulates GABAergic transmission in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus and controls cortical release of serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Kusek, Magdalena; Sowa, Joanna; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Hess, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the several serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes that are expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Some earlier findings suggested that 5-HT7 receptors in the DRN were localized on GABAergic interneurons modulating the activity of 5-HT projection neurons. The aim of the present study was to find out how the 5-HT7 receptor modulates the GABAergic synaptic input to putative 5-HT DRN neurons, and whether blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor would affect the release of 5-HT in the target structure. Male Wistar rats with microdialysis probes implanted in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) received injections of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride (SB 269970), which induced an increase in the levels of 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the PFC. In another set of experiments whole-cell recordings from presumed projection neurons were carried out using DRN slices. SB 269970 application resulted in depolarization and in an increase in the firing frequency of the cells. In order to activate 5-HT7 receptors, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) was applied in the presence of N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635). Hyperpolarization of cells and a decrease in the firing frequency were observed after activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. Blockade of 5-HT7 receptors caused a decrease in the mean frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs), while its activation induced an increase. The mechanism of these effects appears to involve tonically-active 5-HT7 receptors modulating firing and/or GABA release from inhibitory interneurons which regulate the activity of DRN serotonergic projection neurons. PMID:26347612

  17. The mechanisms involved in the long-lasting neuroprotective effect of fluoxetine against MDMA (‘ecstasy')-induced degeneration of 5-HT nerve endings in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, V; Camarero, J; Esteban, B; Peter, M J; Green, A R; Colado, M I

    2001-01-01

    It has been reported that co-administration of fluoxetine with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') prevents MDMA-induced degeneration of 5-HT nerve endings in rat brain. The mechanisms involved have now been investigated. MDMA (15 mg kg−1, i.p.) administration produced a neurotoxic loss of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in cortex, hippocampus and striatum and a reduction in cortical [3H]-paroxetine binding 7 days later. Fluoxetine (10 mg kg−1, i.p., ×2, 60 min apart) administered concurrently with MDMA or given 2 and 4 days earlier provided complete protection, and significant protection when given 7 days earlier. Fluvoxamine (15 mg kg−1, i.p., ×2, 60 min apart) only produced neuroprotection when administered concurrently. Fluoxetine (10 mg kg−1, ×2) markedly increased the KD and reduced the Bmax of cortical [3H]-paroxetine binding 2 and 4 days later. The Bmax was still decreased 7 days later, but the KD was unchanged. [3H]-Paroxetine binding characteristics were unchanged 24 h after fluvoxamine (15 mg kg−1, ×2). A significant cerebral concentration of fluoxetine plus norfluoxetine was detected over the 7 days following fluoxetine administration. The fluvoxamine concentration had decreased markedly by 24 h. Pretreatment with fluoxetine (10 mg kg−1, ×2) failed to alter cerebral MDMA accumulation compared to saline pretreated controls. Neither fluoxetine or fluvoxamine altered MDMA-induced acute hyperthermia. These data demonstrate that fluoxetine produces long-lasting protection against MDMA-induced neurodegeneration, an effect apparently related to the presence of the drug and its active metabolite inhibiting the 5-HT transporter. Fluoxetine does not alter the metabolism of MDMA or its rate of cerebral accumulation. PMID:11522596

  18. Effect of exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in utero on fetal growth: potential role for the IGF-I and HPA axes.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Shmuel; Prokonov, Diana; Taler, Michal; Maayan, Rachel; Harell, Daniella; Gil-Ad, Irit; Weizman, Abraham

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the possible effect of fetal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on somatic growth and on hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axes, we compared the anthropometric parameters and hormonal profile of 21 SSRI-exposed infants and 20 matched controls. The SSRI group was characterized by lower crown-heel length (p < 0.01), smaller head circumference (p = 0.08), and higher percentage of infants with birth weight, birth length, and head circumference below the 10th percentile (p < 0.045, p = 0.08, p < 0.04, respectively), in addition to a significantly lower cord blood level of cortisol (p < 0.03) and higher level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (p < 0.004). Infants exposed to citalopram had a lower cord blood IGF-I level than infants exposed to paroxetine (p < 0.001) and controls (p < 0.003). Placental IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression was significantly higher in the SSRI group than in controls (p < 0.01). Urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) level was negatively correlated with birth weight (r = -0.71, p < 0.025) and with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level (r = -0.71, p < 0.025). The Finnegan score was correlated with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (r = 0.8, p < 0.005) and cortisol (r = 0.62, p = 0.05). Fetal exposure to SSRIs causes impaired intrauterine growth accompanied by alterations in the IGF-I and HPA axes. The findings may raise concern regarding maternal use of SSRIs during pregnancy. PMID:19262294

  19. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. PMID:25445491

  20. Effects of aspartame and glucose administration on brain and plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and brain 5-hydroxyindoles.

    PubMed

    Yokogoshi, H; Roberts, C H; Caballero, B; Wurtman, R J

    1984-07-01

    Administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartylphenylalanylmethyl ester; 200 mg/kg) by gavage to rats caused large increments in brain and plasma levels of phenylalanine and its product tyrosine. Glucose administration (3 g/kg, by gavage, a dose sufficient to cause insulin-mediated reductions in plasma levels of the large neutral amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine) also elevated brain phenylalanine and tyrosine, and enhanced the increments caused by the aspartame, nearly doubling the rise in brain phenylalanine. Each animal's brain phenylalanine or tyrosine levels were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.99, respectively) with its plasma phenylalanine or tyrosine ratios, affirming that aspartame's effects on the brain amino acids result from the changes it produces in plasma composition. As described previously, glucose consumption increased brain tryptophan levels, and consequently, brain levels of the 5-hydroxyindoles serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Aspartame alone had no effect on these compounds but completely blocked the changes in 5-hydroxyindoles caused by glucose. Each animal's brain level of tryptophan (r = 0.89) and 5-hydroxyindoles (r = 0.74) was also significantly correlated with its plasma tryptophan ratio, affirming that the effects of glucose or aspartame on these brain constituents also result from the changes they produce in plasma composition. The aspartame-glucose combination also reduced brain levels of leucine, isoleucine, and valine to a significantly greater extent than aspartame or glucose alone. These observations indicate that high aspartame doses can generate major neurochemical changes in rats, especially when consumed along with carbohydrate-containing foods. However, they should not in any way be interpreted as demonstrating that aspartame significantly affects the human brain. PMID:6204522

  1. Monoamine metabolite concentrations in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid of patients with histologically verified Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, A M; Sims, N R; Bowen, D M; Neary, D; Palo, J; Wikstrom, J; Davison, A N

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were determined in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from control subjects and patients of both presenile and senile age with histologically verified Alzheimer's dementia. CSF HVA increased with age in control but not in Alzheimer patients. HVA and 5-HIAA in the CSF of presenile Alzheimer patients was lower than that of age matched control subjects. PMID:6204017

  2. Valerenic Acid Protects Against Physical and Psychological Stress by Reducing the Turnover of Serotonin and Norepinephrine in Mouse Hippocampus-Amygdala Region.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-12-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that a Valeriana officinalis extract could attenuate increases in serum corticosterone levels in a mouse model of physical and psychological stress. In addition, our results showed that the extract could modulate serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) turnover in the hippocampus and amygdala region. In this study, we intended to investigate the effects of valerenic acid (VA), the main component of V. officinalis extract, on corticosterone levels in serum in normal mice and monoamine turnover in hippocampus-amygdala homogenates in a mouse model of physical and psychological stress. To determine the minimum dose of VA for antianxiety effect, eight-week-old ICR mice were orally administered VA (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg/0.3 mL) once daily for 3 weeks to probe for immobility time and serum corticosterone levels. At a VA dose of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, animals showed a decrease in the duration of immobility time and serum corticosterone levels. To confirm the antianxiety effect of VA, eight-week-old ICR mice received VA at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, orally, once daily for 3 weeks, before being subjected to physical or psychological stress for 3 days, in a specially designed communication box, followed by estimation of levels of monoamines and their metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region. In conclusion, VA administration at 0.5 mg/kg can mitigate the physical and psychological stress response by decreasing the turnover of 5-HT to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and NE to 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol sulfate in the hippocampus and amygdala. PMID:26177123

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites and suicide.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Prospective studies of the serotonergic system and suicide report that low 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a history of attempted suicide predict suicide risk. Low CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) is reported to be associated with past and future lethality of suicide attempts but not with suicide. The interrelationships between monoamine metabolites, violent method, suicide intent and lethality of suicidal behaviour are complex. We hypothesized that CSF 5-HIAA and HVA levels are related to suicide intent, violence and lethality of suicidal behaviour. Fifteen male suicide attempters admitted to a psychiatric ward at the Karolinska University Hospital and eight healthy male volunteers were submitted to lumbar puncture and CSF 5-HIAA and HVA were assayed. Suicide intent with the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), lethality and violence of suicidal behaviour were assessed. All patients were followed up for causes of death. Six suicides and one fatal accident were identified with death certificates. Mean CSF 5-HIAA but not CSF HVA differed between suicides and survivors. Violent suicides had higher suicide intent and CSF 5-HIAA than non-violent suicides. In violent suicides, CSF 5-HIAA levels were negatively correlated with SIS. Greater suicide intent may be associated with greater aggressive intent and predicts a violent suicide method. PMID:19034712

  4. Effects of COMT inhibitors on striatal dopamine metabolism: A microdialysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaakkola, S.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    In vivo microdialysis was used to examine the effect of two new catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, Ro 40-7592 and OR-611, on extracellular levels of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in rat striatum. The interactions of the COMT inhibitors with nomifensine, clorgyline, and deprenyl were also studied. Ro 40-7592 (3-30 mg/kg. i.p.) decreased dose-dependently the efflux of HVA, increased that of DOPAC, and tended to increase that of dopamine. Higher doses of OR-611 (30-100 mg/kg, i.p.) also decreased the dialysate level of HVA, increased that of DOPAC, and tended to increase that of dopamine. Ro 40-7592 was about ten-fold as potent as OR-611. Neither of the COMT inhibitors changed dialysate levels of 6-HIAA. An OR-611 dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. had no significant effect, in contrast to Ro 40-7592, on any of the parameters studied; this dose was thus used to differentiate between the effects of central and peripheral COMT inhibition. Both nomifensine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) and clorgyline (4 mg/kg, i.p.) alone elevated extracellular dopamine levels, and lowered those of DOPAC and HVA, though there were quantitative and temporal differences between the drugs. L-deprenyl (1 mg/kg, i.p.) alone had no significant effect on any of the compounds measured. Ro 40-7592 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effect of nomifensine on dopamine efflux, and it tended to increase clorgyline-induced dopamine efflux. DOPAC levels in dialysates were significantly increased by combinations of Ro 40-7592 and nomifensine or clorgyline, whereas HVA remained about as low as they were after Ro 40-7592 alone. Ro 40-7592 had no significant interactions with L-deprenyl. OR-611 (10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not modify the effects on dopamine metabolism of nomifensine, clorgyline, or L-deprenyl. These data show that Ro 40-7592 is a potent centrally active COMT inhibitor, whereas OR-611 is principally a peripherally active inhibitor

  5. Protective Effect of Spermidine Against Excitotoxic Neuronal Death Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats: Possible Neurotransmitters and Neuroinflammatory Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Sumit; Singh, Shamsher; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Puneet

    2015-08-01

    Huntington disease is hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by selective and immense degradation of GABAergic medium spiny neurons in striatum. Quinolinic acid (QA)-induced neurotoxicity involves a cascade of events such as excitotoxicity, ATP depletion, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, as well as selective GABAergic neuronal loss. Therefore, we investigated spermidine, an endogenous molecule with free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic properties, for its beneficial potential if any, in QA-induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Rats were administered with QA (200 nmol/2 µl saline) bilaterally on 0 day. Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 21 days once a day. Behavioral parameters (body weight, locomotor activity, grip strength, and narrow beam walk) observations were done on 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after QA treatment. On 21st day, animals were sacrificed and rat striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH, Nitrite), neuroinflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and neurochemical analysis (GABA, glutamate, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA, adenosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, and inosine). QA treatment significantly altered body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination, oxidative defense (increased LPO, nitrite, and decreased GSH), pro-inflammatory levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), GABA, glutamate, catecholamines level (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites), and purines level (adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine). Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated these alterations in body weight, motor impairments, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory markers, GABA, glutamate, catecholamines, adenosine, and their metabolites levels in striatum. The neuroprotective effect of spermidine against QA-induced excitotoxic cell death is attributed to its antioxidant, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic, anti

  6. Fish oil improves anxiety-like, depressive-like and cognitive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Pudell, Claudia; Vicente, Bianca A; Delattre, Ana M; Carabelli, Bruno; Mori, Marco A; Suchecki, Deborah; Machado, Ricardo B; Zanata, Sílvio M; Visentainer, Jesuí V; de Oliveira Santos Junior, Oscar; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ferraz, Anete C

    2014-01-01

    Depression is increasingly present in the population, and its pathophysiology and treatment have been investigated with several animal models, including olfactory bulbectomy (Obx). Fish oil (FO) supplementation during the prenatal and postnatal periods decreases depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors. The present study evaluated the effect of FO supplementation on Obx-induced depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment. Female rats received supplementation with FO during habituation, mating, gestation, and lactation, and their pups were subjected to Obx in adulthood; after the recovery period, the adult offspring were subjected to behavioral tests, and the hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT) and the metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) were determined. Obx led to increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, and impairment in the object location task. All behavioral changes were reversed by FO supplementation. Obx caused reductions in the levels of hippocampal BDNF and 5-HT, whereas FO supplementation restored these levels to normal values. In control rats, FO increased the hippocampal level of 5-HT and reduced that of 5-HIAA, indicating low 5-HT metabolism in this brain region. The present results indicate that FO supplementation during critical periods of brain development attenuated anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors and cognitive dysfunction induced by Obx. These results may be explained by increased levels of hippocampal BDNF and 5-HT, two major regulators of neuronal survival and long-term plasticity in this brain structure. PMID:24191918

  7. Effects of interaction of an early experience of reward through maternal contact or its denial with social stress during adolescence on the serotonergic system and the stress responsiveness of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Raftogianni, A; Diamantopoulou, A; Alikaridis, F; Stamatakis, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2012-05-01

    Experiences during critical periods, such as the neonatal and adolescence, play a critical role in determining adult stress-coping behavior. Based on the aforementioned we developed an experimental protocol, which included a neonatal experience and a social stress during adolescence. The serotonergic system is known as an important modulator of coping ability and, in general, emotional balance in both normal and pathological states, such as depression and anxiety, for which females are more vulnerable. Thus in the present work we used female rats and determined 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala (AMY). During postnatal days 10-13 (PND 10-13) rat pups were exposed to a T-maze, one arm of which lead to the mother. One group of animals was allowed contact with the mother (rewarded-receiving expected reward (RER)), whereas the other was denied the expected reward (DER). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that in both the PFC and in AMY, adult RER animals had higher basal 5-HT levels. Furthermore, in the AMY of this group of animals, higher levels of 5-HT(1A) receptors were detected by Western blot analysis. In adulthood rats were exposed to the Forced Swimming Test/Stress (FST/S). RER animals not exposed to the adolescent stress exhibited longer immobility time during both the first and second day of FST. Corticosterone levels following the FST fell faster in the DER animals. Adolescent stress affected the responses to the adult FSS only in the DER animals, which had decreased 5-HT in the AMY and increased immobility time on both days of the FST, compared with the DER, not stressed in adolescence. The phenotype of the DER animals is in line with the "match-mismatch" hypothesis, which states that if two events during critical periods of life "match" in being mildly stressful, their interaction can be adaptive. PMID

  8. Ethanol, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) and their combination: long-term behavioral, neurochemical and neuropharmacological effects in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Riegert, Céline; Rutz, Susanne; Koenig, Julie; Rothmaier, Katharina; Cosquer, Brigitte; Lazarus, Christine; Birthelmer, Anja; Jeltsch, Hélène; Jones, Byron C; Jackisch, Rolf

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated long-term behavioral, neurochemical, and neuropharmacological effects of ethanol-(+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) combinations. Over 4 consecutive days, male Long-Evans rats received 1.5 g/kg ethanol and/or 10 mg/kg MDMA, or saline. Rectal temperatures were taken in some rats. Starting 4 days after the last injection, we tested working memory, sensory-motor coordination, and anxiety. Subsequently, we measured cortical, striatal, septal, and hippocampal monoamines (last MDMA injection-euthanasia delay: 20 days), or electrically evoked release of serotonin (5-HT) in cortical and hippocampal slices, and its modulation in the presence of CP 93,129 (3-(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyrid-4-yl)pyrrollo[3,2-b]pyrid-5-one) or methiotepin (last MDMA injection-euthanasia delays: 3-6 weeks). Ethanol attenuated the MDMA-induced hyperthermia, but only on the first day. In the long-term, MDMA reduced 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content in most brain regions. The behavioral and neurochemical effects of the ethanol-MDMA combination were comparable to those of MDMA alone; sensory-motor coordination was altered after ethanol and/or MDMA. In hippocampal slices from rats given ethanol and MDMA, the CP 93,129-induced inhibition and methiotepin-induced facilitation of 5-HT release were stronger and weaker, respectively, than in the other groups. This is the first study addressing long-term effects of repeated MDMA and EtOH combined treatments in experimental animals. Whereas the drug combination produced the same behavioral and neurochemical effects as MDMA alone, our neuropharmacological results suggest that MDMA-EtOH interactions may have specific long-term consequences on presynaptic modulation of hippocampal 5-HT release, but not necessarily related to MDMA-induced depletion of 5-HT. Thus, it is likely that the psycho(patho)logical problems reported by ecstasy users drinking alcohol are not solely due to the consumption of MDMA

  9. Simplified dietary acute tryptophan depletion: effects of a novel amino acid mixture on the neurochemistry of C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Cristina L.; Van Swearingen, Amanda E. D.; Arrant, Andrew E.; Biskup, Caroline S.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Zepf, Florian D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diet and nutrition can impact on the biological processes underpinning neuropsychiatric disorders. Amino acid (AA) mixtures lacking a specific neurotransmitter precursor can change the levels of brain serotonin (5-HT) or dopamine (DA) in the central nervous system. The availability of these substances within the brain is determined by the blood–brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the access of peripheral AA into the brain. AA mixtures lacking tryptophan (TRP) compete with endogenous TRP for uptake into the brain across the BBB, which in turn leads to a decrease in central nervous 5-HT synthesis. Objective The present study compared the effects of a simplified acute tryptophan depletion (SATD) mixture in mice on blood and brain serotonergic and dopaminergic metabolites to those of a commonly used acute tryptophan depletion mixture (ATD Moja-De) and its TRP-balanced control (BAL). Design The SATD formula is composed of only three large neutral AAs: phenylalanine (PHE), leucine (LEU), and isoleucine (ILE). BAL, ATD Moja-De, or SATD formulas were delivered to adult male C57BL/6J mice by gavage. TRP, monoamines, and their metabolites were quantified in blood and brain regions (hippocampus, frontal cortex, amygdala, caudate putamen, and nucleus accumbens). Results Both ATD Moja-De and SATD significantly decreased levels of serum and brain TRP, as well as brain 5-HIAA and 5-HT compared with BAL. SATD reduced HVA levels in caudate but did not alter total DA levels or DOPAC. SATD decreased TRP and serotonergic metabolites comparably to ATD Moja-De administration. Conclusion A simplified and more palatable combination of AAs can manipulate serotonergic function and might be useful to reveal underlying monoamine-related mechanisms contributing to different neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26278978

  10. [Neurochemical study of effects of the new anxiolytic drugs afobazol and ladasten on the synthesis and metabolism of monoamines and their metabolites in the brain structures of Wistar rat on the model of monoamine synthesis blockade induced by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor NSD-1015].

    PubMed

    Davydova, A I; Klodt, P M; Kudrin, V S; Kuznetsova, E A; Narkevich, V B

    2010-03-01

    Results of a neurochemical study of the effects of the new anxiolytic drugs afobazole and ladasten on the synthesis and metabolism of monoamines and their metabolites determined by HPLC on the model of monoamine synthesis blockade induced by NSD-1015 (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) in the brain structures of Wistar rats are reported. A decrease in the levels of DOPAC in hypothalamus and HVA in striatum after afobazole injection may be evidence of an inhibitory action of this drug on the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO-A), which is the main enzyme involved in dopamine biodegradation. Afobazole was also found to increase the content of serotonin (5-HT) as well as its precursor (5-OTP) and its main metabolite (5-HIAA) in hypothalamus by up to 50, 60 and 50%, respectively, which confirms a hypothesis that this anxiolytic drug can modulate the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (5-OTP synthesis enzyme). In contrast to afobazole, ladasten demonstrated the ability to increase the level of L-DOPA (a dopamine precursor) in virtually all functional structures of the brain (except for hippocamp), which may support the hypothesis suggestion concerning a predominant action of this drug on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase. Ladasten exhibited selectivity with respect to the dopaminergic system and affected only parameters of the dopamine metabolism, in particular, by increasing the HVA content in nucleus accumbens and decreasing it in the hypothalamus. The drug also affected the dopamine turnover parameters, producing an increase in both HVA/dopamine ratio in nucleus accumbens and DOPAC/dopamine ratio in hippocamp. PMID:20408420

  11. A new formulation of selegiline: improved bioavailability and selectivity for MAO-B inhibition.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A; Brewer, F; Johnson, E S; Mallard, N; Hartig, F; Taylor, S; Corn, T H

    2003-11-01

    Seven randomised comparative studies were conducted in healthy volunteers to compare the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of selegiline hydrochloride in a new formulation designed for buccal absorption "Zydis Selegiline" (1.25-10 mg) with conventional selegiline hydrochloride tablets "conventional selegiline tablets" (10 mg). A total of 156 healthy volunteers participated in these studies. Plasma concentrations of selegiline and its primary metabolites, N-desmethylselegiline (DMS), l-amphetamine (AMT), and l-methamphetamine (MET) were measured using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC) assays. Inhibition of monoamine-oxidase type B (MAO-B) and monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) activity was determined by measurement of as beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) by GCMS and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) assays. Almost a third (2.96 mg) of a 10 mg selegiline dose in Zydis Selegiline was absorbed pre-gastrically (predominantly buccally) within 1 minute. Mean [SD] area-under-the curve (AUC(0- infinity)) values following Zydis Selegiline 10 mg (5.85 [7.31] ng.h/mL) were approximately five times higher than those following conventional selegiline tablets 10 mg (1.16 [1.05] ng.h/mL). In contrast, plasma concentrations of metabolites were significantly ( p<0.001) lower following Zydis Selegiline 10 mg than following conventional selegiline tablets 10 mg. Plasma concentrations of selegiline and its metabolites increased in a dose-dependent manner over the dose-range Zydis Selegiline 1.25-5 mg. Bioavailability was determined using AUC and peak plasma concentrations (C(max)). The C(max) of selegiline was similar following administration of Zydis Selegiline 1.25 mg (1.52 ng/mL) or conventional selegiline tablets 10 mg (1.14 mg/mL). The range of values for AUC(0- infinity) and C(max) following Zydis Selegiline 1.25 mg were entirely contained within the range following conventional

  12. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  13. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats. PMID:26972530

  14. Effects of 4-hydroxyisoleucine from Fenugreek Seeds on Depression-like Behavior in Socially Isolated Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalshetti, Padmaja B.; Alluri, Ramesh; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad Arvind

    2015-01-01

    -Iso stress-induced rats can be envisaged as probable mechanism of antidepressant and antianxiety effects of 4-HI. SUMMARY Effect of 4-hydroxyisoleucine (4-HI) in olfactory bulbectomized and socially isolated (Iso) rats was evaluated4-HI showed significant and dose-dependent antidepressant effects during novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) and forced swim test (FST)4-HI showed significant and dose-dependent antianxiety effects during OFT (open field test) and sucrose intake test4-HI showed protection from OBX-Iso stress-induced brain monoamines, serotonin turnover, and serum cortisol level elevation. Abbreviations used: SSRI: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor; 4-HI: (2S, 3R, 4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine; OBX: Olfactory bulbectomy; CPCSEA: Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals; OFT: Open Field Test; NSF: Novelty Suppressed Feeding; FST: Forced Swimming Test; 5HT: 5-Hydroxytryptamine; 5-HIAA: 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; NA: Nor-adrenaline; and HPA: Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal. PMID:26929572

  15. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  16. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  17. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  18. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  19. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  20. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  1. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  2. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  3. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  4. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  5. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  6. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  7. HPLC determination of brain biogenic amines following treatment with bispyridinium aldoxime K203.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, F; Laufer, R; Szegi, P; Csomor, V; Kalász, H; Tekes, Kornélia

    2014-03-01

    Effect of a new acetylcholine-esterase reactivator, K203 as a new potential antidote in organophosphate intoxications was studied on dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in seven brain regions (cerebellum, spinal cord, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum, medulla oblongata and frontal cortex) of rats by an optimized and validated HPLC method. No significant change in brain level of these neurotransmitters was found either 15 or 60 min following treatment. However, when 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios were calculated as measure of turnover, significant decreases were found in the cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and the frontal cortex 15 min following K203 administration, but after 60 min only in the frontal cortex. PMID:24631794

  8. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  9. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  10. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  11. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  12. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  13. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  14. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  15. Highly sensitive assay for the measurement of serotonin in microdialysates using capillary high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Sandrine; Lambás-Señas, Laura; Sentenac, Sabine; Denoroy, Luc; Renaud, Bernard

    2007-05-01

    A highly sensitive isocratic capillary high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with electrochemical detection (ED) for the simultaneous measurement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) in microdialysates has been developed using a 0.5 mm i.d. capillary column and a 11-nL detection cell. This method, validated on both pharmacological and analytical bases, can be performed using injection volumes as low as 1 microL. The limits of detection were 5.6 x 10(-11)mol/L and 3.0 x 10(-9)mol/L for 5-HT and 5-HIAA. Several applications of the present method are given on microdialysates from rodent brain and human spinal cord. PMID:17166782

  16. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the blood vessel to keep it open. Bipolar disorder. Taking folic acid does not appear to improve the antidepressant effects of lithium in people with bipolar disorder. However, taking folate with the medication valproate improves ...

  17. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  18. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  19. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  20. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  1. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Amicar® Oral Solution ... Aminocaproic acid comes as a tablet and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. It is usually ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  2. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  3. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  4. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations in postmortem brain regions of depressed and aggressive patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-12-01

    Depression and aggression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are 2 of the most severe and prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Altered monoaminergic neurotransmitter system functioning has been implicated in both NPS, although their neurochemical etiology remains to be elucidated. Left frozen hemispheres of 40 neuropathologically confirmed AD patients were regionally dissected. Dichotomization based on depression and aggression scores resulted in depressed/nondepressed (AD + D/AD - D) and aggressive/nonaggressive (AD + Agr/AD - Agr) groups. Concentrations of dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), (nor)epinephrine ((N)E), and respective metabolites were determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly lower 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and higher homovanillic acid levels were observed in Brodmann area (BA) 9 and 10 of AD + D compared with AD - D. In AD + Agr, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in BA9, 5-HIAA to 5-HT ratios in BA11, and MHPG, NE, and 5-HIAA levels in the hippocampus were significantly decreased compared with AD - Agr. These findings indicate that brain region-specific altered monoamines and metabolites may contribute to the occurrence of depression and aggression in AD. PMID:24997673

  5. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  6. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease called vitiligo, and an inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome. It is also used for reducing harmful side ... to blood clots (ischemic stroke). Inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome.Taking folic acid by mouth does not improve ...

  7. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  8. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  9. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  10. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  11. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  12. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  13. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  15. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  17. Treatment of carcinoid syndrome with recombinant interferon alpha-2a.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, M; Bajetta, E; Zilembo, N; de Braud, F; Di Leo, A; Verusio, C; D'Aprile, M; Scanni, A; Barduagni, M; Barduagni A [corrected to Barduagni, M

    1993-01-01

    The prognosis and the quality of life of patients with carcinoid tumors is related either to symptoms from the substances secreted or to progressive tumor growth. Medical treatment with cytotoxic agents is of marginal value for increasing life expectancy and reducing clinical symptoms. Recent studies with interferon have shown interesting results. In the present investigation, 22 patients with carcinoid tumors and syndrome were treated with recombinant interferon alpha-2a (r-IFN alpha-2a) at the dose of 6 x 10(6) IU intramuscularly daily for 8 weeks and three times weekly thereafter. The primary tumor was localized in the foregut (n = 11), midgut (n = 7), hindgut (n = 1), and unknown site (n = 3). Most cases had liver metastasis. Seventeen patients had elevated 5-hydroxyindoloacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion and 5 had flushing and/or diarrhea as the only clinical manifestation. Six cases presented a complete syndrome (flushing, diarrhea and 5-HIAA excretion). Control of symptoms was obtained in 80% and a 5-HIAA level reduction in 58% of the patients. The interferon treatment was more effective for control of the carcinoid syndrome than for control of tumor growth. The treatment was well tolerated and fever, myalgia, anorexia and fatigue were the most frequent side-effects. PMID:7686766

  18. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  19. Thirty-Second Net Stressor Task in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Steven; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish have become a popular animal model for behavioral neuroscience (Gerlai, 2014). Recent studies have demonstrated that brief experimental handling prior to euthanizing animals can subsequently alter biological measures quantified post-mortem (e.g. cortisol levels) (Ramsay et al., 2009; Tran et al., 2014). Here we provide a detailed protocol for a simple 30-sec net stressor task for adult zebrafish that increases whole-body cortisol levels without altering the levels of whole-brain dopamine, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (Tran et al., 2014).

  20. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  1. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

  2. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. It may also be ...

  3. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the blood. ... Methylmalonic acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ...

  4. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  5. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  6. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  7. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  8. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  9. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  10. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  11. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  12. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  13. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  14. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  15. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  16. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid measurements include: Alcohol Aminosalicylic acid Birth control pills Estrogens Tetracyclines Ampicillin Chloramphenicol Erythromycin Methotrexate Penicillin Aminopterin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Drugs to treat malaria

  17. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of oxalic acid poisoning include: Abdominal pain Burns and blisters where the acid contacted the skin Collapse Convulsions Mouth pain Shock Throat pain Tremors (unintentional trembling) Vomiting

  18. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  19. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  20. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests. PMID:12024802

  1. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  2. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  3. Brain region-specific monoaminergic correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are present during the disease course of nearly all AD patients and consist of psychosis, agitation/aggression, and depression, among others. Given their detrimental consequences regarding life expectancy, cognition, and socio-economic costs, it is essential to elucidate their neurochemical etiology to facilitate the development of novel and effective pharmacotherapeutics. This study attempted to identify brain region-specific monoaminergic correlates of NPS by measuring the levels of eight monoamines and metabolites in nine relevant postmortem brain regions of 40 behaviorally characterized AD patients, i.e., dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), (nor)epinephrine and their respective metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), using RP-HPLC-ECD. Likewise, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score correlates of monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations were calculated. As a result, MMSE scores, used as a measure of dementia severity, correlated positively with hippocampal 5-HIAA levels as well as with 5-HT levels of the superior temporal gyrus and cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, hippocampal 5-HIAA levels inversely correlated with agitation scores, whereas thalamic MHPG levels comparably did with the presence of hallucinations. Finally, in the cerebellar cortex, DOPAC/DA ratios, indicative of DA turnover, correlated with physically agitated behavior while MHPG levels correlated with affective disturbances. These findings support the assumption that specific NPS features in AD might be (in)directly related to brain region-specific monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations. Additionally, the effect of AD pathology on neurochemical alterations in the cerebellum requires further examination due to its important but underestimated role in the neurochemical pathophysiology of NPS in AD. PMID:24685637

  4. [Amino acids in saliva].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Gruhn, K

    1984-01-01

    Total amino acids in saliva and free and peptide-bound amino acids from 21 saliva samples were determined. The contents of amino acids was 25 mmol/1; total nitrogen content was 78-80 mmol/1. Amino acids consist of Prolin in 25%. Some patients were examined before and after application of the depot estrogen ethinyl estradiosulfonat, which stimulates the assimilation of protein. After application, amino acids increased and the authors found a shift between the single amino acids. Estrogen medication induced an increase in proteins with the character of collagens. Clinical effects are discussed. (author's modified) PMID:6240853

  5. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  7. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  8. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  9. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  10. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  11. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

  12. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  13. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  14. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  15. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  16. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  17. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  19. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  20. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... boric acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic ... vein (IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Note: Activated charcoal does not effectively treat (absorb) boric acid. For ...

  1. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  2. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  3. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  4. Prolonged maternal separation disturbs the serotonergic system during early brain development.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Ken-Ichi; Miki, Takanori; Warita, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Kusaka, Takashi; Yakura, Tomiko; Liu, Jun-Qian; Tamai, Motoki; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2014-04-01

    Early life stress interrupts brain development through the disturbance of various neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factor activities, but the details remain unclear. In the current study, we focused on the serotonergic system, which plays a critical role in brain development, and examined the time-dependent influence of prolonged maternal separation on male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were separated from their dams for 3h twice-daily during postnatal days (PDs) 2-20. The influence of prolonged maternal separation was analyzed on PDs 7, 14, 21, and 28 using HPLC to assess concentrations of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and using real-time RT-PCR to measure mRNA expression of the serotonin 1A and 2A receptors in various brain regions. HPLC revealed imbalance between serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in midbrain raphe nuclei, the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on PDs 7 and 14. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR showed attenuation of mRNA expression of the serotonin 1A receptor in the hippocampus and the mPFC and of the serotonin 2A receptor only in the mPFC on PDs 7 and 14. The observed alterations returned to control levels after maternal separation ended. These findings suggest that the early life stress of prolonged maternal separation disturbs the serotonergic system during a crucial period of brain development, which might in part be responsible for emotional abnormalities later in life. PMID:24184298

  5. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  6. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  7. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  8. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  9. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  10. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  12. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  13. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  18. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  19. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The well-known fatty acids with a Δ5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the Δ5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between Δ5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. PMID:21116406

  20. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  1. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  2. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  3. Voltammetric detection of 5-hydroxytryptamine release in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Parastoo; Dankoski, Elyse C; Petrovic, Jelena; Keithley, Richard B; Wightman, R M

    2009-11-15

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important molecule in the brain that is implicated in mood and emotional processes. In vivo, its dynamic release and uptake kinetics are poorly understood due to a lack of analytical techniques for its rapid measurement. Whereas fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with carbon fiber microelectrodes is used frequently to monitor subsecond dopamine release in freely moving and anesthetized rats, the electrooxidation of 5-HT forms products that quickly polymerize and irreversibly coat the carbon electrode surface. Previously described modifications of the electrochemical waveform allow stable and sensitive 5-HT measurements in mammalian tissue slice preparations and in the brain of fruit fly larvae. For in vivo applications in mammals, however, the problem of electrode deterioration persists. We identify the root of this problem to be fouling by extracellular metabolites such as 5-hydoxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), which is present in 200-1000 times the concentration of 5-HT and displays similar electrochemical properties, including filming of the electrode surface. To impede access of the 5-HIAA to the electrode surface, a thin layer of Nafion, a cation exchange polymer, has been electrodeposited onto cylindrical carbon-fiber microelectrodes. The presence of the Nafion film was confirmed with environmental scanning electron microscopy and was demonstrated by the diminution of the voltammetric signals for 5-HIAA as well as other common anionic species. The modified microelectrodes also display increased sensitivity to 5-HT, yielding a characteristic cyclic voltammogram that is easily distinguishable from other common electroactive brain species. The thickness of the Nafion coating and a diffusion coefficient (D) in the film for 5-HT were evaluated by measuring permeation through Nafion. In vivo, we used physiological, anatomical, and pharmacological evidence to validate the signal as 5-HT. Using Nafion-modified microelectrodes, we present the

  4. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  5. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  8. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  9. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  10. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  11. Lead-acid cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

    1980-12-09

    A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

  12. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  13. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

  14. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  15. Fats and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  16. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  17. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  18. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  20. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  1. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  2. Urinary excretion of methanol and 5-hydroxytryptophol as biochemical markers of recent drinking in the hangover state.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, P; Jones, A W; Helander, A

    1998-01-01

    Twenty healthy social drinkers (9 women and 11 men) drank either 50 g of ethanol (mean intake 0.75 g/kg) or 80 g (mean 1.07 g/kg) according to choice as white wine or export beer in the evening over 2 h with a meal. After the end of drinking, at bedtime, in the following morning after waking-up, and on two further occasions during the morning and early afternoon, breath-alcohol tests were performed and samples of urine were collected for analysis of ethanol and methanol and the 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL) to 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HIAA) ratio. The participants were also asked to quantify the intensity of hangover symptoms (headache, nausea, anxiety, drowsiness, fatigue, muscle aches, vertigo) on a scale from 0 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). The first morning urine void collected 6-11 h after bedtime as a rule contained measurable amounts of ethanol, being 0.09 +/- 0.03 g/l (mean +/- SD) after 50 g and 0.38 +/- 0.1 g/l after 80 g ethanol. The corresponding breath-alcohol concentrations were zero, except for three individuals who registered 0.01-0.09g/l. Ethanol was not measurable in urine samples collected later in the morning and early afternoon. The peak urinary methanol occurred in the first morning void, when the mean concentration after 80 g ethanol was approximately 6-fold higher than pre-drinking values. This compares with a approximately 50-fold increase for the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio in the first morning void. Both methanol and the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio remained elevated above pre-drinking baseline values in the second and sometimes even the third morning voids. Most subjects experienced only mild hangover symptoms after drinking 50 g ethanol (mean score 2.4 +/- 2.6), but the scores were significantly higher after drinking 80 g (7.8 +/- 7.1). The most common symptoms were headache, drowsiness, and fatigue. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.62-0.75, P <0.01) was found between the presence of headache, nausea, and vertigo and the urinary

  3. Separation-oriented derivatization of native fluorescent compounds through fluorous labeling followed by liquid chromatography with fluorous-phase.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yohei; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Nohta, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi

    2009-06-15

    We have developed a new and simple method based on "fluorous derivatization" for LC of native fluorescent compounds. This method involves the use of a column with a fluorous stationary phase. Native fluorescent analytes with target functional groups are precolumn derivatized with a nonfluorescent fluorous tag, and the fluorous-labeled analytes are retained in the column, whereas underivatized substances are not. Only the retained fluorescent analytes are detected fluorometrically at appropriate retention times, and retained substrates without fluorophores are not detected. In this study, biologically important carboxylic acids (homovanillic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) and drugs (naproxen, felbinac, flurbiprofen, and etodolac) were used as model native fluorescent compounds. Experimental results indicate that the fluorous-phase column can selectively retain fluorous compounds including fluorous-labeled analytes on the basis of fluorous separation. We believe that separation-oriented derivatization presented here is the first step toward the introduction of fluorous derivatization in quantitative LC analysis. PMID:19459682

  4. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  5. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  6. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  7. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  8. WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

  9. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  10. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  11. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty or scaly ... photosensitizing agents. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions.

  12. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  13. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to filter fluids and waste normally (chronic glomerulonephritis ) Lead poisoning Long-term (chronic) alcohol use Risks There are ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 28. Read More Gout Lead poisoning Liver disease Polycythemia vera Uric acid - blood Update ...

  14. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications ...

  15. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chemical Emergencies: Case Definition: Hydrofluoric Acid . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services; 2005. Goldfrank LR, ed. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 8th ed. New ...

  16. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  17. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  18. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the ... found in foods that are good sources of B vitamins, including the following: Animal proteins Avocado Broccoli, kale, ...

  19. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  20. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  1. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a ... as a liquid to be injected subcutaneously (just under the skin) by a doctor. Your doctor will ...

  2. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  3. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the treatment of epilepsy, and to treat bipolar disorder and migraines. I have been taking valproic acid ... that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual problems and difficulty getting pregnant. ...

  4. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  5. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test ... Alcoholism Chemotherapy-related side effects Diabetes Excessive exercise Gout Hypoparathyroidism Lead poisoning Leukemia Medullary cystic kidney disease ...

  6. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The test is used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The ... level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. ...

  7. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... more easily than natural food folate. Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Folic acid reduces the risk for spina ... g., orange juice and green vegetables). Close × Answer: D CORRECT: Spina bifida and anencephaly are neural tube ...

  8. Folic acid in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... green leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Folic Acid Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  9. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

  10. Boric Acid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

    1964-01-01

    Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

  11. Polymers for acid thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.W.

    1980-09-30

    Acids, thickened with branched emulsion or suspension polymers of diallyldimethylammonium chloride are useful as oil well drilling and fracturing fluids for stimulating well production and in other applications, such as thickeners for cosmetics, paints, adhesives, textiles and printing inks.

  12. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  13. Utilization of acid tars

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  14. Mammalian Fatty Acid Elongases

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Very long chain fatty acids confer functional diversity on cells by variations in their chain length and degree of unsaturation. Microsomal fatty acid elongation represents the major pathway for determining the chain length of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipids. The overall reaction for fatty acid elongation involves four enzymes and utilizes malonyl CoA, NADPH, and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. While the fundamental pathway and its requirements have been known for many years, recent advances have revealed a family of enzymes involved in the first step of the reaction, i.e., the condensation reaction. Seven fatty acid elongase subtypes (Elovl #1–7) have been identified in the mouse, rat, and human genomes. These enzymes determine the rate of overall fatty acid elongation. Moreover, these enzymes also display differential substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and regulation, making them important regulators of cellular lipid composition as well as specific cellular functions. Herein, methods are described to measure elongase activity, analyze elongation products, and alter cellular elongase expression. PMID:19763486

  15. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  16. Autophagy on acid.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Gillies, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    The microenvironment of solid tumors tends to be more acidic (6.5-7.0) than surrounding normal (7.2-7.4) tissue. Chaotic vasculature, oxygen limitation and major metabolic changes all contribute to the acidic microenvironment. We have previously proposed that low extracellular pH (pHe) plays a critical role in the development and progression of solid tumors. While extracellular acidosis is toxic to most normal cells, cancer cells can adapt and survive under this harsh condition. In this study, we focused on identifying survival strategies employed by cancer cells when challenged with an acidic pHe (6.6-6.7) either acutely or for many generations. While acutely acidic cells did not grow, those acclimated over many generations grew at the same rate as control cells. We observed that these cells induce autophagy in response to acidosis both acutely and chronically, and that this adaptation appears to be necessary for survival. Inhibition of autophagy in low pH cultured cells results in cell death. Histological analysis of tumor xenografts reveals a strong correlation of LC3 protein expression in regions projected to be acidic. Furthermore, in vivo buffering experiments using sodium bicarbonate, previously shown to raise extracellular tumor pH, decreases LC3 protein expression in tumor xenografts. These data imply that autophagy can be induced by extracellular acidosis and appears to be chronically employed as a survival adaptation to acidic microenvironments. PMID:22874557

  17. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  18. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  19. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  20. Acute effect of protein or carbohydrate breakfasts on human cerebrospinal fluid monoamine precursor and metabolite levels.

    PubMed

    Teff, K L; Young, S N; Marchand, L; Botez, M I

    1989-01-01

    Patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus who had three lumbar punctures during 1 week ingested either water, a protein breakfast, or a carbohydrate breakfast 2.5 h before each of the lumbar punctures. The CSF was analyzed for biogenic amine precursors and metabolites. The protein meal raised CSF tyrosine levels, a finding consistent with animal data, but did not alter those of tryptophan or any of the biogenic amine metabolites. The carbohydrate meal increased CSF 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol, an unexplained finding. The carbohydrate meal did not affect CSF tryptophan, tyrosine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, or homovanillic acid. Our results support the idea that in humans protein or carbohydrate meals do not alter plasma amino acid levels sufficiently to cause appreciable changes in CNS tryptophan levels or 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis. PMID:2462018

  1. In vivo release of dopamine from rat striatum, substantia nigra and prefrontal cortex: differential modulation by baclofen.

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, M.; Machado, A.; Cano, J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effect of baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, on the release of dopamine from the striatum (ST), substantia nigra (SN) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rat was examined by intracerebral microdialysis. 2. Perfusion of baclofen 50 microM did not affect the striatal release of dopamine. However, dopamine release was markedly reduced in the SN and PFC. 3. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid output increased in the ST and decreased in the SN and PFC when baclofen was perfused through the microdialysis probe. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were not affected in any experimental condition by baclofen perfusion. 4. The results suggest that GABAB receptors modulate the release of dopamine in the SN and PFC, but do not affect the striatal release of dopamine, which indicates that the role of GABA receptor activation is different in the dopaminergic terminals of the ST and PFC. PMID:7689406

  2. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  3. Nitric acid-formic acid compatibility in DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    1992-10-20

    The addition of the Nitric Acid Flowsheet to the DWPF feed preparation process introduces nitric acid into a vessel which will subsequently receive a formic acid solution. The combination of these two acids suggests that a denitration reaction might occur. This memorandum reviews the conditions under which a denitration reaction is possible and compares these conditions to DWPF operating conditions.

  4. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  5. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  6. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  7. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  8. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  9. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  10. Oleanolic acid ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Anna; Gzella, Andrzej K.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound (systematic name: 3β-hy­droxy­olean-12-en-28-oic acid ethanol monosolvate), C30H48O3·C2H5OH, were obtained from unsuccessful co-crystallization trials. The asymmetric unit contains two symmetry-independent oleanolic acid mol­ecules, as well as two ethanol solvent mol­ecules. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. In the oleanolic acid mol­ecules, ring C has a slightly distorted envelope conformation, while rings A, B, D and E adopt chair conformations and rings D and E are cis-fused. Both independent ethanol mol­ecules are orientationally disordered [occupancy ratios of 0.742 (8):0.258 (8) and 0.632 (12):0.368 (12). PMID:21588987

  11. Amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Crabb, J W; West, K A; Dodson, W S; Hulmes, J D

    2001-05-01

    Amino acid analysis (AAA) is one of the best methods to quantify peptides and proteins. Two general approaches to quantitative AAA exist, namely, classical postcolumn derivatization following ion-exchange chromatography and precolumn derivatization followed by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). Excellent instrumentation and several specific methodologies are available for both approaches, and both have advantages and disadvantages. This unit focuses on picomole-level AAA of peptides and proteins using the most popular precolumn-derivatization method, namely, phenylthiocarbamyl amino acid analysis (PTC-AAA). It is directed primarily toward those interested in establishing the technology with a modest budget. PTC derivatization and analysis conditions are described, and support and alternate protocols describe additional techniques necessary or useful for most any AAA method--e.g., sample preparation, hydrolysis, instrument calibration, data interpretation, and analysis of difficult or unusual residues such as cysteine, tryptophan, phosphoamino acids, and hydroxyproline. PMID:18429107

  12. Acid rain: Controllable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machta, Lester

    Acid rain is one of a growing number of environmental issues in which impacts are far removed from the source o f the irritants. Those who suffer may differ in geographical area from those who benefit from the activity which releases pollution to the atmosphere. Like the issue concerning the depletion of ozone by manufactured chemicals, the acid rain issue further emphasizes the need for continuing atmospheric chemistry research, a science whose history dates back but a few decades. Examination of the acid rain issue also calls for intimate collaboration of atmospheric scientists with ecologists, biologists, and other scientists, who must advise the geophysicists regarding what chemicals in the environment produce damage, their mode of entry into an ecosystem, and the need to understand acute or chronic impacts.

  13. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  14. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  15. [Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Shimizu, S

    1999-10-01

    Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called niacin. They are the antipellagra vitamin essential to many animals for growth and health. In human being, niacin is believed necessary together with other vitamins for the prevention and cure of pellagra. Niacin is widely distributed in nature; appreciable amounts are found in liver, fish, yeast and cereal grains. Nicotinamide is a precursor of the coenzyme NAD and NADP. Some of the most understood metabolic processes that involve niacin are glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and respiration. Niacin is also related to the following diseases: Hartnup disease; blue diaper syndrome; tryptophanuria; hydroxykynureninuria; xanthurenic aciduria; Huntington's disease. PMID:10540864

  16. Fatty Acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C19 cyclopropane acid. PMID:4945206

  17. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  18. On the association between lipopolysaccharide induced catalepsy and serotonin metabolism in the brain of mice genetically different in the predisposition to catalepsy.

    PubMed

    Bazhenova, Ekaterina Yu; Kulikov, Alexander V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Bazovkina, Daria V; Fursenko, Daria V; Popova, Nina K

    2013-10-01

    The study of the interaction between nervous and immune systems in the mechanism of psychopathology is an important problem of neuroscience. Catalepsy (freezing reaction) is a passive defensive strategy in response to threatening stimuli. An exaggerated form of catalepsy is a syndrome of some grave mental disorders. Both the brain serotonin (5-HT) and immune systems were shown to be involved in the mechanism of catalepsy. Here we compared the effects of two doses (50 or 200 μg/kg, ip) of innate immune system activator, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on catalepsy, 5-HT and its main metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in the hippocampus, striatum, and midbrain of mice of catalepsy-prone (CBA/Lac and AKR.CBA-D13Mit76) and catalepsy-resistant (AKR/J) strains. The expression of LPS-induced catalepsy as well as 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the midbrain and striatum were significantly higher in mice of the catalepsy-prone strains compared with animals of the catalepsy-resistant strains. These results indicated an involvement of the brain 5-HT system in the cataleptogenic effect of LPS and open up new vistas for understanding the nervous-immune mechanism of behavioral disorders. PMID:23994663

  19. Metabolic and neurochemical profiles in insulin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bellush, L L; Reid, S G

    1994-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentration was measured at 3-h intervals in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats placed on various insulin replacement regimens using three different kinds of insulin. High insulin dosages produced at least periodic hypoglycemia, even though there were no overt signs of insulin overdose. Low- and single-dose regimens produced periods of hyperglycemia. Both high and low doses of protamine zinc insulin normalized diabetes-induced reductions in 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid [5-HIAA; the principal metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] and 5-HT turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT), despite the failure of the low-dose regimen to normalize plasma glucose. Diabetic rats evidenced continued hyperphagia and hyperdipsia during insulin treatment, and insulin treatment also induced hyperphagia and excessive weight gain in nondiabetic rats. Insulin treatment only partially normalized diabetes-induced adrenal hypertrophy. Adrenal hypertrophy is an indication of a continued stresslike physiological state in diabetes even during insulin therapy. This state may be involved in the enhanced risk in diabetic humans for development of anxiety disorders and clinical depression. PMID:7508209

  20. Effect of chronic d-fenfluramine administration on rat hypothalamic serotonin levels and release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    D-fenfluramine, an anorectic agent in rats and man, was administered daily at doses 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days, and sacrificed 6 days later. Hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) levels were unchanged in rats receiving 1.25-5 mg/kg/day of d-fenfluramine but reduced by 22 percent (p less than 0.01) at the highest drug dose (10 mg/kg/day); hypothalamic 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were reduced by 15 percent (p less than 0.05) or 28 percent (p less than 0.01) in rats receiving 5 or 10 mg/kg/day of the drug, respectively. Hypothalamic slices prepared from rats which were previously treated with any of the drug doses spontaneously released endogenous 5-HT at rates that did not differ from those of vehicle-treated rats. 5-HT released with electrical field-stimulation was unaffected by prior d-fenfluramine treatment at doses of 1.25-5 mg/kg/day, and was reduced by 20 percent (p less than 0.05) from slices prepared from rats which received 10 mg/kg/day. 5-HIAA efflux was also attenuated by the highest drug dose. These data indicate that chronic administration to rats of customary anorectic doses of d-fenfluramine (i.e. 0.06-1.25 mg/kg) fail to cause long-lasting reductions in brain 5-HT release.

  1. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  2. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  3. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  5. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  6. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  7. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  8. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  9. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  10. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  11. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  12. Brain amino acid sensing.

    PubMed

    Tsurugizawa, T; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

    2014-09-01

    The 20 different amino acids, in blood as well as in the brain, are strictly maintained at the same levels throughout the day, regardless of food intake. Gastric vagal afferents only respond to free glutamate and sugars, providing recognition of food intake and initiating digestion. Metabolic control of amino acid homeostasis and diet-induced thermogenesis is triggered by this glutamate signalling in the stomach through the gut-brain axis. Rats chronically fed high-sugar and high-fat diets do not develop obesity when a 1% (w/v) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution is available in a choice paradigm. Deficiency of the essential amino acid lysine (Lys) induced a plasticity in rats in response to Lys. This result shows how the body is able to identify deficient nutrients to maintain homeostasis. This plastic effect is induced by activin A activity in the brain, particularly in certain neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) which is the centre for amino acid homeostasis and appetite. These neurons respond to glutamate signalling in the oral cavity by which umami taste is perceived. They play a quantitative role in regulating ingestion of deficient nutrients, thereby leading to a healthier life. After recovery from malnutrition, rats prefer MSG solutions, which serve as biomarkers for protein nutrition. PMID:25200295

  13. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  14. Synthesis of (+)-Coronafacic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Sheth, Ritesh B.; Tian, Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-coronafacic acid has been achieved. Rhodium catalyzed cyclization of an α-diazoester provided the intermediate cyclopentanone in high enantiomeric purity. Subsequent Fe-mediated cyclocarbonylation of a derived alkenyl cyclopropane gave a bicyclic enone, that then was hydrogenated and carried on to the natural product. PMID:19231870

  15. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  16. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  17. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  18. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  19. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations. PMID:22296174

  20. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  1. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  2. Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

  3. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  4. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  5. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  6. Neurochemical changes correlated with behavior maintained under fixed-interval and fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, J E; Hoffmann, S M

    1991-01-01

    Key pecking of 4 pigeons was maintained under a multiple 3-min fixed-interval, 30-response fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation. Only one schedule was in effect during an experimental session, and each was correlated with a different keylight stimulus and location (left vs. right). The different schedule components alternated across days or weeks. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from chronically implanted intracerebroventricular cannulae following sessions with the different schedules, as well as following sessions in which reinforcement was withheld (extinction), when response-independent food was delivered, and when the experimental chamber was dark and there were no scheduled events. Metabolites of the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Compared to the fixed-ratio condition, responding maintained under the fixed-interval schedule resulted in consistently higher levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid in all pigeons. Levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol, a metabolite of norepinephrine, and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, another dopamine metabolite, were also higher in 3 of the 4 pigeons following exposure to the fixed-interval schedules when compared to levels of these metabolites after exposure to the fixed-ratio schedule. Extinction of fixed-ratio responding resulted in large increases in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid compared to levels of this metabolite under the fixed-ratio schedule, whereas this serotonin metabolite decreased during extinction of responding under the fixed-interval schedule. Control procedures suggested that the neurochemical changes were not related to the rate of responding but were a function of the specific experimental conditions. Distinctive neurochemical changes that accompany schedule-controlled responding show the

  7. Secondary neurotransmitter deficiencies in epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channelopathies: A potential treatment target?

    PubMed

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Demos, Michelle; Shyr, Casper; Matthews, Allison; Zhang, Linhua; Race, Simone; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Van Allen, Margot I; Mancarci, Ogan; Toker, Lilah; Pavlidis, Paul; Ross, Colin J; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Trump, Natalie; Heales, Simon; Pope, Simon; Cross, J Helen; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2016-01-01

    We describe neurotransmitter abnormalities in two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy resulting from deleterious de novo mutations in sodium channel genes. Whole exome sequencing identified a de novo SCN2A splice-site mutation (c.2379+1G>A, p.Glu717Gly.fs*30) resulting in deletion of exon 14, in a 10-year old male with early onset global developmental delay, intermittent ataxia, autism, hypotonia, epileptic encephalopathy and cerebral/cerebellar atrophy. In the cerebrospinal fluid both homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased; extensive biochemical and genetic investigations ruled out primary neurotransmitter deficiencies and other known inborn errors of metabolism. In an 8-year old female with an early onset intractable epileptic encephalopathy, developmental regression, and progressive cerebellar atrophy, a previously unreported de novo missense mutation was identified in SCN8A (c.5615G>A; p.Arg1872Gln), affecting a highly conserved residue located in the C-terminal of the Nav1.6 protein. Aside from decreased homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was also found to be low. We hypothesize that these channelopathies cause abnormal synaptic mono-amine metabolite secretion/uptake via impaired vesicular release and imbalance in electrochemical ion gradients, which in turn aggravate the seizures. Treatment with oral 5-hydroxytryptophan, l-Dopa/Carbidopa, and a dopa agonist resulted in mild improvement of seizure control in the male case, most likely via dopamine and serotonin receptor activated signal transduction and modulation of glutamatergic, GABA-ergic and glycinergic neurotransmission. Neurotransmitter analysis in other sodium channelopathy patients will help validate our findings, potentially yielding novel treatment opportunities. PMID:26647175

  8. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  9. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  10. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  11. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  12. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  13. Tunnelling in carbonic acid.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Philipp; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Hirvonen, Viivi; Wu, Chia-Hua; Tyberg, Joseph L; Allen, Wesley D; Schreiner, Peter R

    2016-06-14

    The cis,trans-conformer of carbonic acid (H2CO3), generated by near-infrared radiation, undergoes an unreported quantum mechanical tunnelling rotamerization with half-lives in cryogenic matrices of 4-20 h, depending on temperature and host material. First-principles quantum chemistry at high levels of theory gives a tunnelling half-life of about 1 h, quite near those measured for the fastest rotamerizations. PMID:27248671

  14. Optimize acid gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, D.M.; Wilkins, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Innovative design of physical solvent plants for acid gas removal can materially reduce both installation and operating costs. A review of the design considerations for one physical solvent process (Selexol) points to numerous arrangements for potential improvement. These are evaluated for a specific case in four combinations that identify an optimum for the case in question but, more importantly, illustrate the mechanism for use for such optimization elsewhere.

  15. Studies on terreic acid.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Moriyama, K; Jinnouchi, H; Yagishita, K

    1980-03-01

    It was found that Aspergillus sp. No. Y-8980 which was isolated from a soil sample collected at Yoron Island in Kagoshima Prefecture belonged to Aspergillus terreus group by morphological observation. The active substance produced by the strain was obtained with a high yield in sucrose-yeast extract medium and extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol at pH 2.4 approximately 2.6 from the culture broth. The substance was crystallized from chloroform and ethyl acetate after charcoal treatment of the crude crystal. From various physico-chemical properties, it was found that the substance was identical to terreic acid. Terreic acid showed MICs of 25 approximately 100 mcg/ml, 12.5 mcg/ml and 50 mcg/ml against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Xanthomonas oryzae and Xanthomonas citri, respectively, but it did not control Pseudomonas, fungi and yeast. The LD50 was 75 mg/kg i.p. and i.v. in mice. With regards to the anti-tumor effect, the morphological degeneration on HeLa cells (human carcinoma cells) was observed in the concentrations of more than 6.25 mcg/ml of terreic acid. An increase of body weight of mice caused by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells was not definitely observed by the daily administration of 150 mcg of terreic acid per mouse for 8 consecutive days. Above showed the enough survival effect in dd mice implanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, and the effect also was demonstrated by anatomies of mice. PMID:7190624

  16. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  17. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallow large pills. How can I take a vitamin with folic acid? A : These days, multivitamins with folic acid come in chewable chocolate or fruit flavors, liquids, and large oval or smaller round ...

  18. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePlus

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  19. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    Bile acid sequestrants are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can ... block them. These medicines work by blocking bile acid in your stomach from being absorbed in your ...

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  1. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePlus

    ... D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which are chemicals made in the lab from ... Early research suggests that pantothenic acid (given as calcium pantothenate) does not reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis. Recovery after ...

  2. Amino acid imbalance in cystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Asatoor, A. M.; Freedman, P. S.; Gabriel, J. R. T.; Milne, M. D.; Prosser, D. I.; Roberts, J. T.; Willoughby, C. P.

    1974-01-01

    After oral ingestion of a free amino acid mixture by three cystinuric patients, plasma increments of lysine and arginine were lower and those of many other amino acids were significantly higher than those found in control subjects. Similar results were obtained in control subjects after amino acid imbalance had been artificially induced by the omission of cystine, lysine, and arginine from the amino acid mixture. Especially high increments of alanine and proline provided the best evidence of amino acid imbalance caused by a temporary lysine and, to a lesser extent, arginine and cystine deficit. No such amino acid imbalance was found to occur in the cystinuric patients after ingestion of whole protein, indicating that absorption of oligopeptides produced by protein digestion provided a balanced physiological serum amino acid increment. This is considered to explain the lack of any unequivocal nutritional deficit in cystinuric patients despite poor absorption of the essential free amino acid, lysine. PMID:4411931

  3. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F.; Chernyak, Natalia; Mader, Christopher C.; Nallagatla, Subbarao; Kang, Richard S.; Hao, Liangliang; Walker, David A.; Halo, Tiffany L.; Merkel, Timothy J.; Rische, Clayton H.; Anantatmula, Sagar; Burkhart, Merideth; Mirkin, Chad A.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory nucleic acids have extraordinary promise for treating disease, yet clinical progress has been limited by a lack of tools to safely increase activity in patients. Immunomodulatory nucleic acids act by agonizing or antagonizing endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8, and TLR9), proteins involved in innate immune signaling. Immunomodulatory spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) that stimulate (immunostimulatory, IS-SNA) or regulate (immunoregulatory, IR-SNA) immunity by engaging TLRs have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. Compared with free oligonucleotides, IS-SNAs exhibit up to 80-fold increases in potency, 700-fold higher antibody titers, 400-fold higher cellular responses to a model antigen, and improved treatment of mice with lymphomas. IR-SNAs exhibit up to eightfold increases in potency and 30% greater reduction in fibrosis score in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the clinical potential of SNAs due to their potency, defined chemical nature, and good tolerability, SNAs are attractive new modalities for developing immunotherapies. PMID:25775582

  4. Cannabinoid acids analysis.

    PubMed

    Lercker, G; Bocci, F; Frega, N; Bortolomeazzi, R

    1992-03-01

    The cannabinoid pattern of vegetable preparations from Cannabis sativa (hashish, marijuana) allows to recognize the phenotype of the plants, to be used as drug or for fiber. Cannabinoid determination by analytical point of view has represented some problems caused by the complex composition of the hexane extract. Capillary gas chromatography of the hexane extracts of vegetable samples, shows the presence of rather polar constituents that eluted, with noticeable interactions, only on polar phase. The compounds can be methylated by diazomethane and silanized (TMS) by silylating reagents. The methyl and methyl-TMS derivatives are analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identification of the compounds shows their nature of cannabinoid acids, which the main by quantitative point of view results the cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). It is known that the cannabinoid acids are thermally unstable and are transformed in the corresponding cannabinoids by decarboxilation. This is of interest in forensic analysis with the aim to establish the total amount of THC in the Cannabis preparations, as the active component. PMID:1503600

  5. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  6. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  7. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  8. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  9. BACTERIAL OXIDATION OF DIPICOLINIC ACID

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yasuo; Arima, Kei

    1962-01-01

    Kobayashi, Yasuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan) and Kei Arima. Bacterial oxidation of dipicolinic acid. II. Identification of α-ketoglutaric acid and 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid and some properties of cell-free extracts. J. Bacteriol. 84:765–771. 1962—When a dipicolinic acid (DPA)-decomposing bacterium, Achromobacter strain 1–2, was incubated at 30 C with shaking in a DPA solution containing 10−3m arsenite, a keto acid was accumulated. The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of this acid was synthesized and identified as α-ketoglutaric acid by paper chromatography, visible absorption spectrum, infrared analysis, elemental analysis, and mixed melting point. During this incubation, oxalic acid equivalent to the consumed dipicolinic acid was produced. A fluorescent material was also isolated from culture fluid and identified as 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid by paper chromatography and the ultraviolet absorption spectrum. Further, cell-free extracts were prepared by sonic oscillation. Ferrous ion and a reduced di- or triphosphopyridine nucleotide-generating system were proven to be required for enzymic oxidation of DPA. And 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid was also oxidized by this preparation. From the results obtained, a possible metabolic pathway of dipicolinic acid was proposed. PMID:14033954

  10. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  11. Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

  12. Serum Uric Acid in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Bassam E.; Hamed, Jamal M.; Touhala, Luma M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the possible effect of smoking on serum uric acid. Methods Subjects enrolled in study were divided into two groups; nonsmokers and smokers, each with 60 male volunteers of the same social class and dietary habit without history of alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia and gout, renal, joint, lung or heart diseases. Fasting blood and random urine samples were obtained from both groups for measurement of uric acid and creatinine. Calculation of both urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid were done. The results were statistically evaluated by standard statistical methods. Results No significant differences in the age, serum creatinine, spot urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid between the two groups, serum uric acid was significantly lower in smokers. In smokers there was significant negative correlation of smoking status (average number of cigarette smoked/day, duration of smoking and cumulative amount of smoking) with serum uric acid. Conclusion After exclusion of other factors affecting uric acid level, the significant low serum uric acid level in smokers was attributed to reduce endogenous production as a result of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke that is a significant source of oxidative stress. As this reduction is proportionate with smoking status and predisposes to cardiovascular disease, it is, therefore, recommended for smokers to stop or reduce smoking and introduce serum uric acid estimation as routine test since its cheap and simple to reflect their antioxidant level. Keywords Smokers; Uric acid; CVD. PMID:22334840

  13. Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2003-10-01

    Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent

  14. Role of acid diffusion in matrix acidizing of carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefner, M.L.; Fogler, H.S.; Stenius, P.; Sjoblom, J.

    1987-02-01

    To increase the efficiency of matrix treatments in carbonates, a new type of retarded acid-in-oil microemulsion system has ben developed. The microemulsion is of low viscosity but can exhibit acid diffusion rates two orders of magnitude lower than aqueous HCl. Decreased acid diffusion delays spending and allows live acid to penetrate the rock matrix more uniformly and to greater distances. Coreflood results show that the microemulsion can stimulate cores in fewer PV's and under conditions of low injection rates where aqueous HCl fails completely. The microemulsion could also conceivably increase acid penetration along any natural fractures and fissures that may be present, thus increasing acidizing efficiency in this type of treatment. The relationship between the acid diffusion rate and the ability of the fluid to matrix-stimulate limestone is investigated.

  15. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  16. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  17. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  18. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  19. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  20. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  1. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

    2012-11-01

    Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 μm) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

  2. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

    2012-07-01

    Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  3. Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

  4. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  5. Controlling acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines recent transfer of electric power among 48 states and present evidence of significant transfers of electric power from so-called ''perpetrator'' to ''victim'' states. The book compares the efforts of several midwestern and northeastern states during the 1970's to control the sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions causing acid rain. The report includes utility and government data on electricity production and sales, on purchase of out-of-state electricity, and on coal use and sulfur dioxide emissions, state by state, for 48 states.

  6. Distinct effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors milnacipran and venlafaxine on rat pineal monoamines.

    PubMed

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-06-17

    Monoamine systems are involved in the pathology and therapeutic mechanism of depression. The pineal gland contains large amounts of serotonin as a precursor for melatonin, and its activity is controlled by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves. Pineal diurnal activity and its release of melatonin are relevant to aberrant states observed in depression. We investigated the effects on pineal monoamines of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, which are widely used antidepressants. Four days of milnacipran treatment led to an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin levels, whereas 4 days of venlafaxine treatment reduced 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels; both agents induced an increase in dopamine levels. Our data suggest that milnacipran increases levels of the precursor for melatonin synthesis by facilitating the noradrenergic regulation of pineal activity and that venlafaxine inhibits serotonin reuptake into noradrenergic terminals on the pineal gland. PMID:26016648

  7. Induction of depression-related behaviors by reactivation of chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Ihara, Fumiaki; Fereig, Ragab M; Nishimura, Maki; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-02-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection is relevant to many psychiatric disorders, the fundamental mechanisms of its neurobiological correlation with depression are poorly understood. Here, we show that reactivation of chronic infection by an immunosuppressive regimen caused induction of depressive-like behaviors without obvious sickness symptoms. However, the depression-related behaviors in T. gondii-infected mice, specifically, reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility in the forced-swim test were observed at the reactivation stage, but not in the chronic infection. Interestingly, reactivation of T. gondii was associated with production of interferon-gamma and activation of brain indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, which converts tryptophan to kynurenine and makes it unavailable for serotonin synthesis. Furthermore, serotonin turnover to its major metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, was also enhanced at the reactivation stage. Thus, enhanced tryptophan catabolic shunt and serotonin turnover may be implicated in development of depressive-like behaviors in mice with reactivated T. gondii. PMID:26554725

  8. Tourette's syndrome: a neurochemical analysis of postmortem cortical brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Singer, H S; Hahn, I H; Krowiak, E; Nelson, E; Moran, T

    1990-04-01

    Postmortem frontal, temporal, and occipital regions of the brain from adult patients who had a diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome were analyzed for neurochemical alterations. In 3 of 4 TS-affected brains, the concentration of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) was reduced in all brain regions evaluated. This diminution in cyclic AMP was not associated with a significant change in the activity of the synthesizing enzyme, adenylate cyclase. No significant differences were identified for the neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes choline acetyltransferase and glutamate decarboxylase. Concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were not altered. Postsynaptic receptor-binding activity for muscarinic cholinergic ([3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate) and beta receptors ([125I]iodocyanopindolol) showed no generalized impairment. It is suggested that symptoms of Tourette's syndrome might be related to an abnormality within a second messenger system. PMID:1972320

  9. Serotonergic mechanisms in emesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, J. B.; Crampton, G. H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation that the cerebrospinal fluid of cats which are susceptible to motion sickness contained lower baseline levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, among other constituents, led to the hypothesis that serotonin inhibits emesis. The hypothesis was tested by administration of the serotonin-1A agonists buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT before motion testing in cats susceptible to motion sickness. Both drugs blocked motion sickness in a dose-dependent fashion. To determine if these drugs blocked emesis elicited by other stimuli, they were administered before subcutaneous administration of the alpha-2 noradrenergic agonist, xylazine. Both drugs also blocked xylazine-induced emesis. It was concluded that the stimulation of serotonin-1A receptors inhibits emesis elicited by the two stimuli and that this mechanism may exert a general antiemetic effect.

  10. Recurrent acute kidney injury associated with metastatic bronchial carcinoid.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Barton, J Clayborn; Bertoli, Luigi F

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare complication of carcinoid syndrome. A 61-year-old man developed carcinoid syndrome 51 months after pneumonectomy for bronchial carcinoid, and 8 episodes of AKI 101 to 118 months after pneumonectomy. Serum chromogranin A and urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were elevated for more than 1 year before AKI occurred. Each episode was characterized by flushing, facial edema, mild diarrhea, necrosis of hepatic metastatic nodules, mild oliguria, hyponatremia, acidosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hyperphosphatemia. He did not have elevated urine sodium levels or osmolality, hypotension or hypertension. Plasma levels of dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine, measured during a single episode, were markedly elevated. Serum creatinine levels returned to normal after most episodes. Hyponatremia persisted but was more severe during AKI. Elevated plasma levels of vasoactive substances other than 5-hydroxytryptamine, perhaps dopamine or other catecholamines, could explain recurrent AKI. The natriuretic effect of elevated plasma dopamine levels could explain chronic hyponatremia. PMID:22008780

  11. Case 227: Endobronchial Carcinoid Tumor with Incidental Metastatic Breast Cancer Detected with Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy ((111)In Pentreotide).

    PubMed

    Raslan, Osama A; Parkar, Nadeem D; Muzaffar, Razi; Doherty, Christina; Osman, Medhat M

    2016-03-01

    History A 30-year-old woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome who was undergoing hormone replacement therapy presented with a 6-month history of a nonproductive cough and a 1-day history of hemoptysis (approximately 20 mL). Intravenous contrast material-enhanced (100 mL of Omnipaque 350; GE Healthcare, Princeton, NJ) computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography was performed to evaluate for pulmonary embolism. On the basis of the CT pulmonary angiographic findings, chromogranin A and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were measured and were 7 nmol/L (343 µg/L) (high) and 2.9 mg per 24 hours (15.167 µmol/d) (normal), respectively. This patient underwent bronchoscopy and biopsy. After these tests, she was referred for whole-body scintigraphy, which revealed an unexpected finding that was further investigated with fluorine 18 ((18)F) flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and CT. PMID:26885736

  12. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2012-10-01

    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  13. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  14. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  15. Ribonucleic acid purification.

    PubMed

    Martins, R; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

    2014-08-15

    Research on RNA has led to many important biological discoveries and improvement of therapeutic technologies. From basic to applied research, many procedures employ pure and intact RNA molecules; however their isolation and purification are critical steps because of the easy degradability of RNA, which can impair chemical stability and biological functionality. The current techniques to isolate and purify RNA molecules still have several limitations and the requirement for new methods able to improve RNA quality to meet regulatory demands is growing. In fact, as basic research improves the understanding of biological roles of RNAs, the biopharmaceutical industry starts to focus on them as a biotherapeutic tools. Chromatographic bioseparation is a high selective unit operation and is the major option in the purification of biological compounds, requiring high purity degree. In addition, its application in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is well established. This paper discusses the importance and the progress of RNA isolation and purification, considering RNA applicability both in research and clinical fields. In particular and in view of the high specificity, affinity chromatography has been recently applied to RNA purification processes. Accordingly, recent chromatographic investigations based on biorecognition phenomena occurring between RNA and amino acids are focused. Histidine and arginine have been used as amino acid ligands, and their ability to isolate different RNA species demonstrated a multipurpose applicability in molecular biology analysis and RNA therapeutics preparation, highlighting the potential contribution of these methods to overcome the challenges of RNA purification. PMID:24951289

  16. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  17. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-05-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1 - 3 × 10-4 Torr H2O and 1 - 2.5 × 10-6 Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  18. Interaction of silicic acid with sulfurous acid scale inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.

    1997-12-31

    The solubility of amorphous silica and the inhibition of silica polymerization in the presence of sulfurous acid and sulfite salts has been investigated to 260{degrees}C. Investigations of inhibition of silica scaling from geothermal brines by sulfurous acid have produced unusual results. Bisulfite/sulfite increases amorphous silica solubility by {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} effects resulting from apparent complexation. Silica-sulfite complexes are postulated to form via hydrogen bonding, and appear to be much stronger than silica-sulfate complexes. Treatment of brines with sulfurous acid inhibits silica scaling by (1) retarding the kinetics of silicic acid polymerization, and (2) forming soluble sulfito-silicate complexes. Sulfurous acid offers several advantages over sulfuric acid in controlling scale deposition-reduced corrosion potential, reduced by-product scale formation potential, oxygen scavenging and inhibition of certain metal silicate scales.

  19. Determination of benzoic acid, chlorobenzoic acids and chlorendic acid in water

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, E.A.; Cortellucci, N.J.; Singley, K.F. )

    1993-01-01

    To characterize and conduct treatment studies of a landfill leachate an analysis procedure was required to determine concentrations of benzoic acid, the three isomers of chlorobenzoic acid and chlorendic acid. The title compounds were isolated from acidified (pH 1) water by extraction with methyl t-butyl ether. Analytes were concentrated by back-extracting the ether with 0.1 N sodium hydroxide which was separated and acidified. This solution was analyzed by C[sub 18] reversed-phase HPLC with water/acetonitrile/acetic acid eluent and UV detection at 222 nm. The method has detection limits of 200 [mu]g/L for chlorendic acid and 100 [mu]g/L for benzoic acid and each isomer of chlorobenzoic acid. Validation studies with water which was fortified with the analytes at concentrations ranging from one to ten times detection limits resulted in average recoveries of >95%.

  20. Acid rain: Rhetoric and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    Acid rain is now one of the most serious environmental problems in developed countries. Emissions and fallout were previously extremely localized, but since the introduction of tall stacks policies in both Britain and the US - pardoxically to disperse particulate pollutants and hence reduce local damage - emissions are now lifted into the upper air currents and carried long distances downwind. The acid rain debate now embraces many western countries - including Canada, the US, England, Scotland, Wales, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, West Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland - and a growing number of eastern countries - including the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia. The problem of acid rain arises, strictly speaking, not so much from the rainfall itself as from its effects on the environment. Runoff affects surface water and groundwater, as well as soils and vegetation. Consequently changes in rainfall acidity can trigger off a range of impacts on the chemistry and ecology of lakes and rivers, soil chemistry and processes, the health and productivity of plants, and building materials, and metallic structures. The most suitable solutions to the problems of acid rain require prevention rather than cure, and there is broad agreement in both the political scientific communities on the need to reduce emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere. Book divisions discuss: the problem of acid rain, the science of acid rain, the technology of acid rain, and the politics of acid rain, in an effort to evaluate this growing global problem of acid rain.

  1. Increased formation of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Salen, G; Tint, G S; Eliav, B; Deering, N; Mosbach, E H

    1974-01-01

    The formation of ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7 beta-hydroxy epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, was investigated in three subjects with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and in four subjects with gallstones. Total biliary bile acid composition was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography before and after 4 months of treatment with 0.75 g/day of chenodeoxycholic acid. Individual bile acids were identified by mass spectrometry. Before treatment, bile from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) subjects contained cholic acid, 85%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 7%; deoxycholic acid, 3%; allocholic acid, 3%; and unidentified steroids, 2%; while bile from gallstone subjects contained cholic acid, 45%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 43%; deoxycholic acid, 11%, and lithocholic acid, 1%. In all subjects, 4 months of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy increased the proportion of this bile acid to approximately 80% and decreased cholic acid to 3% of the total biliary bile acids, the remaining 17% of bile acids were identified as ursodeoxycholic acid. After the intravenous injection of [3H]chenodeoxycholic acid, the specific activity of biliary ursodeoxycholic acid exceeded the specific activity of chenodeoxycholic acid, and the resulting specific activity decay curves suggested precursor-product relationships. When [3H]7-ketolithocholic acid was administrated to another patient treated with chenodeoxycholic acid, radioactivity was detected in both the ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid fractions. These results indicate that substantial amounts of ursodeoxycholic acid are formed in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid. The ursodeoxycholic acid was synthesized from chenodeoxycholic acid presumably via 7-ketolithocholic acid. Images PMID:11344576

  2. Interactions of amino acids, carboxylic acids, and mineral acids with different quinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Dipjyoti; Deka, Himangshu; Samanta, Shyam Sundar; Guchait, Subrata; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-03-01

    A series of quinoline containing receptors having amide and ester bonds are synthesized and characterised. The relative binding abilities of these receptors with various amino acids, carboxylic acids and mineral acids are determined by monitoring the changes in fluorescence intensity. Among the receptors bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate shows fluorescence enhancement on addition of amino acids whereas the other receptors shows fluorescence quenching on addition of amino acids. The receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy) propanamide has higher binding affinity for amino acids. However, the receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide having similar structure do not bind to amino acids. This is attributed to the concave structure of the former which is favoured due to the presence of methyl substituent. The receptor bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate do not bind to hydroxy carboxylic acids, but is a good receptor for dicarboxylic acids. The crystal structure of bromide and perchlorate salts of receptor 2-bromo-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-propanamide are determined. In both the cases the amide groups are not in the plane of quinoline ring. The structure of N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide, N-(2-methoxyphenethyl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide and their salts with maleic acid as well as fumaric acid are determined. It is observed that the solid state structures are governed by the double bond geometry of these two acid. Maleic acid forms salt in both the cases, whereas fumaric acid forms either salt or co-crystals.

  3. Acidity of Strong Acids in Water and Dimethyl Sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Trummal, Aleksander; Lipping, Lauri; Kaljurand, Ivari; Koppel, Ilmar A; Leito, Ivo

    2016-05-26

    Careful analysis and comparison of the available acidity data of HCl, HBr, HI, HClO4, and CF3SO3H in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and gas-phase has been carried out. The data include experimental and computational pKa and gas-phase acidity data from the literature, as well as high-level computations using different approaches (including the W1 theory) carried out in this work. As a result of the analysis, for every acid in every medium, a recommended acidity value is presented. In some cases, the currently accepted pKa values were revised by more than 10 orders of magnitude. PMID:27115918

  4. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  5. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as... sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities, when offered for transportation or transported by rail... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section...

  8. Shaping up nucleic acid computation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi

    2010-01-01

    Summary of recent advances (abstract) Nucleic acid-based nanotechnology has always been perceived as novel, but has begun to move from theoretical demonstrations to practical applications. In particular, the large address spaces available to nucleic acids can be exploited to encode algorithms and/or act as circuits, and thereby process molecular information. In this review we revisit several milestones in the field of nucleic acid-based computation, but also highlight how the prospects for nucleic acid computation go beyond just a large address space. Functional nucleic acid elements (aptamers, ribozymes, and deoxyribozymes) can serve as inputs and outputs to the environment, and can act as logical elements. Into the future, the chemical dynamics of nucleic acids may prove as useful as hybridization for computation. PMID:20538451

  9. Clinical use of acid steatocrit.

    PubMed

    Van den Neucker, A; Pestel, N; Tran, T M; Forget, P P; Veeze, H J; Bouquet, J; Sinaasappel, M

    1997-05-01

    Malabsorption of fat is an important gastrointestinal cause of malnutrition and growth retardation in childhood. The gold standard for the evaluation of fat malabsorption is the faecal fat balance method. The acid steatocrit method has recently been introduced as a simple method to evaluate faecal fat. The present study was aimed at evaluating the acid steatocrit in clinical practice. Faecal fat excretion and acid steatocrit results were determined in 42 children, half with and half without fat malabsorption. Acid steatocrit results correlated significantly with both faecal fat excretion (p < 0.01) and faecal fat concentration (p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the acid steatocrit for the diagnosis of malabsorption were 90% and 100%, respectively. We consider the acid steatocrit method useful for the screening and monitoring of patients with steatorrhoea. PMID:9183483

  10. Acid rain degradation of nylon

    SciTech Connect

    Kyllo, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Acid rain, precipitation with a pH less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid of pH 2.0, 3.0, and 4.4 were exposed to light in an Atlas Xenon-arc fadeometer at 63/sup 0/C and 65% R.H. for up to 640 AATCC Fading Units. The untreated and acid treated nylon fabrics were also exposed to similar temperature and humidity condition without light. Nylon degradation was determined by changes in breaking strength, elongation, molecular weight, color, amino end group concentration (NH/sub 2/) and /sup 13/C NMR spectra. Physical damage was assessed using SEM.

  11. A Simpler Nucleic Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, Leslie

    2000-01-01

    It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

  12. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion. PMID:19009648

  13. Organic Acids by Ion Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, William E.; Johnson, Edward; Lois, Louis; Stafford, Brian E.; Kabra, Pokar M.; Marton, Laurence J.

    The presence of increased levels of various organic acids in physiological fluids such as serum, plasma, and urine has been correlated with a variety of diseases (1). Although some are rare, others such as lactic acidosis and hyperoxaluria are more widespread (2, 3). The estimation of organic acids in biological fluids has long been an analytical problem owing to the nature of the samples and the hydrophilic behavior of the various acids.

  14. All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; He, Yuqi; Liu, Hui-Xin; Tsuei, Jessica; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4α (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25175738

  15. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  16. Acidity of frozen electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carmen; Boxe, C S; Guzman, M I; Colussi, A J; Hoffmann, M R

    2006-04-20

    Ice is selectively intolerant to impurities. A preponderance of implanted anions or cations generates electrical imbalances in ice grown from electrolyte solutions. Since the excess charges are ultimately neutralized via interfacial (H(+)/HO(-)) transport, the acidity of the unfrozen portion can change significantly and permanently. This insufficiently recognized phenomenon should critically affect rates and equilibria in frozen media. Here we report the effective (19)F NMR chemical shift of 3-fluorobenzoic acid as in situ probe of the acidity of extensively frozen electrolyte solutions. The sign and magnitude of the acidity changes associated with freezing are largely determined by specific ion combinations, but depend also on solute concentration and/or the extent of supercooling. NaCl solutions become more basic, those of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or Na(2)SO(4) become more acidic, while solutions of the 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid zwitterion barely change their acidity upon freezing. We discuss how acidity scales based on solid-state NMR measurements could be used to assess the degree of ionization of weak acids and bases in frozen media. PMID:16610849

  17. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  18. MedlinePlus: Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Tests Homocysteine Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Vitamin B12 and Folate Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Related Issues Folic Acid Supplements: Can They Slow ...

  19. Bacterial Decarboxylation of o-Phthalic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barrie F.; Ribbons, Douglas W.

    1983-01-01

    The decarboxylation of phthalic acids was studied with Bacillus sp. strain FO, a marine mixed culture ON-7, and Pseudomonas testosteroni. The mixed culture ON-7, when grown anaerobically on phthalate but incubated aerobically with chloramphenicol, quantitatively converted phthalic acid to benzoic acid. Substituted phthalic acids were also decarboxylated: 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid to protocatechuic acid; 4-hydroxyphthalic and 4-chlorophthalic acids to 3-hydroxybenzoic and 3-chlorobenzoic acids, respectively; and 3-fluorophthalic acid to 2-and 3-fluorobenzoic acids. Bacillus sp. strain FO gave similar results except that 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid was not metabolized, and both 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were produced from 4-hydroxyphthalic acid. P. testosteroni decarboxylated 4-hydroxyphthalate (to 3-hydroxybenzoate) and 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate but not phthalic acid and halogenated phthalates. Thus, P. testosteroni and the mixed culture ON-7 possessed 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid decarboxylase, previously described in P. testosteroni, that metabolized 4,5-dihydroxyphthalic acid and specifically decarboxylated 4-hydroxyphthalic acid to 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. The mixed culture ON-7 and Bacillus sp. strain FO also possessed a novel decarboxylase that metabolized phthalic acid and halogenated phthalates, but not 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate, and randomly decarboxylated 4-hydroxyphthalic acid. The decarboxylation of phthalic acid is suggested to involve an initial reduction to 1,2-dihydrophthalic acid followed by oxidative decarboxylation to benzoic acid. PMID:16346440

  20. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  1. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  2. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  3. A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

  4. Effect of propionic acid on fatty acid oxidation and ureagenesis.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, A M; Chase, H P

    1976-07-01

    Propionic acid significantly inhibited 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate at a concentration of 10 muM in control fibroblasts and 100 muM in methylmalonic fibroblasts. This inhibition was similar to that produced by 4-pentenoic acid. Methylmalonic acid also inhibited 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate, but only at a concentration of 1 mM in control cells and 5 mM in methylmalonic cells. Propionic acid (5 mM) also inhibited ureagenesis in rat liver slices when ammonia was the substrate but not with aspartate and citrulline as substrates. Propionic acid had no direct effect on either carbamyl phosphate synthetase or ornithine transcarbamylase. These findings may explain the fatty degeneration of the liver and the hyperammonemia in propionic and methylmalonic acidemia. PMID:934734

  5. Microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Zürrer, D; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. Growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. Specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. A Pseudomonas sp., an Arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. Each desulfonated at least 16 aromatic compounds, none of which served as a carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. strain S-313 converted 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 5-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 5-amino-1-naphthol, phenol, and 3-aminophenol, respectively. Experiments with 18O2 showed that the hydroxyl group was derived from molecular oxygen. PMID:3662502

  6. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  7. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  8. Anacardic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Oleic Acid Differentially Alter Cellular Bioenergetic Function in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Radde, Brandie N; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Price, Stephanie M; Schultz, David J; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2016-11-01

    Anacardic acid is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical that inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Since mitochondrial-targeted anticancer therapy (mitocans) may be useful in breast cancer, we examined the effect of anacardic acid on cellular bioenergetics and OXPHOS pathway proteins in breast cancer cells modeling progression to endocrine-independence: MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ endocrine-sensitive; LCC9 and LY2 ERα+, endocrine-resistant, and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. At concentrations similar to cell proliferation IC50 s, anacardic acid reduced ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate (OCR), mitochondrial reserve capacity, and coupling efficiency while increasing proton leak, reflecting mitochondrial toxicity which was greater in MCF-7 compared to endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells. These results suggest tolerance in endocrine-resistant and TNBC cells to mitochondrial stress induced by anacardic acid. Since anacardic acid is an alkylated 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, the effects of salicylic acid (SA, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety) and oleic acid (OA, monounsaturated alkyl moiety) were tested. SA inhibited whereas OA stimulated cell viability. In contrast to stimulation of basal OCR by anacardic acid (uncoupling effect), neither SA nor OA altered basal OCR- except OA inhibited basal and ATP-linked OCR, and increased ECAR, in MDA-MB-231 cells. Changes in OXPHOS proteins correlated with changes in OCR. Overall, neither the 2-hydroxybenzoic acid moiety nor the monounsaturated alky moiety of anacardic acid is solely responsible for the observed mitochondria-targeted anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and hence both moieties are required in the same molecule for the observed effects. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2521-2532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990649

  9. CENTRAL DOPAMINE AND SEROTONIN TURNOVER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, R.S.; Rao, B.S.S.; Subash, M.N.; Subba Krishna, D.K.; Srinivas, K.N.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Comparison of C.S. F. H. V. A and 5-HIAA levels of 20 Schizophrenics and 9 non-schizophrenic controls revealed no statistically significant difference between HVA levels but the 5-HIAA levels were significantly less in Schizophrenics (p < 0.05) than in controls. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:21927240

  10. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  11. Acid rain: effects on fish and wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.S.; Multer, E.P.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    The following questions concerning acid rain are discussed: what is acid rain; what causes acid rain; where do sulfur and nitrogen oxides originate; what areas in the U.S. are susceptible to acid rain; are there early warning signals of acidification to aquatic resources; how does acid rain affect fishery resources; does acid rain affect wildlife; and how can effects of acid rain be reduced.

  12. Synthesis of (+) and (-)-phaselic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (2S)-Phaselic acid (2S-O-caffeoylmalate) is a common plant metabolite belonging to the o-diphenol subclass of phenolic secondary metabolites. Our interest in this metabolite stems from previous studies showing that the presence of (2S)-phaselic acid in red clover is crucial to the preservation of ut...

  13. Synthesis of (+)- and (-)-phaselic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (2S)-Phaselic acid (2S-O-caffeoylmalate) is a common plant metabolite belonging to the o-diphenol subclass of phenolic secondary metabolites. Our interest in this metabolite stems from previous studies showing that the presence of (2S)-phaselic acid in red clover is crucial to the preservation of ut...

  14. BOTANICAL ASPECTS OF ACIDIC PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic precipitation can be characterized as wet or frozen atmospheric deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 microequivalents liter-1. Acidic precipitation is perceived as a significant air pollution problem derived chiefly from combustion of fossil fuels,...

  15. SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

  16. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  17. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  18. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  19. Acid rain & electric utilities II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  20. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  1. TRANS ACIDS IN SPECIALTY LIPIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of trans acids in human health and nutrition is highly controversial and a search of the Internet reveals the interest in the subject. Trans acids are perceived as "killer fats" at one end of the spectrum to having no adverse effects at the other. In addition, saturated fats are perceived...

  2. Acid precipitation in historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Cowling, E.B.

    1982-02-01

    The history of acid precipitation is traced from the first awareness of the problem in the mid-17th century to the present. An outline of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment program is also given, and the author makes recommendations for future research. (JMT)

  3. SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1981, simulated H2SO4 acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H2SO4:HNO3 acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given...

  4. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  5. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  6. ACID DEPOSITION AND FOREST DECLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The location, topography and other characteristics of the high-elevation forests of eastern North America cause them to be receptors of high levels of acid deposition and airborn trace metals. No other major forested areas in the U.S. are subjected to such intensely acid cloud mo...

  7. Acid Tests and Basic Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores acids and bases using different indicators, such as turmeric, purple grape juice, and lichens. Because some of these indicators are not as sensitive as cabbage juice or litmus paper, determining to which acids and bases each indicator is sensitive presents an enjoyable, problem-solving challenge for students. Presents directions for…

  8. Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

  9. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  10. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  11. Atmospheric dust and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

  12. Microfluidics in amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin

    2007-07-01

    Microfluidic devices have been widely used to derivatize, separate, and detect amino acids employing many different strategies. Virtually zero-dead volume interconnections and fast mass transfer in small volume microchannels enable dramatic increases in on-chip derivatization reaction speed, while only minute amounts of sample and reagent are needed. Due to short channel path, fast subsecond separations can be carried out. With sophisticated miniaturized detectors, the whole analytical process can be integrated on one platform. This article reviews developments of lab-on-chip technology in amino acid analysis, it shows important design features such as sample preconcentration, precolumn and postcolumn amino acid derivatization, and unlabeled and labeled amino acid detection with focus on advanced designs. The review also describes important biomedical and space exploration applications of amino acid analysis on microfluidic devices. PMID:17542043

  13. Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

  14. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  15. Sialic acids and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Vinay S; Pillai, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    An important underlying mechanism that contributes to autoimmunity is the loss of inhibitory signaling in the immune system. Sialic acid-recognizing Ig superfamily lectins or Siglecs are a family of cell surface proteins largely expressed in hematopoietic cells. The majority of Siglecs are inhibitory receptors expressed in immune cells that bind to sialic acid-containing ligands and recruit SH2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases to their cytoplasmic tails. They deliver inhibitory signals that can contribute to the constraining of immune cells, and thus protect the host from autoimmunity. The inhibitory functions of CD22/Siglec-2 and Siglec-G and their contributions to tolerance and autoimmunity, primarily in the B lymphocyte context, are considered in some detail in this review. The relevance to autoimmunity and unregulated inflammation of modified sialic acids, enzymes that modify sialic acid, and other sialic acid-binding proteins are also reviewed. PMID:26683151

  16. Nucleic acid based molecular devices.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Yamuna; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2011-03-28

    In biology, nucleic acids are carriers of molecular information: DNA's base sequence stores and imparts genetic instructions, while RNA's sequence plays the role of a messenger and a regulator of gene expression. As biopolymers, nucleic acids also have exciting physicochemical properties, which can be rationally influenced by the base sequence in myriad ways. Consequently, in recent years nucleic acids have also become important building blocks for bottom-up nanotechnology: as molecules for the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures and also as a material for building machinelike nanodevices. In this Review we will cover the most important developments in this growing field of nucleic acid nanodevices. We also provide an overview of the biochemical and biophysical background of this field and the major "historical" influences that shaped its development. Particular emphasis is laid on DNA molecular motors, molecular robotics, molecular information processing, and applications of nucleic acid nanodevices in biology. PMID:21432950

  17. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  18. Acid soil and acid rain, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the basic chemical processes involved in acidification in order to better assess their long-term effects on the status of soils, the health of plants and other living species that depend on them. It also discusses acidity, pH and protons their significance in bioenergetics and the consequent role of autotrophic organisms in acidifying ecosystems. This edition incorporates and integrates recent findings that render more explanations of the causes of the environmental impacts of acidity, especially in forests and lakes. Also explores current research into acid rain and soil in order to devise appropriate measures for their amelioration.

  19. Functional nucleic acid probes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2006-10-03

    The present invention provides functional nucleic acid probes, and methods of using functional nucleic acid probes, for binding a target to carry out a desired function. The probes have at least one functional nucleic acid, at least one regulating nucleic acid, and at least one attenuator. The functional nucleic acid is maintained in an inactive state by the attenuator and activated by the regulating nucleic acid only in the presence of a regulating nucleic acid target. In its activated state the functional nucleic acid can bind to its target to carry out a desired function, such as generating a signal, cleaving a nucleic acid, or catalyzing a reaction.

  20. Polyglycolic acid induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ceonzo, Kathleen; Gaynor, Anne; Shaffer, Lisa; Kojima, Koji; Vacanti, Charles A.; Stahl, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    Tissue and organ replacement have quickly outpaced available supply. Tissue bioengineering holds the promise for additional tissue availability. Various scaffolds are currently used, whereas polyglycolic acid (PGA), which is currently used in absorbable sutures and orthopedic pins, provides an excellent support for tissue development. Unfortunately, PGA can induce a local inflammatory response following implantation, so we investigated the molecular mechanism of inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Degraded PGA induced an acute peritonitis, characterized by neutrophil (PMN) infiltration following intraperitoneal injection in mice. Similar observations were observed using the metabolite of PGA, glycolide. Dissolved PGA or glycolide, but not native PGA, activated the classical complement pathway in human sera, as determined by classical complement pathway hemolytic assays, C3a and C5a production, C3 and immunoglobulin deposition. To investigate whether these in vitro observations translated to in vivo findings, we used genetically engineered mice. Intraperitoneal administration of glycolide or dissolved PGA in mice deficient in C1q, factor D, C1q and factor D or C2 and factor B demonstrated significantly reduced PMN infiltration compared to congenic controls (WT). Mice deficient in C6 also demonstrated acute peritonitis. However, treatment of WT or C6 deficient mice with a monoclonal antibody against C5 prevented the inflammatory response. These data suggest that the hydrolysis of PGA to glycolide activates the classical complement pathway. Further, complement is amplified via the alternative pathway and inflammation is induced by C5a generation. Inhibition of C5a may provide a potential therapeutic approach to limit the inflammation associated with PGA derived materials following implantation. PMID:16548688

  1. 21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155... Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid... in alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. Monochloroacetic acid is permitted in food package...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and....1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs naturally are...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid...

  7. Cycloadditions for Studying Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kath-Schorr, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Cycloaddition reactions for site-specific or global modification of nucleic acids have enabled the preparation of a plethora of previously inaccessible DNA and RNA constructs for structural and functional studies on naturally occurring nucleic acids, the assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures, therapeutic applications, and recently, the development of novel aptamers. In this chapter, recent progress in nucleic acid functionalization via a range of different cycloaddition (click) chemistries is presented. At first, cycloaddition/click chemistries already used for modifying nucleic acids are summarized, ranging from the well-established copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction to copper free methods, such as the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, tetrazole-based photoclick chemistry and the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction between strained alkenes and tetrazine derivatives. The subsequent sections contain selected applications of nucleic acid functionalization via click chemistry; in particular, site-specific enzymatic labeling in vitro, either via DNA and RNA recognizing enzymes or by introducing unnatural base pairs modified for click reactions. Further sections report recent progress in metabolic labeling and fluorescent detection of DNA and RNA synthesis in vivo, click nucleic acid ligation, click chemistry in nanostructure assembly and click-SELEX as a novel method for the selection of aptamers. PMID:27572987

  8. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

  9. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  10. Terahertz spectrum of gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng; Zhao, Guozhong; Wang, Haiyan; Liang, Chengshen

    2009-11-01

    Gallic acid is natural polyphenol compound found in many green plants. More and more experiments have demonstrated that the gallic acid has comprehensive applications. In the field of medicine, the gallic acid plays an important role in antianaphylaxis, antineoplastic, antimycotic, anti-inflammatory, antivirotic, antiasthmatic and inhibiting the degradation of insulin. It also has a lot of applications in chemical industry, food industry and light industry. So it is important to study the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of gallic acid. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a new coherent spectral technology based on the femtosecond laser. In this work, the spectral characteristics of gallic acid in the range of 0.4 THz to 2.6 THz have been measured by THz-TDS. We obtained its absorption and refraction spectra at room temperature. The vibration absorption spectrum of the single molecule between 0.4 THz and 2.6 THz is simulated based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). It is found that the gallic acid has the spectral response to THz wave in this frequency range. The results show the abnormal dispersion at 1.51 THz and 2.05 THz. These results can be used in the qualitative analysis of gallic acid and the medicine and food inspection.

  11. Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2015-01-01

    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food. PMID:25467926

  12. Drilling fluids containing amps, acrylic acid, itaconic acid polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoliwalla, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid having present in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component, there being from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has a weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 being in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and being at least water dispersible. A method is described of drilling a well into a subterranean formation in which an aqueous drilling fluid is circulated into the well. The step of circulating the drilling fluid contains in an amount sufficient to reduce fluid loss of the drilling fluid, at least one polymer of (1) from about 5% to about 50% by weight of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid and (2) from about 95% to about 50% by weight of a second component. There is from 100% to about 80% by weight of acrylic acid and from 0% by weight to about 20% by weight of itaconic acid in the second component. The polymer has weight average molecular weight of between about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 in its free acid or partially or completely neutralized form and is at least water dispersible.

  13. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  14. Chemiluminescent measurement of atmospheric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, D. H.; Kok, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of a gas phase acid sensitive analyzer are reported. These studies showed that the chemical system was a practical analytical method. A complete instrument was developed and prepared for field testing. A Titan 3-C rocket was scheduled for launching on February 11, 1974. Through preparations made by NASA Langley the instrument was set up to monitor the acid concentration in the rocket exhaust. Due to adverse wind conditions no acid was detected. This entire trip is described in detail.

  15. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PROTOCATECHUIC ACID.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Rashid, Rehana; Fatima, Nighat; Mahmood, Sadaf; Mir, Sadullah; Khan, Sara; Jabeen, Nyla; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a simple phenolic acid. It is found in a large variety of edible plants and possesses various pharmacological activities. This article aims to review the modern trends in phytochemical isolation and extraction of PCA from plants and other natural resources. Moreover, this article also encompasses pharmacological and biological activities of PCA. It is well known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemia, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-ageing, anti-athro- genic, anti-tumoral, anti-asthma, antiulcer, antispasmodic and neurological properties. PMID:26647619

  16. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  17. Amino Acids from a Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  18. Be an acid rain detective

    SciTech Connect

    Atwill, L.

    1982-07-01

    Acid rain is discussed in a question and answer format. The article is aimed at educating sport fishermen on the subject, and also to encourage them to write their congressmen, senators, and the President about the acid rain problem. The article also announces the availability of an acid rain test kit available through the magazine, ''Sports Afield.'' The kit consists of pH-test paper that turns different shades of pink and blue according to the pH of the water tested. The color of the test paper is then compared to a color chart furnished in the kit and an approximate pH can be determined.

  19. Abscission: Role of Abscisic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cracker, L. E.; Abeles, F. B.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of abscisic acid on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Acala 4-42) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Red Kidney) explants was 2-fold. It increased ethylene production from the explants, which was found to account for some of its ability to accelerate abscission. Absci is acid also increased the activity of cellulase. Increased synthesis of cellulase was not du to an increase in aging of the explants but rather was an effect of abscisic acid on the processes that lead to cellulase synthesis or activity. PMID:16657181

  20. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Amino acid metabolism disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  2. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  3. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  4. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  5. Microbial production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Eiteman, Mark A; Ramalingam, Subramanian

    2015-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important commodity chemical having a wide range of applications. Microbial production effectively competes with chemical synthesis methods because biochemical synthesis permits the generation of either one of the two enantiomers with high optical purity at high yield and titer, a result which is particularly beneficial for the production of poly(lactic acid) polymers having specific properties. The commercial viability of microbial lactic acid production relies on utilization of inexpensive carbon substrates derived from agricultural or waste resources. Therefore, optimal lactic acid formation requires an understanding and engineering of both the competing pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism, as well as pathways leading to potential by-products which both affect product yield. Recent research leverages those biochemical pathways, while researchers also continue to seek strains with improved tolerance and ability to perform under desirable industrial conditions, for example, of pH and temperature. PMID:25604523

  6. Low acid producing solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  7. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  8. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  9. Biopreservation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M E

    1996-10-01

    Biopreservation refers to extended storage life and enhanced safety of foods using the natural microflora and (or) their antibacterial products. Lactic acid bacteria have a major potential for use in biopreservation because they are safe to consume and during storage they naturally dominate the microflora of many foods. In milk, brined vegetables, many cereal products and meats with added carbohydrate, the growth of lactic acid bacteria produces a new food product. In raw meats and fish that are chill stored under vacuum or in an environment with elevated carbon dioxide concentration, the lactic acid bacteria become the dominant population and preserve the meat with a "hidden' fermentation. The same applies to processed meats provided that the lactic acid bacteria survive the heat treatment or they are inoculated onto the product after heat treatment. This paper reviews the current status and potential for controlled biopreservation of foods. PMID:8879414

  10. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  11. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  12. Simulated acid rain on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Plocher, M.D.; Perrigan, S.C.; Hevel, R.J.; Cooper, R.M.; Moss, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    In 1981, simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/:HNO/sub 3/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and the effects on yield were measured. Because the effect of pH 4.0 rain on corn yield was the only significant effect noted in the 1981 studies, in 1982, more-extensive studies of the effect of simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ rain on corn were conducted. No significant effects of acid rain were found on foliage appearance, or on yield of grain or stover in the 1982 studies.

  13. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  14. Making cents of acid recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrey, G.; Shanley, A.

    1993-04-01

    Acid recovery may be expensive, but rising transportation and landfill costs may soon make it the only alternative. Traditionally, acids used in processes from titanium dioxide production to gasoline alkylation and metal pickling were neutralized and discharged into waterways or injected into deep wells. Today, however, discharge permits are being phased out in many countries, and deep well injection is coming under closer scrutiny. An even cheaper option was selling spent acid to fertilizer producers, who used it to dissolve phosphate ores. Health concerns, a depressed fertilizer market and tightening disposal regulations for gypsum byproduct have dried up this option. The paper discusses the processes and costs involved in spent acid regeneration, gypsum-free gas treatments, and problems with explosive contaminants.

  15. EXPOSURE MODELING OF ACID AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting an intensive characterization and human exposure monitoring program of acid species and related air pollutants in an urban environment. he EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) in coopera...

  16. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  17. Glucaric acids from Leonurus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianshuang; Li, Yixiu; Feng, Ziming; Yang, Yanan; Zhang, Peicheng

    2015-12-01

    Three new glucaric acids, namely 2-feruloyl-4-syringoyl or 5-feruloyl-3-syringoyl glucaric acid (1), 2-syringoyl-4-feruloyl or 5-syringoyl-3-feruloyl glucaric acid (2), and 3-feruloyl-4-syringoyl or 4-feruloyl-3-syringoyl glucaric acid (3), were isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic means including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR data spectra. The bioactive assays of compounds 1-3 against hepatoprotection activity were determined. The result suggested that compound 2 exhibited a moderate hepatoprotection activity and the cell survival rate was 74% (10(-5)mol/L), using bicyclol (survival rate: 66%, 10(-5)mol/L) as a positive control. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 were evaluated cytotoxic activities in vitro using HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A-549, and A2780 model and the results exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity activity. PMID:26526024

  18. Acid diffusion through polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. Linda; Eckert, Andrew R.; Willson, C. Grant; Webber, Stephen E.; Byers, Jeffrey D.

    1997-07-01

    In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10

  19. Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Sano, Takeshi; Misasi, John; Hatch, Anson; Cantor, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It...