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Sample records for 5-month period results

  1. Reduced incidence and severity of acute mountain sickness in Qinghai-Tibet railroad construction workers after repeated 7-month exposures despite 5-month low altitude periods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tian Yi; Ding, Shou Quan; Liu, Jin Liang; Yu, Man Tang; Jia, Jian Hou; Duan, Jun Qing; Chai, Zuo Chuan; Dai, Rui Chen; Zhang, Sheng Lin; Liang, Bao Zhu; Zhao, Ji Zhui; Qi, De Tang; Sun, Yong Fu; Kayser, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    The construction of the Qinghai-Tibet railroad provided a unique opportunity to study the relation between intermittent altitude exposure and acute mountain sickness (AMS). For 5 yr, workers spent 7-month periods at altitude interspaced with 5-month periods at sea level; the incidence, severity, and risk factors of AMS were prospectively investigated. Six hundred lowlanders commuted for 5 yr between near sea level and approximately 4500 m and were compared to 600 other lowland workers, recruited each year upon their first ascent to high altitude as newcomers, and to 200 Tibetan workers native to approximately 4500 m. AMS was assessed with the Lake Louise Scoring System. The incidence and severity of AMS in commuters were lower upon each subsequent exposure, whereas they remained similar in newcomers each year. AMS susceptibility was thus lowered by repeated exposure to altitude. Repeated exposure increased resting Sao(2) and decreased resting heart rate. Tibetans had no AMS, higher Sao(2), and lower heart rates. In conclusion, repetitive 7-month exposures increasingly protect lowlanders against AMS, even when interspaced with 5-month periods spent at low altitude, but do not allow attaining the level of adaptation of altitude natives.

  2. [THE USE OF 20% LIPOFUNDIN INFUSIONS AT THE APPEARANCE OF TOXIC PROPERTIES OF ROPIVACAINE 2 MG/ML IN CHILD 1.5 MONTHS AT THE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD WITH EPIDURAL ANALGESIA].

    PubMed

    Sichkar, S Yu; Afukov, I I; Koshko, O V; Yeliseeva, N V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of local anesthetic proved application of epidural (EP) as an effective and safe way of an analgesia in intra- and the post-operational period and now it is widely applied at children of all age groups (1). However there is a number of contraindications for application of this type of an analgesia. At children till 6 months lower dosages of a ropivacain of 2 mg/kg are applied, considering their age features. At the phenomena of system toxicity infusion of 20% lipofundin is applied. The child has an age 1.5 months, weight 5230 g, with the diagnosis a cystous dysplasia of both kidneys, a megaureter at the left and on the right, lack offunction of the left kidney operation a laparoscopic nefrureterektomia is executed at the left. In the postoperative period at application of EP of an analgesia ofropivacain 2 mg/ml by a drop way introduction in a standard dosage of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight an hour the repeating episodes of convulsions which were regarded as manifestation of toxic properties of local anesthetic were noted. Infusion of 20% lipofundin of 15 ml (2.8 ml/kg of body weight) within 30 minutes with a positive effect was applied. EP an analgesia was recoloured. PMID:27192857

  3. Scheduling periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1987-01-01

    One approach to avoid timing faults in hard, real-time systems is to make available intermediate, imprecise results produced by real-time processes. When a result of the desired quality cannot be produced in time, an imprecise result of acceptable quality produced before the deadline can be used. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. Since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result, the amount of processor time assigned to any task in a valid schedule can be less than the amount of time required to complete the task. A meaningful formulation of the scheduling problem must take into account the overall quality of the results. Depending on the different types of undesirable effects caused by errors, jobs are classified as type N or type C. For type N jobs, the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative. A reasonable performance measure is the average error over all jobs. Three heuristic algorithms that lead to feasible schedules with small average errors are described. For type C jobs, the undesirable effects of errors produced in different periods are cumulative. Schedulability criteria of type C jobs are discussed.

  4. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  5. Pineal anlage tumor in a 5-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Olaya, Joffre E; Raghavan, Ravi; Totaro, Laura; Zouros, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Pineal tumors are rare neoplasms that are categorized into pineoblastomas, pineocytomas, and pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation. Pineal anlage tumors are primary pineal tumors with neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation and without endodermal differentiation. The authors review the literature and report the case of a 5-month-old boy with a pineal anlage tumor. This is only the sixth case of a pineal anlage tumor reported in the English-language literature adding to the understanding of this tumor's presentation, immunomorphological and molecular characteristics, embryological origin, radiological appearance, treatment outcome, and prognosis.

  6. Infants' statistical learning: 2- and 5-month-olds' segmentation of continuous visual sequences.

    PubMed

    Slone, Lauren Krogh; Johnson, Scott P

    2015-05-01

    Past research suggests that infants have powerful statistical learning abilities; however, studies of infants' visual statistical learning offer differing accounts of the developmental trajectory of and constraints on this learning. To elucidate this issue, the current study tested the hypothesis that young infants' segmentation of visual sequences depends on redundant statistical cues to segmentation. A sample of 20 2-month-olds and 20 5-month-olds observed a continuous sequence of looming shapes in which unit boundaries were defined by both transitional probability and co-occurrence frequency. Following habituation, only 5-month-olds showed evidence of statistically segmenting the sequence, looking longer to a statistically improbable shape pair than to a probable pair. These results reaffirm the power of statistical learning in infants as young as 5 months but also suggest considerable development of statistical segmentation ability between 2 and 5 months of age. Moreover, the results do not support the idea that infants' ability to segment visual sequences based on transitional probabilities and/or co-occurrence frequencies is functional at the onset of visual experience, as has been suggested previously. Rather, this type of statistical segmentation appears to be constrained by the developmental state of the learner. Factors contributing to the development of statistical segmentation ability during early infancy, including memory and attention, are discussed. PMID:25757016

  7. Retrieval Results of Unassisted Searches of Two General Periodical Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jennifer O.

    A survey of public library users was conducted regarding retrieval results of unassisted user searches in general periodical indexes. The data were analyzed to evaluate the impact or lack of impact of searching a CD-ROM index with loosely-controlled vocabulary and expanded-search capabilities (i.e., InfoTrac-General Periodicals Index) versus a…

  8. For 5-Month-Old Infants, Melodies Are Social.

    PubMed

    Mehr, Samuel A; Song, Lee Ann; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2016-04-01

    For 1 to 2 weeks, 5-month-old infants listened at home to one of two novel songs with identical lyrics and rhythms, but different melodies; the song was sung by a parent, emanated from a toy, or was sung live by a friendly but unfamiliar adult first in person and subsequently via interactive video. We then tested the infants' selective attention to two novel individuals after one sang the familiar song and the other sang the unfamiliar song. Infants who had experienced a parent singing looked longer at the new person who had sung the familiar melody than at the new person who had sung the unfamiliar melody, and the amount of song exposure at home predicted the size of that preference. Neither effect was observed, however, among infants who had heard the song emanating from a toy or being sung by a socially unrelated person, despite these infants' remarkable memory for the familiar melody, tested an average of more than 8 months later. These findings suggest that melodies produced live and experienced at home by known social partners carry social meaning for infants. PMID:26917211

  9. Hypervitaminosis D causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a 5-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ihab A; Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D intoxication in infancy leads to acute hypercalcemia and subsequent hypercalcuria with nephrocalcinosis. Strategies used for patients with vitamin D intoxication are unsatisfactory and associated with prolonged periods of hypercalcemia. We present a 5-month-old infant who had failure to thrive, refusal to feed, delayed motor development, truncal hypotonia, and dehydration. She had high plasma sodium and osmolality with low urine osmolality, and did not respond to intravenous desmopressin administration. She was diagnosed as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus due to hypercalcemia caused by hypervitaminosis D, and was treated with hydrochlorothiazide 2 mg/kg twice daily, and hydration.

  10. Pyopneumothorax with Stocker type III congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in a 5-month-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Chilkar, Sujeet M; Leelakumar, Venkat; Ranjani, Chakravarthy P; Musthyala, Bharati; Narayana, Kotte VS

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a rare, developmental, hamartomatous abnormality of the lung characterized by a cessation of normal bronchiolar maturation, resulting in cystic overgrowth of the terminal bronchioles. We report one such case of CCAM in a 5-month-old female infant who was in perfect health until she suffered from spontaneous pyopneumothorax with type III CCAM of the lung and recovered after lobectomy. PMID:27051113

  11. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  12. The effects of exposure to dynamic expressions of affect on 5-month-olds' memory.

    PubMed

    Flom, Ross; Janis, Rebecca B; Garcia, Darren J; Kirwan, C Brock

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of adults' communicated affect on 5-month-olds' visual recognition memory. Five-month-olds were exposed to a dynamic and bimodal happy, angry, or neutral affective (face-voice) expression while familiarized to a novel geometric image. After familiarization to the geometric image and exposure to the affective expression, 5-month-olds received either a 5-min or 1-day retention interval. Following the 5-min retention interval, infants exposed to the happy affective expressions showed a reliable preference for a novel geometric image compared to the recently familiarized image. Infants exposed to the neutral or angry affective expression failed to show a reliable preference following a 5-min delay. Following the 1-day retention interval, however, infants exposed to the neutral expression showed a reliable preference for the novel geometric image. These results are the first to demonstrate that 5-month-olds' visual recognition memory is affected by the presentation of affective information at the time of encoding.

  13. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  14. Workshop results on small-period wiggler designs

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.; Booske, J.H.; Warren, R.W.; Halbach, K.; Danly, B.; Jackson, B.; Walstrom, P.; Slater, J.; Toor, A.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC; Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY; Spectra Techno

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of a workshop on small-period wiggler and undulator designs held at Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 13, 1989. The wiggler designs are based on the following mechanisms: microwave fields, electromagnetic coils, miniature permanent magnets, current sheets, superconductive coils, and iron-free pulsed wire. 9 refs.

  15. Horizontal Resorption of Fresh-Frozen Corticocancellous Bone Blocks in the Reconstruction of the Atrophic Maxilla at 5 Months

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Eugénio; Messias, Ana; Dias, Ricardo; Judas, Fernando; Salvoni, Alexander; Guerra, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background Reliable implant-supported rehabilitation of an alveolar ridge needs sufficient volume of bone. In order to achieve a prosthetic-driven positioning, bone graft techniques may be required. Purpose This prospective cohort study aims to clinically evaluate the amount of resorption of corticocancellous fresh-frozen allografts bone blocks used in the reconstruction of the severe atrophic maxilla. Materials and Methods Twenty-two partial and totally edentulous patients underwent bone augmentation procedures with fresh-frozen allogenous blocks from the iliac crest under local anesthesia. Implants were inserted into the grafted sites after a healing period of 5 months. Final fixed prosthesis was delivered ± 4 months later. Ridge width analysis and measurements were performed with a caliper before and after grafting and at implant insertion. Bone biopsies were performed in 16 patients. Results A total of 98 onlay block allografts were used in 22 patients with an initial mean alveolar ridge width of 3.41 ± 1.36 mm. Early exposure of blocks was observed in four situations and one of these completely resorbed. Mean horizontal bone gain was 3.63 ± 1.28 mm (p < .01). Mean buccal bone resorption between allograph placement and the reopening stage was 0.49 ± 0.54 mm, meaning approximately 7.1% (95% confidence interval: [5.6%, 8.6%]) of total ridge width loss during the integration period. One hundred thirty dental implants were placed with good primary stability (≥ 30 Ncm). Four implants presented early failure before the prosthetic delivery (96.7% implant survival). All patients were successfully rehabilitated. Histomorphometric analysis revealed 20.9 ± 5.8% of vital bone in close contact to the remaining grafted bone. A positive strong correlation (adjusted R2 = 0.44, p = .003) was found between healing time and vital bone percentage. Conclusions Augmentation procedures performed using fresh-frozen allografts from the

  16. Investigation of Solar about 5-Month Cycle in Human Circulating Melatonin: Signature of Weather in Extraterrestrial Space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornélissen, G.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Otsuka, K.; Gigolashvili, M.; Halberg, F.

    2009-12-01

    Melatonin, produced mainly in the pineal and the gut, is often thought of as the "dark hormone" as its concentration in the circulation is high during darkness and low during light in diurnally- and nocturnally-active mammals in health. About-daily and about-yearly periodicities can thus be anticipated to characterize melatonin, matching the two major photic environmental cycles. Non-photic solar influences have also been observed, melatonin being depressed in association with magnetic storms. While less stable than the daily and yearly changes, non-photic solar dynamics also undergo various periodicities. Among them is an about 0.42-year (about 5-month or 154-day) cycle, reported by several physicists in relation to Zürich relative sunspot numbers and to solar flares. This putative signature of solar activity was found in the incidence pattern of sudden cardiac death in Minnesota, USA, among other geographic locations. A cycle with a period of about 0.42 year is here reported in data on circulating melatonin of 172 patients studied between Oct 1992 and Dec 1995 in Florence, Italy. Melatonin may mediate some of the Sun's effects upon the biosphere in certain frequency-windows such as a cis-half-year of about 5 months.

  17. From the reaching behavior at 5 months of age to hand preference at preschool age.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Strohmeier, Andrea; Plienegger, Johann; Garzarolli, Bettina; Prechtl, Heinz F R

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the reaching behavior at the age of 5 months, and to determine whether and to what extent there is a relationship between hand use at this age and manual laterality at preschool age. 20 participants (13 girls and 7 boys) were investigated on two occasions: At the age of 5 months we assessed the hand use for reaching for four different objects placed at the infant's body midline or in their right or left hemispaces, respectively. At the age of 5 years and 7 months, we assessed the hand use for 22 motor tasks. The handedness status was calculated in order to reflect the sinistrality-dextrality continuum. All but one infant were unimanual reachers at 5 months of age. Preferential reaching was space dependent rather than object dependent at this stage. Children reaching for objects in the right hemispace predominantly with their right hand showed a significantly greater right hand laterality at late preschool age than children who at the age of 5 months had shown inconsistent hand use (p < .05). Children who at the age of 5 months had reached for objects in the left hemispace with their left hand proved to be less lateralized in their right hand use approximately 5 years later (p < .05).

  18. Effects of eye size on adults' aesthetic ratings of faces and 5-month-olds' looking times.

    PubMed

    Geldart, S; Maurer, D; Carney, K

    1999-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the influence of eye size on adults' ratings of faces' attractiveness and 5-month-olds' looking times. Subjects viewed four pairs of female faces that were identical except for the size of the eyes. Whether they saw black-and-white drawings (experiment 1) or coloured photographs (experiment 2), adults rated the faces with larger eyes as more attractive than the faces with smaller eyes. Babies looked equally long at the drawn faces with larger and smaller eyes (experiment 1), but with the more realistic photographed faces, they looked slightly but significantly longer at the versions with larger eyes (experiment 2). Overall, our results suggest that a modest preference for larger eyes that has emerged by 5 months of age may contribute to the development of adult aesthetic preferences. PMID:10615473

  19. [Vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia in a 7.5 months old girl].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Malgorzata; Irga, Ninela; Wierzba, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) stores at birth are adequate for infants until the end of the first year of life even if it 's concentration in maternal breast milk is low. However, there are some situations in which infants have depleted vitamin B(12) stores and in addition have a low dietary intake of cobalamin. Vitamin B(12) depletion occurs in infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers who have unrecognized pernicious anemia or are strict vegetarians for many years. In those infants symptoms of bone marrow disfunction and impaired development of the central nervous system appear already in the first months of life. Unrecognized cobalamin deficiency may lead to serious neurologic consequences, and even to the death of the child. The authors present a case of a 7.5 month old girl admitted to the Department of Paediatrics, Haematology, Oncology and Endocrinology. Gdańsk Medical University suspected of acute leukaemia. Based on a detailed diagnostic procedure a final diagnosis of vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia was established. The child was exclusively breast-fed. Results of investigations into the reason for cobalamin deficiency in the patient s organism. Led to the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in the mother. Such a suspicion had been made during pregnancy, but no continuation of investigations nor appropriate treatment were implemented. After treatment with vitamin B(12) supplements and modification of the diet the patient improved quickly and remarkably. A few months follow-up was enough to observe remarkable improvement of psychomotor development of this child.

  20. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  1. Priming 4.5-Month-Old Infants to Use Height Information by Enhancing Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua

    2011-01-01

    How do infants select and use information that is relevant to the task at hand? Infants treat events that involve different spatial relations as distinct, and their selection and use of object information depends on the type of event they encounter. For example, 4.5-month-olds consider information about object height in occlusion events, but…

  2. Mature teratoma of the temporal bone in 3.5-month-old baby girl.

    PubMed

    Alqurashi, Alshema; Bakry, Essa; Straube, Marta; Rickert, Christian H; Mir-Salim, Parwis

    2015-01-01

    Mature teratoma is a benign germ cell tumor rarely located in the temporal bone. We are reporting a case of a mature teratoma of the temporal bone in a healthy borne 3.5-month-old baby girl with a 2-day suggestive history of otitis media and polypoidal mass expulsing from the external auditory canal of the left ear. A definitive diagnosis is made after complete excision and histological examination of the tissue. Total surgical excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice. PMID:25945275

  3. Face Gender Influences the Looking Preference for Smiling Expressions in 3.5-Month-Old Human Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C.; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Young infants are typically thought to prefer looking at smiling expressions. Although some accounts suggest that the preference is automatic and universal, we hypothesized that it is not rigid and may be influenced by other face dimensions, most notably the face’s gender. Infants are sensitive to the gender of faces; for example, 3-month-olds raised by female caregivers typically prefer female over male faces. We presented neutral versus smiling pairs of faces from the same female or male individuals to 3.5-month-old infants (n = 25), controlling for low-level cues. Infants looked longer to the smiling face when faces were female but longer to the neutral face when faces were male, i.e., there was an effect of face gender on the looking preference for smiling. The results indicate that a preference for smiling in 3.5-month-olds is limited to female faces, possibly reflective of differential experience with male and female faces. PMID:26068460

  4. Face Gender Influences the Looking Preference for Smiling Expressions in 3.5-Month-Old Human Infants.

    PubMed

    Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C; Tanaka, James W; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Young infants are typically thought to prefer looking at smiling expressions. Although some accounts suggest that the preference is automatic and universal, we hypothesized that it is not rigid and may be influenced by other face dimensions, most notably the face's gender. Infants are sensitive to the gender of faces; for example, 3-month-olds raised by female caregivers typically prefer female over male faces. We presented neutral versus smiling pairs of faces from the same female or male individuals to 3.5-month-old infants (n = 25), controlling for low-level cues. Infants looked longer to the smiling face when faces were female but longer to the neutral face when faces were male, i.e., there was an effect of face gender on the looking preference for smiling. The results indicate that a preference for smiling in 3.5-month-olds is limited to female faces, possibly reflective of differential experience with male and female faces.

  5. A competition model of exogenous orienting in 3.5-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Dannemiller, J L

    1998-03-01

    Four experiments are reported on exogenous (stimulus-driven) orienting in 3.5-month-old infants. A small moving bar embedded in a field of static bars was used to draw the infant's attention to one side of the display or the other. The bars could be either red or green. In all four of these experiments sensitivity to this small moving bar was affected significantly by how unevenly the red and green bars were distributed across the visual field. Sensitivity to the moving bar was lower when most of the red bars were in the field contralateral to this probe suggesting competition between the motion stimulus and contralaterally placed red but not green bars on a small, but significant proportion of trials. This basic effect replicated in four separate experiments and depended coarsely on how unevenly the red and the green bars were distributed across the field. A competition model of exogenous orienting with a winner-take-all rule captured the most important features of the data. The distribution of color within the visual field can bias attention significantly at 3.5 months making it either more or less likely that an infant will detect a moving stimulus. PMID:9514768

  6. Physiological periostitis in a 2.5-month-old baby.

    PubMed

    Haicioğlu, Oya; Aşik-Akman, Sezin; Yaprak, Işin; Astarcioğlu, Görkem; Imamoğlu, Tuna; Reisoğlu, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Periosteal reaction has different etiologies in early infancy. Physiological periostitis is a well-documented X-ray finding seen in both preterm and term babies aged between 1-6 months and can easily be misdiagnosed as child abuse or pathological periostitis. Here, we present a 2.5-month-old infant admitted with a history of fever, swollen right upper arm after vaccination and X-rays findings revealing periosteal reactions on both sides of the humeri, radii, tibiae and femora. Initial diagnosis was child abuse or congenital syphilis. Due to the normal physical findings and normal serological-biochemical data, physiological periostitis was diagnosed. Physiological periostitis should also be considered in patients with periosteal reactions of the long bones in infants aged between 1-6 months.

  7. Neural Responses to Multimodal Ostensive Signals in 5-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Parise, Eugenio; Csibra, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Infants' sensitivity to ostensive signals, such as direct eye contact and infant-directed speech, is well documented in the literature. We investigated how infants interpret such signals by assessing common processing mechanisms devoted to them and by measuring neural responses to their compounds. In Experiment 1, we found that ostensive signals from different modalities display overlapping electrophysiological activity in 5-month-old infants, suggesting that these signals share neural processing mechanisms independently of their modality. In Experiment 2, we found that the activation to ostensive signals from different modalities is not additive to each other, but rather reflects the presence of ostension in either stimulus stream. These data support the thesis that ostensive signals obligatorily indicate to young infants that communication is directed to them. PMID:23977289

  8. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. If a hospital's base-year costs, as estimated for purposes of determining... penalty or assessment, to include costs that were unlawfully claimed, the hospital's base-period costs...

  9. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  10. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  11. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  12. Perseverative responding in a violation-of-expectation task in 6.5-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Andréa; Baillargeon, Renée

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, 6.5-month-old infants perseverated in a violation-of-expectation task designed to examine their reasoning about width information in containment events. After watching a familiarization event in which a ball was lowered into a wide container, the infants failed to detect the violation in a test event in which the same ball was lowered into a container only half as wide as the ball (narrow-container test event). This negative result (which was replicated in another experiment) was interpreted in terms of a recent problem-solving account of infants’ perseverative errors in various means-end tasks (Aguiar, A., & Baillargeon, R. (2000). Perseveration and problem solving in infancy. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 27, pp. 135–180). San Diego, CA: Academic Press). It was assumed that the infants in the present experiments (1) did not attend to the relative widths of the ball and container in their initial analysis of the narrow-container test event, (2) categorized the event as similar to the familiarization event shown on the preceding trials, and (3) retrieved the expectation they had formed for that event (“the ball will fit into the container”), resulting in a perseverative error. This interpretation was supported by additional experiments in which different modifications were introduced that led to non-perseverative responding, indicating that 6.5-month-old infants could detect the violation in the narrow-container test event. The present findings are important for several reasons. First, they provide the first demonstration of perseverative responding in a violation-of-expectation task. Second, they make clear the breadth and usefulness of the problem-solving account mentioned above. Finally, they add to the evidence for some degree of continuity between infants’ and adults’ problem-solving abilities. PMID:12804814

  13. Effects of probiotic supplementation over 5 months on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2014-11-01

    Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues.

  14. Rhesus Rotavirus candidate vaccine. Clinical trial in children vaccinated between 2 and 5 months of age.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, T; Rautanen, T; Varis, T; Beards, G M; Kapikian, A Z

    1990-03-01

    Live attenuated oral rhesus Rotavirus candidate vaccine (strain MMU 18006 [lot RRV-1]) was evaluated for immunogenicity, safety, and clinical protection in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 200 infants aged 2 to 5 months when vaccinated. Vaccine-induced fourfold or greater rise of Rotavirus antibodies was seen in 62% of the infants. Febrile reactions of short duration on days 3 and/or 4 after vaccination occurred in 26% of the vaccine recipients. The clinical follow-up covered two Rotavirus seasons, in which serotypes 1 and 4 were prevalent. There were 16 cases of confirmed Rotavirus diarrhea in the placebo-treated group and 10 in the vaccine-treated group; from this a vaccine protection rate of 38% was derived. Clinical severity of Rotavirus diarrhea was assessed by a score; 13 cases in the placebo-treated group and 5 in the vaccine-treated group were regarded as severe or moderately severe, giving a vaccine protection rate of 67%. The rhesus Rotavirus vaccine induces partial protection against heterotypic Rotavirus disease, but the level of protection achieved with the present vaccine dose in this age group appears to be insufficient for a general Rotavirus vaccination.

  15. Places and postures: A cross-cultural comparison of sitting in 5-month-olds

    PubMed Central

    Karasik, Lana B.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Motor development—traditionally described in terms of age-related stages—is typically studied in the laboratory with participants of Western European descent. Cross-cultural studies typically focus on group differences in age-related stages relative to Western norms. We adopted a less traditional approach: We observed 5-month-olds and their mothers from six cultural groups around the world during one hour at home while they engaged in natural daily activities. We examined group differences in infants’ sitting proficiency, everyday opportunities to practice sitting, the surfaces on which sitting took place, and mothers’ proximity to sitting infants. Infants had opportunities to practice sitting in varied contexts—including ground, infant chairs, and raised surfaces. Proficiency varied considerably within and between cultural groups: 64% of the sample sat only with support from mother or furniture and 36% sat independently. Some infants sat unsupported for 20+ minutes, in some cases so securely that mothers moved beyond arms’ reach of their infants even while infants sat on raised surfaces. Our observations of infant sitting across cultures provide new insights into the striking range of ability, varied opportunities for practice, and contextual factors that influence the proficiency of infant motor skills. PMID:26924852

  16. Ultra-Short-Period Planets in K2: New Results From SuPerPiG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-short-period planets, with orbital periods of less than 1 day, are a challenge to theories of planet formation. The SuPerPiG collaboration (Short-Period Planet Group) reports on 19 candidates identified in Campaigns 0-5 of the K2 mission. Planet candidates range in size from 0.7-16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hours. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp=12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hours), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least rho=8.9 g/cm^3 in order to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert (R_P=3-11 R_E and P<=1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  17. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Determination...

  18. Periodic fever syndromes in Eastern and Central European countries: results of a pediatric multinational survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence of diagnosed and suspected autoinflammatory diseases in Eastern and Central European (ECE) countries, with a particular interest on the diagnostic facilities in these countries. Methods Two different strategies were used to collect data on patients with periodic fever syndromes from ECE countries- the Eurofever survey and collection of data with the structured questionnaire. Results Data from 35 centers in 14 ECE countries were collected. All together there were 11 patients reported with genetically confirmed familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), 14 with mevalonate-kinase deficiency (MKD), 11 with tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) and 4 with chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA). Significantly higher numbers were reported for suspected cases which were not genetically tested. All together there were 49 suspected FMF patients reported, 24 MKD, 16 TRAPS, 7 CINCA and 2 suspected Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) patients. Conclusions The number of genetically confirmed patients with periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries is very low. In order to identify more patients in the future, it is important to organize educational programs for increasing the knowledge on these diseases and to establish a network for genetic testing of periodic fever syndromes in ECE countries. PMID:21539753

  19. Results of Laboratory and Industrial Tests of Periodic-Type Gas Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, I. N.; P‧yanykh, K. E.; Antoshchuk, T. A.; Lysenko, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests of periodic-type gas generators burning various solid biofuels have been presented. The tests were carried out with the aim of obtaining producer gas which could totally or partly replace natural gas in power equipment burning gaseous fuel. The energy and environmental characteristics of a boiler unit burning a mixture of producer gas and natural gas have been assessed.

  20. MicroRNA-574 is involved in cognitive impairment in 5-month-old APP/PS1 mice through regulation of neuritin.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Wei, Gang; Bai, Ye; Li, Yunjun; Huang, Fengyuan; Lin, Jian; Hou, Qiuke; Deng, Rudong; Zhou, Jian Hong; Zhang, Sai Xia; Chen, Dong Feng

    2015-11-19

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. The recent evidence in AD research suggests that alterations in the microRNA (miRNA) could contribute to risk for the disease. However, little is understood about the roles of miRNAs in cognitive impairment of early Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we used 5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, which mimic many of the salient features of the early stage of AD pathological process, to further investigate the roles of miRNAs in synaptic loss involved in learning and memory. We used miRNA expression microarrays on RNA extracted from the hippocampus of 5-month-old APP/PS1 mice and wild type mice. Real-time reverse transcription PCR was conducted to verify the candidate miRNAs discovered by microarray analysis. The data showed that miR-574 was increased significantly in the hippocampus of 5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, which were concomitant with that APP/PS1 mice at the same age displayed a significant synaptic loss and cognitive deficits. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that neuritin (Nrn1) mRNA is targeted by miR-574. Overexpression of miR-574 lowers the levels of neuritin and synaptic proteins expression in primary hippocampal neurons damage induced by Aβ25-35. And the expression of miR-574 was also up-regulated in the hippocampal neurons from APP/PS1 mice compared with WT littermates. In contrast, suppression of miR-574 by miR-574 inhibitor significantly results in higher levels of neuritin and synaptic proteins expression. Taken together, miR-574 is involved in cognitive impairment in 5-month-old APP/PS1 mice through regulation of neuritin. PMID:26423933

  1. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system.

  2. Evidence of Amodal Representation of Small Numbers across Visuo-Tactile Modalities in 5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feron, Julie; Gentaz, Edouard; Streri, Arlette

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated 5-month-old infants' amodal sensitivity to numerical correspondences between sets of objects presented in the tactile and visual modes. A classical cross-modal transfer task from touch to vision was adopted. Infants were first tactually familiarized with two or three different objects presented one by one in their…

  3. Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Smoking, Alcohol, and Caffeine in 5-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Jeffrey K.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    This study examined the behavioral effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to smoking, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages on 5-month-old infants. The sample consisted of 179 Caucasian infants and their mothers. All mothers were 19 years of age or older and had at least a tenth-grade education. Mental and motor portions of the Bayley Scales of…

  4. Effects of a 5-month football program on perceived psychological status and body composition of overweight boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, A C; Seabra, A F; Brito, J; Krustrup, P; Hansen, P R; Mota, J; Rebelo, A; Rêgo, C; Malina, R M

    2014-08-01

    The effects of a 5-month intervention of football instruction and practice on the perceived psychological status and body composition of overweight boys were examined. Twelve boys (8-12 years; body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) participated in a structured 5-month football program, consisting of four weekly 60-90 min sessions with mean heart rate > 80%HRmax [football group (FG)]. A control group (CG) included eight boys of equivalent age from an obesity clinic located in the same area as the school. Both groups participated in two sessions of 45-90-min physical education per week at school. Indicators of perceived psychological status included body image, self-esteem, attraction to participation in physical activity, and perceived physical competence measured with standardized questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. From baseline through 5 months, FG improved (P < 0.05) in all indicators of psychological status (%Δ = +11.7 to +29.2%) compared with CG (%Δ = -32.1 to +0.5%). Changes in percentage body fat and lean body mass, however, did not differ between FG and CG. The findings suggest that a 5-month football intervention program was effective in improving the psychological status of overweight boys but did not significantly alter body composition. PMID:24944129

  5. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  6. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was -4.727% (95% CI: -4.821% to -4.634%) per year for men and -6.633% (95% CI: -6.751% to -6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994-2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20-24 years old and 15-24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  7. Assesment of perinatal mortality in two different periods: results of a single center

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Serdar Sadık; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Sarı, Ferhat; Aldemir, Esin Yıldız; Kavçık, Nazlı; Demir, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the perinatal mortality rate with 37 864 deliveries which occured in two different periods in a single center, to compare the components of perinatal mortality and affecting factors with the results of the study related with perinatal mortality which we conducted in 1999 and to emphasize the precautions directed to reduce mortality rates. Material and Methods: All live births and stillbirths which occurred in Bakırköy Obstetrics and Pediatrics Training and Research Hospital between January 2007 and December 2007 were evaluated. The results were compared with the results of the study conducted in 1999. Newborns with a weight above five hundred grams and a gestational age above 22 weeks were enrolled in the study. The stillbirth rate, early neonatal mortality rate, late neonatal mortality rate, perinatal mortality rate and corrected perinatal mortality rate were calculated. Modified Wigglesworth Classification was used for evaluating the perinatal mortality and the subjects were examined in 7 groups. The characteristics belonging to the years of 2007 and 1999 were examined, the differences were recorded and the results were discussed. When the two periods were compared, it was observed that the perinatal mortality rate increased from 23.5‰ to 26‰. Result: When the causes were investigated, it was observed that the stillbirth rate was increased in 2007 (84%) and especially congenital anomalies had an important role in this increment. The early neonatal mortality rate declined from 0.8% in 1999 to 0.4% in 2007. It was found that especially the premature mortality rate (Group 3) and the mortality rate related with perinatal asphyxia (Group 4) were significantly decreased. Conclusion: The decrease in early neonatal mortality rate could be best explained by productive operation of the new neonatal intensive care unit which had been established after 2002. PMID:27738396

  8. Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8∘ declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

  9. Evaporation over land surfaces - First results from HAPEX-MOBILHY Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Jean-Claude; Goutorbe, Jean-Paul; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Perrier, Alain; Becker, Francois

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the May 7-July 15, 1986 Special Observing Period (SOP) of the HAPEX-MOBILHY program, which examines the hydrological budget and evaporation flux at the scale of a 10,000 sq km GCM grid square to determine soil moisture, surface-energy budgets, and surface hydrology. The SOP used two highly instrumented remote sensing aircraft to obtain detailed measurements of atmospheric fluxes and surface properties. It is noted that the measurements are reliable at spatially local and short time scales, as well as on the monthly time scale. The data base obtained may be used in parametrization schemes against which land-surface water budgets can be tested.

  10. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  11. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  12. Do 12.5-Month-Old Infants Consider What Objects Others Can See when Interpreting Their Actions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Baillargeon, Renee

    2007-01-01

    The present research examined whether 12.5-month-old infants take into account what objects an agent knows to be present in a scene when interpreting the agent's actions. In two experiments, the infants watched a female human agent repeatedly reach for and grasp object-A as opposed to object-B on an apparatus floor. Object-B was either (1) visible…

  13. Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Foster, J. C.

    1990-06-01

    F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run that involved a sharp increase in the polar cap potential drop followed by a subsequent decrease. The zonal disturbance electric field pattern is latitude independent, and the corresponding amplitudes change approximately as L exp n (where n is about 1.5). The meridional electric field patterns and amplitudes have larger latitudinal variations. The mid-, low, and equatorial electric fields from the Rice Convection Model are in good agreement with previous results from the semianalytic, Senior-Blanc (1987) model. Also discussed are three physical mechanisms (over-shielding, fossil winds, and magnetic reconfiguration) that contribute to the long lasting (1-2 h) equatorial zonal electric field perturbations associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF. It is predicted that the penetration of high latitude electric fields to low latitudes should, in general, be closely related to the rate of motion of the shielding layer and the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora.

  14. Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defu; Ning, Yibing; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Junkuan; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0 to 5 months by different feeding approaches. A cross-sectional study on infant nutrition was performed in eight cities in China. A total of 622 infants from birth to 2 months of age and 456 infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were included in this study. Mix-fed infants received breast milk and complementary foods from birth to 2 months of age. Approximately 38.2% of mix-fed infants received excessive vitamin A, and 15.6% of infants exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) of zinc. For artificially fed infants who received only complementary foods, approximately 20% and 12.5% infants received inadequate dietary vitamin A and zinc intakes, respectively. The vitamin A and zinc intakes of half of the infants exceeded the ULs. Results showed that the usual intake distribution of the infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were similar to that of the infants from birth to 2 months of age. The common vitamin A and zinc intakes were also severely imbalanced. In addition, higher disease prevalence and lower Z scores of length-forage, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length were found in artificially fed infants and mix-fed infants compared with those in breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the usual nutrient intakes were adequate for the majority of Chinese infants, except for an important number of infants at risk for imbalance of vitamin A and zinc intakes.

  15. Rare association of thin corpus callosum with infantile tremor syndrome in a 5.5-month-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chandra Madhur; Sharma, Deepti; Kumar, Romal; Ranjan, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Infantile tremor syndrome (ITS) is a clinical disorder characterized by coarse tremors, anemia and regression of motor and mental milestones, presenting in malnourished children aged between 5 months and 3 years. Few reports of neuroimaging abnormalities in children with ITS are present. The most common finding of neuroimaging in ITS is cerebral atrophy with ex-vacuo enlargement of ventricles and subarachnoid space, some recent reports also showed pontine myelinolysis and cerebral hyperintensities. We did not find any report of thin corpus callosum associated with ITS in the literature. PMID:26557175

  16. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Ritter, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities, was flown for the first time aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-40. This is also the first time an accelerometer package with nano-g sensitivity and a calibration facility has flown aboard the Space Shuttle. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Space Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarified flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument defects aerodynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-hour orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. During the flight, a 'trimmed-mean' filter was used to produce high quality, low frequency data which was successfully stored aboard the Space Shuttle in the OARE data storage system. Initial review of the data indicated that, although the expected precision was achieved, some equipment problems occurred resulting in uncertain accuracy. An acceleration model which includes aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and rotational effects was constructed and compared with flight data. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight linear corrections for drift. The other axis does not exhibit these difficulties and gives good agreement with the acceleration model.

  17. Long Period Variables in the LMC: Results from MACHO and 2Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, O J; Cook, K H; Keller, S C; Hawley, S L

    2004-07-19

    We use the eight year light curve database from the MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) project together with infrared colors and magnitudes from 2MASS (the Two Micron All Sky Survey) to identify a sample of 22,000 long period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (referred to hereafter as LMC LPVs). A period luminosity diagram of these stars reveals six well defined sequences, in substantial agreement with previous analyses of samples from OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment). In our analysis we identify analogues to galactic LPVs in the LMC LPV sample. We find that carbon dominated AGB stars populate only two of the sequences, one of which includes the Mira variables. The high luminosity end of the same two sequences are also the location of the only stars with J K{sub s} > 2, indicating that they are enshrouded in dust. The unknown mechanism that produces the variability of the last sequence--those stars with long secondary periods--produces different morphology in the period luminosity diagram than what is seen in the first four sequences, which are thought to be caused by pulsation. In particular, the last sequence extends to lower luminosity RGB stars and the luminosity function does not peak among the AGB stars. We point out several features which will constrain new models of the period luminosity sequences.

  18. Boundary conditions for creeping flow along periodic or random rough surfaces : experimental and theoretical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions between particles and walls are relevant for the open problem of specifying boundary conditions for suspension flows. The Reynolds number around a small particle close to a wall is usually low and creeping flow equations apply. From the solution of these equations, the drag coefficient on a sphere becomes infinite when the gap between the sphere and a smooth wall vanishes, so that contact may not occur. Physically, the drag is finite because of various reasons, one of them being the particle and wall roughness. Then, for vanishing gap, even though some layers of fluid molecules may be left between the particle and wall roughness peaks, it may conventionally be said that contact occurs. In this paper, we are considering the example of a smooth sphere moving towards a rough wall. The roughness considered here consist of random rough planes or parallel periodic wedges, the characteristic length of which is small compared with the sphere radius. This problem is considered both experimentally and theoretically. The motion of a millimetre size bead settling towards a corrugated horizontal wall in a viscous oil is measured with laser interferometry giving an accuracy on the displacement of 0.2μm. Several random rough planes and wedge shaped walls were used, with various wavelengths and wedge angles. From the results, it is observed that the velocity of the sphere is, except for small gaps, similar to that towards a smooth plane that is shifted down from the top of corrugations. For the periodic wedges, the creeping flow is calculated as a series in the slope of the roughness grooves. The convergence of the series for the shift distance in term of the slope is accelerated by use of Euler transformation and of the existence of a limit for large slope. The cases of a flow along and across the grooves are considered separately. The shift is larger in the former case. Slightly flattened tops of the wedges used in experiments are also considered in

  19. CULP (California Union List of Periodicals) 1980 User Survey Results. PN-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M., Jr.

    This survey of California libraries was conducted to gather information on the use of the California Union List of Periodicals (CULP), a microfiche finding list for serials held in all kinds of libraries statewide, exept for those held by major academic institutions. Returned by 391 of 696 libraries in October 1980, the survey questionnaire was…

  20. Saturn's periodicities: New results from an MHD simulation of magnetospheric response to rotating ionospheric vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, M.; Jia, X.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work we demonstrated that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere in which periodicity is imposed by rotating vortical flows in the ionosphere reproduces many reported periodically varying properties of the system. Here we shall show that previously unreported features of the MHD simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere illuminate additional measured properties of the system. By averaging over a rotation period, we identify a global electric field whose magnitude is a few tenths of a mV/m (see Figure 1). The electric field intensity decreases with radial distance in the middle magnetosphere, consistent with drift speeds v=E/B of a few km/s towards the morning side and relatively independent of radial distance. The electric field within 10 RS in the equatorial plane is oriented from post-noon to post-midnight, in excellent agreement with observations [e.g., Thomsen et al., 2012; Andriopoulou et al., 2012, 2013; Wilson et al., 2013]. By following the electric field over a full rotation phase we identify oscillatory behavior whose magnitude is consistent with the reported fluctuations of measured electric fields. Of particular interest is the nature of the fast mode perturbations that produce periodic displacement of the magnetopause and flapping of the current sheet. Figure (2) shows the total perturbation pressure (the sum of magnetic and thermal pressure) in the equatorial plane at a rotation phase for which the ionospheric flow near noon is equatorward. By following the perturbations over a full rotation period, we demonstrate properties of the fast mode wave launched by the rotating flow structures and thereby characterize the 'cam' signal originally proposed by Espinosa et al. [2003].

  1. Inappropriate Neural Activity during a Sensitive Period in Embryogenesis Results in Persistent Seizure-like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Carlo N.G.; Baines, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maturation of neural circuits requires activity-dependent processes that underpin the emergence of appropriate behavior in the adult. It has been proposed that disruption of these events, during specific critical periods when they exert maximal influence, may lead to neurodevelopmental diseases, including epilepsy [1, 2, 3]. However, complexity of neurocircuitry, coupled with the lack of information on network formation in mammals, makes it difficult to directly investigate this hypothesis. Alternative models, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, show remarkable similarities between experimental seizure-like activity and clinical phenotypes [4, 5, 6]. In particular, a group of flies, termed bang-sensitive (bs) mutants have been extensively used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying seizure [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. Seizure phenotype can be measured in larval stages using an electroshock assay, and this behavior in bs mutants is dramatically reduced following ingestion of typical anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs; [13]). In this study we describe a critical period of embryonic development in Drosophila during which manipulation of neural activity is sufficient to significantly influence seizure behavior at postembryonic stages. We show that inhibition of elevated activity, characteristic of bs seizure models, during the critical period is sufficient to suppress seizure. By contrast, increasing neuronal excitation during the same period in wild-type (WT) is sufficient to permanently induce a seizure behavior. Further, we show that induction of seizure in WT correlates with functional alteration of motoneuron inputs that is a characteristic of bs mutants. Induction of seizure is rescued by prior administration of AEDs, opening a new perspective for early drug intervention in the treatment of genetic epilepsy. PMID:26549258

  2. Quasi-periodic Pulsations in Solar and Stellar Flares: An Overview of Recent Results (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Kupriyanova, Elena G.; Yuan, Ding

    2016-09-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (or QPPs) are periodic intensity variations in the flare emission that occur across all wavelength bands. In this article, we review the observational and modelling achievements since the previous review on this topic by Nakariakov and Melnikov (Space Sci. Rev. 149, 119, 2009). In recent years, it has become clear that QPPs are an inherent feature of solar flares because almost all flares exhibit QPPs. Moreover, it is now firmly established that QPPs often show multiple periods. We also review possible mechanisms for generating QPPs. Up to now, it has not been possible to conclusively identify the triggering mechanism or cause of QPPs. The lack of this identification currently hampers possible seismological inferences of flare plasma parameters. QPPs in stellar flares have been detected for a long time, and the high-quality data of the Kepler mission allows studying the QPP more systematically. However, it has not been conclusively shown whether the timescales of stellar QPPs are different or the same as those in solar flares.

  3. Experimental results of antigliadin antibodies detection using long period fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corres, J. M.; Matias, I. R.; Goicoechea, J.; Arregui, F. J.; Viegas, D.; Araújo, F. M.; Santos, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    In this work a new nano-biofilm is proposed for the detection of celiac disease (CD). A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) is used as a transducer and the surface of the fiber is coated with a precursor layer of SiO2-nanospheres using the electrostatic self-assembly technique (ESA). This layer has been designed in order to create a substrate of high porosity where the gliadins could be deposited. Under the presence of specific antibodies antigliadin antibodies (AGA) the refractive index of the overlay changes giving a detectable shift in the resonance wavelength of the LPFG. Concentrations as low as 5 ppm were detected.

  4. Changes in mechanical control of movement during the first 5 months of independent walking: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hallemans, Ann; Dhanis, Lin; De Clercq, Dirk; Aerts, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Insight into neuromuscular control of movement is gained through an understanding of the mechanical causes of movement. Data on new walkers' net joint moments is scarce, however, although those moments can be considered the direct cause of movement. The authors' goal in this research project was to characterize net joint moments in toddlers (N = 10) during the first 5 months of independent walking and to discuss their role in mechanical control of walking. The authors modeled leg segments as oscillating pendulums fixed at the proximal joint and investigated the relationship between force and movement. Their investigation revealed that at the onset of independent gait, walking was primarily hip driven. Furthermore, the toddlers seemed to experience problems in uncoupling active and passive control around the joints. Changes in mechanical control of walking were observed after 3 to 4 months of independent walking. The changes were more obvious at the hip and the knee joint than at the ankle.

  5. “Did You Call Me?” 5-Month-Old Infants Own Name Guides Their Attention

    PubMed Central

    Parise, Eugenio; Friederici, Angela D.; Striano, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    An infant's own name is a unique social cue. Infants are sensitive to their own name by 4 months of age, but whether they use their names as a social cue is unknown. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured as infants heard their own name or stranger's names and while looking at novel objects. Event related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to names revealed that infants differentiate their own name from stranger names from the first phoneme. The amplitude of the ERPs to objects indicated that infants attended more to objects after hearing their own names compared to another name. Thus, by 5 months of age infants not only detect their name, but also use it as a social cue to guide their attention to events and objects in the world. PMID:21151971

  6. A massive retroperitoneal neuroblastoma with stenosis of the inferior vena cava in a 5-month-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jui-Ting; Dai, Yang-Hong; Kuo, Shih-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common retroperitoneal tumour in children after Wilms’ tumour. When it originates in the retroperitoneum, neuroblastoma usually presents as an abdominal mass with clinical manifestations of nausea, vomiting and weight loss. Imaging studies of this tumour demonstrate a heterogeneous mass with an irregular capsule and visible calcifications. Encasement and compression of the abdominal vessels, especially the inferior vena cava, are often observed. However, stenosis of the inferior vena cava has never been reported to be associated with this tumour. Here, we present a case of a 5-month-old boy with a right retroperitoneal tumour with extensive encasement of the inferior vena cava and significant narrowing of its distal part between the venous bifurcation and the tumour capsule. To our knowledge, this is the first case of neuroblastoma with this manifestation in a child. PMID:24671327

  7. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities was flown aboard Shuttle on STS-40. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarefied flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument detects aerodynamic behavior of the Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-h orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low-frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight liner corrections for drift.

  8. The Relationship between Sitting and the Use of Symmetry As a Cue to Figure-Ground Assignment in 6.5-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Perone, Sammy; Vecera, Shaun P; Oakes, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relationship between emerging sitting ability and sensitivity to symmetry as a cue to figure-ground (FG) assignment in 6.5-month-old infants (N = 80). In each experiment, infants who could sit unassisted (as indicated by parental report in Experiment 1 and by an in-lab assessment in Experiment 2) exhibited sensitivity to symmetry as a cue to FG assignment, whereas non-sitting infants did not. Experiment 2 further revealed that sensitivity to this cue is not related to general cognitive abilities as indexed using a non-related visual habituation task. Results demonstrate an important relationship between motor development and visual perception and further suggest that the achievement of important motor milestones such as stable sitting may be related to qualitative changes in sensitivity to monocular depth assignment cues such as symmetry. PMID:27303326

  9. The Relationship between Sitting and the Use of Symmetry As a Cue to Figure-Ground Assignment in 6.5-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Perone, Sammy; Vecera, Shaun P.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relationship between emerging sitting ability and sensitivity to symmetry as a cue to figure-ground (FG) assignment in 6.5-month-old infants (N = 80). In each experiment, infants who could sit unassisted (as indicated by parental report in Experiment 1 and by an in-lab assessment in Experiment 2) exhibited sensitivity to symmetry as a cue to FG assignment, whereas non-sitting infants did not. Experiment 2 further revealed that sensitivity to this cue is not related to general cognitive abilities as indexed using a non-related visual habituation task. Results demonstrate an important relationship between motor development and visual perception and further suggest that the achievement of important motor milestones such as stable sitting may be related to qualitative changes in sensitivity to monocular depth assignment cues such as symmetry. PMID:27303326

  10. The Relationship between Sitting and the Use of Symmetry As a Cue to Figure-Ground Assignment in 6.5-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Perone, Sammy; Vecera, Shaun P; Oakes, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relationship between emerging sitting ability and sensitivity to symmetry as a cue to figure-ground (FG) assignment in 6.5-month-old infants (N = 80). In each experiment, infants who could sit unassisted (as indicated by parental report in Experiment 1 and by an in-lab assessment in Experiment 2) exhibited sensitivity to symmetry as a cue to FG assignment, whereas non-sitting infants did not. Experiment 2 further revealed that sensitivity to this cue is not related to general cognitive abilities as indexed using a non-related visual habituation task. Results demonstrate an important relationship between motor development and visual perception and further suggest that the achievement of important motor milestones such as stable sitting may be related to qualitative changes in sensitivity to monocular depth assignment cues such as symmetry.

  11. [Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from National Influenza Center, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Bayrakdar, Fatma; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-07-01

    Influenza surveillance provides data about the characteristics of influenza activity, types, sub-types and antigenic properties of the influenza viruses in circulation in a region. Surveillance also provides for the preparation against potential influenza pandemics with the identification of the genetic properties of viruses and the mutant strains that could pose a threat. In this study, data in the scope of national influenza surveillance carried out by National Influenza Center, Turkey for five consecutive influenza seasons between 2010-2015, following the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic, have been presented and evaluated. A total of 15.149 respiratory samples, including 8.894 sentinel and 6.255 non-sentinel specimens, during 2010-2015 influenza seasons, within the periods between September and May, were evaluated in our center. All samples were tested using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for the presence of influenza virus types and subtypes. Within the sentinel influenza surveillance, the samples that were detected negative for influenza viruses, have also been tested for the other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses) using the same technique. Further analysis, including virus isolation by cell culture inoculation and antigenic characterization by hemagglutination inhibiton test were performed for the samples found positive for influenza A and B viruses. Selected representative virus isolates have been sent to WHO reference laboratory for the sequence analysis. In the study, influenza virus positivity rates detected for all of the samples (sentinel+non-sentinel) were as follows; 34% (779/2316) in 2010-11 season; 25% (388/1554) in 2011-12; 20% (696/3541) in 2012-13; 23% (615/2678) in 2013-14; and 26% (1332/5060) in 2014-15. When all the samples were considered for influenza A and B viruses, the positivity rates for the seasons of 2010-11; 2011-12; 2012-13; 2013-14; 2014-15 were determined as

  12. [Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from National Influenza Center, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Bayrakdar, Fatma; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-07-01

    Influenza surveillance provides data about the characteristics of influenza activity, types, sub-types and antigenic properties of the influenza viruses in circulation in a region. Surveillance also provides for the preparation against potential influenza pandemics with the identification of the genetic properties of viruses and the mutant strains that could pose a threat. In this study, data in the scope of national influenza surveillance carried out by National Influenza Center, Turkey for five consecutive influenza seasons between 2010-2015, following the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic, have been presented and evaluated. A total of 15.149 respiratory samples, including 8.894 sentinel and 6.255 non-sentinel specimens, during 2010-2015 influenza seasons, within the periods between September and May, were evaluated in our center. All samples were tested using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for the presence of influenza virus types and subtypes. Within the sentinel influenza surveillance, the samples that were detected negative for influenza viruses, have also been tested for the other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses) using the same technique. Further analysis, including virus isolation by cell culture inoculation and antigenic characterization by hemagglutination inhibiton test were performed for the samples found positive for influenza A and B viruses. Selected representative virus isolates have been sent to WHO reference laboratory for the sequence analysis. In the study, influenza virus positivity rates detected for all of the samples (sentinel+non-sentinel) were as follows; 34% (779/2316) in 2010-11 season; 25% (388/1554) in 2011-12; 20% (696/3541) in 2012-13; 23% (615/2678) in 2013-14; and 26% (1332/5060) in 2014-15. When all the samples were considered for influenza A and B viruses, the positivity rates for the seasons of 2010-11; 2011-12; 2012-13; 2013-14; 2014-15 were determined as

  13. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  14. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  15. Clinical Effects and Radiological Results of Vertebroplasty: Over a 2-year Follow-Up Period

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Han Ga Wi; Shin, Il Young; Moon, Seung-Myung; Hwang, Hyung Sik

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between clinical and radiological results and assessed the radiological changes according to the distribution pattern and amount of injected cement after vertebroplasty. Methods Two hundred and one patients underwent vertebroplasty; of these, 15 were follow up for more than 2 years. For radiological analysis, we grouped the patients according to cement distribution as follows: group 1, unilateral, unilateral distribution of cement; group 2, bilateral-uneven, bilateral distribution of cement but separated mass; and group 3, bilateral-even, bilateral single mass of cement. To compare radiologic with clinical results, we assessed the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, amount of injected cement, bone mineral density (BMD), postoperative and follow-up vertebral body compression ratios, and postoperative and follow-up kyphotic angles. Results There were 4 (26.7%) patients in group 1, 6 (40.0%) in group 2, and 5 (33.3%) in group 3. The mean VAS score was 5.2 preoperatively, 1.8 postoperatively, and 3.2 at 2-year follow-up. The 2-year follow-up compression ratio was better in patients with even distribution of injected cement (group 2 and 3) than group 1. However, it was not statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The follow-up kyphotic angle was more aggravated in the group 1 than in the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study showed that vertebroplasty had a beneficial effect on pain relief, particularly in the immediate postoperative stage. The augmented spine tended to be more stable in the cases with increased amount and more even distribution of injected cement. PMID:25983842

  16. Design and Experimental Results for the S827 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 21%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S827, for the 75% blade radial station of 40- to 50-meter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The primary objective of restrained maximum lift has not been achieved, although the maximum lift is relatively insensitive to roughness, which meets the design goal. The airfoil exhibits a relatively docile stall, which meets the design goal. The primary objective of low profile drag has been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift, which is significantly underpredicted.

  17. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  18. A new paleointensity result deduced for the Oligocene period fromQatrani basalt, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Ahmed; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    We have conducted paleodirection and paleointensity measurements of basalt flows from Qatrani basalt, Egypt. Published age of Qatrani basat is 25±2 Ma. Various rock magnetic analyses indicate that the main magnetic carriers of samples are one phase of pure magnetite (Ti-poor titanomagnetites), which have pseudo single domain (PSD) sizes. Directional analysis of the Oligocene basalts is very straightforward and updated mean VGPs have been calculated from the Qatrani (68N, 90E; Kappa=274; A95=1.8) which is coincide with the previous Oligocene paleomagnetic studies. The Tsunakawa-Shaw (LTD-DHT Shaw) method yielded five successful results of 12.9-17.5 μTfrom two sites, giving one acceptable site-mean paleointensityof 15.5 μT with a standard deviation of 1.8 μTat the 25±2Ma. In terms of a dipole moment, an average VDM is calculated to be 2.7×1022A m2with a standard deviation of 1.29×1022Am2. This is the first result from Egypt, and is associated with a reasonably high QPI value (Biggin and Paterson, 2015) of 5. The newly obtained VDM is indistinguishable from an average VDM of 3.55×1022Am2with a standard deviation of 0.67×1022Am2 calculated from theselected 65 site-mean Thellier paleointensity data from the latest paleointensity database, and is about third of the present geomagnetic dipole moment (˜8×1022 Am2).

  19. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Zdziarski, Andrzej; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Rosinska, Dorota; Slowikowska, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ˜45 d present during ˜2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, α_{cold} and α_{hot}, for the hot and cold phases, respectively. Our best model gives relatively low values of α_{cold} and α_{hot}.

  20. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) Qio Review Functions § 476.96 Review period and reopening...

  1. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars - II. An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-11-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 deg2 of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 yr of data which covers 134 deg2 and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 deg2, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  2. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars II: An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-08-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 square degree of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 years of data which covers 134 square degrees and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 square degrees, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  3. Threat, efficacy, and uncertainty in the first 5 months of national print and electronic news coverage of the H1N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Catherine; Sabo, Jason; Cline, Rebecca; Egbert, Nichole

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis, investigating the first 5 months of national print and electronic news coverage of the H1N1 virus. They collected all stories about H1N1 appearing in 6 national news outlets between April and September 2009. Of these stories meeting the analysis criteria, the authors randomly selected 200 for inclusion. Using models of fear appeal message processing, this study investigated the nature and prevalence of threat and efficacy messages in news coverage of the virus. Such models have traditionally been applied to strategic health message contexts (e.g., campaigns) rather than to health news coverage. Results suggest that most stories made reference to the threat of the H1N1 virus, sometimes overemphasizing and sensationalizing virus-related death. With regard to efficacy, approximately half mentioned actions individuals or organizations/communities could take to protect themselves from the virus, but almost none provided evidence that such methods are effective, and some explicitly questioned their effectiveness. In addition, a number of stories referenced uncertainty about the threat of the virus (38%) and/or solutions to the potential threat (18%). The authors discuss the implications from the perspective of fear appeal message processing models.

  4. Threat, efficacy, and uncertainty in the first 5 months of national print and electronic news coverage of the H1N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Catherine; Sabo, Jason; Cline, Rebecca; Egbert, Nichole

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis, investigating the first 5 months of national print and electronic news coverage of the H1N1 virus. They collected all stories about H1N1 appearing in 6 national news outlets between April and September 2009. Of these stories meeting the analysis criteria, the authors randomly selected 200 for inclusion. Using models of fear appeal message processing, this study investigated the nature and prevalence of threat and efficacy messages in news coverage of the virus. Such models have traditionally been applied to strategic health message contexts (e.g., campaigns) rather than to health news coverage. Results suggest that most stories made reference to the threat of the H1N1 virus, sometimes overemphasizing and sensationalizing virus-related death. With regard to efficacy, approximately half mentioned actions individuals or organizations/communities could take to protect themselves from the virus, but almost none provided evidence that such methods are effective, and some explicitly questioned their effectiveness. In addition, a number of stories referenced uncertainty about the threat of the virus (38%) and/or solutions to the potential threat (18%). The authors discuss the implications from the perspective of fear appeal message processing models. PMID:22188164

  5. Can 9.5-month-old infants attribute to an agent a disposition to perform a particular action on objects?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined whether 9.5-month-old infants can attribute to an agent a disposition to perform a particular action on objects, and can then use this disposition to predict which of two new objects—one that can be used to perform the action and one that cannot—the agent is likely to reach for next. The infants first received familiarization trials in which they watched an agent slide either three (Experiments 1 and 3) or six (Experiment 2) different objects forward and backward on an apparatus floor. During test, the infants saw two new identical objects placed side by side: one stood inside a short frame that left little room for sliding, and the other stood inside a longer frame that left ample room for sliding. The infants who saw the agent slide six different objects attributed to her a disposition to slide objects: they expected her to select the “slidable” as opposed to the “unslidable” test object, and they looked reliably longer when she did not. In contrast, the infants who saw the agent slide only three different objects looked about equally when she selected either test object. These results add to recent evidence that infants in the first year of life can attribute dispositions to agents, and can use these dispositions to help predict agents’ actions in new contexts. PMID:17092476

  6. Ultra-short-period Planets in K2 SuPerPiG Results for Campaigns 0-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed data from Campaigns 0-5 of the K2 mission and report 19 ultra-short-period candidate planets with orbital periods of less than one day (nine of which have not been previously reported). Planet candidates range in size from 0.7 to 16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hr. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp = 12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hr), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least ρ =8.9 {{g}} {{cm}}-3 to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert ({R}P=3{--}11 {R}\\oplus and P≤slant 1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). In addition to the planet candidates, we report on four objects that may not be planetary, including one with intermittent transits (EPIC 211152484) and three initially promising candidates that are likely false positives based on characteristics of their light curves and on radial velocity follow-up. A list of 91 suspected eclipsing binaries identified at various stages in our vetting process is also provided. Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  7. Ultra-short-period Planets in K2 SuPerPiG Results for Campaigns 0–5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed data from Campaigns 0–5 of the K2 mission and report 19 ultra-short-period candidate planets with orbital periods of less than one day (nine of which have not been previously reported). Planet candidates range in size from 0.7 to 16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hr. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp = 12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hr), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least ρ =8.9 {{g}} {{cm}}-3 to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert ({R}P=3{--}11 {R}\\oplus and P≤slant 1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). In addition to the planet candidates, we report on four objects that may not be planetary, including one with intermittent transits (EPIC 211152484) and three initially promising candidates that are likely false positives based on characteristics of their light curves and on radial velocity follow-up. A list of 91 suspected eclipsing binaries identified at various stages in our vetting process is also provided. Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  8. Brain distribution of c-fos expression as a result of prolonged rapid eye movement (REM) sleep period duration.

    PubMed

    Merchant-Nancy, H; Vázquez, J; García, F; Drucker-Colín, R

    1995-05-29

    Auditory stimulation (AS) or recovery from sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to increase REM sleep periods in rats, cats and humans. This increment in REM has been credited to an amplified level of excitability in a widely distributed neuronal network throughout the brain. Fos-like immunostaining (FLI) has been useful in constructing maps of post-synaptic neuronal activity with single cell resolution, and has been proposed to be tightly related with progressing neuronal activation. This study utilized FLI as a marker to determine the number of neurons and structures which express c-fos in broadly distributed areas of the brain in animals with REM periods prolonged by either AS or SD. The results indicated that the brain stem and diencephalon present FLI increases in a variety of structures that possibly share various functional aspects of the REM sleep mechanism. These results are discussed in terms of the possibility that REM maintenance is related to an increase in the recruitment of REM-on neurons.

  9. A 5-month weight-reduction programme has a positive effect on body composition, aerobic fitness, and habitual physical activity of severely obese girls: a pilot evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Aguer, Céline; Gavarry, Olivier; Gole, Yoann; Boussuges, Alain; Doyard, Pierre; Falgairette, Guy

    2010-02-01

    In this pilot study, we wished to determine whether a 5-month multidisciplinary programme of a combined dietary-nutritional education-exercise intervention would have favourable effects on the health status of 18 obese adolescent girls. Before and after the clinical intervention, body composition and habitual physical activity were assessed by bioelectrical impedance and accelerometry, respectively. Aerobic fitness and substrate utilization were determined by gas exchange using an incremental field test that mimics habitual conditions. Despite a significantly (P < 0.001) greater loss of fat mass (-8.7 +/- 4.1 kg) compared with fat-free mass (-2.8 +/- 2.2 kg), energy expenditure at rest decreased by 9% following the intervention. Maximal oxygen consumption [Vdot]O2max related to fat-free mass increased by 7% (P < 0.05), whereas substrate utilization during exercise did not change following the intervention. Moderate and intense physical activity increased by 15% (+20 min . day(-1); P < 0.05) and 45% (+25 min . day(-1); P < 0.01), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between change in habitual physical activity and change in .[Vdot]O2max fat-free mass (r = 0.56, P = 0.01). The present multidisciplinary programme enhanced the loss of fat mass relative to fat-free mass but not sufficiently so to prevent a decline in metabolic rate during rest. Our results suggest a coupling in the improvement of aerobic fitness and habitual physical activity in obese adolescent girls, and hence an improvement in behaviour in relation to physical activity.

  10. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A; Davies, L; Hale, R; Gallagher, JE

    2012-01-01

    Background: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010. Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity. Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72%) took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%), followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%). Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted. PMID:23118545

  11. Results of dose sensors measurements in the middle-Earth orbit for the period of 2009-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, Grigory; Shatov, Pavel; Tasenko, Sergey; Lyakhov, Igor; Makarova, Nina; Balashov, Sergey; Sitnikova, Ninel

    2016-07-01

    The measurements results of space radiation exposure on electronic components carried out by dose sensors are presented in the paper. Dose sensors operate on metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor dosimetry pricniple. The flight data have been receiving for more than 6 years. The measurements results are compared with others flight data on different orbits. The analysis of the received data from 2009 to 2015 allows us to find out the periods with sharp increase of dose rate and to define values of such increases. We had analyzed space radiation characteristics data from other monitoring systems (such as GOES, Electro-L) in dates of dose rate sharp increase. Results of the analysis of dose rate increase, which had been fixed by TID sensors in 2015, will be presented in full paper. We had calculated average dose rates for different space models in the middle-Earth orbit (AE8, AE9 and others) and determined the most relevant models to the experimental data (with account for relaxation effect of dose sensor outputs). The comparison results for different models will be presented in the full paper. We had used different approaches for simulating of dose sensors shielding geometry, such as semi-sphere, semi-infinite plate, sector analysis, with taking account of different shielding elements. The analysis results of shielding configuration influence on calculated values of dose rate will be presented in the full paper.

  12. Determinants of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3-5 months in four Anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2014-07-14

    This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3-5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008), Liberia (LDHS, 2007), Nigeria (NDHS, 2013) and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008). Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3-5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3-5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant's age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  13. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Issaka, Abukari I.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Page, Andrew N.; Burns, Penelope; Stevens, Garry J.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008), Liberia (LDHS, 2007), Nigeria (NDHS, 2013) and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008). Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early. PMID:25025297

  14. Infants' Use of Category Knowledge and Object Attributes when Segregating Objects at 8.5 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Amy; Cantlon, Jessica F.; Ormsbee Holley, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    The current research investigates infants' perception of a novel object from a category that is familiar to young infants: key rings. We ask whether experiences obtained outside the lab would allow young infants to parse the visible portions of a partly occluded key ring display into one single unit, presumably as a result of having categorized it…

  15. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment. Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second

  16. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated.Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment.Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second-line anti

  17. Quasi-periodic oscillations in a radiative transonic flow: results of a coupled Monte Carlo-TVD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garain, Sudip K.; Ghosh, Himadri; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2014-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in black hole candidates are believed to be due to oscillations of the Comptonizing regions in an accretion flow. Assuming that the general structure of an accretion disc is a two-component advective flow (TCAF), we numerically simulate the light curves emitted from an accretion disc for different accretion rates and find how the QPO frequencies vary. We use a standard Keplerian disc residing at the equatorial plane as a source of soft photons. These soft photons, after suffering multiple scattering with the hot electrons of the low angular momentum, sub-Keplerian, flow emerge out as hard radiation. The hydrodynamic and thermal properties of the electron cloud is simulated using a total variation diminishing (TVD) code. The TVD code is then coupled with a radiative transfer code which simulates the energy exchange between the electron and radiation using Monte Carlo technique. The resulting localized heating and cooling are included also. We find that the QPO frequency increases and the spectrum becomes softer as we increase the Keplerian disc rate. However, the spectrum becomes harder if we increase the sub-Keplerian accretion rate. We find that an earlier prediction that QPOs occur when the infall time-scale roughly matches with the cooling time-scale, originally obtained using a power-law cooling, remains valid even for Compton cooling. Our findings agree with the general observations of low-frequency QPOs in black hole candidates.

  18. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  19. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

  20. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration. PMID:26812613

  1. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration.

  2. Conditional deletion of Mecp2 in parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic cells results in the absence of critical period plasticity.

    PubMed

    He, Ling-jie; Liu, Nan; Cheng, Tian-lin; Chen, Xiao-jing; Li, Yi-ding; Shu, You-sheng; Qiu, Zi-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2014-10-09

    Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) impair postnatal development of the brain. Here we use neuronal-type specific gene deletion in mice to show that conditional Mecp2 deletion in GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing (PV) cells (PV-Mecp2(-/y)) does not cause most Rett-syndrome-like behaviours, but completely abolishes experience-dependent critical period plasticity of primary visual cortex (V1) that develops normal visual functions. However, selective loss of Mecp2 in GABAergic somatostatin-expressing cells or glutamatergic pyramidal cells does not affect the critical period plasticity. MeCP2-deficient PV cells exhibit high intrinsic excitability, selectively reduced efficacy of recurrent excitatory synapses in V1 layer 4 circuits, and decreased evoked visual responses in vivo. Enhancing cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition with diazepam infusion can restore critical period plasticity in both young and adult PV-Mecp2(-/y) mice. Thus, MeCP2 expression in inhibitory PV cells during the critical period is essential for local circuit functions underlying experience-dependent cortical plasticity.

  3. PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002 - Two new short period binary stars resulting from common-envelope evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffer, Rex A.; Wade, Richard A.; Liebert, James; Green, Richard F.; Sion, Edward M.; Bechtold, J.; Foss, Diana; Kidder, K.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry have been used to study the excess UV stars PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002. Both objects are short-period binary systems, each containing a DA white dwarf star and a dM star. Orbital periods of approximately 0.284 day for PG 0308 + 096, and aproximately 0.597 day for PG 1026, have been found by spectroscopic analysis of the H-alpha emission line. Ly-alpha and Balmer line profile fitting were used to estimate the mass of white dwarf stars; mass estimates for the dM stars are based on their spectral types. The orbital inclinations are derived from these masses, the periods, and amplitudes of the H-alpha radial velocity curves. The equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line, in each binary system, varies with the orbital phase in such a manner as to imply that it arises, in large part at least, from the hemisphere of the M star that faces the white dwarf star.

  4. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  5. Probability of a false-negative HIV antibody test result during the window period: a tool for pre- and post-test counselling.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Darlene; Durigon, Monica; Davis, Heather; Archibald, Chris; Konrad, Bernhard; Coombs, Daniel; Gilbert, Mark; Cook, Darrel; Krajden, Mel; Wong, Tom; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-03-01

    Failure to understand the risk of false-negative HIV test results during the window period results in anxiety. Patients typically want accurate test results as soon as possible while clinicians prefer to wait until the probability of a false-negative is virtually nil. This review summarizes the median window periods for third-generation antibody and fourth-generation HIV tests and provides the probability of a false-negative result for various days post-exposure. Data were extracted from published seroconversion panels. A 10-day eclipse period was used to estimate days from infection to first detection of HIV RNA. Median (interquartile range) days to seroconversion were calculated and probabilities of a false-negative result at various time periods post-exposure are reported. The median (interquartile range) window period for third-generation tests was 22 days (19-25) and 18 days (16-24) for fourth-generation tests. The probability of a false-negative result is 0.01 at 80 days' post-exposure for third-generation tests and at 42 days for fourth-generation tests. The table of probabilities of falsely-negative HIV test results may be useful during pre- and post-test HIV counselling to inform co-decision making regarding the ideal time to test for HIV.

  6. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: Precipitation Measurements, Retrieval Techniques and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Emmanoil N..; Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.orgl) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological sire in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within Cl region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  7. Context-dependent social evaluation in 4.5-month-old human infants: the role of domain-general versus domain-specific processes in the development of social evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to distinguish friends from foes allows humans to engage in mutually beneficial cooperative acts while avoiding the costs associated with cooperating with the wrong individuals. One way to do so effectively is to observe how unknown individuals behave toward third parties, and to selectively cooperate with those who help others while avoiding those who harm others. Recent research suggests that a preference for prosocial over antisocial individuals emerges by the time that infants are 3 months of age, and by 8 months, but not before, infants evaluate others’ actions in context: they prefer those who harm, rather than help, individuals who have previously harmed others. Currently there are at least two reasons for younger infants’ failure to show context-dependent social evaluations. First, this failure may reflect fundamental change in infants’ social evaluation system over the first year of life, in which infants first prefer helpers in any situation and only later evaluate prosocial and antisocial actors in context. On the other hand, it is possible that this developmental change actually reflects domain-general limitations of younger infants, such as limited memory and processing capacities. To distinguish between these possibilities, 4.5-month-olds in the current studies were habituated, rather than familiarized as in previous work, to one individual helping and another harming a third party, greatly increasing infants’ exposure to the characters’ actions. Following habituation, 4.5-month-olds displayed context-dependent social preferences, selectively reaching for helpers of prosocial and hinderers of antisocial others. Such results suggest that younger infants’ failure to display global social evaluation in previous work reflected domain-general rather than domain-specific limitations. PMID:24994991

  8. Context-dependent social evaluation in 4.5-month-old human infants: the role of domain-general versus domain-specific processes in the development of social evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, J K

    2014-01-01

    The ability to distinguish friends from foes allows humans to engage in mutually beneficial cooperative acts while avoiding the costs associated with cooperating with the wrong individuals. One way to do so effectively is to observe how unknown individuals behave toward third parties, and to selectively cooperate with those who help others while avoiding those who harm others. Recent research suggests that a preference for prosocial over antisocial individuals emerges by the time that infants are 3 months of age, and by 8 months, but not before, infants evaluate others' actions in context: they prefer those who harm, rather than help, individuals who have previously harmed others. Currently there are at least two reasons for younger infants' failure to show context-dependent social evaluations. First, this failure may reflect fundamental change in infants' social evaluation system over the first year of life, in which infants first prefer helpers in any situation and only later evaluate prosocial and antisocial actors in context. On the other hand, it is possible that this developmental change actually reflects domain-general limitations of younger infants, such as limited memory and processing capacities. To distinguish between these possibilities, 4.5-month-olds in the current studies were habituated, rather than familiarized as in previous work, to one individual helping and another harming a third party, greatly increasing infants' exposure to the characters' actions. Following habituation, 4.5-month-olds displayed context-dependent social preferences, selectively reaching for helpers of prosocial and hinderers of antisocial others. Such results suggest that younger infants' failure to display global social evaluation in previous work reflected domain-general rather than domain-specific limitations. PMID:24994991

  9. Periodic ordering of clusters and stripes in a two-dimensional lattice model. II. Results of Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Almarza, N G; Pȩkalski, J; Ciach, A

    2014-04-28

    The triangular lattice model with nearest-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion, introduced by Pȩkalski, Ciach, and Almarza [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 114701 (2014)] is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Introduction of appropriate order parameters allowed us to construct a phase diagram, where different phases with patterns made of clusters, bubbles or stripes are thermodynamically stable. We observe, in particular, two distinct lamellar phases-the less ordered one with global orientational order and the more ordered one with both orientational and translational order. Our results concern spontaneous pattern formation on solid surfaces, fluid interfaces or membranes that is driven by competing interactions between adsorbing particles or molecules.

  10. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005–2010 period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Methods Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), often in collaboration with country’s Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL), developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC), were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines from seven AMI countries

  11. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  12. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558. PMID:24436454

  13. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    the BMRCS treatment were likely because of a reduction in fill, whereas the increased intakes in the postpartum period in cows fed the BMRCS were either because of the higher intakes during the prepartum period or because of a reduction in fill limitations in the postpartum period. The carryover response in wk 4 to 15 may have resulted from cows that received BMRCS during the transition period being in a more positive nutrient balance than cows fed CCS. The results of this study indicate the importance that digestible NDF can have in transition diets and the long-term production responses that can occur when intake is increased in the transition period.

  14. SSPS-CRS first period of operation: preliminary operation results, experiences, and events. IEA Small Solar Power Systems Project SR4

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, W.

    1984-05-01

    Some lessons learned from operating the SSPS-CRS plant for over one and a half years are presented and major results from the evaluation of plant performance data are provided. Meteorological conditions at the site during the period of operation are described, including insolation, wind, temperatures, precipitation, and a thunderstorm. The performance of the heliostat field system, receiver, sodium heat transfer system, and power conversion system is discussed, and results are given of heliostat flux measurements, receiver efficiencies and losses, sodium heat transfer system losses, heat transfer system performance and efficiency. (LEW)

  15. METHODS AND RESULTS OF RECONSTRUCTION OF NOBLE GAS RELEASES FROM THE STACKS OF THE MAYAK PA GRAPHITE REACTORS OVER THE WHOLE PERIOD OF THEIR OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Pyatin, N. P.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    Brief analysis of design features and operational modes of Mayak PA industrial graphite-uranium reactors (PUGRs) is given. The above mentioned Mayak PA PUGRs determined the rates of releases of radioactive noble gases (RNG) from activation (41Ar) and fission (isotopes of Krypton and Xenon) through the vent stack of the reactor. Information is given on methods and results of experimental determination of RNG atmospheric releases for the period starting from 1965 till PUGRs decommissioning in 1987-1990. A calculation method for reconstruction of radioactive noble gas releases is proposed and justified. The results of reconstruction are given. It is shown that maximum rates of RNG releases from PUGRs high stacks were observed in the 1950s, when ordinary atmospheric air was used as a cover gas for the reactor graphite stacks and gas purification systems (flow-type gas holders) had not been installed yet.

  16. Results of Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Atmospheric Turbulence, Internal Gravity Waves and Sporadic-E Layers by Resonant Scattering of Radio Waves on Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) formed by the powerful standing radio waves in the ionospheric plasma give the good chance for the lower ionosphere comprehensive studies. In this paper we present some applications of the API technique for experimental studies of sporadic E-layers (E _{s}), internal gravity waves and turbulent events in the lower ionosphere. API are formed in the field of the standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one from the ionosphere (in more details about the API technique one can see in the book Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Lambda or one-half the powerful wavelength lambda/2. API diagnostics are carried out at the API relaxation or decay stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. Based on the measurement of an amplitude and a phase of the API scattered signal their relaxation time and regular vertical plasma velocity are measured. In the E-region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the non-uniformly heated plasma. The relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The diffusion time is tau=(K (2) D _{a}) (-1) where K=2pi/Lambda and D _{a} is the ambipolar diffusion rate. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the API relaxation time in comparison the diffusion time. Determination of the turbulent velocity is based on this fact. The vertical plasma velocity is determined by measuring the phase of the scattered signal. Atmospheric waves having the periods from 5-10 minutes to 5-6 hours give the contribution to temporal variations of the velocity. Parameters and effects of atmospheric waves and the turbulence on the API relaxation process are presented. Determination of the masses of the

  17. Medicaid program; allocation of enhanced federal matching funds for increased administrative costs resulting from welfare reform--HCFA. Notice with comment period.

    PubMed

    1997-05-14

    This notice with comment period announces the methodology used to determine the allocation, among the States and certain Territories, of a $500 million fund to assist them with the additional expenses attributable to eligibility determinations incurred as a result of the provisions of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which decouples Medicaid eligibility from receipt of cash assistance for families and children. Also, it announces the actual allocation amount for each State and Territory. The special fund is available for matching a State's or Territory's allowable administrative expenditures incurred only during Federal fiscal years 1997 through 2000, and only during the first 12 calendar quarters in which the State's Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program, which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, is in effect after August 21, 1996. PMID:10167530

  18. Results of the groundwater monitoring program performed at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site for the period of January 1981 through January 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.; Berven, B.A.

    1984-03-01

    Results of a two-year groundwater monitoring program performed at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site in January 1981 though January 1983 are presented. Data indicate that radionuclides stored onsite are leaching into the groundwater; however, the radionuclide concentrations are well below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for effluents to unrestricted areas. The only radionuclide detected in measurable amounts in the groundwater at these wells was /sup 238/U. One well averaged approximately 1860 pCi/L of /sup 238/U during the two-year period. The maximum concentration of /sup 238/U observed at this well was 2230 pCi/L. This well water sample exceeded the maximum background /sup 238/U concentration (45 pCi/L) measured in groundwater throughout the state of Missouri by a factor of 50. Based on the results of the /sup 238/U concentration measured (in well water) at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site, leaching of radionuclides is occurring, resulting in concentrations of /sup 238/U in the groundwater above background levels. However, the concentration of the radionuclides analyzed did not exceed the MPC for effluents as given in Appendix B, Table II, Column 2 of 10 CRF 20. Although there appears to be some movement of the groundwater into Coldwater Creek, adjacent to the site, due to dilution of the creek water, the concentrations of radionuclides in Coldwater Creek are expected to be substantially below MPC. 7 references, 11 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-01-01

    Background The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Methods Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Results Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Conclusion Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol

  20. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. 1: Experimental and theoretical results. [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.

  1. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget).

  2. Analytical model for calculating indeterminate results interval of screening tests, the effect on seroconversion window period: a brief evaluation of the impact of uncertain results on the blood establishment budget.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty is not required by the European Union regulation or blood establishments’ laboratory tests. However, it is required for tests accredited by ISO 15189. Also, the forthcoming ISO 9001 edition requires “risk based thinking” with risk described as “the effect of uncertainty on an expected result”. ISO recommends GUM models for determination of measurement uncertainty, but their application is not intended for ordinal value measurements, such as what happens with screening test binary results. This article reviews, discusses and proposes concepts intended for measurement uncertainty of screening test results. The precision model focuses on cutoff level allowing the evaluation of the indeterminate interval using analytical sources of variance. The intervalis considered in the estimation of the seroconversion window period. The delta-value of patients and healthy subjects’ samples allows ranking two tests according to the probability of the two classes of indeterminate results: chance of false negative results and chance of false positive results (waste on budget). PMID:25457752

  3. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-15

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4{sub -3.0}{sup +3.1} (stat) {sub -2.8}{sup +2.6} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1{+-}3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87{+-}0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be {phi}{sub pp}{sup {center_dot}}=(6.0{+-}0.8)x10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  4. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  5. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  6. Implementation of an Aerosol-Cloud Microphysics-Radiation Coupling into the NASA Unified WRF: Simulation Results for the 6-7 August 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J. J.; Matsui, T.; Tao, W.-K.; Tan, Q.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chin, M.; Pickering, K.; Guy, N.; Lang, S.; Kemp, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols affect the Earth's radiation balance directly and cloud microphysical processes indirectly via the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. These two effects have often been considered separately and independently, hence the need to assess their combined impact given the differing nature of their effects on convective clouds. To study both effects, an aerosol-microphysics-radiation coupling, including Goddard microphysics and radiation schemes, was implemented into the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model (NU-WRF). Fully coupled NU-WRF simulations were conducted for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that passed through the Niamey, Niger area on 6-7 August 2006 during an African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) special observing period. The results suggest that rainfall is reduced when aerosol indirect effects are included, regardless of the aerosol direct effect. Daily mean radiation heating profiles in the area traversed by the MCS showed the aerosol (mainly mineral dust) direct effect had the largest impact near cloud tops just above 200 hectopascals where short-wave heating increased by about 0.8 Kelvin per day; the weakest long-wave cooling was at around 250 hectopascals. It was also found that more condensation and ice nuclei as a result of higher aerosol/dust concentrations led to increased amounts of all cloud hydrometeors because of the microphysical indirect effect, and the radiation direct effect acts to reduce precipitating cloud particles (rain, snow and graupel) in the middle and lower cloud layers while increasing the non-precipitating particles (ice) in the cirrus anvil. However, when the aerosol direct effect was activated, regardless of the indirect effect, the onset of MCS precipitation was delayed about 2 hours, in conjunction with the delay in the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. Overall, for this particular environment, model set-up and physics configuration, the effect of aerosol

  7. CONSTRAINTS ON LONG-PERIOD PLANETS FROM AN L'- AND M-BAND SURVEY OF NEARBY SUN-LIKE STARS: MODELING RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Heinze, A. N.; Hinz, Philip M.; Kenworthy, Matthew; Sivanandam, Suresh; Miller, Douglas; Meyer, Michael E-mail: phinz@as.arizona.ed E-mail: suresh@as.arizona.ed E-mail: mmeyer@phys.ethz.c

    2010-05-10

    We have carried out an L'- and M-band adaptive optics (AO) extrasolar planet imaging survey of 54 nearby, Sun-like stars using the Clio camera at the MMT. Our survey concentrates more strongly than all others to date on very nearby F, G, and K stars, in that we have prioritized proximity higher than youth. Our survey is also the first to include extensive observations in the M band, which supplemented the primary L' observations. These longer-wavelength bands are most useful for very nearby systems in which low-temperature planets with red IR colors (i.e., H - L', H - M) could be detected. The survey detected no planets, but set interesting limits on planets and brown dwarfs in the star systems we investigated. We have interpreted our null result by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations and constrained the distributions of extrasolar planets in mass M and semimajor axis a. If planets are distributed according to a power law with dN {proportional_to} M {sup {alpha}} a {sup {beta}} dMda, normalized to be consistent with radial velocity (RV) statistics, we find that a distribution with {alpha} = -1.1 and {beta} = -0.46, truncated at 110 AU, is ruled out at the 90% confidence level. These particular values of {alpha} and {beta} are significant because they represent the most planet-rich case consistent with current statistics from RV observations. With 90% confidence no more than 8.1% of stars like those in our survey have systems with three widely spaced, massive planets like the A star HR 8799. Our observations show that giant planets in long-period orbits around Sun-like stars are rare, confirming the results of shorter-wavelength surveys and increasing the robustness of the conclusion.

  8. Men's Understanding of and Experiences During the Postcircumcision Abstinence Period: Results From a Field Study of ShangRing Circumcision During Routine Clinical Services in Kenya and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Philip S.; Zulu, Robert; Awori, Quentin D.; Agot, Kawango; Combes, Stephanie; Simba, Raymond O.; Lee, Richard K.; Hart, Catherine; Lai, Jaim Jou; Zyambo, Zude; Goldstein, Marc; Feldblum, Paul J.; Sokal, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Men's understanding of counseling messages after voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) plays an important role in whether they follow them. Data on triggers for early resumption of sex may be useful as scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention continues in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Data on understanding of post-VMMC abstinence recommendations, resumption of sex, condom use, and triggers for resuming sex were collected from participants during a follow-up interview 35–42 days after ShangRing circumcision in Kenya and Zambia. Results: Of 1149 men who had ShangRing circumcision, 1096 (95.4%) completed follow-up. Nearly all (99.2%) reported being counseled to abstain from sex post-VMMC; among those, most (92.2%) recalled the recommended abstinence period was 6 weeks. Most men (94.1%) reported that the counselor gave reasons for post-VMMC abstinence and recalled appropriate reasons. Few (13.4%) men reported resuming sex at 35–42 days' follow-up. Among those, 54.8% reported never using a condom post-VMMC. Younger participants (odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.5, P < 0.0001) and those reporting at least some condom use at baseline (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3 to 0.7, P = 0.0003) were less likely to report resuming sex. Among men who reported some condom use, most (71.5%) said condoms were much easier or easier to use after circumcision. Men reported various reasons for early resumption of sex, primarily strong sexual desire (76.4%). Conclusions: Most men reported awareness of and adherence to the counseling recommendations for post-VMMC abstinence. A minority reported early resumption of sex, and, among those, condom use was low. Results could be used to improve post-VMMC counseling. PMID:27331585

  9. Spatial extent of a hydrothermal system at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, determined from array analyses of shallow long-period seismicity 2. Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.

    2001-01-01

    Array data from a seismic experiment carried out at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, in February 1997, are analyzed by the frequency-slowness method. The slowness vectors are determined at each of three small-aperture seismic antennas for the first arrivals of 1129 long-period (LP) events and 147 samples of volcanic tremor. The source locations are determined by using a probabilistic method which compares the event azimuths and slownesses with a slowness vector model. The results show that all the LP seismicity, including both discrete LP events and tremor, was generated in the same source region along the east flank of the Halemaumau pit crater, demonstrating the strong relation that exists between the two types of activities. The dimensions of the source region are approximately 0.6 X 1.0 X 0.5 km. For LP events we are able to resolve at least three different clusters of events. The most active cluster is centered ???200 m northeast of Halemaumau at depths shallower than 200 m beneath the caldera floor. A second cluster is located beneath the northeast quadrant of Halemaumau at a depth of ???400 m. The third cluster is <200 m deep and extends southeastward from the northeast quadrant of Halemaumau. Only one source zone is resolved for tremor. This zone is coincident with the most active source zone of LP events, northeast of Halemaumau. The location, depth, and size of the source region suggest a hydrothermal origin for all the analyzed LP seismicity. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Trends in overweight among women differ by occupational class: Results from 33 low and middle income countries in the period 1992–2009

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Arana, Sandra; Avendano, Mauricio; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Objective There has been an increase in overweight among women in low- and middle-income countries, but whether these trends differ for women in different occupations is unknown. We examined trends by occupational class among women from 33 low- and middle-income countries in four regions. Design Cross-national study with repeated cross-sectional demographic health surveys (DHS). Subjects Height and weight were assessed at least twice between 1992 and 2009 in 248,925 women aged 25–49 years. Interviews were conducted to assess occupational class, age, place of residence, educational level, household wealth index, parity, and age at first birth and breastfeeding. We used logistic and linear regression analyses to assess the annual percent change (APC) in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) by occupational class. Results The prevalence of overweight ranged from 2.2% in Nepal in 1992–1997 to 75% in Egypt in 2004–2009. In all four regions, women working in agriculture had consistently lower prevalence of overweight, while women from professional, technical, managerial as well as clerical occupational classes had higher prevalence. Although the prevalence of overweight increased in all occupational classes in most regions, women working in agriculture and production experienced the largest increase in overweight over the study period, while women in higher occupational classes experienced smaller increases. To illustrate, overweight increased annually by 0.5% in Latin America and the Caribbean and by 0.7% in Sub-Saharan Africa among women from professional, technical, and managerial classes, as compared to 2.8% and 3.7%, respectively, among women in agriculture. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight has increased in most low and middle income countries, but women working in agriculture and production have experienced larger increases than women in higher occupational classes. PMID:23649471

  11. Development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumors: results from a single center over a 10 year period.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Nanney, Allan D; Lall, Rishi R; Graham, Randall B; McClendon, Jamal; Lall, Rohan R; Adel, Joseph G; Zakarija, Anaadriana; Cote, David J; Chandler, James P

    2015-03-01

    Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain neoplasms have a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thromboses (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE). The reasons for this correlation are not fully understood. This retrospective, single-center review aimed to determine the risk factors for VTE in patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of brain tumors at Northwestern University from 1999 to 2010. Our cohort included 1148 patients, 158 (13.7%) of whom were diagnosed with DVT and 38 (3.3%) of whom were diagnosed with PE. A variety of clinical factors were studied to determine predictors of VTE, including sex, ethnicity, medical co-morbidities, surgical positioning, length of hospital stay, tumor location, and tumor histology. Use of post-operative anticoagulants and hemorrhagic complications were also investigated. A prior history of VTE was found to be highly predictive of post-operative DVT (odds ratio [OR]=7.6, p=0.01), as was the patient's sex (OR=14.2, p<0.001), ethnicity (OR=0.5, p=0.04), post-operative intensive care unit days (OR=0.2, p=0.003), and tumor histology (OR=-0.16, p=0.01). Contrary to reports in the literature, the data collected did not indicate that the administration of post-operative medical prophylaxis for VTE was significant in preventing their formation (OR=-0.14, p=0.76). Hemorrhagic complications were low (2.2%) and resultant neurologic deficit was lower still (0.7%). The study indicates that patients with high-grade primary brain tumors and metastatic lesions should receive aggressive preventative measures in the post-operative period.

  12. Atmospheric Boundary Layer wind profile at a flat coastal site - wind speed lidar measurements and mesoscale modeling results during a summer period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hahmann, A.; Peña, A.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2010-09-01

    The wind profile above the surface layer up to 1 kilometer is presently a challenge for wind energy assessment studies and air pollution applications, as instruments for high resolution (in time and space) measurements were rarely available until recently and mesoscale meteorological models have difficulties to predict it, due to complex phenomena taking place in nature and not accounted for in the ABL parameterizations currently used. Worldwide an effort is going on to emphasize the important role of boundary layer research in various direct applications (as wind energy and air pollution) and in weather forecast models. Contributing to this effort are the Danish Research Agency Strategic Research Council (Sagsnr. 2104-08-0025) "Tall wind project" and the EU FP7-People-IEF VSABLA (PIEF-GA-2009-237471). The data analyzed here are presenting a summer period of wind lidar (WSL70) measurements at a site at the West coast of Jutland, Denmark, situated approximately 2 km inland. Therefore over water conditions are defining the structure of the boundary layer at westerly winds, while the land surface is felt only within the internal boundary layer estimated in previous studies as about 80 - 100 m deep at the site. Patterns of the wind field and wind profiles over the North Sea up to 1 km height are studied based on observations and mesoscale modelling results. Simultaneously, the height of the atmospheric boundary layer is estimated from aerosol lidars backscatter analysis and thus providing a rich data set for testing and development of new parametrizations for the wind profile within the entire atmospheric boundary layer over different surfaces.

  13. Changes in Maternal Plasma Adiponectin from Late Pregnancy to the Postpartum Period According to the Mode of Delivery: Results from a Prospective Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal plasma adiponectin is inversely related to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and child health. However, little is known about its concentrations in the perinatal period, especially according to mode of delivery. Our aim is to evaluate the association between mode of delivery and changes in maternal plasma adiponectin from 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 30–45 days postpartum. Methods A cohort was recruited in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with four waves of follow-up: 5-13th, 22-26th, 30-36th gestational weeks and 30–45 days postpartum. Eligible subjects should be between 20–40 years of age, be free of chronic and infectious diseases and presenting with a singleton pregnancy. The mode of delivery was classified as vaginal (VD) or cesarean (CS). Plasma adiponectin concentration (μg/mL) was measured using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the multiple linear mixed effects model. Results A total of 159 participated in the study. Median adiponectin concentrations were higher for the VD group (n = 99; 8.25, IQR: 5.85–11.90) than for the CS group (n = 60; 7.34, IQR: 4.36–9.76; p = 0.040) in the postpartum samples but were not different between the two groups in the 3rd trimester. Women who underwent CS had a lower rate of increase in adiponectin concentration from the 3rd trimester to 30–45 days postpartum compared to those who underwent VD (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.28-.02, p = 0.030). Conclusion The CS procedure was associated with lower maternal circulating concentrations of adiponectin at 30–45 days postpartum, compared to the VD. PMID:27391647

  14. The Incubation Period of Buruli Ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection)

    PubMed Central

    Trubiano, Jason A.; Lavender, Caroline J.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.; Bittmann, Simone; Johnson, Paul D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Buruli Ulcer (BU) is caused by the environmental microbe Mycobacterium ulcerans. Despite unclear transmission, contact with a BU endemic region is the key known risk factor. In Victoria, Australia, where endemic areas have been carefully mapped, we aimed to estimate the Incubation Period (IP) of BU by interviewing patients who reported defined periods of contact with an endemic area prior to BU diagnosis. Method A retrospective review was undertaken of 408 notifications of BU in Victoria from 2002 to 2012. Telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire and review of notification records were performed. Patients with a single visit exposure to a defined endemic area were included and the period from exposure to disease onset determined (IP). Results We identified 111 of 408 notified patients (27%) who had a residential address outside a known endemic area, of whom 23 (6%) reported a single visit exposure within the previous 24 months. The median age of included patients was 30 years (range: 6 to 73) and 65% were male. 61% had visited the Bellarine Peninsula, currently the most active endemic area. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 71 days (range: 34–204 days). The midpoint of the reported IP range was utilized to calculate a point estimate of the IP for each case. Subsequently, the mean IP for the cohort was calculated at 135 days (IQR: 109–160; CI 95%: 113.9–156), corresponding to 4.5 months or 19.2 weeks. The shortest IP recorded was 32 days and longest 264 days (Figure 1 & 2). IP did not vary for variables investigated. Conclusions The estimated mean IP of BU in Victoria is 135 days (IQR: 109–160 days), 4.5 months. The shortest recorded was IP 34 days and longest 264 days. A greater understanding of BU IP will aid clinical risk assessment and future research. PMID:24098820

  15. New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit period (ca. 3100-2700 BCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age periods : Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (ca. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar periods, as well as later periods. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar period there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit period. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.

  16. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  17. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  19. Bone mineral density loss in relation to the final menstrual period in a multiethnic cohort: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    PubMed

    Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, MaryFran; Han, Weijuan; Huang, Mei-Hua; Finkelstein, Joel S; Crandall, Carolyn J; Lee, Jennifer S; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the time of onset and offset of bone mineral density (BMD) loss relative to the date of the final menstrual period (FMP); the rate and amount of BMD decline during the 5 years before and the 5 years after the FMP; and the independent associations between age at FMP, body mass index (BMI), and race/ethnicity with rates of BMD loss during this time interval. The sample included 242 African American, 384 white, 117 Chinese, and 119 Japanese women, pre- or early perimenopausal at baseline, who had experienced their FMP and for whom an FMP date could be determined. Loess-smoothed curves showed that BMD loss began 1 year before the FMP and decelerated (but did not cease) 2 years after the FMP, at both the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) sites. Piecewise, linear, mixed-effects regression models demonstrated that during the 10-year observation period, at each bone site, the rates and cumulative amounts of bone loss were greatest from 1 year before through 2 years after the FMP, termed the transmenopause. Postmenopausal loss rates, those occurring between 2 and 5 years after the FMP, were less than those observed during transmenopause. Cumulative, 10-year LS BMD loss was 10.6%; 7.38% was lost during the transmenopause. Cumulative FN loss was 9.1%; 5.8% was lost during the transmenopause. Greater BMI and African American heritage were related to slower loss rates, whereas the opposite was true of Japanese and Chinese ancestry. PMID:21976317

  20. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  1. Policy and planning of prevention in Italy: Results from an appraisal of prevention plans developed by Regions for the period 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Annalisa; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; De Vito, Corrado; de Belvis, Anton Giulio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Federici, Antonio; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Health policies on disease prevention differ widely between countries. Studies suggest that different countries have much to learn from each other and that significant health gains could be achieved if all countries followed best practice. This paper describes the policy development and planning process relating to prevention activities in Italy, through a critical appraisal of Regional Prevention Plans (RPPs) drafted for the period 2010-2012. The analysis was performed using a specific evaluation tool developed by a Scientific Committee appointed by the Italian Ministry of Health. We appraised nineteen RPPs, comprising a total of 702 projects, most of them in the areas of universal prevention (62.9%) and prevention in high risk groups (27.0%). Italian Regions established prevention activities using an innovative combination of population and high-risk individuals approaches. However, some issues, such as the need to reduce health inequalities, were poorly addressed. The technical drafting of RPPs required some improvement; e.g. the evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the health interventions proposed was seldom reported. There were significant geographical differences across the Regions in the appraisal of RPPs. Our research suggests that continuous assessment of the planning process of prevention may become a very useful tool for monitoring, and ultimately strengthening, public health capacity in the field of prevention. Further research is needed to analyze determinants of regional variation. PMID:25887486

  2. Comparison of blood ethanol stabilities in different storage periods

    PubMed Central

    Isiklar, Ozben Ozden; Kocak, Havva; Meral, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Measurements of blood ethanol concentrations must be accurate and reliable. The most important factors affecting blood ethanol stability are temperature and storage time. In this study, we aimed to compare ethanol stability in plasma samples at -20 °C for the different storage periods. Materials and methods Blood samples were collected from intoxicated drivers (N = 80) and initial plasma ethanol concentrations were measured immediately. Plasma samples were then stored at -20 °C and re-assessed after 2, 3, 4, or 5 months of storage. Differences between the initial and stored ethanol concentrations in each group (N = 20) were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. The deviation from the initial concentration was calculated and compared with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA’88) Proficiency Testing Limits. Relationships between the initial concentrations and deviations from initial concentrations were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation analysis. For all statistical tests, differences with P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Statistically significant differences were observed between the initial and poststorage ethanol concentrations in the overall sample group (P < 0.001). However, for the individual storage duration groups, analytically significant decreases were observed only for samples stored for 5 months, deviations from the initial concentrations exceeded the allowable total error (TEa). Ethanol decreases in the other groups did not exceed the TEa. Conclusion According to our results, plasma ethanol samples can be kept at -20 °C for up to 3-4 months until re-analysis. However, each laboratory should also establish its own work-flow rules and criterion for reliable ethanol measurement in forensic cases. PMID:25672467

  3. Physical Activity during a Prolonged Congested Period in a Top-Class European Football Team

    PubMed Central

    Djaoui, Léo; Wong, Del P.; Pialoux, Vincent; Hautier, Christophe; Da Silva, Cristiano D.; Chamari, Karim; Dellal, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to examine the variation in physical activity of elite soccer players within successive prolonged periods of fixture congestion over 5 months of competition during the competitive season 2011-2012. Methods Sixteen international players, classified into 6 positions (central defenders: CD; full-backs: FB; central defensive midfielders: CDM; wide midfielders: WM; central attacking midfielders: CAM; forwards: FW), were examined during the French First League, French Cup, and UEFA Champion's League matches. The total distance covered at light (<12 km.h−1), sustained-cruising (>18-21 km.h−1), high (>21-23 km.h−1), very high (>23-25 km.h−1), sub-maximal (>25-27 km.h−1), and maximal (>27 km.h−1) intensity running (IR) were measured and analysed using a semi-automatic match analysis system (Amisco Pro™). Results No differences were observed between congested and non-congested periods (two vs. one match a week, respectively) for the total distance covered at all the speed thresholds over 18 km.h−1, with no variation in physical fitness over the 5 studied months. Specifically to the playing positions, regardless of the congestion periods, FB and WM covered more distance than CDM over 21km.h−1; FB, WM and FW covered similar distances for all running intensities; and CD and CDM covered shorter distance during non-congested compared to congested periods (P<0.05) at light-IR. Conclusion The present study reveals that prolonged congested match fixture did not affect the high-intensity physical activity of top-class soccer players during official games during a 5 months fixture period. PMID:24868431

  4. Sensitive period in flavor learning: effects of duration of exposure to formula flavors on food likes during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Castor, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Emerging research has revealed the existence of periods in which the developing brain has heightened sensitivity to environmental influences. We discovered a sensitive period, <4 months of age, when exposure to the flavor of extensively hydrolyzed protein hydrolysate formulas (ePHF) determines its hedonic tone. This formula has pronounced bitter, sour, and savory tastes compared to cow-milk-based formulas (CMF). This study aimed to determine the effects of duration of exposure during the sensitive period on a food containing an exemplar of the savory flavor. Methods Formula-fed infants were randomized into four groups at age 0.5 months: one control group fed the control cow-milk formula (CMF) for 8 months, and three groups fed ePHF for 1, 3, or 8 months and CMF otherwise. When infants were 8.5 months, their acceptance of a savory and plain broth was measured. Results Infants fed hydrolysate formula for 3 or 8 months, but not 1 month, showed greater acceptance of the savory broth relative to the plain broth (p<0.01) and consumed it at a faster rate (p=0.01). Conclusions The duration of flavor exposure affects infants’ earliest responses to foods: a 3-month exposure to this formula shifted the hedonic tone for savory flavor. PMID:22652361

  5. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers.

    PubMed

    Lair, G J; Zehetner, F; Fiebig, M; Gerzabek, M H; van Gestel, C A M; Hein, T; Hohensinner, S; Hsu, P; Jones, K C; Jordan, G; Koelmans, A A; Poot, A; Slijkerman, D M E; Totsche, K U; Bondar-Kunze, E; Barth, J A C

    2009-12-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded "AquaTerra" project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management.

  6. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers.

    PubMed

    Lair, G J; Zehetner, F; Fiebig, M; Gerzabek, M H; van Gestel, C A M; Hein, T; Hohensinner, S; Hsu, P; Jones, K C; Jordan, G; Koelmans, A A; Poot, A; Slijkerman, D M E; Totsche, K U; Bondar-Kunze, E; Barth, J A C

    2009-12-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded "AquaTerra" project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management. PMID:19604610

  7. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  8. Financial Results during Periods of Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James W.; Anderson, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inflation on the operations of 10 northeastern colleges and universities and the effect of using current cost accounting are considered. The focus is on adjustments to assets in the plant fund by restating the surplus and deficit calculations of four state and six private institutions. The 10 institutions had plant assets with an…

  9. Sequences close to periodic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnik, Andrei A.; Pritykin, Yurii L.; Semenov, Aleksei L.

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a survey of concepts and results connected with generalizations of the notion of a periodic sequence, both classical and new. The topics discussed relate to almost periodicity in such areas as combinatorics on words, symbolic dynamics, expressibility in logical theories, computability, Kolmogorov complexity, and number theory. Bibliography: 124 titles.

  10. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  11. Hand Preference for Pointing Gestures and Bimanual Manipulation around the Vocabulary Spurt Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochet, Helene; Jover, Marianne; Vauclair, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of hand preference for bimanual manipulative activities and pointing gestures in toddlers observed longitudinally over a 5-month period, in relation to language acquisition. The lexical spurt was found to be accompanied by an increase in the right-sided bias for pointing but not for manipulation. Moreover,…

  12. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  13. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  14. Saturn's variable radio period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Gurnett, D. A.; Cecconi, B.

    Temporal modulations in radio emissions are often used to determine the rotation rate of the emitting body. The rotation period (presumably) of Jupiter's interior was established in this way [Burke et al., 1962] and has recently been refined by Higgins et al. [1997]. Rotation periods for the remainder of the outer planet gas giants were determined from Voyager planetary radio astronomy observations. Similar techniques have been applied to astrophysical objects, including pulsars, for which the radio period is assumed to be the rotation period of the neutron star. In 2001, however, this simple relation between the radio period and rotation period became suspect, at least for the case of Saturn. Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] reported that the radio period of Saturn had changed by as much as 1% from that determined by Voyager and, further, exhibited variations on time scales of years. More recently, Cassini observations indicate that the Saturn kilometric radiation is modulated with a period longer than that observed by Voyager and that this period is variable on a time scale of a year or less. The recent Higgins et al. result suggests that Jupiter's period is steady, within measurement accuracy. There are no additional measurements from Uranus or Neptune with which to look for time variations in their radio periods. For conservation of energy and angular momentum reasons, true variations of the rotation period of Saturn's deep interior are not believed to be a viable explanation for the variation in radio period, hence, it would appear that there is some disconnection of the radio period from the rotation period in the case of Saturn. One possible contributing factor may be that since Saturn's magnetic field is very accurately aligned with its rotational axis, there is no first-order beaming effect caused by the wobbling of the magnetic field, contrary to the situation at the other magnetized planets. Another explanation suggested by Galopeau and Lecacheux [2001] and

  15. Calculation of the first static hyperpolarizability tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set: A comparison of LDA, PBE, PBE0, B3LYP, and HF results.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Roberto; Lacivita, Valentina; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-06-28

    The computational scheme for the evaluation of the second-order electric susceptibility tensor in periodic systems, recently implemented in the CRYSTAL code within the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock (HF) scheme, has been extended to local-density, gradient-corrected, and hybrid density functionals (coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham) and applied to a set of cubic and hexagonal semiconductors. The method is based on the use of local basis sets and analytical calculation of derivatives. The high-frequency dielectric tensor (epsilon(infinity)) and second-harmonic generation susceptibility (d) have been calculated with hybrid functionals (PBE0 and B3LYP) and the HF approximation. Results are compared with the values of epsilon(infinity) and d obtained from previous plane-wave local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation calculations and from experiment. The agreement is in general good, although comparison with experiment is affected by a certain degree of uncertainty implicit in the experimental techniques.

  16. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Kloos, R T

    1995-09-01

    "diencephalic epilepsy" may in fact be accurate, given the periodic episodes of the case presented here and similar cases resulting from non-generalized seizure activity, with or without an underlying predisposing lesion. The label diencephalic epilepsy has been merely speculative so far, however, as definitive evidence of seizure activity has not been documented. Further, it is expected that the descriptive terms "spontaneous periodic hypothermia" and "episodic spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis" will outlive their usefulness as researchers gain greater understanding of this syndrome, and be replaced with a more pathophysiologically meaningful nomenclature. PMID:7565067

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  18. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  19. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  20. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  1. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  2. [Periodical changes of various hematological parameters of the human body adaptation and gravitation fields variations].

    PubMed

    Gederim, V V; Sokolovskiĭ, V V; Gorshkov, E S; Shapovalov, S N; Troshichev, O A

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring the content of lymphocytes and nucleated neutrophils (observation period 10.5 months) and the determination of the values of leucocytes coefficient and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in chronic patients revealed rhythms of oscillations of these parameters (from 3-5 to 33 days). The coincidence of these rhythms with the rhythms of variations of gravitational field indicates that gravitational field affects the quantitative blood cell composition and the rheological properties of blood.

  3. Evidence for quasi-periodic components in Dobson network total ozone records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    Power spectrum analysis has been applied to the total ozone time series at each of a sample of Dobson stations with records of more than 15 years in the interval 1957 to 1981. The distributions of strongly periodic or quasiperiodic signals in these spectral estimates, for three spectral estimators and two levels of confidence, show distinct features. These appear at the previously known or suspected periods of 3.5-4.0 years, 27 months, and 21 months as well as the previously unreported period of 11.5 months. Possible geophysical implications are discussed.

  4. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-5 - Monthly returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... person)— (i) Who by reason of notification as provided in § 301.7512-1, is required to comply with the... Form W-3 and Social Security Administration copies of Form W-2. See § 31.6051-2 for requirements with respect to information returns on Form W-3 and Social Security Administration copies of Form W-2. (c)...

  5. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-5 - Monthly returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... person)— (i) Who by reason of notification as provided in § 301.7512-1, is required to comply with the... Form W-3 and Social Security Administration copies of Form W-2. See § 31.6051-2 for requirements with respect to information returns on Form W-3 and Social Security Administration copies of Form W-2. (c)...

  6. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... region. The Finance Board tabulates the data and publishes standard data tables late in the following month. (b) Adjustable-rate mortgage index. The weighted data, tabulated and published pursuant to.... The initial weights are based on lender type and lender size. The data also is weighted so that...

  7. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... region. The Finance Board tabulates the data and publishes standard data tables late in the following month. (b) Adjustable-rate mortgage index. The weighted data, tabulated and published pursuant to.... The initial weights are based on lender type and lender size. The data also is weighted so that...

  8. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... region. The Finance Board tabulates the data and publishes standard data tables late in the following month. (b) Adjustable-rate mortgage index. The weighted data, tabulated and published pursuant to.... The initial weights are based on lender type and lender size. The data also is weighted so that...

  9. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... region. The Finance Board tabulates the data and publishes standard data tables late in the following month. (b) Adjustable-rate mortgage index. The weighted data, tabulated and published pursuant to.... The initial weights are based on lender type and lender size. The data also is weighted so that...

  10. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... region. The Finance Board tabulates the data and publishes standard data tables late in the following month. (b) Adjustable-rate mortgage index. The weighted data, tabulated and published pursuant to.... The initial weights are based on lender type and lender size. The data also is weighted so that...

  11. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  12. Growth hormone treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period: results of a survey among adult and paediatric endocrinologists from Italy. Endorsed by SIEDP/ISPED, AME, SIE, SIMA.

    PubMed

    Aimaretti, G; Attanasio, R; Cannavò, S; Nicoletti, M C; Castello, R; Di Somma, C; Garofalo, P; Iughetti, L; Loche, S; Maghnie, M; Mazzanti, L; Saggese, G; Salerno, M; Tonini, G; Toscano, V; Zucchini, S; Cappa, M

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period is a controversial issue. This paper is a contribution from the Italian community of paediatric and adult endocrinologists surveyed in a Delphi panel. The Delphi method is a structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method that relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. There was substantial agreement on the definition of the problems associated with the diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with GHD in the transition period, as well as on the identification of the controversial issues which need further studies. There is general consensus on the need of re-testing all isolated idiopathic GHD after at least 30-day withdrawn from treatment, while in patients with multiple pituitary deficiency and low IGF-I levels there is generally no need to re-test. In patients with permanent or confirmed GHD, a starting low rhGH dose (0.01-0.03 mg per day) to be adjusted according to IGF-I concentrations is also widely accepted. For those continuing treatment, the optimal therapeutic schedule to obtain full somatic maturation, normalization of body composition and bone density, cardiovascular function and Quality of Life, need to be evaluated. PMID:25362629

  13. Evidence of past climate change in the Little Ice Age and of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation periodicity in Africa: comparison between two neighbor stalagmites from Namibia and Botswana (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voarintsoa, N. G.; Railsback, L. B.; Liang, F.; Brook, G. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    Stalagmites are potential sources of paleoenvironmental records because their characteristics respond to climate change. In this preliminary study we compare isotopic values resolvable at annual to bi-annual scale from two stalagmites from caves in Proterozoic dolomitic marbles, as a proxy for the past climate variability in Southern Africa. Stalagmite DP1 is from Dante Cave in the Otjozondjupa region of Namibia, and Stalagmite BC97-14 is from Bone Cave, in the Koanaka Hills of Northwest Botswana, ~125km west of the Okavango Delta. Dante and Bone Cave receive respectively ~532 and ~475mm annual rainfall with an annual average temperature of 21.0°C and 22.6°C. Both caves are in semi-arid areas with highly seasonal rainfall. Vegetation is distinctive for each location: deciduous woodland savanna with a relatively high diversity of scattered tall trees on the hill in which Dante is located and a sparser tree cover on the hillsite of Bone Cave area. The data from the two stalagmites are very different, reflecting the distinctive hydrological and vegetation settings of the caves where they formed. δ18O in BC97-14 is highly variable, ranging from -11.6 to -5.8 ‰, while δ13C is nearly constant (-10.5 to -8.5 ‰). In contrast, δ13C and δ18O are covariant in DP1, with much higher δ13C values (-10.8 to -5.1‰) and much lower δ18O (-11.7 to -6.5 ‰) compared to that of Bone Cave. The distance from the water vapor source (Indian Ocean) might explain the generally lower δ18O values from the Namibian stalagmite compared to that of Botswana; while the difference in vegetation cover reflects the difference between δ13C for the two areas. Regardless of this isotopic difference, the stalagmite data for Bone Cave show a marked 15- to 22-year periodicity that is much more subdued in the Namibia speleothem. This cycle matches with the 17- or 18-year periodicity in the Botswana historical rainfall record. The periodicity is very well pronounced between AD 1825 to 1925

  14. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space.

  15. Assessing Periodicity of Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Rummel, Christian; Gast, Heidemarie; Schindler, Kaspar; Müller, Markus; Amor, Frédérique; Hess, Christian W.; Mathis, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Background: Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLM during sleep is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLM index (PLMI). However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI) in patients with PLM. Methods: Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLM with OSA (group 1), PLM without OSA or RLS (group 2) and PLM with RLS (group 3) are considered. Applying the “unfolding” procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhances or even reveals intrinsic periodicity of PLM. The degree of periodicity of PLM is assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it is investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Results: Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity is neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering reveals more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consist of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS and OSA. Conclusions: The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLM statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the degree of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities is found. However, there are indications that the nature of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLM and OSA. PMID:20948585

  16. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  17. The impact of different flooding periods on the dynamics of pore water concentrations of As, Cr, Mo and V in a contaminated floodplain soil - results of a lysimeter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph; Shaheen, Sabry; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements and arsenic (As) were transported with water during inundation in floodplain ecosystems, where they settled down and accumulated predominantly in depressions and low-lying terraces. Highly variable hydrological conditions in floodplains can affect the dynamics of pollutants. The impact of different flooding/drying periods on the temporal dynamics of pore water concentrations of As, Cr, Mo and V as a function of soil EH/pH changes and dynamics of DOC, Fe, Mn and SO42- was studied in a contaminated floodplain soil collected at the Elbe River (Germany). A specific groundwater lysimeter technique with two separate small lysimeter vessels served as replicates was used for this study. The groundwater level inside the lysimeters was controlled to simulate long term and short term flooding/drying. The long term (LT) flooding scenario consists of 94 days of flooding followed by similar drying term. The short term (ST) flooding/drying scenario comprises 21 days and was six times repeated. The entire experimental period (LT_ST) was about 450 days. Flooding of the soil caused a significant decrease of EH and pH. Concentrations of soluble As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo and DOC were higher under reducing conditions than under oxidizing conditions in LT. However, As and Cr tended to be mobilized under oxidizing conditions during ST, which might be due to slow kinetics of the redox reaction of As and Cr. Dynamics of Mo were more affected by changes of EH/pH as compared to As, Cr and V and governed mainly by Fe-Mn chemistry. Concentrations of V in ST were higher than in LT and were controlled particularly by pH and chemistry of Fe. The interactions between the elements and carriers studied were stronger during long flood-dry-cycles than during short cycles, which confirmed our hypothesis. We conclude that the dynamics of As, Cr, Mo and V are determined by the length of time soils are exposed to flooding, because drivers of element mobility need a certain time to provoke

  18. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  19. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  20. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  1. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  2. Period Adjustment of TT Scuti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederbloom, Steve E.

    1985-12-01

    The RR Lyrae variable TT Scuti was studied using photographic photometry. The O-C data show a possible downwards curve, which would indicate a decreasing period, but the results are not conclusive. New linear elements are: JD(max) = 2439384.915 + 0.45293855 E. A limit for the maximum rate of change of the period is -0.03 +/- 0.04 cycles per million years.

  3. Cyclical Period Changes in Short-Period Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Borges, B. W.; Bond, H. E.; Jablonski, F.; Steiner, J. E.; Grauer, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    The observed-minus-calculated (O-C) diagrams of the eclipse timings of three dwarf novae of the SU UMa sub-class are presented and discussed. The (O-C) diagrams cover 28 24 and 15 years respectively for Z~Cha V2051~Oph and V4140~Sgr and show clear orbital period changes. Z~Cha shows conspicuous cyclical changes of period 28+/-2 yr and amplitude 60+/-12 s. V2051~Oph shows a cyclical period change of period 22+/-2 yr and amplitude 17+/-3 s. The (O-C) diagram of V4140~Sgr shows less convincing evidence but can also be explained in terms of a cyclical period modulation with an amplitude of about 16s and a time scale of 6.9+/-0.3 years. The best explanation for these observations is that of a solar-type magnetic activity cycle in the secondary star modulating its radius and consequently the mass transfer rate and the orbital separation on time scales of years. These results support the recent findings of Ak Ozkan & Mattei that the quiescent magnitudes and outburst interval of a sample of dwarf novae (including many SU UMa stars) show cyclical variations produced by solar-type magnetic activity cycles. Our results also confirm that the fully-convective secondary stars of these short period binaries still possess non-negligible magnetic fields.

  4. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  5. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  6. The dependence of honey-bee behaviour on weather — Shown by the results of weighing bee-hives in the period of 1969 to 1978 in the region of the Beekeepers Association of Hannover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Jutta

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of honey bee behaviour and their dependence on weather conditions. The main interest of the data evaluation was the rentability of beekeeping, especially the amount of honey produced, meteorological parameters were used to analyse the measurements. So-called “hive scale” measurements, a method used to judge the annual development of honey bees, were carried out in the region of the “Landesverband Hannoverscher Imker e. V.” by 30 to 35 observers from 1969 to 1978 under the direction of Wagener. Number of flight and forage days were collected in addition to climatic data and evaluated.

  7. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out. PMID:27126116

  8. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  9. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  10. [Bibliometry of biomedical periodicals].

    PubMed

    Similowski, T; Derenne, J P

    1995-01-01

    Bibliometry or the science citation index is a quantitative evaluation of periodical literature, biomedical or others. It depends above all on an analysis of citations which allows for a calculation of different indices characterising and classifying journals (number of articles published, frequency of citation, impact, topicality...). The applications of bibliometry are varied from the administration of library collections to the appreciation of the significance of a review in its own speciality area. By extension the bibliometry index are sometimes used to evaluate the importance of a discipline in the literature, the place of a nation within a discipline, the significance of certain opinions or the quality of research. The intrinsic limits of bibliometry are such that this last application should be handled with caution. In effect, various biases can mechanically affect the value of different indices and particularly the fact that an article appearing in a prestigious review should not prejudge its quality such as the relevance of the question posed, the validity of the methodology employed or the accuracy of the results. For this, the study of citations is insufficient and some qualitative or semi-quantitative criteria bearing on the contents of the article should be used (critical reading, gate analysis, etc.) This general review has, as its aim, to expose both the definitions and limits of bibliometry illustrating them with some information calculated from the principal respiratory journals.

  11. Features of clouds and convection during the pre- and post-onset periods of the Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Chenghai

    2016-02-01

    The statistical characteristics of the vertical structure of clouds in the Asian summer monsoon region are investigated using two CloudSat standard products (Geometrical Profiling Product (GEOPROF) and GEOPROF-lidar) during the pre- and post-onset periods of the Asian summer monsoon, from April to August in 2007-2010. The characteristics of the vertical structure of clouds are analyzed and compared for different underlying surfaces in four subregions during this period. Also analyzed are the evolution of precipitation and hydrometeors with the northward advance of the Asian summer monsoon, and different hydrometeor characteristics attributed to the underlying surface features. The results indicate that the vertical cloud amounts increase significantly after the summer monsoon onset; this increase occurs first in the upper troposphere and then at lower altitudes over tropical regions (South Asian and tropical Northwest Pacific regions). The heights of the cloud top ascend, and the vertical height between the top and the base of the whole cloud increases. Single-layer (SL) and double-layer (DL) hydrometeors contribute over half and one third of the cloudiness in these 5 months (April to August), respectively. The multilayer frequencies increase in four different regions, and cloud layer depths (CLD) increase after the summer monsoon onset. These changes are stronger in tropical regions than in subtropical regions, while the vertical distance between cloud layers (VDCL) deceases in tropical regions and increases in subtropical regions.

  12. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  13. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  14. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  15. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  16. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  17. Genital injuries resulting from sexual abuse: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Voris, J; Simon, M

    1992-02-01

    Three children who incurred genital injuries as a result of sexual assaults were followed up on a longitudinal basis to document the anatomical changes which ensued. The subjects, who were 4 months, 4 years 5 months, and 9 years of age, were followed up for periods ranging from 14 months to 3 years. A multi-method examination approach and a 35-mm camera mounted on a colposcope were used to examine and record their injuries. Signs of the acute damage disappeared rapidly, and the wounds healed without complications. Following the resolution of the acute injuries, the changes created by the trauma remained relatively stable throughout the prepubertal years. The most persistent findings were irregular hymenal edges and narrow rims at the point of the injury. Over time the jagged, angular margins smoothed off. Disruption of the hymen exposed underlying longitudinal intravaginal ridges whose hymenal attachments created mounds or projections. There was little apparent scar formation. Even the injuries to the posterior fourchettes healed with minimal scar tissue and left only the slightest evidence of the trauma. With the onset of puberty, the hymenal changes in the oldest subject were obscured by the hypertrophy of this membrane. An examination technique which used a Q-tip to separate the redundant tissues demonstrated that the signs of trauma had survived. PMID:1734401

  18. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage period. 1437.5 Section 1437.5 Agriculture... Provisions § 1437.5 Coverage period. (a) The coverage period is the time during which coverage is available against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage...

  19. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  20. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  1. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  2. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  3. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.266 Period covered by periodic MIP. The initial MIP shall cover the period...

  4. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Neki, N S

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  5. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  6. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  7. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  8. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  9. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  10. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  11. The two periods of TT ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, J. R.; Smak, J.; Hessman, F. V.

    1985-05-01

    To clarify the spectroscopic period and demonstrate that the spectroscopic and photometric periods are distinct, velocities of the cataclysmic variable TT Ari in its high and intermediate photometric states are obtained. Evidence for periodicity is found near the period of Cowley et al. (1975) in both the high-state and intermediate-state velocities and in a reanalysis of the Cowley et al. velocities no evidence is found for periodicity near the photometric period. Since no single period fits all the data well and since the original Cowley et al. period fits all the high-state data quite well, it is shown that the velocities change phase between the high and the intermediate states. Results indicate that the intermediate-state velocities lag the high-state velocities by 0.28 of a cycle and that in the high-state data, the gamma velocities tend to be systematically lower for the high-order Balmer lines.

  12. Atmospheric results from the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter

    The Phoenix Mission operated in the northern plains of Mars for 5 months starting May 25, 2008 spanning solar longitudes from 78 to 143 (summer). Throughout this period a diverse set of atmospheric measurements were taken and analyzed. The data sets provide information on the diurnal temperatures at 2 m above the surface, diurnal pressure, wind vectors, cloud properties, dust devils, the boundary layer, and humidity. In addition, coordinated observations were obtained with orbital instruments from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Odyssey, and Mars Express. The measurements have been compared with predictions from Global Climate Models and found to agree in most regards. Taken as a whole this represents a unique description of the summer weather in a heretofore unexplored region of Mars. The Canadian LIDAR experiment gives us the first direct measurement of the boundary layer height. The first 90 sols of the mission were conducted under dusty conditions and the height of the dust layer was determined as 4-5 km above the surface. After 90 sols, the dust dispersed and water ice clouds were seen at ever lower altitudes and the boundary layer dropped to as low as 3 km. Snowfall was observed and frost imaged on the surface. Winds swirled around the lander completing a full circle each sol; typical wind speeds were 5-10 m/s. From near surface humidity measurements, a diurnal cycle sublimates ice and adsorbed water from the surface soil as the Sun heats it forming water ice clouds at the boundary layer. As temperatures cool in the night the water is returned as snow and frost to the soil. Temperatures ranged from -30 C to -90 C, but never exceed the melting point; even though atmospheric pressures are always above the triple point, liquid water is not allowed at this time. The lack of dune forms and the presence of dust devils suggest that wind erosion is a strong force despite the constant dust fall observed on the spacecraft deck. Local dust storms are often seen by the

  13. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  14. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  15. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  16. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  17. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  18. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  19. Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period in normal-weight or obese ewes results in adrenocortical hypertrophy, an up-regulation of the JAK/STAT and down-regulation of the IGF1R signaling pathways in the adrenal of the postnatal lamb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song; Morrison, Janna L; Gill, Amreet; Rattanatray, Leewen; MacLaughlin, Severence M; Kleemann, David; Walker, Simon K; McMillen, I Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period results in an increase in adrenal growth and in the cortisol stress response in the offspring. The intraadrenal mechanisms that result in the programming of these changes are not clear. Activation of the IGF and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) pathways regulate adrenal growth. We have used an embryo transfer model in sheep to investigate the impact of exposure to either dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers or to maternal obesity during the periconceptional period on adrenal growth and function in the offspring. We assessed the adrenal abundance of key signaling molecules in the IGF-I and Janus kinase/STAT/SOCS pathways including IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in female and male postnatal lambs. Maternal dietary restriction in the periconceptional period resulted in the hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells in the zona fasciculata-reticularis and an up-regulation in STAT1, phospho-STAT1, and phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) abundance and a down-regulation in IGF-I receptor, Akt, and phospho-Akt abundance in the adrenal cortex of the postnatal lamb. These studies highlight that weight loss around the time of conception, independent of the starting maternal body weight, results in the activation of the adrenal Janus kinase/STAT pathway and adrenocortical hypertrophy. Thus, signals of adversity around the time of conception have a long-term impact on the mechanisms that regulate adrenocortical growth.

  20. Maternal Dietary Restriction During the Periconceptional Period in Normal-Weight or Obese Ewes Results in Adrenocortical Hypertrophy, an Up-Regulation of the JAK/STAT and Down-Regulation of the IGF1R Signaling Pathways in the Adrenal of the Postnatal Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Morrison, Janna L.; Gill, Amreet; Rattanatray, Leewen; MacLaughlin, Severence M.; Kleemann, David; Walker, Simon K.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal dietary restriction during the periconceptional period results in an increase in adrenal growth and in the cortisol stress response in the offspring. The intraadrenal mechanisms that result in the programming of these changes are not clear. Activation of the IGF and the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)/suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) pathways regulate adrenal growth. We have used an embryo transfer model in sheep to investigate the impact of exposure to either dietary restriction in normal or obese mothers or to maternal obesity during the periconceptional period on adrenal growth and function in the offspring. We assessed the adrenal abundance of key signaling molecules in the IGF-I and Janus kinase/STAT/SOCS pathways including IGF-I receptor, IGF-II receptor, Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, SOCS1, and SOCS3 in female and male postnatal lambs. Maternal dietary restriction in the periconceptional period resulted in the hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells in the zona fasciculata-reticularis and an up-regulation in STAT1, phospho-STAT1, and phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) abundance and a down-regulation in IGF-I receptor, Akt, and phospho-Akt abundance in the adrenal cortex of the postnatal lamb. These studies highlight that weight loss around the time of conception, independent of the starting maternal body weight, results in the activation of the adrenal Janus kinase/STAT pathway and adrenocortical hypertrophy. Thus, signals of adversity around the time of conception have a long-term impact on the mechanisms that regulate adrenocortical growth. PMID:24108072

  1. Periodic Structures in Optical Fibres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Duncan Paul

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work presented in this thesis concerns techniques for the formation of periodic structures in optical fibres. Two different methods of producing such structures are studied in detail. The first of these involves a breakdown mechanism (known as the 'fibre fuse') that permanently damages the core glass in a periodic manner leaving it unable to guide light. The dynamics of this mechanism are studied, with a view to controlling it for the production of interactive grating structures. It is determined that, due to a sharp rise in fibre absorption with temperature, a thermal shock -wave, with a typical thermal gradient of several hundred degrees Kelvin per micron, forms and travels along the fibre, heating the core glass to such an extent that damage occurs. The periodicity of the resultant damage arises from thermal focusing and defocusing of light in the region of this shock-wave. The second method makes use of the photorefractivity observed in certain germanosilicate fibres on exposure to moderate intensity blue light of wavelength ~480nm or UV light ~240nm. A single-mode fibre transmission filter is demonstrated for the first time, produced by exposing a fibre Sagnac loop mirror to 488nm holographic fringes. Average index changes are shown to occur if such fibres are exposed to spatially uniform blue or UV light, indicating that grating formation is by a different mechanism to the local charge separation which occurs in photorefractive crystals. The various characteristics of these average index changes are measured and analysed, with the conclusion that they result from defect centre formation, driven by two photon absorption with blue light, or single photon absorption with UV light. Associated birefringence changes are also measured and are exploited in a hi-bi fibre to periodically perturb the birefringence axes, producing a narrow-line transmission filter.

  2. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  3. Assessment of "general movements" in high-risk infants by Prechtl analysis during early intervention period in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Akmer; Livanelioğlu, Ayşe; Korkmaz, Ayşe

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the neurological status of high-risk infants by "general movements" (GMs) method and to compare it with the findings of standard clinical neurological examination and neuroimaging findings during the early rehabilitation period. Neurodevelopmental examination was performed by a neonatologist at the corrected ages of 40 weeks, and 3, 6 and 12 months. Assessment of the physiotherapist included video recording of "Prechtl Analysis of GMs" from the first week of life to the corrected age of 5 months. All infants underwent an early physiotherapy program, and follow-up examinations continued until 12 months. A percentage of agreement of 0.86 was found between cranial ultrasound imaging results and GMs and of 0.78 between neurological examination and GMs. Prechtl analysis was found to be important for detecting neurological dysfunction and differentiating normal neurological development in high-risk infants during the early intervention period. This analysis can be used complementary to other diagnostic and imaging techniques in the follow-up of preterm infants.

  4. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  5. Local field effects in periodic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porvatkina, O. V.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2016-08-01

    In this article we investigate dielectric and magnetic properties of periodic metamaterials taking into account the so-called local field effect, caused by interaction between single particles the material consists of. We also consider the spatial dispersion effects. As a result, generalized Clausius-Mossotti techniques have been extended to the case of periodic metamaterials; permittivity tensor and permeability tensor were obtained.

  6. Uniform period spacings in white dwarf models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical models of g-mode oscillations in white dwarfs are investigated analytically. Numerical results of period-spacing computations for DOV, DAV, and DBV models are presented in tables, and the relationships between period spacings and the composition and structure of the stellar atmospheres are discussed.

  7. NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuyang; Khardon, Roni; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2012-09-01

    Many astronomical phenomena exhibit patterns that have periodic behavior. An important step when analyzing data from such processes is the problem of identifying the period: estimating the period of a periodic function based on noisy observations made at irregularly spaced time points. This problem is still a difficult challenge despite extensive study in different disciplines. This paper makes several contributions toward solving this problem. First, we present a nonparametric Bayesian model for period finding, based on Gaussian Processes (GPs), that does not make assumptions on the shape of the periodic function. As our experiments demonstrate, the new model leads to significantly better results in period estimation especially when the light curve does not exhibit sinusoidal shape. Second, we develop a new algorithm for parameter optimization for GP which is useful when the likelihood function is very sensitive to the parameters with numerous local minima, as in the case of period estimation. The algorithm combines gradient optimization with grid search and incorporates several mechanisms to overcome the high computational complexity of GP. Third, we develop a novel approach for using domain knowledge, in the form of a probabilistic generative model, and incorporate it into the period estimation algorithm. Experimental results validate our approach showing significant improvement over existing methods.

  8. All-fibre components using periodic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, R. C.; Brooks, J. L.; Risk, W. P.; Kino, G. S.; Shaw, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    The paper presents a new class of all-fiber devices based upon periodic coupling principles. The two basic devices which are described are a birefringent fiber polarization coupler and a two-mode fiber transverse mode coupler. Both devices consist of a ridged plate which is used to periodically stress a fiber with a periodicity equal to the beat length of the modes to be coupled. This periodic stress has been shown to result in almost complete power transfer for both the devices described. These 'in-line couplers' have been shown to have several applications, e.g., amplitude modulators, notch filters, polarizers, mixers, etc. One of the most important results of the work in this area was the development of an all-fiber frequency shifter based upon the principles of periodic coupling. More work needs to be done in the design and engineering of these devices, and there is still room for new ideas and approaches.

  9. Bilateral Single-Port Sympathectomy: Long-Term Results and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohsen; Menna, Cecilia; Ciccone, Anna Maria; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Maurizi, Giulio; Pomes, Leda Marina; Cassiano, Francesco; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino A.

    2013-01-01

    Object. Video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive procedure for primary hyperhidrosis. This study aims to evaluate long-term results and patients' quality of life and investigate potential variables responsible for compensatory sweating after one-stage bilateral single-port thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Methods. Between 2005 and 2011, 260 consecutive bilateral thoracoscopic sympathectomies were performed in 130 patients for primary palmar and axillary hyperidrosis through one-port access. Residual pain, postoperative complications, recurrence of symptoms, heart rate adjustment, and quality of life were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed. Results. No operative mortality and conversion to open surgery were recorded. Mean operative time was 38 ± 5 minutes. Mean hospital stay was 1.1 ± 0.6 days. Eight patients (6%) had unilateral pneumothorax. Twenty-five cases (19%) were complicated by compensatory sweating. Winter and fall were identified as protective factors for compensatory sweating occurrence. Decreased heart rate was observed 1 year after surgery and permanently over the time. No recurrence during the follow-up period (31.5 months) was observed and 90% of patients showed improved quality of life. Conclusions. One-stage bilateral miniuniportal thoracoscopic sympathectomy is a valid and safe treatment for primary hyperhidrosis, achieving definitive and esthetic results, with excellent patients' satisfaction. Compensatory sweating may potentially occur in a season-dependent manner. PMID:24383050

  10. 7 CFR 1437.5 - Coverage period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... against loss of production of the eligible crop as a result of natural disaster. (b) The coverage period... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  11. Rotational period of GQ Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Guenther, E.; Gaedke, A.; Bedalov, A.; Neuhäuser, R.; Walter, F. M.

    2007-06-01

    Aims: We wanted to determine the rotation parameters of GQ Lup A, thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the GQ Lup system. Methods: We have undertaken a photometric monitoring campaign on GQ Lup A consisting of two epochs spaced one year apart. We also searched the photometric archives to enlarge the data set. Results: We were able to determine the photometric period (8.45±0.2 days) in both epochs in several photometric bands. This periodicity could also be found in some of the archival data. The combined false-alarm probability is 0.015. The variation is most likely caused by hot spots on the surface of GQ Lup A. This, combined with high-resolution spectra (v sin i) allows calculation of GQ Lup A's inclination (i=27±5°). Radial velocity data also contains this period but is inconclusive. Nevertheless, the RV data supports the interpretation that hot spots cause the photometric variation. We use the known K-band variability, amplitude, and phase of GQ Lup A together with a new image of GQ Lup A+b, taken quasi-simultaneously with our monitoring of the star, to confirm the magnitude and, hence, luminosity of the companion. Based on observations obtained on Cerro Paranal, Chile, in ESO program 075.C-0710(C) and on La Silla, Chile, in ESO programs 074.C-0034(A),075.C-0710(E), 075.C-0710(F), 075.C-0202(A), 076.C-0010(A) as well as with ANDICAM of the SMARTS consortium. Photometry data of epochs I and II are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/468/1039

  12. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  13. New Galactic Double Periodic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Rosales, J.

    2014-10-01

    We discovered two new Double Periodic Variables in the ASAS catalogue of variable stars, viz., V495 Cen and V4142 Sgr. Other 3 candidates for Double Periodic Variables were found. All systems have relatively long orbital periods. We present improved ephemerides and disentangled light curves.

  14. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Docket No. RM2009-10, Order on Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three...

  15. Periodicity of the earth's magnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented from an attempt to perform a relatively comprehensive analysis of the evidence for a periodicity, with harmonics, of the observed regular reversals of the earth's magnetic field. The database considered covers 296 reversals over the past 165 Myr. Histograms with bins 1 Myr apart reveal only 30 Myr reversal patterns. The reversal dates are fitted to a linear periodic function and a spectrum is computed for the residuals at the adopted dates. The possible presence of multiple periodicities is evaluated and over various time intervals. The analysis shows that a recently observed 15 Myr periodicity is probably a harmonic of the 29.5-30.5 Myr period. The calculations do not confirm an inherent magnetic reversal property of the earth. The reversals may arise from tectonic events or from impacts from extraterrestrial objects.

  16. Orbital period changes of YY Coronae Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-06-01

    By using all available times of light minimum, the orbital period changes of a W UMa eclipsing binary YY CrB have been investigated. Two possible orbital period variations are found: (1) a secular period decrease with a rate of dP/dt = -6.727 × 10-7 d yr-1, on which a sinusoidal oscillation with a period of P = 12.68 yr is superposed, or (2) an abrupt period change with a sudden period decrease of -0.7862 s around the year 2005. The secular period decrease is discussed in terms of (1) the mass transfer from the more massive companion to the less massive one with a mass transfer rate of dM2/dt = 2.8096 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1, and (2) the mass loss via stellar wind from the system. The sinusoidal oscillatory can be interpreted as a result of the magnetic activity cycles of the system. In addition, the abrupt period decrease of the system might be due to the sudden mass transfer between the components.

  17. The dispersion of period spacing for DAVstars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    Three groups of DAV star models are evolved with time-dependent element diffusion by WDEC. The core compositions of these models are directly from white dwarf models evolved by MESA, which are results of thermonuclear burning. Based on these DAV star models, we try to study the dispersion of period spacing. The thickness of hydrogen atmosphere can seriously affect the deviation degree of minimal period spacings. The minimal period spacings dominate the dispersion of period spacing. The thinner the hydrogen atmosphere, basically, the more dispersive the period spacing. Standard deviations are used to analyse the dispersion of period spacing. Studying the dispersion of period spacing on a DAV star KUV03442+0719 preliminarily, we suggest that log(MH/M*) is from -8.5 to -5.5. In addition, modes partly trapped in C/O core are found based on those DAV star models. The identified modes and average period spacings indicate that KUV03442+0719 may be the first star to `observe' modes partly trapped in C/O core.

  18. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  19. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia and hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Boz, Adil; Duman, Ozgur; Aydin, Funda; Haspolat, Senay

    2008-12-01

    We present a patient diagnosed with Shapiro syndrome without corpus callosum agenesis. A 4-year-old-girl was admitted to the hospital with complaints of sweating, cooling, and drowsiness that continued during the last week of her admission. Attacks occurred almost daily, and lasted for about 1 hour. All laboratory findings, as well as Holter and echocardiography results, were normal. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intact corpus callosum, and electroencephalography obtained during an attack revealed normal findings. However, technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission computed tomography indicated increased perfusion in the right thalamus, basal ganglia, and inferior frontal areas during a hypothermic period. Although oxcarbazepine reduced the frequency of attacks, they were not halted completely. The patient responded better to carbamazepine. PMID:19027594

  20. Evolutionary ecology of periodical insects.

    PubMed

    Heliövaara, K; Väisänen, R; Simon, C

    1994-12-01

    To be periodical, a species must have a fixed life cycle length and adults must appear synchronously, reproduce only once, and die. The consequence of this life history is that, at a given location, adults of a periodical species will be absent or rare in some years and abundant in others. The relative scarcity of periodical Insect species suggests that periodicity does not evolve easily. The major obstacle to its evolution is selection favoring life cycles In which the offspring of any given female appear over a two- or three-year period. Chance events which disrupt this 'bet-hedging' strategy set the stage for periodicity. Mathematical models predict that, given certain initial conditions, intraspecific competition and predation favor its development. Recent studies suggest that periodicity is rarely perfect but that it can persist in the face of limited gene flow through time.

  1. [Studies related to the discoloration in the surrounding gingiva of fixed prosthesis. 2. Detection period of silver-sulfate and the effects of metal alloys].

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, A; Onodera, T; Ishikawa, S; Furukawa, K; Nemoto, F; Itoh, S; Ishibashi, K; Nawa, T

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between gingival discoloration and Ag2S. Minute granules of dental alloys were embedded in the gingiva during a 5-11 months span, and their histological and colorimetric analyses were undertaken. Results showed the following; 1. Cases of low melting silver alloy, 12% Au-Ag-Pd alloy, and Ni-Cr alloy all resulted in gingival discoloration, but it did not occur during the specified experimental period. 2. Regardless of the size of the granules or time, the electron microanalyser showed no signs of sulfer detection in cases of low melting silver alloy. However, in the case of 12% Au-Ag-Pd alloy, sulfer was detected 5 months later for only those granules having the size of 0.2-0.3 microns. No sulfer was detected in cases of Ni-Cr alloy. 3. Although no proliferation of inflammatory cells were observed around those areas surrounding the 12% Au-Ag-Pd alloy granules, they appeared in cases of the low melting silver alloy and Ni-Cr alloy.

  2. Periodicity of extinction: A 1988 update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkowski, J. John, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that events of mass extinction recur periodically at approximately 26 my intervals is an empirical claim based on analysis of data from the fossil record. The hypothesis has become closely linked with catastrophism because several events in the periodic series are associated with evidence of extraterrestrial impacts, and terrestrial forcing mechanisms with long, periodic recurrences are not easily conceived. Astronomical mechanisms that have been hypothesized include undetected solar companions and solar oscillation about the galactic plane, which induce comet showers and result in impacts on Earth at regular intervals. Because these mechanisms are speculative, they have been the subject of considerable controversy, as has the hypothesis of periodicity of extinction. In response to criticisms and uncertainties, a data base was developed on times of extinction of marine animal genera. A time series is given and analyzed with 49 sample points for the per-genus extinction rate from the Late Permian to the Recent. An unexpected pattern in the data is the uniformity of magnitude of many of the periodic extinction events. Observations suggest that the sequence of extinction events might be the result of two sets of mechanisms: a periodic forcing that normally induces only moderate amounts of extinction, and independent incidents or catastrophes that, when coincident with the periodic forcing, amplify its signal and produce major-mass extinctions.

  3. Superluminal periodic orbits in the Lorenz system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algaba, A.; Merino, M.; Rodríguez-Luis, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present, for the Lorenz system, analytical and numerical results on the existence of periodic orbits with unbounded amplitude and whose period tends to zero. Since a particle moving on these periodic orbits would be faster-than-light, we call them superluminal periodic orbits. To achieve this goal, we first find analytical expressions for the period in three different situations, where Hopf and Takens-Bogdanov bifurcations of infinite codimension occur. Thus, taking limit in the corresponding expressions allows to demonstrate the existence of superluminal periodic orbits for finite values of the parameter ρ (in a region where the other two parameters σ and b are negative). Moreover, we numerically show, in other two different cases of physical interest, that these orbits also exist when the parameter ρ tends to infinity. Finally, the presence of superluminal periodic orbits in the widely studied Chen and Lü systems follows directly from our results, taking into account that they are, generically, particular cases of the Lorenz system, as can be proved with a linear scaling in time and state variables.

  4. Fractional-period excitations in continuum periodic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nistazakis, H. E.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Nicolin, A.; Chin, J. K.

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the generation of fractional-period states in continuum periodic systems. As an example, we consider a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical-lattice potential. We show that when the potential is turned on nonadiabatically, the system explores a number of transient states whose periodicity is a fraction of that of the lattice. We illustrate the origin of fractional-period states analytically by treating them as resonant states of a parametrically forced Duffing oscillator and discuss their transient nature and potential observability.

  5. Generalized periodic discharges in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Abou Khaled, Karine; Jirsch, Jeffrey; Alschuler, Daniel M.; Wittman, John; Emerson, Ronald G.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized periodic discharges are increasingly recognized on continuous EEG monitoring, but their relationship to seizures and prognosis remains unclear. Methods: All adults with generalized periodic discharges from 1996 to 2006 were matched 1:1 to controls by age, etiology, and level of consciousness. Overall, 200 patients with generalized periodic discharges were matched to 200 controls. Results: Mean age was 66 years (range 18–96); 56% were comatose. Presenting illnesses included acute brain injury (44%), acute systemic illness (38%), cardiac arrest (15%), and epilepsy (3%). A total of 46% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had a seizure during their hospital stay (almost half were focal), vs 34% of controls (p = 0.014). Convulsive seizures were seen in a third of both groups. A total of 27% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had nonconvulsive seizures, vs 8% of controls (p < 0.001); 22% of patients with generalized periodic discharges had nonconvulsive status epilepticus, vs 7% of controls (p < 0.001). In both groups, approximately half died or were in a vegetative state, one-third had severe disability, and one-fifth had moderate to no disability. Excluding cardiac arrest patients, generalized periodic discharges were associated with increased mortality on univariate analysis (36.8% vs 26.9%; p = 0.049). Multivariate predictors of worse outcome were cardiac arrest, coma, nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and sepsis, but not generalized periodic discharges. Conclusion: Generalized periodic discharges were strongly associated with nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. While nonconvulsive status epilepticus was independently associated with worse outcome, generalized periodic discharges were not after matching for age, etiology, and level of consciousness. PMID:23035068

  6. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  7. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  8. Preliminary Results of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy After Cyst Drainage for Craniopharyngioma in Adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesaka, Naoto; Mikami, Ryuji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Nogi, Sachika; Tajima, Yu; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Miki, Tamotsu; Haraoka, Jou; Okubo, Mitsuru; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for craniopharyngioma. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2005, 16 patients with craniopharyngioma were referred to Tokyo Medical University Hospital. They received FSRT alone after histologic confirmation by needle biopsy and underwent cyst drainage via endoscopy. The median prescription dose fraction was 30 Gy in six fractions. All patients except 1 were followed up until December 2009 or death. Results: The median follow-up period was 52 months (range, 4-117 months). Of the 17 patients, 3 experienced recurrence 4 to 71 months after FSRT. The 3-year local control rate was 82.4%. One patient died of thyroid cancer, and the 3-year survival rate was 94.1%. Eight patients had improved visual fields at a median of 2.5 months after FSRT, but hormonal functions did not improve in any patient. Conclusions: FSRT after cyst drainage seems to be safe and effective for patients with craniopharyngiomas, and it may be a safe alternative to surgery.

  9. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  10. Reliability, return periods, and risk under nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-08-01

    Water resources design has widely used the average return period as a concept to inform management and communication of the risk of experiencing an exceedance event within a planning horizon. Even though nonstationarity is often apparent, in practice hydrologic design often mistakenly assumes that the probability of exceedance, p, is constant from year to year which leads to an average return period To equal to 1/p; this expression is far more complex under nonstationarity. Even for stationary processes, the common application of an average return period is problematic: it does not account for planning horizon, is an average value that may not be representative of the time to the next flood, and is generally not applied in other areas of water planning. We combine existing theoretical and empirical results from the literature to provide the first general, comprehensive description of the probabilistic behavior of the return period and reliability under nonstationarity. We show that under nonstationarity, the underlying distribution of the return period exhibits a more complex shape than the exponential distribution under stationary conditions. Using a nonstationary lognormal model, we document the increased complexity and challenges associated with planning for future flood events over a planning horizon. We compare application of the average return period with the more common concept of reliability and recommend replacing the average return period with reliability as a more practical way to communicate event likelihood in both stationary and nonstationary contexts.

  11. [Clinical and functional results of abdominal rectopexy using different fixation principles].

    PubMed

    Winde, G; Reers, B; Holzgreve, A; Fischer, R; Bohlmann, A; Bünte, H

    1993-01-01

    We report our results with abdominal rectopexy (modified Ripstein procedure, Ripstein/Corman) without resection of the colon in 63 patients using lyophylized dura-strips, Vicryl gauze or Dexon gauze, as the underlying fixation material for the mobilized rectum, presacral fascia and fixation suture material. Forty-five of 64 patients (71.4%) were reevaluated by proctoscopic examination and questioning; the mean follow-up time was 52.5 months (range 3-136 months). Postoperative mortality due to the method was 0%; the mortality was 1.6% (n = 1/63) in general for the first postoperative 30-day period as a result of cardiac complications. There were three complications (4.7%) the durating operation. Postoperative morbidity was 25.4% (16/63); infectious complications occurred in 12.7% (8/63) of cases, with one case of spontaneous closure of a pelvicutaneous fistula after intraoperative injury to the rectal wall. Full-thickness rectal prolapse appeared after rectopexy in 4.4% (2/45) (dura material alone) and mucosal prolapse was seen in 15.5% (7/45) of the follow-up group. Constipation was reduced by 28.6% (18/63) to 22.2% during the follow-up. Seventeen of 28 patients (60.7%) with incontinence showed an improvement; total continence was registered in 35.7% (10/28). The increase in continence as a result of abdominal rectopexy was significant (Wilcoxon, P = 0.05). The special aspects of being in an older age group, having a long history of procidentia, the number of deliveries, the length of the preoperative incontinence period all showed no influence on the postoperative degree of continence (Spearman's rank correlation). In 7/15 cases with persisting incontinence after rectopexy, postanal repair (Parks) was efficient in 7/7 cases leading to total or partial continence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8474300

  12. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  13. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR 58449 (Sept. 24, 2010). On December 20, 2010, the Postal Service...

  14. 75 FR 7426 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of...-789-6820 or stephen.sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ The Postal Service labels its proposal ``Proposal One''...

  15. Latino Periodicals: A Selection Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerena, Salvador, Ed.; Pisano, Vivian M., Ed.

    This guide is a collection development tool of national scope for librarians who need in-depth coverage of Latino periodicals suitable for public, school, and academic libraries. Periodicals evaluated include general interest and popular magazines and newspapers that appeal to Spanish-speaking, bilingual, and English-speaking library patrons and…

  16. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  17. 76 FR 52915 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... informal rulemaking on proposed changes in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Proposed Changes in Analytical Principles (Proposals Four-Eight), August 8, 2011 (Petition). Proposal...

  18. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  19. A multihazard, multistrategy approach to home remediation: Results of a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Klitzman, Susan . E-mail: sklitzma@hunter.cuny.edu; Caravanos, Jack; Belanoff, Candice; Rothenberg, Laura

    2005-11-15

    Many residential hazards are disproportionately concentrated in older, urban dwellings and share common underlying causes, such as uncorrected moisture problems and inadequate maintenance and cleaning. Comprehensive and affordable approaches to remediation are needed, but the feasibility and efficacy of such approaches has not been well documented. To address this gap, a multihazard, multimethod intervention, addressing deteriorated lead-based paint and lead dust, vermin, mold, and safety hazards was pilot-tested in a sample of 70 pre-1940 dwellings. Dwellings received paint stabilization, dust lead cleaning, integrated pest management (IPM), mold cleaning, and safety devices, as needed. The median remediation cost for labor and materials was $864.66 (range: $120.00-5235.33) per dwelling. Environmental conditions were evaluated prior to, immediately following, and an average of 5 months after remediation. Between the baseline and 5-month follow-up periods, significant reductions were achieved in the number of dwellings with multiple (i.e., three or four) problems (75% vs. 23%, P<0.0001); high levels of dust lead on floors and window sills (67% and 46% declines, P<0.01); evidence of cockroaches or rodents (43% and 36% declines, P<0.01); and fire, electrical and/or fall hazards (between 67% and 88% declines, P<0.01). Significant reductions were also observed in the geometric mean (GM) dust lead levels on floors and window sills (13.3 vs. 5.0{mu}g/ft{sup 2} and 210.6 vs. 81.0{mu}g/ft{sup 2}, respectively, P<0.0001) and Blatella germanica (Blag1) levels among dwellings with elevated baseline levels (7.7 vs. 0.09U/g, P<0.0001). Reductions in mold dust levels were of borderline statistical significance (50% decline, P=0.07). The greatest declines in dust lead and Blag1 levels occurred in dwellings having the highest baseline levels and, for Blag1, in dwellings in which occupants attended training sessions. These results indicate that a comprehensive approach to hazard

  20. New Results from Hermes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytgat, M.

    2004-06-01

    An overview is given of selected recent HERMES results obtained from measurements performed during the first running period of HERA. These topics include inclusive g1(x)-measurements with a NLO QCD analysis, polarized quark distribution extraction, b1(x)-measurement, double spin asymmetries in vector meson production, ρ0-nuclear transparency and finally quark fragmentation in nuclei.

  1. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  2. 75 FR 65593 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Rules Concerning Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... waiver request. SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to address a recent Postal...

  3. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    .... SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider new measurement of Flats Sequencing Systems... of the Business Reply Mail cost model in periodic reporting of service performance measurement...). Proposal Sixteen: proposed productivity measurement for Flats Sequencing System. Proposal...

  4. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  5. Clinical results of autologous bone augmentation harvested from the mandibular ramus prior to implant placement. An analysis of 104 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sakkas, Andreas; Ioannis, Konstantinidis; Winter, Karsten; Schramm, Alexander; Wilde, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the clinical success and complication rates associated with autologous bone grafts harvested from the mandibular ramus for alveolar ridge augmentation and the identification of possible risk factors for graft failure. Methods: In a consecutive retrospective study 86 patients could be included. In these patients a total of 104 bone grafts from the mandibular ramus were harvested for alveolar ridge augmentation. Medical history, age of patient, smoking status, periodontal status and complications were recorded. The need for bone grafting was defined by the impossibility of installing dental implants of adequate length or diameter to fulfill prosthetic requirements, or for aesthetic reasons. The surgical outcome was evaluated concerning complications at the donor or at the recipient site, risk factors associated with the complications and graft survival. All patients were treated using a two-stage technique. In the first operation bone blocks harvested from the retromolar region were placed as lateral or vertical onlay grafts using augmentation templates and were fixed with titanium osteosynthesis screws after exposure of the deficient alveolar ridge. After a healing period of 3–5 months computed tomography scans were performed followed by virtual implant planning and the implants were inserted using guided dental implantation. Results: 97 of the 104 onlay bone grafts were successful. In only 7 patients a graft failure occurred after a postsurgical complication. No long-term nerve damage occurred. Postoperative nerve disturbances were reported by 11 patients and had temporary character only. After the healing period between 4 to 5 months, 155 implants were placed (39 in the maxilla, 116 in the mandible). A final rehabilitation with dental implants was possible in 82 of the 86 patients. Except the 7 graft failures, all recorded complications were minor complications which could be easily treated successfully

  6. Detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, Richard A. F.; Rupert, James D.; Goodacre, Alan K.; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1988-01-01

    A time-series analysis of model periodic data, where the period and phase are known, has been performed in order to investigate whether a significant period can be detected consistently from a mix of random and periodic impacts. Special attention is given to the effect of age uncertainties and random ages in the detection of a periodic signal. An equivalent analysis is performed with observed data on crater ages and compared with the model data, and the effects of the temporal distribution of crater ages on the results from the time-series analysis are studied. Evidence for a consistent 30-m.y. period is found to be weak.

  7. Rotational Period Determination for 3632 Grachevka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis E.

    2014-04-01

    CCD photometric observations for main-belt asteroid 3632 Grachevka was made from 2013 October 9 through 25. The resulting lightcurve was found to have a synodic period of 3.9536 ± 0.0001 hours and amplitude 0.37 ± 0.01 mag.

  8. Long periodic perturbations of Trojan asteroids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Érdi, B.

    1987-03-01

    The motion of the Trojan asteroids is studied in the elliptic restricted three-body problem of the Sun-Jupiter-asteroid system. Long periodic perturbations of the orbital elements are discussed. Relations between dynamical parameters are considered and comparisons are made with Bien's and Schubart's results.

  9. Long periodic perturbations of Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdi, B.

    The motion of the Trojan asteroids is studied in the elliptic restricted three-body problem of the Sun-Jupiter-asteroid system. Long periodic perturbations of the orbital elements are discussed. Relations between dynamical parameters are considered and comparisons are made with Bien's and Schubart's results.

  10. 16 CFR 1107.21 - Periodic testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... may be based on a fixed production interval, a set number of units produced, or another method chosen.... Component part testing pursuant to 16 CFR part 1109 may be used to support the periodic testing requirements... results, as indicated by a relatively large sample standard deviation in quantitative tests;...

  11. Periodicity of high-order neural functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellaway, P.; Borda, R. P.; Frost, J. D.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Coats, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    The results of recent studies on higher order, integrative processes in the central nervous system are reported. Attempts were made to determine whether these processes exhibit any ongoing rhythmicity which might manifest itself in alterations of attention and alertness. Experiments were also designed to determine if a periodicity approximating that of the REM could be detected in various parameters of brain electrical activity.

  12. Multiscale periodic structure in the Io wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. R.; Wright, A. N.

    1989-06-01

    Preliminary results from an eigenmode synthesis of the Alfven waves launched by Io are presented. It is found that several important periodicities emerge. Observations of the decametric emission reveal fine, medium, and large-scale radio structure. These simulations can provide structure on each of these scales, unlike earlier models.

  13. Fuel Distribution Estimate via Spin Period to Precession Period Ratio for the Advanced Composition Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHart, Russell; Smith, Eric; Lakin, John

    2015-01-01

    The spin period to precession period ratio of a non-axisymmetric spin-stabilized spacecraft, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), was used to estimate the remaining mass and distribution of fuel within its propulsion system. This analysis was undertaken once telemetry suggested that two of the four fuel tanks had no propellant remaining, contrary to pre-launch expectations of the propulsion system performance. Numerical integration of possible fuel distributions was used to calculate moments of inertia for the spinning spacecraft. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of output from a dynamics simulation was employed to relate calculated moments of inertia to spin and precession periods. The resulting modeled ratios were compared to the actual spin period to precession period ratio derived from the effect of post-maneuver nutation angle on sun sensor measurements. A Monte Carlo search was performed to tune free parameters using the observed spin period to precession period ratio over the life of the mission. This novel analysis of spin and precession periods indicates that at the time of launch, propellant was distributed unevenly between the two pairs of fuel tanks, with one pair having approximately 20% more propellant than the other pair. Furthermore, it indicates the pair of the tanks with less fuel expelled all of its propellant by 2014 and that approximately 46 kg of propellant remains in the other two tanks, an amount that closely matches the operational fuel accounting estimate. Keywords: Fuel Distribution, Moments of Inertia, Precession, Spin, Nutation

  14. Living in space: results from Biosphere 2's initial closure, an early testbed for closed ecological systems on Mars.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W F

    1995-01-01

    The following summary of results from the first 2-year closure experiment (September 26, 1991 to September 26, 1993) in Biosphere 2 is excerpted from a chapter written by William Dempster and myself for a book, Strategies for Mars, edited by Carol Stoker and Carter Emmart of NASA Ames Research Center. The book will be published later this year by Krieger Publishers. It brings together a number of the most striking initial results, including food production and nutrition; ecosystem changes; oxygen and carbon dioxide dynamics; and the human role and response to living in a small, recycling life support system. The references cited are useful as a guide to currently available articles in journals. Hopefully, the next year will see a proliferation of papers presenting more data from the first 2 years of Biosphere 2's operation. There was a wealth of data collected during the closure and by teams of researchers who had access to the facility during the 5-month transition period following the departure of the first crew and the commencement of the second closure experiment in March, 1994.

  15. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  16. The period functionsʼ higher order derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, M.

    We prove a formula for the n-th derivative of the period function T in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For n=1, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative (Chicone and Dumortier, 1993) [17]. We apply such a result to Hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order ODE's to be convex.

  17. Effective propagation in a perturbed periodic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurel, Agnès; Pagneux, Vincent

    2008-08-01

    In a recent paper [D. Torrent, A. Hakansson, F. Cervera, and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 204302 (2006)] inspected the effective parameters of a cluster containing an ensemble of scatterers with a periodic or a weakly disordered arrangement. A small amount of disorder is shown to have a small influence on the characteristics of the acoustic wave propagation with respect to the periodic case. In this Brief Report, we inspect further the effect of a deviation in the scatterer distribution from the periodic distribution. The quasicrystalline approximation is shown to be an efficient tool to quantify this effect. An analytical formula for the effective wave number is obtained in one-dimensional acoustic medium and is compared with the Berryman result in the low-frequency limit. Direct numerical calculations show a good agreement with the analytical predictions.

  18. Effective propagation in a perturbed periodic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, Agnes; Pagneux, Vincent

    2008-08-01

    In a recent paper [D. Torrent, A. Hakansson, F. Cervera, and J. Sanchez-Dehesa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 204302 (2006)] inspected the effective parameters of a cluster containing an ensemble of scatterers with a periodic or a weakly disordered arrangement. A small amount of disorder is shown to have a small influence on the characteristics of the acoustic wave propagation with respect to the periodic case. In this Brief Report, we inspect further the effect of a deviation in the scatterer distribution from the periodic distribution. The quasicrystalline approximation is shown to be an efficient tool to quantify this effect. An analytical formula for the effective wave number is obtained in one-dimensional acoustic medium and is compared with the Berryman result in the low-frequency limit. Direct numerical calculations show a good agreement with the analytical predictions.

  19. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology. PMID:27176238

  20. Dynamics of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N.

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics and the phase-space structures of Coulombic and self-gravitating versions of the classical one-dimensional three-body system with periodic boundary conditions. We demonstrate that such a three-body system may be reduced isomorphically to a spatially periodic system of a single particle experiencing a two-dimensional potential on a rhombic plane. For the case of both Coulombic and gravitational versions, exact expressions of the Hamiltonian have been derived in rhombic coordinates. We simulate the phase-space evolution through an event-driven algorithm that utilizes analytic solutions to the equations of motion. The simulation results show that the motion exhibits chaotic, quasiperiodic, and periodic behaviors in segmented regions of the phase space. While there is no evidence of global chaos in either the Coulombic or the gravitational system, the former exhibits a transition from a completely nonchaotic phase space at low energies to a mixed behavior. Gradual yet striking transitions from mild to intense chaos are indicated with changing energy, a behavior that differentiates the spatially periodic systems studied in this Rapid Communication from the well-understood free-boundary versions of the three-body problem. Our treatment of the three-body systems opens avenues for analysis of the dynamical properties exhibited by spatially periodic versions of various classes of systems studied in plasma and gravitational physics as well as in cosmology.

  1. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  2. Optimizing observing sequence design for periodic and non-periodic phenomena : a Bayesian approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Knight, Russell

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on our progress on addressing these issues. We have developed an approximate expression for the uniformity of phase coverage that can be used when scheduling to assess candidate sample times. We describe the results obtained using this estimator, and compare them with detailed simulations. We describe our progress and plans for integrating optimizing criteria for both periodic and non-periodic observations into a single observation sequence.

  3. Rotational Period of 2770 Tsvet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Lorenzo; Papini, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    Photometric observations of main-belt asteroid 2770 Tsvet were made over three nights during 2014 March. Lightcurve analysis shows a synodic period P = 7.82 ± 0.01 h with an amplitude A = 0.47 ± 0.03 mag.

  4. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Service Performance Measurements and Customer Satisfaction, May 25, 2010, at 22-24 (Order No. 465). Order... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing...

  5. On Some Periodic Toda Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Kac, M.; Van Moerbeke, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    A discrete version of Floquet's theory is developed and applied to a system of non-linear differential equations related to the periodic Toda lattice. A special solution previously found by Toda is thus seen to fit into the formalism of inverse scattering problems. PMID:16592244

  6. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  7. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  8. Quantifying periodicity in omics data.

    PubMed

    Amariei, Cornelia; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations play a significant role in biological systems, with many examples in the fast, ultradian, circadian, circalunar, and yearly time domains. However, determining periodicity in such data can be problematic. There are a number of computational methods to identify the periodic components in large datasets, such as signal-to-noise based Fourier decomposition, Fisher's g-test and autocorrelation. However, the available methods assume a sinusoidal model and do not attempt to quantify the waveform shape and the presence of multiple periodicities, which provide vital clues in determining the underlying dynamics. Here, we developed a Fourier based measure that generates a de-noised waveform from multiple significant frequencies. This waveform is then correlated with the raw data from the respiratory oscillation found in yeast, to provide oscillation statistics including waveform metrics and multi-periods. The method is compared and contrasted to commonly used statistics. Moreover, we show the utility of the program in the analysis of noisy datasets and other high-throughput analyses, such as metabolomics and flow cytometry, respectively.

  9. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  10. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  11. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  12. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  13. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  14. Cell scale modeling of electropermeabilization by periodic pulses.

    PubMed

    Leguebe, Michael

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we focus on the behaviour of periodic solutions to a cell-scale electropermeabilization model previously proposed by Kavian et al. [6]. Since clinical permeabilization protocols mostly submit cancer cells to trains of periodic pulses, we investigate on parameters that modify significantly the resulting permeabilization. Theoretical results of existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions are presented, for two different models of membrane electric conductivity. Numerical simulations were performed to corroborate these results and illustrate the asymptotic convergence to periodic solutions, as well as the dependency on biological parameters such as the cell size and the extracellular conductivity. PMID:25811552

  15. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Blanchard, A.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bourdin, H.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carr, R.; Carvalho, P.; Casale, M.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Falgarone, E.; Falvella, M. C.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Frommert, M.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Galli, S.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Maurin, L.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A.; Räth, C.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.

    2014-11-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14 May 2009 and has been scanning the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously since 12 August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck data, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the mission and its performance, the processing, analysis, and characteristics of the data, the scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and diffuse extragalactic foregrounds, a catalogue of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources, and a list of sources detected through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data and a lensing likelihood are described. Scientific results include robust support for the standard six-parameter ΛCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements of its parameters, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large-scale anomalies in the temperature distribution of the CMB, first detected by WMAP, are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at greater than 25σ. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Planck finds a lower Hubble constant than found in some more local measures. Some tension is also present between the amplitude of matter fluctuations (σ8) derived from

  16. Multispacecraft observations of quasi-periodic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Frantisek; Picket, Jolene S.; Santolik, Ondrej

    2014-05-01

    Quasi-periodic (QP) emissions are VLF electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of about 0.5-5 kHz which exhibit a periodic time modulation of the wave intensity. The modulation period is usually on the order of a few tens of seconds. The generation mechanism of these emissions is still not understood, but at least in some cases it appears to be related to ULF magnetic field pulsations which result in periodic modifications of the resonant conditions in the source region. We use multipoint measurements of QP emissions by the 4 Cluster spacecraft. The observations are obtained close to the equatorial region at radial distances of about 4 Earth radii, i.e. close to a possible generation region. A combined analysis of the high resolution data obtained by the WBD instruments and the ULF magnetic field data obtained by the FGM instruments allows for a detailed case-study analysis of these unique emissions. The presented analysis benefits from the recent close-separation configuration of three of the Cluster spacecraft (≡20-100 km) and a related timing analysis, which would be impossible otherwise.

  17. Periodic fevers and autoinflammatory syndromes in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ostring, Genevieve T; Singh-Grewal, Davinder

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent fever is a common presentation in paediatric practice and can be caused by a wide variety of diseases including autoinflammatory conditions. The innate immune system plays an essential role in the 'first line' response to infection through mediation of inflammatory responses. Inflammasomes are part of the regulatory process for this system and result in the production of the powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1B. Dysregulation of inflammasomes, and Interleukin 1 production, contributes to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. This review focuses on described periodic fever syndromes (PFS) which are now collectively referred to as autoinflammatory syndromes. Conditions discussed include periodic fever aphthous stomatitis pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy, familial Mediterranean fever, tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndromes, hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. Presenting features, complications, diagnostic and treatment approaches for these conditions are discussed. Nonetheless, as most of these conditions are rare and may have significant long-term complications, it is recommended that they be managed in consultations with a physician experienced in managing PFS. PMID:27650143

  18. The genetic code as a periodic table.

    PubMed

    Jungck, J R

    1978-08-01

    The contemporary genetic code is reflective of a significant correlation between the properties of amino acids and their anticodons in a periodic manner. Almost all properties of amino acids showed a greater correlation to anticondonic than to codonic dinucleoside monophosphate properties. The polarity and bulkiness of amino acid side chains can be used to predict the anticodon with considerable confidence. The results are most consistent with predictions of the "direct interaction" and "ambiguity reduction" hypotheses for the origin of the genetic code.

  19. Chromatic effects in long periodic transport channels

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko V. N.; Hao, Y.; Jing, Y.

    2015-05-03

    Long periodic transport channels are frequently used in accelerator complexes and suggested for using in high-energy ERLs for electron-hadron colliders. Without proper chromaticity compensation, such transport channels exhibit high sensitivity to the random orbit errors causing significant emittance growth. Such emittance growth can come from both the correlated and the uncorrelated energy spread. In this paper we present results of our theoretical and numerical studies of such effects and develop a criteria for acceptable chromaticity in such channels.

  20. Periods of High Intensity Solar Proton Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.; Jordan, Thomas M.; Adams, James H.; Dietrich, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis is presented for times during a space mission that specified solar proton flux levels are exceeded. This includes both total time and continuous time periods during missions. Results for the solar maximum and solar minimum phases of the solar cycle are presented and compared for a broad range of proton energies and shielding levels. This type of approach is more amenable to reliability analysis for spacecraft systems and instrumentation than standard statistical models.

  1. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  2. Long-Term Results of Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy (Targit) Boost During Breast-Conserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, Jayant S.; Baum, Michael; Tobias, Jeffrey S.; Wenz, Frederik; Massarut, Samuele; Keshtgar, Mohammed; Hilaris, Basil; Saunders, Christobel; Williams, Norman R.; Brew-Graves, Chris; Corica, Tammy; Roncadin, Mario; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Suetterlin, Marc; Bulsara, Max; Joseph, David

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: We have previously shown that delivering targeted radiotherapy to the tumour bed intraoperatively is feasible and desirable. In this study, we report on the feasibility, safety, and long-term efficacy of TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (Targit), using the Intrabeam system. Methods and Materials: A total of 300 cancers in 299 unselected patients underwent breast-conserving surgery and Targit as a boost to the tumor bed. After lumpectomy, a single dose of 20 Gy was delivered intraoperatively. Postoperative external beam whole-breast radiotherapy excluded the usual boost. We also performed a novel individualized case control (ICC) analysis that computed the expected recurrences for the cohort by estimating the risk of recurrence for each patient using their characteristics and follow-up period. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. The median follow up was 60.5 months (range, 10-122 months). Eight patients have had ipsilateral recurrence: 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate for ipsilateral recurrence is 1.73% (SE 0.77), which compares well with that seen in the boosted patients in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer study (4.3%) and the UK STAndardisation of breast RadioTherapy study (2.8%). In a novel ICC analysis of 242 of the patients, we estimated that there should be 11.4 recurrences; in this group, only 6 recurrences were observed. Conclusions: Lumpectomy and Targit boost combined with external beam radiotherapy results in a low local recurrence rate in a standard risk patient population. Accurate localization and the immediacy of the treatment that has a favorable effect on tumour microenvironment may contribute to this effect. These long-term data establish the long-term safety and efficacy of the Targit technique and generate the hypothesis that Targit boost might be superior to an external beam boost in its efficacy and justifies a randomized trial.

  3. Periodic roads and quantized wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.

  4. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  5. Periodicity Analysis of Apollo Deep Moonquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Junji

    2002-03-01

    The periodicity of about 27.3 days has been known for deep moonquakes observed by Apollo Seismic Network on the moon. There still remain the fluctuation of the periodicity about 2 days and the modulation due to Earth-Moon orbital configuration. In order to identify the category of deep moonquakes, detailed analysis of the periodicity of deep moonquakes is made by the Hilbert transform. Thirty groups of identified deep moonquakes with large event numbers are parameterized by their phases of occurrence timing in the Earth libration looking from the moon. Clearly shown is the periodicity of about 206 days resulting from the perturbation of perigee by the sun and 6 years from the beating of anomalistic and nodical periodicities. The former has been suggested fro m the amplitude variation of deep moonquake signals and is shown quantitatively here. There are many groups of deep moonquakes of which temporal variation of occurrence phases is so regular that the empirical formulae could be determined to predict the time of phases of deep moonquake occurrences. Standard deviation of observed and predicted phases of event occurrences at best is about 0.03 radian, which is about 3 hours. Most of standard deviations are twice or thrice larger than this. Some groups do not show clear regularity in occurrence phases. The present empirical analysis would not help for the identification of those groups of events. Generally speaking the average time interval of Apollo deep moonquakes is about 23 hours. The empirical formulae give the prediction of deep moonquake occurrences much precise than this, so that the present analysis would help the identification of category of deep moonquakes observing arrival times of signals measured in the future mission.

  6. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  7. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  8. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  9. 7 CFR 930.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Definitions § 930.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period beginning on July 1 of any year and ending on June 30 of the following year, or such other period as the... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 930.7 Section 930.7...

  10. [Preliminary results of medical research completed during the flight of the second expedition of orbital station "Salyut-4"].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, E I; Gazenko, O G; Gurovskiĭ, N N; Nefedov, Iu G; Egorov, B B

    1976-01-01

    The 63-day flight of cosmonauts P. I. Klimuk and V. I. Sevastyanov onboard the orbital station Salyut-4 has shown that man can well adapt to weightlessness and carry out diverse and intensive activities in the weightless state. Weightlessness effects on the human body may be both direct and indirect. The direct effects include reversal of deformations and mechanical tensions in tissue structures, change in the afferent impulsation from receptor zones reacting to the gravity effect, blood redistribution, disturbance in the function of sensory system. The indirect effects of weightlessness are associated with an unusual environment and unusual conditions of work rest, food and water consumption, etc. In the course of flight the human body adapts itself to the new environment; this is assured by self-regulation of physiological functions aimed at the maintenance of a constant level of vitally important parameters. Human adaptation to the weightless state can be subdivided into two periods: 1) period of adaptive rearrangement and 2) period of relative stabilization. The first period includes a rearrangement of functions and regulatory systems of the body. The second period can be defined as attainment of an intersystem homeostasis in the human body and a relatively stable equilibrium of the body with the environment. Incomplete adaptive reactions in shorter flights, e. g. during the first expedition of the orbital station Salyut-4 (G. M. Grechko, A. A. Gubarev), may be one of the factors responsible for a less favourable development of postflight readaptation. Thus, the most important purpose of the medical monitoring and prediction in prolonged space missions is to determine how complete or incomplete these adaptive reactions are. Relative stabilization can be reached, as a rule, after a 1.5 month exposure to weightlessness. However, this time period is rather relative since it depends on the characteristic features of the human body. The results of medical

  11. Periodic bedrock ridges on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Becker, Scott K.

    2012-03-01

    Evidence for sediment transport and erosion by wind is widespread over the surface of Mars today and was likely a major geomorphic process for much of its geological past. Although Martian surface features resembling aeolian dunes and ripples have been recognized since the Mariner and Viking missions, such features have been interpreted previously as active, indurated, or exhumed sedimentary forms. Here we report evidence based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images that show some megaripple forms are eroded into cohesive substrate rather than being composed of loose granular material or fossilized dunes. Exposure of stratigraphic continuity within layered, cohesive material extending crest to trough through features with mean wavelengths of 18 to 51 m demonstrates the primarily erosional formation of what we term periodic bedrock ridges (PBRs). Hence some surfaces on Mars previously considered to be covered by wind-deposited material are actually wind-carved exposures that offer windows into Martian history. PBRs lack the distinctive streamlining associated with wind-parallel yardangs and comparison of PBR orientation to yardangs, megayardangs, and active sedimentary dunes in the same vicinity confirm that these PBRs formed transverse to prevailing winds. Observed wavelengths of PBRs are comparable to those predicted by a simple model for erosional wavelengths of periodic transverse bed forms owing to the spacing of flow separations within the flow. Recognition of these transverse aeolian erosional forms brings up the question of how widespread Martian PBRs are and how many have been misinterpreted as active or indurated (fossilized) sedimentary dunes.

  12. Quasi-periodic spatiotemporal filtering.

    PubMed

    Burghouts, Gertjan J; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents the online estimation of temporal frequency to simultaneously detect and identify the quasiperiodic motion of an object. We introduce color to increase discriminative power of a reoccurring object and to provide robustness to appearance changes due to illumination changes. Spatial contextual information is incorporated by considering the object motion at different scales. We combined spatiospectral Gaussian filters and a temporal reparameterized Gabor filter to construct the online temporal frequency filter. We demonstrate the online filter to respond faster and decay faster than offline Gabor filters. Further, we show the online filter to be more selective to the tuned frequency than Gabor filters. We contribute to temporal frequency analysis in that we both identify ("what") and detect ("when") the frequency. In color video, we demonstrate the filter to detect and identify the periodicity of natural motion. The velocity of moving gratings is determined in a real world example. We consider periodic and quasiperiodic motion of both stationary and nonstationary objects. PMID:16764282

  13. Permeability relation for periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K J; LaTorraca, G A; Bergman, D J

    1998-01-01

    The permeability relation for periodic porous media is studied with respect to other petrophysical parameters such as formation factor, porosity, surface-to-volume ratio, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time. All these quantities were computed for periodic structures of simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubic arrays of touching and overlapping spheres. The formation factors were calculated by using a method which is based on a Fourier-space representation of an integral equation for the electric potential in a two-component composite. The nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time for the case where surface-enchanced relaxation plays a dominant role is known to be V P/rho S (VP is the pore volume, S is the pore surface, is the surface relaxation strength) when rho is not too large. Previously calculated permeabilities for these structures from the literature were used for correlation studies with other petrophysical parameters. Various correlation schemes among these quantities, such as k = aTbFc, and k = aTb phi c, were investigated, where k is permeability, T is the NMR relaxation time, phi is the porosity, and F is the formation factor. PMID:9803908

  14. A generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer for straightness measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Chienming

    2008-06-15

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. However, an interferometer with a displacement measurement accuracy of less than 1 nm is required in nanometrology and in fundamental scientific research. To meet this requirement, a generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer, based on three construction principles has been developed for straightness measurements. These three construction principles have resulted in an interferometer with a highly stable design with reduced periodic nonlinearity. Verifications by a straightness interferometer have demonstrated that the periodic nonlinearity was less than 40 pm. The results also demonstrate that the interferometer design is capable of subnanometer accuracy and is useful in nanometrology.

  15. Third Stokes parameter emission from a periodic water surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. T.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Staelin, D. H.; Oneill, K.; Lohanick, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment in which the third Stokes parameter thermal emission from a periodic water surface was measured is documented. This parameter is shown to be related to the direction of periodicity of the periodic surface and to approach brightnesses of up to 30 K at X band for the surface used in the experiment. The surface actually analyzed was a 'two-layer' periodic surface; the theory of thermal emission from such a surface is derived and the theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements. These results further the idea of using the third Stokes parameter emission as an indicator of wind direction over the ocean.

  16. Periodic cometary showers: Real or imaginary?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.; Goodacre, A. K.; Garvin, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Since the initial reports in 1980, a considerable body of chemical and physical evidence has been accumulated to indicate that a major impact event occurred on earth 65 million years ago. The effects of this event were global in extent and have been suggested as the cause of the sudden demise or mass extinction of a large percentage of life, including the dinosaurs, at the end of the geologic time period known as the Cretaceous. Recent statistical analyses of extinctions in the marine faunal record for the last 250 million years have suggested that mass extinctions may occur with a periodicity of every 26 to 30 million years. Following these results, other workers have attempted to demonstrate that these extinction events, like that at the end of the Cretaceous, are temporally correlated with large impact events. A recent scenario suggests that they are the result of periodic showers of comets produced by either the passage of the solar system through the galactic plane or by perturbations of the cometary cloud in the outer solar system by a, as yet unseen, solar companion. This hypothesized solar companion has been given the name Nemesis.

  17. Pauses and Intonational Phrasing: ERP Studies in 5-Month-Old German Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2009-01-01

    In language learning, infants are faced with the challenge of decomposing continuous speech into relevant units, such as syntactic clauses and words. Within the framework of prosodic bootstrapping, behavioral studies suggest infants approach this segmentation problem by relying on prosodic information, especially on acoustically marked…

  18. A Memory Span of One? Object Identification in 6.5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Leslie, Alan M.

    2005-01-01

    Infants' abilities to identify objects based on their perceptual features develop gradually during the first year and possibly beyond. Earlier we reported [Kaldy, Z., & Leslie, A. M. (2003). Identification of objects in 9-month-old infants: Integrating "what" and "where" information. Developmental Science, 6, 360-373] that infants at 9 months of…

  19. [Surgical treatment of a 5 month pregnancy in the rudimentary uterine cornu].

    PubMed

    Bosković, V; Vrzić-Petronijević, S; Petronijević, M; Berisavac, M; Likić-Ladjević, I

    2006-01-01

    Cornual ectopic pregnacy is rare clinical entity with high maternal mortality. In all cases surgical treatment is indicated, and taking care of most important complication--haemorrhagic shock. Therapeutic approach is individual and depending of simptomatplogy, gestational age of pregnancy and condition of the patient in time of diagnosis. Authors are presenting the case of cornual ectopic pregnancy of five months.

  20. Goal Attribution to Inanimate Agents by 6.5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csibra, Gergely

    2008-01-01

    Human infants' tendency to attribute goals to observed actions may help us to understand where people's obsession with goals originates from. While one-year-old infants liberally interpret the behaviour of many kinds of agents as goal-directed, a recent report [Kamewari, K., Kato, M., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H., & Hiraki, K. (2005).…

  1. Chaos computing in terms of periodic orbits.

    PubMed

    Kia, Behnam; Spano, Mark L; Ditto, William L

    2011-09-01

    The complex dynamics of chaotic systems can perform computations. The parameters and/or the initial conditions of a dynamical system are the data inputs and the resulting system state is the output of the computation. By controlling how inputs are mapped to outputs, a specific function can be performed. Previously no clear connection has been drawn between the structure of the dynamics and the computation. In this paper we demonstrate how chaos computation can be explained, modeled, and even predicted in terms of the dynamics of the underlying chaotic system, specifically the periodic orbit structure of the system. Knowing the dynamical equations of the system, we compute the system's periodic orbits as well as its stability in terms of its eigenvalues, thereby demonstrating how, how well, and what the chaotic system can compute.

  2. Cholestasis beyond the Neonatal and Infancy Periods.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Racha; Phen, Claudia; Karjoo, Sara; Wilsey, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Cholestasis results from impairment in the excretion of bile, which may be due to mechanical obstruction of bile flow or impairment of excretion of bile components into the bile canaliculus. When present, cholestasis warrants prompt diagnosis and treatment. The differential diagnosis of cholestasis beyond the neonatal period is broad and includes congenital and acquired etiologies. It is imperative that the clinician differentiates between intrahepatic and extrahepatic origin of cholestasis. Treatment may be supportive or curative and depends on the etiology. Recent literature shows that optimal nutritional and medical support also plays an integral role in the management of pediatric patients with chronic cholestasis. This review will provide a broad overview of the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management of cholestasis beyond the neonatal and infancy periods. PMID:27066444

  3. Periodic Heat Transfer at Small Pressure Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfriem, H.

    1943-01-01

    The effect of cyclic gas pressure variations on the periodic heat transfer at a flat wall is theoretically analyzed and the differential equation describing the process and its solution for relatively. Small pressure fluctuations developed, thus explaining the periodic heat cycle between gas and wall surface. The processes for pure harmonic pressure and temperature oscillations, respectively, in the gas space are described by means of a constant heat transfer coefficient and the equally constant phase angle between the appearance of the maximum values of the pressure and heat flow most conveniently expressed mathematically in the form of a complex heat transfer coefficient. Any cyclic pressure oscillations, can be reduced by Fourier analysis to harmonic oscillations, which result in specific, mutual relationships of heat-transfer coefficients and phase angles for the different harmonics.

  4. Cholestasis beyond the Neonatal and Infancy Periods

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Racha; Phen, Claudia; Karjoo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cholestasis results from impairment in the excretion of bile, which may be due to mechanical obstruction of bile flow or impairment of excretion of bile components into the bile canaliculus. When present, cholestasis warrants prompt diagnosis and treatment. The differential diagnosis of cholestasis beyond the neonatal period is broad and includes congenital and acquired etiologies. It is imperative that the clinician differentiates between intrahepatic and extrahepatic origin of cholestasis. Treatment may be supportive or curative and depends on the etiology. Recent literature shows that optimal nutritional and medical support also plays an integral role in the management of pediatric patients with chronic cholestasis. This review will provide a broad overview of the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management of cholestasis beyond the neonatal and infancy periods. PMID:27066444

  5. Long-period gratings in chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jack A.; Brown, R. Stephen; Cipot-Wechsler, Judy; Crudden, Cathleen M.; Du, Jenny; Loock, Hans-Peter; Plett, Krista

    2008-06-01

    A chemical sensor system consisting of a coated long period grating, which was spliced into a fiber loop cavity, has been prepared and characterized. Designer coatings based on polydimethylsiloxane and nanostructured organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) materials were prepared to provide enhanced sensitivity for a variety of key environmental pollutants. Upon microextraction of the analyte into the polymer matrix, an increase in the refractive index of the coating resulted in a change of the attenuation spectrum of the long period grating. The grating was interrogated using ring-down detection as a means to amplify the optical loss and to gain stability against misalignment and laser power fluctuations. Chemical differentiation of cyclohexane and xylenes was achieved and a detection limit of 300 ppm of xylenes vapour in air was readily realized for PDMS coatings. Ormosil-type coatings were capable of detecting lead cations at concentrations below 1 ppm in water.

  6. Periodic and aperiodic regimes in coupled dissipative chemical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Igor; Holodniok, Martin; Kubíček, Milan; Marek, Miloš

    1986-05-01

    Dynamic behavior of two identical reaction cells with linear symmetric coupling is studied in detail. The standard model reaction scheme "Brusselator" is used as the description of the kinetics. The uncoupled cells can exhibit either a stable stationary state or stable periodic oscillations. A number of stationary and periodic oscillatory patterns arise as a result of the coupling. A non-homogeneous spatio-temporal organization includes homoclinic and heteroclinic oscillations as well as chaotic regimes. Numerical continuation algorithms are used to determine the dependence of stationary and periodic solutions on parameters. Stable stationary nonhomogeneous regimes exist typically at intermediate levels of coupling intensity. The nonhomogeneous periodic solutions arise either via Hopf bifurcatios from stationary solutions or via period-doubling bifurcations from the homogeneous periodic solutions. The results obtained may serve as a standard for the study of the behavior of other coupled systems in which either a stable stationary state or stable oscillations exist in the single cell.

  7. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  8. Inhibition of chaos in Hamiltonian systems by periodic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, Ricardo

    1994-08-01

    It is shown that, depending on their amplitude, period, shape, and initial phase, a time-dependent periodic string of external driving pulses can suppress classical deterministic stochasticity. The analysis is based on a coupled pendulum-harmonic-oscillator system. Similar results are obtained by studying the behavior of the Lyapunov exponent from a simple recursion relation which models an unstable limit cycle affected by a periodic string of pulses.

  9. [Suicides in Bjelovar-Bilogora County in the war period, pre-war and post-war period, and the period of the economic expansion and recession].

    PubMed

    Catipović, Vinko; Koić, Elvira; Sklebar, Duška

    2014-01-01

    In the sample of 1134 suicides committed in the period 1988-2011 in Bjelovar-Bilogora County, we have analyzed the number of suicides, methods, scene and time of committing, gender, age and probable motives, comparing results from the Homeland war period, pre-war and post-war period, and the period of the economic expansion and recession. The study results show increase in the suicide rate in wartime and stagnation in the period of the recession. Age-standardized suicide rates for all ages are higher than the Croatian average. Men commit suicides more than women, and 3.53% of the total number of suicides are committed by minors. The most frequent method of performing suicide was by hanging, most suicides were committed in the morning hours, in the spring months, in closed buildings (houses, outbuildings), the most probable motive for suicide is a disease. Seen by periods, suicide rate is the highest in the wartime, with an increase in the percentage of suicides committed by firearms and explosives, and outdoor committed suicides. During the period of the expansion and the recession, we note a shift of suicides toward people in their fifties. The ratio of male and female suicides is the highest in the periods of crisis.

  10. Spontaneous pneumothorax in children – management, results, and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Dębek, Wojciech; Hermanowicz, Adam; Tylicka, Marzena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) occurs at a frequency of 7.4-18 cases per 100 000 population per year. The PSP typically occurs in young adults and is uncommon in children. The aim of this study was to review our institutional experience with PSP in children. Material and methods Twenty-two paediatric patients with confirmed PSP, treated from 2004 to 2014 at the Paediatric Surgery Clinic. There were 18 boys and 4 girls. The mean age was 16 years, 6 months ± 1 month (range 14-17). The mean body mass index (BMI) was 20.1 (ranging from 17 to 24). Results The recurrence rate of PSP was 48%. The mean interval of the recurrence was 5 months ± 1 month (range from 3 weeks to 2 years). Recurrent pneumothorax was evacuated by thoracostomy with success in four patients. The first video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) procedure had a failure rate of 50%. After second VATS procedure, we did not observe recurrent PSP in two patients. One patient with recurrent PSP, after two VATS procedures, was treated with success, with an open mini axillary thoracotomy. The mean follow-up period was 4 years 3 months ± 1 month (range 6 months – 10 years). We have not noted any intraoperative complications. Conclusions Although our study is limited by the small number of patients, we conclude that most patients resolve their spontaneous pneumothorax and air leak with tube thoracostomy alone. For those patients in whom chest tube drainage is not effective, and for those with recurrent PSP, early VATS and bullectomy combined with pleural abrasion is the most efficient intervention. PMID:26855648

  11. Results of a nuclear power plant application of A New Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, D.W.; Forester, J.A.; Bley, D.C.

    1998-03-01

    A new method to analyze human errors has been demonstrated at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. This was the first application of the new method referred to as A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA). The main goals of the demonstration were to test the ATHEANA process as described in the frame-of-reference manual and the implementation guideline, test a training package developed for the method, test the hypothesis that plant operators and trainers have significant insight into the error-forcing-contexts (EFCs) that can make unsafe actions (UAs) more likely, and to identify ways to improve the method and its documentation. A set of criteria to evaluate the success of the ATHEANA method as used in the demonstration was identified. A human reliability analysis (HRA) team was formed that consisted of an expert in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with some background in HRA (not ATHEANA) and four personnel from the nuclear power plant. Personnel from the plant included two individuals from their PRA staff and two individuals from their training staff. Both individuals from training are currently licensed operators and one of them was a senior reactor operator on shift until a few months before the demonstration. The demonstration was conducted over a 5-month period and was observed by members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ATHEANA development team, who also served as consultants to the HRA team when necessary. Example results of the demonstration to date, including identified human failure events (HFEs), UAs, and EFCs are discussed. Also addressed is how simulator exercises are used in the ATHEANA demonstration project.

  12. Aspartame: scientific evaluation in the postmarketing period.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Stargel, W W

    2001-12-01

    Prior to marketing, the safety of the high-intensity sweetener aspartame for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer was demonstrated by the results of over 100 scientific studies in animals and humans. In the postmarketing period, the safety of aspartame was further evaluated through extensive monitoring of intake, postmarketing surveillance of anecdotal reports of alleged health effects, and additional research to evaluate these anecdotal reports and other scientific issues. The results of the extensive intake evaluation in the United States, which was done over an 8-year period, and the results of studies done in other countries demonstrated intakes which were well below the acceptable daily intakes set by the FDA and regulatory bodies in other countries, as well as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Evaluation of the anecdotal reports of adverse health effects, the first such system for a food additive, revealed that the reported effects were generally mild and also common in the general population and that there was no consistent or unique pattern of symptoms that could be causally linked to consumption of aspartame. Finally, the results of the extensive scientific research done to evaluate these allegations did not show a causal relationship between aspartame and adverse effects. Thus, the weight of scientific evidence confirms that, even in amounts many times what people typically consume, aspartame is safe for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer.

  13. Periodic Trajectories in Aeolian Sand Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valance, A.; Jenkins, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Saltation is the primary mode of aeolian sand transport and refers to the hoping motion of grains over the bed [1]. We develop a simple model for steady, uniform transport in aeolian saltation over a horizontal bed that is based on the computation of periodic particle trajectories in a turbulent shearing flow [2]. The wind and the particles interact through drag, and the particles collide with the bed. We consider collisions with a rigid, bumpy bed, from which the particles rebound, and an erodible particle bed, for which a collision involves both rebound and particle ejection. The difference in the nature of the collisions results in qualitative differences in the nature of the solutions for the periodic trajectories and, in particular, to differences in the dependence of the particle flow rate on the strength of the turbulent shearing. We also discuss the pertinence of this model to describe bedload transport in water. References:[1] R. A. Bagnold, « The physics of blown sand and desert dunes » , Methuen, New York (1941).[2] J.T Jenkins and A. Valance. Periodic trajectories in Aeolian saltation transport. Physics of Fluids, 2014, 26, pp. 073301

  14. Limiting rotational period of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K. )

    1992-11-15

    We seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties in which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a {ital M}=1.442{ital M}{sub {circle dot}} neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). A still lower curve, based only on the structure of Einstein's equations, limits any star whatsoever to lie in the plane above it. Hypothetical stars such as strange stars, if the matter of which they are made is self-bound in bulk at a sufficiently large equilibrium energy density, can lie in the region above the general-relativistic forbidden region, and in the region forbidden to neutron stars.

  15. Limiting rotational period of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    1992-11-01

    We seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties in which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M=1.442Msolar neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). A still lower curve, based only on the structure of Einstein's equations, limits any star whatsoever to lie in the plane above it. Hypothetical stars such as strange stars, if the matter of which they are made is self-bound in bulk at a sufficiently large equilibrium energy density, can lie in the region above the general-relativistic forbidden region, and in the region forbidden to neutron stars.

  16. Periodic and aperiodic variability of the interacting binary and long-periodic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Baklanov, A. V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Gazeas, K.; Halevin, A. V.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Niarchos, P. G.; Patkos, L.; Pavlenko, E. P.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.; Shapovalova, L. L.; Tremko, J.; Zola, S.

    2000-09-01

    Recent results obtained within the framework of the international observational and research campaigns are reviewed. The main topics are following: magnetic cataclysmic variables: synchronization of the spin and orbital period of the white dwarf; observational evidence on the switching of the accretion from one pole to another; non-dipole configuration of the magnetic field; ``swingings'' of the orientation of the magnetic axis in the `` synchronous systems''; instability of the accretion and the ``red noise''; long-term luminosity changes; UV Cet - like flares; two-pole accretion in the intermediate polars; weakly- and non- magnetic cataclysmic variables: negative and positive superhumps in the nova-like variables; ``red noise'' and/or quasi-periodic oscillations; unprecedented switch of the superhump period in TT Ari; the luminosity dependence of the superhump period in BZ Cam and V725 Aql; long-term variations of the outburst characteristics of dwarf novae and luminosity of old novae - magnetic activity of the red secondary vs third body orbiting around a cataclysmic variable; symbiotic binaries: light curve variations in symbiotic novae and stars with a pulsating component; long-periodic pulsating variables: statistical study of the characteristics of the mean phase curves and of the individual cycles; additional classification criteria for the Mira-type and semi-regular stars. Some of the original papers are available at http://www.paco.odessa.ua/~il-a and http://ila.webjump.com

  17. Effects of long period feeding pistachio by-product silage on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters of Holstein male calves.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pistachio by-product silage (PBPS) as a partial replacement for corn silage (CS) on chewing activity, nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters in Holstein male calves over a 6-month assay. For this purpose, 24 Holstein male calves (4 to 5 months of age and 155.6±13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n=6). In these treatments, CS was substituted with different levels of PBPS (0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of dry matter (DM)). Nutrient digestibility was measured at the end of the experimental period (days 168 to 170). Ruminal fermentation parameters were determined on days 90 and 180 and chewing activity was determined on days 15 of the 3rd and 6th month of the experiment. Results showed that calves fed rations containing 6% PBPS spent more time ruminating (P<0.05) than the control group on the 3rd and 6th months. Feeding PBPS was found to have no effects on DM, organic matter (OM), ether extract or ash digestibility, but apparent digestibility of CP, NDFom and ADFom linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing substitutions. On days 90 and 180, ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and NH3-N linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of PBPS in the diets; however, ruminal pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were similar across the treatments. It was concluded that partial substitution of CS with PBPS (6% or 12%) would have no adverse effects on nutrient digestibility, total chewing activity and ruminal fermentation parameters.

  18. Multiband Studies of the Optical Periodic Modulation in the X-Ray Binary SAX J1808.4-3658 during Its Quiescence and 2008 Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Breton, Rene P.; Heinke, Craig O.; Deloye, Christopher J.; Zhong, Jing

    2013-03-01

    We report on time-resolved optical imaging of the X-ray binary SAX J1808.4-3658 during its quiescent state and 2008 outburst. The binary, containing an accretion-powered millisecond pulsar, has a large sinusoidal-like modulation in its quiescent optical emission. We employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique to fit our multi-band light curve data in quiescence with an irradiated star model, and derive a tight constraint of 50^{+6}_{-5} deg on the inclination angle i of the binary system. The pulsar and its companion are constrained to have masses of 0.97^{+0.31}_{-0.22} M_{⊙} and 0.04^{+0.02}_{-0.01} M_{⊙} (both 1σ ranges), respectively. The dependence of these results on the measurements of the companion's projected radial velocity is discussed. We also find that the accretion disk had nearly constant optical fluxes over a ~500 day period in the quiescent state our data covered, but started brightening 1.5 months before the 2008 outburst. Variations in modulation during the outburst were detected in our four observations made 7-12 days after the start of the outburst, and a sinusoidal-like modulation with 0.2 mag amplitude changed to have a smaller amplitude of 0.1 mag. The modulation variations are discussed. We estimate the albedo of the companion during its quiescence and the outburst, which was approximately 0 and 0.8 (for isotropic emission), respectively. This large difference probably provides additional evidence that the neutron star in the binary turns on as a radio pulsar in quiescence.

  19. Voluntary head stabilisation in space during oscillatory trunk movements in the frontal plane performed before, during and after a prolonged period of weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Amblard, B; Assaiante, C; Vaugoyeau, M; Baroni, G; Ferrigno, G; Pedotti, A

    2001-03-01

    The ability to voluntarily stabilise the head in space exhibited by two subjects during lateral rhythmic oscillations of the trunk has been investigated before, during and after a prolonged period of microgravity (microG) exposure. In flight acquisitions were performed onboard the Core Module of the Russian Space Station MIR as part of the T4 "Human Posture in Microgravity" experiment of the 179-days ESA-RKA mission EUROMIR-95. Data collection and kinematic analysis were performed by means of a space-qualified version of the automatic motion analyser ELITE. Head stabilisation in space strategy was estimated by means of the head anchoring index and cross-correlation analysis. Results show that head orientation may be well stabilised about the roll axis both with and without the presence of visual information. This was true despite the expected reduction in vestibular efficiency and muscular proprioception occurring in-flight. In one subject, however, vision was found to improve head stabilisation in space post-flight, presumably to recover from the postural deficiency induced by the long-term microG exposure. Head stability during trunk movements was achieved with either over-compensatory (out-of-phase), under-compensatory (in-phase) or mixed movement strategies, as was attested by the analysis of cross-correlation functions between head and shoulder movements. In weightlessness, vision occlusion seemed to influence the choice of the strategies to be used as well as the reduction of movement variability. The feedforward nature of compensatory head movements suggests that head stabilisation could be based in weightlessness on the internal postural body scheme, supposed to be adapted to the weightless environment within 5 months of microG exposure.

  20. Bacterial responses to periodic micropillar array.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiang; Leng, Yang; Lu, Xiong; Ren, Fuzeng; Wang, Kefeng; Ding, Yonghui; Yang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    For a basic understanding and potential biomedical applications of surface topographical effects on bacterial responses, this study focuses on not only the bacterial retention but also the bacterial growth, proliferation, and viability that are significant post-retentive behaviors playing critical roles in infections of medical implants. Specifically, periodic micropillar arrays (SiPA ) with nine different feature sizes were fabricated on silicon substrates with photolithography and dry etching methods. The SiPA was cultured with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli for different periods to investigate the bacterial retention, growth and proliferation behavior on a patterned surface. The experimental results show that a significant reduction of bacterial retention, growth, and proliferation can be achieved when the pillar size is reduced to the submicrometer level. However, micropillars have no obvious influence on the viability of the bacteria within 24 h. On the basis of the bacterial experiment results, it is inferred that the topographical effects may have resulted from bacterial confinement by micropillars, either limiting the attachment area for individual bacterium or trapping a bacterium between pillars. Furthermore, the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theoretical analysis indicates the effects might have come from the topographic induced surface property changes, mainly hydrophobicity, which is represented by the changes in the interaction free energy of Lifshitz-van der Waals among different periodic micropillar arrays. This study could help to deepen the understanding about the surface topographical effects on bacterial responses and may provide a guidance for the future medical implant surface design to decrease the infection risk by avoiding the surface topography which could attract more bacteria.

  1. Wave scattering and guidance by dielectric waveguides with periodic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, S. L.; Kong, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The extended-boundary-condition method is used to solve the wave scattering and guidance by a stratified medium with a periodic surface. First, the transition matrix for two sets of Flocquet waves incident from above and below a periodic surface separating the two media is derived. The results are applied to the diffraction of an incident plane wave by a multilayered medium having a periodic surface. The theoretical results can easily be applied to the guidance problem for which the complex guiding constant of the periodic structure is obtained. Numerical results for both the scattering and the guidance problems are obtained. The theory is compared with experiment for metallic gratings with surface-plasmon excitations. The calculated guiding constants of a thin film with a periodic sinusoidal surface are also compared with other numerical methods.

  2. 7 CFR 1280.613 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting period. 1280.613 Section 1280.613 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.613 Voting period. The term voting period means a 4-week period to be announced by the Secretary for voting the referendum. Procedures...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.613 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting period. 1280.613 Section 1280.613 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.613 Voting period. The term voting period means a 4-week period to be announced by the Secretary for voting the referendum. Procedures...

  4. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  5. 7 CFR 924.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 924.7 Section 924.7...

  6. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  7. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  8. 7 CFR 916.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period beginning on March 1 of one year and ending on the last day of February of the... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 916.7 Section 916.7...

  9. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  10. 7 CFR 924.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and means the 12-month period ending on March 31 of... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 924.7 Section 924.7...

  11. 7 CFR 926.5 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.5 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and crop year and means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiscal period. 926.5 Section 926.5...

  12. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  13. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  14. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  15. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  16. 46 CFR 9.8 - Broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Broken periods. 9.8 Section 9.8 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.8 Broken periods. In computing extra compensation where the services rendered are in broken periods and less than 2 hours intervene between such broken periods the time served should be...

  17. Periodicity in the occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Kim, Y.; Kil, H.; Kwak, Y.; Lee, W.

    2013-12-01

    The observations of equatorial plasma bubbles by low-inclination orbit satellites show periodic occurrence of bubbles along satellite orbits. The periodicity in the bubble occurrence provides a useful tool for identifying the role of gravity waves in the creation of bubbles. In this study, we investigate the variability of the periodicity in the bubble occurrence by analyzing the observations of Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) and the first Republic of China satellite (ROCSAT-1). Here the periodicity indicates spatial periodicity and is derived by applying a Fourier analysis to the electron densities projected onto the magnetic apex height. Our preliminary results show an occurrence of significant amplitudes of periodicity peaks on the spatial scale range of 50-1000 km. The periodicity on small scales may be associated with the bifurcation of bubbles or to the creation of multiple bubbles for one wave seeding. The periodicity on larger scales is considered to be related with the scale size of a seeding mechanism. We present statistics of the periodicity and the coincident satellite observations of periodic bubbles with ground observations.

  18. Embedding of Analytic Quasi-Periodic Cocycles into Analytic Quasi-Periodic Linear Systems and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jiangong; Zhou, Qi

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that any analytic quasi-periodic cocycle close to constant is the Poincaré map of an analytic quasi-periodic linear system close to constant, which bridges both methods and results in quasi-periodic linear systems and cocycles. We also show that the almost reducibility of an analytic quasi-periodic linear system is equivalent to the almost reducibility of its corresponding Poincaré cocycle. By the local embedding theorem and the equivalence, we transfer the recent local almost reducibility results of quasi-periodic linear systems (Hou and You, in Invent Math 190:209-260, 2012) to quasi-periodic cocycles, and the global reducibility results of quasi-periodic cocycles (Avila, in Almost reducibility and absolute continuity, 2010; Avila et al., in Geom Funct Anal 21:1001-1019, 2011) to quasi-periodic linear systems. Finally, we give a positive answer to a question of Avila et al. (Geom Funct Anal 21:1001-1019, 2011) and use it to study point spectrum of long-range quasi-periodic operator with Liouvillean frequency. The embedding also holds for some nonlinear systems.

  19. Laterally periodic resonator for large-area gain lasers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Ueda, Ken-Ichi

    2003-03-24

    Laterally periodic resonators, which can be constructed by use of transversely periodic phase- or amplitude-modulating elements in a cavity, are proposed for stabilization and generation of transversely coherent output from large-area gain. Lasers with periodic resonators have the combined features of conventional cavities and laser arrays. Significant low-order transverse modes and mode discrimination of a sample resonator with intracavity periodic phase elements are investigated numerically by the iteration method. Wave-propagation calculations are carried out by use of a fast Fourier transform, and a modified Prony method is used to evaluate wave functions and losses of transverse modes. Results of numerical calculations are consistent with expectations.

  20. The Fast Chi-Squared Period Search For Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, D. M.

    2002-05-01

    I present the Fast Chi-Squared method for detecting periodicity in variable sources. This algorithm uses the full statistical power available in the data set to find the optimal fit to a periodic function with an arbitrary number of Fourier components. It automatically compensates for non-uniform errors, sampling periodicity, sampling aperiodicity, and windowing. The result is a statistically meaningful (chi-squared) periodicity detection strength as an arbitrarily dense function of frequency. The algorithm is FFT based, running in order O(N log N) time, and allows large data sets over long time intervals to be trawled with high frequency resolution in a practical amount of CPU time.

  1. Analytical periodic motions in a parametrically excited, nonlinear rotating blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Luo, A. C. J.

    2013-09-01

    The stability and bifurcation analyses of periodic motions in a rotating blade subject to a torsional excitation are investigated. For high speed rotations, cubic geometric nonlinearity and gyroscopic effects of the rotating blade are considered. From the Galerkin method, the partial differential equation of the nonlinear rotating blade is simplified to the ordinary differential equations, and periodic motions and stability of the rotating blade are studied by the generalized harmonic balance method. The analytical and numerical results of periodic solutions are compared. The rich dynamics and co-existing periodic solutions of the nonlinear rotating blades are investigated.

  2. Epigenetics in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Lirk, P; Fiegl, H; Weber, N C; Hollmann, M W

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative period is characterized by profound changes in the body's homoeostatic processes. This review seeks to address whether epigenetic mechanisms may influence an individual's reaction to surgery and anaesthesia. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that epigenetic mechanisms can explain many facets of susceptibility to acute and chronic pain, making them potential therapeutic targets. Modern pain management is still based upon opiates, and both the developmental expression of opioid receptors and opioid-induced hyperalgesia have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms. In general, opiates seem to increase global DNA methylation levels. This is in contrast to local anaesthetics, which have been ascribed a global demethylating effect. Even though no direct investigations have been carried out, the potential influence of epigenetics on the inflammatory response that follows surgery seems a promising area for research. There is a considerable body of evidence that supports the involvement of epigenetics in the complex process of wound healing. Epigenetics is an important emerging research topic in perioperative medicine, with a huge potential to positively influence patient outcome. PMID:25073649

  3. Four positive periodic solutions for the first order differential system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengqiu; Tang, Hengsheng

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we establish the existence of four positive periodic solutions for the first order differential system by using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory. When our result is applied to a competition Lotka-Volterra population model, we obtain the existence of four positive periodic solutions for this model.

  4. Superdiffusion in the Periodic Lorentz Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklof, Jens; Tóth, Bálint

    2016-11-01

    We prove a superdiffusive central limit theorem for the displacement of a test particle in the periodic Lorentz gas in the limit of large times t and low scatterer densities (Boltzmann-Grad limit). The normalization factor is {√{t log t}}, where t is measured in units of the mean collision time. This result holds in any dimension and for a general class of finite-range scattering potentials. We also establish the corresponding invariance principle, i.e., the weak convergence of the particle dynamics to Brownian motion.

  5. Jovian electrons during solar quiet time periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peral, L.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Sequeiros, J.; Kunow, H.; Müller-Mellin, R.

    2002-03-01

    The electron spectrum in the energy range 150 keV to 10 MeV, measured by EPHIN sensor onboard SOHO observatory during 1996 quiet time periods, is presented. The results show that the dominant electron population is of jovian origin. The spectral indexes obtained range from 1.5 to 1.8. In this work an estimation of the emission intensity of electrons from the jovian magnetosphere is also obtained. Unexpected recurrence of jovian electrons at the middle of 1996 during poor Earth-Jupiter magnetic connection have been observed.

  6. Topological study of the periodic system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Mesa, Héber; Llanos, Eugenio J; Villaveces, José L

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a topological study of the Space of Chemical Elements, SCE, based on a clustering analysis of 72 elements, each one defined by a vector of 31 properties. We looked for neighborhoods, boundaries, and other topological properties of the SCE. Among the results one sees the well-known patterns of the Periodic Table and relationships such as the Singularity Principle and the Diagonal Relationship, but there appears also a robustness property of some of the better-known families of elements. Alkaline metals and Noble Gases are sets whose neighborhoods have no other elements besides themselves, whereas the topological boundary of the set of metals is formed by semimetallic elements.

  7. Periodical cicadas: A minimal automaton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de O. Cardozo, Giovano; de A. M. M. Silvestre, Daniel; Colato, Alexandre

    2007-08-01

    The Magicicada spp. life cycles with its prime periods and highly synchronized emergence have defied reasonable scientific explanation since its discovery. During the last decade several models and explanations for this phenomenon appeared in the literature along with a great deal of discussion. Despite this considerable effort, there is no final conclusion about this long standing biological problem. Here, we construct a minimal automaton model without predation/parasitism which reproduces some of these aspects. Our results point towards competition between different strains with limited dispersal threshold as the main factor leading to the emergence of prime numbered life cycles.

  8. Quasi-periodic continuation along a continuous symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomone, Matthew David

    Given a system of differential equations which admits a continuous group of symmetries and possesses a periodic solution, we show that under certain nondegeneracy assumptions there always exists a continuous family containing infinitely many periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories. This generalizes the continuation method of Poincaré to orbits which are not necessarily periodic. We apply these results in the setting of the Lagrangian N -body problem of homogeneous potential to characterize an infinite family of rotating nonplanar "hip-hop" orbits in the four-body problem of equal masses, and show how some other trajectories in the N -body theory may be extended to infinite families of periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories.

  9. Floquet-Bloch theory for polymers in a periodic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablo Pedro, Ricardo; Tempel, David; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    Anderson localization in disordered systems predicts the localization of electronic wave functions and the resulting absence of diffusion. The phenomenon is much more general and has been observed in a variety of systems. In the case of the polymer, the behavior of it in a periodic potential is equivalent to the behavior of a quantum-machanicial particle in a periodic potential. According to this mapping our results for polymers in a periodic potential ara valid for localization of a quantum-mechanical particle in a periodic potential. Besides, one of our motivations for studying polymers in a periodic potential is because it reveals interesting aspects of a self-organization of the adsorbed polymers onto a surface with periodic potential. In order to describe the properties of time-periodic polymer system, we consider the potential time dependent which is periodic in time and space and we evaluate the solutions using the powerful nonperturbative Floquet-Bloch theory which is formulated for linear systems. Finally, we also consider a more interesting problem of when disorder is included in the time-periodic system, where localization of the wave function can occur.

  10. Transpopliteal Balloon-Assisted Excimer–Laser Atherectomy for the Treatment of Chronic Femoropopliteal Occlusions: Feasibility and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Lüdtke, Christopher W; Scheer, Fabian; Kamusella, Peter; Wissgott, Christian; Andresen, Reimer

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of the femoropopliteal arteries depends on a successful lesion crossing with the guide wire. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and the primary results of retrograde recanalization of CTOs with balloon-assisted excimer–laser atherectomy (ELA) via a transpopliteal approach after failed antegrade attempts. METHODS A total number of 15 patients (10 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 68.5 years (range: 43–91 years) treated with retrograde transpopliteal ELA in the years 2009–2012 were included retrospectively. After unsuccessful antegrade recanalization attempts with conventional guide wires and catheters, patients were treated with a retrograde recanalization attempt via a transpopliteal access using an excimer laser, followed by pressure-only balloon angioplasty (POBA). The mean length of the CTOs in the femoropopliteal arteries was 17.8 ± 5.4 cm (range: 9–29 cm). RESULTS Technically successful recanalization was achieved in 14 of 15 patients. Provisional stenting was done in two cases. There were no major adverse events regarding the laser atherectomy or popliteal access site. One acute reocclusion was observed in the first 48 hours after intervention. The ankle-brachial Index increased from preinterventional 0.45 ± 0.07 to 0.77 ± 0.29 (P < 0.05) in the follow-up period (1.5 months), resulting in a primary patency of 80%. CONCLUSION The retrograde ELA for recanalization of chronic femoropopliteal occlusions via a popliteal access turned out to be a safe and effective procedure with promising primary results. Thus it may be an endovascular treatment option for long chronic occlusions after failed antegrade recanalization or in patients who are not suitable for surgery. PMID:25780342

  11. Periodic motion near the surface of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Hengnian

    2015-12-01

    We are interested in the periodic motion and bifurcations near the surface of an asteroid. The gravity field of an irregular asteroid and the equation of motion of a particle near the surface of an asteroid are studied. The periodic motions around the major body of triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra and the OSIRIS-REx mission target-asteroid 101955 Bennu are discussed. We find that motion near the surface of an irregular asteroid is quite different from the motion near the surface of a homoplastically spheroidal celestial body. The periodic motions around the asteroid 101955 Bennu and 216 Kleopatra indicate that the geometrical shapes of the orbits are probably very sophisticated. There exist both stable periodic motions and unstable periodic motions near the surface of the same irregular asteroid. This periodic motion which is unstable can be resonant or non-resonant. The period-doubling bifurcation and pseudo period-doubling bifurcation of periodic orbits coexist in the same gravity field of the primary of the triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra. It is found that both of the period-doubling bifurcations of periodic orbits and pseudo period-doubling bifurcation of periodic orbits have four different paths. The pseudo period-doubling bifurcation found in the potential field of primary of triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra shows that there exist stable periodic orbits near the primary's equatorial plane, which gives an explanation for the motion stability of the triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra's two moonlets, Alexhelios and Cleoselene.

  12. The variations of long time period slow slip events along the Ryukyu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Y. T.; Heki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are a type of slow earthquakes that can be observed with Global Positioning System (GPS) networks in the world. Those events are detected on intensely coupled plate boundaries such as Cascadia subduction zone (Dragert et al., 2001), western North America, Mexico (Kostoglodov et al., 2003), Alaska (Ohta et al., 2007) and Tokai and Boso areas (Ozawa et al., 2002, 2003), central Japan and are considered to have relations to large subduction thrust earthquakes. However, in southwestern Ryukyu trench where most of researchers believe that it should be a decoupled plate boundary, SSEs recur regularly and are located at a patch that is as deep as 20 to 40 km (Heki and Kataoka, 2008). For comprehending the characteristics and time variations of SSEs in this area, the GEONET GPS data of 16 years are used in this study. During 1997 to 2014, more than thirty SSEs are identified near Hateruma Island, Ryukyu. The average recurrence interval is calculated to be 6.3 months and release seismic moment is Mw 6.6 on average. However, the values of recurrence interval are not invariable. From 1997 to 2002, interval period of SSEs is 7.5 months, but during 2002 to 2008, the interval period decreases suddenly to 5.5 months. After 2008, the value restores to 7.2 months again. Furthermore, the slip amount of SSEs in this area varies with time. From 1997 to 2002, the slip is 9.5 cm/year; and during 2002 to 2008, the value slightly increases to 10.5 cm/year. However, in 2008 to 2013, the slip drops to 6.6 cm/year, but accord to the trend of cumulative slip, the slip value would increase in 2014. Considering these data, we find the slip values increase conspicuously in 2002 and 2013. Coincidentally, one Mw 7.1 thrust earthquake occurred in 2002 and earthquake swarm activity started in the Okinawa trough approximately 50km north of the SSE patch. In 2013, another earthquake swarm activity occurred in nearly the same area as the 2002 activity. This suggests that the

  13. Periodic solution and almost periodic solution for a nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra dispersal system with infinite delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xinzhu; Chen, Lansun

    2008-03-01

    This paper studies a nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra dispersal systems with infinite time delay which models the diffusion of a single species into n patches by discrete dispersal. Our results show that the system is uniformly persistent under an appropriate condition. The sufficient condition for the global asymptotical stability of the system is also given. By using Mawhin continuation theorem of coincidence degree, we prove that the periodic system has at least one positive periodic solution, further, obtain the uniqueness and globally asymptotical stability for periodic system. By using functional hull theory and directly analyzing the right functional of almost periodic system, we show that the almost periodic system has a unique globally asymptotical stable positive almost periodic solution. We also show that the delays have very important effects on the dynamic behaviors of the system.

  14. Mature Results of the Ottawa Phase II Study of Intermittent Androgen-Suppression Therapy in Prostate Cancer: Clinical Predictors of Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Shawn . E-mail: smalone@ottawahospital.on.ca; Perry, Gad; Eapen, Libni; Segal, Roanne; Gallant, Victor; Dahrouge, Simone; Crook, Juanita; Spaans, Johanna N.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To present the mature experience of a phase II trial of intermittent androgen suppression (IAS). Methods and Materials: Intermittent androgen-suppression therapy was initiated in prostate-cancer patients to delay hormone resistance and minimize potential side effects of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Patients received cyclical periods of ADT and observation (off-treatment interval [OTI]). Androgen-deprivation therapy was reinitiated when the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rose above 10 ng/ml, or for disease progression. Associations between clinical factors and eligibility for OTI were measured. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to determine factors predicting the duration of OTIs. Results: Ninety-five patients completed 187 cycles of treatment. The median duration of OTIs was 8.5 months. Patients with higher PSA and metastatic disease were less likely to be eligible for the first OTI (p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, patients with higher PSA and local relapse had significantly longer OTIs (p < 0.01) compared with metastatic patients. The median time to withdrawal from the study was 37 months. Conclusions: Intermittent androgen suppression appears to be a favorable treatment option for patients with biochemically (according to level of PSA) or locally recurrent prostate cancer with favorable long-term survival, a high probability of eligibility for OTIs, and durable OTIs.

  15. Man Made Elements Periodic Table, Astronomical Periodic Table, Geographic Periodic Table-Dimitri Mendeleev Imitation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, J.-T.

    2013-11-01

    A man made elements periodic table, including every single current element not just synthetic elements can be built differently than the naturally occurring element periodic table. Implications for knowing producible elements in space travel.

  16. Statistical methods for detecting periodic fragments in DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Period 10 dinucleotides are structurally and functionally validated factors that influence the ability of DNA to form nucleosomes, histone core octamers. Robust identification of periodic signals in DNA sequences is therefore required to understand nucleosome organisation in genomes. While various techniques for identifying periodic components in genomic sequences have been proposed or adopted, the requirements for such techniques have not been considered in detail and confirmatory testing for a priori specified periods has not been developed. Results We compared the estimation accuracy and suitability for confirmatory testing of autocorrelation, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), integer period discrete Fourier transform (IPDFT) and a previously proposed Hybrid measure. A number of different statistical significance procedures were evaluated but a blockwise bootstrap proved superior. When applied to synthetic data whose period-10 signal had been eroded, or for which the signal was approximately period-10, the Hybrid technique exhibited superior properties during exploratory period estimation. In contrast, confirmatory testing using the blockwise bootstrap procedure identified IPDFT as having the greatest statistical power. These properties were validated on yeast sequences defined from a ChIP-chip study where the Hybrid metric confirmed the expected dominance of period-10 in nucleosome associated DNA but IPDFT identified more significant occurrences of period-10. Application to the whole genomes of yeast and mouse identified ~ 21% and ~ 19% respectively of these genomes as spanned by period-10 nucleosome positioning sequences (NPS). Conclusions For estimating the dominant period, we find the Hybrid period estimation method empirically to be the most effective for both eroded and approximate periodicity. The blockwise bootstrap was found to be effective as a significance measure, performing particularly well in the problem of period detection in the

  17. Surface plasmon resonance in super-periodic metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Haisheng

    Surface plasmon resonances in periodic metal nanostructures have been investigated over the past decade. The periodic metal nanostructures have served as new technology platforms in fields such as biological and chemical sensing. An existing method to determine the surface plasmon resonance properties of these metal nanostructures is the measurement of the light transmission or reflection from these nanostructures. The measurement of surface plasmon resonances in either the transmission or reflection allows one to resolve the surface plasmon resonance in metal nanostructures. In this dissertation, surface plasmon resonances in a new type of metal nanostructures were investigated. The new nanostructures were created by patterning traditional periodic nanohole and nanoslit arrays into diffraction gratings. The patterned nanohole and 11anoslit arrays have two periods in the structures. The new nanostructures are called "super-periodic" nanostructures. With rigorous finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical simulations, surface plasmon resonances in super-periodic nanoslit and nanohole arrays were investigated. It was found that by creating a super-period in periodic metal nanostructures, surface plasmon radiations can be observed in the non-zero order diffractions. This discovery presents a new method of characterizing the surface plasmon resonances in metal nanostructures. Super-periodic gold nanoslit and nanohole arrays were fabricated with the electron beam lithography technique. The surface plasmon resonances were measured in the first order diffraction by using a CCD. The experimental results confirm well with the FDTD numerical simulations.

  18. Explore Stochastic Instabilities of Periodic Points by Transition Path Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu; Lin, Ling; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    We consider the noise-induced transitions from a linearly stable periodic orbit consisting of T periodic points in randomly perturbed discrete logistic map. Traditional large deviation theory and asymptotic analysis at small noise limit cannot distinguish the quantitative difference in noise-induced stochastic instabilities among the T periodic points. To attack this problem, we generalize the transition path theory to the discrete-time continuous-space stochastic process. In our first criterion to quantify the relative instability among T periodic points, we use the distribution of the last passage location related to the transitions from the whole periodic orbit to a prescribed disjoint set. This distribution is related to individual contributions to the transition rate from each periodic points. The second criterion is based on the competency of the transition paths associated with each periodic point. Both criteria utilize the reactive probability current in the transition path theory. Our numerical results for the logistic map reveal the transition mechanism of escaping from the stable periodic orbit and identify which periodic point is more prone to lose stability so as to make successful transitions under random perturbations.

  19. The psychological refractory period of stopping.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Gernot

    2003-10-01

    The author examined whether the act of control of stopping is subject to the psychological refractory period (PRP) and whether stopping causes a PRP for the processing of subsequent stimuli. The task was to execute or to stop a rapid finger tapping. PRP interference was predicted for double-stimulation trials, in which 2 signals to tap or stop were presented in rapid succession. The experiments showed that stopping ongoing action is subject to and produces PRP interference similar to starting. Responses to signals to continue an ongoing action do not produce PRP interference. The results suggest that selection or initiation of new responses, but not mere response choice, constituted the processing bottleneck that caused the PRP in the present task. Further results indicate that the inhibition of not-yet-executed actions, in contrast to action termination, does not suffer PRP interference and that response inhibitions and terminations should be distinguished. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

  20. Effects of periodic forcing in chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    Blesa, Fernando; Seoane, Jesús M; Barrio, Roberto; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

    2014-04-01

    The effects of a periodic forcing on chaotic scattering are relevant in certain situations of physical interest. We investigate the effects of the forcing amplitude and the external frequency in both the survival probability of the particles in the scattering region and the exit basins associated to phase space. We have found an exponential decay law for the survival probability of the particles in the scattering region. A resonant-like behavior is uncovered where the critical values of the frequencies ω≃1 and ω≃2 permit the particles to escape faster than for other different values. On the other hand, the computation of the exit basins in phase space reveals the existence of Wada basins depending of the frequency values. We provide some heuristic arguments that are in good agreement with the numerical results. Our results are expected to be relevant for physical phenomena such as the effect of companion galaxies, among others.

  1. Brain Growth Periodization and Its Implications for Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Bill; Johnson, Rebecca Kelch

    1981-01-01

    Suggests changes in the English-language arts curriculum at the junior high and middle school levels as a result of research and theory on brain growth periodization and levels of cognitive development. (RL)

  2. Legacy Compliance Final Report: Results of the Navy/Encapo Soil Stabilization Study at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Desotell, Lloyd; Anderson, David; Rawlinson, Stuart; Hudson, David; Yucel, Vefa

    2008-03-01

    Historic atmospheric testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has resulted in large areas of plutonium-contaminated surface soils. The potential transport of these contaminated soils to onsite and offsite receptors is a concern to the land steward and local stakeholders. The primary transport pathways of interest at the NTS are sediment entrained in surface water runoff and windblown dust. This project was initially funded by the U.S. Navy and subsequently funded by the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship Program. Field tests were conducted over a 20.5 month period to evaluate the efficacy of an organic-based, surface applied emulsion to reduce sediment transport from plutonium-contaminated soils. The patented emulsion was provided by Encapco Technologies LLC. Field tests were conducted within the SMOKY radioactive contamination area (CA). The SMOKY above ground nuclear test was conducted on 08/31/1957, with a reported yield of 44 kilotons and was located at N 37 degrees 10.5 minutes latitude and W 116 degrees 04.5 minutes longitude. Three 'safety tests' were also conducted within approximately 1,500 meters (5,000 feet) of the SMOKY ground zero in 1958. Safety tests are designed to test the response of a nuclear device to an unplanned external force (e.g., nearby detonation of conventional explosives). These three safety tests (CERES, OBERON, and TITANIA) resulted in dispersal of plutonium over a wide area (Bechtel Nevada, 2002). Ten 3 x 4.6 meter test plots were constructed within the SMOKY CA to conduct rainfall-runoff simulations. Six of the ten test plots were treated with the emulsion at the manufacturer recommended loading of 1.08 gallons per square meter, and four plots were held untreated as experimental controls. Separate areas were also treated to assess impacts to native vegetation and surface infiltration rate. Field tests were conducted at approximately 6, 13, and 20.5 months post emulsion treatment. Field tests consisted of rainfall

  3. Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faško, Pavel; Bochníček, Oliver; Markovič, Ladislav; Švec, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The scenarios of climate change caused by human activity show that frequency of occurrence and extent of heat waves in the interior of Europe is increasing. Among the most exposed regions in this regard should the area of southeastern and eastern Austria and south-western Slovakia. The relatively faster increase in the number of heat waves in this area is related also to potential desertification in this region just east of the Alps, since during summer, weather fronts advancing from the west are consequently losing their original features and moderating influence. Summer weather patterns for this area should in the future more closely remind climate typical for some inland areas of southwestern, southern and southeastern Europe. A certain shift of climate zones from south to north should thus modify future climate and Slovakia. Despite the complex natural conditions the existing trends derived from results of meteorological measurements and observations are clear and they confirm warming of climate in this region. Observations and measurements in the recent years of the 21st century confirm, that heat waves are no longer rare phenomenon during summer, but are systematically appearing even in colder regions of northern Slovakia. What is very remarkable and will be necessary to pay more attention to, is the fact that these heat waves are expanding into previously unaffected areas, associated with the lack of rainfall and drought, on larger regional scale. In this study heat wave periods and individual heat events and days are statistically identified in the time series characteristics of air temperature at selected meteorological stations for the period from the mid-20th century until 2015, in case of available historical data even for longer period.

  4. Dearth of short-period Neptunian exoplanets: A desert in period-mass and period-radius planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazeh, T.; Holczer, T.; Faigler, S.

    2016-05-01

    A few studies have reported a significant dearth of exoplanets with Neptune mass and radius with orbital periods below 2-4 d. This cannot be explained by observational biases because many Neptunian planets with longer orbital periods have been detected. The existence of this desert is similar to the appearance of the so-called brown-dwarf desert that suggests different formation mechanisms of planets and stellar companions with short orbital periods. Similarly, the Neptunian desert might indicate different mechanisms of formation and evolution for hot Jupiters and short-period super-Earths. We here follow a previous study and examine the location and shape of the desert in both the period-mass and period-radius planes, using the currently available large samples of planets. The desert in the period-mass plane has a relatively sharp upper edge, with a planetary mass that is inversely proportional to the planetary orbital period, while the lower, somewhat blurred, boundary is located along masses that are apparently linearly proportional to the period. The desert in the period-radius plane of the transiting planets is less clear. It seems as if the radius along the upper boundary is inversely proportional to the period to the power of one-third, while the lower boundary shows a radius that is proportional to the period to the power of two-thirds. The combination of the two upper bounds of the desert, in the period-mass and period-radius planes, yields a planetary mass-radius relation of Rp/RJup ≃ (1.2 ± 0.3)(Mp/MJup)0.27 ± 0.11 for 0.1 ≲ Mp/MJup ≲ 1. The derived shape of the desert, which might extend up to periods of 5-10 d, could shed some light on the formation and evolution of close-in planets.

  5. Implicit numerical integration for periodic solutions of autonomous nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    A change of variables that stabilizes numerical computations for periodic solutions of autonomous systems is derived. Computation of the period is decoupled from the rest of the problem for conservative systems of any order and for any second-order system. Numerical results are included for a second-order conservative system under a suddenly applied constant load. Near the critical load for the system, a small increment in load amplitude results in a large increase in amplitude of the response.

  6. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... period means the 2006 calendar year....

  7. Periodic behavior in a random environment.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, H A

    1994-04-01

    Animals' tendency to search periodically in temporally random environments was studied by presenting rats with random-interval (RI) 60-s and 120-s schedules. Power spectra revealed a periodicity of responding of 20-50 s for all animals regardless of condition. A second periodicity of 5-10-s was strongest under the RI 60-s schedule. Optimality theory suggests that periodic responding is better than random responding in obtaining food sooner on average, but the theory does not account for multiple periodicities. These multiple periodicities also cannot be explained by a single-oscillator, information-processing version of scalar expectancy theory (J. Gibbon & R. M. Church, 1992) or by the behavioral theory of timing (P.R. Killeen & J. G. Fetterman, 1988). The periodicities are consistent with a connectionist version of scalar expectancy theory that has nonscalar emergent properties, including multiple periodicities that are not proportional to the rate of random events.

  8. 25 CFR 140.11 - License period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is the owner or beneficial owner or holds a use right to the land on which the business is to be... land on which the business is to be conducted. The license period shall correspond to the period of...

  9. Continuing Diversity: A Column of Periodical Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juedes, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents brief reviews of four periodicals that address diversity themes. Periodicals reviewed are: "Parabola: The Magazine of Myth and Traditions,""Race, Sex & Class: An Interdisciplinary Journal,""Third Force," and "Rhythm Music Magazine." Purchase information is included. (GR)

  10. 75 FR 65677 - Periodic Reporting Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... periodic reporting of service performance measurement for Applications and Mailing Permits, pursuant to... performance measurement reporting requirements. ADDRESSES: Submit comments electronically via the Commission's... Exception from Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Measurement, September 30, 2010 (Request); see...

  11. Very long period magnetotellurics at Tucson Observatory: Estimation of impedances

    SciTech Connect

    Egbert, G.D.; Booker, J.R.; Schultz, A.

    1992-10-10

    Eleven years (1932-1942) of electric potential and magnetic measurements at the Tucson observatory represent a unique very long period magnetotelluric (MT) data set. The authors report on a careful reanalysis of this data using modern processing techniques. They have developed and used novel methods for separating out the quasi-periodic daily variation fields and for cleaning up outliers and filling in missing data in the time domain. MT impedance tensors, estimated using the cleaned and filled data and using robust frequency domain methods, are well determined and smoothly varying for periods between 4 hours and 10 days. At longer periods the electric field data are swamped by large-amplitude incoherent noise, particularly after the third year of the experiment. Although they find no evidence for contamination of any field components by oceanic motional induction at tidal periods, the MT impedance estimates do show evidence of small systematic biases due to finite spatial scale geomagnetic sources at harmonics of the daily variation period. These periods are thus removed from the time series and not used in further analysis. They show that the resulting impedance tensor is well modeled by a real, frequency-independent distortion of a scalar impedance, which is consistent with non-inductive distortion of the electric fields by local surface geology. To estimate the undetermined static shift of the MT impedance, the authors compare the long-period MT results to equivalent MT impedances determined from 46 years of geomagnetic data. Combining the geomagnetic and undistorted MT impedances results in scalar impedance estimates for periods 0.17 < T < 91 days of unprecedented precision. However, for periods less than one day, the phase and amplitude of this impedance, while individually consistent, are not mutually consistent with any one-dimensional conductivity distribution. 51 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  13. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  14. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  15. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  16. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  17. Study of gratings with variable periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel; Toxqui-López, Santa; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Ordoñez-Padilla, Manuel Jorge; Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical study with sinusoidal amplitude diffraction gratings, elaborated with variable periods is shown. The diffraction pattern behavior and the symmetry degree of the gratings were observed. The grating period is increased, fringe to fringe, starting with a small period and ending with a big period that is; the grating edge, start with high spatial frequency and finish with low spatial frequency. This gratings modulation causes a widening in the diffracted orders.

  18. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  19. Scattering of waves from periodic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, S.-L.; Kong, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the scattering of waves from periodic surfaces, the basic grating equations are reviewed, and a general approach for scattering from impenetrable and penetrable media is formulated. Three analytical methods for scattering on a conducting sinusoidal surface for both TE and TM polarized waves are compared. In The Masel, Merrill, and Miller (MMM) method for quantum scattering of atoms (1975, 1976), the surface field expansions are expressed in terms of Fourier series. The Modified Physical Optics (MPO) method (DeSanto, 1975; Whitman and Schwering, 1977) uses surface field expansions consisting of a leading term proportional to the physical optics approximation multiplied by a Fourier series expansion. The Waterman's Plane Harmonics (WPH) approach (1975) makes use of basis functions which are downward plane harmonics evaluated on the surface. The MMM method proved to be the most efficient one in terms of rate and range of convergence. For dielectric media with periodic rough surfaces, an improved method is developed for calculating the reflected and transmitted powers, and the results are compared with experimental data obtained at optical frequencies.

  20. Sampling period, statistical complexity, and chaotic attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Micco, Luciana; Fernández, Juana Graciela; Larrondo, Hilda A.; Plastino, Angelo; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2012-04-01

    We analyze the statistical complexity measure vs. entropy plane-representation of sampled chaotic attractors as a function of the sampling period τ and show that, if the Bandt and Pompe procedure is used to assign a probability distribution function (PDF) to the pertinent time series, the statistical complexity measure (SCM) attains a definite maximum for a specific sampling periodtM. On the contrary, the usual histogram approach for assigning PDFs to a time series leads to essentially constant SCM values for any sampling period τ. The significance of tM is further investigated by comparing it with typical times found in the literature for the two main reconstruction processes: the Takens' one in a delay-time embedding, on one hand, and the exact Nyquist-Shannon reconstruction, on the other one. It is shown that tM is compatible with those times recommended as adequate delay ones in Takens' reconstruction. The reported results correspond to three representative chaotic systems having correlation dimension 2

  1. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  2. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  3. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  4. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  5. Prebifurcation periodic ghost orbits in semiclassical quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Kus, M. ); Haake, F. ); Delande, D. )

    1993-10-04

    Classical periodic orbits are stationary-phase points in path integral representations of quantum propagators. We show that complex solutions of the stationary-phase equation, not corresponding to real classical periodic orbits, give additional contributions to the propagator which can be important, especially near bifurcations. We reveal the existence and relevance of such periodic ghost orbits for a kicked top.

  6. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  7. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  8. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  9. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  10. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  11. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  12. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  13. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  14. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  15. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  16. 30 CFR 887.13 - Grant period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remaining at the end of any grant period to us according to 43 CFR part 12. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant period. 887.13 Section 887.13 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.13 Grant period. The grant funding...

  17. 30 CFR 887.13 - Grant period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remaining at the end of any grant period to us according to 43 CFR part 12. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant period. 887.13 Section 887.13 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE INSURANCE PROGRAM GRANTS § 887.13 Grant period. The grant funding...

  18. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  19. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County...

  20. 12 CFR 226.7 - Periodic statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH... periodic rates apply to different types of transactions, the types of transactions to which the periodic... amount(s) of any other type of finance charge. If there is more than one periodic rate, the amount of...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  3. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  4. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the...

  6. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of...

  7. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  8. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  9. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  10. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  11. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  12. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  13. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  14. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  15. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  16. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  17. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  18. 14 CFR 325.6 - Periodic reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic reviews. 325.6 Section 325.6... REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE PROCEDURES § 325.6 Periodic reviews. (a) The Department will start a periodic review of essential air service within 1 year of the date of the previous determination...

  19. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this chapter, the FAA reviews and makes a decision on an application...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the...

  6. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this...

  7. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this...

  8. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  9. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period duration. Unless otherwise specified in this...

  10. 16 CFR 1107.21 - Periodic testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... body. Periodic testing must be conducted pursuant to either paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section.... Component part testing pursuant to 16 CFR part 1109 may be used to support the periodic testing requirements... assessment body for periodic testing to the applicable children's product safety rules at least once...

  11. 16 CFR 1107.21 - Periodic testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... body. Periodic testing must be conducted pursuant to either paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section.... Component part testing pursuant to 16 CFR part 1109 may be used to support the periodic testing requirements... assessment body for periodic testing to the applicable children's product safety rules at least once...

  12. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  13. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  14. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  15. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  16. 47 CFR 22.1035 - Construction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction period. 22.1035 Section 22.1035 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1035 Construction period. The construction period (see § 22.142)...

  17. The Results of All-Inside Meniscus Repair Using the Viper Repair System Simultaneously with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong Je; Kim, Kwang Mee; Cho, Hang Hwan; Espinosa, Johnsel C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Meniscus tears are commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. It is essential to repair meniscal tears as much as possible to prevent early osteoarthritis and to gain additional stability in the knee joint. We evaluated the results of arthroscopic all-inside repair using the Meniscal Viper Repair System (Arthrex) on meniscus tears simultaneously with ACL reconstruction. Methods Nineteen out of 22 patients who were treated with arthroscopic all-inside repair using the Meniscal Viper Repair System for meniscus tear associated with ACL rupture were evaluated. ACL reconstructions were performed at the same period. The mean follow-up period was 16.5 months (range, 12 to 24 months). The clinical results of the meniscus repair were evaluated by symptoms (such as catching or locking), tenderness, effusion, range of motion limitation, and the McMurray test. Clinical success was defined by negative results in all five categories. The Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score was evaluated. Objective results were evaluated with secondary look arthroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results were categorized as completely repaired, incompletely repaired, and failure by Henning's classification. The results of second-look arthroscopy were evaluated with the criteria of meniscal healing. Results The clinical success rate was 95.4% and the HSS scores were 93.9 ± 5.4 at the final follow-up. According to Henning's classification, 15 out of 18 cases showed complete healing (83.3%) and two cases (11.1%) showed incomplete healing. Seventeen out of 18 cases that underwent second-look arthroscopy showed complete healing (94.4%) according to the criteria of meniscal healing. Only one case showed failure and the failure was due to a re-rupture at the sutured area. Complications of ACL reconstruction or meniscus repair were not present. Conclusions The results demonstrate that arthroscopic all-inside repair using the Meniscal Viper Repair

  18. Periodic orbits of the hydrogen molecular ion and their quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Y.; Yuan, J.; Bao, C.

    1995-11-01

    In a classical study of the hydrogen molecular ion beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), we have found that segments of trajectories resemble that of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation periodic orbits. The importance of this fact to the classical understanding of chemical bonding leads us to a systematic study of the periodic orbits of the planar hydrogen molecular ion within the BOA. Besides introducing a classification scheme for periodic orbits, we discuss the convergence properties of families of periodic orbits and their bifurcation patterns according to their types. Semiclassical calculations of the density of states based on these periodic orbits yield results in agreement with the exact quantum eigenvalues of the hydrogen molecular ion system.

  19. Evidence of strategic periodicities in collective conflict dynamics

    PubMed Central

    DeDeo, Simon; Krakauer, David; Flack, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the timescales of conflict decision-making in a primate society. We present evidence for multiple, periodic timescales associated with social decision-making and behavioural patterns. We demonstrate the existence of periodicities that are not directly coupled to environmental cycles or known ultraridian mechanisms. Among specific biological and socially defined demographic classes, periodicities span timescales between hours and days. Our results indicate that these periodicities are not driven by exogenous or internal regularities but are instead driven by strategic responses to social interaction patterns. Analyses also reveal that a class of individuals, playing a critical functional role, policing, have a signature timescale of the order of 1 h. We propose a classification of behavioural timescales analogous to those of the nervous system, with high frequency, or α-scale, behaviour occurring on hour-long scales, through to multi-hour, or β-scale, behaviour, and, finally γ periodicities observed on a timescale of days. PMID:21325319

  20. The 3-dimensional cored and logarithm potentials: Periodic orbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, Maité; Llibre, Jaume

    2014-11-15

    We study analytically families of periodic orbits for the cored and logarithmic Hamiltonians with 3 degrees of freedom, which are relevant in the analysis of the galactic dynamics. First, after introducing a scale transformation in the coordinates and momenta with a parameter ε, we show that both systems give essentially the same set of equations of motion up to first order in ε. Then the conditions for finding families of periodic orbits, using the averaging theory up to first order in ε, apply equally to both systems in every energy level H = h > 0 showing the existence of at least 3 periodic orbits, for ε small enough, and also provides an analytic approximation for the initial conditions of these periodic orbits. We prove that at every positive energy level the cored and logarithmic Hamiltonians with 3 degrees of freedom have at least three periodic solutions. The technique used for proving such a result can be applied to other Hamiltonian systems.

  1. Rotation periods of open-cluster stars, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Marilli, Ettore; Catalano, Santo; Williams, Scott D.; Backman, Dana E.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.; Adige, Vikram; Marschall, Laurence A.; Stauffer, John R.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of 21 stars observed during 1992 in the Pleiades and Alpha Persei open clusters. Period determinations for 16 stars are given, 13 of which are the first periods reported for these stars. Brightness variations for an additional five cluster stars are also given. One K dwarf member of the alpha Per cluster is observed to have a period of rotation of only 4.39 hr. perhaps the shortest period currently known among BY Draconis variables. The individual photometric measurements have been deposited with the NSSDC. Combining current X-ray flux determinations with known photometric periods, we illustrate the X-ray activity/rotation relation among Pleiades K dwarfs based on available data.

  2. Bladder Function Preservation With Brachytherapy, External Beam Radiation Therapy, and Limited Surger in Bladder Cancer Patients: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Aluwini, Shafak; Rooij, Peter H.E. van; Kirkels, Wim J.; Boormans, Joost L.; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karina K.; Wijnmaalen, Arendjan

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of a bladder preservation strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) using external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy/interstitial radiation therapy (IRT). Methods and Materials: Between May 1989 and October 2011, 192 selected patients with MIBC were treated with a combined regimen of preoperative external beam radiation therapy and subsequent surgical exploration with or without partial cystectomy and insertion of source carrier tubes for afterloading IRT using low dose rate and pulsed dose rate. Data for oncologic and functional outcomes were prospectively collected. The primary endpoints were local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), bladder function preservation survival, and salvage cystectomy-free survival. The endpoints were constructed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The mean follow-up period was 105.5 months. The LRFS rate was 80% and 73% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Salvage cystectomy-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 93% and 85%. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 65% and 46%, whereas cancer-specific survival at 5 and 10 years was 75% and 67%. The distant metastases-free survival rate was 76% and 69% at 5 and 10 years. Multivariate analysis revealed no independent predictors of LRFS. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥3 late bladder and rectum toxicity were recorded in 11 patients (5.7%) and 2 patients (1%), respectively. Conclusions: A multimodality bladder-sparing regimen using IRT offers excellent long-term oncologic outcome in selected patients with MIBC. The late toxicity rate is low, and the majority of patients preserve their functional bladder.

  3. Drift-Free Position Estimation of Periodic or Quasi-Periodic Motion Using Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Latt, Win Tun; Veluvolu, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Ang, Wei Tech

    2011-01-01

    Position sensing with inertial sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes usually requires other aided sensors or prior knowledge of motion characteristics to remove position drift resulting from integration of acceleration or velocity so as to obtain accurate position estimation. A method based on analytical integration has previously been developed to obtain accurate position estimate of periodic or quasi-periodic motion from inertial sensors using prior knowledge of the motion but without using aided sensors. In this paper, a new method is proposed which employs linear filtering stage coupled with adaptive filtering stage to remove drift and attenuation. The prior knowledge of the motion the proposed method requires is only approximate band of frequencies of the motion. Existing adaptive filtering methods based on Fourier series such as weighted-frequency Fourier linear combiner (WFLC), and band-limited multiple Fourier linear combiner (BMFLC) are modified to combine with the proposed method. To validate and compare the performance of the proposed method with the method based on analytical integration, simulation study is performed using periodic signals as well as real physiological tremor data, and real-time experiments are conducted using an ADXL-203 accelerometer. Results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed method outperforms the existing analytical integration method. PMID:22163935

  4. Light period regulation of carbohydrate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Harry W.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that the photosynthetic period is important in regulating carbon partitioning. Even when the same amount of carbon is fixed over a 24h period considerably more is translocated out of the leaf under the longer photosynthetic period. This is extremely important when parts of the plant other than the leaves are to be sold. It is also important to notice the amount of carbon respired in the short photosynthetic period. The light period effect on carbohydrate fixation, dark respiration, and translocation is shown in this report.

  5. Categorical spectral analysis of periodicity in nucleosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hu; Rube, H. Tomas; Song, Jun S.

    2016-01-01

    DNA helical twist imposes geometric constraints on the location of histone–DNA interaction sites along nucleosomal DNA. Certain 10.5-bp periodic nucleotides in phase with these geometric constraints have been suggested to facilitate nucleosome positioning. However, the extent of nucleotide periodicity in nucleosomal DNA and its significance in directing nucleosome positioning still remain unclear. We clarify these issues by applying categorical spectral analysis to high-resolution nucleosome maps in two yeast species. We find that only a small fraction of nucleosomal sequences contain significant 10.5-bp periodicity. We further develop a spectral decomposition method to show that the previously observed periodicity in aligned nucleosomal sequences mainly results from proper phasing among nucleosomal sequences, and not from a preponderant occurrence of periodicity within individual sequences. Importantly, we show that this phasing may arise from the histones’ proclivity for putting preferred nucleotides at some of the evenly spaced histone–DNA contact points with respect to the dyad axis. We demonstrate that 10.5-bp periodicity, when present, significantly facilitates rotational, but not translational, nucleosome positioning. Finally, although periodicity only moderately affects nucleosome occupancy genome wide, reduced periodicity is an evolutionarily conserved signature of nucleosome-depleted regions around transcription start/termination sites. PMID:26893354

  6. Simulation of periodically focused, adiabatic thermal beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Akylas, T. R.; Barton, T. J.; Field, D. M.; Lang, K. M.; Mok, R. V.

    2012-12-21

    Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are performed to verify earlier theoretical predictions of adiabatic thermal beams in a periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field [K.R. Samokhvalova, J. Zhou and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 14, 103102 (2007); J. Zhou, K.R. Samokhvalova and C. Chen, Phys. Plasma 15, 023102 (2008)]. In particular, results are obtained for adiabatic thermal beams that do not rotate in the Larmor frame. For such beams, the theoretical predictions of the rms beam envelope, the conservations of the rms thermal emittances, the adiabatic equation of state, and the Debye length are verified in the simulations. Furthermore, the adiabatic thermal beam is found be stable in the parameter regime where the simulations are performed.

  7. Quantifying actin wave modulation on periodic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parker, Joshua; Fourkas, John; Carlsson, Anders; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Actin is the essential builder of the cell cytoskeleton, whose dynamics are responsible for generating the necessary forces for the formation of protrusions. By exposing amoeboid cells to periodic topographical cues, we show that actin can be directionally guided via inducing preferential polymerization waves. To quantify the dynamics of these actin waves and their interaction with the substrate, we modify a technique from computer vision called ``optical flow.'' We obtain vectors that represent the apparent actin flow and cluster these vectors to obtain patches of newly polymerized actin, which represent actin waves. Using this technique, we compare experimental results, including speed distribution of waves and distance from the wave centroid to the closest ridge, with actin polymerization simulations. We hypothesize the modulation of the activity of nucleation promotion factors on ridges (elevated regions of the surface) as a potential mechanism for the wave-substrate coupling. Funded by NIH grant R01GM085574.

  8. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  9. A highly specific test for periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  10. Long Periodic Terms in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-01-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  11. Sawtooth period control by power modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauret, Menno; Schuster, Eugenio; de Baar, Marco; Felici, Federico; Heemels, Maurice; Gomes, Alexander; Goodman, Tim; Kim, Doohyun; Sauter, Olivier; Vandersteen, Gerd; Witvoet, Gert; Lennholm, Morten

    2015-11-01

    It is foreseen that long sawtooth oscillations will occur during ITER H-mode scenarios leading to confinement loss and even disruptions. Sawtooth period control is therefore crucial. Most sawtooth period control approaches depend on changing the deposition location of electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) near r(q =1). In contrast to this, several TCV and AUG experiments with fixed ECCD deposition location show that ECCD power modulation, either periodic or feedback controlled, can lead to fast and reliable period control. To understand this nonlinear phenomenon, a reduced and `hybrid' reset model has been derived that models the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis reveals that the sawtooth period can be controlled by power modulation, even in the case of significant model uncertainties or when there is a significant lengthening effect of the fast particles on the sawtooth period, as there will be in ITER. The model can also be used to design period control using ICRH influencing this fast particle effect.

  12. Talbot effect of quasi-periodic grating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Furui; Wang, Junhong; Teng, Shuyun

    2013-07-20

    Theoretic and experimental studies of the Talbot effect of quasi-periodic gratings are performed in this paper. The diffractions of periodic and quasi-periodic square aperture arrays in Fresnel fields are analyzed according to the scalar diffraction theory. The expressions of the diffraction intensities of two types of quasi-periodic gratings are deduced. Talbot images of the quasi-periodic gratings are predicted to appear at multiple certain distances. The quasi-periodic square aperture arrays are produced with the aid of a liquid crystal light modulator, and the self-images of the quasi-periodic gratings are measured successfully in the experiment. This study indicates that even a structure in short-range disorder may take on the self-imaging effect in a Fresnel field. PMID:23872752

  13. Long periodic terms in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-06-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  14. Polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Wilson, W. J.; Li, F. K.; Johnson, J. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results and theoretical calculations are presented to study the polarimetric emission from water surfaces with directional features. For our ground-based Ku-band radiometer measurements, a water pool was constructed on the roof of a building in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and a fiberglass surface with periodic corrugations in one direction was impressed on the top of the water surface to create a stationary water surface underneath it. It is observed that the measured Stokes parameters of corrugated fiberglass-covered water surfaces are functions of azimuth angles and agree very well with the theoretical calculations. The theory, after being verified by the experimental data, was then used to calculate the Stokes parameters of periodic surfaces without fiberglass surface layer and with rms height of the order of wind-generated water ripples. The magnitudes of the azimuthal variation of the calculated emissivities at horizontal and vertical polarizations corresponding to the first two Stokes parameters are found to be comparable to the values measured by airborne radiometers and SSM/I. In addition, the third Stokes parameter not shown in the literature is seen to have approximately twice the magnitude of the azimuth variation of either T(sub h) or T(sub v), which may make it more sensitive to the row direction, while less susceptive to noises because the atmospheric and system noises tend to be unpolarized and are expected to be cancelled out when the third Stokes parameter is derived as the difference of two or three power measurements, as indicated by another experiment carried out at a swimming pool with complicated surroundings. The results indicate that passive polarimetry is a potential technology in the remote sensing of ocean wind vector which is a crucial component in the understanding of global climate change. Issues related to the application of microwave passive polarimetry to ocean wind are also discussed.

  15. A Mechanism for Producing Short-Period Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleton, Peter P.; Kisseleva-Eggleton, Ludmila

    2006-08-01

    When three point masses form a hierarchical triple system, the short-period orbit can be severely modified by the long-period orbit if the two orbits are inclined to each other by more than about 39^deg (sin^{-1}sqrt{2/5}). Such an inclination can induce ‘Kozai cycles’ (Kozai, 1962), in which the eccentricity of the inner orbit cycles by a large amount while its period and therefore semimajor axis remains roughly constant. During those periastra when the eccentricity is largest, tidal friction may become important, and this can result in a secular shrinkage of the orbit, until it becomes circularised at a period of a few days. However, apsidal motion due to either GR or to the quadrupolar distortion of the components (if they are no longer treated as point masses) can reduce the range of eccentricity. We explore the limits on outer and inner orbital period that these perturbations imply. If the components are F/G/K/M dwarfs, then rotationally-driven dynamo activity can become important at the short periods that can occur in the right circumstances. It can cause the period to shorten further. The result may be a contact binary, and/or a merger in which the two stars of the inner pair coalesce to form a single rapidly rotating star. We suggest that this may be the origin of AB Dor, a very rapidly rotating K dwarf that is probably about 50 Myr old.

  16. Convergence Time towards Periodic Orbits in Discrete Dynamical Systems

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  17. Convergence time towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice.

  18. Long period oscillations in roAp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. D.; Kurtz, D. W.; Cunha, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    We present the results of observations made over three weeks using the UCT CCD Photometer on the 0.75-m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Candidate long period roAp stars were identified from their positions on the H-R diagram and observed for a typical period of 4 hr to test for the existence of pulsations, with particular emphasis on pulsations with periods in excess of 15 min. Although 13 stars were successfully observed, none exhibited significant pulsations.

  19. Characteristic periodicities of collective behavior at the foreign exchange market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.-H.; Hołyst, J. A.

    2008-04-01

    As the result of empirical investigations into the foreign exchange market a group structure of characteristic periodic decisions of market participants is found. In order to explain this finding at the microscopic level the agent-based model of a financial market in which N market participants trade M financial commodities is considered. If different sources of periodic information exist then the relationship among these characteristic periodic behaviors may be associated with a special structure where market participants perceive such information in the foreign exchange market.

  20. Convergence time towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  1. Periodic slow slip triggers megathrust zone earthquakes in northeastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoki; Iinuma, Takeshi; Nadeau, Robert M; Bürgmann, Roland; Hino, Ryota

    2016-01-29

    Both aseismic and seismic slip accommodate relative motion across partially coupled plate-boundary faults. In northeastern Japan, aseismic slip occurs in the form of decelerating afterslip after large interplate earthquakes and as relatively steady slip on uncoupled areas of the subduction thrust. Here we report on a previously unrecognized quasi-periodic slow-slip behavior that is widespread in the megathrust zone. The repeat intervals of the slow slip range from 1 to 6 years and often coincide with or precede clusters of large [magnitude (M) ≥ 5] earthquakes, including the 2011 M 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake. These results suggest that inherently periodic slow-slip events result in periodic stress perturbations and modulate the occurrence time of larger earthquakes. The periodicity in the slow-slip rate has the potential to help refine time-dependent earthquake forecasts.

  2. Periodic slow slip triggers megathrust zone earthquakes in northeastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoki; Iinuma, Takeshi; Nadeau, Robert M; Bürgmann, Roland; Hino, Ryota

    2016-01-29

    Both aseismic and seismic slip accommodate relative motion across partially coupled plate-boundary faults. In northeastern Japan, aseismic slip occurs in the form of decelerating afterslip after large interplate earthquakes and as relatively steady slip on uncoupled areas of the subduction thrust. Here we report on a previously unrecognized quasi-periodic slow-slip behavior that is widespread in the megathrust zone. The repeat intervals of the slow slip range from 1 to 6 years and often coincide with or precede clusters of large [magnitude (M) ≥ 5] earthquakes, including the 2011 M 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake. These results suggest that inherently periodic slow-slip events result in periodic stress perturbations and modulate the occurrence time of larger earthquakes. The periodicity in the slow-slip rate has the potential to help refine time-dependent earthquake forecasts. PMID:26823425

  3. HeteroGenome: database of genome periodicity

    PubMed Central

    Chaley, Maria; Kutyrkin, Vladimir; Tulbasheva, Gayane; Teplukhina, Elena; Nazipova, Nafisa

    2014-01-01

    We present the first release of the HeteroGenome database collecting latent periodicity regions in genomes. Tandem repeats and highly divergent tandem repeats along with the regions of a new type of periodicity, known as profile periodicity, have been collected for the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We obtained data with the aid of a spectral-statistical approach to search for reliable latent periodicity regions (with periods up to 2000 bp) in DNA sequences. The original two-level mode of data presentation (a broad view of the region of latent periodicity and a second level indicating conservative fragments of its structure) was further developed to enable us to obtain the estimate, without redundancy, that latent periodicity regions make up ∼10% of the analyzed genomes. Analysis of the quantitative and qualitative content of located periodicity regions on all chromosomes of the analyzed organisms revealed dominant characteristic types of periodicity in the genomes. The pattern of density distribution of latent periodicity regions on chromosome unambiguously characterizes each chromosome in genome. Database URL: http://www.jcbi.ru/lp_baze/ PMID:24857969

  4. Probabilistic stellar rotation periods with Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Ruth; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Stellar rotation has many applications in the field of exoplanets. High-precision photometry from space-based missions like Kepler and K2 allows us to measure stellar rotation periods directly from light curves. Stellar variability produced by rotation is usually not sinusoidal or perfectly periodic, therefore sine-fitting periodograms are not well suited to rotation period measurement. Autocorrelation functions are often used to extract periodic information from light curves, however uncertainties on rotation periods measured by autocorrelation are difficult to define. A ‘by eye’ check, or a set of heuristic criteria are used to validate measurements and rotation periods are only reported for stars that pass this vetting process. A probabilistic rotation period measurement method, with a suitable generative model bypasses the need for a validation stage and can produce realistic uncertainties. The physics driving the production of variability in stellar light curves is still poorly understood and difficult to model. We therefore use an effective model for stellar variability: a Gaussian process with a quasi-periodic covariance function. By injecting fake signals into Kepler light curves we show that the GP model is well suited to quasi-periodic, non-sinusoidal signals, is capable of modelling noise and physical signals simultaneously and provides probabilistic rotation period measurements with realistic uncertainties.

  5. Cyclical period changes in Z Chamaeleontis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Jablonski, F.; Oliveira, E.; Vrielmann, S.; Woudt, P. A.; Catalán, M. S.

    2002-09-01

    We report the identification of cyclical changes in the orbital period of the eclipsing dwarf nova Z Cha. We used times of mid-eclipse collected from the literature and our new eclipse timings to construct an observed-minus-calculated diagram covering 30 yr of observations (1972-2002). The data present cyclical variations that can be fitted by a linear plus sinusoidal function with period 28 +/- 2 yr and amplitude 1.0 +/- 0.2 min. The statistical significance of this period by an F-test is larger than 99.9 per cent. The derived fractional period change, ΔP/P= 4.4 × 10-7, is comparable to that of other short-period cataclysmic variables (CVs), but is one order of magnitude smaller than those of the long-period CVs. Separate fits to the first and second halves of the data lead to ephemerides with quite different cycle periods and amplitudes, indicating that the variation is not sinusoidal or, most probably, is not strictly periodic. The observed cyclical period change is possibly caused by a solar-type magnetic activity cycle in the secondary star. An incremental variation in the Roche lobe of the secondary star of is required in order to explain both the observed period change and the modulation of the quiescent brightness previously reported by Ak, Ozkan & Mattei.

  6. Change in the type of bifurcation resulting in periodic oscillations in delayed feedback diode lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Napartovich, A P; Sukharev, A G

    2008-10-31

    The appearance of oscillating regimes in a delayed feedback diode laser is studied analytically and numerically. Based on the Lang-Kobayashi model, the transition of the usual oscillation mechanism, related to the transition through the Hopf bifurcation, to hard excitation of the spike regime is studied. The change in the regime of the instability development has a nature of a phase transition. An explicit expression is derived for the frequency of small harmonic oscillations appearing during the transition through the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. The boundary between two different regimes of the development of laser power oscillations is determined in the parameter space. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  7. Mott transitions in the periodic Anderson model.

    PubMed

    Logan, David E; Galpin, Martin R; Mannouch, Jonathan

    2016-11-16

    The periodic Anderson model (PAM) is studied within the framework of dynamical mean-field theory, with particular emphasis on the interaction-driven Mott transition it contains, and on resultant Mott insulators of both Mott-Hubbard and charge-transfer type. The form of the PAM phase diagram is first deduced on general grounds using two exact results, over the full range of model parameters and including metallic, Mott, Kondo and band insulator phases. The effective low-energy model which describes the PAM in the vicinity of a Mott transition is then shown to be a one-band Hubbard model, with effective hoppings that are not in general solely nearest neighbour, but decay exponentially with distance. This mapping is shown to have a range of implications for the physics of the problem, from phase boundaries to single-particle dynamics; all of which are confirmed and supplemented by NRG calculations. Finally we consider the locally degenerate, non-Fermi liquid Mott insulator, to describe which requires a two-self-energy description. This is shown to yield a number of exact results for the associated local moment, charge, and interaction-renormalised levels, together with a generalisation of Luttinger's theorem to the Mott insulator.

  8. Mott transitions in the periodic Anderson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, David E.; Galpin, Martin R.; Mannouch, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    The periodic Anderson model (PAM) is studied within the framework of dynamical mean-field theory, with particular emphasis on the interaction-driven Mott transition it contains, and on resultant Mott insulators of both Mott-Hubbard and charge-transfer type. The form of the PAM phase diagram is first deduced on general grounds using two exact results, over the full range of model parameters and including metallic, Mott, Kondo and band insulator phases. The effective low-energy model which describes the PAM in the vicinity of a Mott transition is then shown to be a one-band Hubbard model, with effective hoppings that are not in general solely nearest neighbour, but decay exponentially with distance. This mapping is shown to have a range of implications for the physics of the problem, from phase boundaries to single-particle dynamics; all of which are confirmed and supplemented by NRG calculations. Finally we consider the locally degenerate, non-Fermi liquid Mott insulator, to describe which requires a two-self-energy description. This is shown to yield a number of exact results for the associated local moment, charge, and interaction-renormalised levels, together with a generalisation of Luttinger’s theorem to the Mott insulator.

  9. Mott transitions in the periodic Anderson model.

    PubMed

    Logan, David E; Galpin, Martin R; Mannouch, Jonathan

    2016-11-16

    The periodic Anderson model (PAM) is studied within the framework of dynamical mean-field theory, with particular emphasis on the interaction-driven Mott transition it contains, and on resultant Mott insulators of both Mott-Hubbard and charge-transfer type. The form of the PAM phase diagram is first deduced on general grounds using two exact results, over the full range of model parameters and including metallic, Mott, Kondo and band insulator phases. The effective low-energy model which describes the PAM in the vicinity of a Mott transition is then shown to be a one-band Hubbard model, with effective hoppings that are not in general solely nearest neighbour, but decay exponentially with distance. This mapping is shown to have a range of implications for the physics of the problem, from phase boundaries to single-particle dynamics; all of which are confirmed and supplemented by NRG calculations. Finally we consider the locally degenerate, non-Fermi liquid Mott insulator, to describe which requires a two-self-energy description. This is shown to yield a number of exact results for the associated local moment, charge, and interaction-renormalised levels, together with a generalisation of Luttinger's theorem to the Mott insulator. PMID:27618214

  10. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; Conti, Maria Aparecida; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique B.; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST) were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females). The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ) to 78.9% (SST). Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001). Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05). Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents. PMID:24676192

  11. Resonance in Defect Turbulence under Periodic External Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Chun; Feng, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hong-Li; Ouyang, Qi

    2007-07-01

    The periodically forced spatially extended Brusselator is investigated in the chaotic regime. We explore resonant or non-resonant patterns generated under various forcing frequencies and forcing amplitudes. Resonant spatially uniform oscillation and irregular structures are found. Furthermore two types of regular spatial patterns are generated under appropriate parameters. Our results of numerical simulations demonstrate that periodic force can give rise to resonant patterns in forced systems of spatiotemporal chaos similar to the situation of forced systems of regular oscillations.

  12. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer.

  13. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer. PMID:26876008

  14. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N

    2016-02-15

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer.

  15. Periodicities of hail precipitation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Hierro, Rodrigo; Wu, Xueke; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    oscillations in the number of impacts of hailstones and to know the period in which they occur. In order to do so, the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) was applied. A non-orthogonal wavelet function was chosen, which is useful for the analysis of temporal series in which slight and continuous variations are expected in the amplitude of the wavelet. The mother wavelet used is the Morlet wavelet, which consists of a plane wave modified by a Gaussian envelope. The results show how, both in the Atlantic area and in the Midi-Pyrenees area, climatic periodicities are observed.

  16. The investigation of the electronic structure of periodic and non-periodic collagen models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshi, A. K.; Paterlini, G.; Némethy, G.; Ladik, J.

    1993-05-01

    Collagen is a protein which is not periodic, but its sequence still has some well defined regularities. We have performed model investigation for the electronic structure of this protein which is one of the few native polypeptides which does not possess a nearly random sequence (intermediate case between periodic polypeptides and polypeptides with random sequences). The total electron density of states has been determined for model polypeptide chains of the type I collagen triple helix, with priodic and aperiodic amino sequences. Calculations have been performed using the negative factor counting technique in its ab initio Hartree—Fock matrix block form. The well-known sequence regularities of collagen have been taken into account, in order to simplify the model calculations. Beside glycine, proline, hydroxyproline and alanine, only the next two most frequently occurring amino acid residues (glutamine and arginine) have been incorporated in the sequences. The conformation of the polypeptide chain was that occurring in the collagen triple helix. It has been taken from previous empirical potential energy calculations of collagen-like model triple helices by Némethy and Scheraga. The density of state histograms for the periodic polypeptide chains show only very narrow peaks in both the valence and conduction bands attributable to the sequence regularities, while the aperiodic chains exhibit both narrow peaks and broader allowed regions in both bands. In other words, the electronic structure of the aperiodic model chains investigated falls between those for periodic and completely random polypeptides. The results are discussed in terms of the general regularities of the collagen sequence.

  17. Magnetic activity and orbital period variation of the short-period eclipsing binary DV Psc

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Qing-feng; Zhang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Xi-liang

    2014-03-01

    We present six new BVR{sub c}I{sub c} CCD light curves of a short-period RS CVn binary DV Psc obtained in 2010-2012. The light curve distortions change on both short and long timescales, which is explained by two starspots on the primary component. Moreover, five new flare events were detected and the flare ratio of DV Psc is about 0.082 flares per hour. There is a possible relation between the phases (longitude) of the flares and starspots for all of the available data of late-type binaries, which implies a correlation of the stellar activity of the spots and flares. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 4.9 ± 0.4 yr, may result from the magnetic activity cycle, identified by the variability of Max. I-Max. II. Until now, there were no spectroscopic studies of chromospheric activity indicators of the H{sub β} and H{sub γ} lines for DV Psc. Our observations of these indicators show that DV Psc is active, with excess emissions. The updated O – C diagram with an observing time span of about 15 yr shows an upward parabola, which indicates a secular increase in the orbital period of DV Psc. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = 2.0×10{sup –7} days yr{sup –1}, which might be explained by the angular momentum exchanges or mass transfer from the secondary to primary component.

  18. Comparative study of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis from idiopathic hypokalemic periodic paralysis: An experience from India

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, J.; Goyal, G.; Bhoi, S. K.; Chandra, S.; Misra, U. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is paucity of reports on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) from India. We report the patients with TPP and compare them with idiopathic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (IHPP). Materials and Methods: Patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) treated during the past 11 years were evaluated retrospectively. Their demographic parameters, family history, clinical features, precipitating factors, severity of weakness, laboratory parameters and rapidity of recovery were recorded. The demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters of TPP and IHPP were compared. Results: During the study period, we managed 52 patients with HPP; nine (17.3%) of whom had TPP and 27 (52%) had IHPP. The demographic, precipitating factors, number of attacks and severity of limb weakness were similar between the TPP and IHPP groups, except in the IHPP group, bulbar weakness was present in four and respiratory paralysis in six, needing artificial ventilation in two patients. Serum potassium was significantly lower in TPP (2.21 ± 0.49) compared with IHPP (2.67 ± 0.59, P = 0.04). Four patients with TPP had subclinical thyrotoxicosis and two had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Rebound hyperkalemia occurred in both TPP and IHPP (three versus eight patients). The recovery was faster in IHPP (26.7 ± 15.4 h) compared with TPP (34.0 ± 14.0 h), but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: TPP constitutes 17.3% of HPP, and absence of clinical features of thyrotoxicosis and subclinical hyperthyroidism in TPP is not uncommon. Clinical features, demographic profile and rebound hyperkalemia are similar in both TPP and IHPP. The serum potassium level is significantly low in the TPP compared with the IHPP group. PMID:22919190

  19. Platelet function in the postprandial period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia have been related to cardiovascular events. Among different underlying mechanisms platelet activation seems to be responsible too. No comparable data between various tests in normo- vs. hyperlipidemics before and at different time intervals are available after a fat meal. We aimed to compare 9 of them within the same patients at several time points in postprandial hyperlipidemia. Results For some tests baseline values between the groups were significantly different (TXB2, platelet sensitivity, sedimentation and WU-test). However, hyperlipidemia revealed a variable influence on the tests examined. Some of the available tests apparently sensitive to show platelet activation reflect the increase in triglycerides (TG), such as the sedimentation index. ADP-induced platelet aggregatory activity in count adjusted washed isolated platelet samples during postprandial hyperlipidemia indicates mildly enhanced platelet activity, but does not seem to induce significant changes in aggregation. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (> 400 mg/dl fasting) changes in platelet function are more pronounced due to delayed decay and may last up to 16 hours paralleling TG reaching the prevalue. The overwhelming majority of platelet function tests do not significantly respond to postprandial hyperlipidemia. The correlation between the tests applied is poor. For standardization purpose, platelet aggregation tests, aimed to examine proaggregatory capacity in atherosclerosis, should only be performed at the same time of the day after a fasting period > 6 hours. The great variation in preanalytical work-up on comparison of various tests, large number of platelet tests available and their respective potential value are discussed. Conclusions At present, the suspicion that platelet function is significantly activated in the postprandial period cannot be supported by any of the tests used. The information provided is valuable to

  20. The international seismological observing period in Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, E.R.; Bergman, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Seismological Observing Period (ISOP) is a specific time interval designated for enhanced international cooperation in the collection and dissemination of observatory measurements from the global seismographic network. The primary purpose of the ISOP is to strengthen the international infrastructure that supports current seismological practice and increase the cooperation among nations that operate seismological observatories. Measurements, reported by the existing global network and compiled by agencies such as the International Seismological Centre (ISC), are providing new information about earthquakes and the structure of the Earth of fundamental importance to the Earth sciences. However, these data represent but a small fraction of the information contained in the seismograms. One of the goals of the ISOP is to collect improved sets of data. In particular, the measurement and reporting of later-arriving phases, during a fixed ISOP period, from earthquakes selected for detailed observation by the cooperating stations will be encouraged. The use of advanced, digital instrumentation provides an unprecedented opportunity for enhancing the methods of seismogram interpretation and seismic parameter extraction, by the implementation of digital processing methods at seismic observatories worldwide. It must be ensured that this new information will be available to the entire seismological community. It is believed that this purpose is best served with an ISOP that promotes increased on-site processing at digital stations in Africa and elsewhere. Improvements in seismology require truly international cooperation and the educational aspects of seismological practice form one of the goals of the ISOP. Thus, workshops will be needed in Africa to train analysts in ISOP procedures and to introduce them to modern techniques and applications of the data. Participants will, thus, benefit from theoretical results and practical experience that are of direct