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Sample records for 5-point likert-type response

  1. A Two-Decision Model for Responses to Likert-Type Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thissen-Roe, Anne; Thissen, David

    2013-01-01

    Extreme response set, the tendency to prefer the lowest or highest response option when confronted with a Likert-type response scale, can lead to misfit of item response models such as the generalized partial credit model. Recently, a series of intrinsically multidimensional item response models have been hypothesized, wherein tendency toward…

  2. Estimating Ordinal Reliability for Likert-Type and Ordinal Item Response Data: A Conceptual, Empirical, and Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a conceptual, empirical, and practical guide for estimating ordinal reliability coefficients for ordinal item response data (also referred to as Likert, Likert-type, ordered categorical, or rating scale item responses). Conventionally, reliability coefficients, such as Cronbach's alpha, are calculated using a Pearson…

  3. Ramsay Curve IRT for Likert-Type Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2007-01-01

    Ramsay curve item response theory (RC-IRT) was recently developed to detect and correct for nonnormal latent variables when unidimensional IRT models are fitted to data using maximum marginal likelihood estimation. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of RC-IRT for Likert-type item responses with varying test lengths, sample…

  4. Reporting and Interpreting Scores Derived from Likert-Type Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmbrod, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Forty-nine percent of the 706 articles published in the "Journal of Agricultural Education" from 1995 to 2012 reported quantitative research with at least one variable measured by a Likert-type scale. Grounded in the classical test theory definition of reliability and the tenets basic to Likert-scale measurement methodology, for the…

  5. A Comparison of Anchor-Item Designs for the Concurrent Calibration of Large Banks of Likert-Type Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.; Alcala-Quintana, Rocio; Garcia-Cueto, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Current interest in measuring quality of life is generating interest in the construction of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with Likert-type items. Calibration of an item bank for use in CAT requires collecting responses to a large number of candidate items. However, the number is usually too large to administer to each subject in the…

  6. The Effects of Halo and Leniency on Cooperating Teacher Reports Using Likert-Type Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, LeAdelle; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study evaluated the adequacy of a Likert-type scale cooperating teacher report. Results demonstrated a significant presence of leniency error and halo effect, leaving highly questionable the validity of the report as a whole. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

  7. The Response Scale for the Intellectual Disability Module of the WHOQOL: 5-Point or 3-Point?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, J.; Fleck, M. P.; Green, A.; McVilly, K.; Hao, Y.; Tan, W.; Fu, R.; Power, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To deal with the question of whether a 5-point response Likert scale should be changed to a 3-point scale when used in the field testing of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs), which was raised after the pilot study of World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-DIS, a module being developed with the World Health…

  8. Examining Perceptions and Attitudes: A Review of Likert-Type Scales Versus Q-Methodology.

    PubMed

    Ho, Grace W K

    2016-07-24

    The purpose of this article is to compare and discuss the use of Likert-type scales and Q-methodology to examine perceptions and attitudes in nursing research. This article provides a brief review of each approach, and how they have been used to advance our knowledge in health-related perceptions and attitudes. Although Likert-type scales are economical, efficient, and easy to analyze, the results can be difficult to interpret or translate into meaningful practice. In contrast, Q-methodology yields holistic and in-depth information on what the prevailing perceptions and attitudes are, but its conduct is logistically challenging and the results' generalizability can be limited. The appropriate uses of either or both approaches to answer different research questions will be discussed. Nurse scientists are called upon to continue our exploration, utilization, and expansion of unique methodologies that directly speak to a meaningful examination of these important constructs in nursing research.

  9. A Review of the Reliability and Validity of Likert-Type Scales for People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, S. L.; MacLean, W. E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Likert-type scales are increasingly being used among people with intellectual disability (ID). These scales offer an efficient method for capturing a wide range of variance in self-reported attitudes and behaviours. This review is an attempt to evaluate the reliability and validity of Likert-type scales in people with ID. Methods:…

  10. How Differences among Data Collectors Are Reflected in the Reliability and Validity of Data Collected by Likert-Type Scales?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar; Ertekin, Pelin; Çolakoglu, Özgür Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate association of data collectors' differences with the differences in reliability and validity of scores regarding affective variables (motivation toward science learning and science attitude) that are measured by Likert-type scales. Four researchers trained in data collection and seven science teachers…

  11. A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter-the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models.

  12. A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures

    PubMed Central

    Allik, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter—the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models. PMID:24847291

  13. Using Likert-Type Scales in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croasmun, James T.; Ostrom, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Likert scales are useful in social science and attitude research projects. The General Self-Efficacy Exam is a test used to determine whether factors in educational settings affect participant's learning self-efficacy. The original instrument had 10 efficacy items and used a 4-point Likert scale. The Cronbach's alphas for the original test ranged…

  14. Consistency of Response Style Across Types of Response Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardo, J.W.; Yeager, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    In examining response style effects on various commonly used fixed-response formats, Likert-type formats were relatively consistently affected regardless of the number of format categories. Nonanchored numbers were less affected. Across types, strong correlations for the linear formats and human faces made their use problematic. (Author/CM)

  15. Generalized IRT Models for Extreme Response Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is a systematic tendency for a person to endorse extreme options (e.g., strongly disagree, strongly agree) on Likert-type or rating-scale items. In this study, we develop a new class of item response theory (IRT) models to account for ERS so that the target latent trait is free from the response style and the tendency…

  16. Understanding the Relation between Attitude Involvement and Response Latitude Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Christopher J.; Withrow, Scott; Zickar, Michael J.; Wood, Nicole L.; Dalal, Dev K.; Bochinski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Adapting the original latitude of acceptance concept to Likert-type surveys, response latitudes are defined as the range of graded response options a person is willing to endorse. Response latitudes were expected to relate to attitude involvement such that high involvement was linked to narrow latitudes (the result of selective, careful…

  17. In Search of the Optimal Number of Response Categories in a Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Paek, Insu

    2014-01-01

    Likert-type rating scales are still the most widely used method when measuring psychoeducational constructs. The present study investigates a long-standing issue of identifying the optimal number of response categories. A special emphasis is given to categorical data, which were generated by the Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded-Response Modeling…

  18. Validity of Multiprocess IRT Models for Separating Content and Response Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plieninger, Hansjörg; Meiser, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Response styles, the tendency to respond to Likert-type items irrespective of content, are a widely known threat to the reliability and validity of self-report measures. However, it is still debated how to measure and control for response styles such as extreme responding. Recently, multiprocess item response theory models have been proposed that…

  19. Speech-Language Pathologists' Opinions on Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Mohling, Sara; Stremlau, Aliza

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) on response to intervention (RTI). Questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected elementary and secondary SLPs throughout the United States. Mean results of 583 respondents (29.15%) indicated that SLPs agreed on 37 Likert-type items and responded…

  20. The Impact of Outliers on Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Estimate of Reliability: Ordinal/Rating Scale Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent Monte Carlo simulation study, Liu and Zumbo showed that outliers can severely inflate the estimates of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for continuous item response data--visual analogue response format. Little, however, is known about the effect of outliers for ordinal item response data--also commonly referred to as Likert, Likert-type,…

  1. Impact of the Number of Response Categories and Anchor Labels on Coefficient Alpha and Test-Retest Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Li-Jen

    2004-01-01

    A total of 1,247 college students participated in this study on the effect of scale format on the reliability of Likert-type rating scales. The number of response categories ranged from 3 to 9. Anchor labels on the scales were provided for each response option or for the end points only. The results indicated that the scales with few response…

  2. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Responses to Positively and Negatively Worded Items on Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Gail H.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2006-01-01

    Should instruments, such as Likert-type scales, contain both positively worded and negatively worded items within the same scale (i.e. mixed format)? Recent evidence suggests that the use of scales with a mixed format can adversely affect the psychometric properties of scales. In particular, the mean item response to the positively worded items…

  3. The Effect of Response Format on the Psychometric Properties of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Consequences for Item Meaning and Factor Structure.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Robert A; Donnellan, M Brent; Roberts, Brent W; Fraley, R Chris

    2016-04-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is currently the most widely used measure of narcissism in social/personality psychology. It is also relatively unique because it uses a forced-choice response format. We investigate the consequences of changing the NPI's response format for item meaning and factor structure. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 40 forced-choice items (n = 2,754), 80 single-stimulus dichotomous items (i.e., separate true/false responses for each item; n = 2,275), or 80 single-stimulus rating scale items (i.e., 5-point Likert-type response scales for each item; n = 2,156). Analyses suggested that the "narcissistic" and "nonnarcissistic" response options from the Entitlement and Superiority subscales refer to independent personality dimensions rather than high and low levels of the same attribute. In addition, factor analyses revealed that although the Leadership dimension was evident across formats, dimensions with entitlement and superiority were not as robust. Implications for continued use of the NPI are discussed.

  4. Appropriate Statistical Analysis for Two Independent Groups of Likert-Type Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warachan, Boonyasit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the robustness and statistical power of three different methods for testing the hypothesis that ordinal samples of five and seven Likert categories come from equal populations. The three methods are the two sample t-test with equal variances, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In…

  5. Observing Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun-Earth L5 Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; St Cyr, O. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere and are known to be responsible for severe space weather. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). The STEREO mission viewed CMEs from points away from the Sun-Earth line and demonstrated the importance of such observations in understanding the three-dimensional structure of CMEs and their true kinematics. In this paper, we show that it is advantageous to observe CMEs from the Sun-Earth L5 point in studying CMEs that affect Earth. In particular, these observations are important in identifying that part of the CME that is likely to arrive at Earth. L5 observations are critical for several aspects of CME studies such as: (i) they can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input for modeling Earth-arriving CMEs, (ii) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, and (iii) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, which may not be possible from the Sun-Earth line. We also discuss how the L5 vantage point compares with the Sun-Earth L4 point for observing Earth-affecting CMEs. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at

  6. The Loneliness Questionnaire-Short Version: an evaluation of reverse-worded and non-reverse-worded items via item response theory.

    PubMed

    Ebesutani, Chad; Drescher, Christopher F; Reise, Steven P; Heiden, Laurie; Hight, Terry L; Damon, John D; Young, John

    2012-01-01

    Although reverse-worded items have often been incorporated in scale construction to minimize the effects of acquiescent reporting biases, some researchers have more recently begun questioning this approach and wondering whether the advantages associated with incorporating reverse-worded items is worth the complexities that they bring to measures (e.g., Brown, 2003 ; Marsh, 1996 ). In this study, we used item response theory (IRT) to determine whether there is statistical justification to eliminate the reverse-worded items (e.g., "I have lots of friends") from the Loneliness Questionnaire (LQ; Asher, Hymel, & Renshaw, 1984) and retain only the non-reverse-worded items (e.g., "I'm lonely") to inform the provision of a shortened LQ version. Using a large sample of children (Grades 2-7; n = 6,784) and adolescents (Grades 8-12; n = 4,941), we examined the psychometric properties of the 24-item LQ and found support for retaining the 9 non-reverse-worded LQ items to make up a shortened measure of loneliness in youth. We found that the non-reverse-worded items were associated with superior psychometric properties relative to the reverse-worded items with respect to reliability and IRT parameters (e.g., discrimination and item information). A 3-point Likert-type scale was also found to be more suitable for measuring loneliness across both children and adolescents compared to the original 5-point scale. The relative contributions of reverse-worded and non-reverse-worded items in scale development for youth instruments are also discussed.

  7. Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…

  8. A Psychometric Evaluation of 4-Point and 6-Point Likert-Type Scales in Relation to Reliability and Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei

    1994-01-01

    Reliability and validity of 4-point and 6-point scales were assessed using a new model-based approach to fit empirical data from 165 graduate students completing an attitude measure. Results suggest that the issue of four- versus six-point scales may depend on the empirical setting. (SLD)

  9. Using Visual Analogue Scales in eHealth: Non-Response Effects in a Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wienert, Julian; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual analogue scales (VASs) have been shown to be valid measurement instruments and a better alternative to Likert-type scales in Internet-based research, both empirically and theoretically [1,2]. Upsides include more differentiated responses, better measurement level, and less error. Their feasibility and properties in the context of eHealth, however, have not been examined so far. Objective The present study examined VASs in the context of a lifestyle study conducted online, measuring the impact of VASs on distributional properties and non-response. Method A sample of 446 participants with a mean age of 52.4 years (standard deviation (SD) = 12.1) took part in the study. The study was carried out as a randomized controlled trial, aimed at supporting participants over 8 weeks with an additional follow-up measurement. In addition to the randomized questionnaire, participants were further randomly assigned to either a Likert-type or VAS response scale version of the measures. Results Results showed that SDs were lower for items answered via VASs, 2P (Y ≥ 47 | n=55, P=.5) < .001. Means did not differ across versions. Participants in the VAS version showed lower dropout rates than participants in the Likert version, odds ratio = 0.75, 90% CI (0.58-0.98), P=.04. Number of missing values did not differ between questionnaire versions. Conclusions The VAS is shown to be a valid instrument in the eHealth context, offering advantages over Likert-type scales. The results of the study provide further support for the use of VASs in Internet-based research, extending the scope to senior samples in the health context. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01909349; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01909349 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6h88sLw2Y) PMID:27334562

  10. A method for estimating spikelet number per panicle: Integrating image analysis and a 5-point calibration model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sanqin; Gu, Jiabing; Zhao, Youyong; Hassan, Muhammad; Li, Yinian; Ding, Weimin

    2015-11-06

    Spikelet number per panicle (SNPP) is one of the most important yield components used to estimate rice yields. The use of high-throughput quantitative image analysis methods for understanding the diversity of the panicle has increased rapidly. However, it is difficult to simultaneously extract panicle branch and spikelet/grain information from images at the same resolution due to the different scales of these traits. To use a lower resolution and meet the accuracy requirement, we proposed an interdisciplinary method that integrated image analysis and a 5-point calibration model to rapidly estimate SNPP. First, a linear relationship model between the total length of the primary branch (TLPB) and the SNPP was established based on the physiological characteristics of the panicle. Second, the TLPB and area (the primary branch region) traits were rapidly extracted by developing image analysis algorithm. Finally, a 5-point calibration method was adopted to improve the universality of the model. The number of panicle samples that the error of the SNPP estimates was less than 10% was greater than 90% by the proposed method. The estimation accuracy was consistent with the accuracy determined using manual measurements. The proposed method uses available concepts and techniques for automated estimations of rice yield information.

  11. Selection, Optimization, and Compensation: The Structure, Reliability, and Validity of Forced-Choice versus Likert-Type Measures in a Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, G. John; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Stefansson, Kristjan; Johnson, Sara K.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Intentional self-regulation (ISR) undergoes significant development across the life span. However, our understanding of ISR's development and function remains incomplete, in part because the field's conceptualization and measurement of ISR vary greatly. A key sample case involves how Baltes and colleagues' Selection, Optimization,…

  12. Use and Misuse of the Likert Item Responses and Other Ordinal Measures

    PubMed Central

    BISHOP, PHILLIP A.; HERRON, ROBERT L.

    2015-01-01

    Likert, Likert-type, and ordinal-scale responses are very popular psychometric item scoring schemes for attempting to quantify people’s opinions, interests, or perceived efficacy of an intervention and are used extensively in Physical Education and Exercise Science research. However, these numbered measures are generally considered ordinal and violate some statistical assumptions needed to evaluate them as normally distributed, parametric data. This is an issue because parametric statistics are generally perceived as being more statistically powerful than non-parametric statistics. To avoid possible misinterpretation, care must be taken in analyzing these types of data. The use of visual analog scales may be equally efficacious and provide somewhat better data for analysis with parametric statistics. PMID:27182418

  13. Engaging millennial learners: Effectiveness of personal response system technology with nursing students in small and large classrooms.

    PubMed

    Revell, Susan M Hunter; McCurry, Mary K

    2010-05-01

    Nurse educators must explore innovative technologies that make the most of the characteristics and learning styles of millennial learners. These students are comfortable with technology and prefer interactive classrooms with individual feedback and peer collaboration. This study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of personal response system (PRS) technology in enhancing student learning in small and large classrooms. PRS technology was integrated into two undergraduate courses, nursing research (n = 33) and junior medical-surgical nursing (n = 116). Multiple-choice, true-false, NCLEX-RN alternate format, and reading quiz questions were incorporated within didactic PowerPoint presentations. Data analysis of Likert-type and open-response questions supported the use of PRS technology as an effective strategy for educating millennial learners in both small and large classrooms. PRS technology promotes active learning, increases participation, and provides students and faculty with immediate feedback that reflects comprehension of content and increases faculty-student interaction.

  14. A small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R.; Auchère, F.; Harrison, R. A.; Eyles, C.; Gan, W.; Lamy, P.; Xia, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kong, L.; Wang, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zhang, S.; Zong, Q.; Soucek, J.; An, J.; Prech, L.; Zhang, A.; Rochus, P.; Bothmer, V.; Janvier, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Tappin, J.; Vainio, R.; Poedts, S.; Dunlop, M. W.; Savani, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Bale, S. D.; Li, G.; Howard, T.; DeForest, C.; Webb, D.; Lugaz, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dalmasse, K.; Tallineau, J.; Vranken, D.; Fernández, J. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  15. INSTANT: a Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We present a small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather sciences. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission concept is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. The INSTANT concept would be the first to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space, and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would, in addition, uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile which fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  16. Quantification of the UK 5-point breast imaging classification and mapping to BI-RADS to facilitate comparison with international literature

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, K; Britton, P; O'Keeffe, S; Wallis, M G

    2011-01-01

    Objective The UK 5-point breast imaging scoring system, recently formalised by the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group, does not specify the likelihood of malignancy in each category. The breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) is widely used throughout North America and much of Europe. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the cancer likelihood of each of the UK 5-point categories and map them to comparable BI-RADS categories to facilitate comparison with North American and European literature and publication of UK research abroad. Methods During the 8 year study period, mammogram and ultrasound results were UK scored and the percentage of cancer outcomes within each group calculated. These were then compared with the percentage incidence of the BI-RADS categories. Results Of 23 741 separate assessment episodes, 15 288 mammograms and 10 642 ultrasound examinations were evaluated. There was a direct correlation between UK scoring and BI-RADS for categories 1 and 5. UK Score 2 lipomas and simple cysts correlated with BI-RADS 2, with the remaining UK Score 2 lesions (mostly fibroadenomas) assigned to BI-RADS 3. BI-RADS 4 incorporates a wide range of cancer risk (2–95%) with subdivisions a, b and c indicating increasing, but unspecified, likelihood of malignancy. UK Score 3 correlated with BI-RADS 4 a/b and UK Score 4 corresponded with BI-RADS 4c. Conclusion This study quantifies the cancer likelihood of the UK scoring and maps them to parallel BI-RADS categories, with equivalent cancer risks. This facilitates the ability to share UK research data and clinical practice on an international scale. PMID:22011830

  17. Roles and responsibilities of nurse preceptors: Perception of preceptors and preceptees.

    PubMed

    Omer, Tagwa A; Suliman, Wafika A; Moola, Shehnaaz

    2016-01-01

    In this study setting, preceptors, who were clinical teaching assistants and hospital employed nurses assist through an interactive process preceptees, who were nursing students, in developing clinical skills and integration into the culture of the clinical area. Therefore, roles and responsibilities of preceptors should be clear and meet the expectations of preceptors and preceptees. This study aimed at comparing similarities and differences of perception to roles and responsibilities as held by nurse preceptors and their preceptees in relation to how important such roles and responsibilities are, and how frequently preceptors attend to the role. A self-administered questionnaire using Boyer's (2008) roles and responsibilities was completed by a convenience sample of 87 preceptee and 62 preceptors amounting to 66.9% and 77.5% response rate respectively. The questionnaire included 43 items and two 4-points Likert-type scales: "Importance of", and "frequency of attendance to roles". Two versions were developed: one for preceptors and the other for preceptees. The reliability (Alpha values) was .944 for the importance and .973 for the frequency of attendance scales. Mean scores indicated agreement among the two groups in relation to importance of, but to disagreement in relation to frequency of attendance to certain roles and responsibilities. Both groups perceived roles and responsibilities as important but varied with significant difference in rating preceptors' frequency of attendance to their roles as educators and facilitators.

  18. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  19. Mixture Random-Effect IRT Models for Controlling Extreme Response Style on Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Respondents are often requested to provide a response to Likert-type or rating-scale items during the assessment of attitude, interest, and personality to measure a variety of latent traits. Extreme response style (ERS), which is defined as a consistent and systematic tendency of a person to locate on a limited number of available rating-scale options, may distort the test validity. Several latent trait models have been proposed to address ERS, but all these models have limitations. Mixture random-effect item response theory (IRT) models for ERS are developed in this study to simultaneously identify the mixtures of latent classes from different ERS levels and detect the possible differential functioning items that result from different latent mixtures. The model parameters can be recovered fairly well in a series of simulations that use Bayesian estimation with the WinBUGS program. In addition, the model parameters in the developed models can be used to identify items that are likely to elicit ERS. The results show that a long test and large sample can improve the parameter estimation process; the precision of the parameter estimates increases with the number of response options, and the model parameter estimation outperforms the person parameter estimation. Ignoring the mixtures and ERS results in substantial rank-order changes in the target latent trait and a reduced classification accuracy of the response styles. An empirical survey of emotional intelligence in college students is presented to demonstrate the applications and implications of the new models. PMID:27853444

  20. A Mathematical Approach in Evaluating Biotechnology Attitude Scale: Rough Set Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Sinan, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Individuals' thoughts and attitudes towards biotechnology have been investigated in many countries. A Likert-type scale is the most commonly used scale to measure attitude. However, the weak side of a likert-type scale is that different responses may produce the same score. The Rough set method has been regarded to address this shortcoming. A…

  1. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  2. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  3. Teacher Trainees' Strategies for Managing the Behaviours of Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Manisah Mohd.; Abdullah, Rozila; Majid, Rosadah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how a group of teacher trainees handled challenging behaviour by students during teaching practice. A total of 35 teacher trainees from the special education programme of a local university were chosen as respondents. A questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert-type scale was administered in this study. The data were…

  4. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  5. Student Attitudes toward Web-Enhanced Instruction in an Educational Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghazo, Iman M.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating students' attitudes toward Web-enhanced instruction in an educational technology course taught in the College of Education at the United Arab Emirates University. The sample of the study consisted of (66) college female students. A survey with 5 point Likert-type items and open-ended questions was used to collect…

  6. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  7. Ohio Army National Guard Mental Health Initiative: Risk and Resilience Factors for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Psychopathology and Post Combat Adjustment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    To screen for depression effectively, results indicate use of the cardinal first two items, items representing fatigue , appetite and sleep changes...as done by Cannon et al. (2007). The PHQ-9 uses a Likert-type scale with four response options ranging from 0¼ ‘‘Not at all’’ to 3¼ ‘‘Nearly every day...symptom over the past month by rating items on a five-point Likert-type scale (1¼ ‘‘not at all’’ to 5¼ ‘‘extremely’’); however, in our study we assessed

  8. Slavic and Italian Canadian Attitudes towards Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Michael G.

    Predicting that Italian Canadians would hold attitudes of greater hostility and anxiety toward authority than Slavic Canadians, this study, using 58 part-time summer students (29 Italians and 29 Slavs) at three universities in Canada, analyzed the subjects' responses to the five-response option Likert type scale. Results confirmed the early…

  9. Second Field Test of the AEL Measure of School Capacity for Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Lisa D.; Meehan, Merrill L.; Howley, Caitlin W.; Hughes, Georgia K.

    2005-01-01

    The major purpose of the second field test of the AEL MSCI instrument was to assess the psychometric properties of the refined version with a larger, more diverse group of respondents. The first objective of this field test was to expand the four-point Likert-type response scale to six points in order to yield more variance in responses. The…

  10. The Intuitive Eating Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Steven; Merrill, Ray M.; Madanat, Hala N.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument designed to measure the concept of intuitive eating. To ensure face and content validity for items used in the Likert-type Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), content domain was clearly specified and a panel of experts assessed the validity of each item. Based on responses from 391…

  11. An Exploration of the Validity of the Unbounded Write-In Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Laura M.; Edmonds, Meaghan

    An exploratory reliability and validity study was conducted of a relatively new response scale developed in the marketing field. Unlike many Likert-type scales, the "unbounded write-in" scale is claimed to produce distributions that more closely approximate normal distributions. This type of scale has been used in large-scale marketing studies.…

  12. Predictors of Organizational Commitment for Faculty and Administrators of a Private Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Faculty and administrators of a private Christian university responded to measures of overall, intrinsic, and extrinsic job satisfaction as well as organizational and religious commitment. The survey measured responses on a five-point Likert-type scale. Data were statistically analyzed by using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. Results…

  13. Beliefs about Language Learning Held by Students and Their Teacher (A Pilot Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated the beliefs about second language learning among nine students of English as a Second Language (all female), and their teacher at Queen Arwa University (Yemen). The survey instrument consisted of five demographic statements and 47 statements concerning language learning in a Likert-type scaled response format. Results indicate…

  14. Students and Their Teachers of Arabic: Beliefs about Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated beliefs about second language learning held by 27 adult students and 10 teachers of Arabic at the Yemen Language Center. The survey instrument consisted of 5 demographic statements and 47 statements concerning language learning in a Likert-type scaled response format. Results indicate students and teachers generally agreed…

  15. Student Attitude Toward Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Charles H.; Allen, Rodney F.

    This is an individually administered rating scale designed to evaluate teacher trainee attitudes toward an information retrieval system. A major goal of the scale is to seek responses that measure students' reactions to the cognitive interest and motivational nature of the information retrieval system through the use of Likert-type items. The…

  16. A Q-Analysis of College Students Attitudes Toward Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Ernest F.

    Eighty college students were administered 26 Likert-type statements designed to measure their attitudes toward advertising along four different dimensions: economic effects of advertising, social effects of advertising, ethics of advertising, and regulation of advertising. Analysis of the responses revealed five clusters or "types" of individuals…

  17. Development and Initial Validation of the Medical Fear Survey-Short Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Ebesutani, Chad; Sawchuk, Craig N.; McKay, Dean; Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Kleinknecht, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation employs item response theory (IRT) to develop an abbreviated Medical Fear Survey (MFS). Application of IRT analyses in Study 1 (n = 931) to the original 50-item MFS resulted in a 25-item shortened version. Examination of the location parameters also resulted in a reduction of the Likert-type scaling of the MFS by removing…

  18. Tracking the Career Paths of Marketing and Business Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Carol; Haltinner, Urs; Stanislawski, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    Marketing and business education faculty at the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) recently conducted a longitudinal study, spanning the entire 35 years of the program's existence, describing and analyzing its graduates' career paths. Data was collected through a questionnaire that utilized a combination of Likert-type responses, open-ended…

  19. A decision-making framework for total ownership cost management of complex systems: A Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Russel J.

    This qualitative study, using a modified Delphi method, was conducted to develop a decision-making framework for the total ownership cost management of complex systems in the aerospace industry. The primary focus of total ownership cost is to look beyond the purchase price when evaluating complex system life cycle alternatives. A thorough literature review and the opinions of a group of qualified experts resulted in a compilation of total ownership cost best practices, cost drivers, key performance factors, applicable assessment methods, practitioner credentials and potential barriers to effective implementation. The expert panel provided responses to the study questions using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Data were analyzed and provided to the panel members for review and discussion with the intent to achieve group consensus. As a result of the study, the experts agreed that a total ownership cost analysis should (a) be as simple as possible using historical data; (b) establish cost targets, metrics, and penalties early in the program; (c) monitor the targets throughout the product lifecycle and revise them as applicable historical data becomes available; and (d) directly link total ownership cost elements with other success factors during program development. The resultant study framework provides the business leader with incentives and methods to develop and implement strategies for controlling and reducing total ownership cost over the entire product life cycle when balancing cost, schedule, and performance decisions.

  20. Depression and socio-economical burden are more common in primary caregivers of patients who are not aware of their cancer: TURQUOISE Study by the Palliative Care Working Committee of the Turkish Oncology Group (TOG).

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, O; Yavuzsen, T; Turhal, S; Kilic, D; Yalcin, S; Ozkan, A; Uzunoglu, S; Uysal-Sonmez, O; Akman, T; Aktas, B; Ulger, S; Babacan, T; Komurcu, S; Yaren, A; Cay-Senler, F

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the personal, social and economic burden and the frequency of depression, as well as in caregivers of cancer patients who are being treated with chemotherapy in Turkey. The study is designed as a cross-sectional survey study using a 5-point Likert-type response scale, and the last part of the questionnaire includes the Beck Depression Inventory. The depression rate was found to be 64% (n = 476) among all subjects (n = 968), with 91% of those with depression demonstrating signs of mild depression. In this study, a significant difference was found between the presence of depression and age (young), sex (female), educational level (high), economic status (low), financial loss during treatment, patient's lack of knowledge about his/her diagnosis, metastatic disease and short survival time. In addition, 64% of all subjects had concerns of getting cancer, and 44% of all subjects had feelings of anger/rage against other people. In a multivariate regression analysis, the patient's lack of knowledge of the diagnosis was the independent risk factor. In conclusion, depression incidence and burden rate increased among cancer caregivers, and care burden was highly associated with depression. Accordingly, approaches to reducing the psycho-social effects of cancer should focus intensively on both the patients and their caregivers in Turkey.

  1. Rights & Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue guides teachers and students to annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with topics related to rights and responsibilities. Sidebar features discuss animal rights, handling money responsibly, and taking responsibility for the environment. (Contains Three…

  2. Unexpected Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    different course of action--its "Unexpected Response." The conclusion is that conventional forces are the essential deterrent given strategic parity . Then...different course of action--its "Unexpected Response. The conclusion is that conventional forces are the essential deterrent given strategic parity . Then...limited response, superiority, parity , etc. The tentative steps along the lines of a strategic defense are one more variation on the theme of deterrence

  3. [Double responses].

    PubMed

    Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M

    1995-12-01

    Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.

  4. Emergency Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information for first responders, industry, federal, state and local governments on EPA's role and available resources for response to oil spills, chemical, biological, radiological releases, and large-scale national emergencies.

  5. Master teachers' responses to twenty literacy and science/mathematics practices in deaf education.

    PubMed

    Easterbrooks, Susan R; Stephenson, Brenda; Mertens, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Under a grant to improve outcomes for students who are deaf or hard of hearing awarded to the Association of College Educators--Deaf/Hard of Hearing, a team identified content that all teachers of students who are deaf and hard of hearing must understand and be able to teach. Also identified were 20 practices associated with content standards (10 each, literacy and science/mathematics). Thirty-seven master teachers identified by grant agents rated the practices on a Likert-type scale indicating the maximum benefit of each practice and maximum likelihood that they would use the practice, yielding a likelihood-impact analysis. The teachers showed strong agreement on the benefits and likelihood of use of the rated practices. Concerns about implementation of many of the practices related to time constraints and mixed-ability classrooms were themes of the reviews. Actions for teacher preparation programs were recommended.

  6. In Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Janice A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Endicott, Jean; Allen, Cleona R.; Hostetter, Abram M.

    2005-01-01

    This article features the response to the important commentary by Dr. Carlson. The Amish Study represents, as she notes, a special research population for investigation of "classic" bipolar disorder viewed against a homogeneous cultural landscape where emerging biological and behavioral prodromal features can be identified. Dr. Carlson questions…

  7. Freedom in responsibility: a response.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brent

    2005-08-01

    This paper is a critical response to Elisabeth Gräb-Schmidt's article "Freedom in responsibility: On the relevance of 'sin' as hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making." Gräb-Schmidt's chief contention is that ethics begins with anthropology, and that moral responsibility is thereby grounded within a set of given limits. Freedom is distorted into sin when these limits are transgressed. My principal complaint is that her account of the relationship between freedom and sin is grounded in a tragic ontology. Alternatively, I contend that anthropology is grounded in Christology in which freedom is a gift of the Spirit. Consequently, sin is not so much tragic as it marks a refusal of humans to accept their divine election. The issues of human cloning and embryonic stem-cell research are used to exemplify what difference these respective differences might make in a process of moral deliberation.

  8. Naturalizing Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zullo, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    In the contemporary debate on the use of the neurosciences in ethics and law, numerous arguments have been bandied about among scientists and philosophers looking to uphold or reject the reliability and validity of scientific findings obtained by brain imaging technologies. Among the most vexing questions is, Can we trust that technology? One point of disagreement is whether brain scans offer a window through which to observe the functioning of the mind, in such a way as to enable lawyers, judges, physicians, and lawmakers to detect anomalies in brain function that may account for criminal unconscious behavior. Those who stand behind brain imaging believe that this can indeed be achieved, whereas those in opposition stress that brain scans are highly open to interpretation and that the data they provide is insufficient to establish causal connections. The question essentially comes down to whether technology can reliably be used to determine the intentions of the individual, thus establishing mens rea, for example, and hence responsibility. This article focuses on the latter notion and explores whether we can rely on the neurosciences to shed light on a complex form of moral and legal reasoning, as well as the role of the neurosciences in reawakening a philosophical and legal interest in trying to set responsibility on an empirical basis.

  9. Author's response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sheldon

    The long-standing practice of classical physics is to take the instantaneous state of a system to consist of both the position and the velocity. In his response to my paper, Frank Arntzenius reasserts an intuition that suggests that the velocity (as ordinarily defined) cannot be intrinsic to an instant and, therefore, that physical practice has been in error on this point. I am still suspicious of such intuitions about what is "intrinsic" to an instant, and in my paper, I suggested that they are likely to be issuing from confusions. Even David Lewis once claimed, "Intuitions of what is intrinsic are to be mistrusted, I think" (Lewis, 1986, p. 205). Though Lewis also claimed that there is some "slight presumption" in favor of such intuitions when doing metaphysics, the overall tenor of his various attempts to define "intrinsic" does not suggest to me that he thought that we should use such intuitions to reject standard physical attributions of "natural properties," properties that appear in physical laws relating the simultaneous values of physical quantities.

  10. Quit Smoking Experts’ Opinions toward Quality and Results of Quit Smoking Methods Provided in Tobacco Cessation Services Centers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Leischow, Scott J.; Lando, Harry A.; Shadmehr, Mohammad B.; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the core responsibilities of health system is to treat tobacco dependence. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess physicians’ opinions towards quality and result of different quit smoking methods provided in tobacco cessation services centers in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, random sampling of all quit centers at country level was used to obtain a representative sample size of 100 physicians. Physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects, and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: Most experts preferred to use combination quit smoking methods and then Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) with 26 and 23, respectively. The least used methods were quit line and some methods without medication with 3 cases. The method which gained the maximum scores were telephone consultation, acupuncture, Willpower, Champix, combined method, and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) with the mean of 23.3, 23, 22.5, 22, 21.7 and 21.3, respectively. The minimum scores were related to e-cigarette, some methods without medication, and non-NRT medication with the mean of 12.3, 15.8 and 16.2, respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean of scores based on different cities (P = 0.256). Analysis of variance in mean scores showed significant differences in the means scores of different methods (P < 0.000). Conclusions: According to physicians acupuncture, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods and these methods could be much more feasible and cost effective than other methods. PMID:26425329

  11. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window…

  12. COX-2 verexpression in pretreatment biopsies predicts response of rectal cancers to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Fraser M.; Reynolds, John V. . E-mail: reynoldsjv@stjames.ie; Kay, Elaine W.; Crotty, Paul; Murphy, James O.; Hollywood, Donal; Gaffney, Eoin F.; Stephens, Richard B.; Kennedy, M. John

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the utility of COX-2 expression as a response predictor for patients with rectal cancer who are undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment biopsies (PTB) from 49 patients who underwent RCT were included. COX-2 and proliferation in PTB were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL stain. Response to treatment was assessed by a 5-point tumor-regression grade (TRG) based on the ratio of residual tumor to fibrosis. Results: Good response (TRG 1 + 2), moderate response (TRG 3), and poor response (TRG 4 + 5) were seen in 21 patients (42%), 11 patients (22%), and 17 patients (34%), respectively. Patients with COX-2 overexpression in PTB were more likely to demonstrate moderate or poor response (TRG 3 + 4) to treatment than were those with normal COX-2 expression (p = 0.026, chi-square test). Similarly, poor response was more likely if patients had low levels of spontaneous apoptosis in PTBs (p = 0.0007, chi-square test). Conclusions: COX-2 overexpression and reduced apoptosis in PTB can predict poor response of rectal cancer to RCT. As COX-2 inhibitors are commercially available, their administration to patients who overexpress COX-2 warrants assessment in clinical trials in an attempt to increase overall response rates.

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou

    2002-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (satellite and television) programs for students in grades 6-8. Each of the five programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series included a lesson, an educator guide, a student activity or experiment, and a web-based component. In March 2000, a mail (self-reported) survey (booklet) was sent to a randomly selected sample of 1,000 NASA CONNECT registrants. A total of 336 surveys (269 usable) were received by the established cut-off date. Most survey questions employed a 5-point Likert-type response scale. Survey topics included (1) instructional technology and teaching, (2) instructional programming and technology in the classroom, (3) the NASA CONNECT program, (4) classroom use of computer technology, and (5) demographics. About 73% of the respondents were female, about 92% identified "classroom teacher" as their present professional duty, about 90% worked in a public school, and about 62% held a master's degree or master's equivalency. Regarding NASA CONNECT, respondents reported that (1) they used the five programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series; (2) the stated objectives for each program were met (4.54); (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards (4.57); (4) program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level (4.17); and (5) the programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology (4.51).

  14. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; House, Patricia L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (satellite and television) programs for students in grades 5-8. Each of the five programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series included a lesson, an educator guide, a student activity or experiment, and a web-based component. In March 1999, a mail (self-reported) survey (booklet) was sent to a randomly selected sample of 1,000 NASA CONNECT registrants. A total of 401 surveys (351 usable) were received by the established cut-off date. Most survey questions employed a 5-point Likert-type response scale. Survey topics included: (1) instructional technology and teaching, (2) instructional programming and technology in the classroom, (3) the NASA CONNECT program, (4) classroom use of computer technology, and (5) demographics. About 68% of the respondents were female, about 88% identified "classroom teacher" as their present professional duty, about 75% worked in a public school, and about 67% held a master's degree or master's equivalency. Regarding NASA CONNECT, respondents reported that: (1) they used the five programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series; (2) the stated objectives for each program were met (4.49); (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards (4.61); (4) program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level (4.25); and (5) the programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology (4.45).

  15. Assessing cognitive therapy skills comprehension, acquisition, and use by means of an independent observer version of the Skills of Cognitive Therapy (SoCT-IO).

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory K; Thase, Michael E; Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Borman, Patricia D; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the adaptation and psychometric properties of the Skills for Cognitive Therapy (SoCT) measure for use by an independent observer (SoCT-IO) who rates the cognitive therapy (CT) skill acquisition, comprehension, and use by depressed adults and (b) to compare ratings of CT skill comprehension, acquisition, and use by independent observers to those by patients and therapists. Like the other SoCT versions, the SoCT-IO consists of 8 items that assess patients' comprehension, acquisition, and use of cognitive and behavioral skills for managing depressive symptoms, using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Four experienced raters (2 doctoral-level CT therapists and 2 bachelor-level nontherapists) used the SoCT-IO to rate 80 CT videotapes from both mid and later sessions in acute-phase CT from a randomized controlled trial for outpatients with recurrent major depression. The SoCT-IO ratings showed excellent internal consistency reliability and moderately high interrater reliability. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by convergence of the SoCT-IO with 2 other versions of the SoCT, 1 completed by therapists (SoCT-O) and the other by patients (SoCT-P). SoCT-IO ratings evidenced good predictive validity: Independent observers' ratings of patient CT skills midphase in therapy predicted treatment response even when the predictive effects of SoCT ratings by therapists and patients were controlled. The SoCT-IO is a psychometrically sound measure of CT skill comprehension, acquisition and use for rating outpatients with recurrent depression. The clinical utility and implications for using the SoCT-IO as a measure of CT skills acquisition are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Validation of NOViSE.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowski, Przemyslaw; Brown, Daniel C; Sodergren, Mikael H; Barrow, Alastair; Bello, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to establish face, content, and construct validity of NOViSE-the first force-feedback enabled virtual reality (VR) simulator for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Fourteen surgeons and surgical trainees performed 3 simulated hybrid transgastric cholecystectomies using a flexible endoscope on NOViSE. Four of them were classified as "NOTES experts" who had independently performed 10 or more simulated or human NOTES procedures. Seven participants were classified as "Novices" and 3 as "Gastroenterologists" with no or minimal NOTES experience. A standardized 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered to assess the face and content validity. NOViSE showed good overall face and content validity. In 14 out of 15 statements pertaining to face validity (graphical appearance, endoscope and tissue behavior, overall realism), ≥50% of responses were "agree" or "strongly agree." In terms of content validity, 85.7% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that NOViSE is a useful training tool for NOTES and 71.4% that they would recommend it to others. Construct validity was established by comparing a number of performance metrics such as task completion times, path lengths, applied forces, and so on. NOViSE demonstrated early signs of construct validity. Experts were faster and used a shorter endoscopic path length than novices in all but one task. The results indicate that NOViSE authentically recreates a transgastric hybrid cholecystectomy and sets promising foundations for the further development of a VR training curriculum for NOTES without compromising patient safety or requiring expensive animal facilities.

  17. Self-Confidence in and Perceived Utility of the Physical Examination: A Comparison of Medical Students, Residents, and Faculty Internists

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Mark J.; Reinert, Steven E.; Diaz, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Little is known about the differences in attitudes of medical students, Internal Medicine residents, and faculty Internists toward the physical examination. We sought to investigate these groups’ self-confidence in and perceived utility of physical examination skills. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional survey of third- and fourth-year medical students, Internal Medicine residents, and faculty Internists at an academic teaching hospital. MEASUREMENTS Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, respondents indicated their self-confidence in overall physical examination skill, as well as their ability to perform 14 individual skills, and how useful they felt the overall physical examination, and each skill, to be for yielding clinically important information. RESULTS The response rate was 80% (302/376). The skills with overall mean self-confidence ratings less than “neutral” were interpreting a diastolic murmur (2.9), detecting a thyroid nodule (2.8), and the nondilated fundoscopic examination using an ophthalmoscope to assess retinal vasculature (2.5). No skills had a mean utility rating less than neutral. The skills with the greatest numerical differences between mean self-confidence and perceived utility were distinguishing between a mole and melanoma (1.5), detecting a thyroid nodule (1.4), and interpreting a diastolic murmur (1.3). Regarding overall self-confidence, third-year students’ ratings (3.3) were similar to those of first-year residents (3.4; p = .95) but less than those of fourth-year students (3.8; p = .002), upper-level residents (3.7; p = .01), and faculty Internists (3.9; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS Self-confidence in the physical exam does not necessarily increase at each stage of training. The differences found between self-confidence and perceived utility for a number of skills suggest important areas for educational interventions. PMID:17922165

  18. Reliability and validity of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion Scale in a sample of Salvadoran secondary school students

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite a growing body of research from the United States and other industrialized countries on the inverse association between supportive social relationships in the school and youth risk behavior engagement, research on the measurement of supportive school social relationships in Central America is limited. We examined the psychometric properties of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion (SPSC) scale, a 10-item scale that asks students to rate with a 5-point Likert-type response scale their perceptions of the school social environment, in a sample of public secondary school students (mean age = 15 years) living in central El Salvador. Methods Students (n = 982) completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the SPSC scale along with measures of youth health risk behaviors based on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the scale, and two internal consistency estimates of reliability were computed. Construct validity was assessed by examining whether students who reported low school cohesion were significantly more likely to report physical fighting and illicit drug use. Results Results indicated that the SPSC scale has three latent factors, which explained 61.6% of the variance: supportive school relationships, student-school connectedness, and student-teacher connectedness. The full scale and three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = .87 and α = .84 for the full scale; rs and α between .71 and .75 for the three subscales). Significant associations were found between the full scale and all three subscales with physical fighting (p ≤ .001) and illicit drug use (p < .05). Conclusion Findings provide evidence of reliability and validity of the SPSC for the measurement of supportive school relationships in Latino adolescents living in El Salvador. These findings provide a foundation for further research on school cohesion

  19. Validation of NOViSE

    PubMed Central

    Korzeniowski, Przemyslaw; Brown, Daniel C.; Sodergren, Mikael H.; Barrow, Alastair; Bello, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish face, content, and construct validity of NOViSE—the first force-feedback enabled virtual reality (VR) simulator for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Fourteen surgeons and surgical trainees performed 3 simulated hybrid transgastric cholecystectomies using a flexible endoscope on NOViSE. Four of them were classified as “NOTES experts” who had independently performed 10 or more simulated or human NOTES procedures. Seven participants were classified as “Novices” and 3 as “Gastroenterologists” with no or minimal NOTES experience. A standardized 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered to assess the face and content validity. NOViSE showed good overall face and content validity. In 14 out of 15 statements pertaining to face validity (graphical appearance, endoscope and tissue behavior, overall realism), ≥50% of responses were “agree” or “strongly agree.” In terms of content validity, 85.7% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that NOViSE is a useful training tool for NOTES and 71.4% that they would recommend it to others. Construct validity was established by comparing a number of performance metrics such as task completion times, path lengths, applied forces, and so on. NOViSE demonstrated early signs of construct validity. Experts were faster and used a shorter endoscopic path length than novices in all but one task. The results indicate that NOViSE authentically recreates a transgastric hybrid cholecystectomy and sets promising foundations for the further development of a VR training curriculum for NOTES without compromising patient safety or requiring expensive animal facilities. PMID:27671036

  20. Modeling Response Signal and Response Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) and the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA, Usher & McClelland, 2001) were tested against two-choice data collected from the same subjects with the standard response time procedure and the response signal procedure. In the response signal procedure, a stimulus is presented and then, at one of a number of…

  1. Reader Response in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Glenna

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of critical theory to show how the method of Reader Response evolved. Discusses theories of reading and the reader; variations within reader response; and implementing reader response in literacy programs. Includes a brief response by Robert E. Probst. (RS)

  2. The Response Continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Caltagirone, Sergio; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-06-17

    Active response is a sequence of actions per- formed speci¯cally to mitigate a detected threat. Response decisions always follow detection: a decision to take `no ac- tion' remains a response decision. However, active response is a complex subject that has received insu±cient formal attention. To facilitate discussion, this paper provides a framework that proposes a common de¯nition, describes the role of response and the major issues surrounding response choices, and ¯nally, provides a model for the process of re- sponse. This provides a common starting point for discus- sion of the full response continuum as an integral part of contemporary computer security.

  3. Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.

    PubMed

    Gott, J Richard

    2005-12-01

    The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons (Telesto and Calypso) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points. Epimetheus is in a horseshoe orbit relative to Janus that is exactly like the horseshoe orbit expected for an object that has been perturbed from a location at L(4)/L(5). We propose that the rings of Saturn visible today are all that remains of this original disk; they lie inside the Roche limit where tidal forces have simply prevented the formation of large moons by accretion. Further out, the icy particles have accumulated into icy moons. Objects in external solar systems on horseshoe orbits (like those of Epimetheus relative to Janus) could be detected by a slow sinusoidal variation with time of the calculated mass of a planet from radial velocity measurements.

  4. State Emergency Response Commissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Governor of each state has designated a State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) that is responsible for implementing the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) provisions within its state.

  5. Stimulus responsive nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  6. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  7. Response Surface Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    methods . All three of these topics are usually combined into Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Also the experimenter may encounter situations where...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Response Surface Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...18 Keywords: Response Surface Methodology (RSM), regression analysis, linear

  8. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in…

  9. Constructed-Response Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinford, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    With rigor outlined in state and Common Core standards and the addition of constructed-response test items to most state tests, math constructed-response questions have become increasingly popular in today's classroom. Although constructed-response problems can present a challenge for students, they do offer a glimpse of students' learning through…

  10. National Response Team

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Response planning and coordination (not direct response itself) is accomplished at the federal level through the U.S. National Response Team (NRT), an interagency group co-chaired by EPA and U.S. Coast Guard. NRT distributes information, plans, and trains.

  11. The responsibilities of engineers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  12. CO2 -Responsive polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaojian; Theato, Patrick

    2013-07-25

    This Review focuses on the recent progress in the area of CO2 -responsive polymers and provides detailed descriptions of these existing examples. CO2 -responsive polymers can be categorized into three types based on their CO2 -responsive groups: amidine, amine, and carboxyl groups. Compared with traditional temperature, pH, or light stimuli-responsive polymers, CO2 -responsive polymers provide the advantage to use CO2 as a "green" trigger as well as to capture CO2 directly from air. In addition, the current challenges of CO2 -responsive polymers are discussed and the different solution methods are compared. Noteworthy, CO2 -responsive polymers are considered to have a prosperous future in various scientific areas.

  13. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  14. PET-CT for staging and early response: results from the Response-Adapted Therapy in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma study.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Sally F; Kirkwood, Amy A; Franceschetto, Antonella; Fulham, Michael J; Roberts, Thomas H; Almquist, Helén; Brun, Eva; Hjorthaug, Karin; Viney, Zaid N; Pike, Lucy C; Federico, Massimo; Luminari, Stefano; Radford, John; Trotman, Judith; Fosså, Alexander; Berkahn, Leanne; Molin, Daniel; D'Amore, Francesco; Sinclair, Donald A; Smith, Paul; O'Doherty, Michael J; Stevens, Lindsey; Johnson, Peter W

    2016-03-24

    International guidelines recommend that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) should replace CT in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The aims of this study were to compare PET-CT with CT for staging and measure agreement between expert and local readers, using a 5-point scale (Deauville criteria), to adapt treatment in a clinical trial: Response-Adapted Therapy in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma (RATHL). Patients were staged using clinical assessment, CT, and bone marrow biopsy (RATHL stage). PET-CT was performed at baseline (PET0) and after 2 chemotherapy cycles (PET2) in a response-adapted design. PET-CT was reported centrally by experts at 5 national core laboratories. Local readers optionally scored PET2 scans. The RATHL and PET-CT stages were compared. Agreement among experts and between expert and local readers was measured. RATHL and PET0 stage were concordant in 938 (80%) patients. PET-CT upstaged 159 (14%) and downstaged 74 (6%) patients. Upstaging by extranodal disease in bone marrow (92), lung (11), or multiple sites (12) on PET-CT accounted for most discrepancies. Follow-up of discrepant findings confirmed the PET characterization of lesions in the vast majority. Five patients were upstaged by marrow biopsy and 7 by contrast-enhanced CT in the bowel and/or liver or spleen. PET2 agreement among experts (140 scans) with a κ (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.76-0.91) was very good and between experts and local readers (300 scans) at 0.77 (0.68-0.86) was good. These results confirm PET-CT as the modern standard for staging HL and that response assessment using Deauville criteria is robust, enabling translation of RATHL results into clinical practice.

  15. Differential Response: Response to Hughes and Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Bryan; Brown, Brett Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    In their critique of differential response (DR), Hughes and colleagues raise a number of important issues that are central to broader efforts at the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) including the need for greater reliance on evidence-based practice in child welfare, more rigorous evaluation methodologies, and a robust set of…

  16. Vibration-Response Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic behaviors of structures analyzed interactively. Interactive steadystate vibration-response program, VIBRA, developed. Frequency-response analyses commonly used in evaluating dynamic behaviors of structures subjected to cyclic external forces. VIBRA calculates frequency response using modalsuperposition approach. Method applicable to single or multiple forces applied to linear, proportionally damped structure in which damping is viscous or structural. VIBRA written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution.

  17. Genetics and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen J

    2011-09-01

    Some believe that genetics threatens privacy and autonomy and will eviscerate the concept of human nature. Despite the astonishing research advances, however, none of these dire predictions and no radical transformation of the law have occurred. Advocates have tried to use genetic evidence to affect judgments of criminal responsibility. At present, however genetic research can provide little aid to assessments of criminal responsibility and it does not suggest a radical critique of responsibility.

  18. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  19. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  20. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  1. Response to Four Commentators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Graham H.

    1994-01-01

    Turner's responses to discussion of deaf culture cover these topics: deaf perspective; approaches to description; transparency and explicitness; labeling; historical awareness; and "thinking beyond." (Contains seven references.) (LB)

  2. Responsibility and punishment: whose mind? A response.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Oliver R

    2004-11-29

    Cognitive neuroscience is challenging the Anglo-American approach to criminal responsibility. Critiques, in this issue and elsewhere, are pointing out the deeply flawed psychological assumptions underlying the legal tests for mental incapacity. The critiques themselves, however, may be flawed in looking, as the tests do, at the psychology of the offender. Introducing the strategic structure of punishment into the analysis leads us to consider the psychology of the punisher as the critical locus of cognition informing the responsibility rules. Such an approach both helps to make sense of the counterfactual assumptions about offender psychology embodied in the law and provides a possible explanation for the human conviction of the existence of free will, at least in others.

  3. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an…

  4. [Social responsibility of surgeons].

    PubMed

    Gu, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Surgeon is sacred career. To cure patients by surgery is the surgeon's work, while the social responsibility is the surgeon's soul. To strengthen and promote the social responsibility is a demand of our age; thus, every surgeon should adhere to the supremacy of the patients' interests in clinical practice.

  5. Chores and Responsibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... not learn to accept responsibility. In unstructured home environments, or in families that are very permissive and where little is expected of children, youngsters are losing out on some valuable learning experiences, and their development of a sense of responsibility and initiative may ...

  6. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  7. Gender and Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…

  8. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  9. Responsibility and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Schafer, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Argues that scholars must be responsible for the use of their creations and ideas. Examines, through the use of such historical events as the Nazi holocaust and the United States' bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the implications of neglecting responsibility for scientific and scholarly creations. (JDH)

  10. Clinical ethics revisited: responses

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Solomon R; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Daar, Abdallah S; Hope, Tony; MacRae, Sue; Roberts, Laura W; Sharpe, Virginia A

    2001-01-01

    This series of responses was commissioned to accompany the article by Singer et al, which can be found at . If you would like to comment on the article by Singer et al or any of the responses, please email us on editorial@biomedcentral.com. PMID:11346457

  11. Social responsibilities of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Jonsen, A R

    2001-03-01

    Urban bioethics can draw on elements of city life and view them under the moral perspective of social responsibility of creating the personal, cultural, social, and economic environment in which persons can be responsible personally as they interpret actions on themselves and creatively respond to them in an ongoing community of agents.

  12. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  13. Effects of Scale, Question Location, Order of Response Alternatives, and Season on Self-Reported Noise Annoyance Using ICBEN Scales: A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Mark; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Vienneau, Danielle; Cajochen, Christian; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The type of noise annoyance scale and aspects of its presentation such as response format or location within a questionnaire and other contextual factors may affect self-reported noise annoyance. By means of a balanced experimental design, the effect of type of annoyance question and corresponding scale (5-point verbal vs. 11-point numerical ICBEN (International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise) scale), presentation order of scale points (ascending vs. descending), question location (early vs. late within the questionnaire), and survey season (autumn vs. spring) on reported road traffic noise annoyance was investigated in a postal survey with a stratified random sample of 2386 Swiss residents. Our results showed that early appearance of annoyance questions was significantly associated with higher annoyance scores. Questionnaires filled out in autumn were associated with a significantly higher annoyance rating than in the springtime. No effect was found for the order of response alternatives. Standardized average annoyance scores were slightly higher using the 11-point numerical scale whereas the percentage of highly annoyed respondents was higher based on the 5-point scale, using common cutoff points. In conclusion, placement and presentation of annoyance questions within a questionnaire, as well as the time of the year a survey is carried out, have small but demonstrable effects on the degree of self-reported noise annoyance. PMID:27886110

  14. Effects of Scale, Question Location, Order of Response Alternatives, and Season on Self-Reported Noise Annoyance Using ICBEN Scales: A Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Brink, Mark; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Vienneau, Danielle; Cajochen, Christian; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2016-11-23

    The type of noise annoyance scale and aspects of its presentation such as response format or location within a questionnaire and other contextual factors may affect self-reported noise annoyance. By means of a balanced experimental design, the effect of type of annoyance question and corresponding scale (5-point verbal vs. 11-point numerical ICBEN (International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise) scale), presentation order of scale points (ascending vs. descending), question location (early vs. late within the questionnaire), and survey season (autumn vs. spring) on reported road traffic noise annoyance was investigated in a postal survey with a stratified random sample of 2386 Swiss residents. Our results showed that early appearance of annoyance questions was significantly associated with higher annoyance scores. Questionnaires filled out in autumn were associated with a significantly higher annoyance rating than in the springtime. No effect was found for the order of response alternatives. Standardized average annoyance scores were slightly higher using the 11-point numerical scale whereas the percentage of highly annoyed respondents was higher based on the 5-point scale, using common cutoff points. In conclusion, placement and presentation of annoyance questions within a questionnaire, as well as the time of the year a survey is carried out, have small but demonstrable effects on the degree of self-reported noise annoyance.

  15. Progressive Response Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  16. Geospatial Information Response Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme emergency events of national significance that include manmade and natural disasters seem to have become more frequent during the past two decades. The Nation is becoming more resilient to these emergencies through better preparedness, reduced duplication, and establishing better communications so every response and recovery effort saves lives and mitigates the long-term social and economic impacts on the Nation. The National Response Framework (NRF) (http://www.fema.gov/NRF) was developed to provide the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. The NRF provides five key principles for better preparation, coordination, and response: 1) engaged partnerships, 2) a tiered response, 3) scalable, flexible, and adaptable operations, 4) unity of effort, and 5) readiness to act. The NRF also describes how communities, tribes, States, Federal Government, privatesector, and non-governmental partners apply these principles for a coordinated, effective national response. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the NRF doctrine by establishing several earth-sciences, discipline-level teams to ensure that USGS science, data, and individual expertise are readily available during emergencies. The Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) is one of these teams. The USGS established the GIRT to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency. The GIRT ensures that timely geospatial data are available for use by emergency responders, land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. In an emergency and response capacity, the GIRT is responsible for establishing procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing coordinated products and services utilizing the USGS' exceptional pool of

  17. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-01

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  18. Photodynamic therapy: first responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael

    2009-06-01

    During the irradiation of photosensitized cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated leading to a variety of effects including apoptosis and autophagy. These responses can occur within minutes after irradiation. Apoptosis is an irreversible pathway to death that can be triggered by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Autophagy is a recycling process that can occur as a result of Bcl-2 photodamage or as a response to organelle disruption. We have reported that autophagy is associated with a 'shoulder' on the PDT dose-response curve. Although predominantly a survival pathway, autophagy can also play a role in cell death if cells attempt an excessive amount of recycling, beyond their ability to repair photodamage. Recent studies have been directed toward assessing the role of different ROS in the immediate response to PDT. While singlet oxygen is considered to be the major phototoxic ROS, it appears that catalase activity is also a determinant of the apoptotic response and that H2O2•OH can amplify the effects of singlet oxygen. An early response to PDT also involves inhibition of membrane trafficking systems related to the endocytic pathway. The extent and nature of these early responses appear to be among the determinants of subsequent tumor eradication.

  19. Frequency Response Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel; Chassin, PNNL David; Zhang, PNNL Yu; PNNL,

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could lead to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.

  20. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  1. Mobilization Responses to Warning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    reluctance by those leaders to authorized some form of response (political, economic or military) to counter early warning indicators. Strategic...MOBILIZATION RESPONSES TO WARNING Jil This document has been aIpproved L.A INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE OF THE ARMED FORCES 83 12 29 034 4 N;. -nou-n_. -Aa- f",1...48 BILIZATION RESPONSES TO WARNING MSP #46 AY 82/83 A ERFORMING :)S REPR’~ ’.,MSEP - 8.ZNRZ ~R~AN% MBEQ,’ GREGORY W. MASON, LTC, USA S ~ SI% R NAN1ZA

  2. Environmental Response Laboratory Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ERLN as a national network of laboratories that can be ramped up as needed to support large scale environmental responses. It integrates capabilities of existing public and private sector labs, providing consistent capacity and quality data.

  3. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  4. Environmental Response Team

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This website will serve as a resource directory of the Environmental Response Team's roles and capabilities as well as list contacts for each discipline to provide information to EPA personnel and the public.

  5. Acetazolamide-responsive ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kotagal, Vikas

    2012-11-01

    Acetazolamide-responsive ataxia represents a unique collection of genetically distinct episodic ataxia (EA) disorders associated with paroxysmal cerebellar symptoms many of which are responsive to medical treatment with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Among all of the subtypes of episodic ataxia, types 2 (EA2), 3 (EA3), and 5 (EA5) are thought be the most medication responsive. Some patients with episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) will also describe improvement with acetazolamide. Each of these individual genetic syndromes is characterized by its own unique mechanism and clinical presentation. In this review, the author provides an overview of the pathophysiology of acetazolamide-responsive ataxia, its natural history, and its clinical management.

  6. Immune responses to metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Herberman, R.B.; Wiltrout, R.H.; Gorelik, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the changes in the immune system in tumor-bearing hosts that may influence the development of progression of metastases. Included are mononuclear cell infiltration of metastases; alterations in natural resistance mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages; development of specific immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes or antibodies; modulation of tumor-associated antigen expression; and the down-regulation of the immune response to the tumor by several suppressor mechanisms; the augmentation of the immune response and its potential for therapeutic application; includes the prophylaxis of metastases formation by NK cells; the therapy of metastases by augmentation NK-, macrophage-, or T-lymphocyte-mediated responses by biological response modifiers; and the transfer of anticancer activity by cytoxic T-lymphocytes or immunoconjugates of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors.

  7. Management: Area Support Responsibilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Georgia: All counties north of Bleckley, Bryan, Dodge, Effingham, Evans, Jones, Lamarr, Meriwether , Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Tattnall, Telfair, Troup...the actual cost of materials). b. Area of responsibility. Table C–2 provides installation taskings by installation, State, and county . These taskings...responsibility Devens RFTA FORSCOM CT: All counties ME: All counties MA: All counties NH: All counties RI: All counties VT: All counties Fort Belvoir, VA

  8. Emergency Response Communications Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    comunications Policy to present a revised charter which addressed Federal, state, and local problems to the Executive Office of the President for approval. The...developed a program management plan for the implementation of an Emergency Response Comunications System. The Emergency Response Comunications System, as...no more complicated than those of today’s telephone or hand-held radios. iv In the second mode -- that of providing emergency comunications - the

  9. Facility Response Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-06

    authors . The chapters written by LT McCarthy were 4, 5, 7, the pipeline response zone appendix, a cross-referencing matrix and a FRP checklist. The...Individual" and "Alternate Qualified Individual" are the individuals who have full authority to implement response actions. Details of the "Qualified...contracting authority . contractors or cooperatives may bring technical expertise or experience which is not available within the Navy organization. Care must be

  10. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  11. Mountaineers' risk perception in outdoor-adventure sports: a study of sex and sports experience.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mountaineers' (expert, less-experienced, nonparticipant) risk perception in 19 outdoor-adventure sports related to their sex and sports experience. A total of 299 experienced mountaineers (90 women, 209 men), 321 less-experienced mountaineers (110 women, 211 men) and 193 volunteers nonparticipants in sport (95 women and 98 men) took part. Data were collected with items on a Likert-type 5-point scale. Test-retest over 15 days ranged from .64-86. A two-way variance analysis of sex x group showed that men's mean risk perception was lower than that of women for orienteering, mountain biking, rowing, surfing, sailing, nordic skiing, tour skiing, snowboarding, parachuting, and cliff jumping. Also, experienced mountaineers' mean risk perception was lower than that of those less experienced.

  12. Validation of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a Sample of Male Brazilian University Students.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Aguiar, Ana Saito Junqueira; de Oliveira, Vitor Henrique; de Souza Gatti, Ana Luisa; de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Few measures are available to examine pornography use constructs, and this can compromise the reliability of statements regarding harmful use of pornography. This study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a sample of male Brazilian university students. The inventory consists of a 4-factor, 15-item, 5-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the inventory, it was administered to 100 male medical students. An initial model that included all 15 items of the inventory showed some substandard fit indices. Therefore, another model was tested, excluding an item that had loaded onto two different factors. Goodness-of-fit indices were better for the new model. Overall, findings from this study support using the inventory on Portuguese-speaking individuals. With additional replication across populations, other settings, and treatment-seeking patients, the Pornography Consumption Inventory could also potentially be shortened to 14 items.

  13. Improving Palliative Care Team Meetings: Structure, Inclusion, and "Team Care".

    PubMed

    Brennan, Caitlin W; Kelly, Brittany; Skarf, Lara Michal; Tellem, Rotem; Dunn, Kathleen M; Poswolsky, Sheila

    2016-07-01

    Increasing demands on palliative care teams point to the need for continuous improvement to ensure teams are working collaboratively and efficiently. This quality improvement initiative focused on improving interprofessional team meeting efficiency and subsequently patient care. Meeting start and end times improved from a mean of approximately 9 and 6 minutes late in the baseline period, respectively, to a mean of 4.4 minutes late (start time) and ending early in our sustainability phase. Mean team satisfaction improved from 2.4 to 4.5 on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The improvement initiative clarified communication about patients' plans of care, thus positively impacting team members' ability to articulate goals to other professionals, patients, and families. We propose several recommendations in the form of a team meeting "toolkit."

  14. Group-based preference assessment for children and adolescents in a residential setting: examining developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Resetar Volz, Jennifer L; Cook, Clayton R

    2009-11-01

    This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred stimuli that are not currently offered. The article discusses a survey devised specifically for the purpose of this study. Stimuli currently offered as rewards are listed and rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results indicate that the majority of stimuli available within the token economy system were rated as preferred. Also, significant developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences are found, indicating the benefit of considering group-level characteristics when designing and implementing a groupwide token economy system. The implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Response to Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Haruo; Posas, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    An appropriate response and adaptation to hyperosmolarity, i.e., an external osmolarity that is higher than the physiological range, can be a matter of life or death for all cells. It is especially important for free-living organisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When exposed to hyperosmotic stress, the yeast initiates a complex adaptive program that includes temporary arrest of cell-cycle progression, adjustment of transcription and translation patterns, and the synthesis and retention of the compatible osmolyte glycerol. These adaptive responses are mostly governed by the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, which is composed of membrane-associated osmosensors, an intracellular signaling pathway whose core is the Hog1 MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cytoplasmic and nuclear effector functions. The entire pathway is conserved in diverse fungal species, while the Hog1 MAPK cascade is conserved even in higher eukaryotes including humans. This conservation is illustrated by the fact that the mammalian stress-responsive p38 MAPK can rescue the osmosensitivity of hog1Δ mutations in response to hyperosmotic challenge. As the HOG pathway is one of the best-understood eukaryotic signal transduction pathways, it is useful not only as a model for analysis of osmostress responses, but also as a model for mathematical analysis of signal transduction pathways. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of both the upstream signaling mechanism and the downstream adaptive responses to hyperosmotic stress in yeast. PMID:23028184

  16. Being a responsible leader.

    PubMed

    Waldman, David A

    2010-11-01

    People who administer organizations of various types, including medical practices, are finding it increasingly necessary to demonstrate leadership. The challenge is to understand the meaning of effective leadership and to have guiding principles with regard to its implementation. It is argued here that responsibility represents a key guiding theme that doctors and practice managers can use to chart their day-to-day actions as leaders. Responsibility implies accountability to a broad array of groups and individuals who increasingly expect that leaders act in a manner that is aligned with their interests. This new era of leader accountability raises the question, to whom and what are organizational leaders responsible? In an attempt to answer this question, The author elaborates a broad perspective of responsible leadership and address both internal and external stakeholders to which a leader is responsible. Recommendations and principles are provided for how to balance the needs and interests of various stakeholders when leading one's practice. The article ends with a consideration of important caveats with regard to responsible leadership.

  17. Auxin response factors.

    PubMed

    Chandler, John William

    2016-05-01

    Auxin signalling involves the activation or repression of gene expression by a class of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins that bind to auxin response elements in auxin-responsive gene promoters. The release of ARF repression in the presence of auxin by the degradation of their cognate auxin/indole-3-acetic acid repressors forms a paradigm of transcriptional response to auxin. However, this mechanism only applies to activating ARFs, and further layers of complexity of ARF function and regulation are being revealed, which partly reflect their highly modular domain structure. This review summarizes our knowledge concerning ARF binding site specificity, homodimer and heterodimer multimeric ARF association and cooperative function and how activator ARFs activate target genes via chromatin remodelling and evolutionary information derived from phylogenetic comparisons from ARFs from diverse species. ARFs are regulated in diverse ways, and their importance in non-auxin-regulated pathways is becoming evident. They are also embedded within higher-order transcription factor complexes that integrate signalling pathways from other hormones and in response to the environment. The ways in which new information concerning ARFs on many levels is causing a revision of existing paradigms of auxin response are discussed.

  18. Quantification of human responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  19. The responsibility to protect.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Matt

    2005-01-01

    The decision whether, if ever, to intervene in the affairs of a sovereign state with military force has become a critical issue of the post Cold War era. In 2000 the Canadian government launched the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), which in 2001 published its findings in The Responsibility to Protect. The Commission found broad support for the notion of sovereignty not only as a right, but also a responsibility, the responsibility of a state to provide protection for its people. The primary responsibility for protecting citizens rests with states. But when states are unable or unwilling to provide this protection, or are themselves the perpetrators of atrocities, the Commission argues that the international community has a responsibility temporarily to step in, forcefully if necessary. The Commission resisted the temptation to identify human rights violations falling short of outright killing or ethnic cleansing. This eliminates the possibility of intervening on the basis of systematic oppression of human rights or intervening to remove a military dictatorship. The intention of the report was to provoke debate; to strengthen the role of the United Nations and ensure that such interventions were multilateral and meeting the wider needs of a region and not the interests of major powers. There is an ongoing need to ensure that the Security Council is effective and that resources match the political will. These debates must continue within a UN framework.

  20. Structural building response review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-15

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations.

  1. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  2. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  3. Response modification in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, P A

    1989-01-01

    A major goal in multistep carcinogenesis research is the integration of recent findings obtained by sophisticated molecular-genetic and cytogenetic analysis of cancer into the more descriptive concepts of experimental pathology. It is proposed that the creation of a promotable cell in carcinogenic initiation requires a response modification to extracellular or intercellular signals. Different types of response modification can be distinguished: changes in the receptors for growth and differentiation factors and their cytoplasmic and nuclear signal transduction pathways; increased resistance of initiated cells to cytotoxic agents; alterations in junctional cell-to-cell communications. The challenge of a response-modified cell to an appropriate promoter results in its selection and clonal expansion, usually to a benign tumor. In addition, for malignancy, chromosomal changes are required that affect cellular functions that can play a role early or late in tumorigenesis. These concepts are illustrated with examples from oncogene research and oxidant promotion. PMID:2667983

  4. Adaptive response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro

    Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies

  5. DOE Response to Japan

    SciTech Connect

    and RaJah Mena, Wendy Pemberton

    2011-06-23

    DOE/NNSA NA-40 was requested to provide support with consequence management activities following the incident at the Fukushima Dai’ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The response involved the deployment of several DOE/NNSA NA-40 assets to provide specialized capabilities analysts, scientists, doctors, nurses, specialized equipment and systems to characterize the deposition for the protection of the public and the environment. General response activities revolved around the concepts of: predictive modeling; monitoring and data collection from the air and on the ground; assessing the collected data and other relevant information; interpreting the data; and coordinating the communication of the interpreted data to the appropriate stakeholders.

  6. Exercise boosts immune response.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-06-29

    Ageing is associated with a decline in normal functioning of the immune system described as 'immunosenescence'. This contributes to poorer vaccine response and increased incidence of infection and malignancy seen in older people. Regular exercise can enhance vaccination response, increase T-cells and boost the function of the natural killer cells in the immune system. Exercise also lowers levels of the inflammatory cytokines that cause the 'inflamm-ageing' that is thought to play a role in conditions including cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer's disease; osteoporosis and some cancers.

  7. Factor analytic study of attitudes toward death among college students.

    PubMed

    Pandey, R E

    This investigation was designed to compare the factorial structures of the cognitive and feelings components of attitudes toward death among collgee students, 132 whites and 101 blacks; 81 males and 152 females. A test consisting of 40 items having five Likert-type responses was constructed. The BMDO3M computer programme utilising a principal component solution and orthogonal rotation of the factor matrix was used. The hypothesis that people of different races and sexes, having divergent temperaments and beliefs, will also show different factors involved in their attitudes toward death was not supported because the factors of escape, depressive-fear, mortality, and sarcasm were common to them all.

  8. An evaluative study of the impact of the "Curriculum Alignment Toolbox" on middle school science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carol L.

    The number of computer-assisted education programs on the market is overwhelming science teachers all over the Michigan. Though the need is great, many teachers are reluctant to procure computer-assisted science education programs because they are unsure of the effectiveness of such programs. The Curriculum Alignment Toolbox (CAT) is a computer-based program, aligned to the Michigan Curriculum Framework's Benchmarks for Science Education and designed to supplement science instruction in Michigan middle schools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CAT in raising the standardized test scores of Michigan students. This study involved 419 students from one urban, one suburban and one rural middle school. Data on these students was collected from 4 sources: (1) the 8th grade Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) test, (2) a 9 question, 5-point Likert-type scale student survey, (3) 4 open-response student survey questions and (4) classroom observations. Results of this study showed that the experimental group of 226 students who utilized the CAT program in addition to traditional instruction did significantly better on the Science MEAP test than the control group of 193 students who received only traditional instruction. The study also showed that the urban students from a "high needs" school seemed to benefit most from the program. Additionally, though both genders and all identified ethnic groups benefited from the program, males benefited more than females and whites, blacks and Asian/Pacific Islander students benefited more than Hispanic and multi-racial students. The CAT program's success helping raise the middle school MEAP scores may well be due to some of its components. CAT provided students with game-like experiences all based on the benchmarks required for science education and upon which the MEAP test is based. The program also provided visual and auditory stimulation as well as numerous references which students indicated

  9. Vestibulo-Sympathetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bill J; Bolton, Philip S.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence accumulated over 30 years, from experiments on animals and human subjects, has conclusively demonstrated that inputs from the vestibular otolith organs contribute to the control of blood pressure during movement and changes in posture. This review considers the effects of gravity on the body axis, and the consequences of postural changes on blood distribution in the body. It then separately considers findings collected in experiments on animals and human subjects demonstrating that the vestibular system regulates blood distribution in the body during movement. Vestibulosympathetic reflexes differ from responses triggered by unloading of cardiovascular receptors such as baroreceptors and cardiopulmonary receptors, as they can be elicited before a change in blood distribution occurs in the body. Dissimilarities in the expression of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans and animals are also described. In particular, there is evidence from experiments in animals, but not humans, that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned, and differ between body regions. Results from neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies in animals are discussed that identify the neurons that mediate vestibulosympathetic responses, which include cells in the caudal aspect of the vestibular nucleus complex, interneurons in the lateral medullary reticular formation, and bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Recent findings showing that cognition can modify the gain of vestibulosympathetic responses are also presented, and neural pathways that could mediate adaptive plasticity in the responses are proposed, including connections of the posterior cerebellar vermis with the vestibular nuclei and brainstem nuclei that regulate blood pressure. PMID:24715571

  10. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    ;Table of Contents: Section I: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; The Former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukrane, Kazakstan, And Belarus; South Asia; The International Threat: Dangers from Terrorism, Insurgencies, Civil Wars, And Organized Crime; Section II: Department of Defense Response; Technical Annex: Accessible Technologies; Glossary.

  11. Response to Arend Flick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RiCharde, R. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Arend Flick. The author states that Flick is correct that the issue of rubrics is broader than interrater reliability, though it is the assessment practitioner's primary armament against what the author has heard dubbed "refried bean counting" (insinuating that assessment statistics are not just bean…

  12. Responsibility and School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Mintrom, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The concept of responsibility is highly relevant to the organization of public schooling. Through public schools, adult citizens allow for the formal nurture and training of children to become full citizens, able to participate in our shared social, economic, and political life. With growing awareness of the importance of effective schooling to…

  13. A crucial responsibility.

    PubMed

    Okunnu, M A

    1996-04-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in Africa recognizes that men all over the world are concerned about the health and welfare of their families. In the context of sexual and reproductive health, their family responsibilities are even more crucial, being a basic component of the general health of families. Male participation in family planning is important to encourage men to take responsibility over their own sexual behavior and to protect the health of their families. To bridge existing information gaps about family planning and reproductive health, particularly those concerning male contraceptive methods, IPPF is committed to the investigation of the negative male attitudes and bias against family planning and reproductive health, identification of barriers to male involvement in sexual and reproductive health, and implementation of strategies to remove such barriers. The IPPF Strategic Plan aims to increase men's commitment and joint responsibility in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health and sensitize men to gender issues, as an essential element in ensuring equality for women and an enriched couple relationship for both men and women. Specific program activities included advocacy, information, education and communication, and reproductive health care services. Family Planning Associations are encouraged to initiate and strengthen programs to promote male responsibility and rights in family planning.

  14. Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, Professor Geneva Gay wrote that culturally responsive teaching connects students' cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles to academic knowledge and intellectual tools in ways that legitimize what students already know. By embracing the sociocultural realities and histories of students through what is taught and how,…

  15. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civille, John; Beckman, Mary; Green, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    This article offers responses from various authors to the article "Incarnational immersion-based learning in cultural contexts: A charity model," by Dr. John Trokan (2005.) Mount St. Joseph's program on incarnational immersion-based learning, as described in the article by Dr. John Trokan, will have the participating students' eyes…

  16. A Response from Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim; Hill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The suggested role for assessment in developing "Roadmaps for Learning" has potentially important implications for the learning of second or foreign languages in school, a major concern of applied linguistics. In this response, the authors consider how the findings of a detailed ethnographic study of classroom-based assessment in two…

  17. Surface Water Response Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    During response to spills, or for facility planning, the vulnerability of downstream water resources is a major concern. How long and at what concentration do spilled contaminants reach downstream receptors? Models have the potential to answer these questions, but only if they ...

  18. Teaching Responsibility through Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Toni A.

    2008-01-01

    As Literacy Outreach Coordinator for Opportunity to Read (OTR), the Watsonville (CA) Public Library literacy program, this author has recognized the concept of responsibility through example. Adult learners incorporate concepts easily when these concepts are specifically demonstrated for them by someone similar to them. Sounds simple, but putting…

  19. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  20. Response to Wong's Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosden, Merith

    2003-01-01

    In response to a paper on risk and resilience models in learning disabilities (LD) research, this article supports the author and suggests areas of research, especially identification of risk and protective factors in children with LD. Application to analysis of friendship strategies is described. Also noted is longitudinal research to identify…

  1. Free to Be Responsible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Russell

    1996-01-01

    In a lecture at Navajo Community College in fall 1995, Russell Means discussed freedom and responsibility in our present-day world. He talked about the true nature of education, the difference between knowledge and wisdom, and why Indian peoples must think critically about the educational and government structures constraining them. (Author/TD)

  2. A Response to Hartley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his response to James Hartley's "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology". Hartley concludes that the teaching of psychology has changed relatively little over the past several decades. The author states that his way of teaching now is very different from his way of 1975. This essay is about the…

  3. A Response to Hartley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, Noel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his response to James Hartley's "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology". The author finds it very interesting to read James Hartley's reflections on the teaching of psychology and he thought it would be worth adding a rather different perspective, while agreeing with Hartley's main conclusions about the…

  4. THE SHARING OF RESPONSIBILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DARLEY, JOHN

    AN OVERVIEW OF A SERIES OF STUDIES ON BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS IS PRESENTED. IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT, TWO, THREE, AND SIX MEMBER GROUPS REACTED TO HEARING, BUT NOT SEEING, ONE MEMBER OF THE GROUP HAVING AN EPILEPTIC SEIZURE. AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF OBSERVERS PERCEIVED TO BE PRESENT DECREASED THE SPEED OF RESPONSE. WHEN…

  5. Rapid response deluge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    The development of a rapid response deluge system by the Ammunition Equipment Directorate (AED) for use in suppressing propellant fires during demilitarization shows great promise. Prototype systems have been tested and data acquired on their efficiencies. Present system vs previous generations and lessons learned are discussed.

  6. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  7. Response to Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    In my response to the commentaries made about my article, I observe that the commentators find no obvious errors with my estimates of the size of the signing deaf community. However, most of them are not as pessimistic as I am partly because of the position they take on a number of issues. Namely, the supposed uniqueness of Australia in its…

  8. Toward Aesthetic Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFurio, Anthony G.

    1979-01-01

    The view of aesthetic responding presented herein has grown out of a theory of contextual aesthetics as explicated by John Dewey and Stephen Pepper and a phenomenological inquiry into art by John Anderson. The method for entry into the responsive domain has evolved from a direction elaborated by Kenneth Beittel. (Author)

  9. Children's Response to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bard, Therese Bissen

    This paper considers many aspects of children's response to literature. Among the topics discussed are factors within the child (related to age, sex, and intelligence) that teachers and researchers agree may affect a child's enjoyment of literature; a research study on the relationship between story content and a child's psychological and…

  10. Responsive Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    rock unturned in their pursuit of better supporting their comrades in arms. No single line of effort produced this change. Multiple lines of effort...DOs)—for example, CASDO, Tanker DO, and others—at the improved responsiveness happened because Airmen left no rock unturned in their pursuit of

  11. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  12. Relatives' Responsibility; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Presented by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) are background information and a policy statement on responsibility laws pertaining to relatives of applicants for public assistance. The laws are said to date to the Elizabethan Poor Laws, to vary state to state, and to mandate eligibility for public assistance on requirements of residence,…

  13. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Lori; Weaver, Roberta; Adams, Shauna M.; Landers, Mary F.; Owen, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article offers responses from Lori Moreau, a principal, Roberta Weaver, associate dean, Shauna M. Adams, associate professor, Mary F. Landers of University of Dayton, and Mary Jane Owen, a founding director, to the article "The State of Special Education in Catholic Schools," by L. DeFiore (2006). Jesus, the master teacher, reached out to the…

  14. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  15. Response to Mackenzie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chris Peers begins his response to Jim Mackenzie's article, "Peers on Socrates and Plato" by asking "What is the 'masculine imaginary?'" Peers defines the term "imaginary" as it is applied in his article, "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning" (2012) and draws…

  16. Collaborative Radiological Response Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Exercise and Evaluation Guide EMS Emergency Medical Services EPA Environmental Protection Agency FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FEMA Federal...Investigation (FBI), water regulators, food regulators, agricultural agencies, hazardous waste regulators, local environmental health agencies...FEDERAL PLANNING EFFORTS The United States Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) has had radiological responsibilities since 1970.18 The General

  17. USGS Emergency Response Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bewley, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

  18. Comment and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College English, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Critics comment on three earlier "College English" articles: Mike Rose's "The Language of Exclusion: Writing Instruction at the University," Elizabeth A. Nist's "Tattle's Well's Faire: English Women Authors of the Sixteenth Century," and Patrick Hartwell's "Grammar, Grammars, and the Teaching of Grammar." Contains responses from Mike Rose and…

  19. Dopa responsive dystonia.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, K; Roskrow, T; Davis, J S; Heckmatt, J Z

    1995-01-01

    There may be insufficient awareness of dopa responsive dystonia (DRD), which has a characteristic diurnal variation of symptoms. Two children are reported in whom the diagnosis of DRD was missed. The first was thought to have hysteria and the second hereditary spastic paraparesis. A full history is vital for the diagnosis of this important treatable syndrome. PMID:7492170

  20. Response to Professor Mulcahy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellow, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to D.G. Mulcahy's "Energizing Liberal Education" which compellingly contends that the long-term viability of liberal education depends upon both methodological and curricular diversification aimed at the "many sided development" of the student. Professor Mulcahy thoughtfully espouses both the cultivation…

  1. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  2. Responsive Evaluation: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Arieh

    1977-01-01

    Stake's concept of responsive evaluation is designed to provide various decision makers with the kind of information desired and in the form most helpful for making decisions. Compared with formal research procedures, this approach has both advantages and disadvantages. It may also provide a valuable supplement to formal evaluation. (CTM)

  3. Rules and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Meredith

    1988-01-01

    Presents two lessons for grades 1-4 which help students understand responsibility by considering situations from children's literature; in this case, THE PIED PIPER OF HAMELIN by Browning and FANTASTIC MR. FOX by Dahl. Provides discussion questions, suggestions for role playing, and a mock trial activity which involves students with visiting…

  4. Building Culturally Responsive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

  5. Comments in Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelson, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Responds to the articles in the issue's Academic Freedom and Responsibility Symposium by Robert M. O'Neil, J. Peter Byrne, and Richard T. De George, including critiques of the author's proposed "Academic Freedom Policy and Procedures." Concludes that academic freedom can only thrive when it is subject to rigorous analysis by many scholars. (EV)

  6. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  7. Responsibility and Responsiveness. The HEW Potential for the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elliot L.

    The Secretary of HEW presents an overview of departmental undertakings for the purpose of developing more responsible and responsive personnel. The major portion of the statement focuses on internal processes of responsibility and external processes of responsiveness. Departmental strategies, a planning cycle, an operational planning system,…

  8. Immune Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Saleem; Surendran, Naveen; Pichichero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neonates have little immunological memory and a developing immune system, which increases their vulnerability to infectious agents. Recent advances in understanding of neonatal immunity indicate that both innate and adaptive responses are dependent on precursor frequency of lymphocytes, antigenic dose and mode of exposure. Studies in neonatal mouse models and human umbilical cord blood cells demonstrate the capability of neonatal immune cells to produce immune responses similar to adults in some aspects but not others. This review focuses mainly on the developmental and functional mechanisms of the human neonatal immune system. In particular, the mechanism of innate and adaptive immunity and the role of neutrophils, antigen presenting cells, differences in subclasses of T lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Tregs) and B cells are discussed. In addition, we have included the recent developments in neonatal mouse immune system. Understanding neonatal immunity is essential to development of therapeutic vaccines to combat newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:25088080

  9. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  10. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  11. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Stefano; Drago, Antonio; Fabbri, Chiara; Gibiino, Sara; Calati, Raffaella; Serretti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Personalized medicine — the adaptation of therapies based on an individual’s genetic and molecular profile — is one of the most promising aspects of modern medicine. The identification of the relation between genotype and drug response, including both the therapeutic effect and side effect profile, is expected to deeply affect medical practice. In this paper, we review the current knowledge about the genes related to antidepressant treatment response and provide methodologic proposals for future studies. We have mainly focused on genes associated with pharmacodynamics, for which a list of promising genes has been identified despite some inconsistency across studies. We have also synthesized the main results for pharmacokinetic genes, although so far they seem less relevant than those for pharmacodynamic genes. We discuss possible reasons for these inconsistent findings and propose new study designs. PMID:21172166

  12. Stress Responses of Shewanella

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2011-01-01

    The shewanellae are ubiquitous in aquatic and sedimentary systems that are chemically stratified on a permanent or seasonal basis. In addition to their ability to utilize a diverse array of terminal electron acceptors, the microorganisms have evolved both common and unique responding mechanisms to cope with various stresses. This paper focuses on the response and adaptive mechanism of the shewanellae, largely based on transcriptional data. PMID:21912550

  13. Structural response synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ozisik, H.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    The open loop control technique of predicting a conditioned input signal based on a specified output response for a second order system has been analyzed both analytically and numerically to gain a firm understanding of the method. Differences between this method of control and digital closed loop control using pole cancellation were investigated as a follow up to previous experimental work. Application of the technique to diamond turning using a fast tool is also discussed.

  14. Individual Responsibility in War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-28

    65-79. 39 Robert Nozick , " Coercion ," in Philosophys Science and Method: Essays in Honor of Ernest NL&Le, eds. Patrick Suppes, Sidney Morgebesser, and...Belmont, California .jadsworth Publishing Co., 1970. Nozick , Robert. Anarchy. State. and Utopia. New Yorks Basic Books, Inc., 1974. - . " Coercion ." In...is refined and clarified. The factors that affect such responsibility are then reviewed. These include insanity, coercion , ignorance, mis- take

  15. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  16. National Response Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    being overwhelmed in times of crisis . Layered, mutually supporting capabilities of individuals, communities, the private sector, NGOs, and governments at...all levels allow for coordinated planning in times of calm and effective response in times of crisis . Engaged partnership 9 As with all activities...by an incident  Providing emergency commodities and services, such as water , food, shelter, assistance with family reunification, clothing, and

  17. Engineers and Active Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Udo

    2015-08-01

    Knowing that technologies are inherently value-laden and systemically interwoven with society, the question is how individual engineers can take up the challenge of accepting the responsibility for their work? This paper will argue that engineers have no institutional structure at the level of society that allows them to recognize, reflect upon, and actively integrate the value-laden character of their designs. Instead, engineers have to tap on the different institutional realms of market, science, and state, making their work a 'hybrid' activity combining elements from the different institutional realms. To deal with this institutional hybridity, engineers develop routines and heuristics in their professional network, which do not allow societal values to be expressed in a satisfactory manner. To allow forms of 'active' responsibility, there have to be so-called 'accountability forums' that guide moral reflections of individual actors. The paper will subsequently look at the methodologies of value-sensitive design (VSD) and constructive technology assessment (CTA) and explore whether and how these methodologies allow engineers to integrate societal values into the design technological artifacts and systems. As VSD and CTA are methodologies that look at the process of technological design, whereas the focus of this paper is on the designer, they can only be used indirectly, namely as frameworks which help to identify the contours of a framework for active responsibility of engineers.

  18. Selenium and immune responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L.; Stotzky, G.

    1987-04-01

    Selenium (Se) affects all components of the immune system, i.e., the development and expression of nonspecific, humoral, and cell-mediated responses. In general, a deficiency in Se appears to result in immunosuppression, whereas supplementation with low doses of Se appears to result in augmentation and/or restoration of immunologic functions. A deficiency of Se has been shown to inhibit (1) resistance to microbial and viral infections, (2) neutrophil function, (3) antibody production, (4) proliferation of T and B lymphocytes in response to mitogens, and (5) cytodestruction by T lymphocytes and NK cells. Supplementation with Se has been shown to stimulate (1) the function of neutrophils, (2) production of antibodies, (3) proliferation of T and B lymphocytes in response to mitogens, (4) production of lymphokines, (5) NK cell-mediated cytodestruction, (6) delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and allograft rejection, and (7) the ability of a host to reject transplanted malignant tumors. The mechanism(s) whereby Se affects the immune system is speculative. The effects of Se on the function of glutathione peroxidase and on the cellular levels of reduced glutathione and H/sub 2/Se, as well as the ability of Se to interact with cell membranes, probably represent only a few of many regulatory mechanisms. The manipulation of cellular levels of Se may be significant for the maintenance of general health and for the control of immunodeficiency disorders and the chemoprevention of cancer.

  19. The sterile inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kenneth L; Latz, Eicke; Ontiveros, Fernando; Kono, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    The acute inflammatory response is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it plays a key role in initial host defense, particularly against many infections. On the other hand, its aim is imprecise, and as a consequence, when it is drawn into battle, it can cause collateral damage in tissues. In situations where the inciting stimulus is sterile, the cost-benefit ratio may be high; because of this, sterile inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Although there have been major advances in our understanding of how microbes trigger inflammation, much less has been learned about this process in sterile situations. This review focuses on a subset of the many sterile stimuli that can induce inflammation-specifically dead cells and a variety of irritant particles, including crystals, minerals, and protein aggregates. Although this subset of stimuli is structurally very diverse and might appear to be unrelated, there is accumulating evidence that the innate immune system may recognize them in similar ways and stimulate the sterile inflammatory response via common pathways. Here we review established and emerging data about these responses.

  20. [About <responsibility> of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of <responsibility> that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  1. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  2. Semantic processing and response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Motes, Michael A; Mudar, Raksha A; Rao, Neena K; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Brier, Matthew R; Maguire, Mandy J; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2013-11-13

    The present study examined functional MRI (fMRI) BOLD signal changes in response to object categorization during response selection and inhibition. Young adults (N=16) completed a Go/NoGo task with varying object categorization requirements while fMRI data were recorded. Response inhibition elicited increased signal change in various brain regions, including medial frontal areas, compared with response selection. BOLD signal in an area within the right angular gyrus was increased when higher-order categorization was mandated. In addition, signal change during response inhibition varied with categorization requirements in the left inferior temporal gyrus (lIT). lIT-mediated response inhibition when inhibiting the response only required lower-order categorization, but lIT mediated both response selection and inhibition when selecting and inhibiting the response required higher-order categorization. The findings characterized mechanisms mediating response inhibition associated with semantic object categorization in the 'what' visual object memory system.

  3. Gravity receptors and responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Allan H.

    1989-01-01

    The overall process of gravity sensing and response processes in plants may be divided conveniently into at least four components or stages: Stimulus susception (a physical event, characteristically the input to the G receptor system of environmental information about the G force magnitude, its vector direction, or both); information perception (an influence of susception on some biological structure or process that can be described as the transformation of environmental information into a biologicallly meaningful change); information transport (the export, if required, of an influence (often chemical) to cells and organs other than those at the sensor location); and biological response (almost always (in plants) a growth change of some kind). Some analysts of the process identify, between information perception and information transport, an additional stage, transduction, which would emphasize the importance of a transformation from one form of information to another, for example from mechanical statolith displacement to an electric, chemical, or other alteration that was its indirect result. These four (or five) stages are temporally sequential. Even if all that occurs at each stage can not be confidently identified, it seems evident that during transduction and transport, matters dealt with are found relatively late in the information flow rather than at the perception stage. As more and more is learned about the roles played by plant hormones which condition the G responses, the mechanism(s) of perception which should be are not necessarily better understood. However, if by asking the right questions and being lucky with experiments perhaps the discovery of how some process (such as sedimentation of protoplasmic organelles) dictates what happens down stream in the information flow sequence may be made.

  4. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible.

  5. Responsive Image Inline Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Ian

    2016-10-20

    RIIF is a contributed module for the Drupal php web application framework (drupal.org). It is written as a helper or sub-module of other code which is part of version 8 "core Drupal" and is intended to extend its functionality. It allows Drupal to resize images uploaded through the user-facing text editor within the Drupal GUI (a.k.a. "inline images") for various browser widths. This resizing is already done foe other images through the parent "Responsive Image" core module. This code extends that functionality to inline images.

  6. Dividends with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

    2003-10-31

    To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

  7. Thermomechanical response of thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Music, Denis; Geyer, Richard W.; Keuter, Philipp

    2016-11-01

    We have theoretically investigated the product of elastic modulus and linear coefficient of thermal expansion for 20 thermoelectrics. The product is inversely proportional to equilibrium volume, which is consistent with the Debye-Grüneisen model. Oxides exhibit larger products, while the products of Te-containing thermoelectrics are considerably smaller. This is likely due to strong bonding in these oxides, which makes them prone to thermal stress, thermal shock, and thermal fatigue. As this product is rarely available in literature and the equilibrium volume is easily measurable, this work provides a quick estimation for the thermomechanical response of thermoelectric phases.

  8. The efficacy of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization: The mediational role of moral disengagement for bullying.

    PubMed

    Campaert, Kristel; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2017-03-20

    Teachers respond differently to bullying and victimization. Socio-cognitive and moral domain theory suggest that students process teachers' behavior cognitively and that teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization could affect students' level of moral disengagement. We examined the mediating effect of students' moral disengagement between types of teachers' responses to situations of bullying and victimization and individual bullying using multilevel mediation modelling. Participants were 609 students (50% boys, age M = 11.47, SD = 1.14) of central Italy, nested in 34 classes. Students rated the frequency of self-reported bullying and of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization on a 5-point Likert scale. Teachers' responses to bullying included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and sanctions. Teachers' responses to victimization included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and victim support. Results indicated that in the teachers' responses to incidents of bullying model, a significant indirect effect of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.01, .05]) and of sanctions (β = -.02; 95%CI [-.04, -.01]) on bullying through moral disengagement was found at the individual level. Similarly, in the model on teachers' responses toward victims there was a significant indirect effect through moral disengagement of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.02, .04]) and victim support (β = -.01; 95%CI [-.02, -.001]). At the class level there were no significant indirect effects. In sum, results indicated that moral disengagement is an important mediator at the individual level and suggest including teachers in anti-bullying interventions with a specific focus on their role for moral development.

  9. State responses to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  10. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, J. P.; Stansfeld, S.; Potter, J.

    1996-01-01

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:8990992

  11. Skeletal responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of gravity in the determination of bone structure is elucidated by observations in adult humans and juvenile animals during spaceflight. The primary response of bone tissue to microgravity is at the interface of the mineral and matrix in the process of biomineralization. This response is manifested by demineralization or retarded growth in some regions of the skeleton and hypermineralization in others. The most pronounced effects are seen in the heelbone and skull, the most distally located bones relative to the heart. Ground based flight simulation models that focus on changes in bone structure at the molecular, organ, and whole body levels are described and compared to flight results. On Earth, the morphologic and compositional changes in the unloaded bones are very similar to changes during flight; however, the ground based changes appear to be more transient. In addition, a redistribution of bone mineral in gravity-dependent bones occurs both in space and during head down positioning on Earth. Longitudinal data provided considerable information on the influence of endocrine and muscular changes on bone structure after unloading.

  12. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  13. Automated security response robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Dominic A.; Everett, Hobart R.; Gilbreath, Gary A.; Tran, Tien T.

    1999-01-01

    ROBART III is intended as an advance demonstration platform for non-lethal response measures, extending the concepts of reflexive teleoperation into the realm of coordinated weapons control in law enforcement and urban warfare scenarios. A rich mix of ultrasonic and optical proximity and range sensors facilitates remote operation in unstructured and unexplored buildings with minimal operator supervision. Autonomous navigation and mapping of interior spaces is significantly enhanced by an innovative algorithm which exploits the fact that the majority of man-made structures are characterized by parallel and orthogonal walls. Extremely robust intruder detection and assessment capabilities are achieved through intelligent fusion of a multitude of inputs form various onboard motion sensors. Intruder detection is addressed by a 360-degree staring array of passive-IR motion detectors, augmented by a number of positionable head-mounted sensors. Automatic camera tracking of a moving target is accomplished using a video line digitizer. Non-lethal response systems include a six- barrelled pneumatically-powered Gatling gun, high-powered strobe lights, and three ear-piercing 103-decibel sirens.

  14. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context.

  15. Playful Hyper Responsibility: Toward a Dislocation of Parents' Responsibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Hanne; Andersen, Niels Åkerstrøm

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10-15?years, state-funded schools have begun to require parents to assume an undefined and infinite personal responsibility. In this article, we investigate how schools organize responsibility games to respond to this challenge and how these games affect the concept of responsibility. We point to a dislocation in the way parents are…

  16. Assessing Personality Traits through Response Latencies Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Ortner, Tuulia M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a relation between the given response and the response latency for personality questionnaire items in the form of an inverted-U effect, which has been interpreted in light of schema-driven behavior. In general, more probable responses are given faster. In the present study, the relationship between the probability of…

  17. A Measurement Model for Likert Responses that Incorporates Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a model for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic model for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed model together with the factor model provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…

  18. Human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Borad, Anoli; Ward, Honorine

    2010-01-01

    Immune responses play a critical role in protection from, and resolution of, cryptosporidiosis. However, the nature of these responses, particularly in humans, is not completely understood. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are important. Innate immune responses may be mediated by Toll-like receptor pathways, antimicrobial peptides, prostaglandins, mannose-binding lectin, cytokines and chemokines. Cell-mediated responses, particularly those involving CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ play a dominant role. Mucosal antibody responses may also be involved. Proteins mediating attachment and invasion may serve as putative protective antigens. Further knowledge of human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis is essential in order to develop targeted prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on recent advances and future prospects in the understanding of human immune responses to Cryptosporidium infection. PMID:20210556

  19. Airburst warning and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    It is virtually certain (probability>99%) that the next destructive NEO event will be an airburst. Planetary defense is usually assumed to have the primary goal of maximizing the number of lives saved, but it can be argued that more emphasis should be placed on maximizing the probability of saving lives. For the latter goal, it is far more effective to create an early warning and civil defense plan than a mitigation plan that involves deflecting a large NEO. Because early warning and civil defense will almost certainly be needed long before the first deflection is ever required, the credibility of the planetary defense community and its recommendations will be put to its first serious test by an airburst. Successful response to an airburst event will make it much more likely that recommendations for mitigation by deflection will be accepted by decision makers and the public. Focusing more attention on the second goal will, as a side effect, benefit the primary goal.

  20. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  1. TEPC Response Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    The tissue equivalent proportional counter had the purpose of providing the energy absorbed from a radiation field and an estimate of the corresponding linear energy transfer (LET) for evaluation of radiation quality to convert to dose equivalent. It was the recognition of the limitations in estimating LET which lead to a new approach to dosimetry, microdosimetry, and the corresponding emphasis on energy deposit in a small tissue volume as the driver of biological response with the defined quantity of lineal energy. In many circumstances, the average of the lineal energy and LET are closely related and has provided a basis for estimating dose equivalent. Still in many cases the lineal is poorly related to LET and brings into question the usefulness as a general purpose device. These relationships are examined in this paper.

  2. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts.

  3. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  4. Response reactions: equilibrium coupling.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eufrozina A; Nagypal, Istvan

    2006-06-01

    It is pointed out and illustrated in the present paper that if a homogeneous multiple equilibrium system containing k components and q species is composed of the reactants actually taken and their reactions contain only k + 1 species, then we have a unique representation with (q - k) stoichiometrically independent reactions (SIRs). We define these as coupling reactions. All the other possible combinations with k + 1 species are the coupled reactions that are in equilibrium when the (q - k) SIRs are in equilibrium. The response of the equilibrium state for perturbation is determined by the coupling and coupled equilibria. Depending on the circumstances and the actual thermodynamic data, the effect of coupled equilibria may overtake the effect of the coupling ones, leading to phenomena that are in apparent contradiction with Le Chatelier's principle.

  5. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  6. Signals and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Angie

    2006-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria in the family Rhizobiaceae and members of the legume family (Fabaceae) has been well studied, particularly from the perspective of the early signaling and recognition events. Recent studies of non-nodulating legume mutants have resulted in the identification of a number of genes that are responsive to signal molecules from the bacteria. However, a second group of nodule-forming bacteria, completely unrelated to the Rhizobiaceae, which are α-Proteobacteria, has been discovered. These bacteria belong to the β-Proteobacteria and have been designated β-rhizobia to distinguish them from the better-known α-rhizobia. Here, we review what is known in this economically important symbiosis about the interaction between legumes and α-rhizobia, and we incorporate information, where known, about the β-rhizobia. PMID:19521481

  7. Temperature responsive transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature responsive transmitter is provided in which frequency varies linearly with temperature. The transmitter includes two identically biased transistors connected in parallel. A capacitor, which reflects into the common bases to generate negative resistance effectively in parallel with the capacitor, is connected to the common emitters. A crystal is effectively in parallel with the capacitor and the negative resistance. Oscillations occur if the magnitude of the absolute value of the negative resistance is less than the positive resistive impedance of the capacitor and the inductance of the crystal. The crystal has a large linear temperature coefficient and a resonant frequency which is substantially less than the gain-bandwidth product of the transistors to ensure that the crystal primarily determines the frequency of oscillation. A high-Q tank circuit having an inductor and a capacitor is connected to the common collectors to increase the collector current flow which in turn enhances the radiation of the oscillator frequency by the inductor.

  8. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  9. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  10. Teaching about Heterogeneous Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals vary in their responses to incentives and opportunities. For example, additional education will affect one person differently than another. In recent years, econometricians have given increased attention to such heterogeneous responses and to the consequences of such responses for interpreting regression estimates, especially…

  11. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  12. DYNAMICS OF THE ESCAPE RESPONSE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    requirements. It has been shown that force is a lawful response measure under positive reinforcement (Notterman and Mintz, 1965). Subjects will adjust...concluded that response force in an escape situation is a lawful response measure, and that it operates in a manner similar to force under positive reinforcement .

  13. The effects of response cost and response restriction on a multiple-response repertoire with humans

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, John

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments a multiple-response repertoire of four free-operant responses was developed with university students as subjects using monetary gain as reinforcement. Following baseline, one of the responses was reduced either by making monetary loss contingent upon it (response cost) or by removing it from the repertoire (response restriction). In Experiment 1 a multielement baseline design was employed in which baseline and restriction or response-cost contingencies alternated semirandomly every 3 minutes. In Experiment 2 a reversal design was employed (i.e., baseline, restriction or response cost, then baseline), and each response required a different amount of effort. Both experiments had the following results: (a) The target response decreased substantially; (b) most nontarget responses increased, and the rest remained near their baseline levels; and (c) no support was found for Dunham's hierarchical, most frequent follower, or greatest temporal similarity rules. For several subjects, the least probable responses during baseline increased most, and the most probable responses increased least. Furthermore, in Experiment 2, responses with the lowest frequency of reinforcement increased most (for all 7 subjects), and those with the greatest frequency of reinforcement increased least (for 5 subjects). PMID:16812683

  14. Verbal response-effect compatibility.

    PubMed

    Koch, Iring; Kunde, Wilfried

    2002-12-01

    Ideomotor theory states that motor responses are activated by an anticipation of their sensory effects. We assumed that anticipated effects would produce response-effect (R-E) compatibility when there is dimensional overlap of effects and responses. In a four-choice task, visual digit stimuli called for verbal responses (color names). Each response produced a written response-effect on the screen. In different groups, the response-effect was a colored color word (e.g., blue in blue), a white color word, or a colored nonword (Xs in blue). In different blocks, the predictable effects were either incompatible (e.g., response "blue" --> effect: green) or compatible with the response. We found faster responses with compatible than with incompatible R-E mappings. The compatibility effect was strongest with colored words, intermediate with white words, and smallest with colored nonwords. We conclude that effect anticipation influences response selection on both a perceptual level (related to the word's color) and a conceptual level (related to the word's meaning).

  15. Remune. Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Lai, Derhsing; Jones, Taff

    2002-03-01

    The Immune Response Corp (IRC) is developing Remune, a potential HIV therapeutic vaccine. Remune is based on the Salk Immunogen, which is derived from an HIV isolate which has been inactivated by chemical depletion of glycoprotein 120 (gp120). Preliminary data suggested that Remune, in combination with antiviral drug therapy, results in undetectable levels of HIV. Phase III trials commenced in May 1997 and it was initially expected that registration filings would be made in 1999. However, following interim analysis of the 2500-patient, multicenter, double-blind, pivotal phase III study (study 806) in May 1999, an independent panel recommended concluding the clinical endpoint trial and IRC and licensee, Agouron, decided to pursue alternative regulatory strategies, including initiating two additional phase III surrogate marker trials. Despite this, Agouron gave IRC notice of termination of its continued development in July 2001. In August 2001, IRC informed Agouron that, due to the total number of endpoints to date falling short of that previously assumed by Agouron, it did not intend to continue Agouron's Study 202 of Remune. In July 2001, licensee Trinity Medical Group filed an NDA with the governing health authorities in Thailand for Remune. The Thai FDA certified Immune Response's Remune manufacturing facility as being in compliance with GMP standards, following an on site inspection by Thai officials in November 2001 that was performed as a requirement of Trinity's Thai NDA. As a result of this certification, Trinity expected that a "timely determination" could be made by the Thai FDA. Rhĵne-Poulenc Rorer discontinued its part in the development of Remune, with all manufacturing, marketing and distribution rights reverting to IRC. After Agouron returned rights to Remune in July 2001, IRC heldfull rights in the US, Europe and Japan, while collaborating with its partners Trinity Medical Group and Roemmers Laboratory in the Southeast Asian and Latin American

  16. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  17. Examining maintenance responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Lam, K C

    2001-06-01

    This paper has examined the important responsibilities of the two organisations involved in the provision of maintenance service for the vital building services in many of our highly serviced buildings. The issues raised could be put to beneficial use in both clients and maintenance providers. All in all, the clients should work closely with their maintenance providers. Engineering services in buildings will not perform satisfactorily and efficiently if both parties do not work together and understand the maintenance tasks based on a business partnering mode. Put forward is the view that the management of the activities involved in the operation and maintenance process is a "shared commitment/involvement" between the client and the maintenance provider. It is obvious that many factors can influence the continued effectiveness of a quality maintenance scheme set up by client and provider. Some of these factors are: Change in key personnel Updates in technology Amendments to engineering practice Implementation of legislative requirements Changes in operation by client or provider Change of use of building Passage of time These factors must be fully reviewed by both parties from time to time, and necessary actions taken. A cooperative team working relationship and improved communication should be fostered by the client and his provider for the best management of services maintenance. This arrangement will contribute to better building services systems with continuous improvement; improved value for clients and higher return for the maintenance provider.

  18. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  19. Tolerogenic response: allorecognition pathways.

    PubMed

    Caballero, A; Fernandez, N; Lavado, R; Bravo, M J; Miranda, J M; Alonso, A

    2006-12-01

    The induction of immune tolerance in transplant recipients has been sought for many years but only a fundamental understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying graft rejection will allow manipulation of the anti-graft immune response. In general, acute rejection is better understood and treated than chronic rejection, as they occur through partially different mechanisms. It is now generally accepted that recognition of same-species, non-self antigens (allorecognition) occurs through at least two different mechanisms, the direct and indirect pathways. In the direct pathway, donor MHC molecules on the surface of donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are recognised directly by the recipient's T cells. This mechanism is so immediate that it seems to be primarily involved in acute graft rejection. Since APCs of donor origin are depleted with time a second mechanism, the indirect pathway, takes over to cause chronic rejection, in which foreign MHC molecules are internalised, partially digested and presented as peptides to recipient T cells. Nonetheless, a number of studies are only fully understood when a third proposed allorecognition mechanism is taken into account. This is the semi-indirect pathway, as discussed in this short report.

  20. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  1. A Response to Commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, I. Glenn; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Deubert, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Our article “NFL Player Health Care: Addressing Club Doctors’ Conflicts of Interests and Promoting Player Trust” focused on an inherent structural conflict that faces club doctors in the National Football League. The conflict stems from club doctors’ dual role of providing medical care to players and providing strategic advice to clubs. We recommended assigning these roles to different individuals, with the medical staff members who are responsible for providing player care being chosen and subject to review and termination by a committee of medical experts selected equally by the NFL and the NFL Players Association. Recognizing that the problem of structural conflict of interest is deeply entrenched and that our recommendation is a significant departure from the status quo, we invited comment from a diverse and highly qualified group of experts. There is considerable common ground among the commentators. All but one agreed with us that, despite the best intentions of upstanding professionals, there is a structural conflict of interest in the club doctors’ relationship with players, and the commentaries were generally supportive of our recommendation for change. There are also meaningful disagreements, however. Some commentators think that the proposal is on the right track but does not go far enough to reduce the structural conflict of interest, and one commentary wholly disagrees with our analysis and recommendations. PMID:27870084

  2. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  3. Asthma Symptom Utility Index: Reliability, validity, responsiveness and the minimal important difference in adult asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Bime, Christian; Wei, Christine Y.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Sockrider, Marianna M.; Revicki, Dennis A.; Wise, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The evaluation of asthma symptoms is a core outcome measure in asthma clinical research. The Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI) was developed to assess frequency and severity of asthma symptoms. The psychometric properties of the ASUI are not well characterized and a minimal important difference (MID) is not established. Objectives We assessed the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of the ASUI in a population of adult asthma patients. We also sought to determine the MID for the ASUI. Methods Adult asthma patients (n = 1648) from two previously completed multicenter randomized trials were included. Demographic information, spirometry, ASUI scores, and other asthma questionnaire scores were obtained at baseline and during follow-up visits. Participants also kept a daily asthma diary. Results Internal consistency reliability of the ASUI was 0.74 (Cronbach’s alpha). Test-retest reliability was 0.76 (intra-class correlation). Construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASUI scores and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores (Spearman correlation r = −0.79, 95% CI [−0.85, −0.75], P<0.001) and Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini AQLQ) scores (r = 0.59, 95% CI [0.51, 0.61], P<0.001). Responsiveness to change was demonstrated, with significant differences between mean changes in ASUI score across groups of participants differing by 10% in the percent predicted FEV1 (P<0.001), and by 0.5 points in ACQ score (P < 0.001). Anchor-based methods and statistical methods support an MID for the ASUI of 0.09 points. Conclusions The ASUI is reliable, valid, and responsive to changes in asthma control over time. The MID of the ASUI (range of scores 0–1) is 0.09. PMID:23026499

  4. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes.

  5. Response to depression treatment in the Aging Brain Care Medical Home model

    PubMed Central

    LaMantia, Michael A; Perkins, Anthony J; Gao, Sujuan; Austrom, Mary G; Alder, Cathy A; French, Dustin D; Litzelman, Debra K; Cottingham, Ann H; Boustani, Malaz A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the Aging Brain Care (ABC) Medical Home program’s depression module on patients’ depression severity measurement over time. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Public hospital system. Participants Patients enrolled in the ABC Medical Home program between October 1, 2012 and March 31, 2014. Methods The response of 773 enrolled patients who had multiple patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores recorded in the ABC Medical Home program’s depression care protocol was evaluated. Repeatedly measured PHQ-9 change scores were the dependent variables in the mixed effects models, and demographic and comorbid medical conditions were tested as potential independent variables while including random effects for time and intercept. Results Among those patients with baseline PHQ-9 scores >10, there was a significant decrease in PHQ-9 scores over time (P<0.001); however, the effect differed by gender (P=0.015). On average, women’s scores (4.5 point drop at 1 month) improved faster than men’s scores (1 point drop at 1 month). Moreover, both men and women had a predicted drop of 7 points (>50% decline from baseline) on the PHQ-9 at 6 months. Conclusion These analyses demonstrate evidence for the sustained effectiveness of the ABC Medical Home program at inducing depression remission outcomes while employing clinical staff who required less formal training than earlier clinical trials. PMID:27826188

  6. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software - Detector Response Function

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-13

    GADRAS-DRF uses a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the response of gamma-ray detectors incident radiation. The application includes provision for plotting measured and computed spectra and for characterizing detector response parameters based on measurements of a series of calibration sources (e.g., Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, and Th-228). An application program interface enables other programs to access the dynamic-link library that is used to compute spectra.

  7. African-American adolescents’ stress responses after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.; Ludwig, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of indirect exposure to the 9/11/01 attacks upon physical and emotional stress-related responses in a community sample of African-American (AA) adolescents. Methods Three months after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks, 406 AA adolescents (mean age [SD] of 16.1 ± 1.3 years) from an inner-city high school in Augusta, GA were evaluated with a 12-item 5-point Likert scale measuring loss of psychosocial resources (PRS) such as control, hope, optimism, and perceived support, a 17-item 5-point Likert scale measuring post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PCL), and measures of state and trait anger, anger expression, and hostility. Given the observational nature of the study, statistical differences and correlations were evaluated for effect size before statistical testing (5% minimum variance explained). Bootstrapping was used for testing mean differences and differences between correlations. Results PCL scores indicated that approximately 10% of the sample was experiencing probable clinically significant levels of post-traumatic distress (PCL score > 50). The PCL and PRS were moderately correlated with a r = .59. Gender differences for the PCL and PRS were small, accounting for 1% of the total variance. Higher PCL scores were associated with higher state anger (r = .47), as well as measures of anger-out (r = .32) and trait anger (r = .34). Higher PRS scores were associated only with higher state anger (r = .27). Scores on the two 9/11/01-related scales were not statistically associated (i.e., less than 5% of the variance explained) with traits of anger control, anger-in, or hostility. Conclusions The majority of students were not overly stressed by indirect exposure to the events of 9/11/01, perhaps owing to the temporal, social, and/or geographical distance from the event. Those who reported greater negative impact appeared to also be experiencing higher levels of current anger and exhibited a characterologic style of higher overt anger

  8. Training for emergency response with RimSim:Response!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce D.; Schroder, Konrad A.

    2009-05-01

    Since developing and promoting a Pacific Rim community emergency response simulation software platform called RimSim, the PARVAC team at the University of Washington has developed a variety of first responder agents who can participate within a response simulation. Agents implement response heuristics and communications strategies in conjunction with live players trying to develop their own heuristics and communications strategies to participate in a successful community response crisis. The effort is facilitated by shared visualization of the affected geographical extent. We present initial findings from interacting with a wide variety of mixed agent simulation sessions and make the software available for others to perform their own experiments.e

  9. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  10. Enhanced responsivity resonant RF photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Dev, S; Zhong, Y; Lu, R; Streyer, W; Allen, J W; Allen, M S; Wenner, B R; Gong, S; Wasserman, D

    2016-11-14

    The responsivity of room-temperature, semiconductor-based photodetectors consisting of resonant RF circuits coupled to microstrip buslines is investigated. The dependence of the photodetector response on the semiconductor material and RF circuit geometry is presented, as is the detector response as a function of the spatial position of the incident light. We demonstrate significant improvement in detector response by choice of photoconductive material, and for a given material, by positioning our optical signal to overlap with positions of RF field enhancement. Design of RF circuits with strong field enhancement are demonstrated to further improve detector response. The improved detector response demonstrated offers opportunities for applications in RF photonics, materials metrology, or single read-out multiplexed detector arrays.

  11. Building a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  12. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  13. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  14. Immune Responses in Parasitic Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Scientific Report Daniel J. Stechschulte, M.D. Herbert B. Lindsley, M.D. September 1982 (July 1974 - December 1979...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Report July 1977 - Dec. 1979 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER S 4 7. AUTNIOR(a) 6...DAMD 17-74-C-4136 AD_______________ IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Scientific Report Daniel J. Stechschulte, M.D. Herbert B. Lindsley

  15. Macrophage Responses to B. Anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-14

    LPS were reflective of a profound rophage responses to close relatives like Bacillus cereus as well change in cellular signaling, and in general these...published (attached) in 2005 [Bergman, et al. Murine Macrophage Transcriptional Responses to Bacillus I Final Report anthracis Infection and Intoxication...Macrophage Transcriptional Responses to Bacillus anthracis Infection and Intoxication. Infection & Immunity. 73:1069-1079. Parallel to the mRNA data

  16. Avoidance response, house response, and wind responses of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Avoidance response: An object placed 1 mm from the growing zone of a Phycomyces sporangiophore elicits a tropic response away from the object. The dependence of this response on the size of the object and its distance from the specimen is described, as well as measurements which exclude electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, temperature, and humidity as avoidance-mediating signals. This response is independent of the composition and surface properties of the object and of ambient light. House Response: A house of 0.5- to 10-cm diameter put over a sporangiophore elicits a transient growth response. Avoidance responses inside closed houses are slightly smaller than those in the open. Wind responses: A transverse wind elicits a tropic response into the wind, increasing with wind speed. A longitudinal wind, up or down, elicits a transient negative growth response to a step-up in wind speed, and vice versa. It is proposed that all of the effects listed involve wind sensing. This proposal is supported by measurements of aerodynamic effects of barriers and houses on random winds. The wind sensing is discussed in terms of the hypothesis that a gas is emitted by the growing zone (not water or any normal constituent of air), the concentration of which is modified by the winds and monitored by a chemical sensor. This model puts severe constraints on the physical properties of the gas. PMID:1159403

  17. Avoidance response, house response, and wind responses of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R J; Jan, Y N; Matricon, J; Delbrück, M

    1975-07-01

    Avoidance response: An object placed 1 mm from the growing zone of a Phycomyces sporangiophore elicits a tropic response away from the object. The dependence of this response on the size of the object and its distance from the specimen is described, as well as measurements which exclude electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, temperature, and humidity as avoidance-mediating signals. This response is independent of the composition and surface properties of the object and of ambient light. House Response: A house of 0.5- to 10-cm diameter put over a sporangiophore elicits a transient growth response. Avoidance responses inside closed houses are slightly smaller than those in the open. Wind responses: A transverse wind elicits a tropic response into the wind, increasing with wind speed. A longitudinal wind, up or down, elicits a transient negative growth response to a step-up in wind speed, and vice versa. It is proposed that all of the effects listed involve wind sensing. This proposal is supported by measurements of aerodynamic effects of barriers and houses on random winds. The wind sensing is discussed in terms of the hypothesis that a gas is emitted by the growing zone (not water or any normal constituent of air), the concentration of which is modified by the winds and monitored by a chemical sensor. This model puts severe constraints on the physical properties of the gas.

  18. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  19. Unphysical divergences in response theory.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shane M; Roy, Saswata; Furche, Filipp

    2016-10-07

    Transition densities between excited states are key for nonlinear theoretical spectroscopy and multi-state non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) simulations. In the framework of response theory, these transition densities are accessible from poles of the quadratic response function. It was shown recently that the thus obtained transition densities within time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) exhibit unphysical divergences when the difference in excitation energy of the two states of interest matches another excitation energy. This unphysical behavior is a consequence of spurious poles in the quadratic response function. We show that the incorrect pole structure of the quadratic response is not limited to TDHF and adiabatic TDDFT, but is also present in many other approximate many-electron response functions, including those from coupled cluster and multiconfigurational self-consistent field response theory. The divergences appear in regions of the potential energy surface where the ground state is perfectly well behaved, and they are frequently encountered in NAMD simulations of photochemical reactions. The origin of the divergences is traced to an incorrect instantaneous time-dependence of the effective Hamiltonian. The implications for computations of frequency-dependent response properties are considerable and call into question the validity of conventional approximate many-electron response theories beyond linear response.

  20. Psychophysiological responses to Salsa dance.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Saavedra, Francisco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Speculation exists whether dance provides physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits. Unfortunately, research to date has not addressed the affective and exertional responses to dance. These responses are of interest as positive affective and exertional responses experienced during physical activity may play an important role in predicting adherence. The present study aims to examine the psychophysiological responses of different Salsa dance styles. Ten pairs of dancers performed two different structured lessons of Salsa dance, including Typical Salsa and Rueda de Casino lessons, and a non-structured Salsa dance at a night club. Physiological responses (i.e., percent of heart rate reserve; %HRR) were continuously assessed and perceived exertion and affective valence were rated every 15 min throughout the trials. %HRR responses differed between the Salsa dance styles (%HRR from 41.3 to 51.9%), and participants were dancing at intensities near their ventilatory threshold. Specifically, Typical Salsa lesson elicited lower %HRR responses than Rueda de Casino lesson (p < 0.05), but similar %HRR responses to Salsa dance at a night club condition (p > 0.05). Surprisingly, exertional (from 8 to 11) and affective (from +3 to +5) responses were unaffected by Salsa dance styles (p > 0.05). These data support that different Salsa dance styles provide physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits, and perhaps more importantly, produce pleasurable experiences, which in turn might lead to an increase in adherence to Salsa dancing which likely provides exercise-like health benefits.

  1. The Value of Response Times in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    A new and very interesting approach to the analysis of responses and response times is proposed by Goldhammer (this issue). In his approach, differences in the speed-ability compromise within respondents are considered to confound the differences in ability between respondents. These confounding effects of speed on the inferences about ability can…

  2. Responsible nanotechnology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    the nanotoxicology. The establishment of an effective strategy cannot ignore the distinction between different nanoparticles on their use and the type of exposure to which we are subjected. Categorization is essential to orchestrate toxicological rules realistic and effective. The responsible development of nanotechnology means a common effort, by scientists, producers, stakeholders, and public institutions to develop appropriate programs to systematically approach the complex issue of the nanotoxicology.

  3. Environmental Protection Agency Award Recipient Responsibilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Itemized Award Phase information. Information about the Recipient's Responsibilities Upon Notification of the Award, The EPA Project Officer Responsibilities, and EPA Grant Specialists Responsibilities.

  4. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  5. Timesheet fraud: A nurse's responsibility.

    PubMed

    McCausland, Dermid

    2006-04-01

    A nurse is more important than ever in today's NHS. They not only have more responsibility when it comes to the treatment of patients but a greater say in the administration of wards and departments. With this responsibility comes a duty to protect the NHS from those who try to abuse it.

  6. Bringing Professional Responsibility Back in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Research on how higher education institutions work with professional formation indicates that insufficient attention is currently paid to issues of professional responsibility and ethics. In the light of such findings, there is increasing concern about issues related to learning professional responsibility. This article concentrates on different…

  7. The Writing Response to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Gloria; Rosen, Lois Matz

    When students write in response to literature, they make reading a creative act. Recording their personal reaction to a poem or an excerpt from a larger work, students become aware of the complex web of past experiences, associations and ideas triggering their responses; they learn to interact more fully, more consciously, with the text. Besides…

  8. Responsibility Education: Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, Arthur, Ed.; Miller, Harry G., Ed.

    The monograph summarizes seven presentations made at a 1976 workshop on responsibility education, defined as a movement to establish and nourish an educational system that will develop and enhance the growth of responsible citizens. The first article describes social trends, such as the breakdown of the traditional family, which have increasingly…

  9. Response Reversals in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Trisha; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a dynamic sequential sampling model and a recently proposed model for confidence judgments in recognition memory (T. Van Zandt, 2000b), the authors examine the tendency for rememberers to reverse their responses after a primary decision. In 4 experiments, speeded "old"-"new" decisions were made under bias followed by a 2nd response', either…

  10. Responsive Therapy: An Integrational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Sterling K.

    Responsive therapy is an integrative model that uses a variety of intervention models, each in its own theory-pure context. This article addresses some major misdirections in the counseling profession and discusses ways that responsive therapy can help correct these misdirections. For at least two generations, counseling has professed that the…

  11. Generalizability in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…

  12. Grassland responses to precipitation extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grassland ecosystems are naturally subjected to periods of prolonged drought and sequences of wet years. Climate change is expected to enhance the magnitude and frequency of extreme events at the intraannual and multiyear scales. Are grassland responses to extreme precipitation simply a response to ...

  13. Administrative Responses to Campus Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Mary L.; Roark, Eldridge W., Jr.

    Campus violence, whether it is physical, sexual, or psychological, is counterproductive to a positive college environment and to the healthy development of individuals. Student affairs administrators and directors of various student services hold a responsibility for directing the response of campus personnel to specific volatile and exploitive…

  14. Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide , mudslide, snowstorm, or drought) or...range of subtypes to include severe winter storms, severe storms and flooding, landslides and mudslides, tornadoes, inland and coastal flooding...national responsibility. Majority of States Subsidize the Minority of States Two problems with the trend towards nationalization of disaster response

  15. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  16. Electric response in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  17. Is fluency free-operant response-response chaining?

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article briefly reviews behavioral fluency and its 10 products. Fluency development requires three of the four free-operant freedoms: the freedom to present stimuli at the learner's rhythm, the freedom to form the response, and the freedom to speed at the learner's maximum frequency. The article closes with several suggestions that fluent performing is really operant response-response (R-R) chaining, and recommends further controlled laboratory research on free-operant R-R chaining. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478259

  18. Dose-response model for teratological experiments involving quantal responses

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, K.; Van Ryzin, J.

    1985-03-01

    This paper introduces a dose-response model for teratological quantal response data where the probability of response for an offspring from a female at a given dose varies with the litter size. The maximum likelihood estimators for the parameters of the model are given as the solution of a nonlinear iterative algorithm. Two methods of low-dose extrapolation are presented, one based on the litter size distribution and the other a conservative method. The resulting procedures are then applied to a teratological data set from the literature.

  19. Reinforcing communication skills while registered nurses simultaneously learn course content: a response to learning needs.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, B B

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Integrated Skills Reinforcement (ISR) in a baccalaureate nursing course entitled "Principles of Health Assessment" for 15 registered nurse students. ISR is a comprehensive teaching-learning approach that simultaneously reinforces student writing, reading, speaking, and listening skills while they learn course content. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of ISR on writing skills and student satisfaction. A learner's guide and teacher's guide, created in advance by the teacher, described specific language activities and assignments that were implemented throughout the ISR course. During each class, the teacher promoted discussion, collaboration, and co-inquiry among students, using course content as the vehicle of exchange. Writing was assessed at the beginning and end of the course. The influence of ISR on the content, organization, sentence structure, tone, and strength of position of student writing was analyzed. Writing samples were scored by an independent evaluator trained in methods of holistic scoring. Ninety-three per cent (14 of 15 students) achieved writing growth from .5 to 1.5 points on a scale of 6 points. Student response to both the ISR approach and specific ISR activities was assessed by teacher-created surveys administered at the middle-end of the course. One hundred per cent of the students at the end of this project agreed that the ISR activities, specifically the writing and reading activities, helped them better understand the course content. These responses differed from evaluations written by the same students at the middle of the course. The ISR approach fostered analysis and communication through active collaboration, behaviors cited as critical for effective participation of nurses in today's complex health care environment.

  20. A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Responses from a Graded Disagree-Agree Response Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

    1996-01-01

    A parametric item response theory model for unfolding binary or graded responses is developed. The graded unfolding model (GUM) is a generalization of the hyperbolic cosine model for binary data of D. Andrich and G. Luo (1993). Applicability of the GUM to attitude testing is illustrated with real data. (SLD)

  1. Fast-response cup anemometer features cosine response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenzen, P.

    1968-01-01

    Six-cup, low-inertia anemometer combines high resolution and fast response with a unique ability to sense only the horizontal component of the winds fluctuating rapidly in three dimensions. Cup assemblies are fabricated of expanded polystyrene plastic.

  2. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  3. National Response Team (NRT) Member Roles and Responsibilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA personnel chair the NRT and cochair all Regional Response Teams (RRTs). They provide On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs), scientific support coordinators for inland spills, and Remedial Project Managers for hazardous waste remedial actions under Superfund.

  4. Eliminating mirror responses by instructions.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Bundt, Carsten; Notebaert, Wim; Brass, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The observation of an action leads to the activation of the corresponding motor plan in the observer. This phenomenon of motor resonance has an important role in social interaction, promoting imitation, learning and action understanding. However, mirror responses not always have a positive impact on our behavior. An automatic tendency to imitate others can introduce interference in action execution and non-imitative or opposite responses have an advantage in some contexts. Previous studies suggest that mirror tendencies can be suppressed after extensive practice or in complementary joint action situations revealing that mirror responses are more flexible than previously thought. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the mechanisms that allow response flexibility of motor mirroring. Here we show that the mere instruction of a counter-imitative mapping changes mirror responses as indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) enhancement induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Importantly, mirror activation was measured while participants were passively watching finger movements, without having the opportunity to execute the task. This result suggests that the implementation of task instructions activates stimulus-response association that can overwrite the mirror representations. Our outcome reveals one of the crucial mechanisms that might allow flexible adjustments of mirror responses in different contexts. The implications of this outcome are discussed.

  5. Neural activation during response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, E.; Poldrack, R.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The flanker task, introduced by Eriksen and Eriksen [Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143--149], provides a means to selectively manipulate the presence or absence of response competition while keeping other task demands constant. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the flanker task. In accordance with previous behavioral studies, trials in which the flanking stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus were performed significantly more slowly than trials in which all the stimuli indicated the same response. This reaction time effect was accompanied by increases in activity in four regions: the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the left superior parietal lobe, and the left anterior parietal cortex. The increases were not due to changes in stimulus complexity or the need to overcome previously learned associations between stimuli and responses. Correspondences between this study and other experiments manipulating response interference suggest that the frontal foci may be related to response inhibition processes whereas the posterior foci may be related to the activation of representations of the inappropriate responses.

  6. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphical summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.

  7. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphicalmore » summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.« less

  8. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-11-06

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress.

  9. The 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Raviola, Giuseppe; Severe, Jennifer; Therosme, Tatiana; Oswald, Cate; Belkin, Gary; Eustache, Eddy

    2013-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters.

  10. Ubiquitin signaling in immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:27012466

  11. Vaccination pattern affects immunological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchegoin, P. G.

    2005-08-01

    The response of the immune system to different vaccination patterns is studied with a simple model. It is argued that the history and characteristics of the pattern defines very different secondary immune responses in the case of infection. The memory function of the immune response can be set to work in very different modes depending on the pattern followed during immunizations. It is argued that the history and pattern of immunizations can be a decisive (and experimentally accessible) factor to tailor the effectiveness of a specific vaccine.

  12. Emergency Response and Management Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This quarterly report, highlighting accomplishments over the past several months, showcases EPA’s unique emergency response capabilities through the use of cutting-edge technologies and innovative cleanup strategies.

  13. Emergency Response Teams in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the value of proper crisis response training to help schools protect lives by avoiding adverse situations. Details the execution of a crisis management plan, which was developed following a cafeteria/kitchen explosion. (GR)

  14. Responsive parenting: interventions and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Martines, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. PMID:17242836

  15. EPA Response to RFC 11001

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Response to Ms Randlshofer that IRIS assessment of halogenated platinum salts is not needed due to platinum fuel additived being removed from the list of registered additives for use in on-road diesel vehicles

  16. Model refinement using transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

  17. Responsive foams for nanoparticle delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Christina; Xiao, Edward; Sinko, Patrick J; Szekely, Zoltan; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2015-09-01

    We have developed responsive foam systems for nanoparticle delivery. The foams are easy to make, stable at room temperature, and can be engineered to break in response to temperature or moisture. Temperature-responsive foams are based on the phase transition of long chain alcohols and could be produced using medical grade nitrous oxide as a propellant. These temperature-sensitive foams could be used for polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based nanoparticle delivery. We also discuss moisture-responsive foams made with soap pump dispensers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nanoparticles or PMMA latex nanoparticles were loaded into Tween 20 foams and the particle size was not affected by the foam formulation or foam break. Using biocompatible detergents, we anticipate this will be a versatile and simple approach to producing foams for nanoparticle delivery with many potential pharmaceutical and personal care applications.

  18. Enforcement Response Policies and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Enforcement Response Policies relating to violations or noncompliance with the environmental statutes and regulations. The listing is not inclusive of all policy and guidance that may be relied upon in developing enforcement actions.

  19. The Phage Shock Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2016-09-08

    The phage shock protein (Psp) system was identified as a response to phage infection in Escherichia coli, but rather than being a specific response to a phage, it detects and mitigates various problems that could increase inner-membrane (IM) permeability. Interest in the Psp system has increased significantly in recent years due to appreciation that Psp-like proteins are found in all three domains of life and because the bacterial Psp response has been linked to virulence and other important phenotypes. In this article, we summarize our current understanding of what the Psp system detects and how it detects it, how four core Psp proteins form a signal transduction cascade between the IM and the cytoplasm, and current ideas that explain how the Psp response keeps bacterial cells alive. Although recent studies have significantly improved our understanding of this system, it is an understanding that is still far from complete.

  20. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  1. Axion response in gapless systems.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Doron L

    2011-10-21

    The strong topological insulator in 3D is expected to realize a quantized magnetoelectric response, the so-called axion response. However, many of the materials predicted to be topological insulators have turned out to be metallic, with bulk Fermi surfaces. Following the result of Bergman and Refael [Phys. Rev. B 82, 195417 (2010)] that the surface states of the topological insulator persist even when the band structure gap is closed, we explore the fate of the magnetoelectric response in such systems. We find that a nonquantized magnetoelectric coupling remains once a bulk Fermi surface opens. More generally, we find higher-dimensional analogs of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect for all Chern forms-quantized transport coefficients in the gapped case become nonquantized when the gap is closed. In particular, the nonquantized magnetoelectric response in 3D descends from the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect analog in 4D.

  2. Identification of noisy response latency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2012-08-01

    In many physical systems there is a time delay before an applied input (stimulation) has an impact on the output (response), and the quantification of this delay is of paramount interest. If the response can only be observed on top of an indistinguishable background signal, the estimation can be highly unreliable, unless the background signal is accounted for in the analysis. In fact, if the background signal is ignored, however small it is compared to the response and however large the delay is, the estimate of the time delay will go to zero for any reasonable estimator when increasing the number of observations. Here we propose a unified concept of response latency identification in event data corrupted by a background signal. It is done in the context of information transfer within a neural system, more specifically on spike trains from single neurons. The estimators are compared on simulated data and the most suitable for specific situations are recommended.

  3. Community Relations During Emergency Responses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Good communication is essential to keep local officials and citizens informed, so an official EPA spokesperson is appointed during each response action. Public involvement can help to save lives should an evacuation or other action be required.

  4. Universality of receptor channel responses.

    PubMed

    Kardos, J; Nyikos, L

    2001-12-01

    Rate parameters estimated for neurotransmitter-gated receptor channel opening and receptor desensitization are classified according to their dependence on the temporal resolution of the techniques applied in the measurements. Because allosteric proteins constituting receptor channels impose restrictions on the types of model suitable to describe the dynamic response of channels to neurotransmitters, Markovian, non-linear or fractal dynamic models and their possible extension to receptor channel response in excitable membranes are discussed.

  5. Participants' responsibilities in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Ness, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Discussions on the ethics and regulation of clinical research have a great deal to say about the responsibilities of investigators, sponsors, research institutions and institutional review boards, but very little about the responsibilities of research participants. In this article, we discuss the responsibilities of participants in clinical research. We argue that competent adult participants are responsible for complying with study requirements and fulfilling other obligations they undertake when they make an informed choice to enroll in a study. These responsibilities are based on duties related to promise-keeping, avoiding harm to one's self or others, beneficence and reciprocity. Investigators and research staff should inform participants about their responsibilities during the consent process, and should stress the importance of fulfilling study requirements. They should address any impediments to compliance, and they may provide participants with financial incentives for meeting study requirements. In very rare cases, coercive measures may be justified to prevent immanent harm to others resulting from non-compliance with study requirements.

  6. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yutaka, Ono; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in a nationally representative study. Methods Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), which comprises four subsamples: (1) a national random digit dialing (RDD) sample, (2) oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3) siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4) a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: “none of the time,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. Results The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from “a little of the time” to “all of the time” on log-normal scales, while “none of the time” response was not related to this exponential pattern. Discussion The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales. PMID:28289560

  7. Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2014-06-01

    I thank these authors (Buma et al., 2014), for their interest in my paper. The topic of postglacial tree migration has always been a controversial one, so it is not surprising that my review of the evidence for the postglacial establishment of Pacific Northwest forest species in southern Alaska would generate some additional controversy. Burma et al. are perfectly correct in their statement that I did not consider localized refugia for these tree species within southeast Alaska during the LGM. However, I take exception to their statement that I did not consider the ecology of these trees in my reconstruction of regional events during the last glacial maximum (LGM). On the contrary, a consideration of the ecological requirements of these PNW tree species is precisely the reason I excluded the possibility of their survival in southeast Alaska during the height of the last glaciation, as explained below.

  8. Response surface development using RETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R.E.; Sorensen, J.M.; May, R.S.; Doran, K.J. ); Trikouros, N.G.; Mozias, E.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and GPU Nuclear Corporation have completed a demonstration project that provides justification for relaxing the high-pressure setpoints for the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. The project was undertaken because an undesirable overlap had been identified in the high-pressure setpoints when accounting for measurement uncertainties experienced during plant operation. The project employed a statistical combination of uncertainties (SCU) process to provide increased margin for measurement uncertainties. This approach was used because previous experience indicated that there was insufficient margin to justify the desired setpoints using conventional deterministic inputs to the safety analysis and plant performance analysis processes. Through the use of SCU methodology and other deterministic analyses, it is possible to provide comprehensive bases for the desired technical specification changes to the high-pressure setpoints. The SCU process is based on the EPRI setpoint analysis guidelines, and it requires the development of response surfaces to simulate RETRAN peak pressure calculations for the limiting transient event. The use of response surfaces adds an intermediate step to the SCU process, but reduces the number of RETRAN cases required to make appropriate statistical statements about the result probabilities. Basically, each response surface is an approximation of the RETRAN code for one particular event and one output variable of interest, which is valid over a limited region. The response surfaces can be sampled very inexpensively using simple Monte Carlo methods. The basic input to the development of a response surface is a set of results obtained from specific RETRAN cases.

  9. Response Tuning in Bacterial Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasuja, Ravi; Yu-Lin; Trentham, David R.; Khan, Shahid

    1999-09-01

    Chemotaxis of enteric bacteria in spatial gradients toward a source of chemoattractant is accomplished by increases in the length of swimming runs up the gradient. Biochemical components of the intracellular signal pathway have been identified, but mechanisms for achieving the high response sensitivity remain unknown. Binding of attractant ligand to its receptor inactivates a receptor-associated histidine kinase, CheA, which phosphorylates the signal protein CheY. The reduction in phospho-CheY, CheY-P, levels prolongs swimming runs. Here, the stimulus-response relation has been determined by measurement of excitation responses mediated by the Tar receptor to defined concentration jumps of the attractant, aspartate, administered within milliseconds by photolysis of a photolabile precursor. The bacteria responded to <1% changes in Tar occupancy when adapted to aspartate over concentrations spanning three orders of magnitude. Response amplitudes increased approximately logarithmically with stimulus strength, extending responsiveness over a greater stimulus range. The extent and form of this relation indicates that, in contrast to mechanisms for adaptive recovery, excitation signal generation involves amplification based on cooperative interactions. These interactions could entail inactivation of multiple receptor-CheA signaling complexes and/or simultaneous activation of CheY-P dephosphorylation.

  10. Mouse Auditory Brainstem Response Testing

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Omar; Oursler, A. E.; Fan, Kevin; Lustig, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test provides information about the inner ear (cochlea) and the central pathways for hearing. The ABR reflects the electrical responses of both the cochlear ganglion neurons and the nuclei of the central auditory pathway to sound stimulation (Zhou et al., 2006; Burkard et al., 2007). The ABR contains 5 identifiable wave forms, labeled as I-V. Wave I represents the summated response from the spiral ganglion and auditory nerve while waves II-V represent responses from the ascending auditory pathway. The ABR is recorded via electrodes placed on the scalp of an anesthetized animal. ABR thresholds refer to the lowest sound pressure level (SPL) that can generate identifiable electrical response waves. This protocol describes the process of measuring the ABR of small rodents (mouse, rat, guinea pig, etc.), including anesthetizing the mouse, placing the electrodes on the scalp, recording click and tone burst stimuli and reading the obtained waveforms for ABR threshold values. As technology continues to evolve, ABR will likely provide more qualitative and quantitative information regarding the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways involved in hearing.

  11. Preliminary Response Analysis of AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Azian; Basharie, Siti Mariam; Ghani, Mohamad Hanifah Abd.

    2010-06-01

    Development of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) involves a great task to fully understand the overall working principles of an UAV that needed time, experience and a wide range of intelligence to cover the entire scientific facts. This study is done by means to acquire the fundamental knowledge in understanding the stability and response of an UAV. The longitudinal response and stability of UAV owing to deflection of stern plane during trimmed equilibrium motion can be computed by solving the AUV equation of motion. In this study, the AUV equations of motion were rederived and the solution was computed with the aid of Matlab software. From the existing AUV, a new dimension, weight and speed were specified to be used in the rederivation of the linearised AUV longitudinal equations of motion. From the analysis done, the longitudinal response AUV shows the stern plane and thrust has relatively steady longitudinal control power and quick response characteristic. The results had successfully given a preliminary insight of the specified AUV response and dynamic stability.

  12. Identifying predictors of treatment response.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul; Compton, Don

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for considering predictors of growth in a treatment group as inadequate to identifying predictors of treatment response. When we interpret predictors of growth in a treatment group as synonymous with predictors of treatment response, we implicitly attribute all of the treated children's growth to the treatment, an untenable assumption under most conditions. We also contend that the use of standard scores in predictors of growth studies does not allow us to differentiate growth from treatment, from growth from other factors. We present two research methodologies that are appropriate methods of identifying predictors of treatment response: (a) single-subject experimental logic utilized to identify the specific participants in which treatment responses (not just growth) were found, combined with follow-up group comparison logic to identify the characteristics on which responders and nonresponders differ, and (b) statistical interactions among child/family/context characteristics and randomly assigned group membership. Principles for selecting potential predictors of treatment response are provided.

  13. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  14. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  15. Spike history neural response model.

    PubMed

    Kameneva, Tatiana; Abramian, Miganoosh; Zarelli, Daniele; Nĕsić, Dragan; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Grayden, David B

    2015-06-01

    There is a potential for improved efficacy of neural stimulation if stimulation levels can be modified dynamically based on the responses of neural tissue in real time. A neural model is developed that describes the response of neurons to electrical stimulation and that is suitable for feedback control neuroprosthetic stimulation. Experimental data from NZ white rabbit retinae is used with a data-driven technique to model neural dynamics. The linear-nonlinear approach is adapted to incorporate spike history and to predict the neural response of ganglion cells to electrical stimulation. To validate the fitness of the model, the penalty term is calculated based on the time difference between each simulated spike and the closest spike in time in the experimentally recorded train. The proposed model is able to robustly predict experimentally observed spike trains.

  16. Photo-responsive polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Dong, Ruijiao; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2014-09-07

    Photo-responsive polymeric micelles have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields due to their efficient photo-sensitive nature and unique nanostructure. In view of the photo-reaction mechanism, photo-responsive polymeric micelles can be divided into five major types: (1) photoisomerization polymeric micelles, (2) photo-induced rearrangement polymeric micelles, (3) photocleavage polymeric micelles, (4) photo-induced crosslinkable polymeric micelles, and (5) photo-induced energy conversion polymeric micelles. This review highlights the recent advances of photo-responsive polymeric micelles, including the design, synthesis and applications in various biomedical fields. Especially, the influence of different photo-reaction mechanisms on the morphology, structure and properties of the polymeric micelles is emphasized. Finally, the possible future directions and perspectives in this emerging area are briefly discussed.

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  18. Linking stressors and ecological responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gentile, J.H.; Solomon, K.R.; Butcher, J.B.; Harrass, M.; Landis, W.G.; Power, M.; Rattner, B.A.; Warren-Hicks, W.J.; Wenger, R.; Foran, Jeffery A.; Ferenc, Susan A.

    1999-01-01

    To characterize risk, it is necessary to quantify the linkages and interactions between chemical, physical and biological stressors and endpoints in the conceptual framework for ecological risk assessment (ERA). This can present challenges in a multiple stressor analysis, and it will not always be possible to develop a quantitative stressor-response profile. This review commences with a conceptual representation of the problem of developing a linkage analysis for multiple stressors and responses. The remainder of the review surveys a variety of mathematical and statistical methods (e.g., ranking methods, matrix models, multivariate dose-response for mixtures, indices, visualization, simulation modeling and decision-oriented methods) for accomplishing the linkage analysis for multiple stressors. Describing the relationships between multiple stressors and ecological effects are critical components of 'effects assessment' in the ecological risk assessment framework.

  19. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. PMID:26561803

  20. Metabolomics for plant stress response.

    PubMed

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Cortes, Diego; Miller, Gad; Mittler, Ron

    2008-02-01

    Stress in plants could be defined as any change in growth condition(s) that disrupts metabolic homeostasis and requires an adjustment of metabolic pathways in a process that is usually referred to as acclimation. Metabolomics could contribute significantly to the study of stress biology in plants and other organisms by identifying different compounds, such as by-products of stress metabolism, stress signal transduction molecules or molecules that are part of the acclimation response of plants. These could be further tested by direct measurements, correlated with changes in transcriptome and proteome expression and confirmed by mutant analysis. In this review, we will discuss recent application of metabolomics and system biology to the area of plant stress response. We will describe approaches such as metabolic profiling and metabolic fingerprinting as well as combination of different 'omics' platforms to achieve a holistic view of the plant response stress and conduct detailed pathway analysis.

  1. Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the “classical” plant hormones, i.e. discovered at least 50 years ago, that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. This chapter reviews our current understanding of ABA synthesis, metabolism, transport, and signal transduction, emphasizing knowledge gained from studies of Arabidopsis. A combination of genetic, molecular and biochemical studies has identified nearly all of the enzymes involved in ABA metabolism, almost 200 loci regulating ABA response, and thousands of genes regulated by ABA in various contexts. Some of these regulators are implicated in cross-talk with other developmental, environmental or hormonal signals. Specific details of the ABA signaling mechanisms vary among tissues or developmental stages; these are discussed in the context of ABA effects on seed maturation, germination, seedling growth, vegetative stress responses, stomatal regulation, pathogen response, flowering, and senescence. PMID:24273463

  2. Responsibility, Complexity Science and Education: Dilemmas and Uncertain Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2009-01-01

    While complexity science is gaining interest among educational theorists, its constructs do not speak to educational responsibility or related core issues in education of power and ethics. Yet certain themes of complexity, as taken up in educational theory, can help unsettle the more controlling and problematic discourses of educational…

  3. Heterogeneity of neural mechanisms of response to pivotal response treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ventola, Pamela; Yang, Daniel Y. J.; Friedman, Hannah E.; Oosting, Devon; Wolf, Julie; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) improves social communication in a case series of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) identified brain responses during a biological motion perception task conducted prior to and following 16 weeks of PRT treatment. Overall, the neural systems supporting social perception in these 10 children were malleable through implementation of PRT; following treatment, neural responses were more similar to those of typically developing children (TD). However, at baseline, half of the children exhibited hypoactivation, relative to a group of TD children, in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and half exhibited hyperactivation in this region. Strikingly, the groups exhibited differential neural responses to treatment: The five children who exhibited hypoactivation at baseline evidenced increased activation in components of the reward system including the ventral striatum and putamen. The five children who exhibited hyperactivation at baseline evidenced decreased activation in subcortical regions critical for regulating the flow of stimulation and conveying signals of salience to the cortex—the thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Our results support further investigation into the differential effects of particular treatment strategies relative to specific neural targets. Identification of treatment strategies that address the patterns of neural vulnerability unique to each patient is consistent with the priority of creating individually tailored interventions customized to the behavioral and neural characteristics of a given person. PMID:25370452

  4. [Antidementia drugs--response or non-response?].

    PubMed

    Förstl, H

    2008-03-01

    Due to the heterogeneous course of illness in individual cases, efficacy or "treatment-response" can not be measured in single patients; therefore a clinical distinction between response and non-response is not meaningful. Constructs which are valid for research projects become misnomers in clinical practice. To date there are two groups of antidementia drugs, memantine--an NMDA-receptor modulator licensed for the moderate to severe stages--and the cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine, licensed for mild to moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease. These substances exert a moderate symptomatic effect on cognition and activities of daily living or clinical global impression, which corresponds to a parallel shift of the natural course of dementia. A low number of contraindications and few serious adverse events are the advantages of memantine. The extensive evidence for their efficacy and safety are the advantages of cholinesterase inhibitors. Symptoms of "cholinopathy" (a severe lack of acetylcholine) predict a favorable treatment response to cholinesterase inhibitors in groups of demented patients with attention deficit disorders, fluctuating course of illness, visual hallucinations, and superimposed states of confusion.

  5. Response: Critical Realism--Response to Longhofer and Floersch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses key challenges posed by critical realism, proposed by Longhofer and Floersch, as a philosophical underpinning for a science of social work. As a response to Longhofer and Floersch, it is argued that critical realism may be instructive in debates about structural conditions that dictate more inclusive interventions and…

  6. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  7. Response to the Hughes et al. Paper on Differential Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Christopher; Park, Katherine; Lohrbach, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Ronald Hughes, Judith Rycus, and their colleagues have produced a seminal review of differential response (DR) programs implemented across the nation. Their review questions nearly every aspect of the DR movement, beginning with the concept on which all DR programs are based and ending with serious concerns about the quality of evaluations…

  8. Shallow End Response from ATEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Different geological, hydrological, environmental and engineering targets are located shallow underground. The information collected with ATEM systems might be very useful for their study; although there are many deeper targets that the ATEM systems are traditionally used for. The idea to raise magnetic moment output and get deeper penetration response was one of the goals of ATEM systems development during the last decade. The shallow geology response was a trade for such systems, which sometimes were almost blind in the first hundred meter under surface. The possibility to achieve shallow end response from ATEM systems has become significant subject in last years. Several airborne TDEM systems got second higher frequency and lower magnetic moment signal to pick up shallow response together with deep one. Having a potential advantage such implementation raises complication and cost of the system. There's no need to receive 500 meter deep response when exploring shallow geology. P-THEM system having a compact size transmitter and relatively light weight is working on one base frequency at a time, but this frequency can be preset before a flight considering survey goals. A study of shallow geology response of the P-THEM system working on different base frequency has been conducted in 2014 in Ontario. The Alliston test area located in Southern Ontario has been flown with the P-THEM system working on base frequencies 30Hz and 90Hz. Results of the observations will be discussed in the presentation. The shallow end data can be used for mineral exploration applications and also for hydrological and environmental studies.

  9. The path to corporate responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zadek, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Nike's tagline,"Just do it," is an inspirational call to action for the millions who wear the company's athletic gear. But in terms of corporate responsibility, Nike didn't always follow its own advice. In the 1990s, protesters railed against sweatshop conditions at some of its overseas suppliers and made Nike the global poster child for corporate ethical fecklessness. The intense pressure that activists exerted on the athletic apparel giant forced it to take a long, hard look at corporate responsibility--sooner than it might have otherwise. In this article, Simon Zadek, CEO of the UK-based institute AccountAbility, describes the bumpy route Nike has traveled to get to a better ethical place, one that cultivates and champions responsible business practices. Organizations learn in unique ways, Zadek contends, but they inevitably pass through five stages of corporate responsibility, from defensive ("It's not our fault") to compliance ("We'll do only what we have to") to managerial ("It's the business") to strategic ("It gives us a competitive edge") and, finally, to civil ("We need to make sure everybody does it"). He details Nike's arduous trek through these stages-from the company's initial defensive stance, when accusations about working conditions arose, all the way to its engagement today in the international debate about business's role in society and in public policy. As he outlines this evolution, Zadek offers valuable insights to executives grappling with the challenge of managing responsible business practices. Beyond just getting their own houses in order, the author argues, companies need to stay abreast of the public's evolving ideas about corporate roles and responsibilities. Organizations that do both will engage in what he calls"civil learning".

  10. Predicting response to epigenetic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Treppendahl, Marianne B.; Kristensen, Lasse S.; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Drugs targeting the epigenome are new promising cancer treatment modalities; however, not all patients receive the same benefit from these drugs. In contrast to conventional chemotherapy, responses may take several months after the initiation of treatment to occur. Accordingly, identification of good pretreatment predictors of response is of great value. Many clinical parameters and molecular targets have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies with varying results, leaving room for optimization. Here we provide an overview of markers that may predict the efficacy of FDA- and EMA-approved epigenetic drugs. PMID:24382389

  11. NATIONAL RESPONSE TEAM TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides technical information on a wide range of activities to aid in response to intentional release of anthrax in urban environments. It includes initial actions when a potential release is discovered, health and safety issues for responders, sampling and analysis methods, decontamination technologies, decontamination waste disposal, and communication with public. This document provides technical information on a wide range of activities to aid in response to intentional release of anthrax in urban environments. It includes initial actions when a potential release is discovered, health and safety issues for responders, sampling and analysis methods, decontamination technologies, decontamination waste disposal, and communication with public.

  12. Adverse responses to local anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M M; Graham, R

    1984-11-01

    Progressive challenge was used to investigate twenty-seven patients with a history of an adverse response to local anaesthesia. True allergy was detected in only one patient. The method does not exclude reactions to additives and preservatives in local anaesthetics. If preservative-free local anaesthetics are used for subsequent exposure in patients with no response to progressive challenge, subsequent exposure is safe. The possibility that some of these patients may be reacting to preservatives in the solutions cannot be excluded by such testing. Where possible preservative-free local anaesthetic preparations should be used for subsequent anaesthesia.

  13. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer's "historical principle" this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused.

  14. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused. PMID:27668124

  15. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  16. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification.

    PubMed

    Cheson, Bruce D; Fisher, Richard I; Barrington, Sally F; Cavalli, Franco; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zucca, Emanuele; Lister, T Andrew

    2014-09-20

    The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials.

  17. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  18. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  19. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  20. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  1. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  2. 10 CFR 51.125 - Responsible official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Responsible Official § 51.125 Responsible official. The Executive Director for Operations shall be responsible...

  3. Pulse Response Yields Battery Charge State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Barber, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Response to input pulse characterizes state of charge of battery. Instrument electronically measures input and response of forcing-function pulse that periodically modulates charge or discharge current.

  4. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  5. 40 CFR 25.8 - Responsiveness summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Responsiveness Summaries prepared by agencies receiving EPA financial assistance shall also include evaluations... responsiveness summary requirements, these analyses need only be prepared and submitted with the final...

  6. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  7. [Responses, Rejoinder, and Editorial Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Responses discuss the following: unanswered questions (Gerald Greenberg); thinking critically about justice judgments (E. Allan Lind); just and virtuous leaders (Naomi M. Meara); voices of injustice victims (Debra L. Shapiro); justice research and practice (M. Susan Taylor); and the need for experimental research (Kees van der Bos); with rejoinder…

  8. Parenting: Responsibilities, Risks and Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Professor Carol Vincent gets the 2012 Professorial Lecture series underway with a thought provoking talk drawing on research projects conducted over the last twelve years. The lecture will explore factors identified in current policy, media, and other social and political forums as the risks and responsibilities of contemporary parenting, with a…

  9. Realizing autonomy in responsive relationships

    PubMed Central

    Houtepen, Rob; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Widdershoven, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to augment the ethical discussion among nurses with the findings from empirical research on autonomy of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are many factors influencing autonomy. These include: health conditions, treatment, knowledge, experience and skills, personal approach as well as familial patterns, type of relationship, life history and social context. Fifteen older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were interviewed in a nurse-led diabetes clinic. These participants perceive three processes which support autonomy in responsive relationships: preserving patterns of concern and interaction, nurturing collaborative responsibilities and being closely engaged in trustful and helpful family relations. People with diabetes realize autonomy in various responsive relationships in their unique life context. Next, we performed a literature review of care ethics and caring in nursing with regard to relational autonomy. We classified the literature in five strands of care: attitude-oriented, dialogue-oriented, activity-oriented, relationship-oriented and life-oriented. According to our respondents, autonomy in responsive relationships is fostered when patient, nurses, professionals of the health team and family members carry out care activities supported by a relational attitude of care. They can best realize autonomy in relationships with others when several essential aspects of care and caring are present in their lives. Therefore, we advocate a comprehensive approach to care and caring. PMID:20339930

  10. A Shared Responsibility for Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Co-investment between the state, employer, and employee is an intrinsic feature of most vocational and education training systems. The government's strategy is to "profoundly" shift responsibility for funding learning and skills from the state to individuals and businesses. At a time of stringent cuts in publicly-funded further education…

  11. Workforce Reductions: A Responsible Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to serve as a reference tool to individuals responsible for planning and implementing a work force reduction program. The information included in the guide represents a synthesis of practices that have worked for a number of companies, individuals, and communities that have had to cope with a work force reduction. The first…

  12. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Norman E.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews federal efforts to develop a rural education federal agenda, five basic problems of rural areas which lend themselves to federal solutions, Department of Education proposals for fiscal year 1982, significant federal responses/already in progress, and strengths and advantages of rural schools. (AN)

  13. Response to "Back to Basics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Doug

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a response to Andrew McMartin's article "Back to Basics: Meditations on Quality vs. Quantity in Outdoor Education." In considering quality vs. quantity in outdoor education it is still important from the author's perspective to be conscious of one's viewpoint. He has taught and run trips from a survival…

  14. Academic Freedom and Faculty Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evergreen State Coll., Olympia, Washington.

    Presented in this paper is an outline of the policy at Evergreen State College concerning faculty evaluation, faculty reappointment or nonreappointment, and program review and institutional self-study. Within the policy is the belief that the principles governing academic freedom and faculty responsibility at Evergreen must apply to all members of…

  15. Comparative Education: Challenge and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P.; Altbach, Philip G.

    1986-01-01

    Examines research reported in major books and journals of comparative education since 1977, focusing on challenges to established research traditions and the field's responses. Highlights work directing attention to new subjects of inquiry and challenging the nation-state as the exclusive research framework, input-output models and dominant…

  16. Talking about Israel: 3 Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Alan Wolfe's article "Free Speech, Israel, and Jewish Illiberalism" prompted numerous responses on The Chronicle's online discussion forum. The essay commented on the debate that erupted following the Polish Consulate's decision to cancel a speech by the scholar Tony Judt--allegedly prompted by protests over his critical views of Israel…

  17. Public Assistance, Rights and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Community Action Training Inst., Trenton.

    Based primarily on two official manuals of the Division of Public Welfare of the New Jersey Department of Institutions and Agencies, this handbook on public assistance rights and responsibilities can be used as a training manual for community action workers, and as a reference book for such workers and for those eligible for public assistance.…

  18. Extrathalamic Modulation of Cortical Responsiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    H.; Gratton , G. 31. McCarthy, G.; Wood, C. C.; Williamson, P. D.; Spencer, D. D. Task- Cognitive psychophysiology and human information processing...monkey: The role of task relevance, stim- 19. Gabriel , M.; Sparenborg, S. P.; Donchin, E. Macropotentials re- ulus probability, and behavioral response

  19. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…

  20. Student Rights and Responsibilities Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ludwig A.; And Others

    To stimulate interest in student's rights and responsibilities, this resource contains incomplete scenarios dealing with the consequences of knowing and not knowing the law, as it is applied to modern practical situations. The scenarios can be used in high school courses such as government, social problems, history, psychology, and business law.…

  1. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  2. Bacterial strategies for chemotaxis response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergassola, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Bacteria respond to chemical cues by performing a biased random walk that enables them to migrate towards attractants and away from repellents. Bias is achieved by regulating the duration of the bacterial runs as a function of the environment, inferred from the history of chemoattractant detections experienced by the bacterium. This time-signal is processed using a time convolution function that can be assayed measuring the response of the bacterium to short pulses of chemoattractant. The convolution constitutes an elementary form of memory, which is encoded at the molecular level by the processes of (de-)methylation and (de-)phosphorylation of the underlying biochemical network. While the latter is being characterized in detail, the functional reasons shaping the bacterial chemotactic response are largely unknown. We show that the chemotactic response observed experimentally is the strategy that ensures the highest minimum (MaxiMin) uptake of chemoattractant, in any field thereof. The consequence is that adaptation of the chemotactic bacterial system appears to be evolutionary driven by the need to cope with space-time environmental fluctuations rather than the extension of the dynamic range of response.

  3. Education for Responsible Citizenship: Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2009-01-01

    There is an abundance of literature on citizenship education. This essay is an attempt to show how deliberation is used in university classroom pedagogy, to engender in students a commitment to becoming responsible citizens of a post-apartheid South Africa. Firstly, I show that controversy can be attended to through deliberation, with specific…

  4. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  5. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Coast, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. Consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. This paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. Strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. The adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. Approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:11953791

  6. Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-30

    jo- Rfe 681 ENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO RESISTANCE EXERCISE(U) RIRMY RESERRCH INST OF ENYIRWUIENTAL MEDICINE NATICK M N J KRRENER 30 RUG 87 USARIEN-R59-B...factors have been shown to influence GH release including gonadal. thyroid and adrenal hormones (32). Whether it is via a direct or indirect mechanism

  7. MSNJ Auxiliary: responsibility on water.

    PubMed

    Propsner, N M

    1992-07-01

    The Medical Society of New Jersey Auxiliary kicked off its Responsibility on Water program. Designed and planned by MSNJA President Marion H. Geib, the program is intended to make children and adults aware of the deadly mix of alcohol and water activities.

  8. Reader Response in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Charles, Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on reader response in the classroom, the works collected in this book represent the results of a five-week summer institute in which 25 middle school, high school, and college teachers studied the principles and applications of literature instruction. The following essays are included: an introduction by G. Garber; "An Overview of the…

  9. Response Bias in Hospice Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed response bias among 34 recipients of care in hospice. Found nonrespondents to have better bereavement prognoses and tended to care for patients who were younger, male, and in program for shorter time. Nonrespondents were in contact with staff less than were respondents. Data are consistent with earlier research showing significant…

  10. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To amend the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 to require the Federal Government, before termination of Federal activities on any real property owned by the Government, to identify real property where no hazardous substance was stored, released, or disposed of.

  11. Students' Rights and Responsibilities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook is intended to provide students and parents with a narrative summary of their rights and responsibilities in California public schools. Implications of laws and state regulations, as well as pertinent court decisions, are presented in such areas as student behavior (including discipline, corporal punishment, and dress codes),…

  12. Responsive starch-based materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch, a low-cost, annually renewable resource, is naturally hydrophilic and its properties change with relative humidity. Starch’s hygroscopic nature can be used to develop materials which change shape or volume in response to environmental changes (e.g. humidity). For example, starch-based graf...

  13. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Case, Eldon D.

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  14. Ebola: is the response justified?

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hannah; Chaudry, Aisha; Ndow, Gibril; Crossey, Mary ME; Garside, Debbie; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever, first discovered in 1976 in Sudan, where the outbreak infected over 284 people with a 53% case fatality ratio. There have been 34 further epidemics, the current major incident in West Africa having recorded more cases and deaths than all previous outbreaks combined. To date there have been over 27, 000 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11,000 reported deaths in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. With total funding and pledges to help control the outbreak amounting to more than US$2.4billion, many question how the disease has continued to spread in Sierra Leone and Guinea Conakry, and whether the response to the outbreak has been justified. This article aims to analyze the effectiveness of the responses to the outbreak in terms of economic, social, cultural and, to an extent, political impact. We argue that the response has been justified due to the awareness raised, the infrastructure and staffing improvements, the success in receiving financial aid and the minimal spread to other countries outside the main transmission zone. Despite this, some failures in communication and a slow early response were noted. PMID:26740851

  15. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  16. The Ethical Responsibilities of Referees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues of acting as review editor and as referees for scholarly journals. States that referees have ethical responsibilities to review manuscripts promptly, write constructive comments for authors, be tactful in their comments, and to avoid sectarian bias. Includes a list of ethical rules for refereeing. (NL)

  17. Immune Responses in Parasitic Diseases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    prepared in pure form so that quantitative radial immunodiffusion studies are feasible. The IgGl response to T. rhodesiense infection in the rat has been...sera of infected animals and definitely-separate and quantitate the 19S from 8S species by combining radial immunodiffusion techniques and sucrose

  18. Responsible authorship and peer review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James R

    2002-04-01

    In this article the basic principles of responsible authorship and peer review are surveyed, with special emphasis on (a) guidelines for refereeing archival journal articles and proposals; and (b) how these guidelines should be taken into account at all stages of writing.

  19. Response of chromoblastomycosis to voriconazole*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Paula, Lauren Zogbi Pereira; Aseka, Gabriela Kimie; Goetz, Hermann Soares; Gheller, Maicon Felippe; Torraca, Pedro de Freitas Silva

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, in which the most common etiologic agent in Brazil is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. In more advanced cases we found many difficulties in their treatment, and therefore, we report a case of extensive and severe chromoblastomycosis, with therapeutical failure of first choice treatments, but good response to voriconazole. PMID:27828652

  20. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.

  1. Writing in Response to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Roger; And Others

    1990-01-01

    When creating the instructional program Writing in Response to Reading, teachers in River Forest, Illinois, focused on three types of writing (retelling, extending, and critiquing). To evaluate students, they devised "prompts" (unfinished stories) requiring students to construct an ending to demonstrate their understanding and use of…

  2. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Mississippi Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Mississippi state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  3. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Illinois Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Illinois state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  4. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Maine Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Maine state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  5. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. California Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on California state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  6. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Arkansas Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Arkansas state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  7. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Connecticut Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Connecticut state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  8. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Alaska Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Alaska state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  9. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Arizona Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Arizona state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  10. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Virginia Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Virginia state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  11. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oklahoma Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oklahoma state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  12. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Alabama Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Alabama state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  13. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Utah Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Utah state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students. Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  14. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Missouri Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Missouri state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  15. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Tennessee Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Tennessee state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  16. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Iowa Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Iowa state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  17. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Georgia Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Georgia state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  18. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Maryland Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Maryland state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  19. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Kansas Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Kansas state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  20. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oregon Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oregon state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  1. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Minnesota Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Minnesota state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  2. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Louisiana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Louisiana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  3. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Nevada Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Nevada state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  4. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Michigan Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Michigan state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  5. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Texas Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Texas state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  6. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Washington Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Washington state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  7. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Nebraska Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Nebraska state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  8. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Indiana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Indiana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  9. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Colorado Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Colorado state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  10. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Hawaii Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Hawaii state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  11. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Montana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Montana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  12. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Pennsylvania Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Pennsylvania state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students. Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  13. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Ohio Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Ohio state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  14. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Florida Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Florida state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  15. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Massachusetts Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Massachusetts state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  16. Fast-response cloud chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Wall structure keeps chambers at constant, uniform temperature, yet allows them to be cooled rapidly if necessary. Wall structure, used in fast-response cloud chamber, has surface heater and coolant shell separated by foam insulation. It is lightweight and requires relatively little power.

  17. The Evaluator's Responsibility for Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1988-01-01

    The role of the evaluator in insuring utilization and quality of evaluation results is discussed. Topics covered include a utilization-focused vision of accountability, overcoming staff fears of evaluation, eliciting the right information from users, situational responsiveness, and advocacy. (TJH)

  18. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.

  19. Program Evaluation Particularly Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author talks about some recent developments in the methodology of program evaluation and about what he calls "responsive evaluation." He discusses two models for program evaluation, namely (1) informal study or self-study; and (2) the pretest/posttest model. Then, he describes an approach that he has been working on, which will…

  20. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are…

  1. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  2. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  3. Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, James F.; Maynard, William S.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the possible implications of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for employee expectations and satisfactions. Specifically, interest centered on the question of how perceptions of an organization's involvement in the resolution of current societal problems might relate to members' expectations of equitable job rewards and…

  4. Information Science and Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive evaluation builds upon the methods of informal evaluation in disciplined ways: getting personally acquainted with the evaluand, observation of activities, interviewing people who are in different ways familiar with the evaluand, searching documents that reveal what happened in the past or somewhere else. It calls for sustained effort to…

  5. EVOLUTION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Papermaster, Ben W.; Condie, Richard M.; Finstad, Joanne; Good, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    1. The California hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii, seems to be completely lacking in adaptive immunity: it forms no detectable circulating antibody despite intensive stimulation with a range of antigens; it does not show reactivity to old tuberculin following sensitization with BCG; and gives no evidence of homograft immunity. 2. Studies on the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, have been limited to the response to bacteriophage T2 and hemocyanin in small groups of spawning animals. They suggest that the lamprey may have a low degree of immunologic reactivity. 3. One holostean, the bowfin (Amia calva) and the guitarfish (Rhinobatos productus), an elasmobranch, showed a low level of primary response to phage and hemocyanin. The response is slow and antibody levels low. Both the bowfin and the guitarfish showed a vigorous secondary response to phage, but neither showed much enhancement of reactivity to hemocyanin in the secondary response. The bowfin formed precipitating antibody to hemocyanin, but the guitarfish did not. Both hemagglutinating and precipitating antibody to hemocyanin were also observed in the primary response of the black bass. 4. The bowfin was successfully sensitized to Ascaris antigen, and lesions of the delayed type developed after challenge at varying intervals following sensitization. 5. The horned shark (Heterodontus franciscii) regularly cleared hemocyanin from the circulation after both primary and secondary antigenic stimulation, and regularly formed hemagglutinating antibody, but not precipitating antibody, after both primary and secondary stimulation with this antigen. These animals regularly cleared bacteriophage from the circulation after both the primary and secondary stimulation with bacteriophage T2. Significant but small amounts of antibody were produced in a few animals in the primary response, and larger amounts in the responding animals after secondary antigenic stimulation. 6. Studies by starch gel and immunoelectrophoresis show that

  6. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  7. Head and Neck PET/CT: Therapy Response Interpretation Criteria (Hopkins Criteria)—Interreader Reliability, Accuracy, and Survival Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Charles; Ciarallo, Anthony; Tahari, Abdel K.; Mena, Esther; Koch, Wayne; Wahl, Richard L.; Kiess, Ana P.; Kang, Hyunseok; Subramaniam, Rathan M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been no established qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET/CT for head and neck cancers. The objective of this study was to validate the Hopkins interpretation system to assess therapy response and survival outcome in head and neck squamous cell cancer patients (HNSCC). Methods The study included 214 biopsy-proven HNSCC patients who underwent a posttherapy PET/CT study, between 5 and 24 wk after completion of treatment. The median follow-up was 27 mo. PET/CT studies were interpreted by 3 nuclear medicine physicians, independently. The studies were scored using a qualitative 5-point scale, for the primary tumor, for the right and left neck, and for overall assessment. Scores 1, 2, and 3 were considered negative for tumors, and scores 4 and 5 were considered positive for tumors. The Cohen κ coefficient (κ) was calculated to measure interreader agreement. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by Kaplan–Meier plots with a Mantel–Cox log-rank test and Gehan Breslow Wilcoxon test for comparisons. Results Of the 214 patients, 175 were men and 39 were women. There was 85.98%, 95.33%, 93.46%, and 87.38% agreement between the readers for overall, left neck, right neck, and primary tumor site response scores, respectively. The corresponding κ coefficients for interreader agreement between readers were, 0.69–0.79, 0.68–0.83, 0.69–0.87, and 0.79–0.86 for overall, left neck, right neck, and primary tumor site response, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy of the therapy assessment were 68.1%, 92.2%, 71.1%, 91.1%, and 86.9%, respectively. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed human papillomavirus (HPV) status and PET/CT interpretation were the only factors associated with PFS and OS. Among the HPV-positive patients (n = 123), there was a significant difference in PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.14; 95

  8. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-05-09

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2's control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention.

  9. Excessive Response-Repetition Costs under Task Switching: How Response Inhibition Amplifies Response Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzyb, Kai Robin; Hubner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The size of response-repetition (RR) costs, which are usually observed on task-switch trials, strongly varies between conditions with univalent and bivalent stimuli. To test whether top-down or bottom-up processes can account for this effect, we assessed in Experiment 1 baselines for univalent and bivalent stimulus conditions (i.e., for stimuli…

  10. Saltmarsh plant responses to eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David Samuel; Warren, R Scott; Deegan, Linda A; Mozdzer, Thomas J

    2016-12-01

    In saltmarsh plant communities, bottom-up pressure from nutrient enrichment is predicted to increase productivity, alter community structure, decrease biodiversity, and alter ecosystem functioning. Previous work supporting these predictions has been based largely on short-term, plot-level (e.g., 1-300 m(2) ) studies, which may miss landscape-level phenomena that drive ecosystem-level responses. We implemented an ecosystem-scale, nine-year nutrient experiment to examine how saltmarsh plants respond to simulated conditions of coastal eutrophication. Our study differed from previous saltmarsh enrichment studies in that we applied realistic concentrations of nitrate (70-100 μM NO3(-) ), the most common form of coastal nutrient enrichment, via tidal water at the ecosystem scale (~60,000 m(2) creeksheds). Our enrichments added a total of 1,700 kg N·creek(-1) ·yr(-1) , which increased N loading 10-fold vs. reference creeks (low-marsh, 171 g N·m(-2) ·yr(-1) ; high-marsh, 19 g N·m(-2) ·yr(-1) ). Nutrients increased the shoot mass and height of low marsh, tall Spartina alterniflora; however, declines in stem density resulted in no consistent increase in aboveground biomass. High-marsh plants S. patens and stunted S. alterniflora did not respond consistently to enrichment. Nutrient enrichment did not shift community structure, contrary to the prediction of nutrient-driven dominance of S. alterniflora and Distichlis spicata over S. patens. Our mild responses may differ from the results of previous studies for a number of reasons. First, the limited response of the high marsh may be explained by loading rates orders of magnitude lower than previous work. Low loading rates in the high marsh reflect infrequent inundation, arguing that inundation patterns must be considered when predicting responses to estuarine eutrophication. Additionally, we applied nitrate instead of the typically used ammonium, which is energetically favored over nitrate for plant uptake

  11. Modulating macrophage response to biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Toral

    Macrophages recruited to the site of biomaterial implantation are the primary mediators of the chronic foreign body response to implanted materials. Since foreign body response limits performance and functional life of numerous implanted biomaterials/medical devices, various approaches have been investigated to modulate macrophage interactions with biomaterial surfaces to mitigate this response. In this work we have explored two independent approaches to modulate the macrophage inflammatory response to biomaterials. The first approach targets surface integrins, cell surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion to biomaterials through adhesive proteins spontaneously adsorbed on biomaterial surfaces. The second approach involves surface modification of biomaterials using nanotopographic features since nanotopography has been reported to modulate cell adhesion and viability in a cell type-dependent manner. More specifically, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface was investigated for its role in modulating macrophage adhesion and survival in vitro and foreign body response in vivo. For the first approach, we have investigated the role of integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins in the in-vivo osteolysis response and macrophage inflammatory processes of phagocytosis as well as inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to particulate biomaterials. We have also investigated the in vivo foreign body response (FBR) to subcutaneously implanted biomaterials by evaluating the thickness of fibrous capsule formed around the implants after 2 weeks of implantation. The role of Mac-1 integrin was isolated using a Mac-1 KO mouse and comparing it to a WT control. The role of RGD binding integrins in FBR was investigated by coating the implanted biomaterial with ELVAX(TM) polymer loaded with Echistatin which contains the RGD sequence. For the in-vivo osteolysis study and to study the in-vitro macrophage response to particulate biomaterials, we used the RGD peptide encapsulated in ELVAX

  12. Analyzing Likert Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides information for Extension professionals on the correct analysis of Likert data. The analyses of Likert-type and Likert scale data require unique data analysis procedures, and as a result, misuses and/or mistakes often occur. This article discusses the differences between Likert-type and Likert scale data and provides…

  13. Active and responsive polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jilin; Han, Yanchun

    2010-02-01

    A central challenge in polymer science today is creating materials that dynamically alter their structures and properties on demand, or in response to changes in their environment. Surfaces represent an attractive area of focus, since they exert disproportionately large effects on properties such as wettability, adhesiveness, optical appearance, and bioactivity, enabling pronounced changes in properties to be accomplished through subtle changes in interfacial structure or chemistry. In this critical review, we review the recent research progress into active and responsive polymer surfaces. The chief purpose of this article is to summarize the advanced preparation techniques and applications in this field from the past decade. This review should be of interest both to new scientists in this field and the interdisciplinary researchers who are working on "intelligent" polymer surfaces (117 references).

  14. Plant responses to flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Loreti, Elena; van Veen, Hans; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2016-10-01

    Most plant species cannot survive prolonged submergence or soil waterlogging. Crops are particularly intolerant to the lack of oxygen arising from submergence. Rice can instead germinate and grow even if submerged. The molecular basis for rice tolerance was recently unveiled and will contribute to the development of better rice varieties, well adapted to flooding. The oxygen sensing mechanism was also recently discovered. This system likely operates in all plant species and relies on the oxygen-dependent destabilization of the group VII ethylene response factors (ERFVIIs), a cluster of ethylene responsive transcription factors. An homeostatic mechanism that controls gene expression in plants subjected to hypoxia prevents excessive activation of the anaerobic metabolism that could be detrimental to surviving the stress.

  15. Response to Roger W. Hunt.

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    A response to a critique by Roger W. Hunt of my views on the eventual likely need to use age as a standard for the allocation of expensive, high-technology, life-extending medical care for the elderly. The response encompasses three elements: 1. that while the elderly have a substantial claim to publicly-provided health care, it cannot be an unlimited claim; 2. that a health care system which provided a decent, coherent set of medical and social services for the elderly would be sufficient, even if some limits had to be set; and 3. allocation and rationing decisions should not be made by individual doctors at the bedside but by regional or national policy. PMID:11643099

  16. The human auditory evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Figures are presented of computer-averaged auditory evoked responses (AERs) that point to the existence of a completely endogenous brain event. A series of regular clicks or tones was administered to the ear, and 'odd-balls' of different intensity or frequency respectively were included. Subjects were asked either to ignore the sounds (to read or do something else) or to attend to the stimuli. When they listened and counted the odd-balls, a P3 wave occurred at 300msec after stimulus. When the odd-balls consisted of omitted clicks or tone bursts, a similar response was observed. This could not have come from auditory nerve, but only from cortex. It is evidence of recognition, a conscious process.

  17. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other.

  18. Static Response of Neutron Matter.

    PubMed

    Buraczynski, Mateusz; Gezerlis, Alexandros

    2016-04-15

    We generalize the problem of strongly interacting neutron matter by adding a periodic external modulation. This allows us to study from first principles a neutron system that is extended and inhomogeneous, with connections to the physics of both neutron-star crusts and neutron-rich nuclei. We carry out fully nonperturbative microscopic quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the energy of neutron matter at different densities, as well as different strengths and periodicities of the external potential. In order to remove systematic errors, we examine finite-size effects and the impact of the wave function ansatz. We also make contact with energy-density functional theories of nuclei and disentangle isovector gradient contributions from bulk properties. Finally, we calculate the static density-density linear response function of neutron matter and compare it with the response of other physical systems.

  19. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  20. Modelling hormonal response and development.

    PubMed

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2014-05-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin-cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges.

  1. Variable response load limiting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, Dwight D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An energy absorbing device used as a load limiting member in a structure to control its response to applied loads is described. It functions by utilizing a spool assembly having flanged ends and an interior cavity of sufficiently large diameter to cause it to deform plastically at a prescribed load. In application, the spool is utilized as a pivot point for the legs of an airplane seat. When properly designed and integrated into the seat arrangement the spool will twist about its axis, deforming plastically when the impact load exceeds the spool yield value. Through this deformation, the spool absorbs the kinetic energy of the movement of the seat at a substantially constant rate, thereby controlling the level of loads transmitted to the seat occupant. By proper sizing and collection of materials, it is possible to control load response in a predictable manner.

  2. Thermal response based item identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. K.; Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems in NDA of nuclear materials is identifying the chemical form of the nuclear material and the surrounding matrix. Recent work analyzing the calorimeter response of sources embedded in a variety of matrices has led to a possible solution to this problem. The wide range of thermal time constants exhibited by typical matrix materials lends itself to permitting the differentiation between materials, based on time constants extracted from the measured response. Potential applications include simple item identification, item fingerprinting as part of shipper-receiver measurements, and distinguishing between Pu metal and Pu oxide as required under certain proposed attribute measurements. The results of applying this technique to a variety of items will be presented and discussed.

  3. 43 CFR 10010.3 - General responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General responsibilities. 10010.3 Section... POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.3 General responsibilities. The following responsibilities reflect the Commission's decision that the officials responsible for...

  4. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  5. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  6. 43 CFR 3480.0-6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 3480.0-6 Section 3480.0... Exploration and Mining Operations Rules: General § 3480.0-6 Responsibilities. (a) Responsibilities of other Federal Agencies—(1) Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. The responsibility...

  7. 2 CFR 1.300 - OMB responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB responsibilities. 1.300 Section 1.300 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Responsibilities of OMB and Federal Agencies § 1.300 OMB responsibilities. OMB is responsible for: (a) Issuing...

  8. Communication Motives of Assertive and Responsive Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn M.; Martin, Matthew M.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that competent communicators (high assertive, high responsive) communicated from needs for affection, pleasure, and inclusion more than noncompetent (low assertive, low responsive), submissive (low assertive, high responsive), and aggressive (high assertive, low responsive) individuals. Shows that aggressive types communicated more from…

  9. 31 CFR 92.16 - Written response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written response. 92.16 Section 92.16... States Mint § 92.16 Written response. (a) Form and contents. (1) The written response submitted by a... person named in the Initial Notice of Assessment is filing the written response, a copy of the...

  10. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  11. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  12. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  13. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  14. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  15. 25 CFR 700.507 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibilities. 700.507 Section 700.507 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.507 Responsibilities. (a) Office of the Commission and Office of Executive... Deputy Ethics Official in accordance with 5 CFR 738.202(b). Responsibilities of these officials...

  16. 32 CFR 327.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 327.3 Section 327.3 National... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 327.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Director, DeCA. (1... requests received and prepares documentation to the office of primary responsibility (OPR) for response....

  17. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  18. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  19. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  20. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  1. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  2. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  3. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  4. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  5. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  6. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  7. 14 CFR 1274.903 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities. 1274.903 Section 1274.903... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.903 Responsibilities. Responsibilities July 2002 (a.... NASA and the Recipient agree to the following Responsibilities, a statement of cooperative...

  8. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  9. 48 CFR 201.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 201.602... Authority, and Responsibilities 201.602-2 Responsibilities. (d) Follow the procedures at PGI 201.602-2 regarding designation, assignment, and responsibilities of a contracting officer's representative (COR)....

  10. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  11. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  12. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  13. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  14. 32 CFR 268.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 268.4 Section 268.4 National... COLLECTING AND REPORTING OF FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 268.4 Responsibilities..., or is otherwise assigned responsibility, is responsible for taking initial collection...

  15. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  16. 43 CFR 3480.0-6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 3480.0-6 Section 3480.0... Exploration and Mining Operations Rules: General § 3480.0-6 Responsibilities. (a) Responsibilities of other Federal Agencies—(1) Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. The responsibility...

  17. 32 CFR 700.802 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility. 700.802 Section 700.802 National... Officers in General § 700.802 Responsibility. (a) The responsibility of the commanding officer for his or... with his or her responsibility. While the commanding officer may, at his or her discretion, and...

  18. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.505 - Fire response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... functions that may need to be carried out; (iv) The minimum number of fire response employees necessary, the... fire response organizations; and (iii) A plan for fire response functions that: (A) Addresses... responders; (iii) The fire response functions that may need to be carried out; (iv) The minimum number...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.505 - Fire response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... functions that may need to be carried out; (iv) The minimum number of fire response employees necessary, the... fire response organizations; and (iii) A plan for fire response functions that: (A) Addresses... responders; (iii) The fire response functions that may need to be carried out; (iv) The minimum number...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.505 - Fire response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... functions that may need to be carried out; (iv) The minimum number of fire response employees necessary, the... fire response organizations; and (iii) A plan for fire response functions that: (A) Addresses... responders; (iii) The fire response functions that may need to be carried out; (iv) The minimum number...

  2. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  3. Developing Preservice Teachers' Perspectives on Reader Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Dana L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines preservice teachers' developing conceptions of reader response theory, specifically focusing on the importance of aesthetic response to students' engagement with and motivation for reading. Finds that the aesthetic reader stance predominated in students' written responses and discussions; and that written response did not influence the…

  4. Endocrine responses to space flights.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Fickova, M; Kolena, J; Knopp, J; Tigranian, R A; Popova, I A; Grogoriev, A I

    2001-07-01

    Simultaneously with human space flights several series of observations were performed by using experimental animals--mainly rats--exposed to space flights on board of special satellites BION-COSMOS or in Shuttle Transportation Systems (STS). The aims of these experiments were to study in more details: the mechanisms of the changes in bones and skeletal muscle, the alterations of the function of immune system, the radiation effects on organism, the mechanism of the changes of endocrine functions, the evaluation of the role of hormones in alteration of metabolic processes in organism. The advantages of these animal experiments were the possibilities to analyze not only the plasma samples, but it was possible to obtain samples of organs or tissues: for morphological and biochemical analysis for studies of the changes in enzyme activities and in gene expressions, for measurement of metabolic processes and for investigation of the hormone production in endocrine glands and estimation of the response of tissues to hormones. It was also possible to compare the endocrine response to spaceflight and to other stress stimuli. These animal studies are interesting for verification of some hypothesis in the mechanism of adaptation of human organism to the changes of gravity. The disadvantage was, however, that the animals in almost all experiments could be examined only after space flight. The actual inflight changes were investigated only in two SLS flights. In this short review it is not possible to evaluate all hormonal data available on the response of endocrine system to the conditions of space flights. Therefore we will concentrate on the response of pituitary adrenocortical system, pituitary thyroid and pituitary gonadal functions.

  5. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  6. [Immune response to influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, I; Corral, J; Arranz, A; Foruria, A; Landa, V; Lejarza, J R; Marijuán, L; Martínez, J M

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated the level of immunity of the population against three strains of the influenza virus (A Chile/1/83 -A Philippines/2/82 and B URSS/100/83) before and three months after vaccination, and the immune response to whole virus vaccine as compared with fragmented virus vaccine. A high percentage of the population had titers greater than or equal to 1/10 before vaccination for the Chile (54%) and Philippines (65.7%) strains, while titers against the URSS strain were lower (25.4%). There was a definitive increase in antibody titer in the vaccinated population, although it was lower than expected. The overall response to both vaccines, with protecting titers greater than or equal to 1/40 after vaccination was 65.2% for the Chile strain, 74.6% for the Philippines strain, and 15% for the URSS strain. No differences in the overall immune response were found between the groups vaccinated with whole and fragmented virus.

  7. The Science of Climate Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Sparrow, S.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme events linked with human induced climate change have now been reported around the globe. Among the most troublesome impacts are increased wild fires, failed crop yields, extreme flooding and increase human mortality (Hansen and Cramer, 2015). Many of these impacts are predicted to increase into the future. Non-industrialised communities around the world will be the least capable of adapting, while the industrial communities, who are often responsible for historical carbon emissions, will find adaptation easier. Such a situation lends itself to the issue of responsibility. In order to assess responsibility, it must first be established where the major carbon and methane emissions are originating. It must then be estimated how these emissions project onto localised climate, which is often the primary indicator behind impacts on society. In this study, we address this question using a 25 km regional climate model capable of simulating climate thousands of times under the Weather@home citizen science project. The use of this framework allows us to generate huge data sample sizes, which can be put in the context of very low sample sizes of observational data. We concentrate on the 2003 heat wave over Europe, but show how this method could be applied to less data rich regions, including the Middle East and the Horn of Africa.

  8. Dilational Response of Voided Polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Daniel J.; Cazacu, Oana; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-02-01

    Finite-element (FE) cell model computations have been used to gain insights into the ductile response of porous polycrystals. Generally, the behavior of the matrix is described by a J 2-plasticity model. In this article, we present a new computational approach to FE cell models for porous polycrystals deforming by slip based on crystal plasticity. The cell provides the homogenized dilational response, where the constitutive response of every integration point is based on a single-crystal visco-plasticity law. The calculations are performed for a body-centered cubic polycrystal with random texture. Axisymmetric tensile and compressive loadings are imposed corresponding to the fixed values of the stress triaxiality and to two possible values of the Lode parameter. The resulting numerical yield points are compared with those obtained using a J 2-FE cell and an analytical model. The predictions confirm the combined effects of the mean stress and third-invariant on yielding recently revealed by the analytical model.

  9. Method for improving instrument response

    DOEpatents

    Hahn, David W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Johnsen, Howard A.; Flower, William L.

    2000-01-01

    This invention pertains generally to a method for improving the accuracy of particle analysis under conditions of discrete particle loading and particularly to a method for improving signal-to-noise ratio and instrument response in laser spark spectroscopic analysis of particulate emissions. Under conditions of low particle density loading (particles/m.sup.3) resulting from low overall metal concentrations and/or large particle size uniform sampling can not be guaranteed. The present invention discloses a technique for separating laser sparks that arise from sample particles from those that do not; that is, a process for systematically "gating" the instrument response arising from "sampled" particles from those responses which do not, is dislosed as a solution to his problem. The disclosed approach is based on random sampling combined with a conditional analysis of each pulse. A threshold value is determined for the ratio of the intensity of a spectral line for a given element to a baseline region. If the threshold value is exceeded, the pulse is classified as a "hit" and that data is collected and an average spectrum is generated from an arithmetic average of "hits". The true metal concentration is determined from the averaged spectrum.

  10. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  11. Response bias in plaintiffs' histories.

    PubMed

    Lees-Haley, P R; Williams, C W; Zasler, N D; Marguilies, S; English, L T; Stevens, K B

    1997-11-01

    This study investigated response bias in self-reported history of factors relevant to the assessment of traumatic brain injury, toxic brain injury and related emotional distress. Response bias refers to systematic error in self-report data. A total of 446 subjects (comprising 131 litigating and 315 non-litigating adults from five locations in the United States) completed a symptom questionnaire. Data were obtained from university faculty and students, from patients in clinics specializing in physiatry neurology, and family medicine, and from plaintiffs undergoing forensic neuropsychological evaluations. Comparisons were made for litigant and non litigant ratings of their past and current cognitive and emotional functioning, including life in general, ability to concentrate, memory, depression, anxiety, alcohol, drugs, ability to work or attend school, irritability, headaches, confusion, self-esteem, and fatigue. Although there is no basis for hypothesizing plaintiffs to be healthier than the general population, plaintiffs rated their pre-injury functioning superior to non-plaintiffs. These findings suggest that response biases need to be taken into account by forensic examiners when relying on litigants' self-reports of pre-injury status.

  12. Plant Responses to Rarified Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.; Fowler, Philip A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2000-01-01

    Reduced atmospheric pressures will likely be used to minimize mass and engineering requirements for plant growth habitats used in extraterrestrial applications. This report provides a brief survey of key literature related to responses of plants to atmospheric variables and a broad rationale for designing minimal atmospheres for future plant growth structures on the Martian surface. The literature and recent work suggest that atmospheric pressure limits for normal plant function are likely to be 10 kPa or perhaps slightly lower. At Kennedy Space Center, a chamber with high vacuum capability was used to design and begin construction of a system for testing plant responses to reduced pressure atmospheres. A test rack with lighting provided by 3, high-pressure sodium vapor lamps was built to conduct measurements of short-term plant responses. Initial experiments with lettuce showed that a pressure of 10 kPa resulted in a 6.1-fold increase in the rate of water loss compared to water loss at ambient pressure (101 kPa).

  13. Biological Response Modifiers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reang, Purabi; Gupta, Madhur; Kohli, Kamlesh

    2006-01-01

    We have seen a surge in the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Biological response modifiers can act passively by enhancing the immunologic response to tumor cells or actively by altering the differentiation/growth of tumor cells. Active immunotherapy with cytokines such as interferons (IFNs) and interleukins (IL-2) is a form of nonspecific active immune stimulation. The use of IL-2 has recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and metastatic colorectal cancer. Considerable success has been achieved with the use of immunotherapy, especially in the area of passive immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies – in particular, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. In addition to the various monoclonal antibodies that have been used in clinical trials, other strategies such as the use of antiangiogenic agents and matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMPIs) have also met with some success. Recently, the FDA approved bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This review also sheds light on the various angiogenesis inhibitors in clinical trials, the increasing use of thalidomide in cancer, and the upcoming potential cancer vaccines designed to activate cell-mediated immune responses against tumor antigens. PMID:17415315

  14. Smart Buildings and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2011-11-01

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  15. Patients' responsibilities in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Draper, Heather; Sorell, Tom

    2002-08-01

    Patients have not been entirely ignored in medical ethics. There has been a shift from the general presumption that 'doctor knows best' to a heightened respect for patient autonomy. Medical ethics remains one-sided, however. It tends (incorrectly) to interpret patient autonomy as mere participation in decisions, rather than a willingness to take the consequences. In this respect, medical ethics remains largely paternalistic, requiring doctors to protect patients from the consequences of their decisions. This is reflected in a one-sided account of duties in medical ethics. Duties fall mainly on doctors and only exceptionally on patients. Medical ethics may exempt patient from obligations because they are the weaker or more vulnerable party in the doctor-patient relationship. We argue that vulnerability does not exclude obligation. We also look at other ways in which patient responsibilities flow from general ethics: for instance, from responsibilities to others and to the self, from duties of citizens, and from the responsibilities of those who solicit advice. Finally, we argue that certain duties of patients counterbalance an otherwise unfair capacity of doctors as helpers.

  16. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  17. Medical Response to Haiti Earthquake: Operation Unified Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    struck Haiti at 4:53 pm, Tues, Jan 12, 2010 –230,000 Deaths * –197,000 Injured – 1.1M Displaced People –3,000,000 Affected People –60% of government...15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Magnitude 7.0 Earthquake vic. Port au Prince 6.1 Aftershock COMFORT Arrives BATAAN ARG Arrives AFSOC...RESPONSE Deployment Timeline ( March ) 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 281110986 754321 JTF-H Conducts RIP w/ARSOUTH Final DHHS Treatment

  18. A mixture hierarchical model for response times and response accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Xu, Gongjun

    2015-11-01

    In real testing, examinees may manifest different types of test-taking behaviours. In this paper we focus on two types that appear to be among the more frequently occurring behaviours – solution behaviour and rapid guessing behaviour. Rapid guessing usually happens in high-stakes tests when there is insufficient time, and in low-stakes tests when there is lack of effort. These two qualitatively different test-taking behaviours, if ignored, will lead to violation of the local independence assumption and, as a result, yield biased item/person parameter estimation. We propose a mixture hierarchical model to account for differences among item responses and response time patterns arising from these two behaviours. The model is also able to identify the specific behaviour an examinee engages in when answering an item. A Monte Carlo expectation maximization algorithm is proposed for model calibration. A simulation study shows that the new model yields more accurate item and person parameter estimates than a non-mixture model when the data indeed come from two types of behaviour. The model also fits real, high-stakes test data better than a non-mixture model, and therefore the new model can better identify the underlying test-taking behaviour an examinee engages in on a certain item.

  19. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    SciTech Connect

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  20. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2’s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 PMID:27159240