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Sample records for 5-point likert-type response

  1. Response-Order Effects in Likert-Type Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C.

    1991-01-01

    A study involving 102 high school students (49 males and 53 females) from Taiwan revealed that the order of response scale labels had a primacy effect on subjects' choices of the alternatives in Likert-type attitude scales. Practical implications of the response-order effects for measurement are discussed. (SLD)

  2. Response-Order Effect in Likert-Type Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C.

    The importance of the presentation order of items on Likert-type scales was studied. It was proposed that subjects tend to choose the first alternative acceptable to them from among the response categories, so that a primacy effect can be predicted. The effects of reversing the order of the response scale on the latent factor structure underlying…

  3. A Two-Decision Model for Responses to Likert-Type Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thissen-Roe, Anne; Thissen, David

    2013-01-01

    Extreme response set, the tendency to prefer the lowest or highest response option when confronted with a Likert-type response scale, can lead to misfit of item response models such as the generalized partial credit model. Recently, a series of intrinsically multidimensional item response models have been hypothesized, wherein tendency toward…

  4. Estimating Ordinal Reliability for Likert-Type and Ordinal Item Response Data: A Conceptual, Empirical, and Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a conceptual, empirical, and practical guide for estimating ordinal reliability coefficients for ordinal item response data (also referred to as Likert, Likert-type, ordered categorical, or rating scale item responses). Conventionally, reliability coefficients, such as Cronbach's alpha, are calculated using a Pearson…

  5. Dependability of Anchoring Labels of Likert-Type Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei

    This study uses generalizability theory to examine the dependability of anchoring labels of Likert-type scales. Variance components associated with labeling were estimated in two samples using a two-facet random effect generalizability-study design. In one sample, 173 graduate students in education were administered 7 items measuring attitudes…

  6. A Comparison of Anchor-Item Designs for the Concurrent Calibration of Large Banks of Likert-Type Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.; Alcala-Quintana, Rocio; Garcia-Cueto, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Current interest in measuring quality of life is generating interest in the construction of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with Likert-type items. Calibration of an item bank for use in CAT requires collecting responses to a large number of candidate items. However, the number is usually too large to administer to each subject in the…

  7. How Differences among Data Collectors Are Reflected in the Reliability and Validity of Data Collected by Likert-Type Scales?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar; Ertekin, Pelin; Çolakoglu, Özgür Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate association of data collectors' differences with the differences in reliability and validity of scores regarding affective variables (motivation toward science learning and science attitude) that are measured by Likert-type scales. Four researchers trained in data collection and seven science…

  8. A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures

    PubMed Central

    Allik, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter—the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models. PMID:24847291

  9. Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…

  10. Using Likert-Type Scales in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croasmun, James T.; Ostrom, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Likert scales are useful in social science and attitude research projects. The General Self-Efficacy Exam is a test used to determine whether factors in educational settings affect participant's learning self-efficacy. The original instrument had 10 efficacy items and used a 4-point Likert scale. The Cronbach's alphas for the original test ranged…

  11. Generalized IRT Models for Extreme Response Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is a systematic tendency for a person to endorse extreme options (e.g., strongly disagree, strongly agree) on Likert-type or rating-scale items. In this study, we develop a new class of item response theory (IRT) models to account for ERS so that the target latent trait is free from the response style and the tendency…

  12. From global to heavy-light: 5-point conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin; Belavin, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    We consider Virasoro conformal blocks in the large central charge limit. There are different regimes depending on the behavior of the conformal dimensions. The most simple regime is reduced to the global sl(2,C) conformal blocks while the most complicated one is known as the classical conformal blocks. Recently, Fitzpatrick, Kaplan, and Walters showed that the two regimes are related through the intermediate stage of the so-called heavy-light semiclassical limit. We study this idea in the particular case of the 5-point conformal block. To find the 5-point global block we use the projector technique and the Casimir operator approach. Furthermore, we discuss the relation between the global and the heavy-light limits and construct the heavy-light block from the global block. In this way we reproduce our previous results for the 5-point perturbative classical block obtained by means of the monodromy method.

  13. Understanding the Relation between Attitude Involvement and Response Latitude Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Christopher J.; Withrow, Scott; Zickar, Michael J.; Wood, Nicole L.; Dalal, Dev K.; Bochinski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Adapting the original latitude of acceptance concept to Likert-type surveys, response latitudes are defined as the range of graded response options a person is willing to endorse. Response latitudes were expected to relate to attitude involvement such that high involvement was linked to narrow latitudes (the result of selective, careful…

  14. In Praise of the Free-Response Item.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George A.; Gips, Crystal J.

    A mailed national survey of 500 randomly selected secondary school principals, which yielded 271 responses, used a single free-response item, 10 Likert-type items, and 36 paired-comparison items. The study was an attempt to determine the qualities that principals look for in selecting teacher candidates and whether there was a bias against the…

  15. In Search of the Optimal Number of Response Categories in a Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Paek, Insu

    2014-01-01

    Likert-type rating scales are still the most widely used method when measuring psychoeducational constructs. The present study investigates a long-standing issue of identifying the optimal number of response categories. A special emphasis is given to categorical data, which were generated by the Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded-Response Modeling…

  16. Listener's Preference for Music of Other Cultures: Comparing Response Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the preferences of university and middle school students for non-western music as communicated through a Likert-type scale, manipulation of one dial on a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) during music listening, and manipulation of two dials on a CRDI during music listening. (MJP)

  17. The Impact of Outliers on Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Estimate of Reliability: Ordinal/Rating Scale Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent Monte Carlo simulation study, Liu and Zumbo showed that outliers can severely inflate the estimates of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for continuous item response data--visual analogue response format. Little, however, is known about the effect of outliers for ordinal item response data--also commonly referred to as Likert, Likert-type,…

  18. Assessing Preservice Elementary Teachers' Views on the Nature of Scientific Knowledge: A Dual-Response Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling L.; Chen, Sufen; Chen, Xian; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Adams, April Dean; Macklin, Monica; Ebenezer, Jazlin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development and revision of a dual-response instrument entitled, "Student Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry" ("SUSSI"). Built on the most recent science education reform documents and existing literature on the nature of science, SUSSI blends Likert-type items and related open-ended questions to assess…

  19. Appropriate Statistical Analysis for Two Independent Groups of Likert-Type Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warachan, Boonyasit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the robustness and statistical power of three different methods for testing the hypothesis that ordinal samples of five and seven Likert categories come from equal populations. The three methods are the two sample t-test with equal variances, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In…

  20. Observing Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun-Earth L5 Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; St Cyr, O. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere and are known to be responsible for severe space weather. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). The STEREO mission viewed CMEs from points away from the Sun-Earth line and demonstrated the importance of such observations in understanding the three-dimensional structure of CMEs and their true kinematics. In this paper, we show that it is advantageous to observe CMEs from the Sun-Earth L5 point in studying CMEs that affect Earth. In particular, these observations are important in identifying that part of the CME that is likely to arrive at Earth. L5 observations are critical for several aspects of CME studies such as: (i) they can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input for modeling Earth-arriving CMEs, (ii) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, and (iii) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, which may not be possible from the Sun-Earth line. We also discuss how the L5 vantage point compares with the Sun-Earth L4 point for observing Earth-affecting CMEs. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at

  1. Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…

  2. Longitudinal Measurement Invariance of Likert-Type Learning Strategy Scales: Are We Using the Same Ruler at Each Wave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Whether or not learning strategies change during the course of higher education is an important topic in the Student Approaches to Learning field. However, there is a dearth of any empirical evaluations in the literature as to whether or not the instruments in this research domain measure equivalently over time. Therefore, this study details the…

  3. Using Visual Analogue Scales in eHealth: Non-Response Effects in a Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wienert, Julian; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual analogue scales (VASs) have been shown to be valid measurement instruments and a better alternative to Likert-type scales in Internet-based research, both empirically and theoretically [1,2]. Upsides include more differentiated responses, better measurement level, and less error. Their feasibility and properties in the context of eHealth, however, have not been examined so far. Objective The present study examined VASs in the context of a lifestyle study conducted online, measuring the impact of VASs on distributional properties and non-response. Method A sample of 446 participants with a mean age of 52.4 years (standard deviation (SD) = 12.1) took part in the study. The study was carried out as a randomized controlled trial, aimed at supporting participants over 8 weeks with an additional follow-up measurement. In addition to the randomized questionnaire, participants were further randomly assigned to either a Likert-type or VAS response scale version of the measures. Results Results showed that SDs were lower for items answered via VASs, 2P (Y ≥ 47 | n=55, P=.5) < .001. Means did not differ across versions. Participants in the VAS version showed lower dropout rates than participants in the Likert version, odds ratio = 0.75, 90% CI (0.58-0.98), P=.04. Number of missing values did not differ between questionnaire versions. Conclusions The VAS is shown to be a valid instrument in the eHealth context, offering advantages over Likert-type scales. The results of the study provide further support for the use of VASs in Internet-based research, extending the scope to senior samples in the health context. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01909349; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01909349 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6h88sLw2Y) PMID:27334562

  4. Ultrasonic Elastography Research Based on a Multicenter Study: Adding Strain Ratio after 5-Point Scoring Evaluation or Not

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ji-Yi; Li, Lu-Jing; Peng, Yu-lan; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li-sha; Xiao, Ying; Liu, Shou-jun; Wu, Chang-jun; Jiang, Yu-xin; Parajuly, Shyam Sundar; Xu, Ping; Hao, Yi; Li, Jing; Luo, Bao-Ming; Zhi, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to confirm whether strain ratio should be added after evaluation of lesions with 5-point elasticity scoring for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on ultrasonographic elastography(UE). Materials and Methods From June 2010 to March 2012, 1080 consecutive female patients with breast lesions were recruited into a multicenter retrospective study, which involved 8 centers across China. Each institutional ethic review board approved the study, and all the patients gave written informed consent. All the patients underwent the UE procedure and the strain ratios were calculated and the final diagnosis was made by histological findings. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV were calculated for each of the two evaluation systems and the areas under the ROC curve were compared. Results The strain ratios of benign lesions (mean, 2.6±2.0) and malignant lesions (mean,7.9±5.8) were significantly different (p <0.01). When the cutoff point was 3.01, strain ratio method had 79.8% sensitivity, 82.8% specificity, and 81.3% accuracy, while the 5-point scoring method had 93.1% sensitivity, 73.0% specificity, and 76.8% accuracy. The areas under the ROC curve with the strain ratio method and 5-point scoring method were 0.863 and 0.865, respectively(p>0.05). The strain ratio method shows better a diagnosis performance of the lesions with elasticity score 3 and 4. Conclusions Although the two UE methods have similar diagnostic performance, separate calculation of the strain ratios seems compulsory, especially for the large solid breast lesions and the lesions with elasticity score 3 and 4. PMID:26863208

  5. A method for estimating spikelet number per panicle: Integrating image analysis and a 5-point calibration model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sanqin; Gu, Jiabing; Zhao, Youyong; Hassan, Muhammad; Li, Yinian; Ding, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Spikelet number per panicle (SNPP) is one of the most important yield components used to estimate rice yields. The use of high-throughput quantitative image analysis methods for understanding the diversity of the panicle has increased rapidly. However, it is difficult to simultaneously extract panicle branch and spikelet/grain information from images at the same resolution due to the different scales of these traits. To use a lower resolution and meet the accuracy requirement, we proposed an interdisciplinary method that integrated image analysis and a 5-point calibration model to rapidly estimate SNPP. First, a linear relationship model between the total length of the primary branch (TLPB) and the SNPP was established based on the physiological characteristics of the panicle. Second, the TLPB and area (the primary branch region) traits were rapidly extracted by developing image analysis algorithm. Finally, a 5-point calibration method was adopted to improve the universality of the model. The number of panicle samples that the error of the SNPP estimates was less than 10% was greater than 90% by the proposed method. The estimation accuracy was consistent with the accuracy determined using manual measurements. The proposed method uses available concepts and techniques for automated estimations of rice yield information. PMID:26542412

  6. Selection, Optimization, and Compensation: The Structure, Reliability, and Validity of Forced-Choice versus Likert-Type Measures in a Sample of Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, G. John; Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Stefansson, Kristjan; Johnson, Sara K.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Intentional self-regulation (ISR) undergoes significant development across the life span. However, our understanding of ISR's development and function remains incomplete, in part because the field's conceptualization and measurement of ISR vary greatly. A key sample case involves how Baltes and colleagues' Selection, Optimization,…

  7. Use and Misuse of the Likert Item Responses and Other Ordinal Measures

    PubMed Central

    BISHOP, PHILLIP A.; HERRON, ROBERT L.

    2015-01-01

    Likert, Likert-type, and ordinal-scale responses are very popular psychometric item scoring schemes for attempting to quantify people’s opinions, interests, or perceived efficacy of an intervention and are used extensively in Physical Education and Exercise Science research. However, these numbered measures are generally considered ordinal and violate some statistical assumptions needed to evaluate them as normally distributed, parametric data. This is an issue because parametric statistics are generally perceived as being more statistically powerful than non-parametric statistics. To avoid possible misinterpretation, care must be taken in analyzing these types of data. The use of visual analog scales may be equally efficacious and provide somewhat better data for analysis with parametric statistics. PMID:27182418

  8. Engaging millennial learners: Effectiveness of personal response system technology with nursing students in small and large classrooms.

    PubMed

    Revell, Susan M Hunter; McCurry, Mary K

    2010-05-01

    Nurse educators must explore innovative technologies that make the most of the characteristics and learning styles of millennial learners. These students are comfortable with technology and prefer interactive classrooms with individual feedback and peer collaboration. This study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of personal response system (PRS) technology in enhancing student learning in small and large classrooms. PRS technology was integrated into two undergraduate courses, nursing research (n = 33) and junior medical-surgical nursing (n = 116). Multiple-choice, true-false, NCLEX-RN alternate format, and reading quiz questions were incorporated within didactic PowerPoint presentations. Data analysis of Likert-type and open-response questions supported the use of PRS technology as an effective strategy for educating millennial learners in both small and large classrooms. PRS technology promotes active learning, increases participation, and provides students and faculty with immediate feedback that reflects comprehension of content and increases faculty-student interaction.

  9. INSTANT: a Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We present a small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather sciences. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission concept is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. The INSTANT concept would be the first to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space, and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would, in addition, uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile which fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  10. A small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R.; Auchère, F.; Harrison, R. A.; Eyles, C.; Gan, W.; Lamy, P.; Xia, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kong, L.; Wang, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zhang, S.; Zong, Q.; Soucek, J.; An, J.; Prech, L.; Zhang, A.; Rochus, P.; Bothmer, V.; Janvier, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Tappin, J.; Vainio, R.; Poedts, S.; Dunlop, M. W.; Savani, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Bale, S. D.; Li, G.; Howard, T.; DeForest, C.; Webb, D.; Lugaz, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dalmasse, K.; Tallineau, J.; Vranken, D.; Fernández, J. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  11. Perceived job importance and job performance satisfaction of selected clinical nutrition management responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Peggy E; Kwon, Junehee; Rew, Martha L

    2005-07-01

    A nationwide survey of clinical nutrition managers was conducted to assess perceived importance of selected job responsibilities and perceived performance satisfaction of those job responsibilities. A questionnaire was developed to achieve the study objectives, validated by an expert panel, and pilot-tested prior to data collection. All members of the American Dietetic Association's Clinical Nutrition Management dietetic practice group (N=1,668) were asked to rate the importance of selected job responsibilities and their satisfaction with those responsibilities using Likert-type scales with descriptions. Results revealed that clinical nutrition managers perceived all job responsibilities listed in the questionnaire to be important (ie, the mean score of each responsibility was >3.0 of a 4.0 scale). Respondents rated regulatory-related job responsibilities as most important and were most satisfied with their performance of these responsibilities. Following regulatory-related responsibilities, clinical nutrition managers perceived patient satisfaction and staff retention to be more important than other responsibilities. In general, clinical nutrition managers were more satisfied with their job performance for job responsibilities that they ranked as more important.

  12. Roles and responsibilities of nurse preceptors: Perception of preceptors and preceptees.

    PubMed

    Omer, Tagwa A; Suliman, Wafika A; Moola, Shehnaaz

    2016-01-01

    In this study setting, preceptors, who were clinical teaching assistants and hospital employed nurses assist through an interactive process preceptees, who were nursing students, in developing clinical skills and integration into the culture of the clinical area. Therefore, roles and responsibilities of preceptors should be clear and meet the expectations of preceptors and preceptees. This study aimed at comparing similarities and differences of perception to roles and responsibilities as held by nurse preceptors and their preceptees in relation to how important such roles and responsibilities are, and how frequently preceptors attend to the role. A self-administered questionnaire using Boyer's (2008) roles and responsibilities was completed by a convenience sample of 87 preceptee and 62 preceptors amounting to 66.9% and 77.5% response rate respectively. The questionnaire included 43 items and two 4-points Likert-type scales: "Importance of", and "frequency of attendance to roles". Two versions were developed: one for preceptors and the other for preceptees. The reliability (Alpha values) was .944 for the importance and .973 for the frequency of attendance scales. Mean scores indicated agreement among the two groups in relation to importance of, but to disagreement in relation to frequency of attendance to certain roles and responsibilities. Both groups perceived roles and responsibilities as important but varied with significant difference in rating preceptors' frequency of attendance to their roles as educators and facilitators.

  13. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  14. Sample Size Requirements for Estimation of Item Parameters in the Multidimensional Graded Response Model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengyu; Wang, Chun; Weiss, David J

    2016-01-01

    Likert types of rating scales in which a respondent chooses a response from an ordered set of response options are used to measure a wide variety of psychological, educational, and medical outcome variables. The most appropriate item response theory model for analyzing and scoring these instruments when they provide scores on multiple scales is the multidimensional graded response model (MGRM) A simulation study was conducted to investigate the variables that might affect item parameter recovery for the MGRM. Data were generated based on different sample sizes, test lengths, and scale intercorrelations. Parameter estimates were obtained through the flexMIRT software. The quality of parameter recovery was assessed by the correlation between true and estimated parameters as well as bias and root-mean-square-error. Results indicated that for the vast majority of cases studied a sample size of N = 500 provided accurate parameter estimates, except for tests with 240 items when 1000 examinees were necessary to obtain accurate parameter estimates. Increasing sample size beyond N = 1000 did not increase the accuracy of MGRM parameter estimates. PMID:26903916

  15. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. PMID:27107469

  16. A Mathematical Approach in Evaluating Biotechnology Attitude Scale: Rough Set Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Sinan, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Individuals' thoughts and attitudes towards biotechnology have been investigated in many countries. A Likert-type scale is the most commonly used scale to measure attitude. However, the weak side of a likert-type scale is that different responses may produce the same score. The Rough set method has been regarded to address this shortcoming. A…

  17. Mood state, issue involvement, and argument strength on responses to persuasive appeals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert C; Lovsin, Tanya K; Moore, Sean E

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of mood state, issue involvement, and argument strength on responses to persuasive appeals. Through an unrelated second study paradigm, 144 introductory psychology students were randomly assigned to High or Low Issue Involvement, Happy or Sad Mood Inductions, and Strong or Weak Argument conditions. Attitudes, measured on 9-point Likert-type scales, and cognitive responses, measured through a thought listing, were assessed. On attitudes, people in the Happy Induction condition were equally persuaded by Strong and Weak Arguments, whereas people in the Sad Induction condition were persuaded by Strong, but not Weak, Arguments. Involvement had no effect. On the thought-listing measures, people in the Happy Induction condition showed modest elaboration. A stronger pattern of effects, consistent with high elaboration, was noted on the thought listings of people in the Sad Induction condition and who were in the High Involvement group. Interestingly, people in the Sad Induction condition who were in the Low Involvement group showed mood-congruency on thoughts. The data suggest that the effects of mood state are not moderated by the effects of issue Involvement on this measure of attitudes but that there may be some moderation on measures of elaboration. Implications and directions for research are discussed.

  18. Factor-Analytic Procedures for Assessing Response Pattern Scalability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes procedures for assessing the fit of a psychometric model at the level of the individual respondent. The procedures are intended for personality measures made up of Likert-type items, which, in applied research, are usually analyzed by means of factor analysis. Two scalability indices are proposed, which can be considered as…

  19. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  20. Innovative application of a multidimensional item response model in assessing the influence of social desirability on the pseudo-relationship between self-efficacy and behavior.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Jago, Russell; Baranowski, Janice; Klesges, Lisa M

    2006-12-01

    This study examined multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) modeling to assess social desirability (SocD) influences on self-reported physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) and fruit and vegetable self-efficacy (FVSE). The observed sample included 473 Houston-area adolescent males (10-14 years). SocD (nine items), PASE (19 items) and FVSE (21 items) were measured with previously validated self-report instruments containing Likert-type responses. Physical activity was objectively measured using the Computer Science Application Incorporated/Manufacturing Technology Incorporated (CSA/MTI) accelerometer. Total fruit, juice and vegetable consumption was measured with a food frequency questionnaire. Correlations between self-efficacy and behaviors were minimal, regardless of controlling for SocD. However, in a simulated sample derived to demonstrate the utility of MIRT when relationships exist, the pseudo-relationships between self-efficacy and behaviors were substantially weaker after controlling for SocD. MIRT provided disattenuated correlations between SocD and self-efficacy, thereby providing more precise estimates of the real influence of SocD on the relationship between self-efficacy and behavior. However, as shown in the observed sample, more research is needed to understand the influence of SocD on the relationship between self-efficacy and behaviors for different populations and for different degrees of SocD response bias.

  1. Testing Parameter Invariance for Questionnaire Indices Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram

    2006-01-01

    International studies like PISA use context student or school questionnaires to collect data on student family background, attitudes and learning context. Questionnaire constructs are typically measured using dichotomous or Likert-type items. Scaling of questionnaire items in order to obtain measures of family background, student attitudes or…

  2. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  3. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  4. Prospective Teachers' Attitudes and Awareness Toward Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Winston

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes and awareness of prospective teachers toward culturally responsive teaching and learning. Seventy-one preservice teachers ranging from sophomores to seniors who had completed a course in cultural diversity in educational settings participated in the study. Subjects completed a 43-item 5-point scale Likert-type…

  5. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  6. Second Field Test of the AEL Measure of School Capacity for Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Lisa D.; Meehan, Merrill L.; Howley, Caitlin W.; Hughes, Georgia K.

    2005-01-01

    The major purpose of the second field test of the AEL MSCI instrument was to assess the psychometric properties of the refined version with a larger, more diverse group of respondents. The first objective of this field test was to expand the four-point Likert-type response scale to six points in order to yield more variance in responses. The…

  7. Competencies of Vocational Teachers. A Factor Analysis of the Training Needs of Teachers of Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, E. Wayne; Halfin, Harold H.

    To determine common training requirements of secondary-level vocational teachers, a factor analysis was made of responses by 40 randomly selected vocational teachers representing four states: Pennsylvania, Iowa, North Carolina, and New Jersey. Teacher responses consisted of the assignment of ratings to 40 items on a Likert-type scale. Ten teachers…

  8. Attitudes about Environmental Issues among Secondary Agriscience Students in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tina Farris; Herring, Don R.

    A Texas study examined the attitudes of 379 secondary agriscience students about environmental issues (76% response rate). The Spring 1993 survey questionnaire was developed from a literature review. A Likert-type scale was used for response measurement in sections 1-4; Section 5 consisted of statements related to personal and demographic…

  9. The Effects of Changes in the Order of Verbal Labels and Numerical Values on Children's Scores on Attitude and Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy; Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that variations in verbal labels and numerical scale values on rating scales can affect the responses given. However, few studies have been conducted with children. The study aimed to examine potential differences in children's responses to Likert-type rating scales according to their anchor points and scale…

  10. Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture as Measurements of Student Ethnocentrism: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, James B.; Von Till, Beth

    A study measured student agreement or disagreement with statements related to G. Hofstede's dimensions of culture and compares those responses with various cultural characteristics of the respondents. A 40-item Likert-type questionnaire was administered to 535 university students (301 females, 234 males) enrolled in business and communication…

  11. The Intuitive Eating Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Steven; Merrill, Ray M.; Madanat, Hala N.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument designed to measure the concept of intuitive eating. To ensure face and content validity for items used in the Likert-type Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), content domain was clearly specified and a panel of experts assessed the validity of each item. Based on responses from 391…

  12. College of the Canyons Faculty and Staff Survey, Fall 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribbons, Barry C.; Dixon, P. Scott

    This survey was designed to acquire information on the opinions of college employees regarding various institutional departments. The questionnaire used both Likert-type and open-ended questions, with six response choices ranging on a scale from 1 to 5, from very dissatisfied to very satisfied to no opinion. Of the 640 questionnaires distributed…

  13. Students and Their Teachers of Arabic: Beliefs about Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated beliefs about second language learning held by 27 adult students and 10 teachers of Arabic at the Yemen Language Center. The survey instrument consisted of 5 demographic statements and 47 statements concerning language learning in a Likert-type scaled response format. Results indicate students and teachers generally agreed…

  14. Beliefs about Language Learning Held by Students and Their Teacher (A Pilot Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated the beliefs about second language learning among nine students of English as a Second Language (all female), and their teacher at Queen Arwa University (Yemen). The survey instrument consisted of five demographic statements and 47 statements concerning language learning in a Likert-type scaled response format. Results indicate…

  15. Development and Initial Validation of the Medical Fear Survey-Short Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Ebesutani, Chad; Sawchuk, Craig N.; McKay, Dean; Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Kleinknecht, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation employs item response theory (IRT) to develop an abbreviated Medical Fear Survey (MFS). Application of IRT analyses in Study 1 (n = 931) to the original 50-item MFS resulted in a 25-item shortened version. Examination of the location parameters also resulted in a reduction of the Likert-type scaling of the MFS by removing…

  16. Women's Liberation Scale (WLS): A Measure of Attitudes Toward Positions Advocated by Women's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Carlos

    The Women's Liberation Scale (WLS) is a 14-item, Likert-type scale designed to measure attitudes toward positions advocated by women's groups. The WLS and its four-alternative response schema is presented, along with descriptive statistics of scores based on male and female college samples. Reliability and validity measures are reported, and the…

  17. Reading Attitudes and Interests of Gifted and Talented Children in the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Barbara R.

    The study investigated reading attitudes and interests of 30 fourth through ninth grade gifted and talented students. The data were gathered through the use of a questionnaire, which included statements with Likert type scale responses, multiple-choice, and short answers. Methods used to analyze the data were individual item analysis, analysis of…

  18. A Q-Analysis of College Students Attitudes Toward Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Ernest F.

    Eighty college students were administered 26 Likert-type statements designed to measure their attitudes toward advertising along four different dimensions: economic effects of advertising, social effects of advertising, ethics of advertising, and regulation of advertising. Analysis of the responses revealed five clusters or "types" of individuals…

  19. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Belief Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haser, Cigdem; Dogan, Oguzhan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of mathematics teacher education programme courses on pre-service teachers' mathematics teaching belief systems before their field experience was initially investigated through a Likert-type scale. The impact of a third year general teaching methodologies course was then investigated through the responses pre-service teachers…

  20. Patient satisfaction with hospitalists: facility-level analyses.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Bradley R; Drevs, Kathryn E; Ayala, Louis J; Malott, Donald L

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerns and disagreements about the impact of hospitalist models on health care, hospitalists are becoming the dominant means of providing inpatient care, and models continue to diversify. Understanding their impact and the factors that influence their adoption is essential. This study examined hospitalists' impact on patient satisfaction, considering a host of characteristics. Cross-sectional data received in calendar year 2008, aggregated to the facility level, represent 1777 hospitals (41% of which employed hospitalists) and 2 648 275 patients. Press Ganey's psychometrically sound inpatient satisfaction survey consists of 38 items (10 sections) rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Findings suggest that facilities with hospitalists may have an advantage regarding satisfaction with nursing and personal issues (eg, privacy, emotional needs, response to complaints), both of which may be related to broader communication issues. Moreover, teaching (overall satisfaction) and large facilities (satisfaction with admissions, nursing, and tests/treatments) might especially benefit from the presence of hospitalists. Exploring how specific hospitalist functions influence patient satisfaction may reap rewards.

  1. Gender typing of sports: an investigation of Metheny's classification.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Brenda A; Visio, Michelle E

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if children perceived certain sports to be masculine, feminine, or neutral. Students attending a University Laboratory school (grades K-12) were asked to fill out a survey about sports during a class period, Children in grades K-6 were given a sport (such as baseball) and asked if a boy named David would play it, if a girl named Jane would play it, or if both David and Jane would play the sport. Students in grades 7-12 were asked to name their favorite athlete or team and sport and indicate what sports they felt was best for a girl and a boy. Then they were given a list of sports and asked to indicate, using a 5-point Likert-type scale, whether they believed the sport was masculine, neutral, or feminine. Results from loglinear analyses indicated that students sex-typed certain sports, such as aerobics and football. Additionally, although some responses from students in grades 7-12 indicated that individuals should be able to play any sport they wanted, there were many gendered rsponses in terms of what sport(s) girls and boys should participate in. The results are discussed with reference to Metheny's categories of permissible sports for girls and in the framework of the gender typing of sport.

  2. Depression and socio-economical burden are more common in primary caregivers of patients who are not aware of their cancer: TURQUOISE Study by the Palliative Care Working Committee of the Turkish Oncology Group (TOG).

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, O; Yavuzsen, T; Turhal, S; Kilic, D; Yalcin, S; Ozkan, A; Uzunoglu, S; Uysal-Sonmez, O; Akman, T; Aktas, B; Ulger, S; Babacan, T; Komurcu, S; Yaren, A; Cay-Senler, F

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the personal, social and economic burden and the frequency of depression, as well as in caregivers of cancer patients who are being treated with chemotherapy in Turkey. The study is designed as a cross-sectional survey study using a 5-point Likert-type response scale, and the last part of the questionnaire includes the Beck Depression Inventory. The depression rate was found to be 64% (n = 476) among all subjects (n = 968), with 91% of those with depression demonstrating signs of mild depression. In this study, a significant difference was found between the presence of depression and age (young), sex (female), educational level (high), economic status (low), financial loss during treatment, patient's lack of knowledge about his/her diagnosis, metastatic disease and short survival time. In addition, 64% of all subjects had concerns of getting cancer, and 44% of all subjects had feelings of anger/rage against other people. In a multivariate regression analysis, the patient's lack of knowledge of the diagnosis was the independent risk factor. In conclusion, depression incidence and burden rate increased among cancer caregivers, and care burden was highly associated with depression. Accordingly, approaches to reducing the psycho-social effects of cancer should focus intensively on both the patients and their caregivers in Turkey. PMID:25828949

  3. Depression and socio-economical burden are more common in primary caregivers of patients who are not aware of their cancer: TURQUOISE Study by the Palliative Care Working Committee of the Turkish Oncology Group (TOG).

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, O; Yavuzsen, T; Turhal, S; Kilic, D; Yalcin, S; Ozkan, A; Uzunoglu, S; Uysal-Sonmez, O; Akman, T; Aktas, B; Ulger, S; Babacan, T; Komurcu, S; Yaren, A; Cay-Senler, F

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the personal, social and economic burden and the frequency of depression, as well as in caregivers of cancer patients who are being treated with chemotherapy in Turkey. The study is designed as a cross-sectional survey study using a 5-point Likert-type response scale, and the last part of the questionnaire includes the Beck Depression Inventory. The depression rate was found to be 64% (n = 476) among all subjects (n = 968), with 91% of those with depression demonstrating signs of mild depression. In this study, a significant difference was found between the presence of depression and age (young), sex (female), educational level (high), economic status (low), financial loss during treatment, patient's lack of knowledge about his/her diagnosis, metastatic disease and short survival time. In addition, 64% of all subjects had concerns of getting cancer, and 44% of all subjects had feelings of anger/rage against other people. In a multivariate regression analysis, the patient's lack of knowledge of the diagnosis was the independent risk factor. In conclusion, depression incidence and burden rate increased among cancer caregivers, and care burden was highly associated with depression. Accordingly, approaches to reducing the psycho-social effects of cancer should focus intensively on both the patients and their caregivers in Turkey.

  4. Educational needs of employed family caregivers of older adults: Evaluation of a workplace project.

    PubMed

    Curry, Linda Cox; Walker, Charles; Hogstel, Mildred O

    2006-01-01

    Family members provide 80% of care for older adults in the United States. Many family caregivers are employed either full or part time. For employed caregivers, personal health, job performance, and the ability to advance their career are affected by the weight of their caregiving responsibilities. Some find it necessary to quit their jobs. Employed caregivers report a need for caregiving information; however, they seldom think of their workplace as a valuable resource. Results of the second of a 3-phase research and service project are discussed. Based on a needs assessment completed by employees of a large institution, educational sessions were offered during 3 consecutive months. Thirty-five employees attended 1 or more sessions. The sessions were evaluated highly on a 5-point Likert-type scale for usefulness of information, quality of presentation, and value of session. Sharing project results with the employing institution's human resources department yielded commitment to integrate caregiver education and referral into a newly organized work-life program. When properly managed, such workplace programs can provide needed assistance to employed caregivers. A nurse working with older adults is an ideal provider to initiate and manage this kind of program. PMID:16757388

  5. A decision-making framework for total ownership cost management of complex systems: A Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Russel J.

    This qualitative study, using a modified Delphi method, was conducted to develop a decision-making framework for the total ownership cost management of complex systems in the aerospace industry. The primary focus of total ownership cost is to look beyond the purchase price when evaluating complex system life cycle alternatives. A thorough literature review and the opinions of a group of qualified experts resulted in a compilation of total ownership cost best practices, cost drivers, key performance factors, applicable assessment methods, practitioner credentials and potential barriers to effective implementation. The expert panel provided responses to the study questions using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Data were analyzed and provided to the panel members for review and discussion with the intent to achieve group consensus. As a result of the study, the experts agreed that a total ownership cost analysis should (a) be as simple as possible using historical data; (b) establish cost targets, metrics, and penalties early in the program; (c) monitor the targets throughout the product lifecycle and revise them as applicable historical data becomes available; and (d) directly link total ownership cost elements with other success factors during program development. The resultant study framework provides the business leader with incentives and methods to develop and implement strategies for controlling and reducing total ownership cost over the entire product life cycle when balancing cost, schedule, and performance decisions.

  6. Relationship among body image, sex, and popularity of high school students.

    PubMed

    Graham, M A; Eich, C; Kephart, B; Peterson, D

    2000-06-01

    Body dissatisfaction and attempts to lose weight are increasingly common among adolescents. Research has identified a number of factors significantly associated with body image, including sex, media, parental relationship, and puberty as well as weight and popularity. It was hypothesized that popular adolescents would have greater body dissatisfaction, more body distortion, and lower body esteem. From a rural high school 116 10th and 12th grade students were surveyed. Two teachers from the school also completed a Body Image Figure scale for each student. Subjects rated each grade member on a 5-point Likert-type scale, indicating how much they liked the classmate. A Social Preference rating (Popularity) was calculated for each subject from these ratings. Each subject also completed a Body Image Figure scale and Body Esteem scale. Body distortion was calculated by comparing the teachers' and a student's responses. Significant sex differences were found for scores on body satisfaction, distortion, and esteem, but none for popularity with distortion and body esteem. A relationship between popularity and body satisfaction was found, with the most popular adolescents reporting the least discrepancy between their ideal body image and their current body image. Popular adolescents are most satisfied with their body type.

  7. Rights & Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue guides teachers and students to annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with topics related to rights and responsibilities. Sidebar features discuss animal rights, handling money responsibly, and taking responsibility for the environment. (Contains Three…

  8. Relational responsibilities in responsive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Visse, Merel; Abma, Tineke A; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2012-02-01

    This article explores how we can enhance our understanding of the moral responsibilities in daily, plural practices of responsive evaluation. It introduces an interpretive framework for understanding the moral aspects of evaluation practice. The framework supports responsive evaluators to better understand and handle their moral responsibilities. A case is introduced to illustrate our argument. Responsive evaluation contributes to the design and implementation of policy by working with stakeholders and coordinating the evaluation process as a relationally responsible practice. Responsive evaluation entails a democratic process in which the evaluator fosters and enters a partnership with stakeholders. The responsibilities of an evaluator generally involve issues such as 'confidentiality', 'accountability' and 'privacy'. The responsive evaluator has specific responsibilities, for example to include stakeholders and vulnerable groups and to foster an ongoing dialogue. In addition, responsive evaluation involves a relational responsibility, which becomes present in daily situations in which stakeholders express expectations and voice demands. In our everyday work as evaluators, it is difficult to respond to all these demands at the same time. In addition, this article demonstrates that novice evaluators experience challenges concerning over- and underidenfitication with stakeholders. Guidelines and quality criteria on how to act are helpful, but need interpretation and application to the unique situation at hand.

  9. Qualifications for future hospital pharmacy directors as perceived by pharmacy directors and hospital administrators in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Vejraska, M T; Wiederholt, J B; Zilz, D A

    1987-07-01

    Hospital pharmacy directors and administrators in Wisconsin were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the responsibilities, skills, postgraduate education, training, and experience necessary for hospital pharmacy directors during the next 10 years. Packages containing two identical questionnaires were mailed in April 1985 to the pharmacy directors at all 159 hospitals in Wisconsin. The pharmacy director and his or her immediate supervisor were asked to use a 5-point Likert-type scale to rate the importance of various responsibilities and skills and also to rank the most important responsibilities, skills, and issues. In addition, respondents answered forced-choice questions about postgraduate education and training and an open-ended question about academic coursework. All responses were compared by respondent characteristics and hospital size. There was a response rate of 48.1% to the questionnaire, representing 60.7% of the pharmacy directors (n = 96) and 34.6% of the administrators (n = 55). Both groups agreed on which responsibilities and issues will be very important (mean importance rating of greater than 4) for future pharmacy directors. However, administrators rated clinical and technical skills as significantly more important than did pharmacy directors. Only 48% of pharmacy directors believed that a residency is essential and preferred either a general or administrative residency coupled with an advanced degree, whereas more than 50% of the responding administrators favored residencies not affiliated with a degree program. The majority of pharmacy directors and administrators believed that both general staff and administrative experience is necessary for future pharmacy directors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells. T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. This type of immunity becomes deficient in persons with HIV, the virus ... blood. B lymphocytes provide the body with humoral immunity as they circulate in the fluids in search ...

  11. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system ...

  12. Responsible Polling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2002-01-01

    Response to Terry Moe's published claim that certain results of 2001 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of the public's attitude toward education underrepresented public support for educational vouchers. (PKP)

  13. Responsive Lotteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feige, Uriel; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    Given a set of alternatives and a single player, we introduce the notion of a responsive lottery. These mechanisms receive as input from the player a reported utility function, specifying a value for each one of the alternatives, and use a lottery to produce as output a probability distribution over the alternatives. Thereafter, exactly one alternative wins (is given to the player) with the respective probability. Assuming that the player is not indifferent to which of the alternatives wins, a lottery rule is called truthful dominant if reporting his true utility function (up to affine transformations) is the unique report that maximizes the expected payoff for the player. We design truthful dominant responsive lotteries. We also discuss their relations with scoring rules and with VCG mechanisms.

  14. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  15. Naturalizing Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zullo, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    In the contemporary debate on the use of the neurosciences in ethics and law, numerous arguments have been bandied about among scientists and philosophers looking to uphold or reject the reliability and validity of scientific findings obtained by brain imaging technologies. Among the most vexing questions is, Can we trust that technology? One point of disagreement is whether brain scans offer a window through which to observe the functioning of the mind, in such a way as to enable lawyers, judges, physicians, and lawmakers to detect anomalies in brain function that may account for criminal unconscious behavior. Those who stand behind brain imaging believe that this can indeed be achieved, whereas those in opposition stress that brain scans are highly open to interpretation and that the data they provide is insufficient to establish causal connections. The question essentially comes down to whether technology can reliably be used to determine the intentions of the individual, thus establishing mens rea, for example, and hence responsibility. This article focuses on the latter notion and explores whether we can rely on the neurosciences to shed light on a complex form of moral and legal reasoning, as well as the role of the neurosciences in reawakening a philosophical and legal interest in trying to set responsibility on an empirical basis. PMID:27634721

  16. An analysis of four ways of assessing student beliefs about sts topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikenhead, Glen S.

    The study investigated the degree of ambiguity harbored by four different response modes used to monitor student beliefs about science-technology-society topics: Likert-type, written paragraph, semistrue tured interview, and empirically developed multiple choice. The study also explored the sources of those beliefs. Grade-12 students in a Canadian urban setting responded, in each of the four modes, to statements from Views on Science-Technology-Society. It was discovered that TV had far more influence on what students believed about science and its social, technological context than did numerous science courses. The challenge to science educators is to use the media effectively in combating naive views about science. Regarding ambiguity in student assessment, the Likert-type responses were the most inaccurate, offering only a guess at student beliefs. Such guesswork calls into question the use of Likert-type standardized tests that claim to assess student views about science. Student paragraph responses contained significant ambiguities in about 50% of the cases. The empirically developed multiple choices, however, reduced the ambiguity to the 20% level. Predictably, the semistructured interview was the least ambiguous of all four response modes, but it required the most time to administer. These findings encourage researchers to develop instruments grounded in the empirical data of student viewpoints, rather than relying solely on instruments structured by the philosophical stances of science educators.

  17. Quit Smoking Experts’ Opinions toward Quality and Results of Quit Smoking Methods Provided in Tobacco Cessation Services Centers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Leischow, Scott J.; Lando, Harry A.; Shadmehr, Mohammad B.; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the core responsibilities of health system is to treat tobacco dependence. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess physicians’ opinions towards quality and result of different quit smoking methods provided in tobacco cessation services centers in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, random sampling of all quit centers at country level was used to obtain a representative sample size of 100 physicians. Physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects, and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: Most experts preferred to use combination quit smoking methods and then Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) with 26 and 23, respectively. The least used methods were quit line and some methods without medication with 3 cases. The method which gained the maximum scores were telephone consultation, acupuncture, Willpower, Champix, combined method, and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) with the mean of 23.3, 23, 22.5, 22, 21.7 and 21.3, respectively. The minimum scores were related to e-cigarette, some methods without medication, and non-NRT medication with the mean of 12.3, 15.8 and 16.2, respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean of scores based on different cities (P = 0.256). Analysis of variance in mean scores showed significant differences in the means scores of different methods (P < 0.000). Conclusions: According to physicians acupuncture, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods and these methods could be much more feasible and cost effective than other methods. PMID:26425329

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou

    2002-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (satellite and television) programs for students in grades 6-8. Each of the five programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series included a lesson, an educator guide, a student activity or experiment, and a web-based component. In March 2000, a mail (self-reported) survey (booklet) was sent to a randomly selected sample of 1,000 NASA CONNECT registrants. A total of 336 surveys (269 usable) were received by the established cut-off date. Most survey questions employed a 5-point Likert-type response scale. Survey topics included (1) instructional technology and teaching, (2) instructional programming and technology in the classroom, (3) the NASA CONNECT program, (4) classroom use of computer technology, and (5) demographics. About 73% of the respondents were female, about 92% identified "classroom teacher" as their present professional duty, about 90% worked in a public school, and about 62% held a master's degree or master's equivalency. Regarding NASA CONNECT, respondents reported that (1) they used the five programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series; (2) the stated objectives for each program were met (4.54); (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards (4.57); (4) program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level (4.17); and (5) the programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology (4.51).

  19. Assessing cognitive therapy skills comprehension, acquisition, and use by means of an independent observer version of the Skills of Cognitive Therapy (SoCT-IO).

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory K; Thase, Michael E; Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Borman, Patricia D; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the adaptation and psychometric properties of the Skills for Cognitive Therapy (SoCT) measure for use by an independent observer (SoCT-IO) who rates the cognitive therapy (CT) skill acquisition, comprehension, and use by depressed adults and (b) to compare ratings of CT skill comprehension, acquisition, and use by independent observers to those by patients and therapists. Like the other SoCT versions, the SoCT-IO consists of 8 items that assess patients' comprehension, acquisition, and use of cognitive and behavioral skills for managing depressive symptoms, using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Four experienced raters (2 doctoral-level CT therapists and 2 bachelor-level nontherapists) used the SoCT-IO to rate 80 CT videotapes from both mid and later sessions in acute-phase CT from a randomized controlled trial for outpatients with recurrent major depression. The SoCT-IO ratings showed excellent internal consistency reliability and moderately high interrater reliability. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by convergence of the SoCT-IO with 2 other versions of the SoCT, 1 completed by therapists (SoCT-O) and the other by patients (SoCT-P). SoCT-IO ratings evidenced good predictive validity: Independent observers' ratings of patient CT skills midphase in therapy predicted treatment response even when the predictive effects of SoCT ratings by therapists and patients were controlled. The SoCT-IO is a psychometrically sound measure of CT skill comprehension, acquisition and use for rating outpatients with recurrent depression. The clinical utility and implications for using the SoCT-IO as a measure of CT skills acquisition are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; House, Patricia L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (satellite and television) programs for students in grades 5-8. Each of the five programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series included a lesson, an educator guide, a student activity or experiment, and a web-based component. In March 1999, a mail (self-reported) survey (booklet) was sent to a randomly selected sample of 1,000 NASA CONNECT registrants. A total of 401 surveys (351 usable) were received by the established cut-off date. Most survey questions employed a 5-point Likert-type response scale. Survey topics included: (1) instructional technology and teaching, (2) instructional programming and technology in the classroom, (3) the NASA CONNECT program, (4) classroom use of computer technology, and (5) demographics. About 68% of the respondents were female, about 88% identified "classroom teacher" as their present professional duty, about 75% worked in a public school, and about 67% held a master's degree or master's equivalency. Regarding NASA CONNECT, respondents reported that: (1) they used the five programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series; (2) the stated objectives for each program were met (4.49); (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards (4.61); (4) program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level (4.25); and (5) the programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology (4.45).

  1. Reliability and validity of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion Scale in a sample of Salvadoran secondary school students

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite a growing body of research from the United States and other industrialized countries on the inverse association between supportive social relationships in the school and youth risk behavior engagement, research on the measurement of supportive school social relationships in Central America is limited. We examined the psychometric properties of the Student Perceptions of School Cohesion (SPSC) scale, a 10-item scale that asks students to rate with a 5-point Likert-type response scale their perceptions of the school social environment, in a sample of public secondary school students (mean age = 15 years) living in central El Salvador. Methods Students (n = 982) completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the SPSC scale along with measures of youth health risk behaviors based on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure of the scale, and two internal consistency estimates of reliability were computed. Construct validity was assessed by examining whether students who reported low school cohesion were significantly more likely to report physical fighting and illicit drug use. Results Results indicated that the SPSC scale has three latent factors, which explained 61.6% of the variance: supportive school relationships, student-school connectedness, and student-teacher connectedness. The full scale and three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = .87 and α = .84 for the full scale; rs and α between .71 and .75 for the three subscales). Significant associations were found between the full scale and all three subscales with physical fighting (p ≤ .001) and illicit drug use (p < .05). Conclusion Findings provide evidence of reliability and validity of the SPSC for the measurement of supportive school relationships in Latino adolescents living in El Salvador. These findings provide a foundation for further research on school cohesion

  2. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  3. Issues in Differential Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Ronald C.; Rycus, Judith S.; Saunders-Adams, Stacey M.; Hughes, Laura K.; Hughes, Kelli N.

    2013-01-01

    Differential response (DR), also referred to as alternative response (AR), family assessment response (FAR), or multiple track response, was developed to incorporate family-centered, strengths-based practices into child protective services (CPS), primarily by diverting lower risk families into an assessment track rather than requiring the…

  4. The Response Continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Caltagirone, Sergio; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-06-17

    Active response is a sequence of actions per- formed speci¯cally to mitigate a detected threat. Response decisions always follow detection: a decision to take `no ac- tion' remains a response decision. However, active response is a complex subject that has received insu±cient formal attention. To facilitate discussion, this paper provides a framework that proposes a common de¯nition, describes the role of response and the major issues surrounding response choices, and ¯nally, provides a model for the process of re- sponse. This provides a common starting point for discus- sion of the full response continuum as an integral part of contemporary computer security.

  5. Modification of radiation response

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    There has been a substantial and intense interest by laboratory and clinical investigators in the development of agents which modify the response of tissue to radiation differentially so as to increase the effect on tumor relative to normal tissue. These have included efforts to increase the response of tumor or to decrease response of normal tissue. The plan of this presentation is to: define radiation response modifiers; consider the impact of response modifiers on dose response curves; comment on problems inherent in assessment of results of clinical trials of response modifiers; and review briefly results of several trials of: sensitizers of hypoxic cells (hyperbaric oxygen, chemical sensitizer), pyrimidine analogs, and protectors.

  6. Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.

    PubMed

    Gott, J Richard

    2005-12-01

    The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons (Telesto and Calypso) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points. Epimetheus is in a horseshoe orbit relative to Janus that is exactly like the horseshoe orbit expected for an object that has been perturbed from a location at L(4)/L(5). We propose that the rings of Saturn visible today are all that remains of this original disk; they lie inside the Roche limit where tidal forces have simply prevented the formation of large moons by accretion. Further out, the icy particles have accumulated into icy moons. Objects in external solar systems on horseshoe orbits (like those of Epimetheus relative to Janus) could be detected by a slow sinusoidal variation with time of the calculated mass of a planet from radial velocity measurements.

  7. Lagrange L4/L5 points and the origin of our Moon and Saturn's moons and rings.

    PubMed

    Gott, J Richard

    2005-12-01

    The current standard theory of the origin of the Moon is that the Earth was hit by a giant impactor the size of Mars causing ejection of debris from its mantle that coalesced to form the moon; but where did this Mars-sized impactor come from? Isotopic evidence suggests that it came from 1 AU radius in the solar nebula, and computer simulations are consistent with its approaching Earth on a zero-energy parabolic trajectory. How could such a large object form at 1 AU in a quiescent disk of planetesimals without having already collided with the Earth at an earlier epoch before having the chance to grow large? Belbruno and Gott propose that the giant impactor could have formed in a stable orbit from debris at the Earth's Lagrange point L(5) (or L(4)). It would grow quietly by accretion at L(5) (or L(4)), but eventually gravitational perturbations by other growing planetesimals would kick it out into a horseshoe orbit and finally into a chaotic creeping orbit, which Belbruno and Gott show would, with high probability, hit the Earth on a near zero-energy parabolic trajectory. We can see other examples of this phenomenon occurring in the solar system. Asteroid 2002AA29 is in a horseshoe orbit relative to the Earth that looks exactly like the horseshoe orbits that Belbruno and Gott found for objects that had been perturbed from L(4)/L(5). The regular moons of Saturn are made of ice and have the same albedo as the ring particles (ice chunks, plus some dust). We (J. R. Gott, R. Vanderbei, and E. Belbruno) propose that the regular icy moons of Saturn (out to the orbit of Titan), which are all in nearly circular orbits, formed out of a thin disk of planetesimals (ice chunks) rather like the rings of Saturn today only larger in extent. In such a situation formation of objects at L(4)/L(5) might be expected. Indeed, Saturn's moon Dione is accompanied by moons (Helene and Polydeuces) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points, and Saturn's moon Tethys is also accompanied by moons (Telesto and Calypso) at both L(4) and L(5) Lagrange points. Epimetheus is in a horseshoe orbit relative to Janus that is exactly like the horseshoe orbit expected for an object that has been perturbed from a location at L(4)/L(5). We propose that the rings of Saturn visible today are all that remains of this original disk; they lie inside the Roche limit where tidal forces have simply prevented the formation of large moons by accretion. Further out, the icy particles have accumulated into icy moons. Objects in external solar systems on horseshoe orbits (like those of Epimetheus relative to Janus) could be detected by a slow sinusoidal variation with time of the calculated mass of a planet from radial velocity measurements. PMID:16510418

  8. Stimulus responsive nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  9. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  10. Constructed-Response Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinford, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    With rigor outlined in state and Common Core standards and the addition of constructed-response test items to most state tests, math constructed-response questions have become increasingly popular in today's classroom. Although constructed-response problems can present a challenge for students, they do offer a glimpse of students' learning through…

  11. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in…

  12. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  13. The responsibilities of engineers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  14. CO2 -Responsive polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaojian; Theato, Patrick

    2013-07-25

    This Review focuses on the recent progress in the area of CO2 -responsive polymers and provides detailed descriptions of these existing examples. CO2 -responsive polymers can be categorized into three types based on their CO2 -responsive groups: amidine, amine, and carboxyl groups. Compared with traditional temperature, pH, or light stimuli-responsive polymers, CO2 -responsive polymers provide the advantage to use CO2 as a "green" trigger as well as to capture CO2 directly from air. In addition, the current challenges of CO2 -responsive polymers are discussed and the different solution methods are compared. Noteworthy, CO2 -responsive polymers are considered to have a prosperous future in various scientific areas.

  15. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  16. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  17. Space race functional responses

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis–Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka–Volterra predator–prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  18. Differential Response: Response to Hughes and Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Bryan; Brown, Brett Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    In their critique of differential response (DR), Hughes and colleagues raise a number of important issues that are central to broader efforts at the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) including the need for greater reliance on evidence-based practice in child welfare, more rigorous evaluation methodologies, and a robust set of…

  19. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American…

  20. Indomethacin-responsive headaches.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Indomethacin-responsive headaches are a heterogeneous group of primary headache disorders distinguished by their swift and often absolute response to indomethacin. The epidemiology of these conditions is incompletely defined. Traditionally, indomethacin-responsive headaches include a subset of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua), Valsalva-induced headaches (cough headache, exercise headache, and sex headache), primary stabbing headache, and hypnic headache. These headache syndromes differ in extent of response to indomethacin, clinical features, and differential diagnoses. Neuroimaging is recommended to investigate for various organic causes that may mimic these headaches. Case reports of other primary headache disorders that also respond to indomethacin, such as cluster headache, nummular headache, and ophthalmoplegic migraine, have been described. These "novel" indomethacin-responsive headaches beg the question of what headache characteristics are required to qualify a headache as an indomethacin-responsive headache. Furthermore, they challenge the concept of using a therapeutic intervention as a diagnostic criterion.

  1. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  2. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  3. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  4. Credibility, Will, and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Barnaby C.

    1974-01-01

    Factors that shaped institutions's responses to campus agitation about Vietnam, discrimination, and poverty include: a loss of institutional credibility, of will, and of power to act prerogatively. (JH)

  5. Responsibility and punishment: whose mind? A response.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Oliver R

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience is challenging the Anglo-American approach to criminal responsibility. Critiques, in this issue and elsewhere, are pointing out the deeply flawed psychological assumptions underlying the legal tests for mental incapacity. The critiques themselves, however, may be flawed in looking, as the tests do, at the psychology of the offender. Introducing the strategic structure of punishment into the analysis leads us to consider the psychology of the punisher as the critical locus of cognition informing the responsibility rules. Such an approach both helps to make sense of the counterfactual assumptions about offender psychology embodied in the law and provides a possible explanation for the human conviction of the existence of free will, at least in others. PMID:15590621

  6. Responsibility and punishment: whose mind? A response.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Oliver R

    2004-11-29

    Cognitive neuroscience is challenging the Anglo-American approach to criminal responsibility. Critiques, in this issue and elsewhere, are pointing out the deeply flawed psychological assumptions underlying the legal tests for mental incapacity. The critiques themselves, however, may be flawed in looking, as the tests do, at the psychology of the offender. Introducing the strategic structure of punishment into the analysis leads us to consider the psychology of the punisher as the critical locus of cognition informing the responsibility rules. Such an approach both helps to make sense of the counterfactual assumptions about offender psychology embodied in the law and provides a possible explanation for the human conviction of the existence of free will, at least in others. PMID:15590621

  7. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  8. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Daniel F.; Byrd, Gwen; Rocchio, Dominica

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to encourage dialogue and reflection on matters of common concern and interest, this journal invites responses on selected articles from other educators, who engage the text critically and offer some reflections about its utility and validity. This paper presents responses from Daniel F. Curtin, Gwen Byrd and Dominica Rocchio to the…

  9. Gender and Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…

  10. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  11. Chores and Responsibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... not learn to accept responsibility. In unstructured home environments, or in families that are very permissive and where little is expected of children, youngsters are losing out on some valuable learning experiences, and their development of a sense of responsibility and initiative may ...

  12. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  13. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Michael; Hankins, Diana

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to encourage dialogue and reflection on matters of common concern and interest, the journal staff invite responses on selected articles from other educators, who engage the text critically and offer some reflections about its utility and validity. This article offers responses from Michael Fierro and Diana Hankins on the article…

  14. Linear response at criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, Adam; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    We study a set of cooperatively interacting units at criticality, and we prove with analytical and numerical arguments that they generate the same renewal non-Poisson intermittency as that produced by blinking quantum dots, thereby giving a stronger support to the results of earlier investigation. By analyzing how this out-of-equilibrium system responds to harmonic perturbations, we find that the response can be described only using a new form of linear response theory that accounts for aging and the nonergodic behavior of the underlying process. We connect the undamped response of the system at criticality to the decaying response predicted by the recently established nonergodic fluctuation-dissipation theorem for dichotomous processes using information about the second moment of the fluctuations. We demonstrate that over a wide range of perturbation frequencies the response of the cooperative system is greatest when at criticality.

  15. IMMUNE RESPONSES IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Carl W.; Solliday, Susan M.; Asofsky, Richard

    1972-01-01

    Suppression of Ig class-specific PFC responses by class-specific antibody to mouse immunoglobulin was studied in cultures of spleen cells from immunized mice. In contrast to cultures from normal mice where anti-µ suppressed responses in all Ig classes, anti-µ had progressively less suppressive effect on γ1 and γ2 responses in cultures from immunized mice with time after immunization. This was most pronounced at 10 days after immunization when anti-µ suppressed γM and γA responses, but had no or slight effect on γ1 or γ2 responses which were still suppressed with anti-γ1 and anti-γ2. These changes in precursor cell susceptibility to anti-µ were antigen specific. PMID:4536707

  16. Geospatial Information Response Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme emergency events of national significance that include manmade and natural disasters seem to have become more frequent during the past two decades. The Nation is becoming more resilient to these emergencies through better preparedness, reduced duplication, and establishing better communications so every response and recovery effort saves lives and mitigates the long-term social and economic impacts on the Nation. The National Response Framework (NRF) (http://www.fema.gov/NRF) was developed to provide the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. The NRF provides five key principles for better preparation, coordination, and response: 1) engaged partnerships, 2) a tiered response, 3) scalable, flexible, and adaptable operations, 4) unity of effort, and 5) readiness to act. The NRF also describes how communities, tribes, States, Federal Government, privatesector, and non-governmental partners apply these principles for a coordinated, effective national response. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the NRF doctrine by establishing several earth-sciences, discipline-level teams to ensure that USGS science, data, and individual expertise are readily available during emergencies. The Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) is one of these teams. The USGS established the GIRT to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency. The GIRT ensures that timely geospatial data are available for use by emergency responders, land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. In an emergency and response capacity, the GIRT is responsible for establishing procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing coordinated products and services utilizing the USGS' exceptional pool of

  17. Progressive Response Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  18. Validation of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a Sample of Male Brazilian University Students.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Aguiar, Ana Saito Junqueira; de Oliveira, Vitor Henrique; de Souza Gatti, Ana Luisa; de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Few measures are available to examine pornography use constructs, and this can compromise the reliability of statements regarding harmful use of pornography. This study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a sample of male Brazilian university students. The inventory consists of a 4-factor, 15-item, 5-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the inventory, it was administered to 100 male medical students. An initial model that included all 15 items of the inventory showed some substandard fit indices. Therefore, another model was tested, excluding an item that had loaded onto two different factors. Goodness-of-fit indices were better for the new model. Overall, findings from this study support using the inventory on Portuguese-speaking individuals. With additional replication across populations, other settings, and treatment-seeking patients, the Pornography Consumption Inventory could also potentially be shortened to 14 items. PMID:25189705

  19. Improving Palliative Care Team Meetings: Structure, Inclusion, and "Team Care".

    PubMed

    Brennan, Caitlin W; Kelly, Brittany; Skarf, Lara Michal; Tellem, Rotem; Dunn, Kathleen M; Poswolsky, Sheila

    2016-07-01

    Increasing demands on palliative care teams point to the need for continuous improvement to ensure teams are working collaboratively and efficiently. This quality improvement initiative focused on improving interprofessional team meeting efficiency and subsequently patient care. Meeting start and end times improved from a mean of approximately 9 and 6 minutes late in the baseline period, respectively, to a mean of 4.4 minutes late (start time) and ending early in our sustainability phase. Mean team satisfaction improved from 2.4 to 4.5 on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The improvement initiative clarified communication about patients' plans of care, thus positively impacting team members' ability to articulate goals to other professionals, patients, and families. We propose several recommendations in the form of a team meeting "toolkit." PMID:25794871

  20. Validation of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a Sample of Male Brazilian University Students.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Aguiar, Ana Saito Junqueira; de Oliveira, Vitor Henrique; de Souza Gatti, Ana Luisa; de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Few measures are available to examine pornography use constructs, and this can compromise the reliability of statements regarding harmful use of pornography. This study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory in a sample of male Brazilian university students. The inventory consists of a 4-factor, 15-item, 5-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the inventory, it was administered to 100 male medical students. An initial model that included all 15 items of the inventory showed some substandard fit indices. Therefore, another model was tested, excluding an item that had loaded onto two different factors. Goodness-of-fit indices were better for the new model. Overall, findings from this study support using the inventory on Portuguese-speaking individuals. With additional replication across populations, other settings, and treatment-seeking patients, the Pornography Consumption Inventory could also potentially be shortened to 14 items.

  1. Placebo response in antipsychotic trials of patients with acute mania: Results of an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Welten, C C M; Koeter, M W J; Wohlfarth, T; Storosum, J G; van den Brink, W; Gispen-de Wied, C C; Leufkens, H G M; Denys, D A J P

    2015-07-01

    We examined the role of placebo response in acute mania trials. Specifically, whether placebo response: (1) predicts treatment effect, (2) can be predicted by patient and study characteristics, and (3) can be predicted by a parsimonious model. We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 10 registration studies (n=1019) for the indication acute manic episode of bipolar disorder. We assessed the effect of 14 determinants on placebo response. Primary outcome measures were mean symptom change score (MCS) on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and response rate (RR), defined as ≥ 50% YMRS symptom improvement from baseline to endpoint. The overall placebo response was 8.5 points improvement on the YMRS (=27.9%) with a RR of 32.8%. Placebo response was significantly associated with the overall treatment response. Five determinants significantly (p<0.05) predicted the placebo response. The multivariate prediction model, which consisted of baseline severity, psychotic features at baseline, number of geographic regions, and region, explained 10.4% and 5.5% of the variance in MSC and RR, respectively. Our findings showed that the placebo response in efficacy trials of antipsychotics for acute mania is substantial and an important determinant of treatment effect. Placebo response is influenced by patient characteristics (illness severity and presence of psychotic features) and by study characteristics (study year, number of geographic regions and region). However, the prediction model could only explain the placebo response to a limited extent. Therefore, limiting trials to certain patients in certain geographic regions seems not a viable strategy to improve assay sensitivity.

  2. Glycemic responses and sensory characteristics of whole yellow pea flour added to novel functional foods.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental understanding regarding postprandial glycemic responses to foods containing whole yellow-pea flour (WYPF) remains unknown. This, alongside concerns that WYPF possesses unfavorable sensory characteristics has limited the incorporation of WYPF into new functional food products as a healthy novel ingredient. The objective of this study was to evaluate how WYPF modulates postprandial glycemic responses as well as sensory characteristics in novel foods. In a single-blind crossover trial, the present study assessed postprandial glycemic responses of banana bread, biscotti, and spaghetti containing either WYPF or whole wheat flour (WWF). Boiled yellow peas (BYP) and white bread (WB) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. On day 1, subjects evaluated appearance, taste, texture, smell as well as overall acceptance of each WYPF and WWF food on a 5-point hedonic scale. WYPF banana bread (97.9 +/- 17.8 mmol x min/L) and biscotti (83 +/- 13 mmol x min/L), as well as BYP (112.3 +/- 19.9 mmol x min/L), reduced (P < 0.05) glycemic responses compared to WB (218.1 +/- 29.5 mmol x min/L). The glycemic response of WYPF pasta (160.7 +/- 19.4 mmol x min/L) was comparable to WB. WYPF biscotti produced a lower (P = 0.019) postprandial glycemic response compared to WWF biscotti (117.2 +/- 13.1 mmol x min/L). Hedonic responses between corresponding foods were similar except for the WYPF pasta (2.9 +/- 0.9) which possessed a lower sensory score (P = 0.02) for smell compared to WWF pasta (3.6 +/- 1). WYPF can be used to produce low-glycemic functional foods possessing sensory attributes that are comparable to identical food products containing WWF.

  3. Photodynamic therapy: first responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael

    2009-06-01

    During the irradiation of photosensitized cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated leading to a variety of effects including apoptosis and autophagy. These responses can occur within minutes after irradiation. Apoptosis is an irreversible pathway to death that can be triggered by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Autophagy is a recycling process that can occur as a result of Bcl-2 photodamage or as a response to organelle disruption. We have reported that autophagy is associated with a 'shoulder' on the PDT dose-response curve. Although predominantly a survival pathway, autophagy can also play a role in cell death if cells attempt an excessive amount of recycling, beyond their ability to repair photodamage. Recent studies have been directed toward assessing the role of different ROS in the immediate response to PDT. While singlet oxygen is considered to be the major phototoxic ROS, it appears that catalase activity is also a determinant of the apoptotic response and that H2O2•OH can amplify the effects of singlet oxygen. An early response to PDT also involves inhibition of membrane trafficking systems related to the endocytic pathway. The extent and nature of these early responses appear to be among the determinants of subsequent tumor eradication.

  4. Frequency Response Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel; Chassin, PNNL David; Zhang, PNNL Yu; PNNL,

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could lead to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.

  5. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  6. Frequency Response Tool

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could leadmore » to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.« less

  7. Responsibility and confidence

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Zubin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the changing role of the pharmacist in patient-centred practice, pharmacists anecdotally reported little confidence in their clinical decision-making skills and do not feel responsible for their patients. Observational findings have suggested these trends within the profession, but there is a paucity of evidence to explain why. We conducted an exploratory study with an objective to identify reasons for the lack of responsibility and/or confidence in various pharmacy practice settings. Methods: Pharmacist interviews were conducted via written response, face-to-face or telephone. Seven questions were asked on the topic of responsibility and confidence as it applies to pharmacy practice and how pharmacists think these themes differ in medicine. Interview transcripts were analyzed and divided by common theme. Quotations to support these themes are presented. Results: Twenty-nine pharmacists were asked to participate, and 18 responded (62% response rate). From these interviews, 6 themes were identified as barriers to confidence and responsibility: hierarchy of the medical system, role definitions, evolution of responsibility, ownership of decisions for confidence building, quality and consequences of mentorship and personality traits upon admission. Discussion: We identified 6 potential barriers to the development of pharmacists’ self-confidence and responsibility. These findings have practical applicability for educational research, future curriculum changes, experiential learning structure and pharmacy practice. Due to bias and the limitations of this form of exploratory research and small sample size, evidence should be interpreted cautiously. Conclusion: Pharmacists feel neither responsible nor confident for their clinical decisions due to social, educational, experiential and personal reasons. Can Pharm J 2013;146:155-161. PMID:23795200

  8. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  9. The ability of early changes in motivation to predict later antidepressant treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Gorwood, Philip; Vaiva, Guillaume; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Baylé, Franck J; Courtet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Baseline values and early changes of emotional reactivity, cognitive speed, psychomotor function, motivation, and sensory perception have not been studied to any extent in unipolar depression, although they could help to characterize different dimensions of illness that are harder to capture by clinicians, give new insights on how patients improve, and offer new early clinical markers for later treatment response. Methods About 1,565 adult outpatients with major depressive disorder receiving agomelatine completed the clinician-rated 16-item quick inventory of depressive symptoms, Clinical Global Impression, and Multidimensional Assessment of Thymic States (MAThyS) rating scales at inclusion, Week 2 and Week 6. The MAThyS includes a 20-item self-rated visual analog scale (from inhibition [0] to activation [10], with [5] representing the usual state) leading to five a priori dimensions (emotional reactivity, cognitive speed, psychomotor function, motivation, and sensory perception). Results All MAThyS dimension scores increased from inclusion to Week 2 and from inclusion to Week 6 (P<0.001). Improvement was around 2 points (out of 10) for motivation, 1.5 points for psychomotor function, and 0.5 points for other dimensions. Motivation showed a trend to being more severely impaired at inclusion in future nonresponders (t=1.25, df=1,563, P=0.10). Its improvement at Week 2 was the most discriminating MAThyS dimension between future responders and nonresponders, and represents the best predictor of future response, with the highest area under the receptor operating characteristic curve (area under curve =0.616, 95% confidence interval [0.588–0.643], P<0.001). Finally, improvements in motivation correlated the most strongly with clinician-rated 16-item quick inventory of depressive symptoms improvement (r=−0.491, df=1,563, P<0.001). Conclusion Motivation had the most capacity for early improvement, the best predictive value for response, and the largest

  10. The Aging Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Haigis, Marcia C.; Yankner, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is the outcome of a balance between damage and repair. The rate of aging and the appearance of age-related pathology are modulated by stress response and repair pathways that gradually decline, including the proteostasis and DNA damage repair networks and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism. Highly conserved insulin/IGF-1, TOR, and sirtuin signaling pathways in turn, control these critical cellular responses. The coordinated action of these signaling pathways maintains cellular and organismal homeostasis in the face of external perturbations, such as changes in nutrient availability, temperature and oxygen level, as well as internal perturbations, such as protein misfolding and DNA damage. Studies in model organisms suggest that changes in signaling can augment these critical stress response systems, increasing lifespan and reducing age-related pathology. The systems biology of stress response signaling thus provides a new approach to the understanding and potential treatment of age-related diseases. PMID:20965426

  11. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  12. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Keers, Robert; Aitchison, Katherine J

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial interindividual variation in response to antidepressants. Family and twin studies suggest that genetic variation may, at least in part, explain these differences. Pharmacogenetic research attempts to identify the genetic variants associated with antidepressant response to both understand the mechanism of action of pharmacotherapies and to predict outcome. Genes implicated in the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodyamics of antidepressants have been shown to predict response; however, the failure of some findings to replicate has been disappointing. More recent hypothesis-free approaches have identified novel candidates for antidepressant response. However, results have been considerably modest and suggest that treatment outcome is determined by multiple genetic variants of small effect. The small effect sizes of genetic variants and heterogeneity between studies have significantly hindered attempts to find robust genetic predictors of response to antidepressants. To allow the direct comparison of findings, future pharmacogenetic studies should employ standardized methodology and consider using intermediate phenotypes of response, such as neurogenesis, that may more closely reflect the mechanism of action of antidepressants. PMID:21158559

  13. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Lagnado, David A; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in multiple agent contexts. We draw on the structural model account of actual causation (e.g., Halpern & Pearl, 2005) and its extension to responsibility judgments (Chockler & Halpern, 2004). We review the main theoretical and empirical issues that arise from this literature and propose a novel model of intuitive judgments of responsibility. This model is a function of both pivotality (whether an agent made a difference to the outcome) and criticality (how important the agent is perceived to be for the outcome, before any actions are taken). The model explains empirical results from previous studies and is supported by a new experiment that manipulates both pivotality and criticality. We also discuss possible extensions of this model to deal with a broader range of causal situations. Overall, our approach emphasizes the close interrelations between causality, counterfactuals, and responsibility attributions. PMID:23855451

  14. An evaluative study of the impact of the "Curriculum Alignment Toolbox" on middle school science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carol L.

    The number of computer-assisted education programs on the market is overwhelming science teachers all over the Michigan. Though the need is great, many teachers are reluctant to procure computer-assisted science education programs because they are unsure of the effectiveness of such programs. The Curriculum Alignment Toolbox (CAT) is a computer-based program, aligned to the Michigan Curriculum Framework's Benchmarks for Science Education and designed to supplement science instruction in Michigan middle schools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CAT in raising the standardized test scores of Michigan students. This study involved 419 students from one urban, one suburban and one rural middle school. Data on these students was collected from 4 sources: (1) the 8th grade Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) test, (2) a 9 question, 5-point Likert-type scale student survey, (3) 4 open-response student survey questions and (4) classroom observations. Results of this study showed that the experimental group of 226 students who utilized the CAT program in addition to traditional instruction did significantly better on the Science MEAP test than the control group of 193 students who received only traditional instruction. The study also showed that the urban students from a "high needs" school seemed to benefit most from the program. Additionally, though both genders and all identified ethnic groups benefited from the program, males benefited more than females and whites, blacks and Asian/Pacific Islander students benefited more than Hispanic and multi-racial students. The CAT program's success helping raise the middle school MEAP scores may well be due to some of its components. CAT provided students with game-like experiences all based on the benchmarks required for science education and upon which the MEAP test is based. The program also provided visual and auditory stimulation as well as numerous references which students indicated

  15. Radiation Dose-Response Model for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Appelt, Ane L.; Ploen, John; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Jakobsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is part of the standard treatment of locally advanced rectal cancers. Tumor regression at the time of operation is desirable, but not much is known about the relationship between radiation dose and tumor regression. In the present study we estimated radiation dose-response curves for various grades of tumor regression after preoperative CRT. Methods and Materials: A total of 222 patients, treated with consistent chemotherapy and radiation therapy techniques, were considered for the analysis. Radiation therapy consisted of a combination of external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Response at the time of operation was evaluated from the histopathologic specimen and graded on a 5-point scale (TRG1-5). The probability of achieving complete, major, and partial response was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression, and the effect of including clinical parameters in the model was examined. The radiation dose-response relationship for a specific grade of histopathologic tumor regression was parameterized in terms of the dose required for 50% response, D{sub 50,i}, and the normalized dose-response gradient, {gamma}{sub 50,i}. Results: A highly significant dose-response relationship was found (P=.002). For complete response (TRG1), the dose-response parameters were D{sub 50,TRG1} = 92.0 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI] 79.3-144.9 Gy), {gamma}{sub 50,TRG1} = 0.982 (CI 0.533-1.429), and for major response (TRG1-2) D{sub 50,TRG1} and {sub 2} = 72.1 Gy (CI 65.3-94.0 Gy), {gamma}{sub 50,TRG1} and {sub 2} = 0.770 (CI 0.338-1.201). Tumor size and N category both had a significant effect on the dose-response relationships. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant dose-response relationship for tumor regression after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer for tumor dose levels in the range of 50.4-70 Gy, which is higher than the dose range usually considered.

  16. Structural building response review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-15

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations.

  17. Response criteria for glioma.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A Gregory; Batchelor, Tracy T; Wen, Patrick Y; Zhang, Wei-Ting; Jain, Rakesh K

    2008-11-01

    The current method for assessing the response to therapy of glial tumors was described by Macdonald et al. in 1990. Under this paradigm, response categorization is determined on the basis of changes in the cross-sectional area of a tumor on neuroimaging, coupled with clinical assessment of neurological status and corticosteroid utilization. These categories of response have certain limitations; for example, cross-sectional assessment is not as accurate as volumetric assessment, which is now feasible. Disentangling antitumor effects of therapies from their effects on blood-brain barrier permeability can be challenging. The use of insufficient response criteria might be overestimating the true benefits of drugs in early-stage studies, and, therefore, such therapies could mistakenly move forward into later phases, only to result in disappointment when overall survival is measured. We propose that studies report both radiographic and clinical response rates, use volumetric rather than cross-sectional area to measure lesion size, and incorporate findings from mechanistic imaging and blood biomarker studies more frequently, and also suggest that investigators recognize the limitations of imaging biomarkers as surrogate end points.

  18. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  19. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Response.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Rae, James M

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics attempts to predict treatment response using a patient's "germline" genome as the biomarker of interest. This chapter on pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response is divided into four sections. The first introduces readers to genetic variation and describes how variation in the germline genome can affect biology or pharmacology. The second section introduces the translational pathway for pharmacogenetic research and discusses the specific challenges to identifying pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response. The third section is divided into three subsections, each of which discusses a distinct category of pharmacogenetic response predictors; pharmacokinetics, cancer cell sensitivity, and effector cell activation. Within each subsection a specific pharmacogenetic association is described in detail; CYP2D6-tamoxifen, BRCA-PARP inhibitors, and FCGRA-trastuzumab, respectively, followed by a general discussion of other less well-established examples or areas for further research. The chapter concludes with a summary of the current status of pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response and a few predictions for the future of this field.

  20. Craziness and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Morse, S J

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses why mental disorder is relevant to criminal responsibility. It begins by considering the meaning of criminal responsibility because it is impossible to understand the relevance of mental disorder unless one understands responsibility clearly. The next section provides a theoretical account of responsibility and excuse in general and addresses common misconceptions about these topics. The third section examines in detail why mental disorder can sometimes produce either a complete or partial excusing condition, such as legal insanity or "partial responsibility," and whether the U.S. Constitution requires the provision of an excuse based on mental disorder. The section proposes that mental disorder should produce an excusing condition in appropriate cases. The next section considers the relation of mental disorder to mens rea, the mental state "element" that is a definitional criterion of most crimes, and whether the U.S. Constitution requires that defendants be permitted to use evidence of mental disorder to negate mental state elements of the crime charged. This section argues that mental disorder rarely negates mens rea, but in those cases in which a plausible claim for negation could be made, defendants should be allowed to make this claim.

  1. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Response.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Rae, James M

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics attempts to predict treatment response using a patient's "germline" genome as the biomarker of interest. This chapter on pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response is divided into four sections. The first introduces readers to genetic variation and describes how variation in the germline genome can affect biology or pharmacology. The second section introduces the translational pathway for pharmacogenetic research and discusses the specific challenges to identifying pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response. The third section is divided into three subsections, each of which discusses a distinct category of pharmacogenetic response predictors; pharmacokinetics, cancer cell sensitivity, and effector cell activation. Within each subsection a specific pharmacogenetic association is described in detail; CYP2D6-tamoxifen, BRCA-PARP inhibitors, and FCGRA-trastuzumab, respectively, followed by a general discussion of other less well-established examples or areas for further research. The chapter concludes with a summary of the current status of pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response and a few predictions for the future of this field. PMID:26987536

  2. The responsibility to protect.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Matt

    2005-01-01

    The decision whether, if ever, to intervene in the affairs of a sovereign state with military force has become a critical issue of the post Cold War era. In 2000 the Canadian government launched the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), which in 2001 published its findings in The Responsibility to Protect. The Commission found broad support for the notion of sovereignty not only as a right, but also a responsibility, the responsibility of a state to provide protection for its people. The primary responsibility for protecting citizens rests with states. But when states are unable or unwilling to provide this protection, or are themselves the perpetrators of atrocities, the Commission argues that the international community has a responsibility temporarily to step in, forcefully if necessary. The Commission resisted the temptation to identify human rights violations falling short of outright killing or ethnic cleansing. This eliminates the possibility of intervening on the basis of systematic oppression of human rights or intervening to remove a military dictatorship. The intention of the report was to provoke debate; to strengthen the role of the United Nations and ensure that such interventions were multilateral and meeting the wider needs of a region and not the interests of major powers. There is an ongoing need to ensure that the Security Council is effective and that resources match the political will. These debates must continue within a UN framework.

  3. Quantification of human responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  4. [Cytokines and allergic response].

    PubMed

    Guenounou, M

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactions are under the control of several events that occur sequentially following allergen exposure, recognition by the immune system, IgE production and their interaction with effector cells bearing Fc epsilon receptors. The lymphocyte activation in response to allergens determines the intensity and the nature of the immune response. Cytokines produced by T (and non-T) cells are involved in the polarized development of the specific immune response. In particular, type 1 and type 2 cytokines are responsible for the control of the different steps during allergic reactions. Th2 cytokines and particularly IL4 are responsible for switching the immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells to IgE production. They also play a key role in the activation of effector cells that occurs following allergen interaction with fixed specific IgE and participate to the local inflammatory reaction. Cytokine profile determination appears to represent a helpful laboratory parameter in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. The development of new technological tools may allow the use of cell activation parameters, and cytokine profiles determination in clinical biology. This review aims to analyze the involvement of the cytokine network in the mechanisms leading to IgE production and the involvement of cytokines in effector mechanisms of allergic reactions. It also analyses the potential use of cytokine profile determination for diagnosis purpose and survey of immune desensitization of allergic diseases.

  5. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  6. Stress responses of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marles-Wright, Jon; Lewis, Richard J

    2007-12-01

    Bacteria, irrespective of natural habitat, are exposed to constant fluctuations in their growth conditions. Consequently they have developed sophisticated responses, modulated by the re-modelling of protein complexes and by phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction systems, to adapt to and to survive a variety of insults. Ultimately these signalling systems affect transcriptional regulons either by activating an alternative sigma factor subunit of RNA polymerase, for example, sigma E (sigma(E)) of Escherichia coli and sigma B (sigma(B)) and sigma F (sigma(F)) in Bacillus subtilis or by activating DNA-binding two-component response regulators. Recent structure determinations, and systems biology analysis of key regulators in well-characterised stress-responsive pathways, illustrate conserved and novel mechanisms in these representative model bacteria.

  7. Adaptive response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro

    Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies

  8. Defining responsibility for screening.

    PubMed

    Sifri, R; Wender, R

    1999-10-01

    Patients commonly receive medical care from multiple providers and confusion as to who is responsible for cancer screening undoubtedly contributes to inadequate recommendations. Effective screening requires successful implementation of a series of steps that begin with the initial discussion of a screening test and proceed through obtaining results and instituting appropriate follow-up. Clear definition of generalist and specialist physician roles are necessary to optimally screen the public. This article explores the differences in how generalists and specialists approach screening, describes models of care that facilitate shared responsibility for screening, and suggests strategies on how to improve communication between physicians to maximize screening performance. PMID:10452930

  9. Unexpected response. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.R.

    1985-05-08

    This paper reviews the NATO mission of deterrence and the threat of its use of nuclear weapons. It suggests that the threat is viable until a war starts, but then becomes meaningless because the Federal Republic of Germany would opt for a different course of action - its Unexpected Response. The conclusion is that convential forces are the essential deterrent given strategic parity. Then strategic mobility is addressed as it provides greater conventional reinforcement potential than generally assumed. An Unexpected Response by the Congress which could be counter-productive to the use of our new mobility is then discussed.

  10. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  11. DOE Response to Japan

    SciTech Connect

    and RaJah Mena, Wendy Pemberton

    2011-06-23

    DOE/NNSA NA-40 was requested to provide support with consequence management activities following the incident at the Fukushima Dai’ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The response involved the deployment of several DOE/NNSA NA-40 assets to provide specialized capabilities analysts, scientists, doctors, nurses, specialized equipment and systems to characterize the deposition for the protection of the public and the environment. General response activities revolved around the concepts of: predictive modeling; monitoring and data collection from the air and on the ground; assessing the collected data and other relevant information; interpreting the data; and coordinating the communication of the interpreted data to the appropriate stakeholders.

  12. A Response to Hartley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, Noel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his response to James Hartley's "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology". The author finds it very interesting to read James Hartley's reflections on the teaching of psychology and he thought it would be worth adding a rather different perspective, while agreeing with Hartley's main conclusions about the…

  13. Environmentally responsive graphene systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-06-12

    Graphene materials have been attracting significant research interest in the past few years, with the recent focuses on graphene-based electronic devices and smart stimulus-responsive systems that have a certain degree of automatism. Owing to its huge specific surface area, large room-temperature electron mobility, excellent mechanical flexibility, exceptionally high thermal conductivity and environmental stability, graphene is identified as a beneficial additive or an effective responding component by itself to improve the conductivity, flexibility, mechanical strength and/or the overall responsive performance of smart systems. In this review article, we aim to present the recent advances in graphene systems that are of spontaneous responses to external stimulations, such as environmental variation in pH, temperature, electric current, light, moisture and even gas ambient. These smart stimulus-responsive graphene systems are believed to have great theoretical and practical interests to a wide range of device applications including actuators, switches, robots, sensors, drug/gene deliveries, etc. PMID:24376152

  14. Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, Professor Geneva Gay wrote that culturally responsive teaching connects students' cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles to academic knowledge and intellectual tools in ways that legitimize what students already know. By embracing the sociocultural realities and histories of students through what is taught and how,…

  15. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civille, John; Beckman, Mary; Green, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    This article offers responses from various authors to the article "Incarnational immersion-based learning in cultural contexts: A charity model," by Dr. John Trokan (2005.) Mount St. Joseph's program on incarnational immersion-based learning, as described in the article by Dr. John Trokan, will have the participating students' eyes opened to the…

  16. The Responsibility Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy E.; Kluever, Raymond C.

    As individuals mature, they show increasing responsibility for events in their lives, but with variation in this form of maturation from one individual to another. These individual differences can be observed in doctoral candidates' activities associated with completion of the doctoral dissertation. The purpose of this study was to assess doctoral…

  17. [Aesthetic Response to Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Helen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The "Bulletin of the Caucus on Social Theory and Art Education" is an annual publication, with each issue devoted to a unified theme. The theme of this issue is aesthetic response. The following papers focus on the audience and the persons responding to art: "Attitudes of Three Urban Appalachian Teenagers Toward Selected Early Modern American…

  18. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    ;Table of Contents: Section I: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; The Former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukrane, Kazakstan, And Belarus; South Asia; The International Threat: Dangers from Terrorism, Insurgencies, Civil Wars, And Organized Crime; Section II: Department of Defense Response; Technical Annex: Accessible Technologies; Glossary.

  19. Environmental Quality & Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khare, R. S.; And Others

    Edited transcripts of presentations made at a conference sponsored by the University of Wisconsin--Green Bay are arranged in five sections: (1) "Mass Production, Mass Consumption, Mass Waste;" (2) "Man Versus Nature;" (3) "The Urban Social Environment: Problems of Affluence, Membership, and Security;" (4) "Institutional Response to Technological…

  20. [Responsibility, compassion and ethics].

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of responsibility and compassion are fundamental in ethics. These notions help to safeguard humaneness, especially in the field of health care and notably in palliative care. These concepts can be put into practice by caregivers and applied to daily practice. PMID:27633700

  1. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  2. Response to Rollock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Nicola Rollock's critique on the author's paper in which the author has argued that ethnographic data should be more widely used in psychology (Woods 2005, 2007b). Rollock argues that the paper neglects Zak's level of educational achievement, and fails to critically interrogate his teachers' actions…

  3. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  4. Response to Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    In my response to the commentaries made about my article, I observe that the commentators find no obvious errors with my estimates of the size of the signing deaf community. However, most of them are not as pessimistic as I am partly because of the position they take on a number of issues. Namely, the supposed uniqueness of Australia in its…

  5. Response to Mackenzie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chris Peers begins his response to Jim Mackenzie's article, "Peers on Socrates and Plato" by asking "What is the 'masculine imaginary?'" Peers defines the term "imaginary" as it is applied in his article, "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning" (2012) and draws…

  6. Evaluator Responsiveness to Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted in an attempt to examine how evaluators modify their evaluation design in response to differing stakeholder groups. In this study, evaluators were provided with a fictitious description of a school-based program. They were then asked to design an evaluation of the program. After the evaluation design decisions were…

  7. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Lori; Weaver, Roberta; Adams, Shauna M.; Landers, Mary F.; Owen, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article offers responses from Lori Moreau, a principal, Roberta Weaver, associate dean, Shauna M. Adams, associate professor, Mary F. Landers of University of Dayton, and Mary Jane Owen, a founding director, to the article "The State of Special Education in Catholic Schools," by L. DeFiore (2006). Jesus, the master teacher, reached out to the…

  8. Improving Student Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Sara; Hughs, Leah; Wilder, Ronda

    This action research project implemented and evaluated an intervention for increasing student academic and social responsibility. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten, 1st, and 5th grade students in a growing middle-class community in central Illinois. The problems of irresponsible academic and social behavior were documented through…

  9. USGS Emergency Response Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bewley, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

  10. Toward Aesthetic Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFurio, Anthony G.

    1979-01-01

    The view of aesthetic responding presented herein has grown out of a theory of contextual aesthetics as explicated by John Dewey and Stephen Pepper and a phenomenological inquiry into art by John Anderson. The method for entry into the responsive domain has evolved from a direction elaborated by Kenneth Beittel. (Author)

  11. Culturally Responsive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Darlean A.; Sia, Archibald P.

    The ethnic and cultural makeup of classrooms is changing rapidly, the percentage of school children of color is increasing, and the percentage of teachers of color is declining. This paper examines the challenge of preparing primarily white, middle-class teachers to create culturally responsive classrooms for all children. Teacher education…

  12. Support Culturally Responsive Teaching!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins-Shannon, Janine; White, Meg

    2012-01-01

    Within today's changing society, teachers must meet the needs of culturally diverse students. Beyond cultural awareness, teachers must identify cultural implications and modify instructional approaches to address both the students' academic and cultural needs. To do so will create culturally responsive classrooms and promote student success.…

  13. A Response from Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim; Hill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The suggested role for assessment in developing "Roadmaps for Learning" has potentially important implications for the learning of second or foreign languages in school, a major concern of applied linguistics. In this response, the authors consider how the findings of a detailed ethnographic study of classroom-based assessment in two foreign…

  14. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  15. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, J.; Testori, A.

    1999-10-12

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  16. Vestibulo-Sympathetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bill J; Bolton, Philip S.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence accumulated over 30 years, from experiments on animals and human subjects, has conclusively demonstrated that inputs from the vestibular otolith organs contribute to the control of blood pressure during movement and changes in posture. This review considers the effects of gravity on the body axis, and the consequences of postural changes on blood distribution in the body. It then separately considers findings collected in experiments on animals and human subjects demonstrating that the vestibular system regulates blood distribution in the body during movement. Vestibulosympathetic reflexes differ from responses triggered by unloading of cardiovascular receptors such as baroreceptors and cardiopulmonary receptors, as they can be elicited before a change in blood distribution occurs in the body. Dissimilarities in the expression of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans and animals are also described. In particular, there is evidence from experiments in animals, but not humans, that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned, and differ between body regions. Results from neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies in animals are discussed that identify the neurons that mediate vestibulosympathetic responses, which include cells in the caudal aspect of the vestibular nucleus complex, interneurons in the lateral medullary reticular formation, and bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Recent findings showing that cognition can modify the gain of vestibulosympathetic responses are also presented, and neural pathways that could mediate adaptive plasticity in the responses are proposed, including connections of the posterior cerebellar vermis with the vestibular nuclei and brainstem nuclei that regulate blood pressure. PMID:24715571

  17. Rotating Responsibility Reaps Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara; Schullery, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a process used for group assignments in a business communication course which holds all group members accountable by using a structure of rotating responsibility. Discusses selecting assignments and implementing the process, noting how this structure requires equivalent advance preparation from all members and provides opportunities for…

  18. Response to hurricane disasters.

    PubMed

    Shatz, David V; Wolcott, Katharine; Fairburn, Jennifer Bencie

    2006-06-01

    Unlike most natural and man-made disasters, preparation and planning for hurricanes is possible and effective. Medical needs can be disparate, given the large geographic area involved and the often-prolonged recovery phase. All aspects of medical response, from first responders to hospitals, can directly and negatively be affected by the storm. Planning and practice, however, can drastically improve the outcome.

  19. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  20. Response to Arend Flick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RiCharde, R. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Arend Flick. The author states that Flick is correct that the issue of rubrics is broader than interrater reliability, though it is the assessment practitioner's primary armament against what the author has heard dubbed "refried bean counting" (insinuating that assessment statistics are not just bean…

  1. A Response to Hartley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his response to James Hartley's "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology". Hartley concludes that the teaching of psychology has changed relatively little over the past several decades. The author states that his way of teaching now is very different from his way of 1975. This essay is about the…

  2. Building Culturally Responsive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

  3. Surface Water Response Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    During response to spills, or for facility planning, the vulnerability of downstream water resources is a major concern. How long and at what concentration do spilled contaminants reach downstream receptors? Models have the potential to answer these questions, but only if they ...

  4. Hypoxia: from molecular responses to ecosystem responses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rudolf S S

    2002-01-01

    Hypoxia affects thousands of km2 of marine waters all over the world, and has caused mass mortality of marine animals, benthic defaunation and decline in fisheries production in many places. The severity, frequency occurrence and spatial scale of hypoxia have increased in the last few decades. Due to rapid human population growth and global warming, the problem of hypoxia is likely to become worse in the coming years. Molecular responses of marine animals to hypoxia are poorly known. In many animals, a haem protein probably serves as the cellular sensor for oxygen, and reactive oxygen species are generated as signaling molecules. In mammal and fish, a heterodimeric transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been identified. HIF-1 receives signals from the molecular oxygen senor through redox reactions and/or phosphorylation, and in turn, regulates the transcription of a number of hypoxia-inducible genes, including genes involved in erythropoiesis, angiogenesis and glycolysis. These molecular responses then cascade into a series of biochemical and physiological adjustments, enabling the animal to survive better under hypoxic conditions. Marine animals respond to hypoxia by first attempting to maintain oxygen delivery (e.g. increases in respiration rate, number of red blood cells, or oxygen binding capacity of hemoglobin), then by conserving energy (e.g. metabolic depression, down regulation of protein synthesis and down regulation/modification of certain regulatory enzymes). Upon exposure to prolonged hypoxia, animals must eventually resort to anaerobic respiration. Hypoxia reduces growth and feeding, which may eventually affect individual fitness. Effects of hypoxia on reproduction and development of marine animals, albeit important in affecting species survival, remain almost unknown. Many fish and marine organisms can detect, and actively avoid hypoxia. Some benthos may leave their burrows and move to sediment surface during hypoxia. These

  5. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  6. Bifactor Item Response Theory Model of Acute Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Yuan; Tang, Jingjing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Better understanding of acute stress responses is important for revision of DSM-5. However, the latent structure and relationship between different aspects of acute stress responses haven’t been clarified comprehensively. Bifactor item response model may help resolve this problem. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of acute stress responses, based on data from earthquake rescuers using Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS). Through this model, we could better understand acute stress responses comprehensively, and provide preliminary information for computerized adaptive testing of stress responses. Methods Acute stress responses of earthquake rescuers were evaluated using ASRS, and state/trait anxiety were assessed using State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was used to analyze the data. Additionally, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with one-dimensional and five-dimensional models. The correlations among acute stress responses and state/trait anxiety were compared, based on both the five-dimensional and bifactor models. Results Model fit comparisons showed bifactor model fit the data best. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied greatly between different aspects of stress responses. Many symptoms (40%) of physiological responses had positive loadings on general factor, and negative loadings on specific factor of physiological responses, while other stress responses had positive loadings on both general and specific factors. After extracting general factor of stress responses using bifactor analysis, significant positive correlations between physiological responses and state/trait anxiety (r = 0.185/0.112, p<0.01) changed into negative ones (r = −0.177/−0.38, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results demonstrated bifactor structure of acute stress responses, and positive and negative correlations between physiological responses

  7. Responsibility and Responsiveness. The HEW Potential for the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elliot L.

    The Secretary of HEW presents an overview of departmental undertakings for the purpose of developing more responsible and responsive personnel. The major portion of the statement focuses on internal processes of responsibility and external processes of responsiveness. Departmental strategies, a planning cycle, an operational planning system,…

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the learning outcome achieved by a nursing research seminar course for doctoral students.

    PubMed

    Lou, Meei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2008-06-01

    Educational evaluation is a priority policy of the Ministry of Education and student learning outcome is an important criterion used in educational evaluation work. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learning outcome of a newly developed course for doctoral students entitled, Nursing Research Seminar. The course was one semester in length and required students to attend 2 hours of class per week. Student learning outcome was evaluated based on the level of understanding students had of course objectives. The six objectives of this course were: evaluating and integrating research papers; enhancing critical thinking skills; gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest; enhancing ability to construct research proposals; guiding student dissertation work; and refining critical research skills. Data were collected from the responses provided by 25 students on a 5-point Likert-type evaluation form based on course objectives filled out during the last class of the semester. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were adopted. Results showed: (1) The average post-course score (24.76 +/- 2.89) was significantly higher than the pre-course score (18.40 +/- 5.52); (2) Students realized significant improvements in all six objectives at the end of the course; (3) There were statistically significant differences in improvement scores in all six objectives for students in different years of their doctoral program; (4) The lower the year in the program, the higher the improvement scores for each course objective; (5) The two objectives of the six that saw the most significant improvements were "gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest", and "enhancing critical thinking skills". Because of the small sample size, conclusions drawn from this study should be treated as tentative. Findings provide preliminary information supporting the importance and necessity of offering the Nursing Research

  9. Immune Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Saleem; Surendran, Naveen; Pichichero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neonates have little immunological memory and a developing immune system, which increases their vulnerability to infectious agents. Recent advances in understanding of neonatal immunity indicate that both innate and adaptive responses are dependent on precursor frequency of lymphocytes, antigenic dose and mode of exposure. Studies in neonatal mouse models and human umbilical cord blood cells demonstrate the capability of neonatal immune cells to produce immune responses similar to adults in some aspects but not others. This review focuses mainly on the developmental and functional mechanisms of the human neonatal immune system. In particular, the mechanism of innate and adaptive immunity and the role of neutrophils, antigen presenting cells, differences in subclasses of T lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Tregs) and B cells are discussed. In addition, we have included the recent developments in neonatal mouse immune system. Understanding neonatal immunity is essential to development of therapeutic vaccines to combat newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:25088080

  10. Rethinking scientific responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Eivind; Hetlevik, Irene; Strand, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Researchers should be made co-responsible for the wider consequences of their research focus and the application of their findings. This paper describes a meta-reflection procedure that can be used as a tool to enhance scientific responsibility and reflective practice. The point of departure is that scientific practice is situated in power relations, has direction and, consequently, power implications. The contextual preconditions and implications of research should be stated and discussed openly. The reflection method aims at revealing both upstream elements, such as for instance preconceptions, and downstream elements, for example, public consequences of research. The validity of research might improve from such discussions. Validity should preferably be understood as a broader concept than the methodological concerns in science. PMID:21266389

  11. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  12. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  13. Behavioral response to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, R L

    1979-07-01

    This article reviews the literature concerning the behavioral and psychological response of men and their wives to the vasectomy operation when used as a contraceptive technique. The data suggest that two primary changes may frequently be observed postoperatively. Individuals who have experienced anxiety in conjunction with intercourse because of a fear of contraceptive failure or pregnancy tend to report a decline in anxiety and a disinhibition of sexual arousal postoperatively. Also, test results suggest that behavoir patterns within the marital dyad are altered in some cases when the men adopt stereotyped masculine behavior, presumably to deny any suggestion that they are less masculine because of the operation. Ramifications of these findings as well as numerous other speculations, are considered, along with the suggestion that prescreening and postvasectomy counseling may help reduce negative response to the operation. PMID:454098

  14. Structural response synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ozisik, H.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    The open loop control technique of predicting a conditioned input signal based on a specified output response for a second order system has been analyzed both analytically and numerically to gain a firm understanding of the method. Differences between this method of control and digital closed loop control using pole cancellation were investigated as a follow up to previous experimental work. Application of the technique to diamond turning using a fast tool is also discussed.

  15. Cutaneous response to irritants.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Cannistraci, C; Lesnoni, I; Ferraro, C; Rocco, M G D E; Dell'Anna, L; Giannarelli, D; Cristaudo, A

    2003-02-01

    We evaluated the role of pre-existing dermatitis in the response to irritants by patch testing the skin of 40 healthy volunteers and the uninvolved skin of 480 subjects for 2 days. These latter were affected by active atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema with positive and negative patch test reactions, urticaria and generalized pruritus. A first panel containing 15 micro L of aq. solutions of disodium laureth sulfosuccinate (NaLSS) 5% and 10%, potassium cocoate (KCC) 5%, potassium oleate (KOL) 5%, zinc coleth sulphate (ZnCS) 5%, sodium mireth sulphate (NaMS) 5%, sodium cocoamphoacetate (NaCCAA) 3% and 5%, was simultaneously applied to 1 site on the upper back. The results, scored by visual assessment, were compared to those observed when testing on the opposite side a second panel containing 15 micro L of aq. solutions of 3 well-known irritants, benzalkonium chloride (BAK) 1%, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 1%, and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) 10%. Whilst the substances of the first panel and DMSO gave, on the whole, a scarce number of positive responses in all the tested groups, more evident differences in number, percent and mean intensity of the positive responses to BAK and SLS were found between the different groups. Although some of them seemed statistically significant, when the same values were evaluated by means of chi2 and Student t-test, they did not differ in a statistically significant way from the values found in healthy subjects. The results of this study seem to indicate that the substances of the first panel have a chemical structure that makes them quite safe in real-life conditions. In contrast, BAK and SLS have chemical properties that condition the number and intensity of the responses, making the role exerted by the pre-existing dermatosis quite marginal. In particular, there is no proof that the healthy skin of active atopic subjects is the most susceptible to the irritating effects of the tested substances.

  16. Stress Responses of Shewanella

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2011-01-01

    The shewanellae are ubiquitous in aquatic and sedimentary systems that are chemically stratified on a permanent or seasonal basis. In addition to their ability to utilize a diverse array of terminal electron acceptors, the microorganisms have evolved both common and unique responding mechanisms to cope with various stresses. This paper focuses on the response and adaptive mechanism of the shewanellae, largely based on transcriptional data. PMID:21912550

  17. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  18. Environmental producer responsibility.

    PubMed

    Evans, J L

    1997-05-01

    The Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive (P&PWD) requires manufacturers to take responsibility for recovering packaging waste. This article examines some of the challenges this presents. Product designers must now integrate environmental regulations into product and packaging design. This will entail handling the conflict between the differing requirements of the P&PWD and the Medical Device Directive, and marking products to indicate whether packaging is reusable or recyclable. PMID:10167685

  19. Action, agency and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frith, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    In a series of experiments Marc Jeannerod revealed that we have very little awareness of the details and causes of our actions. We are, however, vividly aware of being in control of our actions and this gives us a sense of responsibility. These feelings arise, first, from intentional binding which creates a perception of agency, linking an intentional action to its outcome and, second, from the counterfactual reasoning that we could have chosen some other action. These feelings of responsibility play a critical role in creating social cohesion since they allow people to be held to account for deliberate antisocial behaviour. Jeannerod's studies also showed that we are unaware of how little we know about our actions and so are happy to make up stories about the nature and causes of our behaviour. These stories often do not correspond with the underlying cognitive and neural processes, but they can be changed through instructions and through discussion with others. Our experience of responsibility for action emerges during our upbringing through exposure to our culture. This creates consensus about the causes of behaviour, but not necessarily accuracy. PMID:24036357

  20. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  1. [About <responsibility> of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of <responsibility> that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy. PMID:23130746

  2. Engineers and Active Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Udo

    2015-08-01

    Knowing that technologies are inherently value-laden and systemically interwoven with society, the question is how individual engineers can take up the challenge of accepting the responsibility for their work? This paper will argue that engineers have no institutional structure at the level of society that allows them to recognize, reflect upon, and actively integrate the value-laden character of their designs. Instead, engineers have to tap on the different institutional realms of market, science, and state, making their work a 'hybrid' activity combining elements from the different institutional realms. To deal with this institutional hybridity, engineers develop routines and heuristics in their professional network, which do not allow societal values to be expressed in a satisfactory manner. To allow forms of 'active' responsibility, there have to be so-called 'accountability forums' that guide moral reflections of individual actors. The paper will subsequently look at the methodologies of value-sensitive design (VSD) and constructive technology assessment (CTA) and explore whether and how these methodologies allow engineers to integrate societal values into the design technological artifacts and systems. As VSD and CTA are methodologies that look at the process of technological design, whereas the focus of this paper is on the designer, they can only be used indirectly, namely as frameworks which help to identify the contours of a framework for active responsibility of engineers.

  3. [About <responsibility> of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of <responsibility> that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  4. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible.

  5. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible. PMID:27473408

  6. Gravity receptors and responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Allan H.

    1989-01-01

    The overall process of gravity sensing and response processes in plants may be divided conveniently into at least four components or stages: Stimulus susception (a physical event, characteristically the input to the G receptor system of environmental information about the G force magnitude, its vector direction, or both); information perception (an influence of susception on some biological structure or process that can be described as the transformation of environmental information into a biologicallly meaningful change); information transport (the export, if required, of an influence (often chemical) to cells and organs other than those at the sensor location); and biological response (almost always (in plants) a growth change of some kind). Some analysts of the process identify, between information perception and information transport, an additional stage, transduction, which would emphasize the importance of a transformation from one form of information to another, for example from mechanical statolith displacement to an electric, chemical, or other alteration that was its indirect result. These four (or five) stages are temporally sequential. Even if all that occurs at each stage can not be confidently identified, it seems evident that during transduction and transport, matters dealt with are found relatively late in the information flow rather than at the perception stage. As more and more is learned about the roles played by plant hormones which condition the G responses, the mechanism(s) of perception which should be are not necessarily better understood. However, if by asking the right questions and being lucky with experiments perhaps the discovery of how some process (such as sedimentation of protoplasmic organelles) dictates what happens down stream in the information flow sequence may be made.

  7. Root responses to flooding.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Margret

    2013-06-01

    Soil water-logging and submergence pose a severe threat to plants. Roots are most prone to flooding and the first to suffer from oxygen shortage. Roots are vital for plant function, however, and maintenance of a functional root system upon flooding is essential. Flooding-resistant plants possess a number of adaptations that help maintain oxygen supply to the root. Plants are also capable of initiating organogenesis to replace their original root system with adventitious roots if oxygen supply becomes impossible. This review summarizes current findings on root development and de novo root genesis in response to flooding.

  8. TMD: it's our responsibility.

    PubMed

    Dale, R

    1999-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a reality. Surveys place the incidence at about 20-50%. For decades debate has raged as to whether this is a medical or dental problem. Scientific study of anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, and objective analysis with kinesiology, electromyography and sonography, along with case history all point to the same thing; occlusion affects the joint and the muscles. This is our profession's "crown jewel". We diagnose, construct and modify our patient's occlusion. It is about time we all agree, understand, take responsibility and start cooperating in preventing and treating this common malady that seriously affects the quality of life of many. PMID:10806950

  9. Dividends with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

    2003-10-31

    To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

  10. DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damage can occur at any time on any genomic location, a specialized spatio-temporal orchestration of this defense apparatus is required. PMID:20980439

  11. A guide to hazmat response.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Dave

    2007-04-01

    The Emergency Response Guidebook provides responders with important first response information. It is intended to assist in managing the first 15-30 minutes of an emergency response and should not be used as the definitive response resource. It does, however, provide information that can be used to identify protective clothing and response procedures that can save lives and initiate successful control of the incident. Using the known product information, responders can use the ERG to determine response procedures for emergencies involving chemicals in a fixed facility. Responders should review and practice using the guidebook on a regular basis.

  12. A guide to hazmat response.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Dave

    2007-04-01

    The Emergency Response Guidebook provides responders with important first response information. It is intended to assist in managing the first 15-30 minutes of an emergency response and should not be used as the definitive response resource. It does, however, provide information that can be used to identify protective clothing and response procedures that can save lives and initiate successful control of the incident. Using the known product information, responders can use the ERG to determine response procedures for emergencies involving chemicals in a fixed facility. Responders should review and practice using the guidebook on a regular basis. PMID:17461387

  13. Host Responses to Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Watters, C; Fleming, D; Bishop, D; Rumbaugh, K P

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. As bacterial cells transition from planktonic to biofilm-associated they produce small molecules, which can increase inflammation, induce cell death, and even cause necrosis. To survive, invading bacteria must overcome the epithelial barrier, host microbiome, complement, and a variety of leukocytes. If bacteria can evade these initial cell populations they have an increased chance at surviving and causing ongoing disease in the host. Planktonic cells are readily cleared, but biofilms reduce the effectiveness of both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, in the presence of these cells, biofilm formation is actively enhanced, and components of host immune cells are assimilated into the EPS matrix. While pathogenic biofilms contribute to states of chronic inflammation, probiotic Lactobacillus biofilms cause a negligible immune response and, in states of inflammation, exhibit robust antiinflammatory properties. These probiotic biofilms colonize and protect the gut and vagina, and have been implicated in improved healing of damaged skin. Overall, biofilms stimulate a unique immune response that we are only beginning to understand. PMID:27571696

  14. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context.

  15. Skeletal responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of gravity in the determination of bone structure is elucidated by observations in adult humans and juvenile animals during spaceflight. The primary response of bone tissue to microgravity is at the interface of the mineral and matrix in the process of biomineralization. This response is manifested by demineralization or retarded growth in some regions of the skeleton and hypermineralization in others. The most pronounced effects are seen in the heelbone and skull, the most distally located bones relative to the heart. Ground based flight simulation models that focus on changes in bone structure at the molecular, organ, and whole body levels are described and compared to flight results. On Earth, the morphologic and compositional changes in the unloaded bones are very similar to changes during flight; however, the ground based changes appear to be more transient. In addition, a redistribution of bone mineral in gravity-dependent bones occurs both in space and during head down positioning on Earth. Longitudinal data provided considerable information on the influence of endocrine and muscular changes on bone structure after unloading.

  16. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. PMID:27595527

  17. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  18. LPG emergency response training

    SciTech Connect

    Dix, R.B.; Newton, B.

    1995-12-31

    ROVER (Roll Over Vehicle for Emergency Response) is a specially designed and constructed unit built to allow emergency response personnel and LPG industry employees to get ``up close and personal`` with the type of equipment used for the highway transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This trailer was constructed to simulate an MC 331 LPG trailer. It has all the valves, piping and emergency fittings found on highway tankers. What makes this unit different is that it rolls over and opens up to allow program attendees to climb inside the trailer and see it in a way they have never seen one before. The half-day training session is composed of a classroom portion during which attendees will participate in a discussion of hazardous material safety, cargo tank identification and construction. The specific properties of LPG, and the correct procedures for dealing with an LPG emergency. Attendees will then move outside to ROVER, where they will participate in a walkaround inspection of the rolled over unit. All fittings and piping will be representative of both modern and older equipment. Participants will also be able to climb inside the unit through a specially constructed hatch to view cutaway valves and interior construction. While the possibility of an LPG emergency remains remote, ROVER represents Amoco`s continuing commitment to community, education, and safety.

  19. Automated security response robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Dominic A.; Everett, Hobart R.; Gilbreath, Gary A.; Tran, Tien T.

    1999-01-01

    ROBART III is intended as an advance demonstration platform for non-lethal response measures, extending the concepts of reflexive teleoperation into the realm of coordinated weapons control in law enforcement and urban warfare scenarios. A rich mix of ultrasonic and optical proximity and range sensors facilitates remote operation in unstructured and unexplored buildings with minimal operator supervision. Autonomous navigation and mapping of interior spaces is significantly enhanced by an innovative algorithm which exploits the fact that the majority of man-made structures are characterized by parallel and orthogonal walls. Extremely robust intruder detection and assessment capabilities are achieved through intelligent fusion of a multitude of inputs form various onboard motion sensors. Intruder detection is addressed by a 360-degree staring array of passive-IR motion detectors, augmented by a number of positionable head-mounted sensors. Automatic camera tracking of a moving target is accomplished using a video line digitizer. Non-lethal response systems include a six- barrelled pneumatically-powered Gatling gun, high-powered strobe lights, and three ear-piercing 103-decibel sirens.

  20. Responsibility for global health.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen; DeCamp, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    There are several reasons for the current prominence of global health issues. Among the most important is the growing awareness that some risks to health are global in scope and can only be countered by global cooperation. In addition, human rights discourse and, more generally, the articulation of a coherent cosmopolitan ethical perspective that acknowledges the importance of all persons, regardless of where they live, provide a normative basis for taking global health seriously as a moral issue. In this paper we begin the task of translating the vague commitment to doing something to improve global health into a coherent set of more determinate obligations. One chief conclusion of our inquiry is that the responsibilities of states regarding global health are both more determinate and more extensive than is usually assumed. We also argue, however, that institutional innovation will be needed to achieve a more comprehensive, fair distribution of concrete responsibilities regarding global health and to provide effective mechanisms for holding various state and nonstate actors accountable for fulfilling them.

  1. State responses to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  2. Host Responses to Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Watters, C; Fleming, D; Bishop, D; Rumbaugh, K P

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. As bacterial cells transition from planktonic to biofilm-associated they produce small molecules, which can increase inflammation, induce cell death, and even cause necrosis. To survive, invading bacteria must overcome the epithelial barrier, host microbiome, complement, and a variety of leukocytes. If bacteria can evade these initial cell populations they have an increased chance at surviving and causing ongoing disease in the host. Planktonic cells are readily cleared, but biofilms reduce the effectiveness of both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, in the presence of these cells, biofilm formation is actively enhanced, and components of host immune cells are assimilated into the EPS matrix. While pathogenic biofilms contribute to states of chronic inflammation, probiotic Lactobacillus biofilms cause a negligible immune response and, in states of inflammation, exhibit robust antiinflammatory properties. These probiotic biofilms colonize and protect the gut and vagina, and have been implicated in improved healing of damaged skin. Overall, biofilms stimulate a unique immune response that we are only beginning to understand.

  3. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed

    Bunker, J P; Stansfeld, S; Potter, J

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing.

  4. A Measurement Model for Likert Responses that Incorporates Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a model for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic model for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed model together with the factor model provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…

  5. Human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Borad, Anoli; Ward, Honorine

    2010-01-01

    Immune responses play a critical role in protection from, and resolution of, cryptosporidiosis. However, the nature of these responses, particularly in humans, is not completely understood. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are important. Innate immune responses may be mediated by Toll-like receptor pathways, antimicrobial peptides, prostaglandins, mannose-binding lectin, cytokines and chemokines. Cell-mediated responses, particularly those involving CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ play a dominant role. Mucosal antibody responses may also be involved. Proteins mediating attachment and invasion may serve as putative protective antigens. Further knowledge of human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis is essential in order to develop targeted prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on recent advances and future prospects in the understanding of human immune responses to Cryptosporidium infection. PMID:20210556

  6. Sexual health, teenage responsibility.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    The Planned Parenthood Association of South Africa in 1992, published a manual on ¿Responsible Teenage Sexuality¿. It deals comprehensively and frankly with issues of teenage sexuality in an easy-to-use module format. With increasing emphasis on the need for sex education at school and in the home, this manual provides essential information for teachers, youth leaders, and health professionals. The modules take cognizance of the sensitive issues that concern young people. The open approach enables counselors to provide the answers that young people seek in an honest and comfortable way. Compiled by the youth counselors of the Cape Town Planned Parenthood Association of South Africa, the manual is based on their knowledge and experience of providing sex education to young people from all communities over the past 10 years.

  7. Temperature responsive transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature responsive transmitter is provided in which frequency varies linearly with temperature. The transmitter includes two identically biased transistors connected in parallel. A capacitor, which reflects into the common bases to generate negative resistance effectively in parallel with the capacitor, is connected to the common emitters. A crystal is effectively in parallel with the capacitor and the negative resistance. Oscillations occur if the magnitude of the absolute value of the negative resistance is less than the positive resistive impedance of the capacitor and the inductance of the crystal. The crystal has a large linear temperature coefficient and a resonant frequency which is substantially less than the gain-bandwidth product of the transistors to ensure that the crystal primarily determines the frequency of oscillation. A high-Q tank circuit having an inductor and a capacitor is connected to the common collectors to increase the collector current flow which in turn enhances the radiation of the oscillator frequency by the inductor.

  8. Airburst warning and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    It is virtually certain (probability>99%) that the next destructive NEO event will be an airburst. Planetary defense is usually assumed to have the primary goal of maximizing the number of lives saved, but it can be argued that more emphasis should be placed on maximizing the probability of saving lives. For the latter goal, it is far more effective to create an early warning and civil defense plan than a mitigation plan that involves deflecting a large NEO. Because early warning and civil defense will almost certainly be needed long before the first deflection is ever required, the credibility of the planetary defense community and its recommendations will be put to its first serious test by an airburst. Successful response to an airburst event will make it much more likely that recommendations for mitigation by deflection will be accepted by decision makers and the public. Focusing more attention on the second goal will, as a side effect, benefit the primary goal.

  9. Responses to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  10. Response reactions: equilibrium coupling.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eufrozina A; Nagypal, Istvan

    2006-06-01

    It is pointed out and illustrated in the present paper that if a homogeneous multiple equilibrium system containing k components and q species is composed of the reactants actually taken and their reactions contain only k + 1 species, then we have a unique representation with (q - k) stoichiometrically independent reactions (SIRs). We define these as coupling reactions. All the other possible combinations with k + 1 species are the coupled reactions that are in equilibrium when the (q - k) SIRs are in equilibrium. The response of the equilibrium state for perturbation is determined by the coupling and coupled equilibria. Depending on the circumstances and the actual thermodynamic data, the effect of coupled equilibria may overtake the effect of the coupling ones, leading to phenomena that are in apparent contradiction with Le Chatelier's principle. PMID:16722770

  11. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  12. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts.

  13. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  14. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts. PMID:25708001

  15. TEPC Response Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    The tissue equivalent proportional counter had the purpose of providing the energy absorbed from a radiation field and an estimate of the corresponding linear energy transfer (LET) for evaluation of radiation quality to convert to dose equivalent. It was the recognition of the limitations in estimating LET which lead to a new approach to dosimetry, microdosimetry, and the corresponding emphasis on energy deposit in a small tissue volume as the driver of biological response with the defined quantity of lineal energy. In many circumstances, the average of the lineal energy and LET are closely related and has provided a basis for estimating dose equivalent. Still in many cases the lineal is poorly related to LET and brings into question the usefulness as a general purpose device. These relationships are examined in this paper.

  16. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  17. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  18. Randomized Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…

  19. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  20. Teaching about Heterogeneous Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals vary in their responses to incentives and opportunities. For example, additional education will affect one person differently than another. In recent years, econometricians have given increased attention to such heterogeneous responses and to the consequences of such responses for interpreting regression estimates, especially…

  1. Randomized Response Analysis in Mplus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hox, Joop; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a technique to analyze randomized response data using available structural equation modeling (SEM) software. The randomized response technique was developed to obtain estimates that are more valid when studying sensitive topics. The basic feature of all randomized response methods is that the data are deliberately…

  2. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  3. Responsibility ascriptions and Vision Zero.

    PubMed

    Fahlquist, Jessica Nihlén

    2006-11-01

    Vision Zero is a traffic safety policy that was adopted by the Swedish Parliament in 1997. Similar policies have been adopted in Norway and Denmark. In essence, Vision Zero states that it is unacceptable for anyone to die while using the road transport system. The policy also introduces an explicit distribution of responsibility for traffic safety, in which the system designers are ultimately responsible. In this article, it is argued that the proposed new distribution of responsibility can be better understood if we distinguish between two general types of responsibility ascriptions, namely backward-looking and forward-looking responsibility ascriptions. Both types include some kind of causal responsibility and whereas backward-looking responsibility implies an element of blame, forward-looking responsibility implies potential blame, meaning that in cases where the agent who was ascribed responsibility did not achieve the expected result, we are likely to blame her. Vision Zero still ascribes backward-looking responsibility and to some degree forward-looking responsibility to individuals, but adds the explicit forward-looking responsibility of the system designers.

  4. The effects of response cost and response restriction on a multiple-response repertoire with humans

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, John

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments a multiple-response repertoire of four free-operant responses was developed with university students as subjects using monetary gain as reinforcement. Following baseline, one of the responses was reduced either by making monetary loss contingent upon it (response cost) or by removing it from the repertoire (response restriction). In Experiment 1 a multielement baseline design was employed in which baseline and restriction or response-cost contingencies alternated semirandomly every 3 minutes. In Experiment 2 a reversal design was employed (i.e., baseline, restriction or response cost, then baseline), and each response required a different amount of effort. Both experiments had the following results: (a) The target response decreased substantially; (b) most nontarget responses increased, and the rest remained near their baseline levels; and (c) no support was found for Dunham's hierarchical, most frequent follower, or greatest temporal similarity rules. For several subjects, the least probable responses during baseline increased most, and the most probable responses increased least. Furthermore, in Experiment 2, responses with the lowest frequency of reinforcement increased most (for all 7 subjects), and those with the greatest frequency of reinforcement increased least (for 5 subjects). PMID:16812683

  5. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  6. Preparing for emergency spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, G.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    An inherent problem facing many industries is emergency response to releases and spills of regulated materials. The complexity and severity of an emergency response action varies tremendously, but all represent a potential cost and liability to the responsible party. Liability is measured not only in current dollars associated with the cleanup and subsequent financial exposure, but also from a public relations and regulatory awareness standpoint. As in most processes, the emergency response process can be reduced to very simple and well-defined tasks that will commonly occur no matter the complexity, location or nature of the emergency response. The consistent nature of the basic stages of an emergency response provide a framework from which a response can be managed properly. Individual operations and site specific conditions must be considered at all stages throughout the process. The stages outlined here assume outside contractors and consultants are utilized for the management of the emergency response activities. It should be noted that while the stages are separate and divided by definition, the timing of all of these stages should be run as simultaneously as possible and in the most efficient manner possible. This may require that during an emergency response operation more than one individual is responsible for the various stages to ensure a timely response.

  7. Stimuli-responsive polymer films.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymer films undergo interesting structural and property changes upon external stimuli. Their applications have extended from smart coatings to controlled drug release, smart windows, self-repair and other fields. This tutorial review summarizes non-covalent bonding, reversible reactions and responsive molecules that have played important roles in creating stimuli-responsive systems, and presents the recent development of three types of responsive polymer systems: layer-by-layer polymer multilayer films, polymer brushes, and self-repairing polymer films, with a discussion of their response mechanism. Future research efforts include comprehensive understanding of the response mechanism, producing polymer systems with controlled response properties regarding single or multiple external signals, combining polymer film fabrication with nanotechnology, improving the stability of polymer films on substrates, and evaluating the toxicity of the degradation products. PMID:23749141

  8. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes.

  9. Color combinations of visual display terminal (VDT) icon on user preferences and EEG response.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ya-Hsien; Shen, I-Hsuan; Lee, Der-Song

    2010-04-01

    This study explored the effects of color combinations and polarity on user preferences and EEG responses using an icon design for a visual display terminal. 72 college students (M=24.5 yr., SD=2.3 yr.) were tested. The seven color combinations of top 16% with rating scores (5-point scale) over 3.60 almost always included black or white as a target or background, including white-on-black, red-on-black, yellow-on-black, blue-on-white, and black-on-white; the other two preferred color combinations were yellow-on-blue and blue-on-yellow. The eight color combinations of the bottom 16% with rating scores under 2.38 almost always included green, turquoise, or purple as a target or background. Negative image polarity (higher luminance color image shown on a lower luminance color background) was preferred over positive image polarity (lower luminance color image shown on a higher luminance color background) by the subjects. The theta and alpha band power in the right hemisphere were greater than those in the left hemisphere during the experiment. There seemed to be no linear correlation between the rating scores of subjective preferences and brain wave power of theta and alpha bands, so the possibility of using brain wave power to measure subjective preference is questionable.

  10. Temporal Scattering And Response

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less

  11. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25749248

  12. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  13. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R. R.; Ray, S. L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  14. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  15. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  16. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software - Detector Response Function

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-13

    GADRAS-DRF uses a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the response of gamma-ray detectors incident radiation. The application includes provision for plotting measured and computed spectra and for characterizing detector response parameters based on measurements of a series of calibration sources (e.g., Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, and Th-228). An application program interface enables other programs to access the dynamic-link library that is used to compute spectra.

  17. Training for emergency response with RimSim:Response!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce D.; Schroder, Konrad A.

    2009-05-01

    Since developing and promoting a Pacific Rim community emergency response simulation software platform called RimSim, the PARVAC team at the University of Washington has developed a variety of first responder agents who can participate within a response simulation. Agents implement response heuristics and communications strategies in conjunction with live players trying to develop their own heuristics and communications strategies to participate in a successful community response crisis. The effort is facilitated by shared visualization of the affected geographical extent. We present initial findings from interacting with a wide variety of mixed agent simulation sessions and make the software available for others to perform their own experiments.e

  18. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  19. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world’s population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. Method An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. Results A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. Conclusions This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to

  20. Facial EMG responses to noise.

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, A; Sköldström, B; Tesarz, M; Dallner, M

    1994-12-01

    Tension of the forehead increases as a response to unpleasant stimuli. In three experiments EMG activity in corrugator muscle was measured to test this response as an indicator of noise annoyance. In Exp. 1 (n = 24) monotonic sound level-response functions were obtained for four levels of 100- and 1000-Hz tones. In Exp. 2 (n = 20) recordings were made during work with a simple and a difficult task in a group of women and a group of men. Larger responses were obtained during the difficult task, especially during noise exposure. The response was much larger for the women. Exp. 3 (n = 24) showed that the sex difference was unaffected by a correction for differences in maximum level of corrugator response. Rated annoyance was a linear function of log EMG.

  1. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  2. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  3. Information Technology and Personal Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klempner, Irving M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the societal implications of advanced information technology, focusing on ethical questions and the personal responsibility of the information professional in designing information systems. (FM)

  4. Psychophysiological responses to Salsa dance.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Saavedra, Francisco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Speculation exists whether dance provides physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits. Unfortunately, research to date has not addressed the affective and exertional responses to dance. These responses are of interest as positive affective and exertional responses experienced during physical activity may play an important role in predicting adherence. The present study aims to examine the psychophysiological responses of different Salsa dance styles. Ten pairs of dancers performed two different structured lessons of Salsa dance, including Typical Salsa and Rueda de Casino lessons, and a non-structured Salsa dance at a night club. Physiological responses (i.e., percent of heart rate reserve; %HRR) were continuously assessed and perceived exertion and affective valence were rated every 15 min throughout the trials. %HRR responses differed between the Salsa dance styles (%HRR from 41.3 to 51.9%), and participants were dancing at intensities near their ventilatory threshold. Specifically, Typical Salsa lesson elicited lower %HRR responses than Rueda de Casino lesson (p < 0.05), but similar %HRR responses to Salsa dance at a night club condition (p > 0.05). Surprisingly, exertional (from 8 to 11) and affective (from +3 to +5) responses were unaffected by Salsa dance styles (p > 0.05). These data support that different Salsa dance styles provide physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits, and perhaps more importantly, produce pleasurable experiences, which in turn might lead to an increase in adherence to Salsa dancing which likely provides exercise-like health benefits.

  5. The Value of Response Times in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    A new and very interesting approach to the analysis of responses and response times is proposed by Goldhammer (this issue). In his approach, differences in the speed-ability compromise within respondents are considered to confound the differences in ability between respondents. These confounding effects of speed on the inferences about ability can…

  6. Thinking Differentially: A Response to Issues in Differential Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluke, John D.; Merkel-Holguin, Lisa; Schene, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This is a response to the document by Hughes et al. in this issue that offers a critique of the status of differential response (DR). We find the document to be helpful in intent, but do not find that it reflects scientifically sound methods, and contains many mischaracterizations of the status, impetus, research, and evaluation of DR to date. We…

  7. Motivation of chemical industry social responsibility through Responsible Care.

    PubMed

    Givel, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Advocates of corporate social responsibility argue corporations should not only meet the needs of shareholders, but other key stakeholders including the community, customers, suppliers, and employees. Since 1988, the chemical industry has engaged in a major self-regulatory "Responsible Care" industry-wide social responsibility campaign to ensure environmental, public health, safety, and security performance among member companies. Contrary to the arguments of advocates of corporate social responsibility that such efforts meet the needs of stakeholders other than shareholders such as the community, the primary goal of the Responsible Care effort has been to change public concerns and opinion about chemical industry environmental and public health practices while also opposing support for stronger and more expensive public health and environmental legislation and regulation of chemical products, even if warranted.

  8. Foundations of Responsibility for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillen, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Children's vulnerability asks for people taking up responsibility for children. In this contribution, three different ways of thinking on foundations of (ethical and spiritual) responsibility for children are discussed, namely, a liberalist, a social-constructivist and a naturalist paradigm. The author argues that cultural and natural elements are…

  9. Generalizability in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…

  10. The Writing Response to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Gloria; Rosen, Lois Matz

    When students write in response to literature, they make reading a creative act. Recording their personal reaction to a poem or an excerpt from a larger work, students become aware of the complex web of past experiences, associations and ideas triggering their responses; they learn to interact more fully, more consciously, with the text. Besides…

  11. Bringing Professional Responsibility Back in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Research on how higher education institutions work with professional formation indicates that insufficient attention is currently paid to issues of professional responsibility and ethics. In the light of such findings, there is increasing concern about issues related to learning professional responsibility. This article concentrates on different…

  12. Rorschach Responses of Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ann L.; Miles, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rorschach responses of 15 dyslexia children (eight-16 years old) were compared with those of 12 suitably matched controls. Dyslexic Ss made considerable use of card shape, but much less use of other determinants (color, texture, etc.). Unlike controls they seldom turned the cards around and the overall number of responses per person was…

  13. Communication Repair and Response Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W.

    2004-01-01

    A communicative repair has been defined as the ability to persist in communication and to modify, repeat, or revise a signal when the initial communication attempt failed. From an operant perspective, initial communicative acts and communicative repairs can be considered members of a response class in which each response produces the same outcome.…

  14. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  15. Text Rendering: Beginning Literary Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Sandra L.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that "text rendering"--responding to oral readings by saying back remembered words or phrases--forces students to prolong their initial responses to texts and opens initial response to the influence of other readers. Argues that silence following oral readings allows words to sink into students' minds, creating individual images and…

  16. The Politics of Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The use of peer groups to respond to student papers is a long-established practice in the composition classroom, so well entrenched, that they may sometimes employ peer response without thoroughly evaluating underlying assumptions and beliefs about how such groups operate. As a central tenet of the writing process movement, peer response was…

  17. Response to Intervention: What & Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is the practice of providing high quality-instruction and intervention matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying student response data to important education decisions. In essence, RTI expands the practice of looking at students' risk…

  18. Financial Responsibilities of Governing Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, William S.

    2001-01-01

    This completely redone edition is meant to be a primer on the financial responsibilities of trustees of colleges and universities and on complex trends and issues bearing on the responsibilities of governing boards. Trustees must deal with a complex blend of competing values, evolving information, and challenging analyses while taking into account…

  19. Thermal Response Of Composite Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel B.; Smith, Marnell; Kolodziej, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Engineering model gives useful predictions. Pair of reports presents theoretical and experimental analyses of thermal responses of multiple-component, lightweight, porous, ceramic insulators. Particular materials examined destined for use in Space Shuttle thermal protection system, test methods and heat-transfer theory useful to chemical, metallurgical, and ceramic engineers needing to calculate transient thermal responses of refractory composites.

  20. The "response" in behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, W N

    1976-01-01

    The term "response" is a basic one in behavior theory, particularly reflex theory, but its definition is not clear. The origin of the term in the common vocabulary has affected its later extensions in the analysis of behavior. Some contemporary theorists accept the existence of two "types" of response, coordinating one with the Pavlovian conditioning procedure, the other with the operant conditioning procedure of the so-called "contingent" variety. Reservations are expressed here about such distinctions between response classes and conditioning paradigms, emphasizing the difficulties that arise from certain conventions and inadequacies in current definitions and conceptions of "response". The critical nature of the problem for behavior theory is illustrated once again by the recent laboratory finding that a familiar and accepted conditional reflex, that of the "conditioned cardiac CR," can be fractionated into "parts" and is therefore perhaps no longer to be treated as a single unitary "response".

  1. Somatic responses in behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Wirick, Aaron; Holben, Heather

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured postdecision and prefeedback in a go/no-go (GNG) task in which participants used response feedback to learn when to respond or not to respond to numeric stimuli. Like somatic markers in gambling tasks and somatic reactions to error monitoring in choice reaction time tasks, SCR patterns distinguished between correct and incorrect trials over time. These somatic reactions were disrupted by a reversal of GNG contingencies, and they were facilitated by pretraining of the stimulus-response mappings. In all cases, however, the somatic reactions appeared to be a product of competent decision making rather than a contributor to performance. Differential somatic responses to good and bad choices appear to be a robust and fairly general phenomenon, but researchers should be cautious in assuming that the somatic responses contribute to performance.

  2. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  3. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  4. The responsibilities and rights of dental professionals 2. Professional responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Yamalik, Nermin

    2006-06-01

    Although dentists have well recognised legal, professional and ethical responsibilities, the definition of their role and the corresponding responsibilities broaden further as the profession evolves, the demands from dentistry increase and the context of professionalism changes. Thus, continuous evaluation of the role and responsibilities of dentists is vital for provision of quality care, improvement of professional standards and maintaining professional status. In addition, efforts must be made to uphold the credibility of the profession and the associated public trust as well as meeting the increasing expectations from the profession and individual dentists. PMID:16826884

  5. Is fluency free-operant response-response chaining?

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article briefly reviews behavioral fluency and its 10 products. Fluency development requires three of the four free-operant freedoms: the freedom to present stimuli at the learner's rhythm, the freedom to form the response, and the freedom to speed at the learner's maximum frequency. The article closes with several suggestions that fluent performing is really operant response-response (R-R) chaining, and recommends further controlled laboratory research on free-operant R-R chaining. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478259

  6. Dose-response model for teratological experiments involving quantal responses

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, K.; Van Ryzin, J.

    1985-03-01

    This paper introduces a dose-response model for teratological quantal response data where the probability of response for an offspring from a female at a given dose varies with the litter size. The maximum likelihood estimators for the parameters of the model are given as the solution of a nonlinear iterative algorithm. Two methods of low-dose extrapolation are presented, one based on the litter size distribution and the other a conservative method. The resulting procedures are then applied to a teratological data set from the literature.

  7. Reinforcing communication skills while registered nurses simultaneously learn course content: a response to learning needs.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, B B

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Integrated Skills Reinforcement (ISR) in a baccalaureate nursing course entitled "Principles of Health Assessment" for 15 registered nurse students. ISR is a comprehensive teaching-learning approach that simultaneously reinforces student writing, reading, speaking, and listening skills while they learn course content. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of ISR on writing skills and student satisfaction. A learner's guide and teacher's guide, created in advance by the teacher, described specific language activities and assignments that were implemented throughout the ISR course. During each class, the teacher promoted discussion, collaboration, and co-inquiry among students, using course content as the vehicle of exchange. Writing was assessed at the beginning and end of the course. The influence of ISR on the content, organization, sentence structure, tone, and strength of position of student writing was analyzed. Writing samples were scored by an independent evaluator trained in methods of holistic scoring. Ninety-three per cent (14 of 15 students) achieved writing growth from .5 to 1.5 points on a scale of 6 points. Student response to both the ISR approach and specific ISR activities was assessed by teacher-created surveys administered at the middle-end of the course. One hundred per cent of the students at the end of this project agreed that the ISR activities, specifically the writing and reading activities, helped them better understand the course content. These responses differed from evaluations written by the same students at the middle of the course. The ISR approach fostered analysis and communication through active collaboration, behaviors cited as critical for effective participation of nurses in today's complex health care environment.

  8. A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Responses from a Graded Disagree-Agree Response Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

    1996-01-01

    A parametric item response theory model for unfolding binary or graded responses is developed. The graded unfolding model (GUM) is a generalization of the hyperbolic cosine model for binary data of D. Andrich and G. Luo (1993). Applicability of the GUM to attitude testing is illustrated with real data. (SLD)

  9. Fast-response cup anemometer features cosine response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenzen, P.

    1968-01-01

    Six-cup, low-inertia anemometer combines high resolution and fast response with a unique ability to sense only the horizontal component of the winds fluctuating rapidly in three dimensions. Cup assemblies are fabricated of expanded polystyrene plastic.

  10. Eliminating mirror responses by instructions.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Bundt, Carsten; Notebaert, Wim; Brass, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The observation of an action leads to the activation of the corresponding motor plan in the observer. This phenomenon of motor resonance has an important role in social interaction, promoting imitation, learning and action understanding. However, mirror responses not always have a positive impact on our behavior. An automatic tendency to imitate others can introduce interference in action execution and non-imitative or opposite responses have an advantage in some contexts. Previous studies suggest that mirror tendencies can be suppressed after extensive practice or in complementary joint action situations revealing that mirror responses are more flexible than previously thought. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the mechanisms that allow response flexibility of motor mirroring. Here we show that the mere instruction of a counter-imitative mapping changes mirror responses as indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) enhancement induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Importantly, mirror activation was measured while participants were passively watching finger movements, without having the opportunity to execute the task. This result suggests that the implementation of task instructions activates stimulus-response association that can overwrite the mirror representations. Our outcome reveals one of the crucial mechanisms that might allow flexible adjustments of mirror responses in different contexts. The implications of this outcome are discussed.

  11. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  12. Neural activation during response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, E.; Poldrack, R.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The flanker task, introduced by Eriksen and Eriksen [Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143--149], provides a means to selectively manipulate the presence or absence of response competition while keeping other task demands constant. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the flanker task. In accordance with previous behavioral studies, trials in which the flanking stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus were performed significantly more slowly than trials in which all the stimuli indicated the same response. This reaction time effect was accompanied by increases in activity in four regions: the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the left superior parietal lobe, and the left anterior parietal cortex. The increases were not due to changes in stimulus complexity or the need to overcome previously learned associations between stimuli and responses. Correspondences between this study and other experiments manipulating response interference suggest that the frontal foci may be related to response inhibition processes whereas the posterior foci may be related to the activation of representations of the inappropriate responses.

  13. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphicalmore » summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.« less

  14. Prison psychiatry and professional responsibility.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E

    1987-05-01

    Professional responsibility is a multifaceted concept embracing elements of technical competence and accountability. It may seem anachronistic to examine professional responsibility in the context of prison psychiatry, which is a relatively unpopular and often controversial health service activity. Upon closer scrutiny, however, it appears that prison psychiatry presents a paradigm of the uncertainties, conflicts, and dilemmas which underlie current concerns about professional responsibility in psychiatry. In this paper, the author examines some of these issues and proposes some tentative answers, focusing on the critical question of the proper roles of psychiatry in prisons.

  15. Biologic response to environmental toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S.

    1983-12-01

    Biological response to environmental toxins results from the sum of natural, environmental, avocational, inapparent, and occupational exposures. These external exposures result in acceptable or unacceptable levels of absorption or internal exposure based on anticipated biological effects. There is no level of exposure which is in and of itself synonymous with intoxication. Biological effects may be classified as physiologic or pathologic, adaptive or nonadaptive, respectively. In each instance, the response may be acceptable or unacceptable. Intoxication requires the demonstration of a significant impairment of health. One may have an unacceptable pathologic response and still not have intoxication. Professional judgment is required.

  16. The 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Raviola, Giuseppe; Severe, Jennifer; Therosme, Tatiana; Oswald, Cate; Belkin, Gary; Eustache, Eddy

    2013-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters.

  17. Ubiquitin signaling in immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:27012466

  18. Responsive foams for nanoparticle delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Christina; Xiao, Edward; Sinko, Patrick J; Szekely, Zoltan; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2015-09-01

    We have developed responsive foam systems for nanoparticle delivery. The foams are easy to make, stable at room temperature, and can be engineered to break in response to temperature or moisture. Temperature-responsive foams are based on the phase transition of long chain alcohols and could be produced using medical grade nitrous oxide as a propellant. These temperature-sensitive foams could be used for polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based nanoparticle delivery. We also discuss moisture-responsive foams made with soap pump dispensers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nanoparticles or PMMA latex nanoparticles were loaded into Tween 20 foams and the particle size was not affected by the foam formulation or foam break. Using biocompatible detergents, we anticipate this will be a versatile and simple approach to producing foams for nanoparticle delivery with many potential pharmaceutical and personal care applications. PMID:26091943

  19. Emergency Response Teams in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the value of proper crisis response training to help schools protect lives by avoiding adverse situations. Details the execution of a crisis management plan, which was developed following a cafeteria/kitchen explosion. (GR)

  20. Model refinement using transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

  1. The Chlamydomonas heat stress response.

    PubMed

    Schroda, Michael; Hemme, Dorothea; Mühlhaus, Timo

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves occurring at increased frequency as a consequence of global warming jeopardize crop yield safety. One way to encounter this problem is to genetically engineer crop plants toward increased thermotolerance. To identify entry points for genetic engineering, a thorough understanding of how plant cells perceive heat stress and respond to it is required. Using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system to study the fundamental mechanisms of the plant heat stress response has several advantages. Most prominent among them is the suitability of Chlamydomonas for studying stress responses system-wide and in a time-resolved manner under controlled conditions. Here we review current knowledge on how heat is sensed and signaled to trigger temporally and functionally grouped sub-responses termed response elements to prevent damage and to maintain cellular homeostasis in plant cells.

  2. Responsive parenting: interventions and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Martines, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. PMID:17242836

  3. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  4. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    MedlinePlus

    ... a reclining chair or bed and remain still. Electrodes are placed on your scalp and on each ... earphones you are wearing during the test. The electrodes pick up the brain's responses to these sounds ...

  5. Regulation of the immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, P. L.; Sinclair, N. R. StC.

    1973-01-01

    Intact IgG antibody can terminate established immune responses, whereas F(ab′)2 antibody cannot do so. The difference between the two antibodies appears to be qualitative. F(ab′)2 antibody, but not pepsin-digested normal serum, can interfere with the suppression and termination of immune responses induced by intact IgG antibody. These results are discussed in terms of the tripartite inactivation model. PMID:4576780

  6. Regulation of the immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, P. L.; Sinclair, N. R. StC.

    1971-01-01

    Pepsin digested, F(ab')2 antibody has less ability to inhibit an antibody response than has intact IgG antibody, when the antibodies were given one day after antigen. F(ab')2 antibody has to be given with antigen to attain maximal suppression, while IgG antibody, administered after antigen, is still highly immunosuppressive. The IgG antibody was able to terminate established immune responses, whereas F(ab')2 antibody could not do so. We interpret these findings to indicate that F(ab')2 antibody suppresses immune responses by simple masking of antigen, whereas IgG antibody alters the immune response through a further activity which takes place after antibody has combined with antigen. This further activity involves the Fc portion of antibody. Two alterations in immune mechanism are suggested: (1) increased destruction of antigen and (2) inactivation of the antibody forming cell precursor population by antigen—antibody complexes. This latter possibility is considered in detail. The tripartite inactivation model has been constructed to explain the presently known observations concerning immunosuppression by antibody and to make a prediction which has been verified. A further prediction concerning the affinities of antibodies produced under IgG or F(ab')2 antibody-mediated immunosuppression is put forward. Thymus-bone marrow cell synergism does not give a simple thymus cell dose-response relationship but a multi-phasic relationship where the response increases once the dose of thymus cells is decreased to a sufficiently low level. Such a dose-response relationship is not explainable in terms of the usual mechanisms proposed for thymus-bone marrow cell interaction and this deviation from a simple dose-response relationship is interpreted in terms of the proposed function of thymus-derived cells in controlling antibody feedback regulation. PMID:4943149

  7. Evoked response to taste stimulations.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masashi

    2005-01-01

    For the recording of gustatory evoked responses, the tip of a stimulator is pressed vertically on one side of the tongue until the trigger pulses are generated by a switch attached to the bottom of the stimulator. According to our results, no detectable response was observed in the absence of taste. The positive waves were distinguishable by using the technique of superimposition before averaging, and the positive wave was made clearer by averaging.

  8. Endocrine response to brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chioléro, R; Berger, M

    1994-11-01

    The neuroendocrine response (NER) is an essential component of the adaptive process to trauma, brain injury, and major surgery. While receiving additive humoral and neural afferent inputs, the brain nuclei responsible for the NER act mainly by efferent pathways to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathoadrenal system, the activations of which induce subsequent circulatory and metabolic responses. The NER to brain injury is similar to the response observed in patients with extracerebral injury, even if the response after brain injury is extremely variable. Generally, there is a biphasic pattern, with a sympathoadrenal storm associated with variable and altered stimulation of the HPA during the ebb phase. The first phase is followed by a decrease in both responses while other endocrine changes develop, involving mainly the counter-regulatory, gonadal, and thyroid hormones. The outcome after brain injury is closely correlated with the intensity of these changes, particularly with catecholamine plasma levels and the severity of the low triiodothyronine syndrome. Alterations of the thyroid hormones are largely related to a reduction in peripheral deiodination of thyroxin. Recent research shows that increased free-radical production and decreased selenium (an antioxidant) serum levels play an important role in thyroid metabolism. Two major issues remain unsolved: a) the precise definition of cerebral death, since endocrine brain function is not abolished in the state currently defined as brain death; and b) the question of whether substitutive hormone therapy should be applied in severe brain injury.

  9. Feedback control indirect response models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; D'Argenio, David Z

    2016-08-01

    A general framework is introduced for modeling pharmacodynamic processes that are subject to autoregulation, which combines the indirect response (IDR) model approach with methods from classical feedback control of engineered systems. The canonical IDR models are modified to incorporate linear combinations of feedback control terms related to the time course of the difference (the error signal) between the pharmacodynamic response and its basal value. Following the well-established approach of traditional engineering control theory, the proposed feedback control indirect response models incorporate terms proportional to the error signal itself, the integral of the error signal, the derivative of the error signal or combinations thereof. Simulations are presented to illustrate the types of responses produced by the proposed feedback control indirect response model framework, and to illustrate comparisons with other PK/PD modeling approaches incorporating feedback. In addition, four examples from literature are used to illustrate the implementation and applicability of the proposed feedback control framework. The examples reflect each of the four mechanisms of drug action as modeled by each of the four canonical IDR models and include: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and extracellular serotonin; histamine H2-receptor antagonists and gastric acid; growth hormone secretagogues and circulating growth hormone; β2-selective adrenergic agonists and potassium. The proposed feedback control indirect response approach may serve as an exploratory modeling tool and may provide a bridge for development of more mechanistic systems pharmacology models. PMID:27394724

  10. Design of responsive polymer surfaces with ultrafast response time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzer, Jan; Ozcam, Evren; Willoughby, Julie

    2009-03-01

    Responsive surfaces with tailorable surface-reconstruction kinetics and switching hysteresis were prepared from poly(vinylmethylsiloxane) (PVMS) networks modified with thiol alkanes to provide hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface properties. The cooperative effects of polymer mobility, arising from the high flexibility of the siloxane backbone, and the enthalpic interactions between the contacting medium and the PVMS functionalized surface control the degree of responsiveness. Exposing the modified-elastomer surfaces to water resulted in rearrangement of the hydrophilic alkanes at the surface. The kinetics of reconstruction and reversibility were established by measuring the surface wettability via dynamic contact angle. By controlling the formation of semi-crystalline regions in our substrates we demonstrate either ``sluggish'' kinetics and eventual surface ``freezing'' and stability or stimuli-responsive substrates with a magnitude of change and repeated reversibility unparallel to most polymeric surfaces.

  11. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  12. 47 CFR 2.1073 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2.1073 Section 2.1073... Responsibilities. (a) The responsible party, as defined in § 2.909, must warrant that each unit of equipment... party, the new responsible party shall bear the responsibility of continued compliance of the...

  13. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  14. Facial variations in sensory responses.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Whittle, Ed; Basketter, David A

    2003-11-01

    Subjective effects such as stinging, itching and burning commonly occur in the absence of any visible irritation and give rise to discomfort, which may be enough to deter an individual from using even the most effective of skin care products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different anatomical regions of the face to determine which region displayed the most intense stinging response to the application of lactic acid. The effect of occlusion on the level of response was also investigated. 45 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid on the nasolabial fold, forehead, chin and cheek, occluded and unoccluded for 8 min. Sensory reactions were recorded at 2.5, 5 and 8 min. The response levels on the occluded sites were always significantly lower than on the unoccluded sites, despite the dose per unit area being comparable. Females showed a trend towards being more sensitive to the subjective effects elicited by lactic acid than males, but these results were not conclusive. Interestingly, there was not a complete correlation between individuals who reacted on the nasolabial fold and the other sites, particularly the forehead. A positive stinging response on the nasolabial fold may not necessarily predict subjective responses to a product when used on other areas of the face. PMID:14996043

  15. Response surface development using RETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R.E.; Sorensen, J.M.; May, R.S.; Doran, K.J. ); Trikouros, N.G.; Mozias, E.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and GPU Nuclear Corporation have completed a demonstration project that provides justification for relaxing the high-pressure setpoints for the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. The project was undertaken because an undesirable overlap had been identified in the high-pressure setpoints when accounting for measurement uncertainties experienced during plant operation. The project employed a statistical combination of uncertainties (SCU) process to provide increased margin for measurement uncertainties. This approach was used because previous experience indicated that there was insufficient margin to justify the desired setpoints using conventional deterministic inputs to the safety analysis and plant performance analysis processes. Through the use of SCU methodology and other deterministic analyses, it is possible to provide comprehensive bases for the desired technical specification changes to the high-pressure setpoints. The SCU process is based on the EPRI setpoint analysis guidelines, and it requires the development of response surfaces to simulate RETRAN peak pressure calculations for the limiting transient event. The use of response surfaces adds an intermediate step to the SCU process, but reduces the number of RETRAN cases required to make appropriate statistical statements about the result probabilities. Basically, each response surface is an approximation of the RETRAN code for one particular event and one output variable of interest, which is valid over a limited region. The response surfaces can be sampled very inexpensively using simple Monte Carlo methods. The basic input to the development of a response surface is a set of results obtained from specific RETRAN cases.

  16. Can site response be predicted?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large modifications of seismic waves are produced by variations of material properties near the Earth's surface and by both surface and buried topography. These modifications, usually referred to as "site response", in general lead to larger motions on soil sites than on rock-like sites. Because the soil amplifications can be as large as a factor of ten, they are important in engineering applications that require the quantitative specification of ground motions. This has been recognised for years by both seismologists and engineers, and it is hard to open an earthquake journal these days without finding an article on site response. What is often missing in these studies, however, are discussions of the uncertainty of the predicted response. A number of purely observational studies demonstrate that ground motions have large site-to-site variability for a single earthquake and large earthquake-location- dependent variability for a single site. This variability makes site-specific, earthquake-specific predictions of site response quite uncertain, even if detailed geotechnical and geological information is available near the site. Predictions of site response for average classes of sites exposed to the motions from many earthquakes can be made with much greater certainty if sufficient empirical observations are available.

  17. Preliminary Response Analysis of AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Azian; Basharie, Siti Mariam; Ghani, Mohamad Hanifah Abd.

    2010-06-01

    Development of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) involves a great task to fully understand the overall working principles of an UAV that needed time, experience and a wide range of intelligence to cover the entire scientific facts. This study is done by means to acquire the fundamental knowledge in understanding the stability and response of an UAV. The longitudinal response and stability of UAV owing to deflection of stern plane during trimmed equilibrium motion can be computed by solving the AUV equation of motion. In this study, the AUV equations of motion were rederived and the solution was computed with the aid of Matlab software. From the existing AUV, a new dimension, weight and speed were specified to be used in the rederivation of the linearised AUV longitudinal equations of motion. From the analysis done, the longitudinal response AUV shows the stern plane and thrust has relatively steady longitudinal control power and quick response characteristic. The results had successfully given a preliminary insight of the specified AUV response and dynamic stability.

  18. Response Tuning in Bacterial Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasuja, Ravi; Yu-Lin; Trentham, David R.; Khan, Shahid

    1999-09-01

    Chemotaxis of enteric bacteria in spatial gradients toward a source of chemoattractant is accomplished by increases in the length of swimming runs up the gradient. Biochemical components of the intracellular signal pathway have been identified, but mechanisms for achieving the high response sensitivity remain unknown. Binding of attractant ligand to its receptor inactivates a receptor-associated histidine kinase, CheA, which phosphorylates the signal protein CheY. The reduction in phospho-CheY, CheY-P, levels prolongs swimming runs. Here, the stimulus-response relation has been determined by measurement of excitation responses mediated by the Tar receptor to defined concentration jumps of the attractant, aspartate, administered within milliseconds by photolysis of a photolabile precursor. The bacteria responded to <1% changes in Tar occupancy when adapted to aspartate over concentrations spanning three orders of magnitude. Response amplitudes increased approximately logarithmically with stimulus strength, extending responsiveness over a greater stimulus range. The extent and form of this relation indicates that, in contrast to mechanisms for adaptive recovery, excitation signal generation involves amplification based on cooperative interactions. These interactions could entail inactivation of multiple receptor-CheA signaling complexes and/or simultaneous activation of CheY-P dephosphorylation.

  19. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Norman; Osipow, Samuel H.

    1977-01-01

    The authors respond to professional identity issues raised in this special issue of The Counseling Psychologist. They discuss ambiguity of definition, counseling psychologist roles, training programs, public relations, and allegiance to professional groups. (Author/JEL)

  20. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Len

    2010-01-01

    A special issue of the "British Journal of Sociology of Education" has been devoted to an examination of Disability and Inclusive Education. The authors of the papers in this issue have all made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge and understanding in these fields of study. Overall, they have provided a comprehensive, valuable…

  1. Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2014-06-01

    I thank these authors (Buma et al., 2014), for their interest in my paper. The topic of postglacial tree migration has always been a controversial one, so it is not surprising that my review of the evidence for the postglacial establishment of Pacific Northwest forest species in southern Alaska would generate some additional controversy. Burma et al. are perfectly correct in their statement that I did not consider localized refugia for these tree species within southeast Alaska during the LGM. However, I take exception to their statement that I did not consider the ecology of these trees in my reconstruction of regional events during the last glacial maximum (LGM). On the contrary, a consideration of the ecological requirements of these PNW tree species is precisely the reason I excluded the possibility of their survival in southeast Alaska during the height of the last glaciation, as explained below.

  2. Recommendations for Initial Evaluation, Staging, and Response Assessment of Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: The Lugano Classification

    PubMed Central

    Cheson, Bruce D.; Fisher, Richard I.; Barrington, Sally F.; Cavalli, Franco; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zucca, Emanuele; Lister, T. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials. PMID:25113753

  3. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification.

    PubMed

    Cheson, Bruce D; Fisher, Richard I; Barrington, Sally F; Cavalli, Franco; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zucca, Emanuele; Lister, T Andrew

    2014-09-20

    The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials.

  4. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification.

    PubMed

    Cheson, Bruce D; Fisher, Richard I; Barrington, Sally F; Cavalli, Franco; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zucca, Emanuele; Lister, T Andrew

    2014-09-20

    The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials. PMID:25113753

  5. Early Response to Psychotherapy and Long-term Change in Worry Symptoms in Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrea; Cully, Jeffrey; Rhoades, Howard; Kunik, Mark; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of early and long-term reductions in worry symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in older adults. Design Substudy of larger randomized controlled trial Setting Family medicine clinic and large multi-specialty health organization in Houston, TX, between March 2004 and August 2006 Participants Patients (N=76) 60 years or older with a principal or coprincipal diagnosis of GAD, excluding those with significant cognitive impairment, bipolar disorder, psychosis or active substance abuse. Intervention Cognitive behavioral therapy, up to 10 sessions over 12 weeks, or enhanced usual care (regular, brief telephone calls and referrals to primary care provider as needed) Measurements Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) administered by telephone at baseline, 1 month (mid-treatment), 3 months (post-treatment), and at 3-month intervals through 15 months (1-year follow-up). We used binary logistic regression analysis to determine the association between early (1-month) response and treatment responder status (reduction of more than 8.5 points on the PSWQ) at 3 and 15 months. We also used hierarchical linear modeling to determine the relationship of early response to the trajectory of score change after post-treatment. Results Reduction in PSWQ scores after the first month predicted treatment response at post-treatment and follow-up, controlling for treatment arm and baseline PSWQ score. The magnitude of early reduction also predicted the slope of score change from post-treatment through the 15-month assessment. Conclusions Early symptom reduction is associated with long-term outcomes after psychotherapy in older adults with GAD. PMID:21427643

  6. Validation of the Cutaneous Dermatomyositis Disease Area and Severity Index (CDASI): characterizing disease severity and assessing responsiveness to clinical change

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, C.O.; Fiorentino, D.; Chung, L.; Dzuong, C.; Wang, Y.; Okawa, J.; Carr, K.; Propert, K.J.; Werth, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The Cutaneous Dermatomyositis Disease Area and Severity Index (CDASI) was developed for use in clinical trials and longitudinal patient assessment. Objectives To characterize disease severity using the CDASI and assess responsiveness of this instrument to clinically meaningful changes in disease activity. Methods Patients with cutaneous dermatomyositis at the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn, n = 93) and Stanford University (Stanford, n = 106) were prospectively evaluated using the CDASI, physician global assessment (PGA) Likert scales, and visual analog scale (VAS). Data was analyzed using logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic curves to select cut-offs. Results Baseline CDASI activity scores for the patients evaluated at UPenn ranged from 0 to 47 (median 17), and baseline PGA VAS scores ranged from 0 to 9.6 (median 1.1). At UPenn a CDASI activity score of 19 differentiated mild from moderate and severe disease. At Stanford baseline CDASI scores ranged from 0 to 48 (median 21), baseline PGA VAS scores ranged from 0 to 9.7 (median 4.2) and CDASI activity scores of 14 or less characterized mild disease. When a 2 cm change in the PGA VAS was regarded as a clinically significant improvement, a 4-point (UPenn) or 5-point (Stanford) change in CDASI reflected a minimal clinically significant response. Conclusions The CDASI is a valid and responsive measure that can be used to characterize cutaneous dermatomyositis severity and detect improvement in disease activity. Variations in cutoffs may be due to differences in disease severity between the two populations or inter-rater variations in use of the external gold measures. PMID:25994337

  7. Assessing Gravitropic Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Richard; Cox, Benjamin; Silber, Logan; Sangari, Arash; Assadi, Amir; Masson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was the first higher organism to have its genome sequenced and is now widely regarded as the model dicot. Like all plants, Arabidopsis develops distinct growth patterns in response to different environmental stimuli. This can be seen in the gravitropic response of roots. Methods to investigate this particular tropism are presented here. First, we describe a high-throughput time-lapse photographic analysis of root growth and curvature response to gravistimulation allowing the quantification of gravitropic kinetics and growth rate at high temporal resolution. Second, we present a protocol that allows a quantitative evaluation of gravitropic sensitivity using a homemade 2D clinostat. Together, these approaches allow an initial comparative analysis of the key phenomena associated with root gravitropism between different genotypes and/or accessions. PMID:26867611

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  9. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. PMID:26561803

  10. Pupillary responses to chromatic stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaste-Gomez, Ernesto; Rodriguez Guzman, M. C. Ma. Dolores A.; Druzgalski, Christopher

    2000-06-01

    Pupillary responses of the subjects under chromatic visual stimulation were filmed with video-oculography systems (VOG). Specifically, programmable chromatic visual stimuli were displayed on the monitor of a personal computer (PC) and responses tested in several normal subjects and those with ophthalmic pathologic conditions. Visual excitation utilized a reversal stimulus checkerboard pattern. Image processing techniques were applied in order to evaluate the pupil variations due to chromatic stimulation. In particular, the studies determined a relationship between pupillary response (PR) and steady-state retinal sensitivity (photopic vision). Finally, the retinal illuminance in trolands (td), as a product of the pupil area in mm2 and luminance in cd/m2 to full-field chromatic stimulation (FFCS) and checkerboard pattern reversal chromatic stimulation (CPRCS) was determined.

  11. Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war.

    PubMed

    Cassel, C; Jameton, A

    1982-09-01

    The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

  12. Dynamic Metabolism in Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hommrani, Mazen; Chakraborty, Paramita; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Mehrotra, Shikhar

    2016-01-01

    Cell, the basic unit of life depends for its survival on nutrients and thereby energy to perform its physiological function. Cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin are key in evoking an immune response against “self” or “non-self” antigens. The thymus derived lymphoid cells called T cells are a heterogenous group with distinct phenotypic and molecular signatures that have been shown to respond against an infection (bacterial, viral, protozoan) or cancer. Recent studies have unearthed the key differences in energy metabolism between the various T cell subsets, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid derived suppressor cells. While a number of groups are dwelling into the nuances of the metabolism and its role in immune response at various strata, this review focuses on dynamic state of metabolism that is operational within various cellular compartments that interact to mount an effective immune response to alleviate disease state.

  13. Spike history neural response model.

    PubMed

    Kameneva, Tatiana; Abramian, Miganoosh; Zarelli, Daniele; Nĕsić, Dragan; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Grayden, David B

    2015-06-01

    There is a potential for improved efficacy of neural stimulation if stimulation levels can be modified dynamically based on the responses of neural tissue in real time. A neural model is developed that describes the response of neurons to electrical stimulation and that is suitable for feedback control neuroprosthetic stimulation. Experimental data from NZ white rabbit retinae is used with a data-driven technique to model neural dynamics. The linear-nonlinear approach is adapted to incorporate spike history and to predict the neural response of ganglion cells to electrical stimulation. To validate the fitness of the model, the penalty term is calculated based on the time difference between each simulated spike and the closest spike in time in the experimentally recorded train. The proposed model is able to robustly predict experimentally observed spike trains.

  14. Epigenetics of the antibody response.

    PubMed

    Li, Guideng; Zan, Hong; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications and miRNAs, are induced in B cells by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response. They play major roles in regulating somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch DNA recombination (CSR), and differentiation to plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. Histone modifications target the CSR and, possibly, SHM machinery to the immunoglobulin locus; they together with DNA methylation and miRNAs modulate the expression of critical elements of that machinery, such as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as factors central to plasma cell differentiation, such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). These inducible B cell-intrinsic epigenetic marks instruct the maturation of antibody responses. Their dysregulation plays an important role in aberrant antibody responses to foreign antigens, such as those of microbial pathogens, and self-antigens, such as those targeted in autoimmunity, and B cell neoplasia.

  15. Linking stressors and ecological responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gentile, J.H.; Solomon, K.R.; Butcher, J.B.; Harrass, M.; Landis, W.G.; Power, M.; Rattner, B.A.; Warren-Hicks, W.J.; Wenger, R.; Foran, Jeffery A.; Ferenc, Susan A.

    1999-01-01

    To characterize risk, it is necessary to quantify the linkages and interactions between chemical, physical and biological stressors and endpoints in the conceptual framework for ecological risk assessment (ERA). This can present challenges in a multiple stressor analysis, and it will not always be possible to develop a quantitative stressor-response profile. This review commences with a conceptual representation of the problem of developing a linkage analysis for multiple stressors and responses. The remainder of the review surveys a variety of mathematical and statistical methods (e.g., ranking methods, matrix models, multivariate dose-response for mixtures, indices, visualization, simulation modeling and decision-oriented methods) for accomplishing the linkage analysis for multiple stressors. Describing the relationships between multiple stressors and ecological effects are critical components of 'effects assessment' in the ecological risk assessment framework.

  16. Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the “classical” plant hormones, i.e. discovered at least 50 years ago, that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. This chapter reviews our current understanding of ABA synthesis, metabolism, transport, and signal transduction, emphasizing knowledge gained from studies of Arabidopsis. A combination of genetic, molecular and biochemical studies has identified nearly all of the enzymes involved in ABA metabolism, almost 200 loci regulating ABA response, and thousands of genes regulated by ABA in various contexts. Some of these regulators are implicated in cross-talk with other developmental, environmental or hormonal signals. Specific details of the ABA signaling mechanisms vary among tissues or developmental stages; these are discussed in the context of ABA effects on seed maturation, germination, seedling growth, vegetative stress responses, stomatal regulation, pathogen response, flowering, and senescence. PMID:24273463

  17. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  18. Response to the Hughes et al. Paper on Differential Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Christopher; Park, Katherine; Lohrbach, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Ronald Hughes, Judith Rycus, and their colleagues have produced a seminal review of differential response (DR) programs implemented across the nation. Their review questions nearly every aspect of the DR movement, beginning with the concept on which all DR programs are based and ending with serious concerns about the quality of evaluations…

  19. Heterogeneity of neural mechanisms of response to pivotal response treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ventola, Pamela; Yang, Daniel Y. J.; Friedman, Hannah E.; Oosting, Devon; Wolf, Julie; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) improves social communication in a case series of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) identified brain responses during a biological motion perception task conducted prior to and following 16 weeks of PRT treatment. Overall, the neural systems supporting social perception in these 10 children were malleable through implementation of PRT; following treatment, neural responses were more similar to those of typically developing children (TD). However, at baseline, half of the children exhibited hypoactivation, relative to a group of TD children, in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and half exhibited hyperactivation in this region. Strikingly, the groups exhibited differential neural responses to treatment: The five children who exhibited hypoactivation at baseline evidenced increased activation in components of the reward system including the ventral striatum and putamen. The five children who exhibited hyperactivation at baseline evidenced decreased activation in subcortical regions critical for regulating the flow of stimulation and conveying signals of salience to the cortex—the thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Our results support further investigation into the differential effects of particular treatment strategies relative to specific neural targets. Identification of treatment strategies that address the patterns of neural vulnerability unique to each patient is consistent with the priority of creating individually tailored interventions customized to the behavioral and neural characteristics of a given person. PMID:25370452

  20. Responsibility, Complexity Science and Education: Dilemmas and Uncertain Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2009-01-01

    While complexity science is gaining interest among educational theorists, its constructs do not speak to educational responsibility or related core issues in education of power and ethics. Yet certain themes of complexity, as taken up in educational theory, can help unsettle the more controlling and problematic discourses of educational…

  1. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  2. Response: Critical Realism--Response to Longhofer and Floersch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses key challenges posed by critical realism, proposed by Longhofer and Floersch, as a philosophical underpinning for a science of social work. As a response to Longhofer and Floersch, it is argued that critical realism may be instructive in debates about structural conditions that dictate more inclusive interventions and…

  3. The path to corporate responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zadek, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Nike's tagline,"Just do it," is an inspirational call to action for the millions who wear the company's athletic gear. But in terms of corporate responsibility, Nike didn't always follow its own advice. In the 1990s, protesters railed against sweatshop conditions at some of its overseas suppliers and made Nike the global poster child for corporate ethical fecklessness. The intense pressure that activists exerted on the athletic apparel giant forced it to take a long, hard look at corporate responsibility--sooner than it might have otherwise. In this article, Simon Zadek, CEO of the UK-based institute AccountAbility, describes the bumpy route Nike has traveled to get to a better ethical place, one that cultivates and champions responsible business practices. Organizations learn in unique ways, Zadek contends, but they inevitably pass through five stages of corporate responsibility, from defensive ("It's not our fault") to compliance ("We'll do only what we have to") to managerial ("It's the business") to strategic ("It gives us a competitive edge") and, finally, to civil ("We need to make sure everybody does it"). He details Nike's arduous trek through these stages-from the company's initial defensive stance, when accusations about working conditions arose, all the way to its engagement today in the international debate about business's role in society and in public policy. As he outlines this evolution, Zadek offers valuable insights to executives grappling with the challenge of managing responsible business practices. Beyond just getting their own houses in order, the author argues, companies need to stay abreast of the public's evolving ideas about corporate roles and responsibilities. Organizations that do both will engage in what he calls"civil learning".

  4. The path to corporate responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zadek, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Nike's tagline,"Just do it," is an inspirational call to action for the millions who wear the company's athletic gear. But in terms of corporate responsibility, Nike didn't always follow its own advice. In the 1990s, protesters railed against sweatshop conditions at some of its overseas suppliers and made Nike the global poster child for corporate ethical fecklessness. The intense pressure that activists exerted on the athletic apparel giant forced it to take a long, hard look at corporate responsibility--sooner than it might have otherwise. In this article, Simon Zadek, CEO of the UK-based institute AccountAbility, describes the bumpy route Nike has traveled to get to a better ethical place, one that cultivates and champions responsible business practices. Organizations learn in unique ways, Zadek contends, but they inevitably pass through five stages of corporate responsibility, from defensive ("It's not our fault") to compliance ("We'll do only what we have to") to managerial ("It's the business") to strategic ("It gives us a competitive edge") and, finally, to civil ("We need to make sure everybody does it"). He details Nike's arduous trek through these stages-from the company's initial defensive stance, when accusations about working conditions arose, all the way to its engagement today in the international debate about business's role in society and in public policy. As he outlines this evolution, Zadek offers valuable insights to executives grappling with the challenge of managing responsible business practices. Beyond just getting their own houses in order, the author argues, companies need to stay abreast of the public's evolving ideas about corporate roles and responsibilities. Organizations that do both will engage in what he calls"civil learning". PMID:15605571

  5. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused.

  6. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  7. Criminal responsibility in amphetamine psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, A

    1994-01-01

    Historical changes in forensic psychiatric evaluation on criminal responsibility and proceedings in psychopathological findings of amphetamine psychosis are reviewed at first. The classification of amphetamine related mental disorders are proposed in 6 types. Among them, the clinical characteristics and psychopathological features of "Anxiety-situational reaction type" (Fukushima) are described. According to some reasonable grounds, offenders diagnosed as anxiety-situational reaction type should be evaluated as diminished responsibility in place of irresponsibility. Finally, two cases of murder committed under the influence of amphetamine, are reported in detail.

  8. Preliminary neural response telemetry results.

    PubMed

    Cullington, H

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the neural response telemetry (NRT) results obtained from the first 30 patients tested at this centre. One hundred per cent of patients tested intra-operatively had NRT responses on at least one electrode; this compared to 82.4% of patients tested post-operatively. Reasonable correlations existed between post-operative NRT thresholds and psychophysical threshold and comfort levels, although there was too much variability for the data to be used to set these parameters directly. Post-operative NRT thresholds were always at levels audible to patients.

  9. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused. PMID:27668124

  10. Overcoming Barriers to Eye Care: Patient Response to a Medical Social Worker in a Glaucoma Service.

    PubMed

    Fudemberg, Scott J; Amarasekera, Dilru C; Silverstein, Marlee H; Linder, Kathryn M; Heffner, Paul; Hark, Lisa A; Waisbourd, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the patient response to a medical social worker in a glaucoma clinic. The literature suggests that medical social workers are effective in a variety of health care settings, yet the efficacy of a medical social worker in an adult ophthalmic setting has not been studied. We present the results of a retrospective chart review of 50 patients with glaucoma referred to a medical social worker between January 5, 2015 and June 31, 2015 in an outpatient clinic of an urban eye hospital. Clinical and demographic data, as well as the data from a quality of care questionnaire, were collected for each patient. Patients rated their interaction with the medical social worker as highly positive (mean = 4.75, 5-point Likert scale), and nearly 90 % of patients expressed interest in future contact with the social worker. Additionally, most patients reported that the social worker resolved the issues they were facing (61.1 %), supported them in seeing their ophthalmologist (70.6 %), and helped them to manage their glaucoma (69.7 %). Reported barriers to glaucoma care were emotional distress; cost of office visits and medications; lack of medical insurance; transportation; poor medication adherence; impairment of daily activities; follow-up adherence; and language. As vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible, it is important to detect and treat patients at early stages of the disease. Therefore, it is imperative for patients to regularly visit their eye care providers and adhere to treatment and follow-up recommendations. This study suggests that a medical social worker could play a pivotal role in helping patients with glaucoma overcome barriers to treatment and facilitate disease management. PMID:26860278

  11. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  12. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  13. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  14. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  15. A Shared Responsibility for Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Co-investment between the state, employer, and employee is an intrinsic feature of most vocational and education training systems. The government's strategy is to "profoundly" shift responsibility for funding learning and skills from the state to individuals and businesses. At a time of stringent cuts in publicly-funded further education and the…

  16. Emotional Responsiveness in Marital Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottman, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the types of conversational patterns--from cross-complaining to contracting--that characterize satisfied couples; suggests theoretical models that account for their success. Proposes the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism that maintains closeness in marriages is symmetry in emotional responsiveness, which relates to whether spouses…

  17. Student Rights and Responsibilities Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ludwig A.; And Others

    To stimulate interest in student's rights and responsibilities, this resource contains incomplete scenarios dealing with the consequences of knowing and not knowing the law, as it is applied to modern practical situations. The scenarios can be used in high school courses such as government, social problems, history, psychology, and business law.…

  18. Masculinities in Dialogue: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knights, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This response to the articles by Diana Wallace and Samantha Pinto seeks to locate the negotiation of gendered identities in the classroom within the larger study of the dialogic relations between texts, teachers, and students. Teaching, it proposes, is not a second-order derivative of scholarship, but a cultural form in its own right. The article…

  19. Education for Responsible Citizenship: Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2009-01-01

    There is an abundance of literature on citizenship education. This essay is an attempt to show how deliberation is used in university classroom pedagogy, to engender in students a commitment to becoming responsible citizens of a post-apartheid South Africa. Firstly, I show that controversy can be attended to through deliberation, with specific…

  20. Rights and Responsibilities. Administrative Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert W.; And Others

    This handbook contains guidelines for the use of Ohio school districts in developing policy on student behavior, rights, and responsibilities. There are three main sections. The first describes current Federal and State law and practices relevant to student rights. The second deals with specific student behaviors that are often the subject of…

  1. Trustee Liability and Legal Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alton L.

    Litigation over actions and policies in higher education is becoming increasingly common, and college trustees can expect to be touched by it, as they are legally and ultimately responsible for what transpires on campus. Trustees must work as a team with college presidents in the development of institutional policies, as they will share the same…

  2. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Coast, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. Consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. This paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. Strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. The adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. Approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:11953791

  3. Assessing Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Louis A.; Shermis, Mark D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of a stress paradigm in the assessment of children with behavior disorders. The Stress Response Scale, designed to assess such behavioral patterns, is presented and discussed. Data are presented which describe the most frequently found patterns among a population of school-aged children. (Author/LMO)

  4. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are attributed to the…

  5. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  6. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Norman E.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews federal efforts to develop a rural education federal agenda, five basic problems of rural areas which lend themselves to federal solutions, Department of Education proposals for fiscal year 1982, significant federal responses/already in progress, and strengths and advantages of rural schools. (AN)

  7. Response of chromoblastomycosis to voriconazole*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Paula, Lauren Zogbi Pereira; Aseka, Gabriela Kimie; Goetz, Hermann Soares; Gheller, Maicon Felippe; Torraca, Pedro de Freitas Silva

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, in which the most common etiologic agent in Brazil is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. In more advanced cases we found many difficulties in their treatment, and therefore, we report a case of extensive and severe chromoblastomycosis, with therapeutical failure of first choice treatments, but good response to voriconazole.

  8. [Responses, Rejoinder, and Editorial Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Responses discuss the following: unanswered questions (Gerald Greenberg); thinking critically about justice judgments (E. Allan Lind); just and virtuous leaders (Naomi M. Meara); voices of injustice victims (Debra L. Shapiro); justice research and practice (M. Susan Taylor); and the need for experimental research (Kees van der Bos); with rejoinder…

  9. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  10. Ebola: is the response justified?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Hannah; Chaudry, Aisha; Ndow, Gibril; Crossey, Mary Me; Garside, Debbie; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever, first discovered in 1976 in Sudan, where the outbreak infected over 284 people with a 53% case fatality ratio. There have been 34 further epidemics, the current major incident in West Africa having recorded more cases and deaths than all previous outbreaks combined. To date there have been over 27, 000 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11,000 reported deaths in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. With total funding and pledges to help control the outbreak amounting to more than US $2.4 billion, many question how the disease has continued to spread in Sierra Leone and Guinea Conakry, and whether the response to the outbreak has been justified. This article aims to analyze the effectiveness of the responses to the outbreak in terms of economic, social, cultural and, to an extent, political impact. We argue that the response has been justified due to the awareness raised, the infrastructure and staffing improvements, the success in receiving financial aid and the minimal spread to other countries outside the main transmission zone. Despite this, some failures in communication and a slow early response were noted. PMID:26740851

  11. Fast-response cloud chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Wall structure keeps chambers at constant, uniform temperature, yet allows them to be cooled rapidly if necessary. Wall structure, used in fast-response cloud chamber, has surface heater and coolant shell separated by foam insulation. It is lightweight and requires relatively little power.

  12. Dispersion of Responses over Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingsporn, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a procedure for testing hypotheses regarding the dispersion of responses distributed over taxa that uses the distribution of the number of cells that are empty or are singly occupied. Presents a table showing the number of cases needed to achieve 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 significance for excessive numbers of empty cells. (SLD)

  13. Culturally Responsive Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdal-Haqq, Ismat

    A widely held view of multicultural curricula sees them as strategies for improving academic performance and enhancing self-esteem among students whose racial, ethnic or language heritage differs from that of the Anglo-European population. There are others, however, who hold the view that culturally responsive curricula benefit all students. A…

  14. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Case, Eldon D.

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  15. Comparative Education: Challenge and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P.; Altbach, Philip G.

    1986-01-01

    Examines research reported in major books and journals of comparative education since 1977, focusing on challenges to established research traditions and the field's responses. Highlights work directing attention to new subjects of inquiry and challenging the nation-state as the exclusive research framework, input-output models and dominant…

  16. Parenting: Responsibilities, Risks and Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Professor Carol Vincent gets the 2012 Professorial Lecture series underway with a thought provoking talk drawing on research projects conducted over the last twelve years. The lecture will explore factors identified in current policy, media, and other social and political forums as the risks and responsibilities of contemporary parenting, with a…

  17. Ebola: is the response justified?

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hannah; Chaudry, Aisha; Ndow, Gibril; Crossey, Mary ME; Garside, Debbie; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever, first discovered in 1976 in Sudan, where the outbreak infected over 284 people with a 53% case fatality ratio. There have been 34 further epidemics, the current major incident in West Africa having recorded more cases and deaths than all previous outbreaks combined. To date there have been over 27, 000 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11,000 reported deaths in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. With total funding and pledges to help control the outbreak amounting to more than US$2.4billion, many question how the disease has continued to spread in Sierra Leone and Guinea Conakry, and whether the response to the outbreak has been justified. This article aims to analyze the effectiveness of the responses to the outbreak in terms of economic, social, cultural and, to an extent, political impact. We argue that the response has been justified due to the awareness raised, the infrastructure and staffing improvements, the success in receiving financial aid and the minimal spread to other countries outside the main transmission zone. Despite this, some failures in communication and a slow early response were noted. PMID:26740851

  18. Competence and responsibility in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gross, G; Huber, G

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the historical background it is shown that the classical doctrine on responsibility in schizophrenia has left its mark on the wordings of the psychiatric textbooks of the different countries. Closely combined with the imputation of enduring irresponsibility in schizophrenia was the opinion that civil rights are largely suspended if a person is given the diagnosis of schizophrenia. By the more recent research results of the studies of course and long-term outcome of schizophrenia and related psychoses and the development of the basic symptom concept has shown that it is not justified on principle to summarily deprive a person, diagnosed as schizophrenia, of civil rights as well as of criminal responsibility. New directions and some guidelines for an adequate assessment of competence and responsibility in schizophrenia are described. The knowledge of the newer findings and the application and utilization of the concept of basic symptoms and non-psychotic basic stages enable to overcome the doctrines of incurability, principle heterogeneity and numinous singularity and may lead to a rather appropriate and adequate social appreciation of the disease. Insight, freedom, responsibility, and competence of a person diagnosed as schizophrenia are in the postpsychotic pure residues and basic stages much more frequently preserved and available than hitherto assumed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  20. Information Science and Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive evaluation builds upon the methods of informal evaluation in disciplined ways: getting personally acquainted with the evaluand, observation of activities, interviewing people who are in different ways familiar with the evaluand, searching documents that reveal what happened in the past or somewhere else. It calls for sustained effort to…

  1. Electronic Citizenship and Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bergen, Marilyn

    1993-01-01

    Discusses access to information technology and technological change; examines the culture that has grown up around computers; discusses previous military funding of academic computing and the need to change focus; describes the use of computers to promote equity and access; and considers the Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for Electronic…

  2. Public Assistance, Rights and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Community Action Training Inst., Trenton.

    Based primarily on two official manuals of the Division of Public Welfare of the New Jersey Department of Institutions and Agencies, this handbook on public assistance rights and responsibilities can be used as a training manual for community action workers, and as a reference book for such workers and for those eligible for public assistance.…

  3. Responsibility for the Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard T.

    1970-01-01

    Critically analyzes the thesis of Christian responsibility for the ecological crisis and leads to its rejection. Present day environmental misuse results from greed, carelessness, and ignorance." Advocates ecological strategy of corrective action, with supplementary theological strategy" for church-influenced citizens. (AL)

  4. Response to "Back to Basics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Doug

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a response to Andrew McMartin's article "Back to Basics: Meditations on Quality vs. Quantity in Outdoor Education." In considering quality vs. quantity in outdoor education it is still important from the author's perspective to be conscious of one's viewpoint. He has taught and run trips from a survival…

  5. Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, James F.; Maynard, William S.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the possible implications of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for employee expectations and satisfactions. Specifically, interest centered on the question of how perceptions of an organization's involvement in the resolution of current societal problems might relate to members' expectations of equitable job rewards and…

  6. Adult Responses to Child Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teyber, Edward C.; And Others

    Oral responses of 180 male and female undergraduates to scenarios containing positive-loving, neutral-informational, and/or negative-rejecting (male) child communications were obtained and scored along 25 specific categories, as well as a global rating of acceptance/rejection of child. A factor analysis generated six factors, which, along with the…

  7. Realizing autonomy in responsive relationships

    PubMed Central

    Houtepen, Rob; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Widdershoven, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to augment the ethical discussion among nurses with the findings from empirical research on autonomy of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are many factors influencing autonomy. These include: health conditions, treatment, knowledge, experience and skills, personal approach as well as familial patterns, type of relationship, life history and social context. Fifteen older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were interviewed in a nurse-led diabetes clinic. These participants perceive three processes which support autonomy in responsive relationships: preserving patterns of concern and interaction, nurturing collaborative responsibilities and being closely engaged in trustful and helpful family relations. People with diabetes realize autonomy in various responsive relationships in their unique life context. Next, we performed a literature review of care ethics and caring in nursing with regard to relational autonomy. We classified the literature in five strands of care: attitude-oriented, dialogue-oriented, activity-oriented, relationship-oriented and life-oriented. According to our respondents, autonomy in responsive relationships is fostered when patient, nurses, professionals of the health team and family members carry out care activities supported by a relational attitude of care. They can best realize autonomy in relationships with others when several essential aspects of care and caring are present in their lives. Therefore, we advocate a comprehensive approach to care and caring. PMID:20339930

  8. Oil spill responses R D

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, F.R.; Nordvik, A.B.; Giammona, C.P.; Aurand, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC) was created as an industry response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The charter of MSRC includes as one of the primary functions the implementation of a spill response R D program to enhance future oil spill response decision-making. Funding for the program is provided largely by the Marine Preservation Association as part of an annual operating grant from that industry organization to MSRC. Research and development at MSRC is considered the key element in improving the future capability of MSRC and other oil spill responders. The major focus of the R D program is to advance knowledge and the technology needed to contain, clean up, and mitigate spills of persistent petroleum products in coastal and offshore waters while minimizing damage to marine and coastal resources and human health. The R D program is solidly in place today with more than 30 projects underway supporting more than $10 million targeted for research. By the end of 1994, more than 60 contracts will have been activated, and the results of many of these projects will be published.

  9. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…

  10. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  11. Changing Breton Responses to Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badone, Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Based on fieldwork conducted in Brittany, France, during 1983 and 1984, discusses changes in Breton responses to death which have accompanied modernization and economic development. Suggests that familiarity with death and acceptance of it are being replaced by the "denial of death" characteristic of contemporary Western culture. Notes parallel…

  12. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility. PMID:19847671

  13. Talking about Israel: 3 Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Alan Wolfe's article "Free Speech, Israel, and Jewish Illiberalism" prompted numerous responses on The Chronicle's online discussion forum. The essay commented on the debate that erupted following the Polish Consulate's decision to cancel a speech by the scholar Tony Judt--allegedly prompted by protests over his critical views of Israel from the…

  14. Organismal Responses to Hypoxemic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Robert S; Dehghani, Gholam A; Kiihl, Samara

    2015-01-01

    As a counterpoint to the volumes of beautiful work exploring how the carotid bodies (CBs) sense and transduce stimuli into neural traffic, this study explored one organismal reflex response to such stimulation. We challenged the anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cat with two forms of acute hypoxemia: 10 % O(2)/balance N(2) (hypoxic hypoxia [HH] and carbon monoxide hypoxia [COH]). HH stimulates both CBs and aortic bodies (ABs), whereas COH stimulates only the ABs. Our design was to stimulate both with HH (HHint), then to stimulate only the ABs with COH (COHint); then, after aortic depressor nerve transaction, only the CBs with HH (HHabr), and finally neither with COH (COHabr). We recorded whole animal responses from Group 1 cats (e.g., cardiac output, arterial blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure/and vascular resistance) before and after sectioning the aortic depressor nerves. From Group 2 cats (intact) and Group 3 cats (aortic body resected) we recorded the vascular resistance in several organs (e.g., brain, heart, spleen, stomach, pancreas, adrenal glands, eyes). The HHint challenge was the most effective at keeping perfusion pressures adequate to maintain homeostasis in the face of a systemic wide hypoxemia with locally mediated vasodilation. The spleen and pancreas, however, showed a vasoconstrictive response. The adrenals and eyes showed a CB-mediated vasodilation. The ABs appeared to have a significant impact on the pulmonary vasculature as well as the stomach. Chemoreceptors via the sympathetic nervous system play the major role in this organism's response to hypoxemia. PMID:26303472

  15. Reading Response Journals via Email.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Colleen

    This study discusses the successes and failures that resulted when fifth grade students used email to compose response journals. Every student was required to send at least one email a week to the teacher describing and reacting to the novel they were reading independently. The teacher would respond each evening. The study was conducted in an…

  16. Immune responses to resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Freidenreich, Daniel J; Volek, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Resistance exercise induces changes in leukocyte redistribution, phenotypical surface expression and leukocyte functionality. Several factors have been shown to alter the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of response including manipulation of acute program variables, the aging process, and nutritional supplementation. Rest period length and load can modify the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of leukocytosis post exercise. Aging diminishes both the duration and magnitude of the post exercise leukocytosis and reduces leukocyte functionality. The few studies that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements (e.g., carbohydrate, whey protein, caffeine) peri-resistance exercise showed minimal effects on leukocyte responses. Sex differences exist in the timing and magnitude of leukocyte infiltration into skeletal muscle. The immune response to resistance exercise is only a small part of the recovery paradigm. A better understanding of how acute program variables and other factors such as aging, sex and nutritional supplementation affect the immune response to resistance exercise is important in the context of improving recovery, performance and health.

  17. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  18. Reader Response in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Charles, Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on reader response in the classroom, the works collected in this book represent the results of a five-week summer institute in which 25 middle school, high school, and college teachers studied the principles and applications of literature instruction. The following essays are included: an introduction by G. Garber; "An Overview of the…

  19. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment. PMID:27052306

  20. Program Evaluation Particularly Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author talks about some recent developments in the methodology of program evaluation and about what he calls "responsive evaluation." He discusses two models for program evaluation, namely (1) informal study or self-study; and (2) the pretest/posttest model. Then, he describes an approach that he has been working on, which will…

  1. Online Course Evaluations Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Faruk; Malliaris, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the reasons for low response rates in online evaluations. Survey data are collected from the students to understand factors that might affect student participation in the course evaluation process. When course evaluations were opened to the student body, an email announcement was sent to all students, and a reminder email was…

  2. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.

  3. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  4. EVOLUTION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Papermaster, Ben W.; Condie, Richard M.; Finstad, Joanne; Good, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    1. The California hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii, seems to be completely lacking in adaptive immunity: it forms no detectable circulating antibody despite intensive stimulation with a range of antigens; it does not show reactivity to old tuberculin following sensitization with BCG; and gives no evidence of homograft immunity. 2. Studies on the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, have been limited to the response to bacteriophage T2 and hemocyanin in small groups of spawning animals. They suggest that the lamprey may have a low degree of immunologic reactivity. 3. One holostean, the bowfin (Amia calva) and the guitarfish (Rhinobatos productus), an elasmobranch, showed a low level of primary response to phage and hemocyanin. The response is slow and antibody levels low. Both the bowfin and the guitarfish showed a vigorous secondary response to phage, but neither showed much enhancement of reactivity to hemocyanin in the secondary response. The bowfin formed precipitating antibody to hemocyanin, but the guitarfish did not. Both hemagglutinating and precipitating antibody to hemocyanin were also observed in the primary response of the black bass. 4. The bowfin was successfully sensitized to Ascaris antigen, and lesions of the delayed type developed after challenge at varying intervals following sensitization. 5. The horned shark (Heterodontus franciscii) regularly cleared hemocyanin from the circulation after both primary and secondary antigenic stimulation, and regularly formed hemagglutinating antibody, but not precipitating antibody, after both primary and secondary stimulation with this antigen. These animals regularly cleared bacteriophage from the circulation after both the primary and secondary stimulation with bacteriophage T2. Significant but small amounts of antibody were produced in a few animals in the primary response, and larger amounts in the responding animals after secondary antigenic stimulation. 6. Studies by starch gel and immunoelectrophoresis show that

  5. Fast response liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yung-Hsun

    Liquid crystal (LC) has been widely used for displays, spatial light modulators, variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and other tunable photonic devices. The response time of these devices is mainly determined by the employed liquid crystal material. The response time of a LC device depends on the visco-elastic coefficient (gamma1/K11), LC cell gap (d), and applied voltage. Hence, low visco-elastic coefficient LC materials and thinner cell gap are favorable for reducing the response time. However, low visco-elastic coefficient LCs are usually associated with a low birefringence because of shorter molecular conjugation. For display applications, such as LCD TVs, low birefringence (Deltan<0.1) LCs are commonly used. However, for optical communications at 1550 nm, low birefringence requires to a thick cell gap which, in turn, increases the response time. How to obtain fast response for the LC devices is a fundamentally important and technically challenging task. In this dissertation, we investigate several methods to improve liquid crystal response time, for examples, using dual-frequency liquid crystals, polymer stabilized liquid crystals, and sheared polymer network liquid crystals. We discover a new class of material, denoted as sheared polymer network liquid crystal (SPNLC) which exhibits a submillisecond response time. Moreover, this response time is insensitive to the LC cell gap. This is the first LC device exhibiting such an interesting property. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the motivation and background of this dissertation. From chapter 3 to chapter 6, dual-frequency liquid crystals and polymer network methods are demonstrated as examples for the variable optical attenuators. Variable optical attenuator (VOA) is a key component in optical communications. Especially, the sheared PNLC VOA shows the best result; its dynamic range reaches 43 dB while the response time is in the submillisecond range at 1550 nm wavelength, which is 50 times faster than the commercial

  6. Responsiveness, Sensitivity, and Minimally Detectable Difference of the Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension, Version 1.0.

    PubMed

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Beaton, Dorcas; Ahn, Henry; Askes, Heather; Drew, Brian; Curt, Armin; Popovic, Milos R; Wang, Justin; Verrier, Mary C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    As spinal cord injury (SCI) trials begin to involve subjects with acute cervical SCI, establishing the property of an upper limb outcome measure to detect change over time is critical for its usefulness in clinical trials. The objectives of this study were to define responsiveness, sensitivity, and minimally detectable difference (MDD) of the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension (GRASSP). An observational, longitudinal study was conducted. International Standards of Neurological Classification of SCI (ISNCSCI), GRASSP, Capabilities of Upper Extremity Questionnaire (CUE-Q), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) were administered 0-10 days, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-injury. Standardized Response Means (SRM) for GRASSP and ISNCSCI measures were calculated. Longitudinal construct validity was calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. Smallest real difference for all subtests was calculated to define the MDD values for all GRASSP subtests. Longitudinal construct validity demonstrated GRASSP and all external measures to be responsive to neurological change for 1 year post-injury. SRM values for the GRASSP subtests ranged from 0.25 to 0.85 units greater than that for ISNCSCI strength and sensation, SCIM-SS, and CUE-Q. MDD values for GRASSP subtests ranged from 2-5 points. GRASSP demonstrates good responsiveness and excellent sensitivity that is superior to ISNCSCI and SCIM III. MDD values are useful in the evaluation of interventions in both clinical and research settings. The responsiveness and sensitivity of GRASSP make it a valuable condition-specific measure in tetraplegia, where changes in upper limb neurological and functional outcomes are essential for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. PMID:26560017

  7. Covariate-adjusted response-adaptive designs for binary response.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, W F; Vidyashankar, A N; Agarwal, D K

    2001-11-01

    An adaptive allocation design for phase III clinical trials that incorporates covariates is described. The allocation scheme maps the covariate-adjusted odds ratio from a logistic regression model onto [0, 1]. Simulations assume that both staggered entry and time to response are random and follow a known probability distribution that can depend on the treatment assigned, the patient's response, a covariate, or a time trend. Confidence intervals on the covariate-adjusted odds ratio is slightly anticonservative for the adaptive design under the null hypothesis, but power is similar to equal allocation under various alternatives for n = 200. For similar power, the net savings in terms of expected number of treatment failures is modest, but enough to make this design attractive for certain studies where known covariates are expected to be important and stratification is not desired, and treatment failures have a high ethical cost.

  8. Responses to patronizing communication and factors that attenuate those responses.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Jessica A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate younger (n = 52, ages 18-24) and older (n = 69, ages 61-98) adults' responses to patronizing communication in terms of (a) performance on a cognitive task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) and (b) physiological responses (i.e., change in cortisol levels), as well as factors that may attenuate those responses. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions for the task using either a patronizing or nonpatronizing speech style. Participants also completed a measure of attitudes about aging and the quantity/quality of their intergenerational interaction. Older adults (relative to younger adults) were found to be more reactive to the patronizing speech style in terms of their performance on the task as well as the change in their cortisol levels. Older adults who had more positive attitudes about aging as well as more positive intergenerational interactions were protected from the performance deficits as a result of patronizing speech style. These findings could be used to inform social programs aimed at reducing age-based stigma and improving the life course outcomes of our aging population. PMID:26146886

  9. Excessive Response-Repetition Costs under Task Switching: How Response Inhibition Amplifies Response Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzyb, Kai Robin; Hubner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The size of response-repetition (RR) costs, which are usually observed on task-switch trials, strongly varies between conditions with univalent and bivalent stimuli. To test whether top-down or bottom-up processes can account for this effect, we assessed in Experiment 1 baselines for univalent and bivalent stimulus conditions (i.e., for stimuli…

  10. Radiative forcing and climate response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.

    1997-03-01

    We examine the sensitivity of a climate model to a wide range of radiative forcings, including changes of solar irradiance, atmospheric CO2, O3, CFCs, clouds, aerosols, surface albedo, and a "ghost" forcing introduced at arbitrary heights, latitudes, longitudes, seasons, and times of day. We show that, in general, the climate response, specifically the global mean temperature change, is sensitive to the altitude, latitude, and nature of the forcing; that is, the response to a given forcing can vary by 50% or more depending upon characteristics of the forcing other than its magnitude measured in watts per square meter. The consistency of the response among different forcings is higher, within 20% or better, for most of the globally distributed forcings suspected of influencing global mean temperature in the past century, but exceptions occur for certain changes of ozone or absorbing aerosols, for which the climate response is less well behaved. In all cases the physical basis for the variations of the response can be understood. The principal mechanisms involve alterations of lapse rate and decrease (increase) of large-scale cloud cover in layers that are preferentially heated (cooled). Although the magnitude of these effects must be model-dependent, the existence and sense of the mechanisms appear to be reasonable. Overall, we reaffirm the value of the radiative forcing concept for predicting climate response and for comparative studies of different forcings; indeed, the present results can help improve the accuracy of such analyses and define error estimates. Our results also emphasize the need for measurements having the specificity and precision needed to define poorly known forcings such as absorbing aerosols and ozone change. Available data on aerosol single scatter albedo imply that anthropogenic aerosols cause less cooling than has commonly been assumed. However, negative forcing due to the net ozone change since 1979 appears to have counterbalanced 30

  11. Modulating macrophage response to biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Toral

    Macrophages recruited to the site of biomaterial implantation are the primary mediators of the chronic foreign body response to implanted materials. Since foreign body response limits performance and functional life of numerous implanted biomaterials/medical devices, various approaches have been investigated to modulate macrophage interactions with biomaterial surfaces to mitigate this response. In this work we have explored two independent approaches to modulate the macrophage inflammatory response to biomaterials. The first approach targets surface integrins, cell surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion to biomaterials through adhesive proteins spontaneously adsorbed on biomaterial surfaces. The second approach involves surface modification of biomaterials using nanotopographic features since nanotopography has been reported to modulate cell adhesion and viability in a cell type-dependent manner. More specifically, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface was investigated for its role in modulating macrophage adhesion and survival in vitro and foreign body response in vivo. For the first approach, we have investigated the role of integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins in the in-vivo osteolysis response and macrophage inflammatory processes of phagocytosis as well as inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to particulate biomaterials. We have also investigated the in vivo foreign body response (FBR) to subcutaneously implanted biomaterials by evaluating the thickness of fibrous capsule formed around the implants after 2 weeks of implantation. The role of Mac-1 integrin was isolated using a Mac-1 KO mouse and comparing it to a WT control. The role of RGD binding integrins in FBR was investigated by coating the implanted biomaterial with ELVAX(TM) polymer loaded with Echistatin which contains the RGD sequence. For the in-vivo osteolysis study and to study the in-vitro macrophage response to particulate biomaterials, we used the RGD peptide encapsulated in ELVAX

  12. 5 CFR 838.123 - Claimants' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Claimants' responsibilities. 838.123 Section 838.123 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Responsibilities § 838.123 Claimants' responsibilities. Claimants are responsible for— (a) Filing a certified...

  13. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  14. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  15. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  16. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  17. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  18. 32 CFR 268.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 268.4 Section 268.4 National... COLLECTING AND REPORTING OF FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 268.4 Responsibilities..., or is otherwise assigned responsibility, is responsible for taking initial collection...

  19. 48 CFR 201.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 201.602... Authority, and Responsibilities 201.602-2 Responsibilities. (d) Follow the procedures at PGI 201.602-2 regarding designation, assignment, and responsibilities of a contracting officer's representative (COR)....

  20. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  1. 32 CFR 290.6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 290.6 Section 290.6 National... Responsibilities. (a) Headquarters. (1) The Assistant Director, Resources is responsible for: (i) The overall... Advisor, as required, in the discharge of their responsibilities. (iv) Coordinating Freedom of...

  2. 43 CFR 3480.0-6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 3480.0-6 Section 3480.0... Exploration and Mining Operations Rules: General § 3480.0-6 Responsibilities. (a) Responsibilities of other Federal Agencies—(1) Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. The responsibility...

  3. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  4. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  5. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  6. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  7. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  8. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  9. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  10. 32 CFR 327.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 327.3 Section 327.3 National... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 327.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Director, DeCA. (1... requests received and prepares documentation to the office of primary responsibility (OPR) for response....

  11. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  12. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  13. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  14. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  15. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  16. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.903 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities. 1274.903 Section 1274.903... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.903 Responsibilities. Responsibilities July 2002 (a.... NASA and the Recipient agree to the following Responsibilities, a statement of cooperative...

  18. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  19. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  20. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  1. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  2. 32 CFR 700.802 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility. 700.802 Section 700.802 National... Officers in General § 700.802 Responsibility. (a) The responsibility of the commanding officer for his or... with his or her responsibility. While the commanding officer may, at his or her discretion, and...

  3. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  4. 43 CFR 3480.0-6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 3480.0-6 Section 3480.0... Exploration and Mining Operations Rules: General § 3480.0-6 Responsibilities. (a) Responsibilities of other Federal Agencies—(1) Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. The responsibility...

  5. 31 CFR 92.16 - Written response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written response. 92.16 Section 92.16... States Mint § 92.16 Written response. (a) Form and contents. (1) The written response submitted by a... person named in the Initial Notice of Assessment is filing the written response, a copy of the...

  6. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  7. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  8. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  9. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  10. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  11. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  12. 25 CFR 700.507 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Deputy Ethics Official in accordance with 5 CFR 738.202(b). Responsibilities of these officials are... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibilities. 700.507 Section 700.507 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.507 Responsibilities. (a) Office of the Commission and Office of...

  13. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  14. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  15. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  16. 30 CFR 582.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 582.12 Section 582... Responsibilities of Director § 582.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  17. 30 CFR 582.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 582.12 Section 582... Responsibilities of Director § 582.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  18. 30 CFR 582.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 582.12 Section 582... Responsibilities of Director § 582.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  19. 30 CFR 282.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 282.12 Section 282... Responsibilities of Director § 282.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  20. Moderated regression analysis and Likert scales: too coarse for comfort.

    PubMed

    Russell, C J; Bobko, P

    1992-06-01

    One of the most commonly accepted models of relationships among three variables in applied industrial and organizational psychology is the simple moderator effect. However, many authors have expressed concern over the general lack of empirical support for interaction effects reported in the literature. We demonstrate in the current sample that use of a continuous, dependent-response scale instead of a discrete, Likert-type scale, causes moderated regression analysis effect sizes to increase an average of 93%. We suggest that use of relatively coarse Likert scales to measure fine dependent responses causes information loss that, although varying widely across subjects, greatly reduces the probability of detecting true interaction effects. Specific recommendations for alternate research strategies are made. PMID:1601825

  1. Modelling hormonal response and development☆

    PubMed Central

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin–cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges. PMID:24630843

  2. War, peace and professional responsibility.

    PubMed

    Cassel, C K

    1983-01-01

    The technology of modern weapons, especially nuclear weapons, poses a critical threat to the health of all people. In addition to the unprecedented risk of massive destruction to living things and to the ecosphere, the resources used in production of these arsenals cause an economic threat to the health of populations even if the weapons are never used. Medical and social scientists have a responsibility to work for the prevention of nuclear war and the reversal of the arms race. This may imply an obligation to work towards the prevention of war in general. Professional responsibility in this regard is based on (1) special expertise, (2) influence in society and (3) the symbolic power of the values of life, health and human dignity.

  3. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  4. Response to Roger W. Hunt.

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    A response to a critique by Roger W. Hunt of my views on the eventual likely need to use age as a standard for the allocation of expensive, high-technology, life-extending medical care for the elderly. The response encompasses three elements: 1. that while the elderly have a substantial claim to publicly-provided health care, it cannot be an unlimited claim; 2. that a health care system which provided a decent, coherent set of medical and social services for the elderly would be sufficient, even if some limits had to be set; and 3. allocation and rationing decisions should not be made by individual doctors at the bedside but by regional or national policy. PMID:11643099

  5. Pharmacogenetics of Response to Statins

    PubMed Central

    Zineh, Issam

    2016-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. On average, statins improve lipid profiles and have been shown to have ancillary beneficial effects on inflammation, platelet activity, and endothelial function. However, variability in drug response exists regardless of the measured phenotype, and genetic variability may be a contributing factor. Recently, there has been an interesting shift in statin pharmacogenetic studies. Novel study designs have been employed and nontraditional candidate genes have been investigated in relation to both lipid and nonlipid responses to statins. This review outlines earlier pharmacogenetic studies and highlights newly published findings that expand on previous work. Furthermore, a framework is provided in which the necessary next steps in research are described, with the ultimate goal of translating pharmacogenetic findings into clinically meaningful changes in patient care. PMID:18241612

  6. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other.

  7. Response thresholds in bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Lele, Pushkar P; Shrivastava, Abhishek; Roland, Thibault; Berg, Howard C

    2015-10-01

    Stimulation of Escherichia coli by exponential ramps of chemoattractants generates step changes in the concentration of the response regulator, CheY-P. Because flagellar motors are ultrasensitive, this should change the fraction of time that motors spin clockwise, the CWbias. However, early work failed to show changes in CWbias when ramps were shallow. This was explained by a model for motor remodeling that predicted plateaus in plots of CWbias versus [CheY-P]. We looked for these plateaus by examining distributions of CWbias in populations of cells with different mean [CheY-P]. We did not find such plateaus. Hence, we repeated the work on shallow ramps and found that motors did indeed respond. These responses were quantitatively described by combining motor remodeling with ultrasensitivity in a model that exhibited high sensitivities over a wide dynamic range. PMID:26601280

  8. Thermal response based item identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. K.; Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems in NDA of nuclear materials is identifying the chemical form of the nuclear material and the surrounding matrix. Recent work analyzing the calorimeter response of sources embedded in a variety of matrices has led to a possible solution to this problem. The wide range of thermal time constants exhibited by typical matrix materials lends itself to permitting the differentiation between materials, based on time constants extracted from the measured response. Potential applications include simple item identification, item fingerprinting as part of shipper-receiver measurements, and distinguishing between Pu metal and Pu oxide as required under certain proposed attribute measurements. The results of applying this technique to a variety of items will be presented and discussed.

  9. Electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    Vazifeh, M M; Franz, M

    2013-07-12

    It has been suggested recently, based on subtle field-theoretical considerations, that the electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals and the closely related Weyl insulators can be characterized by an axion term θE·B with space and time dependent axion angle θ(r,t). Here we construct a minimal lattice model of the Weyl medium and study its electromagnetic response by a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. We confirm the existence of the anomalous Hall effect expected on the basis of the field theory treatment. We find, contrary to the latter, that chiral magnetic effect (that is, ground state charge current induced by the applied magnetic field) is absent in both the semimetal and the insulator phase. We elucidate the reasons for this discrepancy.

  10. RORSCHACH SPACE RESPONSES AND ANGER.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Anna Maria; Chiorri, Carlo; Denevi, Simona

    2015-08-01

    In this study, three different subtypes of Space responses to the Rorschach test were hypothesized: S-fusion, S-reversal, and S-integration. The relationship between these subtypes and feelings of anger and aggression was investigated. The Rorschach test, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) were administered to 50 university students. Scores on the STAXI-2 were positively associated with S-fusion and negatively associated with S-integration. No significant associations of S subtypes with aggression were found. The findings support the hypothesis that different figure-ground relationships, shown in the subtypes of S responses, indicate different psychological processes. PMID:26107109

  11. The human auditory evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Figures are presented of computer-averaged auditory evoked responses (AERs) that point to the existence of a completely endogenous brain event. A series of regular clicks or tones was administered to the ear, and 'odd-balls' of different intensity or frequency respectively were included. Subjects were asked either to ignore the sounds (to read or do something else) or to attend to the stimuli. When they listened and counted the odd-balls, a P3 wave occurred at 300msec after stimulus. When the odd-balls consisted of omitted clicks or tone bursts, a similar response was observed. This could not have come from auditory nerve, but only from cortex. It is evidence of recognition, a conscious process.

  12. Dynamic response of aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The physical and mathematical problems associated with the response of elastic structures to random excitations such as occurs during buffeting and other transonic phenomena were discussed. The following subjects were covered: (1) general dynamic system consisting of the aircraft structure, the aerodynamic driving forces due to separated flow, and the aerodynamic forces due to aircraft structural motion, (2) structural and aerodynamic quantities of the dynamic system with special emphasis given to the description of the aerodynamic forces, and including a treatment of similarity laws, scaling effects, and wind tunnel testing, and (3) methods for data processing of fluctuating pressure recordings and techniques for response analysis for random excitation. A general buffeting flutter model, which takes into account the interactions between the separated and motion induced flows was presented. Relaxations of this model leading to the forced vibration model were explained.

  13. Fixing responsibility for risk management.

    PubMed

    Maniccia, M D

    2000-01-01

    The responsibility for carrying financial risk for medical coverage has migrated from individuals to insurers to employers to providers, without finding a satisfactory home. Each shift further complicates the health care infrastructure, as other responsibilities in the management of benefits and provision of care gravitate to the stakeholder who accepts risk. The social imperative to broaden coverage is forcing a change in the mechanisms of risk management--from avoiding high-risk patients, to managing those patients to better outcomes. In this paper we seek to identify objectively the most appropriate party to carry the financial risk of medical coverage, consider what characteristics are necessary to make that a practical and enduring solution, and examine the secondary effects of the structure required to support that solution.

  14. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  15. Disaster response. Natural disaster: Katrina.

    PubMed

    McSwain, Norman E

    2010-07-01

    The aftermath and response to a disaster can be divided into four phases. The importance of each depends on the length of time without resupply and the resources that are required. This in turn depends on the time span of the disaster; the area involved; the number of the population affected; the resupply available; the extent of the devastation; and the size of the evacuation. The above phases are discussed using hurricane Katrina as an example. The phases are as follows: immediate response, evacuation, backfill and resupply, and restoration. The restoration phase is usually the longest and requires the most resources. This article addresses the situation of Katrina, the mistakes that were made, the lessons that were learned, and the solutions that are needed. Appropriate training and practice are required for all participants using realistic scenarios.

  16. Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code

    1991-11-20

    The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) is a real-time emergency response modeling capability designed to advise Emergency Managers of the path, timing, and projected impacts from an atmospheric release. TRAC evaluates the effects of both radiological and non-radiological hazardous substances, gases and particulates. Using available surface and upper air meteorological information, TRAC realistically treats complex sources and atmospheric conditions, such as those found in mountainous terrain. TRAC calculates atmospheric concentration, deposition, and dose for more thanmore » 25,000 receptor locations within 80 km of the release point. Human-engineered output products support critical decisions on the type, location, and timing of protective actions for workers and the public during an emergency.« less

  17. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. PMID:24182391

  18. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  19. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  20. Peripheral nerve response to injury.

    PubMed

    Steed, Martin B

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons caring for patients who have sustained a nerve injury to a branch of the peripheral trigeminal nerve must possess a basic understanding of the response of the peripheral nerves to trauma. The series of events that subsequently take place are largely dependent on the injury type and severity. Regeneration of the peripheral nerve is possible in many instances and future manipulation of the regenerative microenvironment will lead to advances in the management of these difficult injuries.

  1. Structural response and input identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, G. D.; Callahan, J. C.; Mcelman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Three major goals were delineated: (1) to develop a general method for determining the response of a structure to combined base and acoustic random excitation: (2) to develop parametric relationships to aid in the design of plates which are subjected to random force or random base excitation: (3) to develop a method to identify the individual acoustic and base input to a structure with only a limited number of measurement channels, when both types of excitation act simultaneously.

  2. Pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive drug response.

    PubMed

    Kreutz, Reinhold

    2004-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a discipline of molecular medicine that investigates the genetic basis of individual variation of drug responses. Before the era of the human genome project and the subsequent progress in genomic research, this field was primarily restricted to the investigation of the genetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes as they account for individual differences in pharmacokinetics and tolerability of drugs. In the current genomic era, pharmacogenetic research is applied to all fields of drug treatment in clinical medicine, including hypertension research. In contrast to the traditional approach, however, the influence of individual genetic variation on the efficacy of a drug (ie, the pharmacodynamic response) is the major focus of pharmacogenetic research and its clinical applicability. Therefore, the identification of individual genetic variation influencing the blood pressure-lowering effect of an antihypertensive compound and the implementation of this knowledge into clinical practice is the major goal of pharmacogenetic research in the field of hypertension. In this article, some important, recent research work and progress on the pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive drug responses are reviewed and evaluated. PMID:14972084

  3. Mechanical Response of Cytoskeletal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gardel, Margaret L.; Kasza, Karen E.; Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Liu, Jiayu; Weitz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of filamentous proteins, consisting of filamentous actin (F-actin), microtubules, and intermediate filaments. However, these networks are not simple linear, elastic solids; they can exhibit highly nonlinear elasticity and athermal dynamics driven by ATP-dependent processes. To build quantitative mechanical models describing complex cellular behaviors, it is necessary to understand the underlying physical principles that regulate force transmission and dynamics within these networks. In this chapter, we review our current understanding of the physics of networks of cytoskeletal proteins formed in vitro. We introduce rheology, the technique used to measure mechanical response. We discuss our current understanding of the mechanical response of F-actin networks, and how the biophysical properties of F-actin and actin cross-linking proteins can dramatically impact the network mechanical response. We discuss how incorporating dynamic and rigid microtubules into F-actin networks can affect the contours of growing microtubules and composite network rigidity. Finally, we discuss the mechanical behaviors of intermediate filaments. PMID:19118688

  4. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  5. Method for improving instrument response

    DOEpatents

    Hahn, David W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Johnsen, Howard A.; Flower, William L.

    2000-01-01

    This invention pertains generally to a method for improving the accuracy of particle analysis under conditions of discrete particle loading and particularly to a method for improving signal-to-noise ratio and instrument response in laser spark spectroscopic analysis of particulate emissions. Under conditions of low particle density loading (particles/m.sup.3) resulting from low overall metal concentrations and/or large particle size uniform sampling can not be guaranteed. The present invention discloses a technique for separating laser sparks that arise from sample particles from those that do not; that is, a process for systematically "gating" the instrument response arising from "sampled" particles from those responses which do not, is dislosed as a solution to his problem. The disclosed approach is based on random sampling combined with a conditional analysis of each pulse. A threshold value is determined for the ratio of the intensity of a spectral line for a given element to a baseline region. If the threshold value is exceeded, the pulse is classified as a "hit" and that data is collected and an average spectrum is generated from an arithmetic average of "hits". The true metal concentration is determined from the averaged spectrum.

  6. Immune Responses in Hookworm Infections

    PubMed Central

    Loukas, Alex; Prociv, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Hookworms infect perhaps one-fifth of the entire human population, yet little is known about their interaction with our immune system. The two major species are Necator americanus, which is adapted to tropical conditions, and Ancylostoma duodenale, which predominates in more temperate zones. While having many common features, they also differ in several key aspects of their biology. Host immune responses are triggered by larval invasion of the skin, larval migration through the circulation and lungs, and worm establishment in the intestine, where adult worms feed on blood and mucosa while injecting various molecules that facilitate feeding and modulate host protective responses. Despite repeated exposure, protective immunity does not seem to develop in humans, so that infections occur in all age groups (depending on exposure patterns) and tend to be prolonged. Responses to both larval and adult worms have a characteristic T-helper type 2 profile, with activated mast cells in the gut mucosa, elevated levels of circulating immunoglobulin E, and eosinoophilia in the peripheral blood and local tissues, features also characteristic of type I hypersensitivity reactions. The longevity of adult hookworms is determined probably more by parasite genetics than by host immunity. However, many of the proteins released by the parasites seem to have immunomodulatory activity, presumably for self-protection. Advances in molecular biotechnology enable the identification and characterization of increasing numbers of these parasite molecules and should enhance our detailed understanding of the protective and pathogenetic mechanisms in hookworm infections. PMID:11585781

  7. Responses to creativity in psychoanalysts.

    PubMed

    Langs, R

    A discussion of "Concerning Transference and Countertransference" by Harold Searles, M.D. Searles's study, written and rejected for publication in 1948-49 contains six original contributions to these subjects. They include the definition of determinants of transference in the immediate analytic interaction, the role of projection in transference and its evocation by the analyst, its basis in actual traits of the analyst which are exaggerated, and its expression as an effort to elicit confirmatory responses. Searles also details the fullness of the analyst's participation in the therapeutic interaction and the constructive usage of countertransference reactions. The negative responses to Searles's creativity prompt the thesis that every professional has a wish to both accept and destroy the innovator and his innovations. Factors include envy, a dread of inner turmoil, impingements on countertransference defenses, and deviations in the conditions of training analysts. These reactions are paralleled by refractoriness to the patient's unconscious creativity and efforts to cure the analyst. The manifestations of these hostile reactions and the innovator's responses to them are discussed.

  8. Smart Buildings and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2011-11-01

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  9. Plant Responses to Rarified Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.; Fowler, Philip A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2000-01-01

    Reduced atmospheric pressures will likely be used to minimize mass and engineering requirements for plant growth habitats used in extraterrestrial applications. This report provides a brief survey of key literature related to responses of plants to atmospheric variables and a broad rationale for designing minimal atmospheres for future plant growth structures on the Martian surface. The literature and recent work suggest that atmospheric pressure limits for normal plant function are likely to be 10 kPa or perhaps slightly lower. At Kennedy Space Center, a chamber with high vacuum capability was used to design and begin construction of a system for testing plant responses to reduced pressure atmospheres. A test rack with lighting provided by 3, high-pressure sodium vapor lamps was built to conduct measurements of short-term plant responses. Initial experiments with lettuce showed that a pressure of 10 kPa resulted in a 6.1-fold increase in the rate of water loss compared to water loss at ambient pressure (101 kPa).

  10. The Science of Climate Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Sparrow, S.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme events linked with human induced climate change have now been reported around the globe. Among the most troublesome impacts are increased wild fires, failed crop yields, extreme flooding and increase human mortality (Hansen and Cramer, 2015). Many of these impacts are predicted to increase into the future. Non-industrialised communities around the world will be the least capable of adapting, while the industrial communities, who are often responsible for historical carbon emissions, will find adaptation easier. Such a situation lends itself to the issue of responsibility. In order to assess responsibility, it must first be established where the major carbon and methane emissions are originating. It must then be estimated how these emissions project onto localised climate, which is often the primary indicator behind impacts on society. In this study, we address this question using a 25 km regional climate model capable of simulating climate thousands of times under the Weather@home citizen science project. The use of this framework allows us to generate huge data sample sizes, which can be put in the context of very low sample sizes of observational data. We concentrate on the 2003 heat wave over Europe, but show how this method could be applied to less data rich regions, including the Middle East and the Horn of Africa.

  11. Response bias in plaintiffs' histories.

    PubMed

    Lees-Haley, P R; Williams, C W; Zasler, N D; Marguilies, S; English, L T; Stevens, K B

    1997-11-01

    This study investigated response bias in self-reported history of factors relevant to the assessment of traumatic brain injury, toxic brain injury and related emotional distress. Response bias refers to systematic error in self-report data. A total of 446 subjects (comprising 131 litigating and 315 non-litigating adults from five locations in the United States) completed a symptom questionnaire. Data were obtained from university faculty and students, from patients in clinics specializing in physiatry neurology, and family medicine, and from plaintiffs undergoing forensic neuropsychological evaluations. Comparisons were made for litigant and non litigant ratings of their past and current cognitive and emotional functioning, including life in general, ability to concentrate, memory, depression, anxiety, alcohol, drugs, ability to work or attend school, irritability, headaches, confusion, self-esteem, and fatigue. Although there is no basis for hypothesizing plaintiffs to be healthier than the general population, plaintiffs rated their pre-injury functioning superior to non-plaintiffs. These findings suggest that response biases need to be taken into account by forensic examiners when relying on litigants' self-reports of pre-injury status.

  12. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  13. Prospective Study of FLT PET for Early Interim Response Assessment in Advanced Stage B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Schöder, Heiko; Zelenetz, Andrew D.; Hamlin, Paul; Gavane, Somali; Horwitz, Steven; Matasar, Matthew; Moskowitz, Alison; Noy, Ariela; Palomba, Lia; Portlock, Carol; Straus, David; Grewal, Ravinder; Migliacci, Jocelyn C.; Larson, Steven M.; Moskowitz, Craig H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Current clinical and imaging tools remain suboptimal for early assessment of prognosis and treatment response in aggressive lymphomas. Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) can be used to measure tumor cell proliferation and treatment response. In a prospective study in patients with advanced stage B-cell lymphoma we investigated the prognostic and predictive value of FLT PET in comparison to standard imaging with FDG PET and clinical outcome. Patients and Methods 65 patients were treated with an induction/consolidation regimen consisting of four cycles of R-CHOP-14 followed by 3 cycles of ICE. FLT PET was performed at baseline and at interim (iPET) after 1–2 cycles of therapy. FDG PET was performed at baseline, after cycle 4, and at the end of therapy. The relationship between PET findings, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was investigated. Results With a median follow-up of 51 months, PFS and OS were 71% and 86% respectively. FLT iPET, analyzed visually, using a 5-point score, or semi-quantitatively, using SUV and ΔSUV, predicted both PFS and OS (p<0.01 for all parameters). Residual FLT SUVmax on iPET was associated with an inferior PFS (HR: 1.26, p=0.001) and OS (HR: 1.27, p=0.002). Using FDG PET, findings in the end of treatment scan were better predictors of PFS and OS than findings on interim scan. Baseline PET imaging parameters, including SUV, proliferative or metabolic tumor volume, did not correlate with outcome. Conclusion FLT PET after 1–2 cycles of chemotherapy predicts PFS and OS, and a negative FLT iPET may potentially help design risk-adapted therapies in patients with aggressive lymphomas. In contrast, the positive predictive value of FLT iPET remains too low to justify changes in patient management. PMID:26719374

  14. A mixture hierarchical model for response times and response accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Xu, Gongjun

    2015-11-01

    In real testing, examinees may manifest different types of test-taking behaviours. In this paper we focus on two types that appear to be among the more frequently occurring behaviours – solution behaviour and rapid guessing behaviour. Rapid guessing usually happens in high-stakes tests when there is insufficient time, and in low-stakes tests when there is lack of effort. These two qualitatively different test-taking behaviours, if ignored, will lead to violation of the local independence assumption and, as a result, yield biased item/person parameter estimation. We propose a mixture hierarchical model to account for differences among item responses and response time patterns arising from these two behaviours. The model is also able to identify the specific behaviour an examinee engages in when answering an item. A Monte Carlo expectation maximization algorithm is proposed for model calibration. A simulation study shows that the new model yields more accurate item and person parameter estimates than a non-mixture model when the data indeed come from two types of behaviour. The model also fits real, high-stakes test data better than a non-mixture model, and therefore the new model can better identify the underlying test-taking behaviour an examinee engages in on a certain item. PMID:25873487

  15. Bearing response-ability: theater, ethics and medical education.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Kate

    2012-03-01

    This paper addresses a growing concern within the medical humanities community regarding the perceived need for a more empathically-focused medical curricula, and advocates for the use of creative pedagogical forms as a means to attend to issues of suffering and relationality. Drawing from the ethical philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas, I critique the notion of empathy on the basis that it erases difference and disregards otherness. Rather, I propose that the concept of empathy may be usefully replaced with that of ethical responsibility, which suggests a shared sense of humanity outside the boundaries of presumed knowledge of the other. To illustrate this argument, I theorize the importance of theater within medical education. Theater, I argue, may engender ethical responsibility in the Levinasian sense, and thus may allow learners to differently engage with the experience of the suffering other. As such, I examine Margaret Edson's widely used play Wit as a platform for such an ethical encounter to occur. Thus, rather than working to understand the value of theater in medical education in terms of knowledge and skill acquisition, I theorize that its primacy within medical curricula arises from its ethical/relational potential, or potential to engender new forms of inter-human relationality.

  16. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    SciTech Connect

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  17. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2’s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 PMID:27159240

  18. Beyond Responsible Conduct: Taking Responsibility for the Responsible Conduct of Others

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Richard; Schneeweis, David M.; Hitsman, Brian; Daniels, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    A unique Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) course was created for Ph.D., M.D., and M.D./Ph.D. postdoctoral fellows and junior faculty at Northwestern University, some of whom had prior RCR training and some of whom did not. The unique feature of the course is its dual focus on learning the core elements of RCR and preparing participants for being responsible for guiding and monitoring RCR behaviors of others. These more advanced but still junior scientists are at a key junction where they are beginning to mentor and supervise others. A second unique element is a required conversation on at least two RCR topics with their current mentors, with a short written report, modeling explicit conversations about RCR prospectively. Overall response has been very positive with a high level of engagement. Formal and informal evaluation feedback reveals how participants see the value of the course and how it has shaped how they intend to guide others in the future. An important goal of the course is to also position high quality RCR and RCR training within the research environment, not just the classroom. PMID:25574255

  19. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliott, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one’s social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  20. Are patients morally responsible for their errors?

    PubMed

    Buetow, S; Elwyn, G

    2006-05-01

    Amid neglect of patients' contribution to error has been a failure to ask whether patients are morally responsible for their errors. This paper aims to help answer this question and so define a worthy response to the errors. Recent work on medical errors has emphasised system deficiencies and discouraged finding people to blame. We scrutinize this approach from an incompatibilist, agent causation position and draw on Hart's taxonomy of four senses of moral responsibility: role responsibility; capacity responsibility; causal responsibility; and liability responsibility. Each sense is shown to contribute to an overall theoretical judgment as to whether patients are morally responsible for their errors (and success in avoiding them). Though how to weight the senses is unclear, patients appear to be morally responsible for the avoidable errors they make, contribute to or can influence. PMID:16648274