Science.gov

Sample records for 5-point scale ranging

  1. The Response Scale for the Intellectual Disability Module of the WHOQOL: 5-Point or 3-Point?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, J.; Fleck, M. P.; Green, A.; McVilly, K.; Hao, Y.; Tan, W.; Fu, R.; Power, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To deal with the question of whether a 5-point response Likert scale should be changed to a 3-point scale when used in the field testing of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs), which was raised after the pilot study of World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-DIS, a module being developed with the World Health…

  2. Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Chi-Wing Fu, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range is a computer program for rendering fly-through views of scene models that include visible objects differing in size by large orders of magnitude. An example would be a scene showing a person in a park at night with the moon, stars, and galaxies in the background sky. Prior graphical computer programs exhibit arithmetic and other anomalies when rendering scenes containing objects that differ enormously in scale and distance from the viewer. The present program dynamically repartitions distance scales of objects in a scene during rendering to eliminate almost all such anomalies in a way compatible with implementation in other software and in hardware accelerators. By assigning depth ranges correspond ing to rendering precision requirements, either automatically or under program control, this program spaces out object scales to match the precision requirements of the rendering arithmetic. This action includes an intelligent partition of the depth buffer ranges to avoid known anomalies from this source. The program is written in C++, using OpenGL, GLUT, and GLUI standard libraries, and nVidia GEForce Vertex Shader extensions. The program has been shown to work on several computers running UNIX and Windows operating systems.

  3. Medium range flood forecasts at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, N.; Wood, A. W.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Wood, E. F.

    2006-12-01

    average surface air temperature (with temperature ranges adjusted to a station-based climatology). In the retrospective forecasting mode, VIC is driven by global NCEP ensemble 15-day reforecasts provided by Tom Hamill (NOAA/ERL), bias corrected with respect to the adjusted ERA40 data and further downscaled spatially using higher spatial resolution Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 1dd daily precipitation. Downward solar and longwave radiation, surface relative humidity, and other model forcings are derived from relationships with the daily temperature range during both the retrospective (spinup) and forecast period. The initial system is implemented globally at one-half degree spatial resolution. We evaluate model performance retrospectively for predictions of major floods for the Oder River in 1997, the Mekong River in 2000 and the Limpopo River in 2000.

  4. Evidence of range bias in contingent valuation payment scales.

    PubMed

    Whynes, David K; Wolstenholme, Jane L; Frew, Emma

    2004-02-01

    The payment scale format has been widely used in willingness-to-pay studies in health care. Concerns have been expressed that the format is, in theory, prone to range bias, although this proposition has not been tested directly. We report the findings of a contingent valuation questionnaire study of colorectal cancer screening, wherein different subjects were provided with payment scales of two different lengths. Whilst the long-scale instrument included scale values up to pound 1000, the short-scale version extended only to pound 100. After controlling for inter-sample differences in, for example, income, education and health behaviour, it emerged that the long-scale instrument produced a mean willingness to pay more than 30% higher than that resulting from the short-scale version. We believe our findings to be strongly supportive of the likelihood of range bias in payment-scale instruments, with important consequences for the estimation of both average valuation and consumer surplus.

  5. Inertial Range Scaling in Rotations of Long Rods in Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Greg; Parsa, Shima

    2013-11-01

    We measure the rotational statistics of neutrally buoyant rods with lengths 2 . 8 < l / η < 72 . 9 in turbulence. For particles with length in the inertial range, we derive a scaling relationship for the mean square rotation rate, <ṗiṗi > ~l - 4 / 3 and show that measurements approach this scaling. Deviations from the proposed scaling are explained as the effect of dissipation range scales. The correlation time of the Lagrangian autocorrelation of rod rotation rate scales as the turn over time of eddies of the size of the rod. Measuring rotational dynamics of single long rods provides a new way to access the dynamics of turbulence at fixed spatial scale in a frame advected with the flow. Supported by NSF grant DMR-1208990.

  6. Scaling range of power laws that originate from fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grech, Dariusz; Mazur, Zygmunt

    2013-05-01

    We extend our previous study of scaling range properties performed for detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) [Physica A0378-437110.1016/j.physa.2013.01.049 392, 2384 (2013)] to other techniques of fluctuation analysis (FA). The new technique, called modified detrended moving average analysis (MDMA), is introduced, and its scaling range properties are examined and compared with those of detrended moving average analysis (DMA) and DFA. It is shown that contrary to DFA, DMA and MDMA techniques exhibit power law dependence of the scaling range with respect to the length of the searched signal and with respect to the accuracy R2 of the fit to the considered scaling law imposed by DMA or MDMA methods. This power law dependence is satisfied for both uncorrelated and autocorrelated data. We find also a simple generalization of this power law relation for series with a different level of autocorrelations measured in terms of the Hurst exponent. Basic relations between scaling ranges for different techniques are also discussed. Our findings should be particularly useful for local FA in, e.g., econophysics, finances, or physiology, where the huge number of short time series has to be examined at once and wherever the preliminary check of the scaling range regime for each of the series separately is neither effective nor possible.

  7. Scaling range of power laws that originate from fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed

    Grech, Dariusz; Mazur, Zygmunt

    2013-05-01

    We extend our previous study of scaling range properties performed for detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) [Physica A 392, 2384 (2013)] to other techniques of fluctuation analysis (FA). The new technique, called modified detrended moving average analysis (MDMA), is introduced, and its scaling range properties are examined and compared with those of detrended moving average analysis (DMA) and DFA. It is shown that contrary to DFA, DMA and MDMA techniques exhibit power law dependence of the scaling range with respect to the length of the searched signal and with respect to the accuracy R^{2} of the fit to the considered scaling law imposed by DMA or MDMA methods. This power law dependence is satisfied for both uncorrelated and autocorrelated data. We find also a simple generalization of this power law relation for series with a different level of autocorrelations measured in terms of the Hurst exponent. Basic relations between scaling ranges for different techniques are also discussed. Our findings should be particularly useful for local FA in, e.g., econophysics, finances, or physiology, where the huge number of short time series has to be examined at once and wherever the preliminary check of the scaling range regime for each of the series separately is neither effective nor possible.

  8. Scale insect host ranges are broader in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Nate B; Peterson, Daniel A; Normark, Benjamin B

    2015-12-01

    The specificity of the interactions between plants and their consumers varies considerably. The evolutionary and ecological factors underlying this variation are unclear. Several potential explanatory factors vary with latitude, for example plant species richness and the intensity of herbivory. Here, we use comparative phylogenetic methods to test the effect of latitude on host range in scale insects. We find that, on average, scale insects that occur in lower latitudes are more polyphagous. This result is at odds with the general pattern of greater host-plant specificity of insects in the tropics. We propose that this disparity reflects a high cost for host specificity in scale insects, stemming from unusual aspects of scale insect life history, for example, passive wind-driven dispersal. More broadly, the strong evidence for pervasive effects of geography on host range across insect groups stands in stark contrast to the weak evidence for constraints on host range due to genetic trade-offs.

  9. Short Range Correlations, Inclusive Electron-Nucleus Scattering, and Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Donal

    2008-10-13

    The presence of high momentum components in the nuclear wavefunction has been of great interest for many years. Unfortunately high momentum components, associated with the short range correlations (SRC), have been difficult to isolate unambiquously. Inclusive electron scattering cross sections in the quasielastic region have been measured over a wide range of energy and momentum transfers from very light to very heavy nuclei and the scaling analyses of these data can provide useful information on the presence of SRCs and more.

  10. Scaling registration of multiview range scans via motion averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jihua; Zhu, Li; Jiang, Zutao; Li, Zhongyu; Li, Chen; Zhang, Fan

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional modeling of scene or object requires registration of multiple range scans, which are obtained by range sensor from different viewpoints. An approach is proposed for scaling registration of multiview range scans via motion averaging. First, it presents a method to estimate overlap percentages of all scan pairs involved in multiview registration. Then, a variant of iterative closest point algorithm is presented to calculate relative motions (scaling transformations) for these scan pairs, which contain high overlap percentages. Subsequently, the proposed motion averaging algorithm can transform these relative motions into global motions of multiview registration. In addition, it also introduces the parallel computation to increase the efficiency of multiview registration. Furthermore, it presents the error criterion for accuracy evaluation of multiview registration result, which can make it easy to compare results of different multiview registration approaches. Experimental results carried out with public available datasets demonstrate its superiority over related approaches.

  11. Anisotropy, inhomogeneity and inertial-range scalings in turbulent convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, François

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a detailed study of turbulent statistics and scale-by-scale budgets in turbulent Rayleigh Bénard convection. It aims at testing the applicability of Kolmogorov and Bolgiano theories in the case of turbulent convection and at improving the understanding of the underlying inertial-range scalings, for which a general agreement is still lacking. Particular emphasis is laid on anisotropic and inhomogeneous effects, which are often observed in turbulent convection between two differentially heated plates. For this purpose, the SO(3) decomposition of structure functions and a method of description of inhomogeneities are used to derive inhomogeneous and anisotropic generalizations of Kolmogorov and Yaglom equations applying to Rayleigh Bénard convection, which can be extended easily to other types of anisotropic and/or inhomogeneous flows. The various contributions to these equations are computed in and off the central plane of a convection cell using data produced by a direct numerical simulation of turbulent Boussinesq convection at Ra {=} 10(6) and Pr {=} 1 with aspect ratio A {=} 5. The analysis of the isotropic part of the Kolmogorov equation demonstrates that the shape of the third-order velocity structure function is significantly influenced by buoyancy forcing and large-scale inhomogeneities, while the isotropic part of the mixed third-order structure function <(Deltatheta)(2Deltavec{u}>) appearing in the Yaglom equation exhibits a clear scaling exponent 1 in a small range of scales. The magnitudes of the various low ℓ degree anisotropic components of the equations are also estimated and are shown to be comparable to their isotropic counterparts at moderate to large scales. The analysis of anisotropies notably reveals that computing reduced structure functions (structure functions computed at fixed depth for correlation vectors boldsymbol{r} lying in specific planes only) in order to reveal scaling exponents predicted by isotropic theories

  12. The remarkable wide range spatial scaling of TRMM precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Allaire, V. C.

    2008-10-01

    The advent of space borne precipitation radar has opened up the possibility of studying the variability of global precipitation over huge ranges of scale while avoiding many of the calibration and sparse network problems which plague ground based rain gage and radar networks. We studied 1176 consecutive orbits of attenuation-corrected near surface reflectivity measurements from the TRMM satellite PR instrument. We find that for well-measured statistical moments (orders 0 < q < 2) corresponding to radar reflectivities with dBZ < 57 and probabilities > 10 - 6 , that the residuals with respect to a pure scaling (power law) variability are remarkably low: ± 6.4% over the range 20,000 km down to 4.3 km. We argue that higher order moments are biased due to inadequately corrected attenuation effects. When a stochastic three — parameter universal multifractal cascade model is used to model both the reflectivity and the minimum detectable signal of the radar (which was about twice the mean), we find that we can explain the same statistics to within ± 4.6% over the same range. The effective outer scale of the variability was found to be 32,000 ± 2000 km. The fact that this is somewhat larger than the planetary scale (20,000 km) is a consequence of the residual variability of precipitation at the planetary scales. With the help of numerical simulations we were able to estimate the three fundamental parameters as α ≈ 1.5, C1 = 0.63 ± 0.02 and H = 0.00 ± 0.01 (the multifractal index, the codimension of the mean and the nonconservation parameter respectively). There was no error estimate on α since although α = 1.5 was roughly the optimum value, this conclusion depended on assumptions about the instrument at both low and high reflectivities. The value H = 0 means that the reflectivity can be modeled as a pure multiplicative process, i.e. that the reflectivity is conserved from scale to scale. We show that by extending the model down to the inner "relaxation scale

  13. The remarkable wide range spatial scaling of TRMM precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel, J.; Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Allaire, V.

    2007-12-01

    The advent of space borne precipitation radar has opened up the possibility of studying the variability of global precipitation over huge ranges of scale while avoiding many of the calibration and sparse network problems which plague ground based rain gage and radar networks. We studied 1176 consecutive orbits of attenuation- corrected near surface reflectivity measurements from the TRMM satellite PR instrument. We find that for well- measured statistical moments (orders 0 < q < 2) corresponding to dBZ < 57 and probabilities > 10**-6, that the residuals with respect to a pure scaling (power law) variability are remarkably low: to within 6.4 percent over the range 20,000 km down to 4.3 km. We argue that higher order moments are biased due to inadequately corrected attenuation effects. When a stochastic three - parameter universal multifractal cascade model is used to model both the reflectivity and the minimum detectable signal of the radar (which was about twice the mean), we find that we can explain all the same statistics to within 4.6 percent over the same range. The effective outer scale of the variability was found to be 32,000 +- 2000 km. The fact that this is somewhat larger than the planetary scale (20,000 km) is a consequence of the residual variability of precipitation at the planetary scales. With the help of numerical simulations we were able to estimate the three fundamental parameters as alpha = 1.5, C1 = 0.63 +- 0.02 and H = 0.00 +- 0.01 (the multifractal index, the codimension of the mean and the nonconservation parameter respectively). There was no error estimate on α since although alpha = 1.5 was roughly the optimum value, this conclusion depended on assumptions about the instrument at both low and high reflectivities. The value H = 0 means that the reflectivity can be modeled as a pure multiplicative process, i.e. that the reflectivity is conserved from scale to scale. We show that by extending the model down to the inner "relaxation scale

  14. Long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rongguo; Yan, Guozheng; Zhang, Wenqiang; Wang, Long

    2008-11-01

    The long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities under normal physiological conditions are studied by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The DFA is an effective period representation with a single quantitative scaling exponent α to accurately quantify long-range correlations naturally presented in a complex non-stationary time series. The method shows that the colonic activities of the healthy subjects exhibit long-range power-law correlations; however such correlations either will be destroyed if we randomly shuffle the original data or will cease to be of a power-law form if we chop some high-amplitude spikes off. These facts indicate that the colonic tissue or enteric nervous system (ENS) with a good functional motility has a good memory to its past behaviours and generates well-organized colonic spikes; however such good memory becomes too long to be remembered for the colonic activity of the slow transit constipation (STC) patient and colonic dysmotility occurs.

  15. Position, Scale, and Rotation Invariant Target Recognition Using Range Imagery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    will have no affect on the magnitude portion. This is very nice for mak- ing the space shift invariant, but, it runs a great risk if this space is...well when looking for a pattern in a scene that doesn’t contain a great deal of rapidly changing noise. Two problems make this unsuitable for...correlation with range data. First, most laser range data contains a great deal of rapidly changing noise in such things as trees and bushes. Second, since

  16. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size

    PubMed Central

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Jones, Ian D.; Maberly, Stephen C.; French, Jon R.; Livingstone, David M.; Monteith, Donald T.; Simpson, Gavin L.; Thackeray, Stephen J.; Andersen, Mikkel R.; Battarbee, Richard W.; DeGasperi, Curtis L.; Evans, Christopher D.; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P.; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C.; Rusak, James A.; Ryves, David B.; Scott, Daniel R.; Shilland, Ewan M.; Smyth, Robyn L.; Staehr, Peter A.; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored. PMID:27023200

  17. Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size.

    PubMed

    Woolway, R Iestyn; Jones, Ian D; Maberly, Stephen C; French, Jon R; Livingstone, David M; Monteith, Donald T; Simpson, Gavin L; Thackeray, Stephen J; Andersen, Mikkel R; Battarbee, Richard W; DeGasperi, Curtis L; Evans, Christopher D; de Eyto, Elvira; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Hamilton, David P; Kernan, Martin; Krokowski, Jan; Rimmer, Alon; Rose, Kevin C; Rusak, James A; Ryves, David B; Scott, Daniel R; Shilland, Ewan M; Smyth, Robyn L; Staehr, Peter A; Thomas, Rhian; Waldron, Susan; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored.

  18. Long range laser propagation: power scaling and beam quality issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper will address long range laser propagation applications where power and, in particular beam quality issues play a major role. Hereby the power level is defined by the specific mission under consideration. I restrict myself to the following application areas: (1)Remote sensing/Space based LIDAR, (2) Space debris removal (3)Energy transmission, and (4)Directed energy weapons Typical examples for space based LIDARs are the ADM Aeolus ESA mission using the ALADIN Nd:YAG laser with its third harmonic at 355 nm and the NASA 2 μm Tm:Ho:LuLiF convectively cooled solid state laser. Space debris removal has attracted more attention in the last years due to the dangerous accumulation of debris in orbit which become a threat to the satellites and the ISS space station. High power high brightness lasers may contribute to this problem by partially ablating the debris material and hence generating an impulse which will eventually de-orbit the debris with their subsequent disintegration in the lower atmosphere. Energy transmission via laser beam from space to earth has long been discussed as a novel long term approach to solve the energy problem on earth. In addition orbital transfer and stationkeeping are among the more mid-term applications of high power laser beams. Finally, directed energy weapons are becoming closer to reality as corresponding laser sources have matured due to recent efforts in the JHPSSL program. All of this can only be realized if he laser sources fulfill the necessary power requirements while keeping the beam quality as close as possible to the diffraction limited value. And this is the rationale and motivation of this paper.

  19. What determines variation in home range size across spatiotemporal scales in a large browsing herbivore?

    PubMed

    van Beest, Floris M; Rivrud, Inger M; Loe, Leif E; Milner, Jos M; Mysterud, Atle

    2011-07-01

    1. Most studies of intraspecific variation in home range size have investigated only a single or a few factors and often at one specific scale. However, considering multiple spatial and temporal scales when defining a home range is important as mechanisms that affect variation in home range size may differ depending on the scale under investigation. 2. We aim to quantify the relative effect of various individual, forage and climatic determinants of variation in home range size across multiple spatiotemporal scales in a large browsing herbivore, the moose (Alces alces), living at the southern limit of its distribution in Norway. 3. Total home range size and core home range areas were estimated for daily to monthly scales in summer and winter using both local convex hull (LoCoH) and fixed kernel home range methods. Variance in home range size was analysed using linear mixed-effects models for repeated measurements. 4. Reproductive status was the most influential individual-level factor explaining variance in moose home range size, with females accompanied by a calf having smaller summer ranges across all scales. Variation in home range size was strongly correlated with spatiotemporal changes in quantity and quality of natural food resources. Home range size decreased with increasing browse density at daily scales, but the relationship changed to positive at longer temporal scales. In contrast, browse quality was consistently negatively correlated with home range size except at the monthly scale during winter when depletion of high-quality forage occurs. Local climate affected total home range size more than core areas. Temperature, precipitation and snow depth influenced home range size directly at short temporal scales. 5. The relative effects of intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of variation in home range size differed with spatiotemporal scale, providing clear evidence that home range size is scale dependent in this large browser. Insight into the behavioural

  20. Species richness, hotspots, and the scale dependence of range maps in ecology and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hurlbert, Allen H.; Jetz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Most studies examining continental-to-global patterns of species richness rely on the overlaying of extent-of-occurrence range maps. Because a species does not occur at all locations within its geographic range, range-map-derived data represent actual distributional patterns only at some relatively coarse and undefined resolution. With the increasing availability of high-resolution climate and land-cover data, broad-scale studies are increasingly likely to estimate richness at high resolutions. Because of the scale dependence of most ecological phenomena, a significant mismatch between the presumed and actual scale of ecological data may arise. This may affect conclusions regarding basic drivers of diversity and may lead to errors in the identification of diversity hotspots. Here, we examine avian range maps of 834 bird species in conjunction with geographically extensive survey data sets on two continents to determine the spatial resolutions at which range-map data actually characterize species occurrences and patterns of species richness. At resolutions less than 2° (≈200 km), range maps overestimate the area of occupancy of individual species and mischaracterize spatial patterns of species richness, resulting in up to two-thirds of biodiversity hotspots being misidentified. The scale dependence of range-map accuracy poses clear limitations on broad-scale ecological analyses and conservation assessments. We suggest that range-map data contain less information than is generally assumed and provide guidance about the appropriate scale of their use. PMID:17686977

  1. Effect of large-scale intermittency and mean shear on scaling-range exponents in a turbulent jet.

    PubMed

    Mi, J; Antonia, R A

    2001-08-01

    The present study investigates the combined impact of the intermittency associated with the turbulent-nonturbulent interface and the mean shear rate in an axisymmetric jet on the structure of turbulence in the scaling range, where the spectrum exhibits a power-law behavior. Second-order structure functions, autocorrelations of the dissipation rate, and spectra of both the longitudinal velocity fluctuation and the passive temperature fluctuation are measured at a distance of 40 diameter downstream from the nozzle exit. All the scaling range exponents are influenced by the large-scale intermittency and the mean shear. The scalar fluctuation is much more sensitive to the variation in large-scale intermittency than the velocity fluctuation.

  2. A 240 GHZ Polarimetric Compact Range for Scale Model RCS Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    an ISAR measurement example. Keywords: Compact Range, Instrumentation, Millimeter- Wave, RCS Measurements, Scale Modeling, Terahertz. 1...including sample range profiles, and an overview of the calibration approach used. An ISAR image of a complex target is presented as sample data...side to produce a clean 27? FWHM quiet zone. In this paper a description of this 240 GHz compact range is provided along with an ISAR measurement example

  3. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure Arises during Range Expansion of an Invasive Gecko

    PubMed Central

    Short, Kristen Harfmann; Petren, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Processes of range expansion are increasingly important in light of current concerns about invasive species and range shifts due to climate change. Theoretical studies suggest that genetic structuring may occur during range expansion. Ephemeral genetic structure can have important evolutionary implications, such as propagating genetic changes along the wave front of expansion, yet few studies have shown evidence of such structure. We tested the hypothesis that genetic structure arises during range expansion in Hemidactylus mabouia, a nocturnal African gecko recently introduced to Florida, USA. Twelve highly variable microsatellite loci were used to screen 418 individuals collected from 43 locations from four sampling sites across Florida, representing a gradient from earlier (∼1990s) to very recent colonization. We found earlier colonized locations had little detectable genetic structure and higher allelic richness than more recently colonized locations. Genetic structuring was pronounced among locations at spatial scales of tens to hundreds of meters near the leading edge of range expansion. Despite the rapid pace of range expansion in this introduced gecko, dispersal is limited among many suitable habitat patches. Fine-scale genetic structure is likely the result of founder effects during colonization of suitable habitat patches. It may be obscured over time and by scale-dependent modes of dispersal. Further studies are needed to determine if such genetic structure affects adaptation and trait evolution in range expansions and range shifts. PMID:22053186

  4. A scaled mapping parabolic equation for sloping range-dependent environments.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Adam M; Moran, Daniel; Collis, Jon M; Martin, P A; Siegmann, William L

    2014-03-01

    Parabolic equation solutions use various techniques for approximating range-dependent interfaces. One is a mapping approach [M. D. Collins et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1937-1942 (2000)] where at each range the domain is vertically translated so that sloping bathymetry becomes horizontal, and range dependence is transferred to the upper surface. In this paper, a scaled mapping is suggested where the domain is vertically distorted so that both the bathymetry and upper surface are horizontal. Accuracy is demonstrated for problems involving fluid sediments. Generalizations of the approach should be useful for environments with layer thicknesses that vary with range.

  5. Multi-scale variability and long-range memory in indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios; Barbosa, Susana

    2014-05-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in the variations of indoor Radon concentrations has recently attracted considerable interest. As a radioactive gas naturally emitted from the ground in certain geological settings, understanding environmental factors controlling Radon concentrations and their dynamics is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we re-analyze two high-resolution records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements. In order to evaluate the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling, we utilize a multiplicity of complementary methods, including power spectral analysis, ARFIMA modeling, classical and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis, and two different estimators of the signals' fractal dimensions. Power spectra and fluctuation functions reveal some complex behavior with qualitatively different properties on different time-scales: white noise in the high-frequency part, indications of some long-range correlated process dominating time scales of several hours to days, and pronounced low-frequency variability associated with tidal and/or meteorological forcing. In order to further decompose these different scales of variability, we apply two different approaches. On the one hand, applying multi-resolution analysis based on the discrete wavelet transform allows separately studying contributions on different time scales and characterize their specific correlation and scaling properties. On the other hand, singular system analysis (SSA) provides a reconstruction of the essential modes of variability. Specifically, by considering only the first leading SSA modes, we achieve an efficient de-noising of our environmental signals, highlighting the low-frequency variations together with some distinct scaling on sub-daily time-scales resembling

  6. Power-law scaling and fractal nature of medium-range order in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Ma, D; Stoica, A D; Wang, X-L

    2009-01-01

    The atomic structure of metallic glasses has been a long-standing scientific problem. Unlike crystalline metals, where long-range ordering is established by periodic stacking of fundamental building blocks known as unit cells, a metallic glass has no long-range translational or orientational order, although some degrees of short- and medium-range order do exist. Previous studies have identified solute- (minority atom)-centred clusters as the fundamental building blocks or short-range order in metallic glasses. Idealized cluster packing schemes, such as efficient cluster packing on a cubic lattice and icosahedral packing as in a quasicrystal, have been proposed and provided first insights on the medium-range order in metallic glasses. However, these packing schemes break down beyond a length scale of a few clusters. Here, on the basis of neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments, we propose a new packing scheme-self-similar packing of atomic clusters. We show that the medium-range order has the characteristics of a fractal network with a dimension of 2.31, and is described by a power-law correlation function over the medium-range length scale. Our finding provides a new perspective of order in disordered materials and has broad implications for understanding their structure-property relationship, particularly those involving a change in length scales.

  7. STATISTICAL AND SCALING FEATURES OF FLUCTUATIONS IN THE DISSIPATION RANGE DURING A RECONNECTION EVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Consolini, G.; Grandioso, S.; Marcucci, M. F.; Pallocchia, G.; Yordanova, E.

    2015-05-01

    Reconnection events in space plasmas are accompanied by the occurrence of large-amplitude turbulent fluctuations of the magnetic and electric field, covering a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Here, we study the scaling and statistical features of magnetic and electric field fluctuations below the ion-gyroperiod (i.e., in the dissipation domain) by carefully investigating the occurrence of local or global scaling features during a reconnection event studied by Eastwood et al . Our results point toward the presence of a global scale invariance, i.e., a mono-fractal nature, of fluctuations above the ion-cyclotron frequency and at spatial scales near the ion-inertial length.

  8. Extension of continental lithosphere - A model for two scales of basin and range deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Parmentier, E. M.; Fletcher, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a model for deformation in an extending continental lithosphere that is stratified in density and strength is described. The lithosphere model demonstrates that the necking instabilities at two wavelengths originate due to a strong upper crust, a mantle layer, and a weak lower crust. It is observed that the dominant wavelengths of necking are controlled by layer thickness and the strength of the layers control the amplitude of the instabilities. The model is applied to the Basin and Range Province of the western U.S. where deformations in ranges and tile domains are detected. The relation between the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the deformations is studied. The data reveal that the horizontal scale of short wavelength necking correlates with the spacings of individual basins and ranges, and the longer wavelength corresponds to the width of tilt domains. The control of the Basin and Range deformation by two scales of extensional instability is proposed.

  9. New method of cross-range scaling of low-resolution radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenglin; Bao, Zheng

    2000-08-01

    Due to the ordinary low resolution radar can not distinguish the radar target in both range and azimuth. If we apply the technology of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) to resolve the difference among Doppler frequency of the scatters on the target, we can obtain a fine resolution cross-range image. The cross-range scale depends on both radar wavelength and rotating angle of target relative to radar-line-of-sight (RLOS) during the coherent accumulation. The former is known while the latter is difficult to determine especially in the case of ISAR. But we must investigate the method of cross- range scaling of low-resolution radar, as it is very important to radar target classification and recognition. In this paper, a new approach is proposed which is based on the principle of interferometric inverse synthetic aperture. We can calculate the phase difference of some scatters between two instant cross-range images by two antenna which are placed on one level, adding the range between the two radar and the range of the target, and then absolute cross ranges of some dominant scatters are obtained. We apply the proposed algorithm to the emulational data of two antennae. The processing results show that the proposed method is correct and effective.

  10. Range-wide wetland associations of the King Rail: A multi-scale approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glisson, Wesley J.; Conway, Courtney J.; Nadeau, Christopher P.; Borgmann, Kathi L.; Laxson, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    King Rail populations have declined and identifying wetland features that influence King Rail occupancy can help prevent further population declines. We integrated continent-wide marsh bird survey data with spatial wetland data from the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) to examine wetland features that influenced King Rail occupancy throughout the species’ range. We analyzed wetland data at 7 spatial scales to examine the scale(s) at which 68 wetland features were most strongly related to King Rail occupancy. Occupancy was most strongly associated with estuarine features and brackish and tidal saltwater regimes. King Rail occupancy was positively associated with emergent and scrub-shrub wetlands and negatively associated with forested wetlands. The best spatial scale for assessing King Rail occupancy differed among wetland features; we could not identify one spatial scale (among all wetland features) that best explained variation in occupancy. Future research on King Rail habitat that includes multiple spatial scales is more likely to identify the suite of features that influence occupancy. Our results indicate that NWI data may be useful for predicting occupancy based on broad habitat features across the King Rail’s range, which may help inform management decisions for this and other wetland-dependent birds.

  11. Global-scale relationships between colonization ability and range size in marine and freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Galli, Paolo; Montano, Simone; Seveso, Davide; Fattorini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Although fish range sizes are expected to be associated with species dispersal ability, several studies failed to find a clear relationship between range size and duration of larval stage as a measure of dispersal potential. We investigated how six characteristics of the adult phase of fishes (maximum body length, growth rate, age at first maturity, life span, trophic level and frequency of occurrence) possibly associated with colonization ability correlate with range size in both freshwater and marine species at global scale. We used more than 12 million point records to estimate range size of 1829 freshwater species and 10068 marine species. As measures of range size we used both area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Relationships between range size and species traits were assessed using Canonical Correlation Analysis. We found that frequency of occurrence and maximum body length had a strong influence on range size measures, which is consistent with patterns previously found (at smaller scales) in several other taxa. Freshwater and marine fishes showed striking similarities, suggesting the existence of common mechanisms regulating fish biogeography in the marine and freshwater realms.

  12. Long-range corrected density functional theory with linearly-scaled HF exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jong-Won; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2015-12-01

    Long-range corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) attracts many chemists' attentions as a quantum chemical method to be applied to large molecular system and its property calculations. However, the expensive time cost to evaluate the long-range HF exchange is a big obstacle to be overcome to be applied to the large molecular systems and the solid state materials. Upon this problem, we propose a linear-scaling method of the HF exchange integration, in particular, for the LC-DFT hybrid functional.

  13. Long-range corrected density functional theory with linearly-scaled HF exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jong-Won; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2015-12-31

    Long-range corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) attracts many chemists’ attentions as a quantum chemical method to be applied to large molecular system and its property calculations. However, the expensive time cost to evaluate the long-range HF exchange is a big obstacle to be overcome to be applied to the large molecular systems and the solid state materials. Upon this problem, we propose a linear-scaling method of the HF exchange integration, in particular, for the LC-DFT hybrid functional.

  14. Ranging and site fidelity in northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) over different temporal scales.

    PubMed

    José-Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Savini, Tommaso; Asensio, Norberto

    2015-08-01

    Space-use patterns are crucial to understanding the ecology, evolution, and conservation of primates, but detailed ranging data are scarce for many species, especially those in Southeast Asia. Researchers studying site fidelity to either home ranges or core areas have focused mainly on territorial species, whereas less information is available for non-territorial species. We analyzed the ranging patterns and site fidelity of one wild troop of northern pigtailed macaques over 16 months at different temporal scales. We used characteristic hull polygons in combination with spatial statistics to estimate home ranges and core areas. The total home range and core areas were 449 ha and 190 ha, respectively. Average daily path length was 2,246 m. The macaques showed a high defendabili--ty index according to the expected ranging of a non-territorial species in which movement does not theoretically permit the defense of a large territory. Overall, the study troop ranged more extensively than conspecific groups and closely related species studied elsewhere. These differences may reflect variable troop size, degree of terrestriality and habitat characteristics, but could also reflect methodological differences. The location, size and shape of home ranges and core areas, and extent of daily path lengths changed on a monthly basis resulting in low site fidelity between months. The macaques also showed clear shifts in the location of daily home ranges with low site fidelity scores between consecutive days. Daily home range and daily path length were related to seasonality, with greater values during the fruit-abundant period. Low site fidelity associated with lack of territoriality is consistent with macaques structuring their movement based on available food sources. However, ranging patterns and site fidelity can also be explained by macaques feeding on the move, a foraging strategy that hinders frequent and long visits to the same location.

  15. Dark matter, long-range forces, and large-scale structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1992-01-01

    If the dark matter in galaxies and clusters is nonbaryonic, it can interact with additional long-range fields that are invisible to experimental tests of the equivalence principle. We discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications of a long-range force coupled only to the dark matter and find rather tight constraints on its strength. If the force is repulsive (attractive), the masses of galaxy groups and clusters (and the mean density of the universe inferred from them) have been systematically underestimated (overestimated). We explore the consequent effects on the two-point correlation function, large-scale velocity flows, and microwave background anisotropies, for models with initial scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations and cold dark matter.

  16. Lagrangian reduction of search-range for large-scale unit commitment

    SciTech Connect

    Nieva, R.; India, A.; Guillen, I.

    1987-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the thermal unit commitment problem for Large-Scale Power Systems. A new approach capable of producing low-cost solutions in relatively short execution times is presented. The proposed technique applies Dynamic Programming in successive approximations. A reduced search-range is determined for each successive iteration by means of a Lagrangian technique. Results are given and discussed for very large and complex unit commitment problems.

  17. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 2; Advanced Treatment Impedance Models for High Frequency Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.; Kwan, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop improved models for the acoustic impedance of treatment panels at high frequencies, for application to subscale treatment designs. Effects that cause significant deviation of the impedance from simple geometric scaling are examined in detail, an improved high-frequency impedance model is developed, and the improved model is correlated with high-frequency impedance measurements. Only single-degree-of-freedom honeycomb sandwich resonator panels with either perforated sheet or "linear" wiremesh faceplates are considered. The objective is to understand those effects that cause the simple single-degree-of- freedom resonator panels to deviate at the higher-scaled frequency from the impedance that would be obtained at the corresponding full-scale frequency. This will allow the subscale panel to be designed to achieve a specified impedance spectrum over at least a limited range of frequencies. An advanced impedance prediction model has been developed that accounts for some of the known effects at high frequency that have previously been ignored as a small source of error for full-scale frequency ranges.

  18. Harmonizing the RR Lyrae and Clump Distance Scales-Stretching the Short Distance Scale to Intermediate Ranges?

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, P.

    2000-01-31

    I explore the consequences of making the RR Lyrae and clump giant distance scales consistent in the solar neighborhood, Galactic bulge and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). I employ two major assumptions: (1) that the absolute magnitude -metallicity, M{sub V}(RR) - [Fe/H], relation for RR Lyrae stars is universal, and (2) that absolute I-magnitudes of clump giants, M{sub I}(RC), in Baade's Window can be inferred from the local Hipparcos calibration of clump giants' magnitudes. A comparison between the solar neighborhood and Baade's Window sets M{sub V}(RR) at [Fe/H] = -1.6 in the range (0.59 {+-} 0.05, 0.70 {+-} 0.05), somewhat brighter than the statistical parallax solution. A comparison between Baade's Window and the LMC sets the M{sub I}{sup LMC}(RC) in the range (-0.33 {+-} 0.09, -0.53 {+-} 0.09). The distance modulus to the LMC is {mu}{sup LMC} {element_of} (18.24 {+-} 0.08, 18.44 {+-} 0.07). I argue that the currently available information slightly favors the short distance scale but is insufficient to select the correct solutions with high confidence.

  19. From fine-scale foraging to home ranges: a semivariance approach to identifying movement modes across spatiotemporal scales.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chris H; Calabrese, Justin M; Mueller, Thomas; Olson, Kirk A; Leimgruber, Peter; Fagan, William F

    2014-05-01

    Understanding animal movement is a key challenge in ecology and conservation biology. Relocation data often represent a complex mixture of different movement behaviors, and reliably decomposing this mix into its component parts is an unresolved problem in movement ecology. Traditional approaches, such as composite random walk models, require that the timescales characterizing the movement are all similar to the usually arbitrary data-sampling rate. Movement behaviors such as long-distance searching and fine-scale foraging, however, are often intermixed but operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. An approach that integrates the full sweep of movement behaviors across scales is currently lacking. Here we show how the semivariance function (SVF) of a stochastic movement process can both identify multiple movement modes and solve the sampling rate problem. We express a broad range of continuous-space, continuous-time stochastic movement models in terms of their SVFs, connect them to relocation data via variogram regression, and compare them using standard model selection techniques. We illustrate our approach using Mongolian gazelle relocation data and show that gazelle movement is characterized by ballistic foraging movements on a 6-h timescale, fast diffusive searching with a 10-week timescale, and asymptotic diffusion over longer timescales.

  20. Spinodals, scaling, and ergodicity in a threshold model with long-range stress transfer.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, C D; Klein, W; Rundle, J B

    1999-08-01

    We present both theoretical and numerical analyses of a cellular automaton version of a slider-block model or threshold model that includes long-range interactions. Theoretically we develop a coarse-grained description in the mean-field (infinite range) limit and discuss the relevance of the metastable state, limit of stability (spinodal), and nucleation to the phenomenology of the model. We also simulate the model and confirm the relevance of the theory for systems with long- but finite-range interactions. Results of particular interest include the existence of Gutenberg-Richter-like scaling consistent with that found on real earthquake fault systems, the association of large events with nucleation near the spinodal, and the result that such systems can be described, in the mean-field limit, with techniques appropriate to systems in equilibrium.

  1. Roughness of fault surfaces over a length-scale range from nano- to milimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, M.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takahashi, M.; Hirose, T.

    2014-12-01

    Fault-surface roughness is one of the primary factors affecting the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting. We report on the topographic roughness measurements on two natural fault surfaces with a continuous length-scale range from 1 nm to 3 mm. The fault surfaces observed in this study include (1) the Corona Heights fault in the Castro Area of San Francisco, detail microstructures reported by Kirkpatrick et al., (2013), and (2) the Itozawa fault in Fukushima prefecture, a fault moved just after the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake. To measure fault surface to we performed line-measurements both parallel and perpendicular to the slickenlines using two scanner devices; a confocal white-light scanning microscope (measurable range: 0.15 ˜ 3000 μm) and a scanning probe microscope (1 ˜ 50000 nm). The topographic properties of the measured surfaces were expressed either as a Hurst exponent (H) which are calculated from Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of topography data. The measurements revealed that the Corona Heights fault and the Itozawa fault exhibit a similar geometrical property, a linear behavior on a log-log plot where axes are PSD and spatial length scale. A slope of the log-log plot, H, of the Corona Heights fault and the Itozawa fault shows HN = 0.76 ± 0.01 perpendicular to the slickenslide and HP = 0.84 ± 0.01 parallel to it, and HN = 0.88 ± 0.01 and HP = 0.91 ± 0.01, respectively. The measurements on both faults show HP are higher than HN, which is inconsistent with previous results that HP is small compared to HN because surface roughness in the slip direction becomes less pronounced selectively with progressive displacement. (e.g., Sagy et al., 2007). There is a hypotheses that explain the difference that HP and HN are undifferentiated with displacement in the length-scale range from 1 nm to 3 mm. Candela et al., (2012) measured roughness of 13 earthquake fault surfaces and suggested that the fault geometry can be expressed as a single

  2. Measurements of inertial range scaling in rotations of rigid particles in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Greg; Cole, Brendan; Kramel, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    We measure the rotation rate of 3D-printed particles with sizes spanning the inertial range in a turbulent flow between oscillating grids. Tetrads, composed of four slender rods in tetrahedral symmetry, and triads, three slender rods in triangular planar symmetry, are tracked in a flow with Rλ = 156 and Rλ = 214 using four high-speed cameras. Tetrads rotate like spheres and triads rotate like disks. Measurements of tetrads' solid body rotation rates as a function of particle size are direct measurements of the coarse-grained vorticity and provide a new way to measure inertial range scaling in turbulent flows. We observe Kolmogorov scaling for the mean square solid body rotation rate of tetrads, <Ω2 > r - 4 / 3 , extending earlier work on rods by Parsa and Voth to particles that do not experience preferential orientation. The theory is extended to higher moments and intermittent scaling, but experiments do not yet resolve intermittency corrections. For triads, the solid-body rotation rate is preferentially aligned with the particle orientation, and we find that the preferential alignment of these large planar particles is quite different than was previously observed for small tracer disks. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1508575.

  3. Optical measurement and scaling of blasts from gram-range explosive charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargather, Michael J.; Settles, Gary S.

    2007-12-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments with gram-range explosive charges are presented. Optical shadowgraphy and high-speed digital imaging are used to measure the explosive-driven shock-wave position as a function of time. From this, shock Mach number-versus-distance from the explosion center can be found. These data then yield the peak overpressure and duration, which are the key parameters in determining the potential damage from an explosion as well as the TNT equivalent of the explosive. Piezoelectric pressure gage measurements of overpressure duration at various distances from the explosive charges compare well with theoretical calculations. A scaling analysis yields an approach to relate the gram-range blast to a large-scale blast from the same or different explosives. This approach is particularly suited to determining the properties and behavior of exotic explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Results agree with previous observations that the concept of a single TNT equivalence value is inadequate to fully describe an explosive yield, rather TNT equivalence factor and overpressure duration should be presented as functions of radius.

  4. Infinite-range exterior complex scaling as a perfect absorber in time-dependent problems

    SciTech Connect

    Scrinzi, Armin

    2010-05-15

    We introduce infinite range exterior complex scaling (irECS) which provides for complete absorption of outgoing flux in numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with strong infrared fields. This is demonstrated by computing high harmonic spectra and wave-function overlaps with the exact solution for a one-dimensional model system and by three-dimensional calculations for the H atom and an Ne atom model. We lay out the key ingredients for correct implementation and identify criteria for efficient discretization.

  5. Apparent Power Law Scaling of Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Carbonized Polymer Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kang, Hojin; He, Hans; Eklӧf, Johnas; Hong, Sung Ju; Park, Min; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo; Kubatkin, Sergey; Park, Yung Woo

    2016-01-01

    We induce dramatic changes in the structure of conducting polymer nanofibers by carbonization at 800 °C and compare charge transport properties between carbonized and pristine nanofibers. Despite the profound structural differences, both types of systems display power law dependence of current with voltage and temperature, and all measurements can be scaled into a single universal curve. We analyze our experimental data in the framework of variable range hopping and argue that this mechanism can explain transport properties of pristine polymer nanofibers as well. PMID:27886233

  6. Apparent Power Law Scaling of Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Carbonized Polymer Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kang, Hojin; He, Hans; Eklӧf, Johnas; Hong, Sung Ju; Park, Min; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo; Kubatkin, Sergey; Park, Yung Woo

    2016-11-01

    We induce dramatic changes in the structure of conducting polymer nanofibers by carbonization at 800 °C and compare charge transport properties between carbonized and pristine nanofibers. Despite the profound structural differences, both types of systems display power law dependence of current with voltage and temperature, and all measurements can be scaled into a single universal curve. We analyze our experimental data in the framework of variable range hopping and argue that this mechanism can explain transport properties of pristine polymer nanofibers as well.

  7. Laboratory study of sonic booms and their scaling laws. [ballistic range simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toong, T. Y.

    1974-01-01

    This program undertook to seek a basic understanding of non-linear effects associated with caustics, through laboratory simulation experiments of sonic booms in a ballistic range and a coordinated theoretical study of scaling laws. Two cases of superbooms or enhanced sonic booms at caustics have been studied. The first case, referred to as acceleration superbooms, is related to the enhanced sonic booms generated during the acceleration maneuvers of supersonic aircrafts. The second case, referred to as refraction superbooms, involves the superbooms that are generated as a result of atmospheric refraction. Important theoretical and experimental results are briefly reported.

  8. Large-Scale Hollow Retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Alix M.

    2012-05-01

    Laser ranging to the retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Luna missions have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Although the precision of the range measurements has historically been limited by the ground station capabilities, advances in the APOLLO instrument at the Apache Point facility in New Mexico is beginning to be limited by errors associated with the lunar arrays. We report here on efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center to develop the next generation of lunar retroreflectors. We will describe a new facility that is being used to design, assemble, and test large-scale hollow retroreflectors. We will also describe results from investigations into various bonding techniques used to assemble the open corner cubes and mirror coatings that have dust mitigation properties.

  9. Large-Scale Hollow Retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Alix

    2012-01-01

    Laser ranging to the retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Luna missions have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Although the precision of the range measurements has historically been limited by the ground station capabilities, advances in the APOLLO instrument at the Apache Point facility in New Mexico is beginning to be limited by errors associated with the lunar arrays. We report here on efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center to develop the next generation of lunar retroreflectors. We will describe a new facility that is being used to design, assemble, and test large-scale hollow retroreflectors. We will also describe results from investigations into various bonding techniques used to assemble the open comer cubes and mirror coatings that have dust mitigation properties.

  10. Scaling laws for the largest Lyapunov exponent in long-range systems: A random matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Anteneodo, Celia; Vallejos, Raúl O

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the laws that rule the behavior of the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) in many particle systems with long-range interactions. We consider as a representative system the so-called Hamiltonian alpha-XY model where the adjustable parameter alpha controls the range of the interactions of N ferromagnetic spins in a lattice of dimension d. In previous work the dependence of the LLE with the system size N, for sufficiently high energies, was established through numerical simulations. In the thermodynamic limit, the LLE becomes constant for alpha>d whereas it decays as an inverse power law of N for alphascaling behavior can also be explained by a random matrix approach, in which the tangent mappings that define the Lyapunov exponents are modeled by random simplectic matrices drawn from a suitable ensemble.

  11. Evaluation of a scale-model experiment to investigate long-range acoustic propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Mcaninch, Gerry L.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.

    1987-01-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a scale-model experiment situated in an anechoic facility to investigate long-range sound propagation over ground terrain. For a nominal scale factor of 100:1, attenuations along a linear array of six microphones colinear with a continuous-wave type of sound source were measured over a wavelength range from 10 to 160 for a nominal test frequency of 10 kHz. Most tests were made for a hard model surface (plywood), but limited tests were also made for a soft model surface (plywood with felt). For grazing-incidence propagation over the hard surface, measured and predicted attenuation trends were consistent for microphone locations out to between 40 and 80 wavelengths. Beyond 80 wavelengths, significant variability was observed that was caused by disturbances in the propagation medium. Also, there was evidence of extraneous propagation-path contributions to data irregularities at more remote microphones. Sensitivity studies for the hard-surface and microphone indicated a 2.5 dB change in the relative excess attenuation for a systematic error in source and microphone elevations on the order of 1 mm. For the soft-surface model, no comparable sensitivity was found.

  12. Cross-scale integration of knowledge for predicting species ranges: a metamodeling framework

    PubMed Central

    Talluto, Matthew V.; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Ameztegui, Aitor; Aubin, Isabelle; Berteaux, Dominique; Butler, Alyssa; Doyon, Frédérik; Drever, C. Ronnie; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Franceschini, Tony; Liénard, Jean; McKenney, Dan; Solarik, Kevin A.; Strigul, Nikolay; Thuiller, Wilfried; Gravel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Aim Current interest in forecasting changes to species ranges have resulted in a multitude of approaches to species distribution models (SDMs). However, most approaches include only a small subset of the available information, and many ignore smaller-scale processes such as growth, fecundity, and dispersal. Furthermore, different approaches often produce divergent predictions with no simple method to reconcile them. Here, we present a flexible framework for integrating models at multiple scales using hierarchical Bayesian methods. Location Eastern North America (as an example). Methods Our framework builds a metamodel that is constrained by the results of multiple sub-models and provides probabilistic estimates of species presence. We applied our approach to a simulated dataset to demonstrate the integration of a correlative SDM with a theoretical model. In a second example, we built an integrated model combining the results of a physiological model with presence-absence data for sugar maple (Acer saccharum), an abundant tree native to eastern North America. Results For both examples, the integrated models successfully included information from all data sources and substantially improved the characterization of uncertainty. For the second example, the integrated model outperformed the source models with respect to uncertainty when modelling the present range of the species. When projecting into the future, the model provided a consensus view of two models that differed substantially in their predictions. Uncertainty was reduced where the models agreed and was greater where they diverged, providing a more realistic view of the state of knowledge than either source model. Main conclusions We conclude by discussing the potential applications of our method and its accessibility to applied ecologists. In ideal cases, our framework can be easily implemented using off-the-shelf software. The framework has wide potential for use in species distribution modelling and can

  13. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Owen-Smith, Norman; Martin, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant) and plains zebra (a non-ruminant), using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no seasonal variation

  14. Identifying Space Use at Foraging Arena Scale within the Home Ranges of Large Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman; Martin, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    An intermediate spatiotemporal scale of food procurement by large herbivores is evident within annual or seasonal home ranges. It takes the form of settlement periods spanning several days or weeks during which foraging activity is confined to spatially discrete foraging arenas, separated by roaming interludes. Extended by areas occupied for other activities, these foraging arenas contribute towards generating the home range structure. We delineated and compared the foraging arenas exploited by two African large herbivores, sable antelope (a ruminant) and plains zebra (a non-ruminant), using GPS-derived movement data. We developed a novel approach to specifically delineate foraging arenas based on local change points in distance relative to adjoining clusters of locations, and compared its output with modifications of two published methods developed for home range estimation and residence time estimation respectively. We compared how these herbivore species responded to seasonal variation in food resources and how they differed in their spatial patterns of resource utilization. Sable antelope herds tended to concentrate their space use locally, while zebra herds moved more opportunistically over a wider set of foraging arenas. The amalgamated extent of the foraging arenas exploited by sable herds amounted to 12-30 km2, compared with 22-100 km2 for the zebra herds. Half-day displacement distances differed between settlement periods and roaming interludes, and zebra herds generally shifted further over 12h than sable herds. Foraging arenas of sable herds tended to be smaller than those of zebra, and were occupied for period twice as long, and hence exploited more intensively in days spent per unit area than the foraging arenas of zebra. For sable both the intensity of utilization of foraging arenas and proportion of days spent in foraging arenas relative to roaming interludes declined as food resources diminished seasonally, while zebra showed no seasonal variation

  15. Scaling of free-ranging primate energetics with body mass predicts low energy expenditure in humans.

    PubMed

    Simmen, Bruno; Darlu, Pierre; Hladik, Claude Marcel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Studies of how a mammal's daily energy expenditure scales with its body mass suggest that humans, whether Westerners, agro-pastoralists, or hunter-gatherers, all have much lower energy expenditures for their body mass than other mammals. However, non-human primates also differ from other mammals in several life history traits suggestive of low energy use. Judging by field metabolic rates of free-ranging strepsirhine and haplorhine primates with different lifestyle and body mass, estimated using doubly labeled water, primates have lower energy expenditure than other similar-sized eutherian mammals. Daily energy expenditure in humans fell along the regression line of non-human primates. The results suggest that thrifty energy use could be an ancient strategy of primates. Although physical activity is a major component of energy balance, our results suggest a need to revise the basis for establishing norms of energy expenditure in modern humans.

  16. Study of Saturn Electrostatic Discharges in a Wide Range of Timec SCALES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylostna, K.; Zakharenko, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Kolyadin, V.; Zarka, P.; Griemeier, J.-M.; Litvinenko, G.; Sidorchuk, M.; Rucker, H.; Fischer, G.; Cecconi, B.; Coffre, A.; Denis, L.; Nikolaenko, V.; Shevchenko, V.

    Saturn Electrostatic discharges (SED) are sporadic broadband impulsive radio bursts associated with lightning in Saturnian atmosphere. After 25 years of space investigations in 2006 the first successful observations of SED on the UTR-2 radio telescope were carried out [1]. Since 2007 a long-term program of ED search and study in the Solar system has started. As a part of this program the unique observations with high time resolution were taken in 2010. New possibilities of UTR-2 radio telescope allowed to provide a long-period observations and study with high temporal resolution. This article presents the results of SED study in a wide range of time scales: from seconds to microseconds. For the first time there were obtained a low frequency spectrum of SED. We calculated flux densities of individual bursts at the maximum achievable time resolution. Flux densities of most intensive bursts reach 4200 Jy.

  17. Position, scale, rotation invariant (PSRI) target recognition in range imagery using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troxel, S. E.; Rogers, S. K.; Kabrisky, M.; Mills, J. P.

    1988-08-01

    A method for classifying objects invariant to position, rotation, or scale is presented. Objects to be classified were multifunction laser radar data of tanks and trucks at various aspect angles. A segmented doppler image was used to mask the range image into candidate targets. Each target is then compared to stored templates representing the different classes. The template and the image were transformed into the magnitude of the Fourier transform with log radial and angle axis, lF (Ln r , 0)1, feature space. The classification is accomplished using the shape of the correlation peak of the IF (Ln r , 0)1 planes of an image and a template. A neural network was used to perform the classification with a classification accuracy near 100%. The neural network used in this study was a multilayer perception using a back propagation algorithm.

  18. Small-scale studies of roasted ore waste reveal extreme ranges of stable mercury isotope signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robin S.; Wiederhold, Jan G.; Jew, Adam D.; Brown, Gordon E.; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2014-07-01

    Active and closed Hg mines are significant sources of Hg contamination to the environment, mainly due to large volumes of mine waste material disposed of on-site. The application of Hg isotopes as source tracer from such contaminated sites requires knowledge of the Hg isotope signatures of different materials potentially released to the environment. Previous work has shown that calcine, the waste residue of the on-site ore roasting process, can exhibit distinct Hg isotope signatures compared with the primary ore. Here, we report results from a detailed small-scale study of Hg isotope variations in calcine collected from the closed New Idria Hg mine, San Benito County, CA, USA. The calcine samples exhibited different internal layering features which were investigated using optical microscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS), and stable Hg isotope analysis. Significant Fe, S, and Hg concentration gradients were found across the different internal layers. Isotopic analyses revealed an extreme variation with pronounced isotopic gradients across the internal layered features. Overall, δ202Hg (±0.10‰, 2 SD) describing mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) ranged from -5.96 to 14.49‰, which is by far the largest range of δ202Hg values reported for any environmental sample. In addition, Δ199Hg (±0.06‰, 2 SD) describing mass-independent fractionation (MIF) ranged from -0.17 to 0.21‰. The μ-XAS analyses suggested that cinnabar and metacinnabar are the dominant Hg-bearing phases in the calcine. Our results demonstrate that the incomplete roasting of HgS ores in Hg mines can cause extreme mass-dependent Hg isotope fractionations at the scale of individual calcine pieces with enrichments in both light and heavy Hg isotopes relative to the primary ore signatures. This finding has important implications for the application of Hg isotopes as potential source tracers for Hg released to the environment from closed Hg mines and

  19. Scale invariance of normalized cross-helicity throughout the inertial range of solar wind turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, J. J.; Borovsky, J. E.

    2010-11-15

    Solar wind measurements over the period from 1995 through 2006 are used to study fluctuations in the plasma bulk velocity and magnetic field over the range of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scales commonly referred to as the inertial range. Power spectra of the solar wind velocity, magnetic field, proton density, total energy (kinetic plus magnetic), and cross-helicity are analyzed for 176 time intervals in which the interplanetary magnetic field is restricted to a single magnetic sector. The data yield measurements of the normalized cross-helicity {sigma}{sub c}, the ratio of the cross-helicity spectrum to the energy spectrum, that span the entire inertial range at 1 AU and extend previous measurements by more than one decade in wavenumber. The results show that {sigma}{sub c} is approximately constant throughout the inertial range, independent of wavenumber, consistent with existing theoretical ideas. At the highest frequencies measured, |{sigma}{sub c}| is observed to decrease toward zero, however, this decrease is caused by measurement noise and is not a real physical effect. Other new results obtained in this study are (1) the average spectral index for the total energy--kinetic plus magnetic--is found to be closer to 3/2 than 5/3 with an average value 1.540{+-}0.033 for highly Alfvenic wind, in agreement with simulations of incompressible MHD turbulence with a strong ambient magnetic field; (2) the spectral index for the total energy is a function of |{sigma}{sub c}| that varies from roughly 5/3 when {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}0 to approximately 3/2 when |{sigma}{sub c}|{approx_equal}1; (3) the spectral index for the total energy exhibits a solar cycle dependence during solar cycle 23 with above average values (steeper spectra) in the early rising phase of the cycle and below average values (shallower spectra) during the declining phase of the cycle--the controlling parameter for this solar cycle dependence appears to be |{sigma}{sub c}|.

  20. Universal scaling law for the condensation energy across a broad range of superconductor classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Tam, G. N.; Stewart, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    One of the goals in understanding any new class of superconductors is to search for commonalities with other known superconductors. The present work investigates the superconducting condensation energy, U , in the iron based superconductors (IBSs), and compares their U with a broad range of other distinct classes of superconductor, including conventional BCS elements and compounds and the unconventional heavy fermion, S r2Ru O4 ,L i0.1ZrNCl ,κ -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu (NCS )2 , and optimally doped cuprate superconductors. Surprisingly, both the magnitude and Tc dependence (U ∝Tc3.4 ±0.2 ) of U are—contrary to the previously observed behavior of the specific heat discontinuity at Tc, Δ C —quite similar in the IBS and BCS materials for Tc>1.4 K. In contrast, the heavy fermion superconductors' U vs Tc are strongly (up to a factor of 100) enhanced above the IBS/BCS while the cuprate superconductors' U are strongly (factor of 8) reduced. However, scaling of U with the specific heat γ (or Δ C ) brings all the superconductors investigated onto one universal dependence upon Tc. This apparent universal scaling U / γ ∝Tc2 for all superconductor classes investigated, both weak and strong coupled and both conventional and unconventional, links together extremely disparate behaviors over almost seven orders of magnitude for U and almost three orders of magnitude for Tc. Since U has not yet been explicitly calculated beyond the weak coupling limit, the present results can help direct theoretical efforts into the medium and strong coupling regimes.

  1. Imaging of Non-Resolved Objects Using the Fine Scale Optical Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, T.; Grubb, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Fine Scale Optical Range (FiScOR) has been designed and assembled at the Space Engineering Research Center(SERC) at Texas A&M University to study the efficacy of on-orbit debris characterization using small space-based cameras. Physically, this facility permits imaging of small, one to two centimeter models of simple or complex shapes from a distance sufficiently great to produce image sizes of about one pixel. The objects are designed in 3D CAD and produced in plastic by 3D printing. They are then surfaced with real materials such as multi-layer insulation (MLI) and silicon solar cell fragments. Details, such as slight faceting in solar cell arrays, are achieved to dimensions as fine as 200 micrometers. Mechanisms are provided to rotate and translate the object. Illumination sources approximating the solar spectrum are used. Light curves are recorded using CCD or CMOS cameras which may be cooled or operated at ambient temperature. This research supports a more extensive body of work for the Air Force Research Lab and others examining image processing with noise terms for cameras imaging in visible and near-visible light, and assessing operational effects using synthetic space images created in the lab. For the study reported herein, a few simple objects (cubes, cylinders, etc.), two satellite models, and some shapes representing debris were imaged using a high frame rate color (Bayer mask) camera. Data obtained were compared with Phong models, and to a limited extent, with night sky images obtained using the 0.8m telescope near Stephenville, TX and smaller instruments located near College Station, TX. In some tests, low lighting levels were used to permit estimation of the maximum range at which an equivalent orbiting object would be detected by a particular camera/lens combination. Results demonstrating the potential contribution of this approach to non resolved space object characterization will be presented.

  2. Critical scaling of icosahedral medium-range order in CuZr metallic glass-forming liquids

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Z. W.; Li, F. X.; Huo, C. W.; Li, M. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, K. X.

    2016-01-01

    The temperature evolution of icosahedral medium-range order formed by interpenetrating icosahedra in CuZr metallic glassforming liquids was investigated via molecular dynamics simulations. Scaling analysis based on percolation theory was employed, and it is found that the size distribution of clusters formed by the central atoms of icosahedra at various temperatures follows a very good scaling law with the cluster number density scaled by S−τ and the cluster size S scaled by |1 − Tc/T|−1/σ, respectively. Here Tc is scaling crossover-temperature. τ and σ are scaling exponents. The critical scaling behaviour suggests that there would be a structural phase transition manifested by percolation of locally favoured structures underlying the glass transition, if the liquid could be cooled slowly enough but without crystallization intervening. Furthermore, it is revealed that when icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) extends to medium-range length scale by connection, the atomic configurations of ISROs will be optimized from distorted ones towards more regular ones gradually, which significantly lowers the energies of ISROs and introduces geometric frustration simultaneously. Both factors make key impacts on the drastic dynamic slow-down of supercooled liquids. Our findings provide direct structure-property relationship for understanding the nature of glass transition. PMID:27779239

  3. Critical scaling of icosahedral medium-range order in CuZr metallic glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. W.; Li, F. X.; Huo, C. W.; Li, M. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, K. X.

    2016-10-01

    The temperature evolution of icosahedral medium-range order formed by interpenetrating icosahedra in CuZr metallic glassforming liquids was investigated via molecular dynamics simulations. Scaling analysis based on percolation theory was employed, and it is found that the size distribution of clusters formed by the central atoms of icosahedra at various temperatures follows a very good scaling law with the cluster number density scaled by S‑τ and the cluster size S scaled by |1 ‑ Tc/T|‑1/σ, respectively. Here Tc is scaling crossover-temperature. τ and σ are scaling exponents. The critical scaling behaviour suggests that there would be a structural phase transition manifested by percolation of locally favoured structures underlying the glass transition, if the liquid could be cooled slowly enough but without crystallization intervening. Furthermore, it is revealed that when icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) extends to medium-range length scale by connection, the atomic configurations of ISROs will be optimized from distorted ones towards more regular ones gradually, which significantly lowers the energies of ISROs and introduces geometric frustration simultaneously. Both factors make key impacts on the drastic dynamic slow-down of supercooled liquids. Our findings provide direct structure-property relationship for understanding the nature of glass transition.

  4. Kurtosis-based estimation of cross-range scaling factor for high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, An; Ng, Brian; Tran, Hai-Tan

    2016-07-01

    In automatic target recognition systems based on the use of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images, it is essential to obtain unbiased and accurate scaled two-dimensional target images in the range-cross range domain. To accomplish this, the modulus of the target effective rotation vector, which is generally unknown for noncooperative targets, must be estimated. This letter proposes an efficient method for estimating the cross-range scaling factor and significantly improving cross-range resolution based on the second-order local polynomial Fourier transform. The estimation requires solving a series of one-dimensional optimizations of a kurtosis objective. Simulations show the proposed approach to be effective and able to accurately estimate the scaling factor in the presence of noise.

  5. Do some deep-sea, sediment-dwelling species of harpacticoid copepods have 1000-km-scale range sizes?

    PubMed

    Easton, E E; Thistle, D

    2016-09-01

    The range sizes of sediment-dwelling deep-sea species are largely unknown. Such knowledge is important because a deep sea composed in large part of species with 100-km-scale ranges would be very different from one composed predominantly of species with 1000-km-scale ranges. For example, the total species richness would be much greater in the first case than in the second. As a step towards the determination of the distribution of species' range sizes in the deep sea, we asked whether harpacticoid copepods (Crustacea) on the continental rise in the northeastern Pacific had 1000-km-scale range sizes. We chose harpacticoids because they occur widely in deep-sea sediments and thus are a typical deep-sea taxon. In addition, they have no pelagic stage in their life history, so they allow a conservative test of hypotheses about species' range sizes. We used morphology and gene-sequence data to assign individuals to species. At least 13.3% of the species we studied had 1000-km-scale ranges, raising the question of how these species maintain genetic continuity.

  6. European Invasion of North American Pinus strobus at Large and Fine Scales: High Genetic Diversity and Fine-Scale Genetic Clustering over Time in the Adventive Range

    PubMed Central

    Mandák, Bohumil; Hadincová, Věroslava; Mahelka, Václav; Wildová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Background North American Pinus strobus is a highly invasive tree species in Central Europe. Using ten polymorphic microsatellite loci we compared various aspects of the large-scale genetic diversity of individuals from 30 sites in the native distribution range with those from 30 sites in the European adventive distribution range. To investigate the ascertained pattern of genetic diversity of this intercontinental comparison further, we surveyed fine-scale genetic diversity patterns and changes over time within four highly invasive populations in the adventive range. Results Our data show that at the large scale the genetic diversity found within the relatively small adventive range in Central Europe, surprisingly, equals the diversity found within the sampled area in the native range, which is about thirty times larger. Bayesian assignment grouped individuals into two genetic clusters separating North American native populations from the European, non-native populations, without any strong genetic structure shown over either range. In the case of the fine scale, our comparison of genetic diversity parameters among the localities and age classes yielded no evidence of genetic diversity increase over time. We found that SGS differed across age classes within the populations under study. Old trees in general completely lacked any SGS, which increased over time and reached its maximum in the sapling stage. Conclusions Based on (1) the absence of difference in genetic diversity between the native and adventive ranges, together with the lack of structure in the native range, and (2) the lack of any evidence of any temporal increase in genetic diversity at four highly invasive populations in the adventive range, we conclude that population amalgamation probably first happened in the native range, prior to introduction. In such case, there would have been no need for multiple introductions from previously isolated populations, but only several introductions from

  7. Quantification of the UK 5-point breast imaging classification and mapping to BI-RADS to facilitate comparison with international literature

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, K; Britton, P; O'Keeffe, S; Wallis, M G

    2011-01-01

    Objective The UK 5-point breast imaging scoring system, recently formalised by the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group, does not specify the likelihood of malignancy in each category. The breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) is widely used throughout North America and much of Europe. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the cancer likelihood of each of the UK 5-point categories and map them to comparable BI-RADS categories to facilitate comparison with North American and European literature and publication of UK research abroad. Methods During the 8 year study period, mammogram and ultrasound results were UK scored and the percentage of cancer outcomes within each group calculated. These were then compared with the percentage incidence of the BI-RADS categories. Results Of 23 741 separate assessment episodes, 15 288 mammograms and 10 642 ultrasound examinations were evaluated. There was a direct correlation between UK scoring and BI-RADS for categories 1 and 5. UK Score 2 lipomas and simple cysts correlated with BI-RADS 2, with the remaining UK Score 2 lesions (mostly fibroadenomas) assigned to BI-RADS 3. BI-RADS 4 incorporates a wide range of cancer risk (2–95%) with subdivisions a, b and c indicating increasing, but unspecified, likelihood of malignancy. UK Score 3 correlated with BI-RADS 4 a/b and UK Score 4 corresponded with BI-RADS 4c. Conclusion This study quantifies the cancer likelihood of the UK scoring and maps them to parallel BI-RADS categories, with equivalent cancer risks. This facilitates the ability to share UK research data and clinical practice on an international scale. PMID:22011830

  8. How do parcellation size and short-range connectivity affect dynamics in large-scale brain network models?

    PubMed

    Proix, Timothée; Spiegler, Andreas; Schirner, Michael; Rothmeier, Simon; Ritter, Petra; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2016-11-15

    Recent efforts to model human brain activity on the scale of the whole brain rest on connectivity estimates of large-scale networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). This type of connectivity describes white matter fiber tracts. The number of short-range cortico-cortical white-matter connections is, however, underrepresented in such large-scale brain models. It is still unclear on the one hand, which scale of representation of white matter fibers is optimal to describe brain activity on a large-scale such as recorded with magneto- or electroencephalography (M/EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and on the other hand, to which extent short-range connections that are typically local should be taken into account. In this article we quantified the effect of connectivity upon large-scale brain network dynamics by (i) systematically varying the number of brain regions before computing the connectivity matrix, and by (ii) adding generic short-range connections. We used dMRI data from the Human Connectome Project. We developed a suite of preprocessing modules called SCRIPTS to prepare these imaging data for The Virtual Brain, a neuroinformatics platform for large-scale brain modeling and simulations. We performed simulations under different connectivity conditions and quantified the spatiotemporal dynamics in terms of Shannon Entropy, dwell time and Principal Component Analysis. For the reconstructed connectivity, our results show that the major white matter fiber bundles play an important role in shaping slow dynamics in large-scale brain networks (e.g. in fMRI). Faster dynamics such as gamma oscillations (around 40 Hz) are sensitive to the short-range connectivity if transmission delays are considered.

  9. Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure reflective…

  10. Joint Cross-Range Scaling and 3D Geometry Reconstruction of ISAR Targets Based on Factorization Method.

    PubMed

    Lei Liu; Feng Zhou; Xue-Ru Bai; Ming-Liang Tao; Zi-Jing Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the factorization method is applied to reconstruct the 3D geometry of a target from its sequential inverse synthetic aperture radar images. However, this method requires performing cross-range scaling to all the sub-images and thus has a large computational burden. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes a novel method for joint cross-range scaling and 3D geometry reconstruction of steadily moving targets. In this method, we model the equivalent rotational angular velocity (RAV) by a linear polynomial with time, and set its coefficients randomly to perform sub-image cross-range scaling. Then, we generate the initial trajectory matrix of the scattering centers, and solve the 3D geometry and projection vectors by the factorization method with relaxed constraints. After that, the coefficients of the polynomial are estimated from the projection vectors to obtain the RAV. Finally, the trajectory matrix is re-scaled using the estimated rotational angle, and accurate 3D geometry is reconstructed. The two major steps, i.e., the cross-range scaling and the factorization, are performed repeatedly to achieve precise 3D geometry reconstruction. Simulation results have proved the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  11. Self-consistent spectrophotometric basicity scale in acetonitrile covering the range between pyridine and DBU

    PubMed

    Kaljurand; Rodima; Leito; Koppel; Schwesinger

    2000-09-22

    A self-consistent spectrophotometric basicity scale in acetonitrile, including DBU, ten (arylimino)tris(1-pyrrolidinyl)phosphoranes, two (arylimino)tris(dimethylamino)phosphoranes, 2-phenyl-1,1,3, 3-tetramethylguanidine, 1-(2-tolyl)biguanide, benzylamine, two substituted benzimidazoles, pyridine, and ten substituted pyridines, has been created. The span of the scale is almost 12 pK(a) units. Altogether, 29 different bases were studied and 53 independent equilibrium constant measurements were carried out, each describing the relative basicity of two bases. The scale is anchored to the pK(a) value of pyridine of 12.33 that has been measured by Coetzee et al. Comparison of the basicity data of phenyliminophosphoranes and phenyltetramethylguanidines implies that the P=N bond in the (arylimino)tris(1-pyrrolidinyl)phosphoranes involves contribution from the ylidic (zwitterionic) structure analogous to that found in phosphorus ylides.

  12. Effective-range approach and scaling laws for electromagnetic strength in neutron-halo nuclei.

    PubMed

    Typel, S; Baur, G

    2004-10-01

    We study low-lying multipole strength in neutron-halo nuclei. The strength depends only on a few low-energy constants: the neutron separation energy, the asymptotic normalization coefficient of the bound-state wave function, and the scattering length that contains the information on the interaction in the continuum. The shape of the transition probability shows a characteristic dependence on few scaling parameters and the angular momenta. The total E1 strength is related to the root-mean-square radius of the neutron wave function in the ground state and shows corresponding scaling properties. We apply our approach to the E1 strength distribution of 11Be.

  13. A method for estimating spikelet number per panicle: Integrating image analysis and a 5-point calibration model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sanqin; Gu, Jiabing; Zhao, Youyong; Hassan, Muhammad; Li, Yinian; Ding, Weimin

    2015-11-06

    Spikelet number per panicle (SNPP) is one of the most important yield components used to estimate rice yields. The use of high-throughput quantitative image analysis methods for understanding the diversity of the panicle has increased rapidly. However, it is difficult to simultaneously extract panicle branch and spikelet/grain information from images at the same resolution due to the different scales of these traits. To use a lower resolution and meet the accuracy requirement, we proposed an interdisciplinary method that integrated image analysis and a 5-point calibration model to rapidly estimate SNPP. First, a linear relationship model between the total length of the primary branch (TLPB) and the SNPP was established based on the physiological characteristics of the panicle. Second, the TLPB and area (the primary branch region) traits were rapidly extracted by developing image analysis algorithm. Finally, a 5-point calibration method was adopted to improve the universality of the model. The number of panicle samples that the error of the SNPP estimates was less than 10% was greater than 90% by the proposed method. The estimation accuracy was consistent with the accuracy determined using manual measurements. The proposed method uses available concepts and techniques for automated estimations of rice yield information.

  14. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions. PMID:11875208

  15. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jon D

    2002-02-19

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions.

  16. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased.

  17. Higher order moments of the matter distribution in scale-free cosmological simulations with large dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1994-01-01

    We calculate reduced moments (xi bar)(sub q) of the matter density fluctuations, up to order q = 5, from counts in cells produced by particle-mesh numerical simulations with scale-free Gaussian initial conditions. We use power-law spectra P(k) proportional to k(exp n) with indices n = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1. Due to the supposed absence of characteristic times or scales in our models, all quantities are expected to depend on a single scaling variable. For each model, the moments at all times can be expressed in terms of the variance (xi bar)(sub 2), alone. We look for agreement with the hierarchical scaling ansatz, according to which ((xi bar)(sub q)) proportional to ((xi bar)(sub 2))(exp (q - 1)). For n less than or equal to -2 models, we find strong deviations from the hierarchy, which are mostly due to the presence of boundary problems in the simulations. A small, residual signal of deviation from the hierarchical scaling is however also found in n greater than or equal to -1 models. The wide range of spectra considered and the large dynamic range, with careful checks of scaling and shot-noise effects, allows us to reliably detect evolution away from the perturbation theory result.

  18. Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Pelican, Katherine; Cross, Paul C.; Eguren, Antonieta; Singer, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (<200 m) but exhibited a diurnal pattern of directed excursions (forays) away from their home locations. Dogs spent, on average, 5.3% of their time in forays with average per dog foray distances from the house ranging 0.5–1.9 km (maximum distance detected 4.3 km). Foraying behavior was positively associated with pasture habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

  19. Inertial-range dynamics and scaling laws of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the weak-field regime.

    PubMed

    Blackbourn, Luke A K; Tran, Chuong V

    2014-08-01

    We study inertial-range dynamics and scaling laws in unforced two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the regime of moderately small and small initial magnetic-to-kinetic-energy ratio r(0), with an emphasis on the latter. The regime of small r(0) corresponds to a relatively weak field and strong magnetic stretching, whereby the turbulence is characterized by an intense conversion of kinetic into magnetic energy (dynamo action in the three-dimensional context). This conversion is an inertial-range phenomenon and, upon becoming quasisaturated, deposits the converted energy within the inertial range rather than transferring it to the small scales. As a result, the magnetic-energy spectrum E(b)(k) in the inertial range can become quite shallow and may not be adequately explained or understood in terms of conventional cascade theories. It is demonstrated by numerical simulations at high Reynolds numbers (and unity magnetic Prandtl number) that the energetics and inertial-range scaling depend strongly on r(0). In particular, for fully developed turbulence with r(0) in the range [1/4,1/4096], E(b)(k) is found to scale as k(α), where α≳-1, including α>0. The extent of such a shallow spectrum is limited, becoming broader as r(0) is decreased. The slope α increases as r(0) is decreased, appearing to tend to +1 in the limit of small r(0). This implies equipartition of magnetic energy among the Fourier modes of the inertial range and the scaling k(-1) of the magnetic potential variance, whose flux is direct rather than inverse. This behavior of the potential resembles that of a passive scalar. However, unlike a passive scalar whose variance dissipation rate slowly vanishes in the diffusionless limit, the dissipation rate of the magnetic potential variance scales linearly with the diffusivity in that limit. Meanwhile, the kinetic-energy spectrum is relatively steep, followed by a much shallower tail due to strong antidynamo excitation. This gives rise to a total

  20. The range of Alfvénic turbulence scales in the topside auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovchanskaya, I. V.; Kozelov, B. V.

    2016-01-01

    The minimal scale of the Alfvénic turbulence transverse to the external magnetic field in the topside auroral ionosphere is investigated using electric field observations of the FAST spacecraft (the resolution 512 s-1). The events in which the power law form of the electric fluctuation spectra with a 2.0-2.5 slope (typical of Alfvénic turbulence) remains unchanged down to acoustic gyroradius ρs or ion gyroradius ρi local values are illustrated for the first time. In this case, the character of spectrum variation does not change at the electron inertial length λe, which is much larger than ρs and ρi for FAST altitudes (apogee ~4000 km). We have tried to explain this experimental fact by consideration of the known scenarios of the appearance of a small transverse scale in an Alfvénic perturbation. It has been noted that the effects of front steepening in an inertial Alfvén wave with a finite amplitude, which propagates at an angle smaller than (me/mi)1/2 with respect to the transverse direction, can result in small transverse scales comparable with acoustic gyroradius appearing in a perturbation.

  1. Mechanobiological induction of long-range contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The long-range nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to long-range “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development. PMID:27283037

  2. Mechanobiological induction of long-range contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The long-range nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to long-range “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development.

  3. Chromosome-scale shotgun assembly using an in vitro method for long-range linkage

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Nicholas H.; O'Connell, Brendan L.; Stites, Jonathan C.; Rice, Brandon J.; Blanchette, Marco; Calef, Robert; Troll, Christopher J.; Fields, Andrew; Hartley, Paul D.; Sugnet, Charles W.; Haussler, David; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Green, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Long-range and highly accurate de novo assembly from short-read data is one of the most pressing challenges in genomics. Recently, it has been shown that read pairs generated by proximity ligation of DNA in chromatin of living tissue can address this problem, dramatically increasing the scaffold contiguity of assemblies. Here, we describe a simpler approach (“Chicago”) based on in vitro reconstituted chromatin. We generated two Chicago data sets with human DNA and developed a statistical model and a new software pipeline (“HiRise”) that can identify poor quality joins and produce accurate, long-range sequence scaffolds. We used these to construct a highly accurate de novo assembly and scaffolding of a human genome with scaffold N50 of 20 Mbp. We also demonstrated the utility of Chicago for improving existing assemblies by reassembling and scaffolding the genome of the American alligator. With a single library and one lane of Illumina HiSeq sequencing, we increased the scaffold N50 of the American alligator from 508 kbp to 10 Mbp. PMID:26848124

  4. Chromosome-scale shotgun assembly using an in vitro method for long-range linkage.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Nicholas H; O'Connell, Brendan L; Stites, Jonathan C; Rice, Brandon J; Blanchette, Marco; Calef, Robert; Troll, Christopher J; Fields, Andrew; Hartley, Paul D; Sugnet, Charles W; Haussler, David; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Green, Richard E

    2016-03-01

    Long-range and highly accurate de novo assembly from short-read data is one of the most pressing challenges in genomics. Recently, it has been shown that read pairs generated by proximity ligation of DNA in chromatin of living tissue can address this problem, dramatically increasing the scaffold contiguity of assemblies. Here, we describe a simpler approach ("Chicago") based on in vitro reconstituted chromatin. We generated two Chicago data sets with human DNA and developed a statistical model and a new software pipeline ("HiRise") that can identify poor quality joins and produce accurate, long-range sequence scaffolds. We used these to construct a highly accurate de novo assembly and scaffolding of a human genome with scaffold N50 of 20 Mbp. We also demonstrated the utility of Chicago for improving existing assemblies by reassembling and scaffolding the genome of the American alligator. With a single library and one lane of Illumina HiSeq sequencing, we increased the scaffold N50 of the American alligator from 508 kbp to 10 Mbp.

  5. Noninvariance of space/time-scale ranges under a Lorentztransformation and the implications for the study of relativisticinteractions

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, Jean-Luc

    2007-06-01

    The summary of this report is: (1) The range of scales {Lambda} of a system is not a Lorentz invariant and can vary greatly for some systems. (2) There exists an optimum frame which minimizes {Lambda}. (3) We demonstrated speedup of x1000 for PIC simulation of relativistic beam interacting with electron background. (4) It is not in contradiction with the conventional scientific wisdom that 'complexity' is an invariant. (5) We identified three domains of application (laser-plasma acceleration, e-cloud in HEP accelerators, free electron lasers) for which speedup ranging from 2 to 4 orders of magnitude were demonstrated on toy problems.

  6. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and neck pain, disability and range of motion: a narrative review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hudes, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) that was developed in 1990 is a 17 item scale originally developed to measure the fear of movement related to chronic lower back pain. Objective: To review the literature regarding TSK and neck pain, perceived disability and range of motion of the cervical spine. Methods: Medline, MANTIS, Index to Chiropractic Literature and CINAHL were searched. Results: A total of 16 related articles were found and divided into four categories: TSK and Neck Pain; TSK, Neck Pain and Disability; TSK, Neck Pain, Disability and Strength; and TSK, Neck Pain and Surface Electromyography. Conclusion: The fear avoidance model can be applied to neck pain sufferers and there is value from a psychometric perspective in using the TSK to assess kinesiophobia. Future research should investigate if, and to what extent, other measureable factors commonly associated with neck pain, such as decreased range of motion, correlate with kinesiophobia. PMID:21886284

  7. Large-Scale Functional Organization of Long-Range Chromatin Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Kuljeet Singh; Li, Guoliang; Poh, Huay Mei; Quek, Yu Ling Kelly; Sia, Yee Yen; Peh, Su Qin; Mulawadi, Fabianus Hendriyan; Lim, Joanne; Sikic, Mile; Menghi, Francesca; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Sung, Wing Kin; Ruan, Xiaoan; Fullwood, Melissa Jane; Liu, Edison; Csermely, Peter; Ruan, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromatin interactions play important roles in transcription regulation. To better understand the underlying evolutionary and functional constraints of these interactions, we implemented a systems approach to examine RNA polymerase-II-associated chromatin interactions in human cells. We found that 40% of the total genomic elements involved in chromatin interactions converged to a giant, scale-free-like, hierarchical network organized into chromatin communities. The communities were enriched in specific functions and were syntenic through evolution. Disease-associated SNPs from genome-wide association studies were enriched among the nodes with fewer interactions, implying their selection against deleterious interactions by limiting the total number of interactions, a model that we further reconciled using somatic and germline cancer mutation data. The hubs lacked disease-associated SNPs, constituted a nonrandomly interconnected core of key cellular functions, and exhibited lethality in mouse mutants, supporting an evolutionary selection that favored the nonrandom spatial clustering of the least-evolving key genomic domains against random genetic or transcriptional errors in the genome. Altogether, our analyses reveal a systems-level evolutionary framework that shapes functionally compartmentalized and error-tolerant transcriptional regulation of human genome in three dimensions. PMID:23103170

  8. Correlated continuous time random walks: combining scale-invariance with long-range memory for spatial and temporal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Johannes H. P.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    Standard continuous time random walk (CTRW) models are renewal processes in the sense that at each jump a new, independent pair of jump length and waiting time are chosen. Globally, anomalous diffusion emerges through scale-free forms of the jump length and/or waiting time distributions by virtue of the generalized central limit theorem. Here we present a modified version of recently proposed correlated CTRW processes, where we incorporate a power-law correlated noise on the level of both jump length and waiting time dynamics. We obtain a very general stochastic model, that encompasses key features of several paradigmatic models of anomalous diffusion: discontinuous, scale-free displacements as in Lévy flights, scale-free waiting times as in subdiffusive CTRWs, and the long-range temporal correlations of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We derive the exact solutions for the single-time probability density functions and extract the scaling behaviours. Interestingly, we find that different combinations of the model parameters lead to indistinguishable shapes of the emerging probability density functions and identical scaling laws. Our model will be useful for describing recent experimental single particle tracking data that feature a combination of CTRW and FBM properties.

  9. Kinematics of a large-scale intraplate extending lithosphere: The Basin-Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. B.; Eddington, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Upper lithospheric structure of the Cordilleran Basin Range (B-R) is characterised by an E-W symmetry of velocity layering. The crust is 25 km thick on its eastern active margin, thickening to 30 km within the central portion and thinning to approx. 25 km on the west. Pn velocities of 7.8 to 7.9 km/s characterize the upper mantle low velocity cushion, 7.4 km/s to 7.5 km/s, occurs at a depth of approx. 25 km in the eastern B-R and underlies the area of active extension. An upper-crustal low-velocity zone in the eastern B-R shows a marked P-wave velocity inversion of 7% at depths of 7 to 10 km also in the area of greatest extension. The seismic velocity models for this region of intraplate extension suggest major differences from that of a normal, thermally underformed continental lithosphere. Interpretations of seismic reflection data demonstrate the presence of extensive low-angle reflections in the upper-crust of the eastern B-R at depths from near-surface to 7 to 10 km. These reflections have been interpreted to represent low-angle normal fault detachments or reactivated thrusts. Seismic profiles across steeply-dipping normal faults in unconsolidated sediments show reflections from both planar to downward flatening (listric) faults that in most cases do not penetrate the low-angle detachments. These faults are interpreted as late Cenozoic and cataclastic mylonitic zones of shear displacement.

  10. Extended-range high-resolution dynamical downscaling over a continental-scale spatial domain with atmospheric and surface nudging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, S. Z.; Separovic, L.; Yu, W.; Fernig, D.

    2014-12-01

    Extended-range high-resolution mesoscale simulations with limited-area atmospheric models when applied to downscale regional analysis fields over large spatial domains can provide valuable information for many applications including the weather-dependent renewable energy industry. Long-term simulations over a continental-scale spatial domain, however, require mechanisms to control the large-scale deviations in the high-resolution simulated fields from the coarse-resolution driving fields. As enforcement of the lateral boundary conditions is insufficient to restrict such deviations, large scales in the simulated high-resolution meteorological fields are therefore spectrally nudged toward the driving fields. Different spectral nudging approaches, including the appropriate nudging length scales as well as the vertical profiles and temporal relaxations for nudging, have been investigated to propose an optimal nudging strategy. Impacts of time-varying nudging and generation of hourly analysis estimates are explored to circumvent problems arising from the coarse temporal resolution of the regional analysis fields. Although controlling the evolution of the atmospheric large scales generally improves the outputs of high-resolution mesoscale simulations within the surface layer, the prognostically evolving surface fields can nevertheless deviate from their expected values leading to significant inaccuracies in the predicted surface layer meteorology. A forcing strategy based on grid nudging of the different surface fields, including surface temperature, soil moisture, and snow conditions, toward their expected values obtained from a high-resolution offline surface scheme is therefore proposed to limit any considerable deviation. Finally, wind speed and temperature at wind turbine hub height predicted by different spectrally nudged extended-range simulations are compared against observations to demonstrate possible improvements achievable using higher spatiotemporal

  11. A centennial-scale record of Holocene effective moisture from the southern Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, B. F.; Hu, F.

    2006-12-01

    Several decades of paleoecological research resulted in a dense network of pollen records for vegetational reconstruction in Alaska and adjacent regions. Much of this work was motivated by the importance of understanding the responses of boreal ecosystems to climatic change. However, pollen-independent evidence of climatic change remains sparse. We analyzed sediments from Takahula Lake (67°21.12'N, 153°39.89'W) in the south-central Brooks Range to infer variations in effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation) over the last 8000 years. To help constrain the paleoclimate reconstruction, we conducted δ 18O and δ 2H analyses of monthly surface-water samples as well as inlet and groundwater samples collected from Takahula Lake during the summers of 2002 and 2004. Several lines of evidence indicate that Takahula Lake is isotopically highly sensitive to effective-moisture fluctuations. First, the δ 18O and δ 2H values of lake-water samples fall on an evaporation line with a slope of 5.14, indicating that Takahula Lake experiences evaporative enrichment with respect to input water by up to 3.3?. Second, the difference in the degree of evaporative enrichment of lake water between 2002 and 2004, as inferred from lake-water δ 18O and δ 2H values, corresponds to differences in cumulative precipitation and heating degree-days of these two years. Third, the lake water became progressively more enriched in 18O and 2H from June to September. We analyzed sediment cores from Tukahula Lake at about centennial resolution for a suite of climatic proxies. These proxies include lithology, organic and inorganic carbon content, and δ 18O and δ 13C of Chara carbonate encrustations. The chronology is based on a 210Pb profile and eight 14C dates. We inferred lake-level changes from lithologic features and variation in the δ 18O-δ 13C correlation of authigenic carbonate. This information was used to help interpret large fluctuations (up to 6‰) in the carbonate δ 18O

  12. Improving the Rapid Refresh and High Resolution Rapid Refresh physics to better perform across a wide range of spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Joseph; Grell, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Model development at NOAA/GSD spans a wide range of spatial scales: global scale (Flow-following finite-volume Icosohedral Model, FIM; 10-250 km grid spacing), continental scale (RAP; 13 km grid spacing), CONUS scale (HRRR; 3 km grid spacing), and regional modeling (experimental nesting at 1 km grid spacing over complex terrain). As the model resolution changes, the proportion of resolved vs unresolved physical processes changes; therefore, physical parameterizations need to adapt to different model resolutions to more accurately handle the unresolved processes. The Limited Area Model (LAM) component of the Grey Zone Experiment was designed to assess the change in behavior of numerical weather prediction models between 16 and 1 km by simulating a cold-air outbreak over the North Atlantic and North Sea. The RAP and HRRR model physics were tested in this case study in order to examine the change in behavior of the model physics at 16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 km grid spacings with and without the use a convective parameterization. The primary purpose of these tests is to better understand the change in behavior of the boundary layer and convective schemes across the grey zone, such that further targeted modifications can then help improve general performance at various scales. The RAP currently employs a modified form of the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) PBL scheme, which is an improved TKE-based scheme tuned to match large-eddy simulations. Modifications have been performed to better match observations at 13 km (RAP) grid spacing but more multi-scale testing is required before modifications are introduced to make it scale-aware. A scale-aware convective parameterization, the Grell-Freitas scheme (both deep- and shallow-cumulus scheme), has been developed to better handle the transition in behavior of the sub-grid scale convective processes through the grey zone. This study examines the change in behavior of both schemes across the grey zone. Their transitional behavior

  13. Multiplexed chromosome conformation capture sequencing for rapid genome-scale high-resolution detection of long-range chromatin interactions.

    PubMed

    Stadhouders, Ralph; Kolovos, Petros; Brouwer, Rutger; Zuin, Jessica; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kockx, Christel; Palstra, Robert-Jan; Wendt, Kerstin S; Grosveld, Frank; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Soler, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology is a powerful and increasingly popular tool for analyzing the spatial organization of genomes. Several 3C variants have been developed (e.g., 4C, 5C, ChIA-PET, Hi-C), allowing large-scale mapping of long-range genomic interactions. Here we describe multiplexed 3C sequencing (3C-seq), a 4C variant coupled to next-generation sequencing, allowing genome-scale detection of long-range interactions with candidate regions. Compared with several other available techniques, 3C-seq offers a superior resolution (typically single restriction fragment resolution; approximately 1-8 kb on average) and can be applied in a semi-high-throughput fashion. It allows the assessment of long-range interactions of up to 192 genes or regions of interest in parallel by multiplexing library sequencing. This renders multiplexed 3C-seq an inexpensive, quick (total hands-on time of 2 weeks) and efficient method that is ideal for the in-depth analysis of complex genetic loci. The preparation of multiplexed 3C-seq libraries can be performed by any investigator with basic skills in molecular biology techniques. Data analysis requires basic expertise in bioinformatics and in Linux and Python environments. The protocol describes all materials, critical steps and bioinformatics tools required for successful application of 3C-seq technology.

  14. Enhancement tuning and control for high dynamic range images in multi-scale locally adaptive contrast enhancement algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Sascha D.; Schirris, Johan; de With, Peter H. N.

    2009-01-01

    For real-time imaging in surveillance applications, visibility of details is of primary importance to ensure customer confidence. If we display High Dynamic-Range (HDR) scenes whose contrast spans four or more orders of magnitude on a conventional monitor without additional processing, results are unacceptable. Compression of the dynamic range is therefore a compulsory part of any high-end video processing chain because standard monitors are inherently Low- Dynamic Range (LDR) devices with maximally two orders of display dynamic range. In real-time camera processing, many complex scenes are improved with local contrast enhancements, bringing details to the best possible visibility. In this paper, we show how a multi-scale high-frequency enhancement scheme, in which gain is a non-linear function of the detail energy, can be used for the dynamic range compression of HDR real-time video camera signals. We also show the connection of our enhancement scheme to the processing way of the Human Visual System (HVS). Our algorithm simultaneously controls perceived sharpness, ringing ("halo") artifacts (contrast) and noise, resulting in a good balance between visibility of details and non-disturbance of artifacts. The overall quality enhancement, suitable for both HDR and LDR scenes, is based on a careful selection of the filter types for the multi-band decomposition and a detailed analysis of the signal per frequency band.

  15. On the extent of size range and power law scaling for particles of natural carbonate fault cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    To determine the size range and both type and extent of the scaling laws for particles of loose natural carbonate fault rocks, six granular fault cores from Mesozoic carbonate strata of central Italy were sampled. Particle size distributions of twelve samples were determined by combining sieving and sedimentation methods. Results show that, regardless of the fault geometry, kinematics, and tectonic history, the size of fault rock particles respects a power law distribution across approximately four orders of magnitude. The fractal dimension ( D) of the particle size distribution in the analysed samples ranges between ˜2.0 and ˜3.5. A lower bound to the power law trend is evident in all samples except in those with the highest D-values; in these samples, the smallest analysed particles (˜0.0005 mm in diameter) were also included in the power law interval, meaning that the lower size limit of the power law distribution decreases for increasing D-values and that smallest particles start to be comminuted with increasing strain (i.e. increasing fault displacement and D-values). For increasing D-values, also the largest particles tends to decrease in number, but this evidence may be affected by a censoring bias connected with the sample size. Stick-slip behaviour is suggested for the studied faults on the basis of the inferred particle size evolutions. Although further analyses are necessary to make the results of this study more generalizable, the preliminary definition of the scaling rules for fault rock particles may serve as a tool for predicting a large scale of fault rock particles once a limited range is known. In particular, data from this study may result useful as input numbers in numerical models addressing the packing of fault rock particles for frictional and hydraulic purposes.

  16. Predicting the influence of long-range molecular interactions on macroscopic-scale diffusion by homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekenes-Huskey, P. M.; Gillette, A. K.; McCammon, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    The macroscopic diffusion constant for a charged diffuser is in part dependent on (1) the volume excluded by solute "obstacles" and (2) long-range interactions between those obstacles and the diffuser. Increasing excluded volume reduces transport of the diffuser, while long-range interactions can either increase or decrease diffusivity, depending on the nature of the potential. We previously demonstrated [P. M. Kekenes-Huskey et al., Biophys. J. 105, 2130 (2013)] using homogenization theory that the configuration of molecular-scale obstacles can both hinder diffusion and induce diffusional anisotropy for small ions. As the density of molecular obstacles increases, van der Waals (vdW) and electrostatic interactions between obstacle and a diffuser become significant and can strongly influence the latter's diffusivity, which was neglected in our original model. Here, we extend this methodology to include a fixed (time-independent) potential of mean force, through homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation. We consider the diffusion of ions in crowded, hydrophilic environments at physiological ionic strengths and find that electrostatic and vdW interactions can enhance or depress effective diffusion rates for attractive or repulsive forces, respectively. Additionally, we show that the observed diffusion rate may be reduced independent of non-specific electrostatic and vdW interactions by treating obstacles that exhibit specific binding interactions as "buffers" that absorb free diffusers. Finally, we demonstrate that effective diffusion rates are sensitive to distribution of surface charge on a globular protein, Troponin C, suggesting that the use of molecular structures with atomistic-scale resolution can account for electrostatic influences on substrate transport. This approach offers new insight into the influence of molecular-scale, long-range interactions on transport of charged species, particularly for diffusion-influenced signaling events occurring in crowded

  17. Predicting the influence of long-range molecular interactions on macroscopic-scale diffusion by homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kekenes-Huskey, P. M.; Gillette, A. K.; McCammon, J. A.

    2014-05-07

    The macroscopic diffusion constant for a charged diffuser is in part dependent on (1) the volume excluded by solute “obstacles” and (2) long-range interactions between those obstacles and the diffuser. Increasing excluded volume reduces transport of the diffuser, while long-range interactions can either increase or decrease diffusivity, depending on the nature of the potential. We previously demonstrated [P. M. Kekenes-Huskey et al., Biophys. J. 105, 2130 (2013)] using homogenization theory that the configuration of molecular-scale obstacles can both hinder diffusion and induce diffusional anisotropy for small ions. As the density of molecular obstacles increases, van der Waals (vdW) and electrostatic interactions between obstacle and a diffuser become significant and can strongly influence the latter's diffusivity, which was neglected in our original model. Here, we extend this methodology to include a fixed (time-independent) potential of mean force, through homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation. We consider the diffusion of ions in crowded, hydrophilic environments at physiological ionic strengths and find that electrostatic and vdW interactions can enhance or depress effective diffusion rates for attractive or repulsive forces, respectively. Additionally, we show that the observed diffusion rate may be reduced independent of non-specific electrostatic and vdW interactions by treating obstacles that exhibit specific binding interactions as “buffers” that absorb free diffusers. Finally, we demonstrate that effective diffusion rates are sensitive to distribution of surface charge on a globular protein, Troponin C, suggesting that the use of molecular structures with atomistic-scale resolution can account for electrostatic influences on substrate transport. This approach offers new insight into the influence of molecular-scale, long-range interactions on transport of charged species, particularly for diffusion-influenced signaling events occurring in

  18. Predicting the influence of long-range molecular interactions on macroscopic-scale diffusion by homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation.

    PubMed

    Kekenes-Huskey, P M; Gillette, A K; McCammon, J A

    2014-05-07

    The macroscopic diffusion constant for a charged diffuser is in part dependent on (1) the volume excluded by solute "obstacles" and (2) long-range interactions between those obstacles and the diffuser. Increasing excluded volume reduces transport of the diffuser, while long-range interactions can either increase or decrease diffusivity, depending on the nature of the potential. We previously demonstrated [P. M. Kekenes-Huskey et al., Biophys. J. 105, 2130 (2013)] using homogenization theory that the configuration of molecular-scale obstacles can both hinder diffusion and induce diffusional anisotropy for small ions. As the density of molecular obstacles increases, van der Waals (vdW) and electrostatic interactions between obstacle and a diffuser become significant and can strongly influence the latter's diffusivity, which was neglected in our original model. Here, we extend this methodology to include a fixed (time-independent) potential of mean force, through homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation. We consider the diffusion of ions in crowded, hydrophilic environments at physiological ionic strengths and find that electrostatic and vdW interactions can enhance or depress effective diffusion rates for attractive or repulsive forces, respectively. Additionally, we show that the observed diffusion rate may be reduced independent of non-specific electrostatic and vdW interactions by treating obstacles that exhibit specific binding interactions as "buffers" that absorb free diffusers. Finally, we demonstrate that effective diffusion rates are sensitive to distribution of surface charge on a globular protein, Troponin C, suggesting that the use of molecular structures with atomistic-scale resolution can account for electrostatic influences on substrate transport. This approach offers new insight into the influence of molecular-scale, long-range interactions on transport of charged species, particularly for diffusion-influenced signaling events occurring in crowded

  19. Characterization of Multi-Scale Atmospheric Conditions Associated with Extreme Precipitation in the Transverse Ranges of Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, N.; Kaplan, M.; Ralph, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    The east-west oriented Transverse Ranges of Southern California have historically experienced shallow landslides and debris flows that threaten life and property. Steep topography, soil composition, and frequent wildfires make this area susceptible to mass wasting. Extreme rainfall often acts as a trigger for these events. This work characterizes atmospheric conditions at multiple scales during extreme (>99th percentile) 1-day precipitation events in the major sub-ranges of the Transverse Ranges. Totals from these 1-day events generally exceed the established sub-daily intensity-duration thresholds for shallow landslides and debris flows in this region. Daily extreme precipitation values are derived from both gridded and station-based datasets over the period 1958-2014. For each major sub-range, extreme events are clustered by atmospheric feature and direction of moisture transport. A composite analysis of synoptic conditions is produced for each cluster to create a conceptual model of atmospheric conditions favoring extreme precipitation. The vertical structure of the atmosphere during these extreme events is also examined using observed and modeled soundings. Preliminary results show two atmospheric features to be of importance: 1) closed and cutoff low-pressure systems, areas of counter-clockwise circulation that can produce southerly flow orthogonal to the Transverse Range ridge axes; and 2) atmospheric rivers that transport large quantities of water vapor into the region. In some cases, the closed lows and atmospheric rivers work in concert with each other to produce extreme precipitation. Additionally, there is a notable east-west dipole of precipitation totals during some extreme events between the San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains where extreme values are observed in one range and not the other. The cause of this relationship is explored. The results of this work can help forecasters and emergency responders determine the likelihood that an event will

  20. A long-range laser velocimeter for the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex: New developments and experimental application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinath, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    A long-range laser velocimeter (LV) developed for remote operation from within the flow fields of the large wind tunnels of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex is described. Emphasis is placed on recent improvements in optical hardware as well as recent additions to data acquisition and processing techniques. The system has been upgraded from a dual-beam, single-color LV with focal range to 10 m, to a dual-beam, two-color LV with focal range to 20 m. At the new extended measurement range (between 10 and 20 m), signals are photon-resolved, and a photon correlation technique is applied to acquire and process the LV signals. This technique permits recovery of the velocity probability distributions at a particular measurement location from which the mean components of velocity and the corresponding normal stress components of turbulence are obtained. The method used for data reduction is outlined in detail, and a discussion of measurement accuracy is made. To study the performance of the LV and verify the measurement accuracy, laboratory measurements were made in the flow field of a 10 cm-diameter, 30-m/sec axisymmetric jet. A discussion of the requirements and techniques used to seed the flow is made, and boundary-layer surveys of mean velocity and turbulence intensity of the streamwise component and the component normal to the surface are presented.

  1. Experimental study of attenuation and dispersion over a broad frequency range: 2. The universal scaling of polycrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Christine; Takei, Yasuko; Hiraga, Takehiko

    2011-09-01

    In order to extend the range of conditions that can be obtained in experiments, we have measured the viscoelastic properties of polycrystalline organic borneol, as an analogue to mantle rock. Using a custom fabricated apparatus, the Young's modulus E and attenuation QE-1 were measured accurately over a broad frequency range (10-4 ≤ f (Hz) ≤ 2.15) and at low strain amplitude (10-5-10-6). Creep experiments were performed with the same apparatus to measure the steady state viscosity. Anelasticity and viscosity were measured at high homologous temperatures (T = 22-48°C; T/Tm = 0.61-0.67) and various grain sizes (3-22 μm), the growth of which was controlled by annealing. Using the measured viscosities η and the unrelaxed modulus EU determined from ultrasonic experiments, the frequency of the entire data set was normalized by the Maxwell frequency fM = EU/η, resulting in E and Q-1 master curves. The Q-1 data from previous studies on olivine-dominated samples also collapse onto the same curve when scaled by fM,, demonstrating the universality of anelasticity for polycrystalline materials. The similitude by the Maxwell frequency scaling indicates that the dominant mechanism for the anelasticity observed in this study and in previous studies is diffusionally accommodated grain boundary sliding. A generalized formulation for this similitude is provided to extrapolate the experimental data to velocity and attenuation of seismic shear waves.

  2. Application of the reduction of scale range in a Lorentz boosted frame to the numerical simulation of particle acceleration devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J; Fawley, W M; Geddes, C G; Cormier-Michel, E; Grote, D P

    2009-05-05

    It has been shown that the ratio of longest to shortest space and time scales of a system of two or more components crossing at relativistic velocities is not invariant under Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference minimizing an aggregate measure of the ratio of space and time scales. It was demonstrated that this translated into a reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times, using methods based on first principles (e.g., Particle-In-Cell), for particle acceleration devices and for problems such as: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. Since then, speed-ups ranging from 75 to more than four orders of magnitude have been reported for the simulation of either scaled or reduced models of the above-cited problems. In it was shown that to achieve full benefits of the calculation in a boosted frame, some of the standard numerical techniques needed to be revised. The theory behind the speed-up of numerical simulation in a boosted frame, latest developments of numerical methods, and example applications with new opportunities that they offer are all presented.

  3. Investigating GRACE Range-Rate Observations over West Africa with respect to Small-Scale Hydrological Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A.; Eicker, A.; Kusche, J.; Longuevergne, L.; Diekkrüger, B.; Jütten, T.

    2015-12-01

    Here, GRACE K-band range rate (KBRR) observations are analyzed for the effects from small-scale hydrological signals over West Africa including water level changes in reservoirs, extreme weather events, and water storage variability predicted by hydrological models. The presented approach, which is based on level 1B data, avoids the downward continuation and filtering process required for computing monthly gravity field solutions and, thus, enables to assess hydrological signals with a high temporal resolution and at small spatial scales. In a first step, water mass variations derived from tide gauges, altimetry, and from hydrological model output are converted into simulated KBRR observations. Secondly, these simulated observations and a number of geophysical corrections are reduced from the original GRACE K-band observations to obtain the residuals for a time span of ten years. Then, (i) the residuals are used to validate differently modeled water mass variations and (ii) extreme weather events are identified in the residuals. West Africa represents an interesting study region as it is increasingly facing exteme precipitation events and floodings. In this study, monthly and daily output from different global hydrological models is validated for their representation of long-term and short-term (daily) water storage variability over West Africa. The daily RMS of KBRR residuals ranges between 0.1 μm/s and 0.7 μm/s. Smaller residuals imply that the model is able to better explain the observations. For example, we find that in 2007 the Land Surface Discharge Model (LSDM) better agrees with GRACE range-rate observations than the Water-GAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) and the GLDAS-Noah land surface model. Furthermore, we confirm previous studies and show that the signal from Lake Volta is distinctly contained in the residuals. Finally, we investigate variations of other smaller reservoirs and the floodings over West Africa in June 2009 and over Benin in October 2010.

  4. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For

  5. Molecular-scale tribology of amorphous carbon coatings: effects of film thickness, adhesion, and long-range interactions.

    PubMed

    Gao, G T; Mikulski, Paul T; Harrison, Judith A

    2002-06-19

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to investigate the atomic-scale friction and wear when hydrogen-terminated diamond (111) counterfaces are in sliding contact with diamond (111) surfaces coated with amorphous, hydrogen-free carbon films. Two films, with approximately the same ratio of sp(3)-to-sp(2) carbon, but different thicknesses, have been examined. Both systems give a similar average friction in the load range examined. Above a critical load, a series of tribochemical reactions occur resulting in a significant restructuring of the film. This restructuring is analogous to the "run-in" observed in macroscopic friction experiments and reduces the friction. The contribution of adhesion between the probe (counterface) and the sample to friction was examined by varying the saturation of the counterface. Decreasing the degree of counterface saturation, by reducing the hydrogen termination, increases the friction. Finally, the contribution of long-range interactions to friction was examined by using two potential energy functions that differ only in their long-range forces to examine friction in the same system.

  6. Scaling of the largest dynamical barrier in the one-dimensional long-range Ising spin glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The long-range one-dimensional Ising spin glass with random couplings decaying as J(r )∝r-σ presents a spin-glass phase Tc(σ)>0 for 0≤σ<1 (the limit σ =0 corresponds to the mean-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model). We use the eigenvalue method introduced in our previous work (C. Monthus and T. Garel, J. Stat. Mech. 2009, P12017) to measure the equilibrium time teq(N ) at temperature T =Tc(σ)/2 as a function of the number N of spins. We find the activated scaling lnteq(N )¯˜Nψ with the same barrier exponent ψ ≃0.33 in the whole region 0≤σ<1.

  7. Participatory monitoring and evaluation to aid investment in natural resource manager capacity at a range of scales.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter R; Jacobs, Brent; Leith, Peat

    2012-12-01

    Natural resource (NR) outcomes at catchment scale rely heavily on the adoption of sustainable practices by private NR managers because they control the bulk of the NR assets. Public funds are invested in capacity building of private landholders to encourage adoption of more sustainable natural resource management (NRM) practices. However, prioritisation of NRM funding programmes has often been top-down with limited understanding of the multiple dimensions of landholder capacity leading to a failure to address the underlying capacity constraints of local communities. We argue that well-designed participatory monitoring and evaluation of landholder capacity can provide a mechanism to codify the tacit knowledge of landholders about the social-ecological systems in which they are embedded. This process enables tacit knowledge to be used by regional NRM bodies and government agencies to guide NRM investment in the Australian state of New South Wales. This paper details the collective actions to remove constraints to improved NRM that were identified by discrete groups of landholders through this process. The actions spanned geographical and temporal scales, and responsibility for them ranged across levels of governance.

  8. Using Flux Data at a Range of Time-scales to Characterise the Role of the Land Surface in Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, E.; Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    Flux data gives information at a range of scales: from hourly to interannual (and in some cases decadal). By analysing different timescales and using some different sampling strategies, it is possible to diagnose different aspects of the land surface that affect the energy partition into sensible and latent heat (evapotranspiration). For instance, the night to day time ratio tells us about the aerodynamic roughness of the surface, the seasonality of the partition tells us about the phenology of the vegetation and the speed of dry down after a rainfall event tells us about the sizes of the stores of moisture both held within the canopy of the vegetation and in the root zone below the ground. This study analyses a range of flux data at sites across the world in varying climate conditions, with carrying land cover attributes: trees, grasses and crops, deciduous and evergreen, broadleaf and needleleaf. The method designed to characterise the surface's control of the evapotranspiration is quantified. Ultimately the data is needed for model validation. In this case, the characterisation of the surface is used to inform a land surface model (JULES) which is used in global climate, weather and water resource applications.

  9. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants

  10. Fine scale climatic and soil variability effects on plant species cover along the Front Range of Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, William Frank Preston

    Fine scale studies are rarely performed to address landscape level responses to microclimatic variability. Is it the timing, distribution, and magnitude of soil temperature and moisture that affects what species emerge each season and, in turn, their resilience to fluctuations in microclimate. For this dissertation research, I evaluated the response of vegetation change to microclimatic variability within two communities over a three year period (2009-2012) utilizing 25 meter transects at two locations along the Front Range of Colorado near Boulder, CO and Golden, CO respectively. To assess microclimatic variability, spatial and temporal autocorrelation analyses were performed with soil temperature and moisture. Species cover was assessed along several line transects and correlated with microclimatic variability. Spatial and temporal autocorrelograms are useful tools in identifying the degree of dependency of soil temperature and moisture on the distance and time between pairs of measurements. With this analysis I found that a meter spatial resolution and two-hour measurements are sufficient to capture the fine scale variability in soil properties throughout the year. By comparing this to in situ measurements of soil properties and species percent cover I found that there are several plant functional types and/or species origin in particular that are more sensitive to variations in temperature and moisture than others. When all seasons, locations, correlations, and regional climate are looked at, it is the month of March that stands out in terms of significance. Additionally, of all of the vegetation types represented at these two sites C4, C3, native, non-native, and forb species seem to be the most sensitive to fluctuations in soil temperature, moisture, and regional climate in the spring season. The steady decline in percent species cover the study period and subsequent decrease in percent species cover and size at both locations may indicate that certain are

  11. Observing Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun-Earth L5 Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; St Cyr, O. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere and are known to be responsible for severe space weather. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). The STEREO mission viewed CMEs from points away from the Sun-Earth line and demonstrated the importance of such observations in understanding the three-dimensional structure of CMEs and their true kinematics. In this paper, we show that it is advantageous to observe CMEs from the Sun-Earth L5 point in studying CMEs that affect Earth. In particular, these observations are important in identifying that part of the CME that is likely to arrive at Earth. L5 observations are critical for several aspects of CME studies such as: (i) they can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input for modeling Earth-arriving CMEs, (ii) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, and (iii) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, which may not be possible from the Sun-Earth line. We also discuss how the L5 vantage point compares with the Sun-Earth L4 point for observing Earth-affecting CMEs. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at

  12. Scale of the equilibration volume in eclogites: insights from a new micro-mapping approach - Example of Atbashi range, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loury, Chloé; Lanari, Pierre; Rolland, Yann; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

    2014-05-01

    Understanding geodynamic processes in subduction zones and mountains belts relies on the reconstruction of precise pressure-temperature paths (P-T paths) from metamorphic rocks. Most P-T paths are obtained using quantitative thermobarometry such as forward thermodynamics models. The question of the scale of the equilibration volume is of prime importance because its chemistry is used as input for the calculation of P-T sections. In chemically homogeneous rocks the bulk rock may be obtained either by ICP-MS or XRF analysis on whole rocks. For chemically heterogeneous rocks, containing different mineral assemblages and/or a high proportion of zoned minerals, the concept of local effective bulk (LEB) is essential. In the last 10 years, X-ray micro-mapping methods have been developed in this aim. Here we show how standardized X-ray maps can be used to estimate the equilibration volume at the pressure peak in an eclogite sample. The study area lies in the Atbashi range, in Kyrgyzstan, along the South-Tianshan carboniferous suture of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt with the Tarim block. We use the micro-mapping approach to unravel the P-T path of a mafic eclogite containing mm-scale garnet porphyroblasts. Quantitative compositional maps of a garnet and its surrounding matrix are obtained from standardized X-ray maps processed with the XMapTools program (Lanari et al, 2014). By using these maps we measured the LEB corresponding to the different stages of garnet growth. The equilibration volume is then modeled using the local compositions (extrapolated in 3D) combined with Gibbs free energy minimization. Our model suggests that equilibrium conditions are attained for chemistry made of 90% of garnet and 10% of matrix. P-T sections are calculated from the core of the garnet to the rim taking into account the fractionation at each stage of garnet growth by changing the bulk composition. We obtained the following P-T path: (1) garnet core crystallization during prograde stage

  13. The Effect of Compressibility on Eight Full-Scale Propellers Operating in the Take-Off and Climbing Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Tests were made of eight full-scale propellers of different shape at various tip speeds up to about 1,000 feet per second. The range of blade-angle settings investigated was from 10 degrees to 30 degrees at the 0.75 radius. The results indicate that a loss in propulsive efficiency occurred at tip speeds from 0.5 to 0.7 the velocity of sound for the take-off and climbing conditions. As the tip speed increased beyond these critical values, the loss rapidly increased and amounted, in some instances, to more than 20 percent of the thrust power for tip-speed values of 0.8 the speed of sound. In general, as the blade-angle setting was increased, the loss started to occur at lower tip speeds. The maximum loss for a given tip speed occurred at a blade-angle setting of about 20 degrees for the take-off and 25 degrees for the climbing condition. A simplified method for correcting propellers for the effect of compressibility is given in an appendix.

  14. Iowa's Severity Rating Scales for Communication Disabilities: Preschool, Ages 2-5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freilinger, J. Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The Iowa Severity Rating Scales are designed to provide general guidelines which may be used as a part of the clinical speech and language program to obtain uniform identification of preschool children with communication disabilities. Section 1 contains definitions, an explanation of the severity classification (a 5 point scale ranging from 0 for…

  15. Buoyancy effects on the scaling characteristics of atmospheric boundary-layer wind fields in the mesoscale range.

    PubMed

    Kiliyanpilakkil, V P; Basu, S; Ruiz-Columbié, A; Araya, G; Castillo, L; Hirth, B; Burgett, W

    2015-09-01

    We have analyzed long-term wind speed time series from five field sites up to a height of 300 m from the ground. Structure function-based scaling analysis has revealed that the scaling exponents in the mesoscale regime systematically depend on height. This anomalous behavior is likely caused by the buoyancy effects. In the framework of the extended self-similarity, the relative scaling exponents portray quasiuniversal behavior.

  16. Noninvariance of space- and time-scale ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the implications for the study of relativistic interactions.

    PubMed

    Vay, J-L

    2007-03-30

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived, for example, for the following cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. The implications for experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such systems.

  17. On the non-invariance of space and time scale ranges under Lorentztransformation, and its implications for the study of relativisticinteractions

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.

    2007-01-16

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under the Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived for example cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beam interacting with electron clouds. Implications for experimental, theoretical and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such systems.

  18. Noninvariance of Space and Time Scale Ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the Implications for the Numerical Study of Relativistic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Vay, J.-L.

    2007-11-12

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under the Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived for example cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beam interacting with electron clouds. Implications for experimental, theoretical and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such systems.

  19. Noninvariance of Space- and Time-Scale Ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the Implications for the Study of Relativistic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.

    2007-03-30

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived, for example, for the following cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. The implications for experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such system000.

  20. Portable PVS-02 spectrometer for transfer of the spectral radiance scale in the 0.4-2.5 μm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Yu. V.; Rogovets, A. V.; Khomitsevich, A. D.; Tsikman, I. M.

    2010-11-01

    We describe selection of an optical layout and calculation of the spectral sensitivity and measurement uncertainty in a portable spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for transfer of the brightness scale in the 0.4-2.5 μm range from one brightness reference standard to another.

  1. Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  2. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need 21st Century Conservation Options

    PubMed Central

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria’s life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations. PMID:26509270

  3. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  4. Magnetizing NIF Sub-Scale Capsules For Reaching Ignition Using Laser Energy in the 1 MJ Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, G.; Ho, D.; Perkins, J.; Kagan, G.; Logan, G.; Salmonson, J.; Rhodes, M.; Blackfield, D.

    2016-10-01

    Fusion yield for ICF can be amplified by imposing a seed B-field around 50 T to confine alphas and to reduce electron heat conduction. Achieving 58 T in offline lab tests in sample hohlraum coils driven by a pulsed-power supply was demonstrated by Rhodes. Three topics are addressed. (1) The derivation of a 0D energy balance equation that including the effect of B-field. The ignition boundary obtained from this equation shows that a strong compressed B-field substantially reduces the minimum hotspot ρR required for ignition by about 50%. (2) The design of a near-term experimental demonstration of the effect of B-field on yield improvement based on our sub-scale gas-filled Symcap design for the NIF experiment (non-magnetized) that gave 1D yield and showed good symmetry. (3) The quest and design of magnetized sub-scale capsule with DT ice layer that gives robust ignition and requires only about 1 MJ of laser energy. Our baseline non-magnetized sub-scale design, with a seed field of 50T, gives a robust ignition with 1 MJ yield. This work performed under auspices of U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Study of precision weak-link stage systems with large travel range and sub-nanometer-scale resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Deming; Maser, Jorg

    2010-06-23

    To use x-ray optics with nanometer resolution limit, scanning x-ray nanoprobes with corresponding mechanical positioning capability need to be designed. In particular, positioning stages with both sub-nanometer resolution and a positioning/scanning range of several millimeters are required. Based on our design of precision weak-link stages with interferometric encoders for the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) hard x-ray nanoprobe at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Sector 26, we have developed a new two-dimensional (2-D) weak-link stage system for nanopositioning of a specimen holder. This system provides sub-nanometer resolution, coupled with sub-nanometer metrology at a travel range of several millimeters. The 2-D weak-link stage system is designed with high structure stiffness using laminar overconstrained weak-link mechanisms [4-6]. In this paper we present the study of a linear precision weak-link stage system with sub-centimeter travel range and sub-nanometer positioning resolution. Design of a rotary weak-link stage system with 10-nrad resolution and 10-degree-level travel range is also discussed in this paper.

  6. Characterization of Cyclic Nitramine Explosives in Wainwright Firing Range Soil during Pilot Scale Treatment with Fe(0) and Phytoremediation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-08

    range in Wainwright Alberta All five of the plant species analyzed (Alfalfa Medicago sativa, Bush bean Phaseolus vulgaris Canola Brassica rapa, Wheat...Wainwright Alberta All five of the plant species analyzed (Alfalfa Medicago sativa, Bush bean Phaseolus vulgaris , Canola Brassica rapa, Wheat Triticum

  7. Fault geometries illuminated from seismicity in central Taiwan: Implications for crustal scale structural boundaries in the northern Central Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Jonathan R.; Byrne, Timothy; Chan, Yu-Chang; Wu, Francis; Rau, Ruey-Juin

    2007-12-01

    Data sets of collapsed earthquake locations, earthquake focal mechanisms, GPS velocities and geologic data are integrated to constrain the geometry and kinematics of a crustal block within the accreted continental margin rocks of Taiwan's northeastern Central Range. This block is laterally extruding and exhuming towards the north-northeast. The block is bound on the west-southwest by the previously recognized Sanyi-Puli seismic zone and on the east by a vertical seismic structure that projects to the eastern mountain front of the Central Range. Focal mechanisms from the Broadband Array of Taiwan Seismicity (BATS) catalog consistently show west-side-up reverse displacements for this fault zone. A second vertical structure is recognized beneath the Slate Belt-Metamorphic Belt boundary as a post-Chi-Chi relaxation oblique normal fault. BATS focal mechanisms show east-side-up, normal displacements with a minor left-lateral component. The vertical and lateral extrusion of this crustal block may be driven by the current collision between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Puli basement high indenter on the Eurasian Plate and/or trench rollback along the Ryukyu subduction zone. In addition, the vertical extent of the two shear zones suggests that a basal décollement below the eastern Central Range is deeper than previously proposed and may extend below the brittle-ductile transition.

  8. Microstructural investigation of Sr-modified Al-15 wt%Si alloys in the range from micrometer to atomic scale.

    PubMed

    Timpel, M; Wanderka, N; Vinod Kumar, G S; Banhart, J

    2011-05-01

    Strontium-modified Al-15 wt%Si casting alloys were investigated after 5 and 60 min of melt holding. The eutectic microstructures were studied using complementary methods at different length scales: focused ion beam-energy selective backscattered tomography, transmission electron microscopy and 3D atom probe. Whereas the samples after 5 min of melt holding show that the structure of eutectic Si changes into a fine fibrous morphology, the increase of prolonged melt holding (60 min) leads to the loss of Sr within the alloy with an evolution of an unmodified eutectic microstructure displaying coarse interconnected Si plates. Strontium was found at the Al/Si eutectic interfaces on the side of the eutectic Al region, measured by 3D atom probe. The new results obtained using 3D atom probe shed light on the location of Sr within the Al-Si eutectic microstructure.

  9. Lineage range estimation method reveals fine-scale endemism linked to Pleistocene stability in Australian rainforest herpetofauna.

    PubMed

    Rosauer, Dan F; Catullo, Renee A; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moussalli, Adnan; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Areas of suitable habitat for species and communities have arisen, shifted, and disappeared with Pleistocene climate cycles, and through this shifting landscape, current biodiversity has found paths to the present. Evolutionary refugia, areas of relative habitat stability in this shifting landscape, support persistence of lineages through time, and are thus crucial to the accumulation and maintenance of biodiversity. Areas of endemism are indicative of refugial areas where diversity has persisted, and endemism of intraspecific lineages in particular is strongly associated with late-Pleistocene habitat stability. However, it remains a challenge to consistently estimate the geographic ranges of intraspecific lineages and thus infer phylogeographic endemism, because spatial sampling for genetic analyses is typically sparse relative to species records. We present a novel technique to model the geographic distribution of intraspecific lineages, which is informed by the ecological niche of a species and known locations of its constituent lineages. Our approach allows for the effects of isolation by unsuitable habitat, and captures uncertainty in the extent of lineage ranges. Applying this method to the arc of rainforest areas spanning 3500 km in eastern Australia, we estimated lineage endemism for 53 species of rainforest dependent herpetofauna with available phylogeographic data. We related endemism to the stability of rainforest habitat over the past 120,000 years and identified distinct concentrations of lineage endemism that can be considered putative refugia. These areas of lineage endemism are strongly related to historical stability of rainforest habitat, after controlling for the effects of current environment. In fact, a dynamic stability model that allows movement to track suitable habitat over time was the most important factor in explaining current patterns of endemism. The techniques presented here provide an objective, practical method for estimating

  10. Lineage Range Estimation Method Reveals Fine-Scale Endemism Linked to Pleistocene Stability in Australian Rainforest Herpetofauna

    PubMed Central

    Rosauer, Dan F.; Catullo, Renee A.; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moussalli, Adnan; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Areas of suitable habitat for species and communities have arisen, shifted, and disappeared with Pleistocene climate cycles, and through this shifting landscape, current biodiversity has found paths to the present. Evolutionary refugia, areas of relative habitat stability in this shifting landscape, support persistence of lineages through time, and are thus crucial to the accumulation and maintenance of biodiversity. Areas of endemism are indicative of refugial areas where diversity has persisted, and endemism of intraspecific lineages in particular is strongly associated with late-Pleistocene habitat stability. However, it remains a challenge to consistently estimate the geographic ranges of intraspecific lineages and thus infer phylogeographic endemism, because spatial sampling for genetic analyses is typically sparse relative to species records. We present a novel technique to model the geographic distribution of intraspecific lineages, which is informed by the ecological niche of a species and known locations of its constituent lineages. Our approach allows for the effects of isolation by unsuitable habitat, and captures uncertainty in the extent of lineage ranges. Applying this method to the arc of rainforest areas spanning 3500 km in eastern Australia, we estimated lineage endemism for 53 species of rainforest dependent herpetofauna with available phylogeographic data. We related endemism to the stability of rainforest habitat over the past 120,000 years and identified distinct concentrations of lineage endemism that can be considered putative refugia. These areas of lineage endemism are strongly related to historical stability of rainforest habitat, after controlling for the effects of current environment. In fact, a dynamic stability model that allows movement to track suitable habitat over time was the most important factor in explaining current patterns of endemism. The techniques presented here provide an objective, practical method for estimating

  11. Scaling up close-range surveys, a challenge for the generalization of as-built data in industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullo, J.-F.; Thibault, G.

    2014-06-01

    As-built CAD data reconstructed from Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) data are used for more than two decades by Electricité de France (EDF) to prepare maintenance operations in its facilities. But today, the big picture is renewed: "as-built virtual reality" must address a huge scale-up to provide data to an increasing number of applications. In this paper, we first present a wide multi-sensor multi-purpose scanning campaign performed in a 10 floor building of a power plant in 2013: 1083 TLS stations (about 40.109 3D points referenced under a 2 cm tolerance) and 1025 RGB panoramic images (340.106 pixels per point of view). As expected, this very large survey of high precision measurements in a complex environment stressed sensors and tools that were developed for more favourable conditions and smaller data sets. The whole survey process (tools and methods used from acquisition and processing to CAD reconstruction) underwent a detailed follow-up in order to state on the locks to a possible generalization to other buildings. Based on these recent feedbacks, we have highlighted some of these current bottlenecks in this paper: sensors denoising, automation in processes, data validation tools improvements, standardization of formats and (meta-) data structures.

  12. Probabilistic Prediction Of Intraseasonal Oscillations Of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall In Extended-range Scale Using A Self-organizing Map Based Ensemble Forecasting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, N.; Sahai, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Joseph, S.; Goswami, B.

    2012-12-01

    The long-range prediction of the seasonal mean monsoon at least one season in advance is important but may not be very useful and meaningful when the mean is close to normal. This is because the spatio-temporal distribution of rainfall anomalies is very inhomogeneous even when the all India mean is close to normal. In such cases or otherwise, the Extended range prediction of active and break spells of the monsoon with 3-4 weeks in advance would be very useful for sowing, harvesting and water resources management and to anticipate and mitigate disasters associated with monsoon variability. The prediction of monsoon in the extended range time scale is a major challenge to the meteorological research community owing to its complexity. Efforts had been made to explore the potential for the extended-range prediction of monsoon ISO but became inconclusive. The comparable amplitude of Intraseasonal Variability to that of the seasonal cycle now provides optimism for extended range prediction. The empirical prediction of rainfall on the extended range largely relies on the evolution of the large scale dynamical parameters. Based on the relationship of the large scale parameters and their past temporal evolution with rainfall an analog technique has been defined to separate various shades of intraseasonal oscillations from past data. For the prediction purpose analogs of the present ISO is being identified from the past database and the future is being predicted from the evolution of the past analog. Having proved this hypothesis in Chattopadhyay, Sahai and Goswami (JAS 2008) we have developed a non-linear statistical technique based on this for large ensemble of extended range empirical prediction and generation of probabilistic forecast of summer monsoon rainfall on regional and sub divisional scale over India from a large pool of parameters constructed depending on the variability on different regions and using a nonlinear pattern recognition technique known as Self

  13. Long-range correlations in the mechanics of small DNA circles under topological stress revealed by multi-scale simulation

    PubMed Central

    Sutthibutpong, Thana; Matek, Christian; Benham, Craig; Slade, Gabriel G.; Noy, Agnes; Laughton, Charles; K. Doye, Jonathan P.; Louis, Ard A.; Harris, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that gene regulation can be achieved through activator and repressor proteins that bind to DNA and switch particular genes on or off, and that complex metabolic networks determine the levels of transcription of a given gene at a given time. Using three complementary computational techniques to study the sequence-dependence of DNA denaturation within DNA minicircles, we have observed that whenever the ends of the DNA are constrained, information can be transferred over long distances directly by the transmission of mechanical stress through the DNA itself, without any requirement for external signalling factors. Our models combine atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) with coarse-grained simulations and statistical mechanical calculations to span three distinct spatial resolutions and timescale regimes. While they give a consensus view of the non-locality of sequence-dependent denaturation in highly bent and supercoiled DNA loops, each also reveals a unique aspect of long-range informational transfer that occurs as a result of restraining the DNA within the closed loop of the minicircles. PMID:27664220

  14. The Fe-Cu Metastable Nano-scale Compound for Enhanced Absorption in the UV-Vis and NIR Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alami, Abdul Hai; Abed, Jehad; Almheiri, Meera; Alketbi, Afra

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the synthesis, microstructural characterization, electrical and optical, and thermal testing of Fe-Cu metastable alloy system for selective solar absorption applications. The system is produced by mechanical alloying using high-energy ball milling while monitoring its crystallographic morphology via X-ray diffraction from the initial as-is mixture up to the one produced after 8 hours milling time. The resulting homogeneous, metastable microstructure is examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to verify the sought result of efficient inter-diffusion of elements. Optical spectroscopy results exhibit up to 81 pct enhanced absorption in the UV-Vis-NIR wavelength range with increased milling time from the as-is compound to the one obtained after 8 hours, while the trends of absorptivity curves had clear correlations with microstructural evolution. The impedance measurement of the resulting compound shows an increase in the resistance up to 120 Ω, compared with zero for the as-is starting mixture, which is a useful observation for many applications.

  15. Large-Scale Structure of the Molecular Gas in Taurus Revealed by High Linear Dynamic Range Spectral Line Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Heyer, Mark; Narayanan, Gopal; Snell, Ronald; Li, Di; Brunt, Chris

    2008-06-01

    We report the results of a 100 deg2 survey of the Taurus molecular cloud region in 12CO and 13CO J = 1→ 0. The image of the cloud in each velocity channel includes simeq3 × 106 Nyquist-sampled pixels on a 20'' grid. The high sensitivity and large spatial dynamic range of the maps reveal a very complex, highly structured cloud morphology, including filaments, cavities, and rings. The axes of the striations seen in the 12CO emission from relatively diffuse gas are aligned with the direction of the magnetic field. We have developed a statistical method for analyzing the pixels in which 12CO but not 13CO is detected, which allows us to determine the CO column in the diffuse portion of the cloud, as well as in the denser regions in which we detect both isotopologues. Using a column-density-dependent model for the CO fractional abundance, we derive the mass of the region mapped to be 2.4 × 104 M⊙, more than twice as large as would be obtained using a canonical fixed fractional abundance of 13CO, and a factor of 3 greater than would be obtained considering only the high column density regions. We determine that half the mass of the cloud is in regions having column density below 2.1 × 1021 cm-2. The distribution of young stars in the region covered is highly nonuniform, with the probability of finding a star in a pixel with a specified column density rising sharply for N(H2) = 6 × 1021 cm-2. We determine a relatively low star formation efficiency (mass of young stars/mass of molecular gas), between 0.3% and 1.2%, and an average star formation rate during the past 3 Myr of 8 × 10-5 stars yr-1.

  16. No Habitat Selection during Spring Migration at a Meso-Scale Range across Mosaic Landscapes: A Case Study with the Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola)

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Ariñe; Rodrigues, Marcos; Telletxea, Ibon; Ibáñez, Rubén; Díez, Felipe; Tobar, Joseba F.; Arizaga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Success of migration in birds in part depends on habitat selection. Overall, it is still poorly known whether there is habitat selection amongst landbird migrants moving across landscapes. Europe is chiefly covered by agro-forestry mosaic landscapes, so migratory species associated to either agricultural landscapes or woodland habitats should theoretically find suitable stopover sites along migration. During migration from wintering to breeding quarters, woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola) tagged with PTT satellite-tracking transmitters were used to test for the hypothesis that migrants associated to agro-forest habitats have no habitat selection during migration, at a meso-scale level. Using a GIS platform we extracted at a meso-scale range habitat cover at stopover localities. Results obtained from comparisons of soil covers between points randomly selected and true stopover localities sites revealed, as expected, the species may not select for particular habitats at a meso-scale range, because the habitat (or habitats) required by the species can be found virtually everywhere on their migration route. However, those birds stopping over in places richer in cropland or mosaic habitats including both cropland and forest and with proportionally less closed forest stayed for longer than in areas with lower surfaces of cropland and mosaic and more closed forest. This suggests that areas rich in cropland or mosaic habitat were optimal. PMID:27002975

  17. Assessment of the accuracy of global geodetic satellite laser ranging observations and estimated impact on ITRF scale: estimation of systematic errors in LAGEOS observations 1993-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, Graham; Rodríguez, José; Altamimi, Zuheir

    2016-12-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to the geodetic satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS-2 uniquely determines the origin of the terrestrial reference frame and, jointly with very long baseline interferometry, its scale. Given such a fundamental role in satellite geodesy, it is crucial that any systematic errors in either technique are at an absolute minimum as efforts continue to realise the reference frame at millimetre levels of accuracy to meet the present and future science requirements. Here, we examine the intrinsic accuracy of SLR measurements made by tracking stations of the International Laser Ranging Service using normal point observations of the two LAGEOS satellites in the period 1993 to 2014. The approach we investigate in this paper is to compute weekly reference frame solutions solving for satellite initial state vectors, station coordinates and daily Earth orientation parameters, estimating along with these weekly average range errors for each and every one of the observing stations. Potential issues in any of the large number of SLR stations assumed to have been free of error in previous realisations of the ITRF may have been absorbed in the reference frame, primarily in station height. Likewise, systematic range errors estimated against a fixed frame that may itself suffer from accuracy issues will absorb network-wide problems into station-specific results. Our results suggest that in the past two decades, the scale of the ITRF derived from the SLR technique has been close to 0.7 ppb too small, due to systematic errors either or both in the range measurements and their treatment. We discuss these results in the context of preparations for ITRF2014 and additionally consider the impact of this work on the currently adopted value of the geocentric gravitational constant, GM.

  18. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  19. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  20. Noninvariance of Space- and Time-Scale Ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the Implications for the Study of Relativistic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vay, Jean-Luc

    2007-11-01

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under Lorentz transformation [1]. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived, for example, for the following cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. The implications for experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such systems. A speed-up of 1000 was obtained on a proof-of-principle Particle-In-Cell simulation of a relativistic proton beam experiencing a hose-like instability as propagating through a high density of electrons in a uniform focusing channel. We are in the process of upgrading our simulation tools to be in a position to perform simulations in the optimal frame, and apply them to actual situation for the identified areas of applications. We will present results, as available. [1] Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 130405 (2007)

  1. Universal finite-size scaling analysis of Ising models with long-range interactions at the upper critical dimensionality: isotropic case.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, Daniel; Hucht, Alfred

    2004-03-01

    We investigate a two-dimensional Ising model with long-range interactions that emerge from a generalization of the magnetic dipolar interaction in spin systems with in-plane spin orientation. This interaction is, in general, anisotropic whereby in the present work we focus on the isotropic case for which the model is found to be at its upper critical dimensionality. To investigate the critical behavior the temperature and field dependence of several quantities are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. On the basis of the Privman-Fisher hypothesis and results of the renormalization group the numerical data are analyzed in the framework of a finite-size scaling analysis and compared to finite-size scaling functions derived from a Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson model in zero mode (mean-field) approximation. The obtained excellent agreement suggests that at least in the present case the concept of universal finite-size scaling functions can be extended to the upper critical dimensionality.

  2. Characterizing and quantilying controls on arsenic solubility over a pH range of 1-11 in a uranium mill-scale experiment.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Brett I; Hendry, M Jim

    2005-07-01

    A mill-scale hydrometallurgical experiment (2700 m3 of effluent treated/day) was conducted for three months at the Rabbit Lake uranium mine site located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, to determine the controls on the solubility of dissolved arsenic over a pH range of 1-11 and to develop a thermodynamic database for the dominant mineralogical controls on arsenic in the mill and the resulting mill tailings. The arsenic concentrations in the mill ranged from 526 mg/L at pH 1.0 (initial) to 1.34 mg/L at pH 10.8 (final discharge). Geochemical modeling of the chemistry data shows that arsenic solubility is controlled by the formation of scorodite (FeAsO4-2H2O) from pH 2.4 to pH 3.1, with 99.8% of dissolved arsenic precipitated as scorodite. Model results show that scorodite is unstable (releasing arsenic back in to solution) above pH 3.1 and arsenic adsorption to the surface of 2-line ferrihydrite is the dominant controlling factor in the solubility of arsenic from pH 3.2 to pH 11.0, with 99.8% of dissolved arsenic removed from solution via this mechanism. Finally, model results show -0.2% of the total dissolved arsenic adsorbs to the surface of amorphous aluminum hydroxide from pH 5.0 to pH 8.0. Minor alterations to the thermodynamic properties of arsenite and arsenate adsorption to 2-line ferrihydrite allowed the fit between measured mill-scale and modeled concentrations for the pH range of 3.2-11.0 to be optimized.

  3. Understanding green roof spatial dynamics: results from a scale based hydrologic study and introduction of a low-cost method for wide-range monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimdavar, Raha; Culligan, Patricia J.; Guido, Aida

    2014-05-01

    used to test the reliability of the proposed approach using two different low-cost soil moisture probes. The estimates of runoff are compared with observed runoff data for durations ranging between 6 months to 1 year. Preliminary results indicate that this can be an effective low-cost and low-maintenance alternative to the custom made weir and lysimeter systems frequently used to quantify runoff during green roof studies. By significantly reducing the cost and labor associated with typical monitoring efforts, the SWA method makes large scale studies of green roof hydrologic performance more feasible.

  4. Realization of the Temperature Scale in the Range from 234.3 K (Hg Triple Point) to 1084.62°C (Cu Freezing Point) in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvizdic, Davor; Veliki, Tomislav; Grgec Bermanec, Lovorka

    2008-06-01

    This article describes the realization of the International Temperature Scale in the range from 234.3 K (mercury triple point) to 1084.62°C (copper freezing point) at the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FSB), University of Zagreb. The system for the realization of the ITS-90 consists of the sealed fixed-point cells (mercury triple point, water triple point and gallium melting point) and the apparatus designed for the optimal realization of open fixed-point cells which include the gallium melting point, tin freezing point, zinc freezing point, aluminum freezing point, and copper freezing point. The maintenance of the open fixed-point cells is described, including the system for filling the cells with pure argon and for maintaining the pressure during the realization.

  5. High-grade iron ore deposits of the Mesabi Range, Minnesota-product of a continental-scale proterozoic ground-water flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, G.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Mesabi Range along the north edge of the Paleoproterozoic Penokean orogen in northern Minnesota has produced 3.6 billion metric tons of ore since its discovery in 1890. Of that amount, 2.3 billion metric tons were extracted from hematite- or geothite-rich deposits generally referred to as 'high-grade' ores. The high-grade ores formed as the Biwabik Iron-Formation was oxidized, hydrated, and leached by solutions flowing along open faults and fractures. The source of the ore-forming solutions has been debated since it was first proposed that the ores were weathering products formed by descending meteoritic ground-water flowing in late Mesozoic time. Subsequently others believed that the ores were better explained by ascending solutions, possbily hydrothermal solutions of pre-Phanerzoic age. Neither Wolff nor Gruner could reconcile their observations with a reasonable source for the solutions. In this paper, I build on modern mapping of the Mesabi Range and mine-specific geologic observations summarized in the literature to propose a conceptual model in which the high-grade ores formed from ascending solutions that were part of continent-scale topographic or gravity-driven ground-water system. I propose that the ground-water system was active during the later stages of the development of a coupled fold and thrust belt and foreland basin that formed during the Penokean orogen.

  6. The Development of the Francis Moral Values Scales: A Study among 16- to 18-Year-Old Students Taking Religious Studies at A Level in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the development of scales for measuring moral values in three domains: anti-social behaviour, sex and relationships, and substance use. Students studying religion at A level in 25 schools were invited to respond to 32 Likert items that referred to a wide range of moral issues and behaviours, employing a 5-point response…

  7. The Vimos VLT Deep Survey. Stellar mass segregation and large-scale galaxy environment in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodeggio, M.; Vergani, D.; Cucciati, O.; Iovino, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Lamareille, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Abbas, U.; Marinoni, C.; Contini, T.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; de La Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Gregorini, L.; Memeo, P.; Perez-Montero, E.; Mellier, Y.; Temporin, S.; Walcher, C. J.

    2009-07-01

    Context: Hierarchical models of galaxy formation predict that the properties of a dark matter halo depend on the large-scale environment surrounding the halo. As a result of this correlation, we expect massive haloes to be present in larger number in overdense regions than in underdense ones. Given that a correlation exists between a galaxy stellar mass and the hosting dark matter halo mass, the segregation in dark matter halo mass should then result in a segregation in the distribution of stellar mass in the galaxy population. Aims: In this work we study the distribution of galaxy stellar mass and rest-frame optical color as a function of the large-scale galaxy distribution using the VLT VIMOS Deep Survey sample, in order to verify the presence of segregation in the properties of the galaxy population. Methods: We use VVDS redshift measurements and multi-band photometric data to derive estimates of the stellar mass, rest-frame optical color, and of the large-scale galaxy density, on a scale of approximately 8 Mpc, for a sample of 5619 galaxies in the redshift range 0.2 0.7. However, when we consider only galaxies in narrow bins of stellar mass, in order to exclude the effects of stellar mass segregation on galaxy properties, we no longer observe any significant color segregation. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, program 070.A-9007(A), and on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

  8. Physicochemical characterization of aged biomass burning aerosol after long-range transport to Greece from large scale wildfires in Russia and surrounding regions, Summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diapouli, E.; Popovicheva, O.; Kistler, M.; Vratolis, S.; Persiantseva, N.; Timofeev, M.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2014-10-01

    Smoke aerosol emitted by large scale wildfires in the European part of Russia and Ukraine, was transported to Athens, Greece during August 2010 and detected at an urban background site. Measurements were conducted for physico-chemical characterization of the aged aerosol and included on-line monitoring of PM10 and carbonaceous particles mass concentrations, as well as number size distributions and aerosol optical properties. In addition TSP filter samples were analyzed for major inorganic ions, while morphology and composition of particles was studied by individual particle analysis. Results supported the long-range transport of smoke plumes from Ukraine and Russia burning areas indicated by back trajectory analysis. An increase of 50% and 40% on average in organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations respectively, and more than 95% in carbonate carbon (CC) levels was observed for the biomass burning (BB) transport period of August with respect to the previous month of July. Mean 24-h OC/EC ratio was found in the range 3.2-8.5. Single scattering albedo (SSA) was also increased, indicating abundance of light scattering constituents and/or shift of size distributions towards larger particles. Increase in particle size was further supported by a decreasing trend in absorption Angström exponent (AAE). Ion analysis showed major contribution of secondary species (ammonium sulfate and nitrate) and soil components (Ca2+, Mg2+). Non-sea salt K+ exhibited very good correlation with secondary species, indicating the long-range transport of BB smoke as a possible common source. Individual particle analysis of the samples collected during BB-transport event in Athens revealed elevated number of soot externally mixed with fly ash Ca-rich particles. This result is in agreement with the increased OC and CC levels measured, thus pointing towards the main components comprising the aged BB aerosol microstructure.

  9. The influence of coarse-scale environmental features on current and predicted future distributions of narrow-range endemic crayfish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyer, Joseph J.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas A.; Bergey, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    , whereas two of four species would be severely restricted in range under moderatehigh emissions. Discrepancies in the two emission scenarios probably relate to the exclusion of behavioural adaptations from species-distribution models. 6.These model predictions illustrate possible impacts of climate change on narrow-range endemic crayfish populations. The predictions do not account for biotic interactions, migration, local habitat conditions or species adaptation. However, we identified the constraining landscape features acting on these populations that provide a framework for addressing habitat needs at a fine scale and developing targeted and systematic monitoring programmes.

  10. Imaging the Fine-Scale Structure of the San Andreas Fault in the Northern Gabilan Range with Explosion and Earthquake Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, H.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    A number of geophysical studies have been carried out along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in the Northern Gabilan Range (NGR) with the purpose of characterizing in detail the fault zone structure. Previous seismic research has revealed the complex structure of the crustal volume in the NGR region in two-dimensions (Thurber et al., 1996, 1997), and there has been some work on the three-dimensional (3D) structure at a coarser scale (Lin and Roecker, 1997). In our study we use earthquake body-wave arrival times and differential times (P and S) and explosion arrival times (only P) to image the 3D P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper crust along the SAF in the NGR using double-difference (DD) tomography. The earthquake and explosion data types have complementary strengths - the earthquake data have good resolution at depth and resolve both Vp and Vs structure, although only where there are sufficient seismic rays between hypocenter and stations, whereas the explosions contribute very good near-surface resolution but for P waves only. The original dataset analyzed by Thurber et al. (1996, 1997) included data from 77 local earthquakes and 8 explosions. We enlarge the dataset with 114 more earthquakes that occurred in the study area, obtain improved S-wave picks using an automated picker, and include absolute and cross-correlation differential times. The inversion code we use is the algorithm tomoDD (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We assess how the P and S velocity models and earthquake locations vary as we alter the inversion parameters and the inversion grid. The new inversion results show clearly the fine-scale structure of the SAF at depth in 3D, sharpening the image of the velocity contrast from the southwest side to the northeast side.

  11. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation in the basin and range province of Arizona using remote sensing information and geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, F.D.; Callegary, J.B.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital water resource in the arid to semi-arid southwestern United States. Accurate accounting of inflows to and outflows from the groundwater system is necessary to effectively manage this shared resource, including the important outflow component of groundwater discharge by vegetation. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation is presented that uses remote sensing data from satellites, geographic information systems (GIS) land cover and stream location information, and a regression equation developed within the Southern Arizona study area relating the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite to measured evapotranspiration. Results computed for 16-day composited satellite passes over the study area during the 2000 through 2007 time period demonstrate a sinusoidal pattern of annual groundwater discharge by vegetation with median values ranging from around 0.3 mm per day in the cooler winter months to around 1.5 mm per day during summer. Maximum estimated annual volume of groundwater discharge by vegetation was between 1.4 and 1.9 billion m3 per year with an annual average of 1.6 billion m3. A simplified accounting of the contribution of precipitation to vegetation greenness was developed whereby monthly precipitation data were subtracted from computed vegetation discharge values, resulting in estimates of minimum groundwater discharge by vegetation. Basin-scale estimates of minimum and maximum groundwater discharge by vegetation produced by this simple method are useful bounding values for groundwater budgets and groundwater flow models, and the method may be applicable to other areas with similar vegetation types.

  12. Linear scaling explicitly correlated MP2-F12 and ONIOM methods for the long-range interactions of the nanoscale clusters in methanol aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei

    2013-01-07

    A linear scaling quantum chemistry method, generalized energy-based fragmentation (GEBF) approach has been extended to the explicitly correlated second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory F12 (MP2-F12) method and own N-layer integrated molecular orbital molecular mechanics (ONIOM) method, in which GEBF-MP2-F12, GEBF-MP2, and conventional density functional tight-binding methods could be used for different layers. Then the long-range interactions in dilute methanol aqueous solutions are studied by computing the binding energies between methanol molecule and water molecules in gas-phase and condensed phase methanol-water clusters with various sizes, which were taken from classic molecular dynamics (MD) snapshots. By comparing with the results of force field methods, including SPC, TIP3P, PCFF, and AMOEBA09, the GEBF-MP2-F12 and GEBF-ONIOM methods are shown to be powerful and efficient for studying the long-range interactions at a high level. With the GEBF-ONIOM(MP2-F12:MP2) and GEBF-ONIOM(MP2-F12:MP2:cDFTB) methods, the diameters of the largest nanoscale clusters under studies are about 2.4 nm (747 atoms and 10 209 basis functions with aug-cc-pVDZ basis set) and 4 nm (3351 atoms), respectively, which are almost impossible to be treated by conventional MP2 or MP2-F12 method. Thus, the GEBF-F12 and GEBF-ONIOM methods are expected to be a practical tool for studying the nanoscale clusters in condensed phase, providing an alternative benchmark for ab initio and density functional theory studies, and developing new force fields by combining with classic MD simulations.

  13. Local and long-range order of carbon impurities on Fe(100): Analysis of self-organization at a nanometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaccione, G.; Fujii, J.; Vobornik, I.; Trimarchi, G.; Binggeli, N.; Goldoni, A.; Larciprete, R.; Rossi, G.

    2006-01-01

    Bulk carbon impurities segregate at the Fe(100) surface and, upon thermal annealing, can form metastable surface phases, with local and long-range order, that show peculiar electronic properties. We present a surface science study of C-segregated Fe(100) with scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), core level spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations of the surface structure. In particular, we investigate a c(32×2) structure, observed for 0.67±0.05 atomic layers of C segregated at the iron surface. This structure is found to be due to self-organized carbon stripes, which form a regular pattern on a nanometer lateral scale and are made of zig-zag chains. The C atoms in the chains lie slightly off center in the fourfold hollow site and are bonded to 5 Fe neighbors. Striking features of this structure are the self-avoiding chains, the passivation effect of the iron surface, and the presence of one-dimensional-like Fe surface states close to the Fermi energy.

  14. A province-scale block model of Walker Lane and western Basin and Range crustal deformation constrained by GPS observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Bormann, J.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Walker Lane in the western Great Basin of the western United States is an 800 km long and 100 km wide zone of active intracontinental transtension that absorbs ~10 mm/yr, about 20% of the Pacific/North America plate boundary relative motion. Lying west of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate (SNGV) and adjoining the Basin and Range Province to the east, deformation is predominantly shear strain overprinted with a minor component of extension. The Walker Lane responds with faulting, block rotations, structural step-overs, and has distinct and varying partitioned domains of shear and extension. Resolving these complex deformation patterns requires a long term observation strategy with a dense network of GPS stations (spacing ~20 km). The University of Nevada, Reno operates the 373 station Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada transtension (MAGNET) semi-continuous network that supplements coverage by other networks such as EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory, which alone has insufficient density to resolve the deformation patterns. Uniform processing of data from these GPS mega-networks provides a synoptic view and new insights into the kinematics and mechanics of Walker Lane tectonics. We present velocities for thousands of stations with time series between 3 to 17 years in duration aligned to our new GPS-based North America fixed reference frame NA12. The velocity field shows a rate budget across the southern Walker Lane of ~10 mm/yr, decreasing northward to ~7 mm/yr at the latitude of the Mohawk Valley and Pyramid Lake. We model the data with a new block model that estimates rotations and slip rates of known active faults between the Mojave Desert and northern Nevada and northeast California. The density of active faults in the region requires including a relatively large number of blocks in the model to accurately estimate deformation patterns. With 49 blocks, our the model captures structural detail not represented in previous province-scale models, and

  15. Potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by wildfowl: dispersal ranges and rates determined from large-scale satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Mundkur, Taej; Newman, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Migratory birds are major candidates for long-distance dispersal of zoonotic pathogens. In recent years, wildfowl have been suspected of contributing to the rapid geographic spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. Experimental infection studies reveal that some wild ducks, geese and swans shed this virus asymptomatically and hence have the potential to spread it as they move. 2. We evaluate the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 viruses by wildfowl through an analysis of the movement range and movement rate of birds monitored by satellite telemetry in relation to the apparent asymptomatic infection duration (AID) measured in experimental studies. We analysed the first large-scale data set of wildfowl movements, including 228 birds from 19 species monitored by satellite telemetry in 2006–2009, over HPAI H5N1 affected regions of Asia, Europe and Africa. 3. Our results indicate that individual migratory wildfowl have the potential to disperse HPAI H5N1 over extensive distances, being able to perform movements of up to 2900 km within timeframes compatible with the duration of asymptomatic infection. 4. However, the likelihood of such virus dispersal over long distances by individual wildfowl is low: we estimate that for an individual migratory bird there are, on average, only 5–15 days per year when infection could result in the dispersal of HPAI H5N1 virus over 500 km. 5. Staging at stopover sites during migration is typically longer than the period of infection and viral shedding, preventing birds from dispersing a virus over several consecutive but interrupted long-distance movements. Intercontinental virus dispersion would therefore probably require relay transmission between a series of successively infected migratory birds. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results provide a detailed quantitative assessment of the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 virus by selected migratory birds. Such dispersive potential rests on the

  16. Spatial variations in focused exhumation along a continental-scale strike-slip fault: The Denali fault of the eastern Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benowitz, J.A.; Layer, P.W.; Armstrong, P.; Perry, S.E.; Haeussler, P.J.; Fitzgerald, P.G.; VanLaningham, S.

    2011-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission-track, and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological techniques were used to determine the Neogene exhumation history of the topographically asymmetric eastern Alaska Range. Exhumation cooling ages range from ~33 Ma to ~18 Ma for 40Ar/39Ar biotite, ~18 Ma to ~6 Ma for K-feldspar minimum closure ages, and ~15 Ma to ~1 Ma for apatite fission-track ages, and apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages range from ~4 Ma to ~1 Ma. There has been at least ~11 km of exhumation adjacent to the north side of Denali fault during the Neogene inferred from biotite 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology. Variations in exhumation history along and across the strike of the fault are influenced by both far-field effects and local structural irregularities. We infer deformation and rapid exhumation have been occurring in the eastern Alaska Range since at least ~22 Ma most likely related to the continued collision of the Yakutat microplate with the North American plate. The Nenana Mountain region is the late Pleistocene to Holocene (~past 1 Ma) primary locus of tectonically driven exhumation in the eastern Alaska Range, possibly related to variations in fault geometry. During the Pliocene, a marked increase in climatic instability and related global cooling is temporally correlated with an increase in exhumation rates in the eastern Alaska Range north of the Denali fault system.

  17. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  18. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need for 21st Century Conservation Options [corrected].

    PubMed

    Fortini, Lucas B; Vorsino, Adam E; Amidon, Fred A; Paxton, Eben H; Jacobi, James D

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  19. Large scale 20mm photography for range resources analysis in the Western United States. [Casa Grande, Arizona, Mercury, Nevada, and Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Large scale 70mm aerial photography is a valuable supplementary tool for rangeland studies. A wide assortment of applications were developed varying from vegetation mapping to assessing environmental impact on rangelands. Color and color infrared stereo pairs are useful for effectively sampling sites limited by ground accessibility. They allow an increased sample size at similar or lower cost than ground sampling techniques and provide a permanent record.

  20. Using the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to explain ranging patterns in a lek-breeding antelope: the importance of scale.

    PubMed

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Brown, Molly E; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Lek-breeding species are characterized by a negative association between territorial resource availability and male mating success; however, the impact of resources on the overall distribution patterns of the two sexes in lek systems is not clear. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has recently emerged as a powerful proxy measure for primary productivity, allowing the links between the distributions of animals and resources to be explored. Using NDVI at four spatial resolutions, we here investigate how the distribution of the two sexes in a lek-breeding population of topi antelopes relates to resource abundance before and during the rut. We found that in the dry season preceding the rut, topi density correlated positively with NDVI at the large, but not the fine, scale. This suggests that before the rut, when resources were relatively scant, topi preferred pastures where green grass was widely abundant. The pattern was less pronounced in males, suggesting that the need for territorial attendance prevents males from tracking resources as freely as females do. During the rut, which occurs in the wet season, both male and female densities correlated negatively with NDVI at the fine scale. At this time, resources were generally plentiful and the results suggest that, rather than by resource maximization, distribution during the rut was determined by benefits of aggregating on relatively resource-poor leks for mating, and possibly antipredator, purposes. At the large scale, no correlation between density and NDVI was found during the rut in either sex, which can be explained by leks covering areas too small to be reflected at this resolution. The study illustrates that when investigating spatial organization, it is important: (1) to choose the appropriate analytic scale, and (2) to consider behavioural as well as strictly ecological factors.

  1. Is dark matter with long-range interactions a solution to all small-scale problems of Λ cold dark matter cosmology?

    PubMed

    van den Aarssen, Laura G; Bringmann, Torsten; Pfrommer, Christoph

    2012-12-07

    The cold dark matter paradigm describes the large-scale structure of the Universe remarkably well. However, there exists some tension with the observed abundances and internal density structures of both field dwarf galaxies and galactic satellites. Here, we demonstrate that a simple class of dark matter models may offer a viable solution to all of these problems simultaneously. Their key phenomenological properties are velocity-dependent self-interactions mediated by a light vector messenger and thermal production with much later kinetic decoupling than in the standard case.

  2. The Predictability of Large-Scale, Short-Period Variability in the Philippine Sea and the Influence of Such Variability on Long-Range acoustic Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-31

    Variability in the Philippine Sea and the Influence of Such Variability on Long-Range Acoustic Propagation Brian Dushaw Applied Physics Laboratory...University of Washington, 1013 N.E. 40th Street, Seattle, WA 98105- 6698 phone : (206) 685-4198 fax: (206) 534-6785 email: dushaw@apl.washington.edu Award... Number : N00014-12-1-0183 http://faculty.washington.edu/~dushaw LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is a complete and

  3. Drift Rather than Selection Dominates MHC Class II Allelic Diversity Patterns at the Biogeographical Range Scale in Natterjack Toads Bufo calamita

    PubMed Central

    Zeisset, Inga; Beebee, Trevor J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea) calamita) populations across the whole of the species’ biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF) and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE), especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone. PMID:24937211

  4. Millennial-scale isotope records from a wide-ranging predator show evidence of recent human impact to oceanic food webs.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Anne E; Ostrom, Peggy H; Welch, Andreanna J; Fleischer, Robert C; Gandhi, Hasand; Southon, John R; Stafford, Thomas W; Penniman, Jay F; Hu, Darcy; Duvall, Fern P; James, Helen F

    2013-05-28

    Human exploitation of marine ecosystems is more recent in oceanic than near shore regions, yet our understanding of human impacts on oceanic food webs is comparatively poor. Few records of species that live beyond the continental shelves date back more than 60 y, and the sheer size of oceanic regions makes their food webs difficult to study, even in modern times. Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to study the foraging history of a generalist, oceanic predator, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), which ranges broadly in the Pacific from the equator to near the Aleutian Islands. Our isotope records from modern and ancient, radiocarbon-dated bones provide evidence of over 3,000 y of dietary stasis followed by a decline of ca. 1.8‰ in δ(15)N over the past 100 y. Fishery-induced trophic decline is the most likely explanation for this sudden shift, which occurs in genetically distinct populations with disparate foraging locations. Our isotope records also show that coincident with the apparent decline in trophic level, foraging segregation among petrel populations decreased markedly. Because variation in the diet of generalist predators can reflect changing availability of their prey, a foraging shift in wide-ranging Hawaiian petrel populations suggests a relatively rapid change in the composition of oceanic food webs in the Northeast Pacific. Understanding and mitigating widespread shifts in prey availability may be a critical step in the conservation of endangered marine predators such as the Hawaiian petrel.

  5. A small-scale hyperacute compound eye featuring active eye tremor: application to visual stabilization, target tracking, and short-range odometry.

    PubMed

    Colonnier, Fabien; Manecy, Augustin; Juston, Raphaël; Mallot, Hanspeter; Leitel, Robert; Floreano, Dario; Viollet, Stéphane

    2015-02-25

    In this study, a miniature artificial compound eye (15 mm in diameter) called the curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) was endowed for the first time with hyperacuity, using similar micro-movements to those occurring in the fly's compound eye. A periodic micro-scanning movement of only a few degrees enables the vibrating compound eye to locate contrasting objects with a 40-fold greater resolution than that imposed by the interommatidial angle. In this study, we developed a new algorithm merging the output of 35 local processing units consisting of adjacent pairs of artificial ommatidia. The local measurements performed by each pair are processed in parallel with very few computational resources, which makes it possible to reach a high refresh rate of 500 Hz. An aerial robotic platform with two degrees of freedom equipped with the active CurvACE placed over naturally textured panels was able to assess its linear position accurately with respect to the environment thanks to its efficient gaze stabilization system. The algorithm was found to perform robustly at different light conditions as well as distance variations relative to the ground and featured small closed-loop positioning errors of the robot in the range of 45 mm. In addition, three tasks of interest were performed without having to change the algorithm: short-range odometry, visual stabilization, and tracking contrasting objects (hands) moving over a textured background.

  6. Millennial-scale isotope records from a wide-ranging predator show evidence of recent human impact to oceanic food webs

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Anne E.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Welch, Andreanna J.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Gandhi, Hasand; Southon, John R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Penniman, Jay F.; Hu, Darcy; Duvall, Fern P.; James, Helen F.

    2013-01-01

    Human exploitation of marine ecosystems is more recent in oceanic than near shore regions, yet our understanding of human impacts on oceanic food webs is comparatively poor. Few records of species that live beyond the continental shelves date back more than 60 y, and the sheer size of oceanic regions makes their food webs difficult to study, even in modern times. Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to study the foraging history of a generalist, oceanic predator, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), which ranges broadly in the Pacific from the equator to near the Aleutian Islands. Our isotope records from modern and ancient, radiocarbon-dated bones provide evidence of over 3,000 y of dietary stasis followed by a decline of ca. 1.8‰ in δ15N over the past 100 y. Fishery-induced trophic decline is the most likely explanation for this sudden shift, which occurs in genetically distinct populations with disparate foraging locations. Our isotope records also show that coincident with the apparent decline in trophic level, foraging segregation among petrel populations decreased markedly. Because variation in the diet of generalist predators can reflect changing availability of their prey, a foraging shift in wide-ranging Hawaiian petrel populations suggests a relatively rapid change in the composition of oceanic food webs in the Northeast Pacific. Understanding and mitigating widespread shifts in prey availability may be a critical step in the conservation of endangered marine predators such as the Hawaiian petrel. PMID:23671094

  7. A small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R.; Auchère, F.; Harrison, R. A.; Eyles, C.; Gan, W.; Lamy, P.; Xia, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kong, L.; Wang, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zhang, S.; Zong, Q.; Soucek, J.; An, J.; Prech, L.; Zhang, A.; Rochus, P.; Bothmer, V.; Janvier, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Tappin, J.; Vainio, R.; Poedts, S.; Dunlop, M. W.; Savani, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Bale, S. D.; Li, G.; Howard, T.; DeForest, C.; Webb, D.; Lugaz, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dalmasse, K.; Tallineau, J.; Vranken, D.; Fernández, J. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  8. INSTANT: a Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We present a small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather sciences. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission concept is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. The INSTANT concept would be the first to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space, and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would, in addition, uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile which fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  9. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs

    SciTech Connect

    Tamborini, D. Portaluppi, D.; Villa, F.; Tosi, A.; Tisa, S.

    2014-11-15

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.

  10. By land, sea and air (and space): Verifying UK methane emissions at a range of scales by integrating multiple measurement platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M. L.; Lunt, M. F.; Ganesan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) programme and Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) network aim to quantify the magnitude and uncertainty of UK greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a resolution and accuracy higher than has previously been possible. The on going DECC tall tower network consists of three sites, and an eastern background site in Ireland. The GAUGE project includes instruments at two additional tall tower sites, a high-density measurement network over agricultural land in eastern England, a ferry that performs near-daily transects along the east coast of the UK, and a research aircraft that has been deployed on a campaign basis. Together with data collected by the GOSAT satellite, these data represent the GAUGE/DECC GHG measurement network that is being used to quantify UK GHG fluxes. As part of the wider GAUGE modelling efforts, we have derived methane flux estimates for the UK and northwest Europe using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric transport model and a novel hierarchical Bayesian "trans-dimensional" inversion framework. We will show that our estimated fluxes for the UK as a whole are largely consistent between individual measurement platforms, albeit with very different uncertainties. Our novel inversion approach uses the data to objectively determine the extent to which we can further refine our national estimates to the level of large urban areas, major hotspots or larger sub-national regions. In this talk, we will outline some initial findings of the GAUGE project, tackling questions such as: At what spatial scale can we effectively derive greenhouse gas fluxes with a dense, multi-platform national network? Can we resolve individual metropolitan areas or major hotspots? What is relative impact of individual stations, platforms and network configurations on flux estimates for a country of the size of the UK? How can we effectively use multi-platform observations to cross-validate flux estimates and determine likely

  11. Synoptic Scale Patterns and Variability in Long-Range Transport from the CONUS to the Arctic Circle: Informing Controlled Burn Strategy and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWinter, J. L.; Larkin, N. K.; Strand, T. T.; Raffuse, S. M.; Craig, K. J.; Brown, S. G.; Roberts, P. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Circle is susceptible to the emissions of climate forcers (such as black carbon, carbon dioxide, and methane) from combustion sources including biomass burning. Biomass burning, such as wildfire events and controlled burns, is critical to maintaining healthy and productive environmental and agricultural systems. However, smoke emissions from North America can contribute significantly to measured aerosol concentrations in the Arctic, and may alter the timing and quantity of annual snowmelt. We investigated transport from the continental United States (CONUS) to the Arctic Circle. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to model air parcel transport from a grid of 1,926 locations covering the continental United States. Daily transport at six initialization times per day was modeled for a 30-year period (1979 to 2008). Transport was modeled at multiple heights in the atmosphere: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500; 3,000; and 5,000 meters above ground level. A system was designed to efficiently process and store a large trajectory data set and to enable efficient querying for questions regarding transport climatology. We present the seasonal and annual trends over a 10-year period and in the 30-year transport climatology, and assess the patterns and variability in the context of synoptic scale meteorology. Observations regarding predominant types of transport regimes are discussed. The results are related to the timing and magnitude of biomass burning throughout the United States. The findings can be used to inform real-time tools useful to land managers conducting controlled burns, as well as policy makers enacting regulation.

  12. Fine-scale genetic breaks driven by historical range dynamics and ongoing density-barrier effects in the estuarine seaweed Fucus ceranoides L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Factors promoting the emergence of sharp phylogeographic breaks include restricted dispersal, habitat discontinuity, physical barriers, disruptive selection, mating incompatibility, genetic surfing and secondary contact. Disentangling the role of each in any particular system can be difficult, especially when species are evenly distributed across transition zones and dispersal barriers are not evident. The estuarine seaweed Fucus ceranoides provides a good example of highly differentiated populations along its most persistent distributional range at the present rear edge of the species distribution, in NW Iberia. Intrinsic dispersal restrictions are obvious in this species, but have not prevented F. ceranoides from vastly expanding its range northwards following the last glaciation, implying that additional factors are responsible for the lack of connectivity between neighbouring southern populations. In this study we analyze 22 consecutive populations of F. ceranoides along NW Iberia to investigate the processes generating and maintaining the observed high levels of regional genetic divergence. Results Variation at seven microsatellite loci and at mtDNA spacer sequences was concordant in revealing that Iberian F. ceranoides is composed of three divergent genetic clusters displaying nearly disjunct geographical distributions. Structure and AFC analyses detected two populations with an admixed nuclear background. Haplotypic diversity was high in the W sector and very low in the N sector. Within each genetic cluster, population structure was also pervasive, although shallower. Conclusions The deep divergence between sectors coupled with the lack of support for a role of oceanographic barriers in defining the location of breaks suggested 1) that the parapatric genetic sectors result from the regional reassembly of formerly vicariant sub-populations, and 2) that the genetic discontinuities at secondary contact zones (and elsewhere) are maintained despite

  13. Catchment-scale denudation and chemical erosion rates determined from 10Be and mass balance geochemistry (Mt. Lofty Ranges of South Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestland, Erick A.; Liccioli, Caterina; Soloninka, Lesja; Chittleborough, David J.; Fink, David

    2016-10-01

    Global biogeochemical cycles have, as a central component, estimates of physical and chemical erosion rates. These erosion rates are becoming better quantified by the development of a global database of cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be (CRN) analyses of soil, sediment, and outcrops. Here we report the denudation rates for two small catchments (~ 0.9 km2) in the Mt. Lofty Ranges of South Australia as determined from 10Be concentrations from quartz sand from the following landscape elements: 1) dissected plateaux, or summit surfaces (14.10 ± 1.61 t km- 2 y- 1), 2) sandstone outcrops (15.37 ± 1.32 t km- 2 y- 1), 3) zero-order drainages (27.70 ± 1.42 t km- 2 y- 1), and 4) stream sediment which reflect a mix of landscape elements (19.80 ± 1.01 t km- 2 y- 1). Thus, the more slowly eroding plateaux and ridges, when juxtaposed with the more rapidly eroding side-slopes, are leading to increased relief in this landscape. Chemical erosion rates for this landscape are determined by combining cosmogenic denudation rates with the geochemical mass balance of parent rock, soil and saprolite utilizing zirconium immobility and existing mass balance methods. Two different methods were used to correct for chemical weathering and erosion in the saprolite zone that is shielded at depth from CRN production. The corrected values are higher than uncorrected values: total denudation of 33.24 or 29.11 t km- 2 y- 1, and total chemical erosion of 15.64 or 13.68 t km- 2 y- 1. Thus, according to these methods, 32-40% of the denudation is taking place by chemical weathering and erosion in the saprolite below CRN production depth. Compared with other similar areas, the overall denudation and chemical erosion rates are low. In most areas with sub-humid climates and tectonic uplift, physical erosion is much greater than chemical erosion. The low physical erosion rates in these Mt. Lofty Range catchments, in what is a relatively active tectonic setting, are thought to be due to low rainfall intensity

  14. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions.

    PubMed

    Giffin, Paxton K; Parsons, Michael S; Unz, Ronald J; Waggoner, Charles A

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m(3)/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  15. Gravity Fields Generation In The Universe By The Large Range of Scales Convection Systems In Planets, Stars, Black Holes and Galaxies Based On The "Convection Bang Hypothesis"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholibeigian, H.; Amirshahkarami, A.; Gholibeigian, K.

    2015-12-01

    In our vision it is believed that the Big Bang was Convection Bang (CB). When CB occurred, a gigantic large-scale forced convection system (LFCS) began to create space-time including gravitons and gluons in more than light speed. Then, simultaneously by a swirling wild wind, created inflation process including many quantum convection loops (QCL) in locations which had more density of temperature and energetic particles like gravitons. QCL including fundamental particles, grew and formed black holes (BHs) as the core of galaxies. LFCSs of heat and mass in planets, stars, BHs and galaxies generate gravity and electromagnetic fields and change the properties of matter and space-time around the systems. Mechanism: Samples: 1- Due to gravity fields of Sun and Moon, Earth's inner core is dislocated toward them and rotates around the Earth's center per day and generates LFCSs, Gholibeigian [AGU, 2012]. 2- Dislocated Sun's core due to gravity fields of planets/ Jupiter, rotates around the Sun's center per 25-35 days and generates LFCSs, Gholibeigian [EGU, 2014]. 3- If a planet/star falls into a BH, what happens? It means, its dislocated core rotates around its center in less than light speed and generates very fast LFCS and friction, while it is rotating/melting around/inward the center of BH. Observable Factors: 1- There is not logical relation between surface gravity fields of planets/Sun and their masses (general relativity); see Planetary Fact Sheet/Ratio to Earth Values-NASA: Earth: mass/gravity =1/1, Jupiter=317.8/2.36, Neptune=17.1/1.12, Saturn=95.2/0.916, Moon=0.0128/0.166, Sun=333000/28. 2- Convective systems in thunderstorms help bring ozone down to Earth [Brian-Kahn]. 3- In 12 surveyed BHs, produced gravity force & magnetic field strength were matched (unique LFCS source) [PhysOrg - June 4, 2014]. Justification: After BB/CB, gravitons were created without any other masses and curvature of space-time (general relativity), but by primary gigantic convection

  16. Passive Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    1981). 5. R. Courant and D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics , Vol. I, English ed., * Interscience, New York, 1953. 32 32 APPENDIX A CALCULATION...K Courant and D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics , Vol. I, English ed., * Interscience, New York, 1953. A-8 APPENDIX B * RANGING ACCURACY IN

  17. Rheological behavior of the crust and mantle in subduction zones in the time-scale range from earthquake (minute) to mln years inferred from thermomechanical model and geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, Stephan; Muldashev, Iskander

    2016-04-01

    The key achievement of the geodynamic modelling community greatly contributed by the work of Evgenii Burov and his students is application of "realistic" mineral-physics based non-linear rheological models to simulate deformation processes in crust and mantle. Subduction being a type example of such process is an essentially multi-scale phenomenon with the time-scales spanning from geological to earthquake scale with the seismic cycle in-between. In this study we test the possibility to simulate the entire subduction process from rupture (1 min) to geological time (Mln yr) with the single cross-scale thermomechanical model that employs elasticity, mineral-physics constrained non-linear transient viscous rheology and rate-and-state friction plasticity. First we generate a thermo-mechanical model of subduction zone at geological time-scale including a narrow subduction channel with "wet-quartz" visco-elasto-plastic rheology and low static friction. We next introduce in the same model classic rate-and state friction law in subduction channel, leading to stick-slip instability. This model generates spontaneous earthquake sequence. In order to follow in details deformation process during the entire seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles we use adaptive time-step algorithm changing step from 40 sec during the earthquake to minute-5 year during postseismic and interseismic processes. We observe many interesting deformation patterns and demonstrate that contrary to the conventional ideas, this model predicts that postseismic deformation is controlled by visco-elastic relaxation in the mantle wedge already since hour to day after the great (M>9) earthquakes. We demonstrate that our results are consistent with the postseismic surface displacement after the Great Tohoku Earthquake for the day-to-4year time range.

  18. Role of local to regional-scale collisions in the closure history of the Southern Neotethys, exemplified by tectonic development of the Kyrenia Range active margin/collisional lineament, N Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Kinnaird, Tim; McCay, Gillian; Palamakumbura, Romesh; Chen, Guohui

    2016-04-01

    . Further S-directed compression took place during Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene (stage 3) in an oblique left-lateral stress regime, probably influenced by the collision of the Tauride and Arabian continents to the east. Strong uplift of the active margin lineament then took place during the Pleistocene, related to incipient continental collision (stage 4). The uplift is documented by a downward-younging flight of marine and continental terrace deposits on both flanks of the Kyrenia Range. The geological record of the S Neotethyan active continental margin, based on regional to global plate kinematic reconstructions, appears to have been dominated by on-going convergence (with possible temporal changes), punctuated by the effects of relatively local to regional-scale collisional events. Similar processes are likely to have affected other S Neotethyan segments and other convergent margins.

  19. Scales, scales and more scales.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  20. Inertial Range Dynamics in Boussinesq Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert

    1996-01-01

    L'vov and Falkovich have shown that the dimensionally possible inertial range scaling laws for Boussinesq turbulence, Kolmogorov and Bolgiano scaling, describe steady states with constant flux of kinetic energy and of entropy respectively. These scaling laws are treated as similarity solutions of the direct interaction approximation for Boussinesq turbulence. The Kolmogorov scaling solution corresponds to a weak perturbation by gravity of a state in which the temperature is a passive scalar but in which a source of temperature fluctuations exists. Using standard inertial range balances, the renormalized viscosity and conductivity, turbulent Prandtl number, and spectral scaling law constants are computed for Bolgiano scaling.

  1. Children's Self-Efficacy Scale: Initial Psychometric Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinelli, Selma de Cassia; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Caliatto, Susana Gakyia; Sassi, Adriana de Grecci

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of a self-efficacy measure for elementary school children. A sample of 514 children, ages 8 to 11, enrolled in Grades 2 to 4 of public schools in Brazil was investigated. The scale included 78 descriptive items about academic situations, in which the child was required to respond on a 5-point scale, the…

  2. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Buleté, A; Vulliet, E; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Mirande-Bret, C; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m(3)/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2(-). For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (>60%) or very high (>80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n=22/32), i.e. atenolol (92

  3. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range: correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray; Bukry, David; Friedman, Richard; Pyle, Douglas; Duncan, Robert; Haeussler, Peter; Wooden, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Siletzia is a basaltic Paleocene and Eocene large igneous province in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. New U-Pb magmatic, detrital zircon, and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by detailed field mapping, global nannoplankton zones, and magnetic polarities allow correlation of the volcanics with the 2012 geologic time scale. The data show that Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56–49 Ma, during the Chron 25–22 plate reorganization in the northeast Pacific basin. Accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon, based on CP11 (CP—Coccolith Paleogene zone) coccoliths in strata overlying onlapping continental sediments. Magmatism continued in the northern Oregon Coast Range until ca. 46 Ma with the emplacement of a regional sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Isotopic signatures similar to early Columbia River basalts, the great crustal thickness of Siletzia in Oregon, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with offshore formation as an oceanic plateau. Approximately 8 m.y. after accretion, margin parallel extension of the forearc, emplacement of regional dike swarms, and renewed magmatism of the Tillamook episode peaked at 41.6 Ma (CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examine the origin of Siletzia and consider the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot using the reconstruction in GPlates, an open source plate model. In most hotspot reference frames, the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula-Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge between 60 and 50 Ma. In this configuration, the YHS could have provided a 56–49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed contemporaneously on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time

  4. The Problem Behaviour Checklist: short scale to assess challenging behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Jessica; Evans, Rosie; Oliver, Patricia; Bassett, Paul; Liedtka, Natalie; Tarabi, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Background Challenging behaviour, especially in intellectual disability, covers a wide range that is in need of further evaluation. Aims To develop a short but comprehensive instrument for all aspects of challenging behaviour. Method In the first part of a two-stage enquiry, a 28-item scale was constructed to examine the components of challenging behaviour. Following a simple factor analysis this was developed further to create a new short scale, the Problem Behaviour Checklist (PBCL). The scale was subsequently used in a randomised controlled trial and tested for interrater reliability. Scores were also compared with a standard scale, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Results Seven identified factors – personal violence, violence against property, self-harm, sexually inappropriate, contrary, demanding and disappearing behaviour – were scored on a 5-point scale. A subsequent factor analysis with the second population showed demanding, violent and contrary behaviour to account for most of the variance. Interrater reliability using weighted kappa showed good agreement (0.91; 95% CI 0.83–0.99). Good agreement was also shown with scores on the MOAS and a score of 1 on the PBCL showed high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (85%) for a threshold MOASscore of 4. Conclusions The PBCL appears to be a suitable and practical scale for assessing all aspects of challenging behaviour. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703753

  5. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  6. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  7. Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Porcine Liver in the Temperature Range of Cryotherapy and Hyperthermia (250~315k) by A Thermal Sensor Made of A Micron-Scale Enameled Copper Wire.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z D; Zhao, G; Lu, G R

      BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy and hyperthermia are effective treatments for several diseases, especially for liver cancers. Thermal conductivity is a significant thermal property for the prediction and guidance of surgical procedure. However, the thermal conductivities of organs and tissues, especially over the temperature range of both cryotherapy and hyperthermia are scarce.

  8. Range Reference Notebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-15

    rifle grenade (inert), tin can lid, 15” tent peg 3 Table FRD-7. Fort Ritchie Sector 3 Representative Examples of Non-MEC Clutter Description 1/2...Appendix B—Indirect Fire Range Examples SITES ( ADI ) Adak Naval Air Facility, AK, Mitt Lake Mortar Range (FRI) Fort Ritchie...example range. B- ADI -1 Indirect-Fire Range,: Adak, AK, Mitt Lake Mortar Range Impact Area Site-Specific References – Adak NAF Foster Wheeler

  9. A Long-Range Precision Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterling, Mahlon

    1961-01-01

    A technique is presented that may be used for precision real-time continuous range measuring at long ranges. The technique uses a carrier that is phase modulated by a pseudo-random binary sequence. The characteristics of the sequence that make it acquirable are discussed. The general form of a receiver capable of tracking the carrier is given and is shown to be a kind of phase-locked loop. A two-loop system capable of tracking a pseudo-random sequence and its clock is given. The combination of the receiver and the sequence tracking system form a ranging receiver. The power division necessary between the carrier and the sidebands is shown to be determined by the noise bandwidths of the two tracking systems. The bandwidths necessary for tracking space probes and Earth satellites are given and some experiments in radar-tracking Earth satellites are described. Based on these experiments, estimates are made of the useful range of such a system in tracking space probes.

  10. Range indices of geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, W.F.; Green, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest index of geomagnetic activity is the range in nT from maximum to minimum value of the field in a given time interval. The hourly range R was recommended by IAGA for use at observatories at latitudes greater than 65??, but was superceded by AE. The most used geomagnetic index K is based on the range of activity in a 3 h interval corrected for the regular daily variation. In order to take advantage of real time data processing, now available at many observatories, it is proposed to introduce a 1 h range index and also a 3 h range index. Both will be computed hourly, i.e. each will have a series of 24 per day, the 3 h values overlapping. The new data will be available as the range (R) of activity in nT and also as a logarithmic index (I) of the range. The exponent relating index to range in nT is based closely on the scale used for computing K values. The new ranges and range indices are available, from June 1987, to users in real time and can be accessed by telephone connection or computer network. Their first year of production is regarded as a trial period during which their value to the scientific and commercial communities will be assessed, together with their potential as indicators of regional and global disturbances' and in which trials will be conducted into ways of eliminating excessive bias at quiet times due to the rate of change of the daily variation field. ?? 1988.

  11. Passive infrared ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonpacher, N. K.

    1983-12-01

    The range of an infrared source was estimated by analyzing the atmospheric absorption by CO2 in several wavelength intervals of its spectrum. These bandpasses were located at the edge of the CO2 absorption band near 2300 1/cm (4.3 micron). A specific algorithm to predict range was determined based on numerous computer generated spectra. When tested with these spectra, range estimates within 0.8 km were obtained for ranges between 0 and 18 km. Accuracy decreased when actual source spectra were tested. Although actual spectra were available only for ranges to 5 km, 63% of these spectra resulted in range estimates that were within 1.6 km of the actual range. Specific spectral conditions that affected the range predictions were found. Methods to correct the deficiencies were discussed. Errors from atmospheric variations, and the effects of background noise, were also investigated. Limits on accuracy and range resolution were determined.

  12. 10 ps resolution, 160 ns full scale range and less than 1.5% differential non-linearity time-to-digital converter module for high performance timing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, B.; Tamborini, D.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2012-07-01

    We present a compact high performance time-to-digital converter (TDC) module that provides 10 ps timing resolution, 160 ns dynamic range and a differential non-linearity better than 1.5% LSBrms. The TDC can be operated either as a general-purpose time-interval measurement device, when receiving external START and STOP pulses, or in photon-timing mode, when employing the on-chip SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector for detecting photons and time-tagging them. The instrument precision is 15 psrms (i.e., 36 psFWHM) and in photon timing mode it is still better than 70 psFWHM. The USB link to the remote PC allows the easy setting of measurement parameters, the fast download of acquired data, and their visualization and storing via an user-friendly software interface. The module proves to be the best candidate for a wide variety of applications such as: fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight ranging measurements, time-resolved positron emission tomography, single-molecule spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, diffuse optical tomography, optical time-domain reflectometry, quantum optics, etc.

  13. 10 ps resolution, 160 ns full scale range and less than 1.5% differential non-linearity time-to-digital converter module for high performance timing measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Markovic, B.; Tamborini, D.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2012-07-15

    We present a compact high performance time-to-digital converter (TDC) module that provides 10 ps timing resolution, 160 ns dynamic range and a differential non-linearity better than 1.5% LSB{sub rms}. The TDC can be operated either as a general-purpose time-interval measurement device, when receiving external START and STOP pulses, or in photon-timing mode, when employing the on-chip SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector for detecting photons and time-tagging them. The instrument precision is 15 ps{sub rms} (i.e., 36 ps{sub FWHM}) and in photon timing mode it is still better than 70 ps{sub FWHM}. The USB link to the remote PC allows the easy setting of measurement parameters, the fast download of acquired data, and their visualization and storing via an user-friendly software interface. The module proves to be the best candidate for a wide variety of applications such as: fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight ranging measurements, time-resolved positron emission tomography, single-molecule spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, diffuse optical tomography, optical time-domain reflectometry, quantum optics, etc.

  14. 10 ps resolution, 160 ns full scale range and less than 1.5% differential non-linearity time-to-digital converter module for high performance timing measurements.

    PubMed

    Markovic, B; Tamborini, D; Villa, F; Tisa, S; Tosi, A; Zappa, F

    2012-07-01

    We present a compact high performance time-to-digital converter (TDC) module that provides 10 ps timing resolution, 160 ns dynamic range and a differential non-linearity better than 1.5% LSB(rms). The TDC can be operated either as a general-purpose time-interval measurement device, when receiving external START and STOP pulses, or in photon-timing mode, when employing the on-chip SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector for detecting photons and time-tagging them. The instrument precision is 15 ps(rms) (i.e., 36 ps(FWHM)) and in photon timing mode it is still better than 70 ps(FWHM). The USB link to the remote PC allows the easy setting of measurement parameters, the fast download of acquired data, and their visualization and storing via an user-friendly software interface. The module proves to be the best candidate for a wide variety of applications such as: fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight ranging measurements, time-resolved positron emission tomography, single-molecule spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, diffuse optical tomography, optical time-domain reflectometry, quantum optics, etc.

  15. Energy scaling of the ion-induced desorption yield for perpendicular collisions of Ar and U with stainless steel in the energy range of 5 and 100 MeV/u

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmus, H.; Kraemer, A.; Bender, M.; Bellachioma, M. C.; Reich-Sprenger, H.; Mahner, E.; Hedlund, E.; Westerberg, L.; Malyshev, O. B.; Leandersson, M.; Edqvist, E.

    2009-03-15

    For the GSI future project Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research a beam intensity of 10{sup 12} U{sup 28+}ions/s is planned to be extracted from the GSI heavy ion synchrotron SIS18. Measurements performed in 2001 showed that the beam lifetime of the ions in the synchrotron is decreasing with increasing number of injected particles due to vacuum instabilities caused by ion-induced desorption. The injection energy for the SIS18 is about 10 MeV/u and U{sup 28+} ions are accelerated to 200 MeV/u limited by the magnetic rigidity for the low charge state. The aim of this work was to measure the desorption yield as a function of the impact energy from injection to extraction of SIS18 at GSI. Low energy yields at 5.0, 9.7, and 17.7 MeV/u were measured at the Cyclotron of The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. High energy yields at 40, 80, and 100 MeV/u were measured at SIS18 of GSI in a different setup. It was found that the desorption yield scales with the electronic energy loss (dE/dx){sub el}{sup n}, with n between 2 and 3, decreasing for increasing impact energy above the Bragg maximum.

  16. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Manning, Mary; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution and relative abundance of sage-grouse populations to address persistent ecosystem threats, such as invasive annual grasses and wildfire, and land use and development threats, such as oil and gas development and cropland conversion, to develop effective management strategies. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with modeled sage-grouse breeding habitat probabilities to help decisionmakers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at both landscape and site scales. Areas for targeted management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with Greater sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation and Gunnison sage-grouse critical habitat and linkages, breeding bird concentration areas, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of target areas for management and the most appropriate management actions. A similar approach was developed for the Great Basin that was incorporated into the Federal land use plan amendments and served as the basis of a Bureau of Land Management Fire and Invasives Assessment Tool, which was used to prioritize sage-grouse habitat for targeted management activities.

  17. Cross-scale morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Holling, Crawford S.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; El-Shaarawi, Abdel H.; Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    The scaling of physical, biological, ecological and social phenomena is a major focus of efforts to develop simple representations of complex systems. Much of the attention has been on discovering universal scaling laws that emerge from simple physical and geometric processes. However, there are regular patterns of departures both from those scaling laws and from continuous distributions of attributes of systems. Those departures often demonstrate the development of self-organized interactions between living systems and physical processes over narrower ranges of scale.

  18. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  19. Tau ranging revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a ranging receiver with a sufficient and reasonable number of correlators is competitive with the current sequential component ranging system by some 1.5 to 2.5 dB. The optimum transmitter code, the optimum receiver, and a near-maximum-lilelihood range-estimation algorithm are presented.

  20. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  1. Developing a Scale for Quality of Using Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasci, Guntay; Yurdugul, Halil

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a measurement tool to measure the quality of using learning strategies. First, the quality of using learning strategies was described based on the literature. The 32 items in the 5-point Likert scale were then administered to 320 prospective teachers, and they were analysed with exploratory factor analysis using…

  2. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  3. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  4. Final report on CCT-K6: Comparison of local realisations of dew-point temperature scales in the range -50 °C to +20 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S.; Stevens, M.; Abe, H.; Benyon, R.; Bosma, R.; Fernicola, V.; Heinonen, M.; Huang, P.; Kitano, H.; Li, Z.; Nielsen, J.; Ochi, N.; Podmurnaya, O. A.; Scace, G.; Smorgon, D.; Vicente, T.; Vinge, A. F.; Wang, L.; Yi, H.

    2015-01-01

    A key comparison in dew-point temperature was carried out among the national standards held by NPL (pilot), NMIJ, INTA, VSL, INRIM, MIKES, NIST, NIM, VNIIFTRI-ESB and NMC. A pair of condensation-principle dew-point hygrometers was circulated and used to compare the local realisations of dew point for participant humidity generators in the range -50 °C to +20 °C. The duration of the comparison was prolonged by numerous problems with the hygrometers, requiring some repairs, and several additional check measurements by the pilot. Despite the problems and the extended timescale, the comparison was effective in providing evidence of equivalence. Agreement with the key comparison reference value was achieved in the majority of cases, and bilateral degrees of equivalence are also reported. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Application of psychometric theory to the measurement of voice quality using rating scales.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Rahul; Sapienza, Christine M; Nandur, Vuday

    2005-04-01

    Rating scales are commonly used to study voice quality. However, recent research has demonstrated that perceptual measures of voice quality obtained using rating scales suffer from poor interjudge agreement and reliability, especially in the mid-range of the scale. These findings, along with those obtained using multidimensional scaling (MDS), have been interpreted to show that listeners perceive voice quality in an idiosyncratic manner. Based on psychometric theory, the present research explored an alternative explanation for the poor interlistener agreement observed in previous research. This approach suggests that poor agreement between listeners may result, in part, from measurement errors related to a variety of factors rather than true differences in the perception of voice quality. In this study, 10 listeners rated breathiness for 27 vowel stimuli using a 5-point rating scale. Each stimulus was presented to the listeners 10 times in random order. Interlistener agreement and reliability were calculated from these ratings. Agreement and reliability were observed to improve when multiple ratings of each stimulus from each listener were averaged and when standardized scores were used instead of absolute ratings. The probability of exact agreement was found to be approximately .9 when using averaged ratings and standardized scores. In contrast, the probability of exact agreement was only .4 when a single rating from each listener was used to measure agreement. These findings support the hypothesis that poor agreement reported in past research partly arises from errors in measurement rather than individual differences in the perception of voice quality.

  6. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  7. Compressive laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  8. Improved ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Spacecraft range measurements have provided the most accurate tests, to date, of some relativistic gravitational parameters, even though the measurements were made with ranging systems having error budgets of about 10 meters. Technology is now available to allow an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy of spacecraft ranging. The largest gains in accuracy result from the replacement of unstable analog components with high speed digital circuits having precisely known delays and phase shifts.

  9. Identification of similarity of skeletal structures in the range 10-5 cm - 1023 cm and the probable role of skeletal assemblies of carbon nanotube-like dust in the large-scale structure of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

    The role of the dust in astrophysics is analyzed from viewpoint of the hypothesis [1] (and respective proof-of-concept studies [2]) for the self-assembling of a fractal dust in laboratory electric discharges. The presence of skeletal structures of the same distinctive topology (namely, tubules and cartwheels, and their simple combinations) in the range 10-5cm - 1023cm, and a trend toward self-similarity (i.e. assembling of bigger structures from similar smaller ones), are found [3]. These evidences come from the electron micrography of dust deposits in tokamak (10-6cm - 10-3cm) [4], the images of plasma taken in laboratory electric discharges -- tokamaks, Z-pinches, plasma focus and vacuum spark (10-2cm - 10 cm) [2], hail particles (1cm - 10cm), the images of tornado (103cm - 105cm) and of a wide class of objects in space (1011cm - 1023 cm), including the solar coronal mass ejection, supernova remnants, and some galaxies [3]. The similarity of, and a trend toward self-similarity in, these skeletal structures (especially, cartwheels as the structures of essentially non-hydrodynamic nature) suggest all them to possess, similarly to skeletons in the particles of dust and hail, a fractal condensed matter of particular topology of the fractal. Specifically, this matter may be assembled from nanotubular blocks in a way similar to that in the skeletons found [4] in the submicron dust particles. An analysis of the redshift surveys of galaxies and quasars suggests the possibility to draw the above similarity up to 1026cm. This hints at the presence of a baryonic cold dark skeleton (BCDS) of the Universe [5]. The hypothesis of BCDS is shown to have no conflict with major cosmological facts (Hubble expansion and cosmic microwave background's isotropy). REFERENCES: [1] Fusion Energy 1998 (IAEA, Vienna, 1999), Vol. 3, p. 1131. [2] Advances in Plasma Phys. Research, Vol. 2 (Ed. F. Gerard, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2002), pp. 1-22. [3] Phys. Lett. A 306, 175 (2002). [4

  10. Goal attainment scaling (GAS) in rehabilitation: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2009-04-01

    Goal attainment scaling is a mathematical technique for quantifying the achievement (or otherwise) of goals set, and it can be used in rehabilitation. Because several different approaches are described in the literature, this article presents a simple practical approach to encourage uniformity in its application. It outlines the process of setting goals appropriately, so that the achievement of each goal can be measured on a 5-point scale ranging from -2 to +2, and then explains a method for quantifying the outcome in a single aggregated goal attainment score. This method gives a numerical T-score which is normally distributed about a mean of 50 (if the goals are achieved precisely) with a standard deviation of around this mean of 10 (if the goals are overachieved or underachieved). If desired, the approach encompasses weighting of goals to reflect the opinion of the patient on the personal importance of the goal and the opinion of the therapist or team on the difficulty of achieving the goal. Some practical tips are offered, as well as a simple spreadsheet (in Microsoft Excel) allowing easy calculation of the T-scores.

  11. Agriculture, Forestry, Range Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 observations of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are summarized. Four major parts are covered: (1) crop classification and mensuration; (2) timber and range resources survey and classification; (3) soil survey and mapping; and (4) subdiscipline areas.

  12. Laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Near real-time Lageos laser ranging data are analyzed in terms of range bias, time bias, and internal precision, and estimates for earth orientation parameters X(sub p), Y(sub p), and UT1 are obtained. The results of these analyses are reported in a variety of formats. Copies of monthly summaries from November, 1986 through November, 1987 are included.

  13. Long Range Facilities Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Richard Muther range facilities Many alterna- analysis indi- cated that if NASSCO ever expected to surpass its output of the last several years, current...Marine Engineers (SNAME) SP-1 Panel Meeting. The Maritime Administration had Richard Muther (an authority on long range facility planning) address a

  14. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-08

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  15. Predictability in the extended range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, John O.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of extended range predictability experiments using an efficient two-level spherical quasi-geostrophic model. The experiments have an initial rms doubling time of about two days. This growth rate, along with an initial error of about one-half the initial error of present operational models, produces an rms error equal to the climatological rms error and a correlation of 0.5 on about day 12 of the forecast. On the largest scales, this limiting point is reached shortly thereafter. The error continues to grow at a decreasing rate until at about 30 days the forecast skill is extremely small and comparable to the skill of a persistence forecast. Various time averages at various lags are examined for skill in the extended range. Filters that weighted most strongly in the initial forecast days provide increased skill.

  16. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  17. The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA): Its Development, Validation, and Results in Three Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) was constructed and validated in a sample of undergraduates (17-33 yrs) in 3 Arab countries, Egypt (n = 418), Kuwait (n = 509), and Syria (n = 709). In its final form, the ASDA consists of 20 statements. Each item is answered on a 5-point intensity scale anchored by 1: No, and 5: Very much. Alpha…

  18. Range Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrock, Kenneth W.; Humphries, Ricky H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The high kinetic and potential energy of a launch vehicle mandates there be a mechanism to minimize possible damage to provide adequate safety for the launch facilities, range, and, most importantly, the general public. The Range Safety System, sometimes called the Flight Termination System or Flight Safety System, provides the required level of safety. The Range Safety System section of the Avionics chapter will attempt to describe how adequate safety is provided, the system's design, operation, and it's interface with the rest of the launch vehicle.

  19. Preliminary error budget for an optical ranging system: Range, range rate, and differenced range observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Finger, M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Future missions to the outer solar system or human exploration of Mars may use telemetry systems based on optical rather than radio transmitters. Pulsed laser transmission can be used to deliver telemetry rates of about 100 kbits/sec with an efficiency of several bits for each detected photon. Navigational observables that can be derived from timing pulsed laser signals are discussed. Error budgets are presented based on nominal ground stations and spacecraft-transceiver designs. Assuming a pulsed optical uplink signal, two-way range accuracy may approach the few centimeter level imposed by the troposphere uncertainty. Angular information can be achieved from differenced one-way range using two ground stations with the accuracy limited by the length of the available baseline and by clock synchronization and troposphere errors. A method of synchronizing the ground station clocks using optical ranging measurements is presented. This could allow differenced range accuracy to reach the few centimeter troposphere limit.

  20. CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A MEANING IN LIFE SCALE IN THE TAIWANESE CULTURAL CONTEXT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Huei; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to construct and validate a Chinese-language Meaning in Life Scale (MiLS) and to assess its psychometric properties. The three most popular scales have some weaknesses and are grounded in a Western cultural context. Consequently, a comprehensive and psychometrically adequate meaning in life scale is needed for use in Asian samples. 500 randomly selected participants from the Taiwanese public provided 476 valid responses to a written questionnaire. The participants' ages ranged from 18 to 63 years (M age = 42.3 yr.; 181 men, 295 women). Exploratory factor analysis reduced the initial 41 items to 33 items, based on a 5-point rating scale. Five factors were extracted: Contented with life (10 items; 33.20% of total variance), Goals in life (5 items; 6.95%), Enthusiasm and commitment (7 items; 6.28%), Understanding (6 items; 5.41%), and Sense or meaning to human existence (5 items; 4.57%). The MiLS showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Therefore, the MiLS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure the subjective sense of a meaning in life in the Taiwanese cultural context.

  1. The scaling of geographic ranges: implications for species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yackulic, Charles B.; Ginsberg, Joshua R.

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for timely science to inform policy and management decisions; however, we must also strive to provide predictions that best reflect our understanding of ecological systems. Species distributions evolve through time and reflect responses to environmental conditions that are mediated through individual and population processes. Species distribution models that reflect this understanding, and explicitly model dynamics, are likely to give more accurate predictions.

  2. Range-Free Localization Schemes for Large Scale Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A(ax,ay), B(bx,by), C(cx,cy), determine whether a point M with an unknown position is inside triangle ∆ ABC or not. Propositions I: If M is...inside triangle ∆ ABC , when M is shifted in any direction, the new position must be nearer to ( further from) at least one anchor A, B or C. (Figure 2A...Proposition II: If M is outside triangle ∆ ABC , when M is shifted, there must exist a direction in which the position of M is further from or closer

  3. Modeling brain circuitry over a wide range of scales

    PubMed Central

    Fua, Pascal; Knott, Graham W.

    2015-01-01

    If we are ever to unravel the mysteries of brain function at its most fundamental level, we will need a precise understanding of how its component neurons connect to each other. Electron Microscopes (EM) can now provide the nanometer resolution that is needed to image synapses, and therefore connections, while Light Microscopes (LM) see at the micrometer resolution required to model the 3D structure of the dendritic network. Since both the topology and the connection strength are integral parts of the brain's wiring diagram, being able to combine these two modalities is critically important. In fact, these microscopes now routinely produce high-resolution imagery in such large quantities that the bottleneck becomes automated processing and interpretation, which is needed for such data to be exploited to its full potential. In this paper, we briefly review the Computer Vision techniques we have developed at EPFL to address this need. They include delineating dendritic arbors from LM imagery, segmenting organelles from EM, and combining the two into a consistent representation. PMID:25904852

  4. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  5. Development of the Chinese version of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; He, S L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale among Chinese-speaking patients. The original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with the international standards to develop a Chinese version (OES-C). Unlike the original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale, the version employed in this study used a 5-point Likert scale with items rated from unsatisfactory to most satisfactory. Psychometric evaluation included the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The reliability of the OES-C was determined through internal consistency and test-retest methods. The validity of OES-C was analysed by content validity, discriminative validity, construct validity and convergent validity. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients of the OES-C ranged from 0·859 to 0·910. The inter-item correlation coefficients between each two of the eight items of the OES-C ranged from 0·766 to 0·922. The values of ICC ranged from 0·79 (95% CI = 0·54-0·98) to 0·93 (95% CI = 0·87-0·99), indicating an excellent agreement. Construct validity was proved by the presence of one-factor structure that accounted for 83·507% of the variance and fitted well into the model. Convergent validity was confirmed by the association between OES-C scores and self-reported oral aesthetics and three questions from the Oral Health Impact Profile related to aesthetics (correlation coefficients ranged from -0·830 to -0·702, P < 0·001). OES-C scores discriminated aesthetically impaired patients from healthy controls. This study provides preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The results show that the OES-C may be a useful tool for assessment of oro-facial esthetics in China.

  6. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  7. Broad host range plasmids.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aayushi; Srivastava, Preeti

    2013-11-01

    Plasmids are and will remain important cloning vehicles for biotechnology. They have also been associated with the spread of a number of diseases and therefore are a subject of environmental concern. With the advent of sequencing technologies, the database of plasmids is increasing. It will be of immense importance to identify the various bacterial hosts in which the plasmid can replicate. The present review article describes the features that confer broad host range to the plasmids, the molecular basis of plasmid host range evolution, and applications in recombinant DNA technology and environment.

  8. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  9. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the area of crop specie identification, it has been found that temporal data analysis, preliminary stratification, and unequal probability analysis were several of the factors that contributed to high identification accuracies. Single data set accuracies on fields of greater than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) are in the 70- to 90-percent range; however, with the use of temporal data, accuracies of 95 percent have been reported. Identification accuracy drops off significantly on areas of less than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) as does measurement accuracy. Forest stratification into coniferous and deciduous areas has been accomplished to a 90- to 95-percent accuracy level. Using multistage sampling techniques, the timber volume of a national forest district has been estimated to a confidence level and standard deviation acceptable to the Forest Service at a very favorable cost-benefit time ratio. Range specie/plant community vegetation mapping has been accomplished at various levels of success (69- to 90-percent accuracy). However, several investigators have obtained encouraging initial results in range biomass (forage production) estimation and range readiness predictions. Soil association map correction and soil association mapping in new area appear to have been proven feasible on large areas; however, testing in a complex soil area should be undertaken.

  10. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  11. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  12. Nonscanning confocal ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, P. C.; Arons, E.

    1995-03-01

    We demonstrate a nonscanning confocal ranging system based on spatially incoherent interferometry. Such a system has significant advantages over the conventional confocal imaging system and other interferometric systems. We develop the theory in terms of coherence cells and demonstrate the equivalence of our method to the conventional confocal methods. Experimental results are also provided.

  13. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  14. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  15. Long Range Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson Coll., Hillsboro, MO.

    This document presents Jefferson College's "Long Range Plan," which is intended to provide the College's governing board, administration, and faculty and staff with a task-oriented blueprint for maximizing the delivery of higher education services to students and the community in a predictable, programmatic, and fiscally sound manner.…

  16. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  17. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  18. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  19. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  20. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  1. Range expansion of mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Melanie J. I.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Murray, Andrew W.; Nelson, David R.

    2012-02-01

    The expansion of a species into new territory is often strongly influenced by the presence of other species. This effect is particularly striking for the case of mutualistic species that enhance each other's proliferation. Examples range from major events in evolutionary history, such as the spread and diversification of flowering plants due to their mutualism with pollen-dispersing insects, to modern examples like the surface colonisation of multi-species microbial biofilms. Here, we investigate the spread of cross-feeding strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on an agar surface as a model system for expanding mutualists. Depending on the degree of mutualism, the two strains form distinctive spatial patterns during their range expansion. This change in spatial patterns can be understood as a phase transition within a stepping stone model generalized to two mutualistic species.

  2. Long Range Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-31

    India, also called bulat steels, are known to have high carbon contents, commonly 1.5 to 2.0% carbon. The high quality of these steels is well...gamma-cementite range, essentially all of the cementite is converted to the spheroidized form. However, during transformation...plus additional cementite In non-spheroldlzed form, typically l>iates. As set forth above, It is Important that essentially

  3. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  4. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  5. Long range chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Luciana I Gómez; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2014-01-01

    Splicing is a predominantly co-transcriptional process that has been shown to be tightly coupled to transcription. Chromatin structure is a key factor that mediates this functional coupling. In light of recent evidence that shows the importance of higher order chromatin organization in the coordination and regulation of gene expression, we discuss here the possible roles of long-range chromatin organization in splicing and alternative splicing regulation. PMID:25764333

  6. Photometric Passive Range Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argueta-Diaz, Victor; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present a passive optical ranging method that consists of taking several photometric measurements from the light radiated by an object and deriving the range from these measurements. This passive ranging device uses an iris of radius a, a lens of radius larger than a, and a photodetector of radius p

  7. Front Range Report, Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, William

    The second regional conference of the Front Range Branch, AGU, was attended by more than 80 professionals and some 20 outstanding high school students. The conference included 2 days of interdisciplinary talks, and lots of discussion, that primarily were keyed to geophysical studies of Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Other talks reported on nonregional, and sometimes global, studies being done by geophypsicists of the Front Range region.Topics included tectonics of the Front Range and the Colorado Plateau, pollution of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, and a supreme polluting event that caused the late-Cretaceous extinctions. Other notable talks were on toxic cleanup, microburst (wind shear) detection at U.S. airports, and other meteorological studies. Several talks treated the audience to the excitement of new work and surprise discoveries. The meeting was multimedia, including the playing of two videos through a projection TV and the playing of a fascinating tape between an airport control tower and incoming pilots during a severe microburst event.

  8. Fast Envelope Correlation for Passive Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Ref. l:p. 27]. Range (meters; / 𔃺 Transmittng Radar Sen or I Sensor 2 Range turete,,; (focal point 1) (focal point 2) Hyperbola for t d I ms. d td ...Scaling noise is zero because it is not performed during pass five. Substituting Equation 81 into 82 NA2(5) = 25N2 + (25 + 24)S2o, + 7o0 (83) Pass 6 The

  9. Laser Range Camera Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Storjohann, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an imaging model that was derived for use with a laser range camera (LRC) developed by the Advanced Intelligent Machines Division of Odetics. However, this model could be applied to any comparable imaging system. Both the derivation of the model and the determination of the LRC's intrinsic parameters are explained. For the purpose of evaluating the LRC's extrinsic parameters, i.e., its external orientation, a transformation of the LRC's imaging model into a standard camera's (SC) pinhole model is derived. By virtue of this transformation, the evaluation of the LRC's external orientation can be found by applying any SC calibration technique.

  10. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  11. Energy and dissipation range spectra in the inertial range of homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhot, V.; She, Z.-S.; Orszag, S. A.

    A study is conducted of deviations from Kolmogorov's inertial-range scaling behavior using the dynamical 'renormalization group' (RNG) analysis of turbulence; RNG has been found to yield good predictions for inertial-range statistics including the Kolmogorov and the Batchelor-Obukhov-Corrsin constants. Attention is given to the implications of the deviations for higher-order statistics of small-scale turbulence. It was established by Edwards (1964) that the relation between the exponent of the inertial range energy spectrum and that of the Gaussian force correlation spectrum is independent of the perturbation expansion. It is presently shown that this relationship holds even for higher-order correlation functions.

  12. Ultralong-range order in the Fermi-Hubbard model with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Erik G. C. P.; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2015-08-01

    We use the dual boson approach to reveal the phase diagram of the Fermi-Hubbard model with long-range dipole-dipole interactions. By using a large-scale finite-temperature calculation on a 64 ×64 square lattice we demonstrate the existence of a novel phase, possessing an "ultralong-range" order. The fingerprint of this phase—the density correlation function—features a nontrivial behavior on a scale of tens of lattice sites. We study the properties and the stability of the ultralong-range-ordered phase, and show that it is accessible in modern experiments with ultracold polar molecules and magnetic atoms.

  13. MiniAERCam Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) is designing a small, remotely controlled vehicle that will carry two color and one black and white video cameras in space. The device will launch and retrieve from the Space Vehicle and be used for remote viewing. Off the shelf cellular technology is being used as the basis for communication system design. Existing plans include using multiple antennas to make simultaneous estimates of the azimuth of the MiniAERCam from several sites on the Space Station and use triangulation to find the location of the device. Adding range detection capability to each of the nodes on the Space Vehicle would allow an estimate of the location of the MiniAERCam to be made at each Communication And Telemetry Box (CATBox) independent of all the other communication nodes. This project will investigate the techniques used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) to achieve accurate positioning information and adapt those strategies that are appropriate to the design of the CATBox range determination system.

  14. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  15. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  16. The Development of Will Perception Scale and Practice in a Psycho-Education Program with Its Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yener, Özen

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we aim to develop a 5-point likert scale and use it in an experimental application by performing its validity and reliability in order to measure the will perception of teenagers and adults. With this aim, firstly the items have been taken either in the same or changed way from various scales and an item pool including 61 items…

  17. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  18. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  19. The Dynamic Range of Human Lightness Perception

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Allred, Sarah R.; Gilchrist, Alan L.; Brainard, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Natural viewing challenges the visual system with images that have a dynamic range of light intensity (luminance) that can approach 1,000,000:1 and that often exceeds 10,000:1 [1, 2]. The range of perceived surface reflectance (lightness), however, can be well-approximated by the Munsell matte neutral scale (N 2.0/ to N 9.5/), consisting of surfaces whose reflectance varies by about 30:1. Thus, the visual system, must map a large range of surface luminance onto a much smaller range of surface lightness. We measured this mapping in images with a dynamic range close to that of natural images. We studied simple images that lacked segmentation cues that would indicate multiple regions of illumination. We found a remarkable degree of compression: at a single image location, a stimulus luminance range of 5905:1 can be mapped onto an extended lightness scale that has a reflectance range of 100:1. We characterized how the luminance-to-lightness mapping changes with stimulus context. Our data rule out theories that predict perceived lightness from luminance ratios or Weber contrast. A mechanistic model connects our data to theories of adaptation and provides insight about how the underlying visual response varies with context. PMID:22079116

  20. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  1. Evaluation of biogeographical factors in the native range to improve the success of biological control agents in the introduced range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biogeographical factors associated with Arundo donax in its native range were evaluated in reference to its key herbivore, an armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis. Climate modeling from location data in Spain and France accurately predicted the native range of the scale in the warmer, drier parts o...

  2. Scale and scaling in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  3. Recent results on short-range gravity experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Maki; Akiyama, Takashi; Ikeda, Yuki; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Narita, Keigo; Ninomiya, Kazufumi; Ogawa, Naruya; Sato, Toshiaki; Seitaibashi, Etsuko; Sekiguchi, Yuta; Tsutsui, Ryosuke; Yazawa, Kazumasa; Murata, Jiro

    2009-10-01

    According to the ADD model [1], deviation from Newton's inverse square law is expected at below sub-millimeter scale. Present study is an experimental investigation of the Newton's gravitational law at a short range scale. We have developed an experimental setup using torsion balance bar, and succeeded to confirm the inverse square law at a centimeter scale. In addition, composition dependence of gravitational constant G is also tested at the centimeter scale, motivated to test the weak equivalence principle.

  4. Comparing the theoretical versions of the Beaufort scale, the T-Scale and the Fujita scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaden, G. Terence; Kochev, S.; Kolendowicz, L.; Kosa-Kiss, A.; Marcinoniene, Izolda; Sioutas, Michalis; Tooming, Heino; Tyrrell, John

    2007-02-01

    2005 is the bicentenary of the Beaufort Scale and its wind-speed codes: the marine version in 1805 and the land version later. In the 1920s when anemometers had come into general use, the Beaufort Scale was quantified by a formula based on experiment. In the early 1970s two tornado wind-speed scales were proposed: (1) an International T-Scale based on the Beaufort Scale; and (2) Fujita's damage scale developed for North America. The International Beaufort Scale and the T-Scale share a common root in having an integral theoretical relationship with an established scientific basis, whereas Fujita's Scale introduces criteria that make its intensities non-integral with Beaufort. Forces on the T-Scale, where T stands for Tornado force, span the range 0 to 10 which is highly useful world wide. The shorter range of Fujita's Scale (0 to 5) is acceptable for American use but less convenient elsewhere. To illustrate the simplicity of the decimal T-Scale, mean hurricane wind speed of Beaufort 12 is T2 on the T-Scale but F1.121 on the F-Scale; while a tornado wind speed of T9 (= B26) becomes F4.761. However, the three wind scales can be uni-fied by either making F-Scale numbers exactly half the magnitude of T-Scale numbers [i.e. F'half = T / 2 = (B / 4) - 4] or by doubling the numbers of this revised version to give integral equivalence with the T-Scale. The result is a decimal formula F'double = T = (B / 2) - 4 named the TF-Scale where TF stands for Tornado Force. This harmonious 10-digit scale has all the criteria needed for world-wide practical effectiveness.

  5. Maslowian Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  6. Coarsening dynamics of zero-range processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godrèche, Claude; Drouffe, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    We consider a class of zero-range processes exhibiting a condensation transition in the stationary state, with a critical single-site distribution decaying faster than a power law. We present the analytical study of the coarsening dynamics of the system on the complete graph, both at criticality and in the condensed phase. In contrast with the class of zero-range processes with critical single-site distribution decaying as a power law, in the present case the role of finite-time corrections is essential for the understanding of the approach to scaling.

  7. Fundamentals of Zoological Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    The following animal characteristics are considered to determine how properties and characteristics of various systems change with system size (scaling): skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing-flapping, and maximum sizes of flying and hovering…

  8. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  9. UXO Discrimination Study Former Spencer Artillery Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    SIG Signal Innovations Group, Inc. SLO San Luis Obispo Demonstration Site Spencer Former Spencer Artillery Range SVD Singular Value Decomposition...include: physics-based target/sensor models, subspace denoising , automated and efficient feature extraction, data selection for classifier training...any scaling in order to be appropriate for the feature extraction software. • Subspace Denoising - The anomaly data is denoised to ensure robust

  10. Laser range profile of cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhen; Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2016-10-01

    technology. Laser one-dimensional range profile can reflect the characteristics of the target shape and surface material. These techniques were motivated by applications of laser radar to target discrimination in ballistic missile defense. The radar equation of pulse laser about cone is given in this paper. This paper demonstrates the analytical model of laser one-dimensional range profile of cone based on the radar equation of the pulse laser. Simulations results of laser one-dimensional range profiles of some cones are given. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retroreflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profiles of different pulse width of cone is given in this paper. The influences of surface material, pulse width, attitude on the one-dimensional range are analyzed. The laser two-dimensional range profile is two-dimensional scattering imaging of pulse laser of target. The two-dimensional range profile of roughness target can provide range resolved information. An analytical model of two-dimensional laser range profile of cone is proposed. The simulations of two-dimensional laser range profiles of some cones are given. Laser two-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser two-dimensional range profiles of cone, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retroreflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. The influence of pulse width, surface material on laser two-dimensional range profile is analyzed. Laser one-dimensional range profile and laser two-dimensional range profile are called as laser

  11. Home ranges, habitat and body mass: simple correlates of home range size in ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Herfindal, Ivar; Solberg, Erling Johan; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The spatial scale of animal space use, e.g. measured as individual home range size, is a key trait with important implications for ecological and evolutionary processes as well as management and conservation of populations and ecosystems. Explaining variation in home range size has therefore received great attention in ecological research. However, few studies have examined multiple hypotheses simultaneously, which is important provided the complex interactions between life history, social system and behaviour. Here, we review previous studies on home range size in ungulates, supplementing with a meta-analysis, to assess how differences in habitat use and species characteristics affect the relationship between body mass and home range size. Habitat type was the main factor explaining interspecific differences in home range size after accounting for species body mass and group size. Species using open habitats had larger home ranges for a given body mass than species using closed habitats, whereas species in open habitats showed a much weaker allometric relationship compared with species living in closed habitats. We found no support for relationships between home range size and species diet or mating system, or any sexual differences. These patterns suggest that the spatial scale of animal movement mainly is a combined effect of body mass, group size and the landscape structure. Accordingly, landscape management must acknowledge the influence of spatial distribution of habitat types on animal behaviour to ensure natural processes affecting demography and viability of ungulate populations. PMID:28003441

  12. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  13. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    DNA sequences have been analysed using models, such as an n-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  14. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-03-01

    DNA SEQUENCES have been analysed using models, such as an it-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations1. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  15. Fluid dynamics: Swimming across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Johannes; Friedrich, Benjamin M.

    2014-10-01

    The myriad creatures that inhabit the waters of our planet all swim using different mechanisms. Now, a simple relation links key physical observables of underwater locomotion, on scales ranging from millimetres to tens of metres.

  16. Conductance measurement circuit with wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Von Esch, Myron (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A conductance measurement circuit to measure conductance of a solution under test with an output voltage proportional to conductance over a 5-decade range, i.e., 0.01 uS to 1000 uS or from 0.1 uS to 10,000 uS. An increase in conductance indicates growth, or multiplication, of the bacteria in the test solution. Two circuits are used each for an alternate half-cycle time periods of an alternate squarewave in order to cause alternate and opposite currents to be applied to the test solution. The output of one of the two circuits may be scaled for a different range optimum switching frequency dependent upon the solution conductance and to enable uninterrupted measurement over the complete 5-decade range. This circuitry provides two overlapping ranges of conductance which can be read simultaneously without discontinuity thereby eliminating range switching within the basic circuitry. A VCO is used to automatically change the operating frequency according to the particular value of the conductance being measured, and comparators indicate which range is valid and also facilitate computer-controlled data acquisition. A multiplexer may be used to monitor any number of solutions under test continuously.

  17. Restriction of Range Effects on the New MCAT's Predictive Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin; Givner, Nathaniel

    1981-01-01

    Changes were studied that occur when the correlations between the six Medical College Admission Test scales and the scores on the Part I examination of the National Board of Medical Examiners are corrected for restriction of range. (MLW)

  18. Sequential ranging: How it works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugh, Harold W.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is directed to the users of data from the Sequential Ranging Assembly (SRA), and to others who have a general interest in range measurements. It covers the hardware, the software, and the processes used in acquiring range data; it does not cover analytical aspects such as the theory of modulation, detection, noise spectral density, and other highly technical subjects. In other words, it covers how ranging is done, but not the details of why it works. The publication also includes an appendix that gives a brief discussion of PN ranging, a capability now under development.

  19. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Williams, Mark L; Bowman, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  20. Laser range profile of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Profile information about a three-dimensional target can be obtained by laser range profile (LRP). A mathematical LRP model from rough sphere is presented. LRP includes laser one-dimensional range profile and laser two-dimensional range profile. A target coordinate system and an imaging coordinate system are established, the mathematical model of the range profile is derived in the imaging coordinate system. The mathematical model obtained has nothing to do with the incidence direction of laser. It is shown that the laser range profile of the sphere is independent of the incidence direction of laser. This is determined by the symmetry of the sphere. The laser range profile can reflect the shape and material properties of the target. Simulations results of LRP about some spheres are given. Laser range profile of sphere, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. Laser one-dimensional range profile of sphere, whose surface mater with diffuse materials whose retro-reflectance can be modeled closely with an exponential term that decays with increasing incidence angles, is given in this paper. Laser range profiles of different pulse width of sphere are given in this paper. The influences of geometric parameters, pulse width on the range profiles are analyzed.

  1. Two-Range Electrical Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, W. F.

    1987-01-01

    Thermocouple and resistance thermometer expand thermometer scale. Switch thrown up to connect platinum resistance temperature detector or down to connect (platinum/rhodium)/platinum thermocouple to meter. Thermocouple integral part of platinum resistance temperature detector wiring.

  2. Characterizing proton-activated materials to develop PET-mediated proton range verification markers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Kerr, Matthew D; Amos, Richard A; Stingo, Francesco C; Marom, Edith M; Truong, Mylene T; Palacio, Diana M; Betancourt, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J; DeGroot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Gladish, Gregory W; Sabloff, Bradley S; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Godoy, Myrna C; Patil, Shekhar; Sorensen, James; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2016-06-07

    Conventional proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) relies on tissue activation alone and therefore requires particle therapy PET whose installation can represent a large financial burden for many centers. Previously, we showed the feasibility of developing patient implantable markers using high proton cross-section materials ((18)O, Cu, and (68)Zn) for in vivo proton range verification using conventional PET scanners. In this technical note, we characterize those materials to test their usability in more clinically relevant conditions. Two phantoms made of low-density balsa wood (~0.1 g cm(-3)) and beef (~1.0 g cm(-3)) were embedded with Cu or (68)Zn foils of several volumes (10-50 mm(3)). The metal foils were positioned at several depths in the dose fall-off region, which had been determined from our previous study. The phantoms were then irradiated with different proton doses (1-5 Gy). After irradiation, the phantoms with the embedded foils were moved to a diagnostic PET scanner and imaged. The acquired data were reconstructed with 20-40 min of scan time using various delay times (30-150 min) to determine the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio. The resultant PET/computed tomography (CT) fusion images of the activated foils were then examined and the foils' PET signal strength/visibility was scored on a 5 point scale by 13 radiologists experienced in nuclear medicine. For both phantoms, the visibility of activated foils increased in proportion to the foil volume, dose, and PET scan time. A linear model was constructed with visibility scores as the response variable and all other factors (marker material, phantom material, dose, and PET scan time) as covariates. Using the linear model, volumes of foils that provided adequate visibility (score 3) were determined for each dose and PET scan time. The foil volumes that were determined will be used as a guideline in developing practical implantable markers.

  3. Characterizing proton-activated materials to develop PET-mediated proton range verification markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Kerr, Matthew D.; Amos, Richard A.; Stingo, Francesco C.; Marom, Edith M.; Truong, Mylene T.; Palacio, Diana M.; Betancourt, Sonia L.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; DeGroot, Patricia M.; Carter, Brett W.; Gladish, Gregory W.; Sabloff, Bradley S.; Benveniste, Marcelo F.; Godoy, Myrna C.; Patil, Shekhar; Sorensen, James; Mawlawi, Osama R.

    2016-06-01

    Conventional proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) relies on tissue activation alone and therefore requires particle therapy PET whose installation can represent a large financial burden for many centers. Previously, we showed the feasibility of developing patient implantable markers using high proton cross-section materials (18O, Cu, and 68Zn) for in vivo proton range verification using conventional PET scanners. In this technical note, we characterize those materials to test their usability in more clinically relevant conditions. Two phantoms made of low-density balsa wood (~0.1 g cm-3) and beef (~1.0 g cm-3) were embedded with Cu or 68Zn foils of several volumes (10-50 mm3). The metal foils were positioned at several depths in the dose fall-off region, which had been determined from our previous study. The phantoms were then irradiated with different proton doses (1-5 Gy). After irradiation, the phantoms with the embedded foils were moved to a diagnostic PET scanner and imaged. The acquired data were reconstructed with 20-40 min of scan time using various delay times (30-150 min) to determine the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio. The resultant PET/computed tomography (CT) fusion images of the activated foils were then examined and the foils’ PET signal strength/visibility was scored on a 5 point scale by 13 radiologists experienced in nuclear medicine. For both phantoms, the visibility of activated foils increased in proportion to the foil volume, dose, and PET scan time. A linear model was constructed with visibility scores as the response variable and all other factors (marker material, phantom material, dose, and PET scan time) as covariates. Using the linear model, volumes of foils that provided adequate visibility (score 3) were determined for each dose and PET scan time. The foil volumes that were determined will be used as a guideline in developing practical implantable markers.

  4. A Glossary of Range Terminology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    GLOSSARY OF RANGE TERMINOLOGY" Final 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMUER(e) Documentation Group Range Commanders...Council White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Same...ABSOLUTE ADDRESS -- The label or number permanently assigned to a specific storage location, device or register. binary words together with an origin

  5. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. S.; Gao, Y. P.; Zhao, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observational data are not evenly sampled, and the internals between data points range from several hours to more than half a month. What's more, these data sets are sparse. And all these make it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, we use cubic spline interpolation to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points even. Then, we employ the Vondrak filter to smooth the data set, and get rid of high-frequency noise, finally adopt the weighted average method to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The pulsar timing residuals represent clock difference between the pulsar time and atomic time, and the high precision pulsar timing data mean the clock difference measurement between the pulsar time and atomic time with a high signal to noise ratio, which is fundamental to generate pulsar time. We use the latest released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set is from the newest NANOGRAV data release, which includes 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars using the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and 305-meter Arecibo telescope. We find that the algorithm used in this paper can lower the influence caused by noises in timing residuals, and improve long-term stability of pulsar time. Results show that the long-term (> 1 yr) frequency stability of the pulsar time is better than 3.4×10-15.

  6. Short-range Fundamental forces

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, I; Baessler, Stefan; Buechner, M; Fedorov, General Victor; Hoedl, S.; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Pignol, G; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Yu.

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: (1) spin-independent forces; and (2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  7. Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).

    PubMed

    Connor, Kathryn M; Davidson, Jonathan R T

    2003-01-01

    Resilience may be viewed as a measure of stress coping ability and, as such, could be an important target of treatment in anxiety, depression, and stress reactions. We describe a new rating scale to assess resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a 5-point scale (0-4), with higher scores reflecting greater resilience. The scale was administered to subjects in the following groups: community sample, primary care outpatients, general psychiatric outpatients, clinical trial of generalized anxiety disorder, and two clinical trials of PTSD. The reliability, validity, and factor analytic structure of the scale were evaluated, and reference scores for study samples were calculated. Sensitivity to treatment effects was examined in subjects from the PTSD clinical trials. The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and factor analysis yielded five factors. A repeated measures ANOVA showed that an increase in CD-RISC score was associated with greater improvement during treatment. Improvement in CD-RISC score was noted in proportion to overall clinical global improvement, with greatest increase noted in subjects with the highest global improvement and deterioration in CD-RISC score in those with minimal or no global improvement. The CD-RISC has sound psychometric properties and distinguishes between those with greater and lesser resilience. The scale demonstrates that resilience is modifiable and can improve with treatment, with greater improvement corresponding to higher levels of global improvement.

  8. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  9. Hardware test program for evaluation of baseline range/range rate sensor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pernic, E.

    1985-01-01

    The test program Phase II effort provides additional design information in terms of range and range rate (R/R) sensor performance when observing and tracking a typical spacecraft target. The target used in the test program was a one-third scale model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) available at the MSFC test site where the tests were performed. A modified Bendix millimeter wave radar served as the R/R sensor test bed for evaluation of range and range rate tracking performance, and generation of radar signature characteristics of the spacecraft target. A summary of program test results and conclusions are presented along with detailed description of the Bendix test bed radar with accompaning instrumentation. The MSFC test site and facilities are described. The test procedures used to establish background levels, and the calibration procedures used in the range accuracy tests and RCS (radar cross section) signature measurements, are presented and a condensed version of the daily log kept during the 5 September through 17 September test period is also presented. The test program results are given starting with the RCS signature measurements, then continuing with range measurement accuracy test results and finally the range and range rate tracking accuracy test results.

  10. The Issue of Range Restriction in Bookmark Standard Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses data from a large-scale assessment program to illustrate the potential issue of range restriction with the Bookmark method in the context of trying to set cut scores to closely align with a set of college and career readiness benchmarks. Analyses indicated that range restriction issues existed across different response…

  11. Environmental complexity across scales: mechanism, scaling and the phenomenological fallacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Van Leeuwenhoek used a microscope to discover "new worlds in a drop of water" we have become used to the idea that "zooming in" - whether in space or in time - will reveal new processes, new phenomena. Yet in the natural environment - geosystems - this is often wrong. For example, in the temporal domain, a recent publication has shown that from hours to hundreds of millions of years the conventional scale bound view of atmospheric variability was wrong by a factor of over a quadrillion (10**15). Mandelbrot challenged the "scale bound" ideology and proposed that many natural systems - including many geosystems - were instead better treated as fractal systems in which the same basic mechanism acts over potentially huge ranges of scale. However, in its original form Mandelbrot's isotropic scaling (self-similar) idea turned out to be too naïve: geosystems are typically anisotropic so that shapes and morphologies (e.g. of clouds landmasses) are not the same at different resolutions. However it turns out that the scaling idea often still applies on condition that the notion of scale is generalized appropriately (using the framework of Generalized Scale Invariance). The overall result is that unique processes, unique dynamical mechanisms may act over huge ranges of scale even though the morphologies systematically change with scale. Therefore the common practice of inferring mechanism from shapes, forms, morphologies is unjustified, the "phenomenological fallacy". We give examples of the phenomenological fallacy drawn from diverse areas of geoscience.

  12. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  13. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  14. Extended scaling in high dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, B.; Chatelain, C.; Dhall, C.; Kenna, R.; Low, R.; Walter, J.-C.

    2008-11-01

    We apply and test the recently proposed 'extended scaling' scheme in an analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of Ising systems above the upper critical dimension. The data are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations using both the conventional Wolff cluster algorithm and the Prokof'ev-Svistunov worm algorithm. As already observed for other models, extended scaling is shown to extend the high-temperature critical scaling regime over a range of temperatures much wider than that achieved conventionally. It allows for an accurate determination of leading and sub-leading scaling indices, critical temperatures and amplitudes of the confluent corrections.

  15. High dynamic range subjective testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Brahim; Nilsson, Mike

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes of a set of subjective tests that the authors have carried out to assess the end user perception of video encoded with High Dynamic Range technology when viewed in a typical home environment. Viewers scored individual single clips of content, presented in High Definition (HD) and Ultra High Definition (UHD), in Standard Dynamic Range (SDR), and in High Dynamic Range (HDR) using both the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) transfer characteristics, and presented in SDR as the backwards compatible rendering of the HLG representation. The quality of SDR HD was improved by approximately equal amounts by either increasing the dynamic range or increasing the resolution to UHD. A further smaller increase in quality was observed in the Mean Opinion Scores of the viewers by increasing both the dynamic range and the resolution, but this was not quite statistically significant.

  16. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  17. Streak camera dynamic range optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedwald, J.D.; Lerche, R.A.

    1987-09-01

    The LLNL optical streak camera is used by the Laser Fusion Program in a wide range of applications. Many of these applications require a large recorded dynamic range. Recent work has focused on maximizing the dynamic range of the streak camera recording system. For our streak cameras, image intensifier saturation limits the upper end of the dynamic range. We have developed procedures to set the image intensifier gain such that the system dynamic range is maximized. Specifically, the gain is set such that a single streak tube photoelectron is recorded with an exposure of about five times the recording system noise. This ensures detection of single photoelectrons, while not consuming intensifier or recording system dynamic range through excessive intensifier gain. The optimum intensifier gain has been determined for two types of film and for a lens-coupled CCD camera. We have determined that by recording the streak camera image with a CCD camera, the system is shot-noise limited up to the onset of image intensifier nonlinearity. When recording on film, the film determines the noise at high exposure levels. There is discussion of the effects of slit width and image intensifier saturation on dynamic range. 8 refs.

  18. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  19. GPS test range mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  20. Long range hopping mobility platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a mesoscale hopping mobility platform (Hopper) to overcome the longstanding problems of mobility and power in small scale unmanned vehicles. The system provides mobility in situations such as negotiating tall obstacles and rough terrain that are prohibitive for other small ground base vehicles. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) provided the funding for the hopper project.

  1. The dynamic range of LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.

    2016-02-01

    The electronics of the LZ experiment, the 7-tonne dark matter detector to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), is designed to permit studies of physics where the energies deposited range from 1 keV of nuclear-recoil energy up to 3,000 keV of electron-recoil energy. The system is designed to provide a 70% efficiency for events that produce three photoelectrons in the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This corresponds approximately to the lowest energy threshold achievable in multi-tonne time-projection chambers, and drives the noise specifications for the front end. The upper limit of the LZ dynamic range is defined to accommodate the electroluminescence (S2) signals. The low-energy channels of the LZ amplifiers provide the dynamic range required for the tritium and krypton calibrations. The high-energy channels provide the dynamic range required to measure the activated Xe lines.

  2. Airborne 2 color ranging experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, Pamela S.; Abshire, James B.; Mcgarry, Jan F.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Pacini, Linda K.

    1993-01-01

    Horizontal variations in the atmospheric refractivity are a limiting error source for many precise laser and radio space geodetic techniques. This experiment was designed to directly measure horizontal variations in atmospheric refractivity, for the first time, by using 2 color laser ranging measurements to an aircraft. The 2 color laser system at the Goddard Optical Research Facility (GORF) ranged to a cooperative laser target package on a T-39 aircraft. Circular patterns which extended from the southern edge of the Washington D.C. Beltway to the southern edge of Baltimore, MD were flown counter clockwise around Greenbelt, MD. Successful acquisition, tracking, and ranging for 21 circular paths were achieved on three flights in August 1992, resulting in over 20,000 two color ranging measurements.

  3. Digital laser range finder emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Vaughn P.; Holland, Orgal T.; Wilkerson, Christina G.

    1993-05-01

    A digital laser range finder emulator receives N-bits of range-to-target data in a parallel format and generates N-bits of serial data representative of the range-to-target data and an external synchronization pulse whose presence is indicative of valid serial data. First and second clock pulses are generated such that the second clock pulse is delayed with respect to the first clock pulse. Control logic, responsive to the first clock pulse, generates validity logic while control logic, responsive to the second clock pulse, generates transmit logic. The parallel format range-to-target data is converted into the serial data in response to the first clock pulse. The serial data is then output in response to the transmit logic. A gate, responsive to the second clock pulse and the validity logic, generates the synchronization pulse when the second clock pulse and validity logic occupy a common logic state.

  4. Object Recognition Using Range Images.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    background clutter and target rotation on a range image’s correlation coefficient were examined, as well as possible methods of correcting for these effects...Other factors affecting the correlation coefficient that were considered were pixel dropouts and the beam spot size of the laser. Pixel dropouts were...shown to be detrimental to a range image’s correlation coefficient , but could be corrected by using a ’median replacement’ technique. Also shown was

  5. Computational Analysis of the Large Scale Low-Boom Supersonic Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, ROdrick V.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes two computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses done in support of a supersonic inlet test performed at NASA Glenn Research Center in the fall of 2010. The large-scale-low-boom supersonic inlet was designed for a small supersonic aircraft that would cruise at a Mach number of 1.6. It uses an axisymmetric, external compression spike to reduce the Mach number to 0.65 at the fan face. The inlet was tested in the 8x6 supersonic wind tunnel at NASA GRC using conventional pressure probes, pressure sensitive paint, and high-speed schlieren. Two CFD analyses of the inlet were performed before the test, and compared to the experimental data afterwards. Both analyses used the WIND-US code. First, an axisymmetric analysis of the inlet, diffuser, cold pipe, and mass flow plug was performed to predict the performance of the entire system in the wind tunnel. Then a 3-D analysis of the inlet with all its interior struts was performed to predict details of the flow field and effects of angle of attack. Test results showed that the inlet had excellent performance, with a peak total pressure recovery of 96 percent, and a buzz point far outside the engine operating range. The computations agreed very well with the data, with predicted recoveries within 0.3 - 0.5 points of the measurements.

  6. Range expansion through fragmented landscapes under a variable climate

    PubMed Central

    Bennie, Jonathan; Hodgson, Jenny A; Lawson, Callum R; Holloway, Crispin TR; Roy, David B; Brereton, Tom; Thomas, Chris D; Wilson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Ecological responses to climate change may depend on complex patterns of variability in weather and local microclimate that overlay global increases in mean temperature. Here, we show that high-resolution temporal and spatial variability in temperature drives the dynamics of range expansion for an exemplar species, the butterfly Hesperia comma. Using fine-resolution (5 m) models of vegetation surface microclimate, we estimate the thermal suitability of 906 habitat patches at the species' range margin for 27 years. Population and metapopulation models that incorporate this dynamic microclimate surface improve predictions of observed annual changes to population density and patch occupancy dynamics during the species' range expansion from 1982 to 2009. Our findings reveal how fine-scale, short-term environmental variability drives rates and patterns of range expansion through spatially localised, intermittent episodes of expansion and contraction. Incorporating dynamic microclimates can thus improve models of species range shifts at spatial and temporal scales relevant to conservation interventions. PMID:23701124

  7. Optical range and range rate estimation for teleoperator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Malone, T. B.; Huggins, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    Range and range rate are crucial parameters which must be available to the operator during remote controlled orbital docking operations. A method was developed for the estimation of both these parameters using an aided television system. An experiment was performed to determine the human operator's capability to measure displayed image size using a fixed reticle or movable cursor as the television aid. The movable cursor was found to yield mean image size estimation errors on the order of 2.3 per cent of the correct value. This error rate was significantly lower than that for the fixed reticle. Performance using the movable cursor was found to be less sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio variation than was that for the fixed reticle. The mean image size estimation errors for the movable cursor correspond to an error of approximately 2.25 per cent in range suggesting that the system has some merit. Determining the accuracy of range rate estimation using a rate controlled cursor will require further experimentation.

  8. The ontogeny of home ranges: evidence from coral reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, J. Q.; Goatley, C. H. R.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of home ranges is fundamental to ecology. Numerous studies have quantified how home ranges scale with body size across taxa. However, these relationships are not always applicable intraspecifically. Here, we describe how the home range of an important group of reef fish, the parrotfishes, scales with body mass. With masses spanning five orders of magnitude, from the early postsettlement stage through to adulthood, we find no evidence of a response to predation risk, dietary shifts or sex change on home range expansion rates. Instead, we document a distinct ontogenetic shift in home range expansion with sexual maturity. Juvenile parrotfishes displayed rapid home range growth until reaching approximately 100–150 mm length. Thereafter, the relationship between home range and mass broke down. This shift reflected changes in colour patterns, social status and reproductive behaviour associated with the transition to adult stages. While there is a clear relationship between body mass and home ranges among adult individuals of different species, it does not appear to be applicable to size changes within species. Ontogenetic changes in parrotfishes do not follow expected mass–area scaling relationships. PMID:24174108

  9. The ontogeny of home ranges: evidence from coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Welsh, J Q; Goatley, C H R; Bellwood, D R

    2013-12-22

    The concept of home ranges is fundamental to ecology. Numerous studies have quantified how home ranges scale with body size across taxa. However, these relationships are not always applicable intraspecifically. Here, we describe how the home range of an important group of reef fish, the parrotfishes, scales with body mass. With masses spanning five orders of magnitude, from the early postsettlement stage through to adulthood, we find no evidence of a response to predation risk, dietary shifts or sex change on home range expansion rates. Instead, we document a distinct ontogenetic shift in home range expansion with sexual maturity. Juvenile parrotfishes displayed rapid home range growth until reaching approximately 100-150 mm length. Thereafter, the relationship between home range and mass broke down. This shift reflected changes in colour patterns, social status and reproductive behaviour associated with the transition to adult stages. While there is a clear relationship between body mass and home ranges among adult individuals of different species, it does not appear to be applicable to size changes within species. Ontogenetic changes in parrotfishes do not follow expected mass-area scaling relationships.

  10. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  11. Geographic range limits: achieving synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the determinants of species' geographic range limits remains poorly integrated. In part, this is because of the diversity of perspectives on the issue, and because empirical studies have lagged substantially behind developments in theory. Here, I provide a broad overview, drawing together many of the disparate threads, considering, in turn, how influences on the terms of a simple single-population equation can determine range limits. There is theoretical and empirical evidence for systematic changes towards range limits under some circumstances in each of the demographic parameters. However, under other circumstances, no such changes may take place in particular parameters, or they may occur in a different direction, with limitation still occurring. This suggests that (i) little about range limitation can categorically be inferred from many empirical studies, which document change in only one demographic parameter, (ii) there is a need for studies that document variation in all of the parameters, and (iii) in agreement with theoretical evidence that range limits can be formed in the presence or absence of hard boundaries, environmental gradients or biotic interactions, there may be few general patterns as to the determinants of these limits, with most claimed generalities at least having many exceptions. PMID:19324809

  12. Excitable scale free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copelli, M.; Campos, P. R. A.

    2007-04-01

    When a simple excitable system is continuously stimulated by a Poissonian external source, the response function (mean activity versus stimulus rate) generally shows a linear saturating shape. This is experimentally verified in some classes of sensory neurons, which accordingly present a small dynamic range (defined as the interval of stimulus intensity which can be appropriately coded by the mean activity of the excitable element), usually about one or two decades only. The brain, on the other hand, can handle a significantly broader range of stimulus intensity, and a collective phenomenon involving the interaction among excitable neurons has been suggested to account for the enhancement of the dynamic range. Since the role of the pattern of such interactions is still unclear, here we investigate the performance of a scale-free (SF) network topology in this dynamic range problem. Specifically, we study the transfer function of disordered SF networks of excitable Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. We observe that the dynamic range is maximum when the coupling among the elements is critical, corroborating a general reasoning recently proposed. Although the maximum dynamic range yielded by general SF networks is slightly worse than that of random networks, for special SF networks which lack loops the enhancement of the dynamic range can be dramatic, reaching nearly five decades. In order to understand the role of loops on the transfer function we propose a simple model in which the density of loops in the network can be gradually increased, and show that this is accompanied by a gradual decrease of dynamic range.

  13. Multidimensional scaling

    PubMed Central

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of similarity, or a sense of "sameness" among things, is pivotal to theories in the cognitive sciences and beyond. Similarity, however, is a difficult thing to measure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a tool by which researchers can obtain quantitative estimates of similarity among groups of items. More formally, MDS refers to a set of statistical techniques that are used to reduce the complexity of a data set, permitting visual appreciation of the underlying relational structures contained therein. The current paper provides an overview of MDS. We discuss key aspects of performing this technique, such as methods that can be used to collect similarity estimates, analytic techniques for treating proximity data, and various concerns regarding interpretation of the MDS output. MDS analyses of two novel data sets are also included, highlighting in step-by-step fashion how MDS is performed, and key issues that may arise during analysis. PMID:23359318

  14. Laser system of extended range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehr, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    A pulsed laser system was developed for range measurements from the earth to retroreflecting satellites at distances up to that of the moon. The system has a transportable transmitter unit that can be moved from one location to another. This unit consists of a 0.2 m coude refractor and a high radiance, neodymium-glass, frequency doubled laser that operates in a single transverse mode. It can be used for lunar or distant satellite ranging at any observatory that has a telescope with an aperture diameter of about 1.5 m for the detection of the laser return pulses. This telescope is utilized in the same manner customarily employed for the observation of celestial objects. A special photometric package and the associated electronics are provided for laser ranging.

  15. NASA Satellite Laser Ranging Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, David L.

    2004-01-01

    I will be participating in the International Workshop on Laser Ranging. I will be presenting to the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) general body meeting on the recent accomplishments and status of the NASA Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) Network. The recent accomplishments and NASA's future plans will be outlined and the benefits to the scientific community will be addressed. I am member of the ILRS governing board, the Missions working group, and the Networks & Engineering working group. I am the chairman of the Missions Working and will be hosting a meeting during the week of the workshop. I will also represent the NASA SLR program at the ILRS governing board and other working group meetings.

  16. RANGE INCREASER FOR PNEUMATIC GAUGES

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, A.H.; Seaborn, G.B. Jr.

    1960-09-27

    An improved pneumatic gage is offered in which the linear range has been increased without excessive air consumption. This has been accomplished by providing an expansible antechamber connected to the nozzle of the gage so that the position of the nozzle with respect to the workpiece is varied automatically by variation in pressure within the antechamber. This arrangement ensures that the nozzle-to-workpiece clearance is maintained within certain limits, thus obtaining a linear relation of air flow to nozzle-to-workpiece clearance over a wider range.

  17. Long-range Order in Canary Song

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E.; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules. PMID:23658509

  18. Long-range order in canary song.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  19. The Efimov effect with finite range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platter, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Systems of strongly interacting atoms are receiving a lot of attention because of their interesting features in the few- and many-body sector. Strong interactions are frequently obtained in experiment by using a Feshbach resonance to tune the scattering to large values. A striking feature of three-body systems with a large scattering is the emergence of a discrete scaling symmetry that is also known as the Efimov effect. The Efimov effect has been observed through the measurement of loss rates in experiments with ultracold atoms. It is, however, also relevant to nuclear physics where the three-nucleon bound state and some halo nuclei are considered to be examples of Efimov states. Such systems can be modeled conveniently with the zero-range limit, however, in many of such experiments the finite range of the interaction leads to significant corrections that need to be taken into account. I will discuss how a finite effective range can be included in calculations for three-body systems that display the Efimov effect and how this leads to novel universal relations. Applications to experiments with homonuclear and heteronuclear ultracold atomic gases are discussed. National Science Foundation PHY-1516077, PHY-1555030.

  20. Chirp Scaling Algorithms for SAR Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, M.; Cheng, T.; Chen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The chirp scaling SAR processing algorithm is both accurate and efficient. Successful implementation requires proper selection of the interval of output samples, which is a function of the chirp interval, signal sampling rate, and signal bandwidth. Analysis indicates that for both airborne and spaceborne SAR applications in the slant range domain a linear chirp scaling is sufficient. To perform nonlinear interpolation process such as to output ground range SAR images, one can use a nonlinear chirp scaling interpolator presented in this paper.

  1. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    SciTech Connect

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  2. Monitoring vegetation conditions from LANDSAT for use in range management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, R. H.; Deering, D. W.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Schell, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the LANDSAT Great Plains Corridor projects and the principal results are presented. Emphasis is given to the use of satellite acquired phenological data for range management and agri-business activities. A convenient method of reducing LANDSAT MSS data to provide quantitative estimates of green biomass on rangelands in the Great Plains is explained. Suggestions for the use of this approach for evaluating range feed conditions are presented. A LANDSAT Follow-on project has been initiated which will employ the green biomass estimation method in a quasi-operational monitoring of range readiness and range feed conditions on a regional scale.

  3. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  4. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  5. Fundamentals of zoological scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain—a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple physical ideas. We consider the following animal characteristics: skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing flapping, and maximum sizes of animals that fly and hover. These relationships are compared to zoological data and everyday experience, and match reasonably well.

  6. Back Home on the Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breining, Greg

    1992-01-01

    Presents the history of the buffalo's demise and reemergence in the United States and Canada. Discusses the problems facing herds today caused by a small genetic pool, disease, range concerns, lack of predation, and culling. Points out the benefits of buffalo raising as compared to cattle raising, including the marketing advantages. (MCO)

  7. Reflections on Aircraft Unmask Ranges.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-06

    2.5 14 m4 b. In 1953, D.C. Hardison, R.H. Peterson, and A.H. Benvenuto analyzed topographic maps for Northwest Europe’to determine the distances from...areas in Germany and Korea. Con- sistent with the earlier work of Hardison, Peterson, and Benvenuto , the ranges were found to differ widely from area

  8. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  9. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  10. Large-scale dynamics of magnetic helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkmann, Moritz; Dallas, Vassilios

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the dynamics of magnetic helicity in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows focusing at scales larger than the forcing scale. Our results show a nonlocal inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which occurs directly from the forcing scale into the largest scales of the magnetic field. We also observe that no magnetic helicity and no energy is transferred to an intermediate range of scales sufficiently smaller than the container size and larger than the forcing scale. Thus, the statistical properties of this range of scales, which increases with scale separation, is shown to be described to a large extent by the zero flux solutions of the absolute statistical equilibrium theory exhibited by the truncated ideal MHD equations.

  11. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal. PMID:28374825

  12. Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S C; Nicol, R M

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum--with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approximately 2 in power--provides a test of this invariance.

  13. Underwater three-dimensional range-gated laser imaging based on triangular-range-intensity profile spatial-correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Xiaoquan; Ren, Pengdao; Sun, Liang; Fan, Songtao; Lei, Pingshun; Zhou, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Underwater 3D range-gated imaging can extend the detection range over underwater stereo cameras, and also has great potentials in real-time high-resolution imaging than 3D laser scanning. In this paper, a triangular-range-intensity profile spatial correlation method is used for underwater 3D range-gated imaging. Different from the traditional trapezoidal method, in our method gate images have triangular range-intensity profiles. Furthermore, inter-frame correlation is used for video-rate 3D imaging. In addition, multi-pulse time delay integration is introduced to shape range-intensify profiles and realize flexible 3D SRGI. Finally, in experiments, 3D images of fish net, seaweed and balls are obtained with mm-scaled spatial and range resolution.

  14. Climate and topography explain range sizes of terrestrial vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming; Li, Xianping; Sandel, Brody; Blank, David; Liu, Zetian; Liu, Xuan; Yan, Shaofei

    2016-05-01

    Identifying the factors that influence range sizes of species provides important insight into the distribution of biodiversity, and is crucial for predicting shifts in species ranges in response to climate change. Current climate (for example, climate variability and climate extremes), long-term climate change, evolutionary age, topographic heterogeneity, land area and species traits such as physiological thermal limits, dispersal ability, annual fecundity and body size have been shown to influence range size. Yet, few studies have examined the generality of each of these factors among different taxa, or have simultaneously evaluated the strength of relationships between range size and these factors at a global scale. We quantify contributions of these factors to range sizes of terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds and reptiles) at a global scale. We found that large-ranged species experience greater monthly extremes of maximum or minimum temperature within their ranges, or occur in areas with higher long-term climate velocity and lower topographic heterogeneity or lower precipitation seasonality. Flight ability, body mass and continent width are important only for particular taxa. Our results highlight the importance of climate and topographic context in driving range size variation. The results suggest that small-range species may be vulnerable to climate change and should be the focus of conservation efforts.

  15. Effects of Scale, Question Location, Order of Response Alternatives, and Season on Self-Reported Noise Annoyance Using ICBEN Scales: A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Mark; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Vienneau, Danielle; Cajochen, Christian; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The type of noise annoyance scale and aspects of its presentation such as response format or location within a questionnaire and other contextual factors may affect self-reported noise annoyance. By means of a balanced experimental design, the effect of type of annoyance question and corresponding scale (5-point verbal vs. 11-point numerical ICBEN (International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise) scale), presentation order of scale points (ascending vs. descending), question location (early vs. late within the questionnaire), and survey season (autumn vs. spring) on reported road traffic noise annoyance was investigated in a postal survey with a stratified random sample of 2386 Swiss residents. Our results showed that early appearance of annoyance questions was significantly associated with higher annoyance scores. Questionnaires filled out in autumn were associated with a significantly higher annoyance rating than in the springtime. No effect was found for the order of response alternatives. Standardized average annoyance scores were slightly higher using the 11-point numerical scale whereas the percentage of highly annoyed respondents was higher based on the 5-point scale, using common cutoff points. In conclusion, placement and presentation of annoyance questions within a questionnaire, as well as the time of the year a survey is carried out, have small but demonstrable effects on the degree of self-reported noise annoyance. PMID:27886110

  16. Effects of Scale, Question Location, Order of Response Alternatives, and Season on Self-Reported Noise Annoyance Using ICBEN Scales: A Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Brink, Mark; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Vienneau, Danielle; Cajochen, Christian; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2016-11-23

    The type of noise annoyance scale and aspects of its presentation such as response format or location within a questionnaire and other contextual factors may affect self-reported noise annoyance. By means of a balanced experimental design, the effect of type of annoyance question and corresponding scale (5-point verbal vs. 11-point numerical ICBEN (International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise) scale), presentation order of scale points (ascending vs. descending), question location (early vs. late within the questionnaire), and survey season (autumn vs. spring) on reported road traffic noise annoyance was investigated in a postal survey with a stratified random sample of 2386 Swiss residents. Our results showed that early appearance of annoyance questions was significantly associated with higher annoyance scores. Questionnaires filled out in autumn were associated with a significantly higher annoyance rating than in the springtime. No effect was found for the order of response alternatives. Standardized average annoyance scores were slightly higher using the 11-point numerical scale whereas the percentage of highly annoyed respondents was higher based on the 5-point scale, using common cutoff points. In conclusion, placement and presentation of annoyance questions within a questionnaire, as well as the time of the year a survey is carried out, have small but demonstrable effects on the degree of self-reported noise annoyance.

  17. Ultrasonic ranging for the oculometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic tracking techniques are investigated for an oculometer. Two methods are reported in detail. The first is based on measurements of time from the start of a transmit burst to a received echo. Knowing the sound velocity, distance can be calculated. In the second method, a continuous signal is transmitted. Target movement causes phase shifting of the echo. By accumulating these phase shifts, tracking from a set point can be achieved. Both systems have problems with contoured targets, but work well on flat plates and the back of a human head. Also briefly reported is an evaluation of an ultrasonic ranging system. Interface circuits make this system compatible with the echo time design. While the system is consistently accurate, it has a beam too narrow for oculometer use. Finally, comments are provided on a tracking system using the Doppler frequency shift to give range data.

  18. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Along its Oregon segment, the Cascade Range is almost entirely volcanic in origin. The volcanoes and their eroded remnants are the visible magmatic expression of the Cascadia subduction zone, where the offshore Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is subducted beneath North America. Subduction occurs as two lithospheric plates collide, and an underthrusted oceanic plate is commonly dragged into the mantle by the pull of gravity, carrying ocean-bottom rock and sediment down to where heat and pressure expel water. As this water rises, it lowers the melting temperature in the overlying hot mantle rocks, thereby promoting melting. The molten rock supplies the volcanic arcs with heat and magma. Cascade Range volcanoes are part of the Ring of Fire, a popular term for the numerous volcanic arcs that encircle the Pacific Ocean.

  19. ASTP ranging system mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, M. R.; Robinson, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented of the VHF ranging system to analyze the performance of the Apollo-Soyuz test project (ASTP). The system was adapted for use in the ASTP. The ranging system mathematical model is presented in block diagram form, and a brief description of the overall model is also included. A procedure for implementing the math model is presented along with a discussion of the validation of the math model and the overall summary and conclusions of the study effort. Detailed appendices of the five study tasks are presented: early late gate model development, unlock probability development, system error model development, probability of acquisition and model development, and math model validation testing.

  20. Synchronous Phase-Resolving Flash Range Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Hancock, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus, now undergoing development, for range imaging based on measurement of the round-trip phase delay of a pulsed laser beam is described. The apparatus would operate in a staring mode. A pulsed laser would illuminate a target. Laser light reflected from the target would be imaged on a verylarge- scale integrated (VLSI)-circuit image detector, each pixel of which would contain a photodetector and a phase-measuring circuit. The round-trip travel time for the reflected laser light incident on each pixel, and thus the distance to the portion of the target imaged in that pixel, would be measured in terms of the phase difference between (1) the photodetector output pulse and (2) a local-oscillator signal that would have a frequency between 10 and 20 MHz and that would be synchronized with the laser-pulse-triggering signal.

  1. Percolation with long-range correlated disorder.

    PubMed

    Schrenk, K J; Posé, N; Kranz, J J; van Kessenich, L V M; Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J

    2013-11-01

    Long-range power-law correlated percolation is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain several static and dynamic critical exponents as functions of the Hurst exponent H, which characterizes the degree of spatial correlation among the occupation of sites. In particular, we study the fractal dimension of the largest cluster and the scaling behavior of the second moment of the cluster size distribution, as well as the complete and accessible perimeters of the largest cluster. Concerning the inner structure and transport properties of the largest cluster, we analyze its shortest path, backbone, red sites, and conductivity. Finally, bridge site growth is also considered. We propose expressions for the functional dependence of the critical exponents on H.

  2. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect

    SciTech Connect

    L.B. Weinstein, E. Piasetzky, D.W. Higinbotham, J. Gomez, O. Hen, R. Shneor

    2011-02-01

    This Letter shows quantitatively that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at intermediate xB, 0.35≤xB≤0.7, is linearly related to the short range correlation (SRC) scale factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering at xB≥1. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract the ratio of the deuteron to the free pn pair cross sections and F2n/F2p, the ratio of the free neutron to free proton structure functions. We speculate that the observed correlation is because both the EMC effect and SRC are dominated by the high virtuality (high momentum) nucleons in the nucleus.

  3. Extended temperature range ACPS thruster investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blubaugh, A. L.; Schoenman, L.

    1974-01-01

    The successful hot fire demonstration of a pulsing liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen attitude control propulsion system thruster is described. The test was the result of research to develop a simple, lightweight, and high performance reaction control system without the traditional requirements for extensive periods of engine thermal conditioning, or the use of complex equipment to convert both liquid propellants to gas prior to delivery to the engine. Significant departures from conventional injector design practice were employed to achieve an operable design. The work discussed includes thermal and injector manifold priming analyses, subscale injector chilldown tests, and 168 full scale and 550 N (1250 lbF) rocket engine tests. Ignition experiments, at propellant temperatures ranging from cryogenic to ambient, led to the generation of a universal spark ignition system which can reliably ignite an engine when supplied with liquid, two phase, or gaseous propellants. Electrical power requirements for spark igniter are very low.

  4. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  5. Range determination for scannerless imaging

    DOEpatents

    Muguira, Maritza Rosa; Sackos, John Theodore; Bradley, Bart Davis; Nellums, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A new method of operating a scannerless range imaging system (e.g., a scannerless laser radar) has been developed. This method is designed to compensate for nonlinear effects which appear in many real-world components. The system operates by determining the phase shift of the laser modulation, which is a physical quantity related physically to the path length between the laser source and the detector, for each pixel of an image.

  6. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  7. Identifying characteristic scales in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpena, P.; Bernaola-Galván, P.; Coronado, A. V.; Hackenberg, M.; Oliver, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    The scale-free, long-range correlations detected in DNA sequences contrast with characteristic lengths of genomic elements, being particularly incompatible with the isochores (long, homogeneous DNA segments). By computing the local behavior of the scaling exponent α of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we discriminate between sequences with and without true scaling, and we find that no single scaling exists in the human genome. Instead, human chromosomes show a common compositional structure with two characteristic scales, the large one corresponding to the isochores and the other to small and medium scale genomic elements.

  8. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  9. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  10. Parallel Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance Using Range and Range Rate Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, P.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.

    2013-09-01

    As new optical sensors come online and more optical observations become available for space objects previously too small or too far away to detect, the space surveillance community is presented with the computationally challenging problem of generating initial orbit solutions (data association hypotheses) for a large number of short-arc line-of-sight observations. Traditional methods of angles-only orbit determination do not scale well to large problems because of the large number of combinations of observations that must be evaluated, since these methods require at least 3 observations for each initial orbit determination (IOD). On the other hand, if unique ranges are known (or assumed) then IOD can be performed with 2 observations using a Lambert-based approach. Furthermore, if angles and angle rates are available and range and range rate are both known (or assumed) then a complete orbit solution can be obtained for a single observation and the IOD computational load is only O(N). One possible method to deal with line-of-sight data is to assign a number of range hypotheses to each angles-only observation and develop data association hypotheses to be either confirmed or eliminated for each one. This approach would allow the use of the already proven Search and Determine (SAD) algorithm and software that was designed for generating and testing data association hypotheses for position-type observations typical of radar sensors. If the number of range hypotheses can be limited then this method will be more computationally efficient than performing pure angles-only IOD. If angle rates are available or can be derived from the observation data then another possible approach is to assign range and range rate hypotheses to each angle-angle rate pair and develop data association hypotheses based on their corresponding orbit solutions, which will be extremely efficient if the range-range rate hypothesis set can be limited. For both of these methods, once range and range

  11. Passive Ranging of Dynamic Rocket Plumes Using Infrared and Visible Oxygen Attenuation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    405 m range and a full -scale solid rocket motor at 900 m range. The NIR O2 band provided range estimates accurate to within 3 % for both tests, while...and zenith angles. Data sets for passive ranging were taken of both a halogen lamp and a full scale stationary solid rocket motor at various ranges up...combustion was targeted as the emission source. Two static tests were conducted with a full scale solid rocket motor and a shoulder-launched model SAM

  12. High Precision Laser Range Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge (Inventor); Lay, Oliver P. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is an improved distance measuring interferometer that includes high speed phase modulators and additional phase meters to generate and analyze multiple heterodyne signal pairs with distinct frequencies. Modulation sidebands with large frequency separation are generated by the high speed electro-optic phase modulators, requiring only a single frequency stable laser source and eliminating the need for a fist laser to be tuned or stabilized relative to a second laser. The combination of signals produced by the modulated sidebands is separated and processed to give the target distance. The resulting metrology apparatus enables a sensor with submicron accuracy or better over a multi- kilometer ambiguity range.

  13. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  14. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  15. Extended-range tiltable micromirror

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.; Wiens, Gloria J.; Bronson, Jessica R.

    2009-05-05

    A tiltable micromirror device is disclosed in which a micromirror is suspended by a progressive linkage with an electrostatic actuator (e.g. a vertical comb actuator or a capacitive plate electrostatic actuator) being located beneath the micromirror. The progressive linkage includes a pair of torsion springs which are connected together to operate similar to a four-bar linkage with spring joints. The progressive linkage provides a non-linear spring constant which can allow the micromirror to be tilted at any angle within its range substantially free from any electrostatic instability or hysteretic behavior.

  16. Long Range Fast Tool Servo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-31

    AD-A271 614 r, FINAL REPORT w to I OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH [I on * LONG RANGE FAST TOOL SERVO I ONR CONTRACT NO. N00014-92-J-4082-PII Covering the...n I I 1 INTRODUCTION The PEC’s MAC 100 Fast Tool Servo (FTS) System has demonstrated the efficacy of fabricating off-axis parabolic segments on axis...by utilizing a fast tool motion to machine non-rotationally symmetric surfaces [1]. The key to this technique was a servo for the tool motion that had

  17. Long range planning at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1987-01-01

    NASA's current plans for the U.S. space program are described. Consideration is given to the debate between manned or unmanned exploration of space, missions to the moon versus missions to Mars, and the exploration of space applications or science. NASA has created the Office of Policy and Planning and the Office of Exploration in order to improve the planning of future space activities. Long-range trends such as second-generation Shuttles, cargo launch vehicles with large capacity systems, an advanced Space Station, the use of robotics, closed cycle life support, health maintenance techniques, and the processing of extraterrestrial materials are considered.

  18. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    PubMed

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  19. Global Scale Solar Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A. M.; Schrijver, C. J.; DeRosa, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The combination of the STEREO and SDO missions have allowed for the first time imagery of the entire Sun. This coupled with the high cadence, broad thermal coverage, and the large dynamic range of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on SDO has allowed discovery of impulsive solar disturbances that can significantly affect a hemisphere or more of the solar volume. Such events are often, but not always, associated with M and X class flares. GOES C and even B class flares are also associated with these large scale disturbances. Key to the recognition of the large scale disturbances was the creation of log difference movies. By taking the log of images before differencing events in the corona become much more evident. Because such events cover such a large portion of the solar volume their passage can effect the dynamics of the entire corona as it adjusts to and recovers from their passage. In some cases this may lead to a another flare or filament ejection, but in general direct causal evidence of 'sympathetic' behavior is lacking. However, evidence is accumulating these large scale events create an environment that encourages other solar instabilities to occur. Understanding the source of these events and how the energy that drives them is built up, stored, and suddenly released is critical to understanding the origins of space weather. Example events and comments of their relevance will be presented.

  20. Micro-Scale Thermoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offner, Avshalom; Ramon, Guy Z.

    2016-11-01

    Thermoacoustic phenomena - conversion of heat to acoustic oscillations - may be harnessed for construction of reliable, practically maintenance-free engines and heat pumps. Specifically, miniaturization of thermoacoustic devices holds great promise for cooling of micro-electronic components. However, as devices size is pushed down to micro-meter scale it is expected that non-negligible slip effects will exist at the solid-fluid interface. Accordingly, new theoretical models for thermoacoustic engines and heat pumps were derived, accounting for a slip boundary condition. These models are essential for the design process of micro-scale thermoacoustic devices that will operate under ultrasonic frequencies. Stability curves for engines - representing the onset of self-sustained oscillations - were calculated with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions, revealing improvement in the performance of engines with slip at the resonance frequency range applicable for micro-scale devices. Maximum achievable temperature differences curves for thermoacoustic heat pumps were calculated, revealing the negative effect of slip on the ability to pump heat up a temperature gradient. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  1. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  3. Incorporating Pore-Scale Data in Field-Scale Uncertainty Quantification: A Multi-Scale Bayesian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icardi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Pore-scale modeling is recently become an important tool for a deeper understanding of complex transport phenomena in porous media. However its direct usage for field-scale processes is still hindered by limited predictive capabilities. This is due to the large uncertainties in the micro-scale parameters, in the pore geometries, in the limited number of available samples, and in the numerical errors. These issues are often overlooked because it is usually thought that the computational cost of pore-scale simulation prohibits an extensive uncertainty quantification study with large number of samples. In this work we propose an computational tool to estimate statistics of pore-scale quantities. The algorithm is based on (i) an efficient automatic CFD solver for pore-scale simulations, (ii) a multi-scale Bayesian theoretical framework, and (iii) a generalized multilevel Monte Carlo to speed up the statistical computations. Exploiting the variance reduction of the multi-level and multi-scale representation, we demonstrate the feasibility of the forward and inverse uncertainty quantification problems. The former consists in quantifying the effect of micro-scale heterogeneities and parametric uncertainties on macro-scale upscaled quantities. Given some prior information on the pore-scale structures, the latter can be applied to (i) assess the validity and estimate uncertainties of macro-scale models for a wide range of micro-scale properties, (ii) match macro-scale results with the underlying pore-scale properties.

  4. Range Imaging without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected

  5. Airloads investigation of an 0.030-scale model of the space shuttle vehicle 140A/B launch configuration (model 47-OTS) in the arc 11-foot unitary plan wind tunnel for Mach range 0.6 to 1.4 (IA14A), Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of tests conducted on an 0.030-scale launch configuration model of the space shuttle vehicle 140A/B in the NASA/ARC 11-foot unitary plan wind tunnel are presented. Aerodynamic loads data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.4. Surface pressure distributions were obtained simultaneously with six-component stability and control force data on the complete launch configuration. The configuration consisted of the orbiter, an external tank, two solid rocket boosters, and associated intercomponent attach hardware. Angles of attack and sideslip from -10 degrees to +10 degrees were investigated.

  6. Cluster formation in fluids with competing short-range and long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweatman, Martin B.; Fartaria, Rui; Lue, Leo

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the low density behaviour of fluids that interact through a short-ranged attraction together with a long-ranged repulsion (SALR potential) by developing a molecular thermodynamic model. The SALR potential is a model of effective solute interactions where the solvent degrees of freedom are integrated-out. For this system, we find that clusters form for a range of interaction parameters where attractive and repulsive interactions nearly balance, similar to micelle formation in aqueous surfactant solutions. We focus on systems for which equilibrium behaviour and liquid-like clusters (i.e., droplets) are expected, and find in addition a novel coexistence between a low density cluster phase and a high density cluster phase within a very narrow range of parameters. Moreover, a simple formula for the average cluster size is developed. Based on this formula, we propose a non-classical crystal nucleation pathway whereby macroscopic crystals are formed via crystal nucleation within microscopic precursor droplets. We also perform large-scale Monte Carlo simulations, which demonstrate that the cluster fluid phase is thermodynamically stable for this system.

  7. Aggregation of heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions exhibiting short-range attractions and long-range repulsions

    DOE PAGES

    Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; ...

    2015-12-15

    Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomersmore » and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.« less

  8. Aggregation of heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions exhibiting short-range attractions and long-range repulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Mrinal K.; Qiao, Baofu; Seifert, Soenke; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Monica Olvera de la Cruz; Antonio, Mark R.

    2015-12-15

    Charged colloids and proteins in aqueous solutions interact via short-range attractions and long-range repulsions (SALR) and exhibit complex structural phases. These include homogeneously dispersed monomers, percolated monomers, clusters, and percolated clusters. We report the structural architectures of simple charged systems in the form of spherical, Keggin-type heteropolyanions (HPAs) by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Structure factors obtained from the SAXS measurements show that the HPAs interact via SALR. Concentration and temperature dependences of the structure factors for HPAs with –3e (e is the charge of an electron) charge are consistent with a mixture of nonassociated monomers and associated randomly percolated monomers, whereas those for HPAs with –4e and –5e charges exhibit only nonassociated monomers in aqueous solutions. Our experiments show that the increase in magnitude of the charge of the HPAs increases their repulsive interactions and inhibits their aggregation in aqueous solutions. MD simulations were done to reveal the atomistic scale origins of SALR between HPAs. As a result, the short-range attractions result from water or proton-mediated hydrogen bonds between neighboring HPAs, whereas the long-range repulsions are due to the distributions of ions surrounding the HPAs.

  9. Short-range interactions versus long-range correlations in bird flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Dey, Supravat; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2015-07-01

    Bird flocks are a paradigmatic example of collective motion. One of the prominent traits of flocking is the presence of long range velocity correlations between individuals, which allow them to influence each other over the large scales, keeping a high level of group coordination. A crucial question is to understand what is the mutual interaction between birds generating such nontrivial correlations. Here we use the maximum entropy (ME) approach to infer from experimental data of natural flocks the effective interactions between individuals. Compared to previous studies, we make a significant step forward as we retrieve the full functional dependence of the interaction on distance, and find that it decays exponentially over a range of a few individuals. The fact that ME gives a short-range interaction even though its experimental input is the long-range correlation function, shows that the method is able to discriminate the relevant information encoded in such correlations and single out a minimal number of effective parameters. Finally, we show how the method can be used to capture the degree of anisotropy of mutual interactions.

  10. A method of approximating range size of small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1965-01-01

    In summary, trap success trends appear to provide a useful approximation to range size of easily trapped small mammals such as Peromyscus. The scale of measurement can be adjusted as desired. Further explorations of the usefulness of the plan should be made and modifications possibly developed before adoption.

  11. Peak Shift but Not Range Effects in Recognition of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spetch, Marcia L.; Cheng, Ken; Clifford, Colin W. G.

    2004-01-01

    University students were trained to discriminate between two gray-scale images of faces that varied along a continuum from a unique face to an average face created by morphing. Following training, participants were tested without feedback for their ability to recognize the positive face (S+) within a range of faces along the continuum. In…

  12. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  13. Extended range tankless water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.A.

    1993-04-18

    In this research program, a laboratory test facility was built for the purpose of testing a gas-fired water heating appliance. This test facility can be used to examine the important performance characteristics of efficiency, dynamic response, and quality of combustion. An innovative design for a tankless water heater was built and then tested to determine its performance characteristics. This unit was tested over a 5:1 range in input (20,000 to 100,000 btuh heat input). The unit was then configured as a circulating hot water boiler, and a specially designed heat exchanger was used with it to generate domestic hot water. This unit was also tested, and was found to offer performance advantages with regard to low flow and temperature stability.

  14. Wind dynamic range video camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, G. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A television camera apparatus is disclosed in which bright objects are attenuated to fit within the dynamic range of the system, while dim objects are not. The apparatus receives linearly polarized light from an object scene, the light being passed by a beam splitter and focused on the output plane of a liquid crystal light valve. The light valve is oriented such that, with no excitation from the cathode ray tube, all light is rotated 90 deg and focused on the input plane of the video sensor. The light is then converted to an electrical signal, which is amplified and used to excite the CRT. The resulting image is collected and focused by a lens onto the light valve which rotates the polarization vector of the light to an extent proportional to the light intensity from the CRT. The overall effect is to selectively attenuate the image pattern focused on the sensor.

  15. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    A new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases is described. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they were used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts - as well as the other parameters - can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline - resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  16. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they have been used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts--as well as the other parameters--can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  17. Scaling Applications in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2010-05-01

    Besides downscaling applications, scaling properties of hydrological fields can be used to address a variety of research questions. In this presentation, we will use scaling properties to address questions related to satellite evapotranspiration algorithms, precipitation-streamflow relationships, and hydrological model calibration. Most of the existing satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms have been developed using fine-resolution Landsat TM and ASTER data. However, these algorithms are often applied to coarse-resolution MODIS data. Our results show that applying the satellite-based algorithms, which are developed at ASTER resolution, to MODIS resolution leads to ET estimates that (1) preserve the overall spatial pattern (spatial correlation in excess of 0.90), (2) increase the spatial standard deviation and maximum value, (3) have modest conditional bias: underestimate low ET rates (< 1 mm/day) and overestimate high ET rates; the overestimation is within 20%. The results emphasize the need for exploring alternatives for estimation of ET from MODIS. Understanding the relationship between the scaling properties of precipitation and streamflow is important in a number of applications. We present the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River basin in Georgia in the United States with focus on effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 22 km2 to 19,606 km2. Results show that large watersheds have more persistent flow fluctuations and stronger long-term (time greater than scale break point) memory than small watersheds while precipitation time series shows weak long-term correlation. We conclude that a watershed acts as a 'filter' for a 'white noise' precipitation with more significant filtering in case of large watersheds. Finally, we compare the scaling properties of simulated and observed spatial soil

  18. Scales of mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Akber-Knutson, S.; Konter, J.; Kellogg, J.; Hart, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing question in mantle dynamics concerns the scale of heterogeneity in the mantle. Mantle convection tends to both destroy (through stirring) and create (through melt extraction and subduction) heterogeneity in bulk and trace element composition. Over time, these competing processes create variations in geochemical composition along mid-oceanic ridges and among oceanic islands, spanning a range of scales from extremely long wavelength (for example, the DUPAL anomaly) to very small scale (for example, variations amongst melt inclusions). While geochemical data and seismic observations can be used to constrain the length scales of mantle heterogeneity, dynamical mixing calculations can illustrate the processes and timescales involved in stirring and mixing. At the Summer 2004 CIDER workshop on Relating Geochemical and Seismological Heterogeneity in the Earth's Mantle, an interdisciplinary group evaluated scales of heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a combined analysis of geochemical data, seismological data and results of numerical models of mixing. We mined the PetDB database for isotopic data from glass and whole rock analyses for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR), projecting them along the ridge length. We examined Sr isotope variability along the East Pacific rise by looking at the difference in Sr ratio between adjacent samples as a function of distance between the samples. The East Pacific Rise exhibits an overall bowl shape of normal MORB characteristics, with higher values in the higher latitudes (there is, however, an unfortunate gap in sampling, roughly 2000 km long). These background characteristics are punctuated with spikes in values at various locations, some, but not all of which are associated with off-axis volcanism. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced data was utilized to construct a power spectrum of the scale lengths of heterogeneity along both ridges. Using the same isotopic systems (Sr, Nd

  19. Multimodal dispersal during the range expansion of the tropical house gecko Hemidactylus mabouia

    PubMed Central

    Short, Kristen H; Petren, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Dispersal influences both the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of range expansion. While some studies have demonstrated a role for human-mediated dispersal during invasion, the genetic effects of such dispersal remain to be understood, particularly in terrestrial range expansions. In this study, we investigated multimodal dispersal during the range expansion of the invasive gecko Hemidactylus mabouia in Florida using 12 microsatellite loci. We investigated dispersal patterns at the regional scale (metropolitan areas), statewide scale (state of Florida), and global scale (including samples from the native range). Dispersal was limited at the smallest, regional scale, within metropolitan areas, as reflected by the presence of genetic structure at this scale, which is in agreement with a previous study in this same invasion at even smaller spatial scales. Surprisingly, there was no detectable genetic structure at the intermediate statewide scale, which suggests dispersal is not limited across the state of Florida. There was evidence of genetic differentiation between Florida and other areas where H. mabouia occurs, so we concluded that at the largest scale, dispersal was limited. Humans likely contributed to patterns of dispersal at all three scales but in different ways. Infrequent low-volume dispersal has occurred within regions, frequent high-volume dispersal has occurred across the state, and infrequent long-distance dispersal has occurred among continents at the global scale. This study highlights the importance of considering different modes of dispersal at multiple spatial scales to understand the dynamics of invasion and range expansion. PMID:22393494

  20. The relationship of intelligence and memory to interrogative suggestibility: the importance of range effects.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between intelligence, memory and interrogative suggestibility, particularly with reference to range effects. The subjects were 60 normal subjects and 100 forensic patients who had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Clear range effects of IQ and memory were evident in their relationship with suggestibility.

  1. Segmentation of range images using morphological operations: review and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Linda A.; Abidi, Mongi A.

    1995-10-01

    Image segmentation involves calculating the position of object boundaries. For scene analysis, the intent is to differentiate objects from clutter by means of preprocessing. The object of this paper is to examine and discuss two morphological techniques for preprocessing and segmenting range images. A Morphological Watershed Algorithm has been studied in detail for segmenting range images. This algorithm uses a unique approach for defining the boundaries of objects from a morphological gradient. Several sets of range images are used as input to the algorithm to demonstrate the flexibility of the watershed technique and the experimental results support this approach as an effective method for segmenting range images. Morphological image operators present another means for segmenting range images. In particular, the results from implementing gray-scale morphological techniques indicate that these operators are useful for segmentation. This is made possible by converting a range image of a scene to a gray-scale image representation. The result represents the umbra of the surface of the objects within the scene. By applying morphological operations to the gray values of the image, the operations are applied to the umbra. Each pixel represents a point of the object's umbra, thereby yielding scene segmentation. The techniques that are discussed are found to be useful for preprocessing and segmenting range images which are direct extensions to object recognition, scene analysis, and image understanding.

  2. Updating range surveys using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Sjaastad, David C.

    1985-01-01

    A spatial database was developed for the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in North Dakota to demonstrate the use of a geographic information system for natural resource management. A key component of the digital database was a detailed soil survey. Range site boundaries were derived by aggregating soil mapping units on the basis on interpretations from the published soil surveys. The problem was that no range survey data including stocking rates and condition class were available for the soil-survey-derived range sites. The only available range survey was a survey that was based on range site delineations from a Missouri River Basin Inventory (MRBI) program conducted in 1961, prior to the availability of soil survey data. The MRBI survey information was correlated with the revised range sites derived from the soil surveys to device stocking rates and condition classes. A 1:24,000-scale map which included revised range site boundaries and management boundaries was produced for each township within the reservation. All polygons on the maps were uniquely labeled to permit discrimination of the potential differences in range site stocking rates due to grazing management practices. The maps and the associated polygon attribute data were merged with maps of the MRBI transect information to derive the stocking rate and condition class for each revised range site within a management unit. The resulting database components were a map of revised range site boundaries within management units and an associated tabular file containing attribute information including stocking rate and condition class.

  3. Quantitative Scaling of Magnetic Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durin, G.; Bohn, F.; Corrêa, M. A.; Sommer, R. L.; Le Doussal, P.; Wiese, K. J.

    2016-08-01

    We provide the first quantitative comparison between Barkhausen noise experiments and recent predictions from the theory of avalanches for pinned interfaces, both in and beyond mean field. We study different classes of soft magnetic materials, including polycrystals and amorphous samples—which are characterized by long-range and short-range elasticity, respectively—both for thick and thin samples, i.e., with and without eddy currents. The temporal avalanche shape at fixed size as well as observables related to the joint distribution of sizes and durations are analyzed in detail. Both long-range and short-range samples with no eddy currents are fitted extremely well by the theoretical predictions. In particular, the short-range samples provide the first reliable test of the theory beyond mean field. The thick samples show systematic deviations from the scaling theory, providing unambiguous signatures for the presence of eddy currents.

  4. Quantitative Scaling of Magnetic Avalanches.

    PubMed

    Durin, G; Bohn, F; Corrêa, M A; Sommer, R L; Le Doussal, P; Wiese, K J

    2016-08-19

    We provide the first quantitative comparison between Barkhausen noise experiments and recent predictions from the theory of avalanches for pinned interfaces, both in and beyond mean field. We study different classes of soft magnetic materials, including polycrystals and amorphous samples-which are characterized by long-range and short-range elasticity, respectively-both for thick and thin samples, i.e., with and without eddy currents. The temporal avalanche shape at fixed size as well as observables related to the joint distribution of sizes and durations are analyzed in detail. Both long-range and short-range samples with no eddy currents are fitted extremely well by the theoretical predictions. In particular, the short-range samples provide the first reliable test of the theory beyond mean field. The thick samples show systematic deviations from the scaling theory, providing unambiguous signatures for the presence of eddy currents.

  5. Development of a Walking Safety Scale for Older Adults, Part I: Content Validity of the GEM Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boudreault, Renée; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Dubé, François

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Grille d’évaluation de la sécurité à la marche (GEM scale) is a performance-based tool developed to fill the need for an objective assessment of walking safety for older adults. It underwent a three-phase process of content validation. Method: A mailed questionnaire was used to assess the representativeness of the walking items (5-point pertinence scale). Subsequently, two physiotherapist focus groups (n = 20) were held to further evaluate the relevance of the scale and the walking items. Finally, a pilot study was completed with 3 raters administering the GEM scale to 12 hospitalized patients. Results: Comments and descriptive statistics (percentages) were analyzed from the questionnaire results and focus groups. On completion of the pilot study, which assessed 12 patients on the GEM scale, additional analyses were performed to address the theoretical background, the administration manual, the walking items, the scoring scale, and interpretation of the scale. Following each step, modifications were made to reflect the results of the analyses. Conclusion: The three-phase content-validation process demonstrated the relevance of this instrument and its representativeness as a walking safety assessment tool for older adults. PMID:20145759

  6. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  7. The Kuwait University Anxiety Scale: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, A M

    2000-10-01

    This study was undertaken to construct the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale in two comparable Arabic and English versions. The intent was to provide a research tool as well as a measure of predisposition to develop anxiety in general among adults and adolescents. The scale is comprised by 20 brief statements answered on a 4-point intensity scale, anchored by 1: Rarely and 4: Always. Factor analysis yielded three high-loaded factors of Cognitive/Affective, Behavioral/Subjective, and Somatic Anxiety, with moderate interfactor correlations. Item-remainder correlations ranged from .27 to .74. Reliabilities ranged from .88 to .92 (alpha) and between .70 and .93 (test-retest), denoting good internal consistency and stability. Criterion-related validity of the scale ranged between .70 and .88 (5 criteria), while the loadings of the scale on a general factor of anxiety were .93 and .95 in two factor analyses, demonstrating the scale's criterion-related and factorial validity. Discriminant validity of the scale was demonstrated. The scale correlated .65 with scores on the Beck Depression scale. Male adolescents attained a higher mean score than male undergraduates. Females have significantly higher mean scores than their male counterparts. Kuwaiti norms (N = 4,660) were reported. An English version of the scale is available.

  8. Space Based Range Demonstration and Certification (SBRDC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development, utilization and testing of technologies for range safety and range user systems. The contents include: 1) Space Based Range (SBR) Goals and Objectives; 2) Today s United States Range; 3) Future Range; 4) Another Vision for the Future Range; 5) STARS Project Goals; 6) STARS Content; 7) STARS Configuration Flight Demonstrations 1 & 2; 8) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS Objectives and Results; 9) Spaceport And Range Technologies STARS FD2 Objectives; 10) Range Safety Hardware; 11) Range User Hardware; and 12) Past/Future Flight Demo Plans

  9. Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotzek, Nikolai

    A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of an E-scale. Aside from its foundation in physical quantities which allow for a calibration of the scales, the E-scale concept can help to overcome the present plethora of scales for winds in the range from gale to hurricane intensity. A procedure to convert existing data based on the Fujita-scale or other scales (Saffir-Simpson, TORRO, Beaufort) to their corresponding E-scales is outlined. Even for the large US tornado record, the workload of conversion in case of an adoption of the E-scale would in principle remain manageable (if the necessary metadata to do so were available), as primarily the F5 events would have to be re-rated. Compared to damage scales like the "Enhanced Fujita" or EF-scale concept recently implemented in the USA, the E-scales are based on first principles. They can consistently be applied all over the world for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. To account for international variations in building characteristics, one should not adapt wind speed scale thresholds to certain national building characteristics. Instead, one worldwide applicable wind speed scale based on physical principles should rather be complemented by nationally-adapted damage descriptions. The E-scale concept can provide the basis for such a standardised wind speed scale.

  10. Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO): An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Thomas K.; Decker, Winfield M.; Crooks, Henry A.; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1993-06-01

    The Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) is currently under negotiation with the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) of the Allied Signal Aerospace Company (ASAC) to build a state-of-the-art laser ranging observatory for the Centro di Geodesia Spaziale, in Matera, Italy. The contract calls for the delivery of a system based on a 1.5 meter afocal Cassegrain astronomical quality telescope with multiple ports to support a variety of experiments for the future, with primary emphasis on laser ranging. Three focal planes, viz. Cassegrain, Coude, and Nasmyth will be available for these experiments. The open telescope system will be protected from dust and turbulence using a specialized dome which will be part of the building facilities to be provided by ASI. The fixed observatory facility will be partitioned into four areas for locating the following: laser, transmit/receive optics, telescope/dome enclosure, and the operations console. The optical tables and mount rest on a common concrete pad for added mechanical stability. Provisions will be in place for minimizing the effects of EMI, for obtaining maximum cleanliness for high power laser and transmit optics, and for providing an ergonomic environment fitting to a state-of-the-art multipurpose laboratory. The system is currently designed to be highly modular and adaptable for scaling or changes in technology. It is conceived to be a highly automated system with superior performance specifications to any currently operational system. Provisions are also made to adapt and accommodate changes that are of significance during the course of design and integration.

  11. Matera Laser Ranging Observatory (MLRO): An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Thomas K.; Decker, Winfield M.; Crooks, Henry A.; Bianco, Giuseppe

    1993-01-01

    The Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) is currently under negotiation with the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) of the Allied Signal Aerospace Company (ASAC) to build a state-of-the-art laser ranging observatory for the Centro di Geodesia Spaziale, in Matera, Italy. The contract calls for the delivery of a system based on a 1.5 meter afocal Cassegrain astronomical quality telescope with multiple ports to support a variety of experiments for the future, with primary emphasis on laser ranging. Three focal planes, viz. Cassegrain, Coude, and Nasmyth will be available for these experiments. The open telescope system will be protected from dust and turbulence using a specialized dome which will be part of the building facilities to be provided by ASI. The fixed observatory facility will be partitioned into four areas for locating the following: laser, transmit/receive optics, telescope/dome enclosure, and the operations console. The optical tables and mount rest on a common concrete pad for added mechanical stability. Provisions will be in place for minimizing the effects of EMI, for obtaining maximum cleanliness for high power laser and transmit optics, and for providing an ergonomic environment fitting to a state-of-the-art multipurpose laboratory. The system is currently designed to be highly modular and adaptable for scaling or changes in technology. It is conceived to be a highly automated system with superior performance specifications to any currently operational system. Provisions are also made to adapt and accommodate changes that are of significance during the course of design and integration.

  12. The Measurement of Temperature; Part i: Temperature Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the inter-relationships between some important temperature scales such as the Celsius scale, the Kelvin Thermodynamic scale, and the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS). Included is a description of the 1968 IPTS with emphasis on innovations introduced in the range below 273.15 k. (CC)

  13. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  14. Tracking far-range volcanogenic air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichu, Marie; Chiapello, Isabelle; Goloub, Phillipe; Péré, Jean-Christophe; Thieuleux, François; Blarel, Luc; Podvin, Thierry; Mortier, Augustin; Brogniez, Colette; Sohne, Nathalie; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Tanré, Didier

    2016-04-01

    The 2014-15 Holuhraun lava-flood eruption of Bárdarbunga volcano (Iceland) emitted prodigious amounts of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. This eruption triggered a long-distance episode of air pollution in September 2014, the first event of this magnitude recorded in the modern era. We gathered a wealth of complementary observations from satellite sensors (OMI, IASI), ground-based remote sensing (lidar, sunphotometry, differential optical absorption spectroscopy) and ground-level air quality monitoring networks to characterize both the spatial distribution of volcanic SO2 and aerosols as well as the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer. We take advantage of this exceptional panel of observations to quantitatively test our modeling ability to retrospectively simulate this event of far-range air pollution. Although the model captures the correct temporal dynamics, it fails to reproduce the intensity of the pollution. Paths worth exploring to get prepared to accurately forecast a future large-scale event of volcanogenic air pollution are discussed.

  15. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-09-15

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q<<{lambda}--a short-distance scale--and an energy difference {delta}{epsilon}=|E-{epsilon}{sub 0}|<<{epsilon}{sub 0}--a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q{sup 0} and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q{sup 2}({delta}{epsilon}){sup -1} which becomes dominant for {delta}{epsilon} < or approx. Q{sup 3}. Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  16. Dynamics of convective scale interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdom, James F. W.; Sinclair, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Several of the mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic aspects of convective scale interaction are examined. An explanation of how sounding data can be coupled with satellite observed cumulus development in the warm sector and the arc cloud line's time evolution to develop a short range forecast of expected convective intensity along an arc cloud line. The formative, mature and dissipating stages of the arc cloud line life cycle are discussed. Specific properties of convective scale interaction are presented and the relationship between arc cloud lines and tornado producing thunderstorms is considered.

  17. Internal Structure of the Reflective Functioning Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubner, Svenja; Horz, Susanne; Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Doering, Stephan; Buchheim, Anna; Zimmermann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS) was developed to assess individual differences in the ability to mentalize attachment relationships. The RFS assesses mentalization from transcripts of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A global score is given by trained coders on an 11-point scale ranging from antireflective to exceptionally reflective.…

  18. Cross-correlation of long-range correlated series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna

    2009-03-01

    A method for estimating the cross-correlation Cxy(τ) of long-range correlated series x(t) and y(t), at varying lags τ and scales n, is proposed. For fractional Brownian motions with Hurst exponents H1 and H2, the asymptotic expression for Cxy(τ) depends only on the lag τ (wide-sense stationarity) and scales as a power of n with exponent H1+H2 for \\tau \\rightarrow 0 . The method is illustrated on: (i) financial series, to show the leverage effect; (ii) genomic sequences, to estimate the correlations between structural parameters along the chromosomes.

  19. Landscape heterogeneity-biodiversity relationship: effect of range size.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Naoki; Amano, Tatsuya; Naoe, Shoji; Yamakita, Takehisa; Komatsu, Isamu; Takagawa, Shin-ichi; Sato, Naoto; Ueta, Mutsuyuki; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    The importance of landscape heterogeneity to biodiversity may depend on the size of the geographic range of species, which in turn can reflect species traits (such as habitat generalization) and the effects of historical and contemporary land covers. We used nationwide bird survey data from Japan, where heterogeneous landscapes predominate, to test the hypothesis that wide-ranging species are positively associated with landscape heterogeneity in terms of species richness and abundance, whereas narrow-ranging species are positively associated with landscape homogeneity in the form of either open or forest habitats. We used simultaneous autoregressive models to explore the effects of climate, evapotranspiration, and landscape heterogeneity on the richness and abundance of breeding land-bird species. The richness of wide-ranging species and the total species richness were highest in heterogeneous landscapes, where many wide-ranging species showed the highest abundance. In contrast, the richness of narrow-ranging species was not highest in heterogeneous landscapes; most of those species were abundant in either open or forest landscapes. Moreover, in open landscapes, narrow-ranging species increased their species richness with decreasing temperature. These results indicate that heterogeneous landscapes are associated with rich bird diversity but that most narrow-ranging species prefer homogeneous landscapes--particularly open habitats in colder regions, where grasslands have historically predominated. There is a need to reassess the generality of the heterogeneity-biodiversity relationship, with attention to the characteristics of species assemblages determined by environments at large spatiotemporal scales.

  20. Scale-free texture of the fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    Hnat, B; Chapman, S C; Gogoberidze, G; Wicks, R T

    2011-12-01

    The higher-order statistics of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind are quantified systematically, scale by scale. We find a single global non-Gaussian scale-free behavior from minutes to over 5 h. This spans the signature of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and a ~1/f range in magnetic field components. This global scaling in field magnitude fluctuations is an intrinsic component of the underlying texture of the solar wind and puts a strong constraint on any theory of solar corona and the heliosphere. Intriguingly, the magnetic field and velocity components show scale-dependent dynamic alignment outside of the inertial range.

  1. Effect of short range hydrodynamic on bimodal colloidal gel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal Gels and disordered arrested systems has been studied extensively during the past decades. Although, they have found their place in multiple industries such as cosmetic, food and so on, their physical principals are still far beyond being understood. The interplay between different types of interactions from quantum scale, Van der Waals interaction, to short range interactions, depletion interaction, and long range interactions such as electrostatic double layer makes this systems challenging from simulation point of view. Many authors have implemented different simulation techniques such as molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) to capture better picture during phase separation of colloidal system with short range attractive force. However, BD is not capable to include multi-body hydrodynamic interaction and MD is limited by the computational resources and is limited to short time and length scales. In this presentation we used Core-modified dissipative particle dynamics (CM-DPD) with modified depletion potential, as a coarse-grain model, to address the gel formation process in short ranged-attractive colloidal suspensions. Due to the possibility to include and separate short and long ranged-hydrodynamic forces in this method we studied the effect of each of those forces on the final morphology and report one of the controversial question in this field on the effect of hydrodynamics on the cluster formation process on bimodal, soft-hard colloidal mixtures.

  2. Range and Energy Straggling in Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Tai, Hsiang

    2000-01-01

    A first-order approximation to the range and energy straggling of ion beams is given as a normal distribution for which the standard deviation is estimated from the fluctuations in energy loss events. The standard deviation is calculated by assuming scattering from free electrons with a long range cutoff parameter that depends on the mean excitation energy of the medium. The present formalism is derived by extrapolating Payne's formalism to low energy by systematic energy scaling and to greater depths of penetration by a second-order perturbation. Limited comparisons are made with experimental data.

  3. Fluorescence-based Broad Dynamic Range Viscosity Probes.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Anatoliy; Graham, August E; Geddes, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    We introduce two new fluorescent viscosity probes, SYBR Green (SG) and PicoGreen (PG), that we have studied over a broad range of viscosity and in collagen solutions. In water, both dyes have low quantum yields and excited state lifetimes, while in viscous solvents or in complex with DNA both parameters dramatically (300-1000-fold) increase. We show that in log-log scale the dependence of the dyes' quantum yield vs. viscosity is linear, the slope of which is sensitive to temperature. Application of SG and PG, as a fluorescence-based broad dynamic range viscosity probes, to the life sciences is discussed.

  4. Combined Search for Lorentz Violation in Short-Range Gravity.

    PubMed

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie; Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Luo, Jun; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Bailey, Quentin G; Long, J C; Weisman, E; Xu, Rui; Kostelecký, V Alan

    2016-08-12

    Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. A combined analysis of results from the short-range gravity experiments HUST-2015, HUST-2011, IU-2012, and IU-2002 permits the first independent measurements of the 14 nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz violation in the pure-gravity sector at the level of 10^{-9}  m^{2}, improving by an order of magnitude the sensitivity to numerous types of Lorentz violation involving quadratic curvature derivatives and curvature couplings.

  5. BOLD subjective value signals exhibit robust range adaptation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Karin M; Kable, Joseph W

    2014-12-03

    Many theories of decision making assume that choice options are assessed along a common subjective value (SV) scale. The neural correlates of SV are widespread and reliable, despite the wide variation in the range of values over which decisions are made (e.g., between goods worth a few dollars, in some cases, or hundreds of dollars, in others). According to adaptive coding theories (Barlow, 1961), an efficient value signal should exhibit range adaptation, such that neural activity maintains a fixed dynamic range, and the slope of the value response varies inversely with the range of values within the local context. Although monkey data have demonstrated range adaptation in single-unit correlates of value (Padoa-Schioppa, 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010), whether BOLD value signals exhibit similar range adaptation is unknown. To test for this possibility, we presented human participants with choices between a fixed immediate and variable delayed payment options. Across two conditions, the delayed options' SVs spanned either a narrow or wide range. SV-tracking activity emerged in the posterior cingulate, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Throughout this network, we observed evidence consistent with the predictions of range adaptation: the SV response slope increased in the narrow versus wide range, with statistically significant slope changes confirmed for the posterior cingulate and ventral striatum. No regions exhibited a reliably increased BOLD activity range in the wide versus narrow condition. Our observations of range adaptation present implications for the interpretation of BOLD SV responses that are measured across different contexts or individuals.

  6. Freely cooling granular gases with short-ranged attractive potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Eric; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2015-04-15

    We treat the case of an undriven gas of inelastic hard-spheres with short-ranged attractive potentials via an extension of the pseudo-Liouville operator formalism. New evolution equations for the granular temperature and coordination number are obtained. The granular temperature exhibits deviation from both Haff’s law and the case of long-ranged potentials. We verify this departure using soft-sphere discrete element method simulations. Excellent agreement is found for the duration of the simulation even beyond where exclusively binary collisions are expected. Simulations show the emergence of strong spatial-velocity correlations on the length scale of the last peak in the pair-correlation function but do not show strong correlations beyond this length scale. We argue that molecular chaos may remain an adequate approximation if the system is modelled as a Smoluchowski type equation with aggregation and break-up processes.

  7. Shift and Scale Invariant Preprocessor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    1982 THESIS D V SHIFT AND SCALE INVARIANT ?PREPROCESSOR by Norman E. Huston, Jr. December 1981 0 Thesis Advisor: L. A. Wilson Approved for public...SCHOOL December 1981 Author: - . 4 ,/ A pp ro0ved by: rYY. ( Thesis Advisor Co-Ad isor Chairman, De artment of 4n n eing Dean of Science and...large range of problems/disciplines. Fields where it is particularly common include optical imagery, acoustic signal processing , radiology, radio

  8. Tumor detection at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Robin N.; Hahn, Hee I.

    1993-06-01

    We describe detectors capable of locating small tumors of variable size in the highly textured anatomic backgrounds typical of gamma-ray images. The problem of inhomogeneous background noise is solved using a spatially adaptive statistical scaling operation, which effectively pre-whitens the data and leads to a very simple form of adaptive matched filter. Detecting tumors of variable size is accomplished by processing the images formed in a Laplacian pyramid, each of which contains a narrower range of tumor scales. We compare the performance of this pyramid technique with our earlier nonlinear detector, which detects small tumors according to their signature in curvature feature space, where 'curvature' is the local curvature of the image data when viewed as a relief map. Computed curvature values are mapped to a normalized significance space using a windowed t-statistic. The resulting test statistic is thresholded at a chosen level of significance to give a positive detection. Nonuniform anatomic background activity is effectively suppressed. This curvature detector works quite well over a large range of tumor scales, although not as well as the pyramid/adaptive matched filter scheme. None of the multiscale techniques tested perform at the level of the fixed scale detectors. Tests are performed using simulated tumors superimposed on clinical gamma-ray images.

  9. Backwater number scaling of alluvial bed forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John B.; McElroy, Brandon

    2016-08-01

    The backwater number, Bw, compares the backwater length scale to the length scale of alluvial bed forms. We derive theory to show that Bw plays an important role in determining the behavior and scaling of morphodynamic systems. When Bw ≫ 1, spatial patterns in deposition and erosion derive from flow accelerations associated with changes in flow depth, and bed evolution is akin to a kinematic wave. When Bw ≪ 1, the spatial pattern of shear stress is determined by variations in energy slope, and alluvial beds experience topographic dispersion. This theory is confirmed using a numerical model and data compiled from the literature. We present a data set of Bw for bed forms ranging from dunes to river deltas, including field and experimental measurements. For field-scale measurements, we find that dunes have Bw > 49, braid bars exist in the range Bw = [7.1,17], meanders have a range Bw = [7.1,18], and river mouth deposition ranges over Bw = [7.4,29]. Further, alluvial morphologies that are easily recreated in the laboratory (dunes and avulsions) have overlapping field and laboratory Bw ranges. In contrast, alluvial forms that have traditionally been difficult to recreate (meanders and river mouth processes) have field Bw that are difficult to match in laboratory settings. Large experimental Froude numbers are shown to reduce experimental Bw and incite diffusional behavior. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of Bw scaling for estimating fundamental scales in sedimentary systems.

  10. Range Image Flow using High-Order Polynomial Expansion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    give a special thanks to Dr. Steve Hobbs for his help with the high-order tensor calculations. MATLAB ® is a registered...that using multiple spatial scales and past information improve the final flow estimation, as we would expect. Also, we will port the MATLAB R...taken column- wise and diagonalized, and f is the range image data, taken column-wise. The values of these weights for a Velodyne R© and Odetic lidar

  11. Emergent long-range couplings in arrays of fluid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Douglas Bruce

    2014-08-07

    We present a system exhibiting extraordinarily long-range cooperative effects, on a length scale far exceeding the bulk correlation length. We give a theoretical explanation of these phenomena based on the mesoscopic picture of phase coexistence in finite systems, which is confirmedly Monte Carlo (MC) simulation studies. Our work demonstrates that such action-at-a-distance can occur in classical systems involving simple or complex fluids, such as colloid-polymer mixtures, or ferromagnets.

  12. Scaling of extreme rainfall areas at a planetary scale.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Naresh; Lall, Upmanu; Xi, Chen; Ward, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Event magnitude and area scaling relationships for rainfall over different regions of the world have been presented in the literature for relatively short durations and over relatively small areas. In this paper, we present the first ever results on a global analysis of the scaling characteristics of extreme rainfall areas for durations ranging from 1 to 30 days. Broken power law models are fit in each case. The past work has been focused largely on the time and space scales associated with local and regional convection. The work presented here suggests that power law scaling may also apply to planetary scale phenomenon, such as frontal and monsoonal systems, and their interaction with local moisture recycling. Such features may have persistence over large areas corresponding to extreme rain and regional flood events. As a result, they lead to considerable hazard exposure. A caveat is that methods used for empirical power law identification have difficulties with edge effects due to finite domains. This leads to problems with robust model identification and interpretability of the underlying relationships. We use recent algorithms that aim to address some of these issues in a principled way. Theoretical research that could explain why such results may emerge across the world, as analyzed for the first time in this paper, is needed.

  13. Glazer Narrative Composition Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Joan

    Designed to assess the quality of children's narrative compositions, the Glazer Narrative Composition Scale (GNCS) consists of eighteen scales outlined under plot, theme, setting, characterization, and style. Each scale is scored 1, 2, or 3, depending on how much of the scale element is present in the narrative, with the highest possible score…

  14. Scaling: An Items Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Ye; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    "Scaling" is the process of constructing a score scale that associates numbers or other ordered indicators with the performance of examinees. Scaling typically is conducted to aid users in interpreting test results. This module describes different types of raw scores and scale scores, illustrates how to incorporate various sources of…

  15. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  16. Species' habitat use inferred from environmental variables at multiple scales: How much we gain from high-resolution vegetation data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastón, Aitor; Ciudad, Carlos; Mateo-Sánchez, María C.; García-Viñas, Juan I.; López-Leiva, César; Fernández-Landa, Alfredo; Marchamalo, Miguel; Cuevas, Jorge; de la Fuente, Begoña; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Saura, Santiago

    2017-03-01

    Spatial resolution of environmental data may influence the results of habitat selection models. As high-resolution data are usually expensive, an assessment of their contribution to the reliability of habitat models is of interest for both researchers and managers. We evaluated how vegetation cover datasets of different spatial resolutions influence the inferences and predictive power of multi-scale habitat selection models for the endangered brown bear populations in the Cantabrian Range (NW Spain). We quantified the relative performance of three types of datasets: (i) coarse resolution data from Corine Land Cover (minimum mapping unit of 25 ha), (ii) medium resolution data from the Forest Map of Spain (minimum mapping unit of 2.25 ha and information on forest canopy cover and tree species present in each polygon), and (iii) high-resolution Lidar data (about 0.5 points/m2) providing a much finer information on forest canopy cover and height. Despite all the models performed well (AUC > 0.80), the predictive ability of multi-scale models significantly increased with spatial resolution, particularly when other predictors of habitat suitability (e.g. human pressure) were not used to indirectly filter out areas with a more degraded vegetation cover. The addition of fine grain information on forest structure (LiDAR) led to a better understanding of landscape use and a more accurate spatial representation of habitat suitability, even for a species with large spatial requirements as the brown bear, which will result in the development of more effective measures to assist endangered species conservation.

  17. Inertial range spectrum of field-aligned whistler turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Navin Kumar; Singh, Shobhana

    2017-03-01

    An analytical model to study the whistler turbulence spectrum and inertial range spectral scalings related with the electric and magnetic field spectra in a weakly non-collisional magnetized plasma is developed. In the present model, the dispersion relation of whistler wave propagating along the background magnetic field is exploited to derive the inertial range scaling laws corresponding to the electric field and magnetic field fluctuations. The model is based on the concept of Iroshnikov–Kraichnan inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The present phenomenological turbulence scaling model suggests the energy spectra associated with the whistler wave electric field fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations pursue ‑1 and ‑3 power-laws, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained by the present analytical model reasonably able to explain and compare the observational energy spectra in the wave number domain. The observational and analytical results support the whistler dominated turbulence with the similar spectral index ‑1 of the electric field spectra, whereas, the magnetic field spectral indices in the wave number domain are found -13/3 and ‑3 for the observational and analytical approach, respectively.

  18. Travel-time sensitivity kernels in long-range propagation.

    PubMed

    Skarsoulis, E K; Cornuelle, B D; Dzieciuch, M A

    2009-11-01

    Wave-theoretic travel-time sensitivity kernels (TSKs) are calculated in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environments and their behavior with increasing propagation range is studied and compared to that of ray-theoretic TSKs and corresponding Fresnel-volumes. The differences between the 2D and 3D TSKs average out when horizontal or cross-range marginals are considered, which indicates that they are not important in the case of range-independent sound-speed perturbations or perturbations of large scale compared to the lateral TSK extent. With increasing range, the wave-theoretic TSKs expand in the horizontal cross-range direction, their cross-range extent being comparable to that of the corresponding free-space Fresnel zone, whereas they remain bounded in the vertical. Vertical travel-time sensitivity kernels (VTSKs)-one-dimensional kernels describing the effect of horizontally uniform sound-speed changes on travel-times-are calculated analytically using a perturbation approach, and also numerically, as horizontal marginals of the corresponding TSKs. Good agreement between analytical and numerical VTSKs, as well as between 2D and 3D VTSKs, is found. As an alternative method to obtain wave-theoretic sensitivity kernels, the parabolic approximation is used; the resulting TSKs and VTSKs are in good agreement with normal-mode results. With increasing range, the wave-theoretic VTSKs approach the corresponding ray-theoretic sensitivity kernels.

  19. Climate tolerance and interspecific variation in geographic range size.

    PubMed Central

    Pither, Jason

    2003-01-01

    The fact that climate influences the continental-scale distributions of species is one of the central tenets of ecology and biogeography. Equally elemental is that species exhibit enormous variation in geographic range size, with most occupying comparatively small areas. The degree to which climate can account for this variation remains unclear. Here, I test three alternative climate-based hypotheses for variation in range size using a large sample of tree and shrub species native to North America north of Mexico. I show that the lowest value of January average daily minimum temperature encompassed by a species' geographic range (T(MIN)), representing the 'climate extremes hypothesis', explains almost 80% of the variation in range size. Hypotheses based on seasonality and climate optima find substantially less support. The relationship between range size and T(MIN) does not change across the breadth of latitudes examined, and is general for conifers and hardwoods, and growth form (tree versus shrub). Differential freezing resistance gains support as the mechanism underlying interspecific variation in range size: using 35 species for which data were available, both T(MIN) and range size are shown to be strongly correlated with measures of freezing resistance. PMID:12641901

  20. Small scale dynamics of isotropic viscoelastic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M. Quan; Delache, Alexandre; Simoëns, Serge; Bos, Wouter J. T.; El Hajem, Mamoud

    2016-12-01

    The comparison of the results of direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid provides evidence that viscoelasticity modifies qualitatively the behavior of the smallest scales: we observe a power law in the far dissipation range of the fluid kinetic energy spectrum and we show that it is a robust feature, roughly independent of the large scale dynamics. A detailed analysis of the energy transfer shows that at these scales energy is injected into the fluid flow through polymer relaxation. It is further shown that a part of the total energy is transferred among scales through an interaction of the velocity field with the polymer field.

  1. MULTIFRACTAL AND MONOFRACTAL SCALING IN A LABORATORY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner, D. A.; Brown, M. R.

    2015-09-20

    Both multifractal and monofractal scaling of structure function exponents are observed in the turbulent magnetic fluctuations of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment plasma. Structure function and probability distribution function (PDF) analysis exhibits multifractal scaling exponents in low frequency, inertial range fluctuations of the turbulence but monofractal scaling in higher frequency, dissipation range fluctuations. The transition from multifractal to monofractal scaling occurs rapidly suggesting a dissipation mechanism that is insensitive to turbulent structure scale size. Structure functions and PDFs are presented for both temporal and spatial measurements. Variations in the magnetic helicity in the plasma are also shown to modify multifractal scaling characteristics of the inertial range, but do not affect the monofractal scaling of the dissipation range.

  2. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earths atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  3. Relating dispersal and range expansion of California sea otters.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Lauzon-Guay, Jean-Sébastien; Lewis, Mark A

    2007-06-01

    Linking dispersal and range expansion of invasive species has long challenged theoretical and quantitative ecologists. Subtle differences in dispersal can yield large differences in geographic spread, with speeds ranging from constant to rapidly increasing. We developed a stage-structured integrodifference equation (IDE) model of the California sea otter range expansion that occurred between 1914 and 1986. The non-spatial model, a linear matrix population model, was coupled to a suite of candidate dispersal kernels to form stage-structured IDEs. Demographic and dispersal parameters were estimated independent of range expansion data. Using a single dispersal parameter, alpha, we examined how well these stage-structured IDEs related small scale demographic and dispersal processes with geographic population expansion. The parameter alpha was estimated by fitting the kernels to dispersal data and by fitting the IDE model to range expansion data. For all kernels, the alpha estimate from range expansion data fell within the 95% confidence intervals of the alpha estimate from dispersal data. The IDE models with exponentially bounded kernels predicted invasion velocities that were captured within the 95% confidence bounds on the observed northbound invasion velocity. However, the exponentially bounded kernels yielded range expansions that were in poor qualitative agreement with range expansion data. An IDE model with fat (exponentially unbounded) tails and accelerating spatial spread yielded the best qualitative match. This model explained 94% and 97% of the variation in northbound and southbound range expansions when fit to range expansion data. These otters may have been fat-tailed accelerating invaders or they may have followed a piece-wise linear spread first over kelp forests and then over sandy habitats. Further, habitat-specific dispersal data could resolve these explanations.

  4. The brief psychiatric rating scale: effect of scaling system on clinical response assessment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Buckley, P F; Meltzer, H Y

    1994-10-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is an 18-item rating scale frequently used to assess change in psychopathology in schizophrenic patients in antipsychotic drug trials. BPRS items may be rated by the use of either a 1 to 7 or 0 to 6 scaling system, with the 1 or 0 rating indicating no pathology, respectively. When percent change in BPRS total score is used as an index of change, measurement considerations indicate that the 0 to 6 scaling system is preferable. Furthermore, when the 1 to 7 scaling system is used, patients whose initial BPRS values fall at the lower end of the range are classified as responders at a lower rate than are patients with higher initial scores. The adoption of the 0 to 6 scaling system for the BPRS and other rating scales, such as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, is advocated.

  5. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  6. Of scales and stationarity in animal movements.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, Simon

    2014-03-01

    With recent technological advances in tracking devices, movements of numerous animal species can be recorded with a high resolution over large spatial and temporal ranges. This opens promising perspectives for understanding how an animal perceives and reacts to the multi-scale structure of its environment. Yet, conceptual issues such as confusion between movement scales and searching modes prevent us from properly inferring the movement processes at different scales. Here, I propose to build on stationarity (i.e. stability of statistical parameters) to develop a consistent theoretical framework in which animal movements are modelled as a generic composite multi-scale multi-mode random walk model. This framework makes it possible to highlight scales that are relevant to the studied animal, the nature of the behavioural processes that operate at each of these different scales, and the way in which the processes involved at any given scale can interact with those operating at smaller or larger scales. This explicitly scale-focused approach should help properly analyse actual movements by relating, for each scale and each mode, the values of the main model parameters (speed, short- and long-term persistences, degree of stochasticity) to the animal's needs and skills and its response to its environment at multiple scales.

  7. NASA Range Safety Annual Report 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2007-01-01

    As always, Range Safety has been involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events. Throughout the year, we have strived to meet our goal of protecting the public, the workforce, and property during range operations. During the past year, Range Safety was involved in the development, implementation, and support of range safety policy. Range Safety training curriculum development was completed this year and several courses were presented. Tailoring exercises concerning the Constellation Program were undertaken with representatives from the Constellation Program, the 45th Space Wing, and the Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel. Range Safety actively supported the Range Commanders Council and it subgroups and remained involved in updating policy related to flight safety systems and flight safety analysis. In addition, Range Safety supported the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel and addressed policy concerning unmanned aircraft systems. Launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, the Eastern and Western ranges, Dryden Flight Research Center, and Wallops Flight Facility were addressed. Range Safety was also involved in the evaluation of a number of research and development efforts, including the space-based range (formerly STARS), the autonomous flight safety system, the enhanced flight termination system, and the joint advanced range safety system. Flight safety system challenges were evaluated. Range Safety's role in the Space Florida Customer Assistance Service Program for the Eastern Range was covered along with our support for the Space Florida Educational Balloon Release Program. We hope you have found the web-based format both accessible and easy to use. Anyone having questions or wishing to have an article included in the 2008 Range Safety Annual Report should contact Alan Dumont, the NASA Range Safety Program Manager located at the Kennedy Space Center, or Michael Dook at NASA Headquarters.

  8. Earthquake impact scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  9. Microprocessor realizations of range rate filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The performance of five digital range rate filters is evaluated. A range rate filter receives an input of range data from a radar unit and produces an output of smoothed range data and its estimated derivative range rate. The filters are compared through simulation on an IBM 370. Two of the filter designs are implemented on a 6800 microprocessor-based system. Comparisons are made on the bases of noise variance reduction ratios and convergence times of the filters in response to simulated range signals.

  10. CO2 laser ranging systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filippi, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design and error performance of a CO2 laser ranging system are analyzed. Ranging signal and subsystem processing alternatives are identified, and their comprehensive evaluation yields preferred candidate solutions which are analyzed to derive range and range rate error contributions. The performance results are presented in the form of extensive tables and figures which identify the ranging accuracy compromises as a function of the key system design parameters and subsystem performance indexes. The ranging errors obtained are noted to be within the high accuracy requirements of existing NASA/GSFC missions with a proper system design.

  11. Alignment and scaling of large-scale fluctuations in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Wicks, R T; Mallet, A; Horbury, T S; Chen, C H K; Schekochihin, A A; Mitchell, J J

    2013-01-11

    We investigate the dependence of solar wind fluctuations measured by the Wind spacecraft on scale and on the degree of alignment between oppositely directed Elsasser fields. This alignment controls the strength of the nonlinear interactions and, therefore, the turbulence. We find that at scales larger than the outer scale of the turbulence the Elsasser fluctuations become on average more antialigned as the outer scale is approached from above. Conditioning structure functions using the alignment angle reveals turbulent scaling of unaligned fluctuations at scales previously believed to lie outside the turbulent cascade in the "1/f range." We argue that the 1/f range contains a mixture of a noninteracting antialigned population of Alfvén waves and magnetic force-free structures plus a subdominant population of unaligned cascading turbulent fluctuations.

  12. 2006 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TenHaken, Ron; Daniels, B.; Becker, M.; Barnes, Zack; Donovan, Shawn; Manley, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Throughout 2006, Range Safety was involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events, from developing, implementing, and supporting Range Safety policies and procedures-such as the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Plans, the Range Safety Variance Process, and the Expendable Launch Vehicle Safety Program procedures-to evaluating new technologies. Range Safety training development is almost complete with the last course scheduled to go on line in mid-2007. Range Safety representatives took part in a number of panels and councils, including the newly formed Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel, the Range Commanders Council and its subgroups, the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel, and the unmanned aircraft systems working group. Space based range safety demonstration and certification (formerly STARS) and the autonomous flight safety system were successfully tested. The enhanced flight termination system will be tested in early 2007 and the joint advanced range safety system mission analysis software tool is nearing operational status. New technologies being evaluated included a processor for real-time compensation in long range imaging, automated range surveillance using radio interferometry, and a space based range command and telemetry processor. Next year holds great promise as we continue ensuring safety while pursuing our quest beyond the Moon to Mars.

  13. Cooperation enhanced by moderate tolerance ranges in myopically selective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2009-10-01

    We present a mode of myopically selective interaction to study the evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game in scale-free networks. Each individual has a reputation-based tolerance range and only tends to interact with the neighbors whose reputation is within its tolerance range. Moreover, its reputation is assessed in response to the interactions in the neighborhood. Interestingly, we show that moderate values of tolerance range can result in the best promotion of cooperation due to the emergence of group selection mechanism. Furthermore, we study the effects of weighting factor in the assessment rule of reputation on the evolution of cooperation. We also show how cooperation evolves in some extended situations, where an interaction stimulus payment is considered for individuals, and where the strategy and reputation of individuals can spread simultaneously. Our results may enhance the understanding of evolutionary dynamics in graph-structured populations where individuals conditionally play with their neighbors according to some myopic selection criteria.

  14. Concept definition study for an extremely large aerophysics range facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, H.; Witcofski, R.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a large aerophysical ballistic range facility is considered to study large-scale hypersonic flows at high Reynolds numbers for complex shapes. A two-stage light gas gun is considered for the hypervelocity launcher, and the extensive range tankage is discussed with respect to blast suppression, model disposition, and the sabot impact tank. A layout is given for the large aerophysics facility, and illustrations are provided for key elements such as the guide rail. The paper shows that such a facility could be used to launch models with diameters approaching 250 mm at velocities of 6.5 km/s with peak achievable accelerations of not more than 85.0 kgs. The envisioned range would provide gas-flow facilities capable of controlling the modeled quiescent atmospheric conditions. The facility is argued to be a feasible and important step in the investigation and experiment of such hypersonic vehicles as the National Aerospace Plane.

  15. Concept definition study for an extremely large aerophysics range facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, H.; Witcofski, R.

    1992-07-01

    The development of a large aerophysical ballistic range facility is considered to study large-scale hypersonic flows at high Reynolds numbers for complex shapes. A two-stage light gas gun is considered for the hypervelocity launcher, and the extensive range tankage is discussed with respect to blast suppression, model disposition, and the sabot impact tank. A layout is given for the large aerophysics facility, and illustrations are provided for key elements such as the guide rail. The paper shows that such a facility could be used to launch models with diameters approaching 250 mm at velocities of 6.5 km/s with peak achievable accelerations of not more than 85.0 kgs. The envisioned range would provide gas-flow facilities capable of controlling the modeled quiescent atmospheric conditions. The facility is argued to be a feasible and important step in the investigation and experiment of such hypersonic vehicles as the National Aerospace Plane.

  16. Does climate limit species richness by limiting individual species' ranges?

    PubMed

    Boucher-Lalonde, Véronique; Kerr, Jeremy T; Currie, David J

    2014-02-07

    Broad-scale geographical variation in species richness is strongly correlated with climate, yet the mechanisms underlying this correlation are still unclear. We test two broad classes of hypotheses to explain this pattern. Bottom-up hypotheses propose that the environment determines individual species' ranges. Ranges then sum up to yield species richness patterns. Top-down hypotheses propose that the environment limits the number of species that occur in a region, but not which ones. We test these two classes of hypotheses using a natural experiment: seasonal changes in environmental variables and seasonal range shifts of 625 migratory birds in the Americas. We show that richness seasonally tracks the environment. By contrast, individual species' geographical distributions do not. Rather, species occupy different sets of environmental conditions in two seasons. Our results are inconsistent with extant bottom-up hypotheses. Instead, a top-down mechanism appears to constrain the number of species that can occur in a given region.

  17. Quantifying Climatological Ranges and Anomalies for Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Gove, Jamison M.; Williams, Gareth J.; McManus, Margaret A.; Heron, Scott F.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Foley, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic–biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will

  18. Quantifying climatological ranges and anomalies for Pacific coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gove, Jamison M; Williams, Gareth J; McManus, Margaret A; Heron, Scott F; Sandin, Stuart A; Vetter, Oliver J; Foley, David G

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic-biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will help

  19. Joint Small-Arms Range Remediation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    cells magnetic filters trommels hydrocyclone concentrator, jig (wet or dry) Sources: U.S. EPA, 1995, EPA/540/R-95/512. 2.3 ACID LEACHING After physical...the goals for processing, relatively elaborate bench-scale tests may needed. For example, bench-scale hydrocyclones and jigs may need to be tested to

  20. 2009 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    This year, NASA Range Safety transitioned to a condensed annual report to allow for Secretariat support to the Range Safety Group, Risk Committee. Although much shorter than in previous years, this report contains full-length articles concerning various subject areas, as well as links to past reports. Additionally, summaries from various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year are presented, as well as information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2009 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities.

  1. 2012 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a NASA Range Safety (NRS) overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program (RSP) activities performed during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be conducted in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2012 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2012 highlights; Range Safety Training; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities.

  2. Dolphin "packet" use during long-range echolocation tasks.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J

    2013-03-01

    When echolocating, dolphins typically emit a single broadband "click," then wait to receive the echo before emitting another click. However, previous studies have shown that during long-range echolocation tasks, they may instead emit a burst, or "packet," of several clicks, then wait for the packet of echoes to return before emitting another packet of clicks. The reasons for the use of packets are unknown. In this study, packet use was examined by having trained bottlenose dolphins perform long-range echolocation tasks. The tasks featured "phantom" echoes produced by capturing the dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks, convolving the clicks with an impulse response to create an echo waveform, and then broadcasting the delayed, scaled echo to the dolphin. Dolphins were trained to report the presence of phantom echoes or a change in phantom echoes. Target range varied from 25 to 800 m. At ranges below 75 m, the dolphins rarely used packets. As the range increased beyond 75 m, two of the three dolphins increasingly produced packets, while the third dolphin instead utilized very high click repetition rates. The use of click packets appeared to be governed more by echo delay (target range) than echo amplitude.

  3. Development of a digital receiver for range imaging atmospheric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki K.; Fujita, Toshiyuki; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah Binti; Gan, Tong; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Yu, Tian-You; Yamamoto, Mamoru

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we describe a new digital receiver developed for a 1.3-GHz range imaging atmospheric radar. The digital receiver comprises a general-purpose software-defined radio receiver referred to as the Universal Software Radio Peripheral 2 (USRP2) and a commercial personal computer (PC). The receiver is designed to collect received signals at an intermediate frequency (IF) of 130 MHz with a sample rate of 10 MS s-1. The USRP2 digitizes IF received signals, produces IQ time series, and then transfers the IQ time series to the PC through Gigabit Ethernet. The PC receives the IQ time series, performs range sampling, carries out filtering in the range direction, decodes the phase-modulated received signals, integrates the received signals in time, and finally saves the processed data to the hard disk drive (HDD). Because only sequential data transfer from the USRP2 to the PC is available, the range sampling is triggered by transmitted pulses leaked to the receiver. For range imaging, the digital receiver performs real-time signal processing for each of the time series collected at different frequencies. Further, the receiver is able to decode phase-modulated oversampled signals. Because the program code for real-time signal processing is written in a popular programming language (C++) and widely used libraries, the signal processing is easy to implement, reconfigure, and reuse. From radar experiments using a 1 -μs subpulse width and 1-MHz frequency span (i.e., 2-MHz frequency bandwidth), we demonstrate that range imaging in combination with oversampling, which was implemented for the first time by the digital receiver, is able to resolve the fine-scale structure of turbulence with a vertical scale as small as 100 m or finer.

  4. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    to renewable energy, particularly wind turbines offshore. DoD and BOEM have assessed over 2,000 lease blocks on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf... wind turbines off-range affects the accuracy and reliability of radar systems used on the range. An emerging challenge on ranges is the increased...adversely affect range operations. Concerns are site-specific but often include wind turbine impacts to radar, the impact of excessive lighting on

  5. Lead exposure in a firing range.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Cook, M; Hughes, J; Lee, S A

    1987-01-01

    We report lead exposure in four employees of a privately owned shooting range, one of whom had neurological toxicity due to lead. Increasing time worked at the range was associated with elevation of blood lead. This incident emphasizes the risk of airborne lead exposure to employees of firing ranges. PMID:3618861

  6. 43 CFR 4120.3 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Range improvements. 4120.3 Section 4120.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3 Range improvements....

  7. 43 CFR 4120.3 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range improvements. 4120.3 Section 4120.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3 Range improvements....

  8. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Range improvements. 222.9 Section 222.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The...

  9. 36 CFR 222.9 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Range improvements. 222.9 Section 222.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.9 Range improvements. (a) The...

  10. 43 CFR 4120.3 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range improvements. 4120.3 Section 4120.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3 Range improvements....

  11. 43 CFR 4120.3 - Range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Range improvements. 4120.3 Section 4120.3..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3 Range improvements....

  12. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  13. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  14. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  15. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  16. 33 CFR 62.41 - Ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ranges. 62.41 Section 62.41 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.41 Ranges. Ranges are aids...

  17. Range uncertainty in proton therapy due to variable biological effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabe, Alejandro; Moteabbed, Maryam; Depauw, Nicolas; Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2012-03-01

    Traditionally, dose in proton radiotherapy is prescribed as Gy(RBE) by scaling up the physical dose by 10%. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons is considered to vary with dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd), dose (d) and (α/β)x. The increase of RBE with depth causes a shift of the falloff of the beam, i.e. a change of the beam range. The magnitude of this shift will depend on dose and (α/β)x. The aim of this project was to quantify the dependence of the range shift on these parameters. Three double-scattered beams of different ranges incident on a computational phantom consisting of different regions of interest (ROIs) were used. Each ROI was assigned with (α/β)x values between 0.5 and 20 Gy. The distribution of LETd within each ROI was obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. The LETd distribution depends on the beam energy and thus its nominal range. The RBE values within the ROIs were calculated for doses between 1 and 15 Gy using an in-house developed biophysical model. Dose-volume histograms of the RBE-weighted doses were extracted for each ROI for a ‘fixed RBE’ (RBE = 1.1) and a ‘variable RBE’ (RBE = f (d, α/β, LETd)), and the percentage difference in range was obtained from the difference of the percentage volumes at the distal 80% of the dose. Range differences in normal tissue ((α/β)x = 3 Gy) of the order of 3-2 mm were obtained, respectively, for a shallow (physical range 4.8 cm) and a deep (physical range 12.8 cm) beam, when a dose of 1 Gy normalized to the mid-SOBP was delivered. As the dose increased to 15 Gy, the variable RBE decreases below 1.1 which induces ranges of about 1 mm shorter than those obtained with an RBE of 1.1. The shift in the range of an SOBP when comparing biological dose distributions obtained with a fixed or a variable RBE was quantified as a function of dose, (α/β)x and physical range (as a surrogate of the initial beam energy). The shift increases with the physical range but

  18. Structure, stability, and formation pathways of colloidal gels in systems with short-range attraction and long-range repulsion.

    PubMed

    van Schooneveld, Matti M; de Villeneuve, Volkert W A; Dullens, Roel P A; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Leunissen, Mirjam E; Kegel, Willem K

    2009-04-09

    We study colloidal gels formed upon centrifugation of dilute suspensions of spherical colloids (radius 446 nm) that interact through a long-range electrostatic repulsion (Debye length approximately 850 nm) and a short-range depletion attraction (approximately 12.5 nm), by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). In these systems, at low colloid densities, colloidal clusters are stable. Upon increasing the density by centrifugation, at different stages of cluster formation, we show that colloidal gels are formed that significantly differ in structure. While significant single-particle displacements do not occur on the hour time scale, the different gels slowly evolve within several weeks to a similar structure that is at least stable for over a year. Furthermore, while reference systems without long-range repulsion collapse into dense glassy states, the repulsive colloidal gels are able to support external stress in the form of a centrifugal field of at least 9g.

  19. A Sense of Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Jones, M. Gail

    2003-01-01

    Points out the importance of an understanding of a sense of scale and presents an activity that uses distance or time as a measure. The activity illustrates for students what the universe would look like at various scales. (DDR)

  20. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  1. Video Target Tracking and Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed target tracking and ranging system uses two automatic video target trackers to keep two TV cameras trained on object being tracked. Microcomputer calculates range and range-rate information by triangulation. Input data for calculation are position coordinates of two cameras and pan and tilt aiming angles of two cameras. System is useful for target ranging at distances up to about 1,000 feet (300 m) in such applications as vehicle collision avoidance, traffic monitoring and surveillance. Also substitutes for short-range radar in situations where radar signal can not be tolerated.

  2. Dynamic-Range Compression For Infrared Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1989-01-01

    Photorefractive crystals covering detectors prevent saturation. To make full use of information in image, desirable to compress dynamic range of input intensity to within region of approximately linear response of detector. Dynamic-range compression exhibited by measurements of attenuation in photorefractive GaAs. Effective dynamic-range-compressor plate, film, or coating reduces apparent contrast of scene imaged on detector plane to within dynamic range of detectors; original image contrast or intensity data recovered subsequently in electronic image processing because range-compression function and inverse known.

  3. A 100 GHz Polarimetric Compact Radar Range for Scale-Model Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Microwave Symposium Digest , 2002 IEEE MTT-S International Volume: 3 2002, pp.1583-1586 [7] Dickinson J.C., Goyette T.M., Waldman J., “High Resolution...Chen C.C., “Seeing Through Walls with a Self-Injection-Locked Radar to Detect Hidden People”, IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest ... microwave synthesizer driving dual-transmit and dual-receive frequency multiplier chains. The stepped resolution of the system’s frequency sweep is

  4. Asymptotic Results for Passive Wavefront Curvature Ranging Using a Large-Scale Distributed Array System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    spectral decomposition, Rρ = L∑ i=1 λivi vHi ≈ 1 L L∑ i=1 Pρ(νi)e(νi) eH(νi). (3) For large L, the eigen-mode vi ≈ 1√Le(νi) becomes a nor- malized...module spacing Lt = 0.5Lcoh. with JML(r, θ) = L∑ i=1 λi ηSNR 1 + λi ηSNR | vHi y(t)|2 ≈ L∑ i=1 Pρ(νi) ηSNR 1 + Pρ(νi) ηSNR |eH(νi)y(t)|2 . (5) Here, SNR is

  5. Spatial memory and navigation by honeybees on the scale of the foraging range

    PubMed

    Dyer

    1996-01-01

    Honeybees and other nesting animals face the problem of finding their way between their nest and distant feeding sites. Many studies have shown that insects can learn foraging routes in reference to both landmarks and celestial cues, but it is a major puzzle how spatial information obtained from these environmental features is encoded in memory. This paper reviews recent progress by my colleagues and me towards understanding three specific aspects of this problem in honeybees: (1) how bees learn the spatial relationships among widely separated locations in a familiar terrain; (2) how bees learn the pattern of movement of the sun over the day; and (3) whether, and if so how, bees learn the relationships between celestial cues and landmarks.

  6. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Sol 0-179 activities, observations, range and scale characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; MSL Science Team

    2013-09-01

    During the Curiosity rover's first six months on Mars, images acquired by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) provided critical observations that were used to distinguish a silt/clay-stone from sandstone; interrogate and document the physical properties of an eolian sand deposit and a silt/clay-stone rock in support of sample collection efforts; support robotic arm engineering, tool placement, and wheel position and condition; and contribute to the overall geologic investigation of rocks exposed and only thinly coated with dust in northern Gale crater, Mars.

  7. Utilization of satellite data and regional scale numerical models in short range weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreitzberg, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence was developed in a number of studies of satellite data impact on numerical weather prediction that it is unrealistic to expect satellite temperature soundings to improve detailed regional numerical weather prediction. It is likely that satellite data over the United States would substantially impact mesoscale dynamical predictions if the effort were made to develop a composite moisture analysis system. The horizontal variability of moisture, most clearly depicited in images from satellite water vapor channels, would not be determined from conventional rawinsondes even if that network were increased by a doubling of both the number of sites and the time frequency.

  8. Small-scale kinematic dynamo and non-dynamo in inertial-range turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Neto, Antônio F.

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the Lagrangian mechanism of the kinematic 'fluctuation' magnetic dynamo in a turbulent plasma flow at small magnetic Prandtl numbers. The combined effect of turbulent advection and plasma resistivity is to carry infinitely many field lines to each space point, with the resultant magnetic field at that point given by the average over all the individual line vectors. As a consequence of the roughness of the advecting velocity, this remains true even in the limit of zero resistivity. We show that the presence of the dynamo effect requires sufficient angular correlation of the passive line vectors that arrive simultaneously at the same space point. We illustrate this in detail for the Kazantsev-Kraichnan model of the kinematic dynamo with a Gaussian advecting velocity that is spatially rough and white noise in time. In the regime where dynamo action fails, we also obtain the precise rate of decay of the magnetic energy. These exact results for the model are obtained by a generalization of the 'slow-mode expansion' of Bernard, Gawȩdzki and Kupiainen to non-Hermitian evolution. Much of our analysis applies also to magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

  9. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  10. Civilian PTSD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapinsky, Alicia C.; Rapport, Lisa J.; Henderson, Melinda J.; Axelrod, Bradley N.

    2005-01-01

    Strong associations between civilian posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scales and measures of general psychological distress suggest that the scales are nonspecific to PTSD. Three common PTSD scales were administered to 122 undergraduates who had experienced an emotionally salient, nontraumatic event: a college examination. Results indicated…

  11. Classroom Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    Nine scales were developed to measure a series of classroom behavior variables derived from a factor analytic study of five observation systems. The scales are multipoint check lists which are behaviorally referenced by different amounts and types of classroom behaviors. The scales measure such aspects of classroom behavior as teacher-initiated…

  12. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  13. Educational Scale-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the complexities of educational scale-making. "Educational scales" are defined as the spatial and temporal orders generated as pupils and teachers move and are moved through educational systems; scales are "envelopes of spacetime" into which certain schoolbased identities (and not others) can be folded.…

  14. Reading Graduated Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lucien T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)

  15. Schroeder Composition Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Thomas S.

    Designed to describe the writing behaviors of elementary and junior high school children, the Schroeder Composition Scale is an analytic scale. For eleven of the criteria in the scale, the scoring is simply "yes" or "no" indicating whether the writing does or does not have the characteristic. Five other items identify…

  16. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of…

  17. Long-range inversions for ocean acoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    1985-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography was proposed by Munk and Wunsch (1979) as a method for making measurements of ocean variability over large areas. After the successful demonstration of the feasibility of the idea in the 1981 three-dimensional mesoscale experiment (Ocean Tomography Group, 1982) the tomography group has proposed a new experiment to be carried out in 1986 in the eastern Pacific Ocean on ranges as long as the subtropical gyre scale. In this paper the gyre-scale experiment is simulated in the model ocean, using Holland's eddy-resolving general circulation quasi-geostrophic model. The paper addresses the following issues: (1) measurement of the heat content vertical profile horizontally averaged along the tomographic section; (2) adequacy of the linearized inverse over very long ranges and the need for its improvement; (3) possible improvements in the specification of the field statistics to obtain more accurate estimates and to measure properties like average pycnocline trends; (4) relationship of possible range-dependent information from the inversion to the assigned noise level. The results of the modeling simulation can be summarized as follows: (1) The linearized stochastic inversion needs to be improved for gyre-scale ranges providing estimates of the average heat content that have warm or cold biases. Iteration is used and shown to provide good estimates of the average heat content. (2) A smaller number of iterations is necessary if the initial estimate is improved. This can be done by including a spatial mean in the horizontal covariance function for regions of the ocean where the energy level in the mean and in the long length scales may be even more important than the mesoscale energy peak. (3) General trends like average pycnocline slopes can be estimated very well by including an inhomogeneous covariance in the inversion. (4) The estimates of the mean heat content values and of the average slopes are rather insensitive to the specified noise level

  18. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    DOE PAGES

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-20

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Furthermore, given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic naturemore » of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.« less

  19. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-20

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Furthermore, given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  20. Overview of the X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, D.; Sakahara, R.; Kremer, S.

    1998-01-01

    On July 1, 1996, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration signed a Cooperative Agreement No. NCC8-115 with Lockheed Martin Skunk Works to develop and flight test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The development of an Extended Test Range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications from Edwards Air Force Base Ca. to landing at Malmstrom Air Force Base Montana, was required to flight test the mach 15 vehicle over 950 nautical miles. The cooperative agreement approach makes Lockheed Martin Skunk Works responsible for the X-33 program. When additional Government help was required, Lockheed "subcontracted" to NASA Field Centers for certain work. It was through this mechanism that Dryden Flight Research Center became responsible for the Extended Test Range. The Extended Test Range Requirements come from two main sources: 1) Range Safety and 2) Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. The range safety requirements were the most challenging to define and meet. The X-33 represents a vehicle that launches like a rocket, reenters the atmosphere and lands autonomously like an aircraft. Historically, rockets have been launched over the oceans to allow failed rockets to be destroyed using explosive devices. Such approaches had to be reconsidered for the X-33 flying over land. Numerous range requirements come from Lockheed Martin Skunk Works for interface definitions with the vehicle communication subsystems and the primary ground operations center, defined the Operations Control Center. Another area of considerable interest was the reentry plasma shield that causes "blackout" of the radio frequency signals, such as the range safety commands. Significant work was spent to analyze and model the blackout problem using a cooperative team of experts from across the country. The paper describes the Extended Test Range a, an unique Government/industry team of personnel and range assets was established to resolve design issues and

  1. Polyaspartate scale inhibitors -- Biodegradable alternatives to polyacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.J.; Low, K.C.; Shannon, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    Polyaspartates are highly biodegradable alternatives to polyacrylate based scale inhibitors. This paper presents laboratory testing data on polyaspartate inhibitors of calcium and barium mineral scales. The optimum molecular weight for polyaspartate inhibitors of calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate and barium sulfate mineral scales was determined to be between 1,000 and 4,000 Mw (weight average molecular weight as calculated by Size Exclusion Chromatography). For inhibition of calcium carbonate and barium sulfate, polyaspartates in the range of 3,000-4,000 Mw were most effective. For calcium sulfate inhibition, the optimum molecular weight lies in the 1,000 to 2,000 Mw range. Biodegradability data (OECD 301B Ready Biodegradability) on polyaspartates of a variety of molecular weights is also presented which demonstrates the high biodegradability of this class of mineral scale inhibitors.

  2. Statistical scaling of pore-scale Lagrangian velocities in natural porous media.

    PubMed

    Siena, M; Guadagnini, A; Riva, M; Bijeljic, B; Pereira Nunes, J P; Blunt, M J

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the scaling behavior of sample statistics of pore-scale Lagrangian velocities in two different rock samples, Bentheimer sandstone and Estaillades limestone. The samples are imaged using x-ray computer tomography with micron-scale resolution. The scaling analysis relies on the study of the way qth-order sample structure functions (statistical moments of order q of absolute increments) of Lagrangian velocities depend on separation distances, or lags, traveled along the mean flow direction. In the sandstone block, sample structure functions of all orders exhibit a power-law scaling within a clearly identifiable intermediate range of lags. Sample structure functions associated with the limestone block display two diverse power-law regimes, which we infer to be related to two overlapping spatially correlated structures. In both rocks and for all orders q, we observe linear relationships between logarithmic structure functions of successive orders at all lags (a phenomenon that is typically known as extended power scaling, or extended self-similarity). The scaling behavior of Lagrangian velocities is compared with the one exhibited by porosity and specific surface area, which constitute two key pore-scale geometric observables. The statistical scaling of the local velocity field reflects the behavior of these geometric observables, with the occurrence of power-law-scaling regimes within the same range of lags for sample structure functions of Lagrangian velocity, porosity, and specific surface area.

  3. Statistical scaling of pore-scale Lagrangian velocities in natural porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siena, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.; Bijeljic, B.; Pereira Nunes, J. P.; Blunt, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the scaling behavior of sample statistics of pore-scale Lagrangian velocities in two different rock samples, Bentheimer sandstone and Estaillades limestone. The samples are imaged using x-ray computer tomography with micron-scale resolution. The scaling analysis relies on the study of the way qth-order sample structure functions (statistical moments of order q of absolute increments) of Lagrangian velocities depend on separation distances, or lags, traveled along the mean flow direction. In the sandstone block, sample structure functions of all orders exhibit a power-law scaling within a clearly identifiable intermediate range of lags. Sample structure functions associated with the limestone block display two diverse power-law regimes, which we infer to be related to two overlapping spatially correlated structures. In both rocks and for all orders q, we observe linear relationships between logarithmic structure functions of successive orders at all lags (a phenomenon that is typically known as extended power scaling, or extended self-similarity). The scaling behavior of Lagrangian velocities is compared with the one exhibited by porosity and specific surface area, which constitute two key pore-scale geometric observables. The statistical scaling of the local velocity field reflects the behavior of these geometric observables, with the occurrence of power-law-scaling regimes within the same range of lags for sample structure functions of Lagrangian velocity, porosity, and specific surface area.

  4. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  5. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging.

  6. The big brown bat's perceptual dimension of target range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, James A.

    2005-09-01

    Big brown bats determine the distance to targets from echo delay, but information actually is entered onto the bat's psychological delay scale from two sources. The first is the target-ranging system itself, from the time that elapses between single-spike neural responses evoked by the broadcast and similar responses evoked by echoes at different delays. These responses register the FM sweeps of broadcasts or echoes, and the associated system of neural delay lines and coincidence detectors cross correlates the spectrograms along the time axis. The second source is the echo spectrum, which relates to shape expressed as range profile. The target-ranging system extracts this by fanning out to encompass parallel representations of many possible notch frequencies and notch widths in echoes. Bats perceive delay separations of 5-30 μs and have a resolution limit of about 2 μs, but interference amplifies small delay separations by transposing them into large changes in notch frequency, so only perception of intervals smaller than 5 μs is surprising. Experiments with phase-shifted echoes show that the psychological time scale can represent two different delays originating entirely in the time domain when they are at least as close together as 10 μs. [Work supported by NIH and ONR.

  7. Calibration Modeling Methodology to Optimize Performance for Low Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollum, Raymond A.; Commo, Sean A.; Parker, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration is a vital process in characterizing the performance of an instrument in an application environment and seeks to obtain acceptable accuracy over the entire design range. Often, project requirements specify a maximum total measurement uncertainty, expressed as a percent of full-scale. However in some applications, we seek to obtain enhanced performance at the low range, therefore expressing the accuracy as a percent of reading should be considered as a modeling strategy. For example, it is common to desire to use a force balance in multiple facilities or regimes, often well below its designed full-scale capacity. This paper presents a general statistical methodology for optimizing calibration mathematical models based on a percent of reading accuracy requirement, which has broad application in all types of transducer applications where low range performance is required. A case study illustrates the proposed methodology for the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System that employs seven strain-gage based pressure transducers mounted on the heatshield of the Mars Science Laboratory mission.

  8. Long-range infrasound monitoring of eruptive volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Emanuele; Innocenti, Lorenzo; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Lacanna, Giorgio; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The efficient long-range propagation in the atmosphere makes infrasound of active volcanoes extremely promising and opens new perspectives for volcano monitoring at large scale. In favourable propagation conditions, long-range infrasound observations can be used to track the occurrence and the duration of volcanic eruptions also at remote non-monitored volcanoes, but its potential to infer volcanic eruptive source term is still debated. We present results of comparing five years of infrasound of eruptive activity at Mt.Etna volcano (Italy) recorded both at local (~5 km) and at regional distances (~600 km) from the source. Infrasound of lava fountains at Etna volcano, occurring in between 2010 and 2015, are analysed in terms of the local and regional wavefield record, and by comparing to all available volcanic source terms (i.e. plume height and mass eruption rates). Besides, the potential of near real-time notification of ongoing volcanic activity at Etna volcano at a regional scale is investigated. In particular we show how long range infrasound, in the case of Etna volcano, can be used to promptly deliver eruption notification and reliability is constrained by the results of the local array. This work is performed in the framework of the H2020 ARISE2 project funded by the EU in the period 2015-2018.

  9. Weather Regimes: The Challenge in Extended-Range Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Brian

    1987-01-01

    A hypothesis to explain the low-frequency (10- to 90-day) variance of the mid-latitude atmosphere is presented. In this hypothesis it is proposed that the planetary-scale waves forced by topography or other zonal inhomogeneities and the day-to-day weather disturbances (synoptic scales) influence each other to generate weather regimes. These quasi-stable flow configurations are responsible for short-range climate anomalies such as droughts, heat waves, deep freezes, and excessive precipitation, as the weather-producing disturbances are organized into storm tracks. Onset and disruption of the weather regimes may be induced by the anomalous development of perhaps a single cyclonic disturbance, which can throw the quasi equilibrium out of balance. Thus, rapid changes in flow regimes can occur almost at random. The development and transition of weather regimes may then be purely internal (that is, depending only upon the properties of the fluid motions themselves) to the atmospheric dynamics. This internal quality suggests that the chaotic, abrupt short-range climatic behavior of the mid-latitudes is a natural behavior of the system that requires no assistance from the outside. The weather regime concept presents a different view of the extended-range atmospheric behavior than the stimulus-response model, such as the atmospheric response to the El Nino.

  10. Emerging universe from scale invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Del Campo, Sergio; Herrera, Ramón; Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Labraña, Pedro E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il E-mail: plabrana@ubiobio.cl

    2010-06-01

    We consider a scale invariant model which includes a R{sup 2} term in action and show that a stable ''emerging universe'' scenario is possible. The model belongs to the general class of theories, where an integration measure independent of the metric is introduced. To implement scale invariance (S.I.), a dilaton field is introduced. The integration of the equations of motion associated with the new measure gives rise to the spontaneous symmetry breaking (S.S.B) of S.I. After S.S.B. of S.I. in the model with the R{sup 2} term (and first order formalism applied), it is found that a non trivial potential for the dilaton is generated. The dynamics of the scalar field becomes non linear and these non linearities are instrumental in the stability of some of the emerging universe solutions, which exists for a parameter range of the theory.

  11. Changes in the annual range of precipitation under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Lan, C.

    2011-12-01

    The annual range of precipitation, which is the difference between maximum and minimum precipitation within a year, is examined in climate model simulations under global warming. For global averages, the annual range of precipitation tends to increase as the globe warms. On a regional basis, this enhancement is found over most areas of the world, except for the bands along 30°S and 30N°, respectively. The enhancement in the annual range of precipitation is mainly associated with larger upward trends of maximum precipitation and smaller upward trends or downward trends of minimum precipitation. Based on the moisture budget analysis, the dominant mechanism is vertical moisture advection, both on a global average and on a regional scale. The vertical moisture advection, moisture convergence induced by vertical motion, includes the thermodynamic component, which is associated with increased water vapor, and the dynamic component, which is associated with changes in circulation. Generally, the thermodynamic component enhances the annual range of precipitation, while the dynamic component tends to reduce it. Evaporation has a positive contribution to both maximum and minimum precipitation, but very little to the annual range of precipitation. Even though evaporation and horizontal moisture advection are small for a global average, they could be important on a regional basis.

  12. Ladar range image denoising by a nonlocal probability statistics algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhi-Wei; Li, Qi; Xiong, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristic of range images of coherent ladar and the basis of nonlocal means (NLM), a nonlocal probability statistics (NLPS) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The difference is that NLM performs denoising using the mean of the conditional probability distribution function (PDF) while NLPS using the maximum of the marginal PDF. In the algorithm, similar blocks are found out by the operation of block matching and form a group. Pixels in the group are analyzed by probability statistics and the gray value with maximum probability is used as the estimated value of the current pixel. The simulated range images of coherent ladar with different carrier-to-noise ratio and real range image of coherent ladar with 8 gray-scales are denoised by this algorithm, and the results are compared with those of median filter, multitemplate order mean filter, NLM, median nonlocal mean filter and its incorporation of anatomical side information, and unsupervised information-theoretic adaptive filter. The range abnormality noise and Gaussian noise in range image of coherent ladar are effectively suppressed by NLPS.

  13. Scaling the Incompressible Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrell, D; Cook, A

    2007-01-09

    We derive a scaling relation for Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of incompressible fluids. The relation is tested using both numerical simulations and experimental data. We obtain collapse of growth rates for a wide range of initial conditions by using vorticity and velocity scales associated with the interfacial perturbations and the acceleration impulse. A curve fit to the collapsed growth rates yields a fairly universal model for the mixing layer thickness versus time.

  14. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  15. Explicit inertial range renormalization theory in a model for turbulent diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majda, Andrew J.

    1993-11-01

    The inertial range for a statistical turbulent velocity field consists of those scales that are larger than the dissipation scale but smaller than the integral scale. Here the complete scale-invariant explicit inertial range renormalization theory for all the higher-order statistics of a diffusing passive scalar is developed in a model which, despite its simplicity, involves turbulent diffusion by statistical velocity fields with arbitrarily many scales, infrared divergence, long-range spatial correlations, and rapid fluctuations in time-such velocity fields retain several characteristic features of those in fully developed turbulence. The main tool in the development of this explicit renormalization theory for the model is an exact quantum mechanical analogy which relates higher-order statistics of the diffusing scalar to the properties of solutions of a family of N- body parabolic quantum problems. The canonical inertial range renormalized statistical fixed point is developed explicitly here as a function of the velocity spectral parameter ɛ, which measures the strength of the infrared divergence: for ɛ<2, mean-field behavior in the inertial range occurs with Gaussian statistical behavior for the scalar and standard diffusive scaling laws; for ɛ>2 a phase transition occurs to a fixed point with anomalous inertial range scaling laws and a non-Gaussian renormalized statistical fixed point. Several explicit connections between the renormalization theory in the model and intermediate asymptotics are developed explicitly as well as links between anomalous turbulent decay and explicit spectral properties of Schrödinger operators. The differences between this inertial range renormalization theory and the earlier theories for large-scale eddy diffusivity developed by Avellaneda and the author in such models are also discussed here.

  16. Laser ranging and communications for LISA.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Andrew; McKenzie, Kirk; Ware, Brent; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2010-09-27

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will use Time Delay Interferometry (TDI) to suppress the otherwise dominant laser frequency noise. The technique uses sub-sample interpolation of the recorded optical phase measurements to form a family of interferometric combinations immune to frequency noise. This paper reports on the development of a Pseudo-Random Noise laser ranging system used to measure the sub-sample interpolation time shifts required for TDI operation. The system also includes an optical communication capability that meets the 20 kbps LISA requirement. An experimental demonstration of an integrated LISA phase measurement and ranging system achieved a ≈ 0.19 m rms absolute range error with a 0.5Hz signal bandwidth, surpassing the 1 m rms LISA specification. The range measurement is limited by mutual interference between the ranging signals exchanged between spacecraft and the interaction of the ranging code with the phase measurement.

  17. TURBULENT SMALL-SCALE DYNAMO ACTION IN SOLAR SURFACE SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jonathan Pietarila; Cameron, Robert; Schuessler, Manfred

    2010-05-10

    We demonstrate that a magneto-convection simulation incorporating essential physical processes governing solar surface convection exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics, we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of the small-scale magnetic field in the simulations: the tangling of magnetic field lines associated with the turbulent cascade and Alfvenization of small-scale velocity fluctuations ('turbulent induction'). Instead, we find that the dominant source of small-scale magnetic energy is stretching by inertial-range fluid motions of small-scale magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force to produce (against Ohmic dissipation) more small-scale magnetic field. The scales involved become smaller with increasing Reynolds number, which identifies the dynamo as a small-scale turbulent dynamo.

  18. Advanced Climate Analysis and Long Range Forecasting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Advanced Climate Analysis and Long Range Forecasting...project is to improve the long range and climate support provided by the U.S. Naval Oceanography Enterprise (NOe) for planning, conducting, and...months, several seasons, several years). The primary transition focus is on improving the long range and climate support capabilities of the Fleet

  19. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  20. Laser range profiling for small target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Tulldahl, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The detection and classification of small surface and airborne targets at long ranges is a growing need for naval security. Long range ID or ID at closer range of small targets has its limitations in imaging due to the demand on very high transverse sensor resolution. It is therefore motivated to look for 1D laser techniques for target ID. These include vibrometry, and laser range profiling. Vibrometry can give good results but is also sensitive to certain vibrating parts on the target being in the field of view. Laser range profiling is attractive because the maximum range can be substantial, especially for a small laser beam width. A range profiler can also be used in a scanning mode to detect targets within a certain sector. The same laser can also be used for active imaging when the target comes closer and is angular resolved. The present paper will show both experimental and simulated results for laser range profiling of small boats out to 6-7 km range and a UAV mockup at close range (1.3 km). We obtained good results with the profiling system both for target detection and recognition. Comparison of experimental and simulated range waveforms based on CAD models of the target support the idea of having a profiling system as a first recognition sensor and thus narrowing the search space for the automatic target recognition based on imaging at close ranges. The naval experiments took place in the Baltic Sea with many other active and passive EO sensors beside the profiling system. Discussion of data fusion between laser profiling and imaging systems will be given. The UAV experiments were made from the rooftop laboratory at FOI.